0001751788-22-000011.txt : 20220204 0001751788-22-000011.hdr.sgml : 20220204 20220204075651 ACCESSION NUMBER: 0001751788-22-000011 CONFORMED SUBMISSION TYPE: 10-K PUBLIC DOCUMENT COUNT: 186 CONFORMED PERIOD OF REPORT: 20211231 FILED AS OF DATE: 20220204 DATE AS OF CHANGE: 20220204 FILER: COMPANY DATA: COMPANY CONFORMED NAME: DOW INC. CENTRAL INDEX KEY: 0001751788 STANDARD INDUSTRIAL CLASSIFICATION: PLASTICS, MATERIALS, SYNTH RESINS & NONVULCAN ELASTOMERS [2821] IRS NUMBER: 301128146 STATE OF INCORPORATION: DE FISCAL YEAR END: 1231 FILING VALUES: FORM TYPE: 10-K SEC ACT: 1934 Act SEC FILE NUMBER: 001-38646 FILM NUMBER: 22591006 BUSINESS ADDRESS: STREET 1: 2211 H.H. DOW WAY CITY: MIDLAND STATE: MI ZIP: 48674 BUSINESS PHONE: 9896361000 MAIL ADDRESS: STREET 1: 2211 H.H. DOW WAY CITY: MIDLAND STATE: MI ZIP: 48674 FORMER COMPANY: FORMER CONFORMED NAME: Dow Inc. DATE OF NAME CHANGE: 20190305 FORMER COMPANY: FORMER CONFORMED NAME: Dow Holdings Inc. DATE OF NAME CHANGE: 20180831 FILER: COMPANY DATA: COMPANY CONFORMED NAME: DOW CHEMICAL CO /DE/ CENTRAL INDEX KEY: 0000029915 STANDARD INDUSTRIAL CLASSIFICATION: PLASTICS, MATERIALS, SYNTH RESINS & NONVULCAN ELASTOMERS [2821] IRS NUMBER: 381285128 STATE OF INCORPORATION: DE FISCAL YEAR END: 1231 FILING VALUES: FORM TYPE: 10-K SEC ACT: 1934 Act SEC FILE NUMBER: 001-03433 FILM NUMBER: 22591007 BUSINESS ADDRESS: STREET 1: 2211 H.H. DOW WAY CITY: MIDLAND STATE: MI ZIP: 48674-2030 BUSINESS PHONE: 989-636-1000 MAIL ADDRESS: STREET 1: 2211 H.H. DOW WAY CITY: MIDLAND STATE: MI ZIP: 48674-2030 10-K 1 dow-20211231.htm 10-K dow-20211231
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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from __________to__________

dow-20211231_g1.jpg

Commission
File Number
Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter,
Principal Office Address and Telephone Number
State of Incorporation or
Organization
I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.
001-38646Dow Inc.Delaware30-1128146
2211 H.H. Dow Way, Midland, MI 48674
(989) 636-1000
001-03433The Dow Chemical CompanyDelaware38-1285128
2211 H.H. Dow Way, Midland, MI 48674
(989) 636-1000
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
RegistrantTitle of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Dow Inc.Common Stock, par value $0.01 per shareDOWNew York Stock Exchange
The Dow Chemical Company0.500% Notes due March 15, 2027DOW/27New York Stock Exchange
The Dow Chemical Company1.125% Notes due March 15, 2032DOW/32New York Stock Exchange
The Dow Chemical Company1.875% Notes due March 15, 2040DOW/40New York Stock Exchange
The Dow Chemical Company4.625% Notes due October 1, 2044DOW/44New York Stock Exchange



Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Dow Inc.YesNo
The Dow Chemical CompanyYesNo

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
Dow Inc.YesNo
The Dow Chemical CompanyYesNo

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Dow Inc.YesNo
The Dow Chemical CompanyYesNo


Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).
Dow Inc.YesNo
The Dow Chemical CompanyYesNo

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Dow Inc.Large accelerated filerAccelerated
filer
¨
Non-
accelerated filer
¨
Smaller reporting company
¨
Emerging growth company
¨
The Dow Chemical CompanyLarge accelerated filer¨Accelerated
filer
¨
Non-
accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
¨
Emerging growth company
¨

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Dow Inc.
The Dow Chemical Company

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Dow Inc.
The Dow Chemical Company

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).
Dow Inc.YesNo
The Dow Chemical CompanyYesNo

As of June 30, 2021, the aggregate market value of the common stock of Dow Inc. held by non-affiliates of Dow Inc. was approximately $47.1 billion based on the last reported closing price of $63.28 per share as reported on the New York Stock Exchange.
Dow Inc. had 735,747,193 shares of common stock, $0.01 par value, outstanding at January 31, 2022. The Dow Chemical Company had 100 shares of common stock, $0.01 par value, outstanding at January 31, 2022, all of which were held by the registrant’s parent, Dow Inc.
The Dow Chemical Company meets the conditions set forth in General Instruction I(1)(a) and (b) for Form 10-K and therefore is filing this form in the reduced disclosure format.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Dow Inc.: Portions of Dow Inc.'s Proxy Statement for the 2022 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated herein by reference in Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K to the extent stated herein. Such proxy statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days of Dow Inc.'s fiscal year ended December 31, 2021.

The Dow Chemical Company: None.




Dow Inc. and Subsidiaries
The Dow Chemical Company and Subsidiaries

ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE
Dow Inc. and Subsidiaries:
The Dow Chemical Company and Subsidiaries:
Dow Inc. and Subsidiaries and The Dow Chemical Company and Subsidiaries:
3

Dow Inc. and Subsidiaries
The Dow Chemical Company and Subsidiaries
This Annual Report on Form 10-K is a combined report being filed by Dow Inc. and The Dow Chemical Company and its consolidated subsidiaries (“TDCC” and together with Dow Inc., “Dow” or the "Company"). This Annual Report on Form 10-K reflects the results of Dow and its consolidated subsidiaries, after giving effect to the distribution to DowDuPont Inc. (“DowDuPont” and effective June 3, 2019, n/k/a DuPont de Nemours, Inc. or "DuPont") of TDCC’s agricultural sciences business (“AgCo”) and specialty products business (“SpecCo”) and the receipt of E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company and its consolidated subsidiaries' (“Historical DuPont”) ethylene and ethylene copolymers business (other than its ethylene acrylic elastomers business) ("ECP"). The U.S. GAAP consolidated financial results of Dow Inc. and TDCC reflect the distribution of AgCo and SpecCo as discontinued operations for the applicable periods presented as well as the receipt of ECP as a common control transaction from the closing of the merger with Historical DuPont on August 31, 2017. As a result of the parent/subsidiary relationship between Dow Inc. and TDCC, and considering that the financial statements and disclosures of each company are substantially similar, the companies are filing a combined report for this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The information reflected in this report is equally applicable to both Dow Inc. and TDCC, except where otherwise noted. Each of Dow Inc. and TDCC is filing information in this report on its own behalf and neither company makes any representation to the information relating to the other company.

Background
On April 1, 2019, DowDuPont completed the separation of its materials science business and Dow Inc. became the direct parent company of TDCC and its consolidated subsidiaries, owning all of the outstanding common shares of TDCC. For filings relating to the period commencing April 1, 2019 and thereafter, TDCC was deemed the predecessor to Dow Inc., and the historical results of TDCC are deemed the historical results of Dow Inc. for periods prior to and including March 31, 2019.

The separation was contemplated by the merger of equals transaction effective August 31, 2017, under the Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated as of December 11, 2015, as amended on March 31, 2017. TDCC and Historical DuPont each merged with subsidiaries of DowDuPont and, as a result, TDCC and Historical DuPont became subsidiaries of DowDuPont (the “Merger”). Subsequent to the Merger, TDCC and Historical DuPont engaged in a series of internal reorganization and realignment steps to realign their businesses into three subgroups: agriculture, materials science and specialty products. Dow Inc. was formed as a wholly owned subsidiary of DowDuPont to serve as the holding company for the materials science business.

CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
Certain statements in this report are “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the federal securities laws, including Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. Such statements often address expected future business and financial performance, financial condition, and other matters, and often contain words or phrases such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “opportunity,” “outlook,” “plan,” “project,” “seek,” “should,” “strategy,” "target," “will,” “will be,” “will continue,” “will likely result,” “would” and similar expressions, and variations or negatives of these words or phrases.

Forward-looking statements are based on current assumptions and expectations of future events that are subject to risks, uncertainties and other factors that are beyond Dow’s control, which may cause actual results to differ materially from those projected, anticipated or implied in the forward-looking statements and speak only as of the date the statements were made. These factors include, but are not limited to: sales of Dow’s products; Dow’s expenses, future revenues and profitability; the continuing global and regional economic impacts of the coronavirus disease 2019 (“COVID-19”) pandemic and other public health-related risks and events on Dow’s business; capital requirements and need for and availability of financing; unexpected barriers in the development of technology, including with respect to Dow's contemplated capital and operating projects; Dow's ability to realize its commitment to carbon neutrality on the contemplated timeframe; size of the markets for Dow’s products and services and ability to compete in such markets; failure to develop and market new products and optimally manage product life cycles; the rate and degree of market acceptance of Dow’s products; significant litigation and environmental matters and related contingencies and unexpected expenses; the success of competing technologies that are or may become available; the ability to protect Dow’s intellectual property in the United States and abroad; developments related to contemplated restructuring activities and proposed divestitures or acquisitions such as workforce reduction, manufacturing facility and/or asset closure and related exit and disposal activities, and the benefits and costs associated with each of the foregoing; fluctuations in energy and raw material prices; management of process
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safety and product stewardship; changes in relationships with Dow’s significant customers and suppliers; changes in consumer preferences and demand; changes in laws and regulations, political conditions or industry development; global economic and capital markets conditions, such as inflation, market uncertainty, interest and currency exchange rates, and equity and commodity prices; business or supply disruptions; security threats, such as acts of sabotage, terrorism or war; weather events and natural disasters; and disruptions in Dow’s information technology networks and systems.

Risks related to Dow's separation from DowDuPont include, but are not limited to: (i) Dow's failure to achieve in full the anticipated benefits from the separation from DowDuPont; (ii) certain tax risks associated with the separation; (iii) the failure of Dow's pro forma financial information to be a reliable indicator of Dow's future results; (iv) receipt of less favorable terms in the commercial agreements Dow entered into with DuPont de Nemours, Inc. ("DuPont") and Corteva, Inc. (“Corteva”), including restrictions under intellectual property cross-license agreements, than Dow would have received from an unaffiliated third party; and (v) Dow's obligation to indemnify DuPont and/or Corteva for certain liabilities.

Where, in any forward-looking statement, an expectation or belief as to future results or events is expressed, such expectation or belief is based on the current plans and expectations of management and expressed in good faith and believed to have a reasonable basis, but there can be no assurance that the expectation or belief will result or be achieved or accomplished. A detailed discussion of principal risks and uncertainties which may cause actual results and events to differ materially from such forward-looking statements is included in the section of this Annual Report on Form 10-K titled “Risk Factors.” These are not the only risks and uncertainties that Dow faces. There may be other risks and uncertainties that Dow is unable to identify at this time or that Dow does not currently expect to have a material impact on its business. If any of those risks or uncertainties develops into an actual event, it could have a material adverse effect on Dow’s business. Dow Inc. and TDCC assume no obligation to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements whether because of new information, future events, or otherwise, except as required by securities and other applicable laws.
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Dow Inc. and Subsidiaries
The Dow Chemical Company and Subsidiaries
PART I

ITEM 1. BUSINESS
THE COMPANY
Dow Inc. was incorporated on August 30, 2018, under Delaware law, to serve as a holding company for The Dow Chemical Company and its consolidated subsidiaries ("TDCC" and together with Dow Inc., "Dow" or the "Company"). Dow Inc. operates all of its businesses through TDCC, a wholly owned subsidiary, which was incorporated in 1947 under Delaware law and is the successor to a Michigan corporation, of the same name, organized in 1897. The Company's principal executive offices are located at 2211 H.H. Dow Way, Midland, Michigan 48674.

Available Information
The Company's Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and Current Reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, are available free of charge at www.dow.com/investors, as soon as reasonably practicable after the reports are electronically filed or furnished with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC"). The SEC maintains a website that contains these reports as well as proxy statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically. The SEC's website is www.sec.gov. Dow's website and its content are not deemed incorporated by reference into this report.

MERGER AND SEPARATION
On April 1, 2019, DowDuPont Inc. (“DowDuPont” and effective June 3, 2019, n/k/a DuPont de Nemours, Inc. or "DuPont") completed the separation of its materials science business and Dow Inc. became the direct parent company of TDCC and its consolidated subsidiaries, owning all of the outstanding common shares of TDCC.

The separation was contemplated by the merger of equals transaction effective August 31, 2017, under the Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated as of December 11, 2015, as amended on March 31, 2017 (the "Merger Agreement"). TDCC and E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company and its consolidated subsidiaries (“Historical DuPont”) each merged with subsidiaries of DowDuPont and, as a result, TDCC and Historical DuPont became subsidiaries of DowDuPont (the “Merger”). Subsequent to the Merger, TDCC and Historical DuPont engaged in a series of internal reorganization and realignment steps to realign their businesses into three subgroups: agriculture, materials science and specialty products. Dow Inc. was formed as a wholly owned subsidiary of DowDuPont to serve as the holding company for the materials science business.

The consolidated financial results of Dow for periods prior to April 1, 2019, reflect the distribution of TDCC’s agricultural sciences business (“AgCo”) and specialty products business (“SpecCo”) as discontinued operations for the applicable periods presented as well as reflect the receipt of Historical DuPont’s ethylene and ethylene copolymers businesses (other than its ethylene acrylic elastomers business) (“ECP”) as a common control transaction from the closing of the Merger on August 31, 2017. See Note 3 to the Consolidated Financial Statements and Dow Inc.'s Amendment No. 4 to the Registration Statement on Form 10 filed with the SEC on March 8, 2019, for additional information.

Throughout this Annual Report on Form 10-K, unless otherwise indicated, amounts and activity are presented on a continuing operations basis.

ABOUT DOW
Dow combines global breadth; asset integration and scale; focused innovation and materials science expertise; leading business positions; and environmental, social and governance (ESG) leadership to achieve profitable growth and deliver a sustainable future. The Company’s ambition is to become the most innovative, customer centric, inclusive and sustainable materials science company in the world. Dow’s portfolio of plastics, industrial intermediates, coatings and silicones businesses delivers a broad range of differentiated, science-based products and solutions for its customers in high-growth market segments, such as packaging, infrastructure, mobility and consumer applications. Dow operates 104 manufacturing sites in 31 countries and employs approximately 35,700 people.
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BUSINESS SEGMENTS AND PRODUCTS
The Company conducts its worldwide operations through six global businesses which are organized into the following operating segments: Packaging & Specialty Plastics, Industrial Intermediates & Infrastructure and Performance Materials & Coatings. Corporate contains the reconciliation between the totals for the operating segments and the Company's totals. The Company did not aggregate any operating segments when determining its reportable segments. See Part II, Item 7, Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and Note 26 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information concerning the Company’s operating segments,

PACKAGING & SPECIALTY PLASTICS
The Packaging & Specialty Plastics operating segment consists of two highly integrated global businesses: Hydrocarbons & Energy and Packaging and Specialty Plastics. The segment employs the industry’s broadest polyolefin product portfolio, supported by the Company’s proprietary catalyst and manufacturing process technologies. These differentiators, plus collaboration at the customer’s design table, enable the segment to deliver more reliable, durable, higher-performing solutions designed for recyclability and enhanced plastics circularity and sustainability. The segment serves customers, brand owners and ultimately consumers in key markets including food and specialty packaging; industrial and consumer packaging; health and hygiene; caps, closures and pipe applications; consumer durables; mobility and transportation; and infrastructure.

The Company’s unique advantages compared with its competitors include: extensive low-cost feedstock positions around the world; unparalleled scale, global footprint and market reach; world-class manufacturing sites in every geographic region; deep customer and brand owner understanding; portfolio of higher-value functional polymers, such as polyolefin elastomers, semiconductive and jacketing compound solutions and wire and cable insulation; and market-driven application development and technical support.

The segment remains agile by participating in the entire ethylene-to-polyethylene chain integration, enabling the Company to manage market swings with industry-leading feedstock and derivative flexibility, and therefore optimize returns while reducing long-term earnings volatility. The Company’s unrivaled value chain ownership is further strengthened by its Pack Studio locations in every geographic region, which help customers and brand owners deliver faster and more efficient packaging product commercialization through a global network of laboratories, technical experts and testing equipment.

Hydrocarbons & Energy
Hydrocarbons & Energy is a leading global producer of ethylene, a key chemical building block that the Company consumes primarily within the Packaging & Specialty Plastics segment. Ethylene is transferred to downstream derivative businesses at market-based prices, which are generally equivalent to prevailing market prices for large volume purchases. In addition to ethylene, the business is a leading producer of propylene and aromatics products that are used to manufacture materials consumers use every day. The business also produces and procures the power and feedstocks used by the Company’s manufacturing sites.

Packaging and Specialty Plastics
Packaging and Specialty Plastics serves growing, high-value sectors using world-class technology, broad existing product lines, and a rich product pipeline that creates competitive advantages for the entire packaging value chain. The business is a recognized leader in the production, marketing and innovation of polyethylene. The business is also a leader in other ethylene derivatives, such as polyolefin elastomers, ethylene vinyl acetate and ethylene propylene diene monomer ("EPDM") rubber serving mobility and transportation, consumer, wire and cable and construction end-markets. Market growth is expected to be driven by major shifts in population demographics; improving socioeconomic status in emerging geographic regions; consumer and brand owner demand for increased functionality including sustainable offerings through lower-carbon and circular solutions; global efforts to reduce food waste; growth in telecommunications networks; global development of electrical transmission and distribution infrastructure; and renewable energy applications such as wind power and solar (photovoltaic).



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Details on Packaging & Specialty Plastics' 2021 net sales, by business and geographic region, are as follows:

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* Europe, Middle East, Africa and India ("EMEAI")

Products
Major applications/market segments and products are listed below by business:

BusinessApplications/Market SegmentsMajor ProductsKey Raw MaterialsKey Competitors
Hydrocarbons & EnergyPurchaser of feedstocks; production of cost competitive hydrocarbon monomers utilized by Dow's derivative businesses; and energy, principally for use in Dow’s global operationsEthylene, propylene, benzene, butadiene, octene, aromatics co-products, power, steam, other utilitiesButane, condensate, ethane, naphtha, natural gas, propaneChevron Phillips Chemical, ExxonMobil, INEOS, LyondellBasell, SABIC, Shell, Sinopec
Packaging and Specialty PlasticsAdhesives; automotive; caps, closures and pipe applications; construction; cosmetics; electrical transmission and distribution; food and supply chain packaging; footwear; health and hygiene; housewares; industrial specialty applications using polyolefin elastomers, ethylene copolymers, and EPDM; irrigation pipe; mobility; photovoltaic encapsulants; sporting goods; telecommunications infrastructure; toys and infant productsAcrylics, bio-based plasticizers, copolymer, elastomers, ethylene copolymer resins, EPDM, ethylene vinyl acetate ("EVA"), methacrylic acid copolymer resins, polyethylene ("PE"), high-density polyethylene ("HDPE"), low-density polyethylene ("LDPE"), linear low-density polyethylene ("LLDPE"), polyolefin plastomers, resin additives and modifiers, semiconductive and jacketing compound solutions and wire and cable insulationAliphatic solvent, butene, ethylene, hexene, octene, propyleneBorealis, ExxonMobil, INEOS, Lanxess, LyondellBasell, Nova, SABIC

Joint Ventures:
This segment includes a portion of the Company's share of the results of the following joint ventures:
EQUATE Petrochemical Company K.S.C.C. (“EQUATE”) - a Kuwait-based company that manufactures ethylene, polyethylene and ethylene glycol, and manufactures and markets monoethylene glycol, diethylene glycol and polyethylene terephthalate resins; owned 42.5 percent by the Company.
The Kuwait Olefins Company K.S.C.C. (“TKOC”) - a Kuwait-based company that manufactures ethylene and ethylene glycol; owned 42.5 percent by the Company.
Map Ta Phut Olefins Company Limited (“Map Ta Phut”) - a Thailand-based company that manufactures propylene and ethylene; the Company has an effective ownership of 32.77 percent (of which 20.27 percent is owned directly by the Company and aligned with the Industrial Intermediates & Infrastructure segment and 12.5 percent is owned indirectly through the Company’s equity interest in Siam Polyethylene Company Limited, an entity that is part of The SCG-Dow Group and aligned with the Packaging & Specialty Plastics segment).
Sadara Chemical Company ("Sadara") - a Saudi Arabian company that manufactures chlorine, ethylene, propylene and aromatics for internal consumption and manufactures and sells polyethylene, ethylene oxide and propylene oxide derivative products, and isocyanates; owned 35 percent by the Company. The Company is responsible for marketing a majority of Sadara products outside of the Middle East zone through the Company’s established sales channels. As part of this arrangement, the Company purchases and sells Sadara products for a marketing fee.
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This segment also includes the Company's share of the results of the following joint ventures:
The Kuwait Styrene Company K.S.C.C. - a Kuwait-based company that manufactures styrene monomer; owned 42.5 percent by the Company.
The SCG-Dow Group - a group of Thailand-based companies (consisting of Siam Polyethylene Company Limited; Siam Polystyrene Company Limited; Siam Styrene Monomer Company Limited; and Siam Synthetic Latex Company Limited) that manufactures polyethylene, polystyrene, styrene, latex and specialty elastomers; owned 50 percent by the Company.

Current and Future Investments
In 2021, the Company completed the addition of a furnace to its ethylene production facility in Alberta, Canada, incrementally expanding capacity by approximately 130,000 metric tons. Dow co-invested in the expansion with a regional customer, evenly sharing project costs and ethylene output, with the additional ethylene to be consumed by existing polyethylene manufacturing assets in the region. Also, the Company completed a new catalyst production facility for key catalysts licensed by Univation Technologies, LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company.

Additionally, the Company has announced investments over the next several years that are expected to enhance competitiveness. These include:
Incremental debottleneck projects across its global asset network that will deliver approximately 350 kilotonnes per annum of additional polyethylene, the majority of which will be in the U.S. & Canada.
Construction of a world-scale polyethylene unit on the U.S. Gulf Coast based on Dow’s proprietary process technologies, to meet consumer-driven demand in specialty packaging, health and hygiene, and industrial and consumer packaging applications.
Construction of the world's first net-zero carbon emissions (with respect to Scope 1 and 2 carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, including technology advancements) ethylene and derivatives complex in Alberta, Canada.

The Company's ambition includes becoming the most sustainable materials science company, with a strategy to advance the well-being of humanity by helping lead the transition to a sustainable planet and society. This includes lowering energy and greenhouse gas emissions and further enabling a shift to a circular economy for plastics by focusing on resource efficiency and integrating recycled content and renewable feedstocks into its production processes. As part of that strategy, Dow announced the following in 2021:
Plans to construct the world's first net-zero carbon emissions (with respect to Scope 1 and 2 carbon dioxide emissions, including technology advancements) ethylene facility and convert the assets at its Fort Saskatchewan site in Alberta, Canada, to create the first net-zero carbon emissions complex with respect to Scope 1 and 2 carbon dioxide emissions. The project would more than triple Dow's ethylene and polyethylene capacity from its Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta site, while retrofitting the site's existing assets to net-zero carbon emissions.
Dow and Fuenix Ecogy Group expanded upon the companies' initial agreement to scale circular plastics production through advanced recycling with the construction of a second plant in Weert, The Netherlands. The new plant will process 20,000 tonnes of plastic waste into pyrolysis oil feedstocks, which will be used to produce new circular plastic at Dow's Terneuzen site in The Netherlands.
A partnership with Mura Technology ("Mura") to rapid-scale new advanced recycling solutions. The collaboration will produce circular feedstocks, which are converted into recycled plastics. Mura’s global rollout targets 1 million metric tonnes of recycling capacity by 2025. Dow will be the major off-taker of pyrolysis oil feedstocks made from Mura’s first-of-its-kind plant in Teesside, United Kingdom.
Finalization of an agreement with Gunvor Petroleum Rotterdam ("Gunvor") to purify pyrolysis oil feedstocks derived from plastic waste. Gunvor began supplying cracker-ready feedstocks to Dow in 2021, which will be used to produce circular plastics for customers.
Fast-tracking the design, engineering and construction of a market development scale purification unit in Terneuzen, The Netherlands, to provide additional capacity to purify pyrolysis oil feedstocks derived from plastic waste.
Establishment of a multi-year agreement with New Hope Energy, based in Tyler, Texas, to supply the Company with pyrolysis oil feedstocks derived from plastics recycled in North America. New Hope Energy converts used plastics into pyrolysis oil feedstocks, which Dow will use to produce circular plastics.
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Dow signed new renewable and cleaner power agreements which are expected to reduce Scope 2 emissions by more than 600,000 metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent per year.
Plans to construct a clean hydrogen plant where by-products from core production processes would be converted into hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide would be captured and stored until alternative technologies develop. Dow will also look for ways to enable usage of the carbon dioxide in its processes rather than storing it. The hydrogen plant is expected to startup in 2026 and would allow Dow's Terneuzen manufacturing site to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by approximately 1.4 million tons per year.

In addition, in 2019, the Company announced the retrofit of one of its Louisiana steam crackers with Dow’s proprietary fluidized catalytic dehydrogenation ("FCDh") technology to produce on-purpose propylene. The FCDh technology retrofit further improves Dow’s ability to continue to source the most advantaged feedstocks, while also producing reliable and cost-efficient on-purpose propylene to supply its integrated derivative units in Louisiana. Dow's FCDh technology reduces capital outlay by up to 40 percent and lowers energy usage and greenhouse gas emissions by up to 20 percent, thereby improving overall sustainability when compared with conventional propane dehydrogenation technologies. The project is expected to begin producing on-purpose propylene in the second half of 2022.

INDUSTRIAL INTERMEDIATES & INFRASTRUCTURE
The Industrial Intermediates & Infrastructure operating segment consists of two customer-centric global businesses - Industrial Solutions and Polyurethanes & Construction Chemicals - that develop important intermediate chemicals that are essential to manufacturing processes, as well as downstream, customized materials and formulations that use advanced development technologies. These businesses primarily produce and market ethylene oxide and propylene oxide derivatives that are aligned to market segments as diverse as appliances, coatings, electronics, surfactants for cleaning and sanitization, infrastructure and oil and gas. The businesses' global scale and reach, world-class technology, research and development capabilities and materials science expertise enable the Company to be a premier solutions provider offering customers value-add sustainable solutions to enhance comfort, energy efficiency, product effectiveness and durability across a wide range of home comfort and appliance, building and construction, mobility and transportation, adhesive and lubricant applications, among others.

Industrial Solutions
Industrial Solutions provides a broad portfolio of solutions that enable and improve the manufacture of consumer and industrial goods and services. The business’ solutions minimize friction and heat in mechanical processes; manage the oil and water interface; deliver ingredients for maximum effectiveness; facilitate dissolvability; enable product identification; decarbonize oil and gas products; reduce energy and water use in textiles; and provide the foundational building blocks for the development of chemical technologies. The business supports manufacturers across a large variety of end-markets, notably coatings, detergents and cleaners, crop protection, pharmaceuticals, electronics, oil and gas, inks and textiles. The business is a leading producer of purified ethylene oxide, ethylene amines and ethanol amines.

Polyurethanes & Construction Chemicals
Polyurethanes & Construction Chemicals consists of three businesses: Polyurethanes, Chlor-Alkali & Vinyl (“CAV”) and Construction Chemicals. The Polyurethanes business is the world’s largest producer of propylene oxide, propylene glycol and polyether polyols, and a leading producer of aromatic isocyanates and fully formulated polyurethane systems for rigid, semi-rigid and flexible foams, as well as coatings, adhesives, sealants, elastomers and composites that serve energy efficiency, consumer comfort, industrial and enhanced mobility market sectors. The CAV business provides chlorine and caustic soda supply and markets caustic soda, a valuable co-product of the chlor-alkali manufacturing process, and ethylene dichloride and vinyl chloride monomer. The CAV business' assets are predominantly in Western Europe and largely produce materials for internal consumption. The Construction Chemicals business provides cellulose ethers, redispersible latex powders, and acrylic emulsions used as key building blocks for differentiated building and construction materials across many market segments and applications ranging from roofing and flooring to gypsum-, cement-, concrete- and dispersion-based building materials. Both Polyurethanes and Construction Chemicals deliver more sustainable products aligned toward green building markets yielding reduced environmental impacts and lower product intensity compared to traditional offerings.
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Details on Industrial Intermediates & Infrastructures' 2021 net sales, by business and geographic region, are as follows:

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Products
Major applications/market segments and products are listed below by business:

BusinessApplications/Market SegmentsMajor ProductsKey Raw MaterialsKey Competitors
Industrial SolutionsBroad range of products for specialty applications, including pharmaceuticals, agriculture crop protection offerings, aircraft deicing, solvents for coatings, heat transfer fluids for concentrated solar power, construction, solvents for electronics processing, food preservation, fuel markers, industrial and institutional cleaning, infrastructure applications, lubricant additives, paper, transportation and utilities; products for energy markets including exploration, production, transmission, refining, mining and gas processing to optimize supply, improve efficiencies and manage emissions
Butyl glycol ethers, VERSENE™ Chelants, UCAR™ Deicing Fluids, ethanolamines, ethylene oxide ("EO"), ethyleneamines, UCON™ Fluids, DOWANOL™ glycol ethers, DOWTHERM™ Heat Transfer Fluids, higher glycols, isopropanolamines, low-VOC solvents, methoxypolyethylene glycol, methyl isobutyl, polyalkylene glycol, CARBOWAX™ SENTRY™
Polyethylene Glycol, TERGITOL™, TRITON™ and ECOFAST™ Pure Surfactants, demulsifiers, drilling and completion fluids, heat transfer fluids, rheology modifiers, scale inhibitors, shale inhibitors, specialty amine solvents, surfactants, water clarifiers, frothing separating agents
Ethylene, propyleneBASF, Eastman, Hexion, Huntsman, INEOS, LyondellBasell, SABIC, Sasol, Shell
Polyurethanes & Construction ChemicalsAircraft deicing fluids; alumina, pulp and paper; appliances; automotive; bedding; building and construction; flooring; footwear; heat transfer fluids; hydraulic fluids; infrastructure; mobility; packaging; textiles and transportation; construction; caulks and sealants; cement-based tile adhesives; concrete solutions; elastomeric roof coatings; industrial non-wovens; plasters and renders; roof tiles and siding; sport grounds and tape joint compoundsAniline, caustic soda, ethylene dichloride ("EDC"), methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (“MDI”), polyether polyols, propylene glycol ("PG"), propylene oxide ("PO"), polyurethane systems, toluene diisocyanate (“TDI”), vinyl chloride monomer ("VCM"), AQUASET™ Acrylic Thermosetting Resins, DOW™ Latex Powder, RHOPLEX™ and PRIMAL™ Acrylic Emulsion Polymers, WALOCEL™ Cellulose Ethers
Aniline, benzene, carbon monoxide, caustic soda, cell effluent, cellulose, chlorine, electric power, ethylene, hydrogen peroxide, propylene, styreneArkema, Ashland, BASF, Covestro, Eastman, Huntsman, Wanhua

Joint Ventures
This segment includes a portion of the Company's share of the results of EQUATE, TKOC, Map Ta Phut and Sadara.

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Current and Future Investments
The Company expects to make investments over the next several years to enhance competitiveness in its Polyurethanes & Construction Chemicals and Industrial Solutions businesses. The investments will include alkoxylation capacity expansions and finishing capabilities; investments to support growth in polyurethane systems; and efficiency improvements around the world.

In 2021, the Company completed a debottlenecking project along the U.S. Gulf Coast to increase aniline production by 60,000 tons per year, which will drive higher integrated margins for the portfolio. Also, in the past year, the Company completed key projects aligned to longer-term sustainability goals, including the first industrial-scale production unit aligned to the RENUVA™ Mattress Recycling Program. This project represents a fully circular investment across the value chain highlighting Dow’s materials science solutions to critical challenges facing the industry.

In 2021, the Company expanded polyethylene glycol production with a new facility in St. Charles, Louisiana. This investment supports growth in the pharmaceutical market and increases capacity by 35 metric tons annually. In addition, construction began on a new specialty alkoxylation reactor in Plaquemine, Louisiana. This investment, expected to be completed in the second half of 2022, will add 60 metric tons of annual capacity for the home and personal care market.

In 2021, the Company announced the following:
Plans to build an integrated MDI distillation and prepolymers facility at its site in Freeport, Texas. This investment supports increasing demand for downstream polyurethane systems products and advances Dow’s leading positions in attractive applications in construction, consumer, and industrial markets that are growing above gross domestic product. The new Freeport MDI facility will replace Dow’s current North America capacity in La Porte, Texas, and will also be capable of supplying an additional 30 percent of product to Dow’s customers. In coordination with the start-up of the new MDI facility expected in 2023, Dow will shut down its polyurethane assets at the La Porte site.
Plans to increase propylene glycol capacity at its existing joint venture facility in Map Ta Phut, Thailand by 80,000 tons per year – bringing total capacity to 250,000 tons per year. The additional capacity will support customer growth across Asia Pacific and India and is expected to come online in 2024.
A signed Memorandum of Understanding with the Zhanjiang Economic and Technological Development Zone Administrative Committee (Zhanjiang EDZ) to build the Dow South China Specialties Hub, a multi-year project providing customers local access to Dow’s portfolio of high value products and innovative technologies. The new manufacturing hub would extend Dow’s local reach, further enhancing supply reliability, responsiveness to market needs and customized innovation, and better positions customers for success in markets including mobility, pharmaceuticals, cleaning chemicals, apparel, home and personal care, lubricants and adhesives.
Dow and Ralph Lauren Corporation released a detailed manual on how to dye cotton more sustainably and more effectively than ever before using ECOFAST™ Pure Sustainable Textile Treatment. Pretreating fabric with ECOFAST™ Pure helps significantly reduce the amount of water, chemicals and energy needed to color cotton, by enabling up to 90 percent less process chemicals, 50 percent less water, 50 percent less dyes and 40 percent less energy without sacrificing color or quality.
Dow and Orion Chemicals Orgaform together with Eco-mobilier, H&S Anlagentechnik and The Vita Group have inaugurated a pioneering mattress recycling plant as part of the RENUVA™ program. This is a major step forward for the recovery and recycling of polyurethane foam and a significant advancement to close the loop for end-of-life mattresses. At full capacity the plant will process up to 200,000 mattresses per year to address growing mattress waste.

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PERFORMANCE MATERIALS & COATINGS
The Performance Materials & Coatings operating segment includes industry-leading franchises that deliver a wide array of solutions into consumer, infrastructure and mobility end-markets. The segment consists of two global businesses: Coatings & Performance Monomers and Consumer Solutions. These businesses primarily utilize the Company's acrylics-, cellulosics- and silicone-based technology platforms to serve the needs of the architectural and industrial coatings; home care and personal care; consumer and electronics; mobility and transportation; industrial and chemical processing; and building and infrastructure end-markets. Both businesses employ materials science capabilities, global reach and unique products and technology to combine chemistry platforms to deliver differentiated, market-driven and sustainable innovations to customers.

Coatings & Performance Monomers
Coatings & Performance Monomers consists of two businesses: Coating Materials and Performance Monomers. The Coating Materials business makes critical ingredients and additives that help advance the performance of paints and coatings. The business offers innovative and sustainable products to accelerate paint and coatings performance across diverse market segments, including architectural paints and coatings, as well as industrial coatings applications used in maintenance and protective industries, wood, metal packaging, traffic markings, thermal paper and leather. These products enhance coatings by improving hiding and coverage characteristics, enhancing durability against nature and the elements, lowering or eliminating volatile organic compounds (“VOC”) content, reducing maintenance and improving ease of application. The Performance Monomers business manufactures acrylics-based building blocks needed for the production of coatings, textiles, adhesives and home and personal care products.

Consumer Solutions
Consumer Solutions consists of two businesses: Performance Silicones & Specialty Materials and Silicone Feedstocks & Intermediates. The Performance Silicones & Specialty Materials business delivers an unmatched portfolio of performance-enhancing silicone and specialty materials to meet the diverse needs of customers in fast-growing industries, including building and infrastructure; consumer and electronics; industrial and chemical processing; mobility and transportation; home care; and personal care. It focuses resources on delivering valuable differentiation via market-driven innovations and sustainable solutions, which address lower-carbon footprint and circularity goals while enabling continued growth. The Silicone Feedstocks & Intermediates business focuses on maximizing productivity and optimizing margins by leveraging Dow’s scale and global reach. It is charged with producing silicon metal, siloxanes and intermediates, which are key materials to manufacture differentiated downstream silicone products.

Details on Performance Materials & Coatings' 2021 net sales, by business and geographic region, are as follows:

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Products
Major applications/market segments and products are listed below by business:

BusinessApplications/Market SegmentsMajor ProductsKey Raw MaterialsKey Competitors
Coatings & Performance MonomersAcrylic binders for architectural paints and coatings, industrial coatings and paper; adhesives; dispersants; impact modifiers; inks and paints; opacifiers and surfactants for both architectural and industrial applications; plastics additives; processing aids; protective and functional coatings; rheology modifiers
ACOUSTICRYL™ Liquid-Applied Sound Damping Technology; acrylates; ACRYSOL™ Rheology Modifiers; AVANSE™ Acrylic Binders; EVOQUE™ Pre-Composite Polymer; foam cell promoters; FORMASHIELD™ Acrylic Binder; high-quality impact modifiers; MAINCOTE™ Acrylic Epoxy Hybrid; methacrylates; processing aids; RHOPLEX™ Acrylic Resin; TAMOL™ Dispersants; FASTRACK™ Road Marking Resins; vinyl acetate monomers; weatherable acrylic capstock compounds for thermoplastic and thermosetting materialsAcetic acid, acetone, acrylic acid, butyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate, propylene, styreneArkema, BASF, Celanese, Evonik, LyondellBasell, Wacker Chemie
Consumer SolutionsPersonal care and home care; mobility and transportation; building and infrastructure; consumer and electronics; industrial and chemical processing
Adhesives and sealants; antifoams and surfactants; coatings and controlled release; coupling agents and crosslinkers; fluids, emulsions and dispersions; formulating and processing aids; granulation and binders; oils; polymers and emollients; opacifiers; reagents; resins, gels and powders; rheology modifiers; rubber; solubility enhancers; aerospace composites; surfactants and solvents; encapsulants for solar photovoltaic applications; SILASTIC™ Silicone Elastomers; DOWSIL™ Silicone Products; SYL-OFF™ Silicone Release Coatings; AMPLIFY™ Si PE 1000 Polymer System; bio-based, readily biodegradable SunSpheres™ BIO SPF Booster; ACUSOL™ PRIME 1 Polymer
Hydrochloric acid, methanol, platinum, silica, silicon metal Elkem, Momentive, Shin-Etsu, Wacker Chemie

Current and Future Investments
The Company continues to make incremental investments in lower-capital, higher-return projects in the silicones franchise to further enhance competitiveness. The investments aim to expand manufacturing capacity of silicone polymers and high-performance sealants among other high-value materials.

In 2021, the Company announced several key growth capital projects to increase capacity of performance silicones and specialty materials. These projects have either come online in 2021 or are expected to start up over the next several years. These include:
Silicone elastomers and thermally conductive materials meeting growing demand for vehicles, including autonomous and electric vehicles, hybrids and internal combustion engines, that are lighter, safer and have a lower-carbon footprint;
Silicone polymers and sealants supporting greater design flexibility and enabling safe, sustainable, durable building and infrastructure;
Silicone engineered materials and pressure sensitive adhesives improving reliability and efficiency in consumer and electronics end-markets; and
Cationic hydroxyethylcellulose ("CatHEC") polymers and polyethylene glycols ("PEGs") addressing a variety of home and personal care applications.

CORPORATE
Corporate includes certain enterprise and governance activities (including insurance operations, environmental operations, etc.); non-business aligned joint ventures; non-business aligned litigation expenses; and discontinued or non-aligned businesses.

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RAW MATERIALS
The Company operates in an integrated manufacturing environment. Basic raw materials are processed through many stages to produce a number of products that are sold as finished goods at various points in those processes. The major raw material stream that feeds the production of the Company's finished goods is hydrocarbon-based raw materials. The Company purchases hydrocarbon raw materials including ethane, propane, butane, naphtha and condensate as feedstocks. These raw materials are used in the production of both saleable products and energy. The Company also purchases and sells certain monomers, primarily ethylene and propylene, to balance internal production and internal consumption. The Company purchases natural gas, primarily to generate electricity, and purchases electric power to supplement internal generation. In addition, the Company produces a portion of its electricity needs in Louisiana and Texas; Alberta, Canada; The Netherlands; and Germany.

The Company's primary source of these raw materials are natural gas liquids ("NGLs"), which are derived from natural gas and crude oil production, and naphtha, which is produced during the processing and refining of crude oil. Given recent advancements in shale gas, shale oil and conventional drilling techniques, the Company expects these raw materials to be in abundant supply. The Company's suppliers of these raw materials include regional, international and national oil and gas companies.

The Company purchases raw materials on both short- and long-term contracts. The Company had adequate supplies of raw materials in 2021 and expects to continue to have adequate supplies of raw materials in 2022.

INDUSTRY SEGMENTS AND GEOGRAPHIC REGION RESULTS
See Note 26 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for information regarding net sales, pro forma net sales, Operating EBIT, pro forma Operating EBIT and total assets by segment, as well as net sales and long-lived assets by geographic region.

SIGNIFICANT CUSTOMERS AND PRODUCTS
All products and services are marketed primarily through the Company’s sales force, although in some instances more emphasis is placed on sales through distributors. In 2021, no significant portion of the Company's sales was dependent upon a single customer.

PATENTS, LICENSES AND TRADEMARKS
The Company continually applies for and obtains U.S. and foreign patents and has a substantial number of pending patent applications throughout the world. At December 31, 2021, the Company owned approximately 3,600 active U.S. patents and 21,300 active foreign patents as follows:

Remaining Life of Patents Owned at Dec 31, 2021United StatesRest of World
Within 5 years700 3,800 
6 to 10 years1,200 7,400 
11 to 15 years1,500 9,500 
16 to 20 years200 600 
Total3,600 21,300 

The Company’s primary purpose in obtaining patents is to protect the results of its research for use in operations and licensing. The Company is party to a substantial number of patent licenses, including intellectual property cross-license agreements and other technology agreements, and also has a substantial number of trademarks and trademark registrations in the United States and in other countries, including the “Dow in Diamond” trademark. Although the Company considers that its patents, licenses and trademarks in the aggregate constitute a valuable asset, it does not regard its business as being materially dependent on any single or group of related patents, licenses or trademarks.
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PRINCIPAL PARTLY OWNED COMPANIES
The Company’s principal nonconsolidated affiliates at December 31, 2021, including direct and indirect ownership interest for each, are listed below:

Principal Nonconsolidated AffiliateCountryOwnership InterestBusiness Description
EQUATE Petrochemical Company K.S.C.C. Kuwait42.50 %Manufactures ethylene, polyethylene and ethylene glycol, and manufactures and markets monoethylene glycol, diethylene glycol and polyethylene terephthalate resins
The Kuwait Olefins Company K.S.C.C. Kuwait42.50 %Manufactures ethylene and ethylene glycol
The Kuwait Styrene Company K.S.C.C.Kuwait42.50 %Manufactures styrene monomer
Map Ta Phut Olefins Company Limited 1
Thailand32.77 %Manufactures propylene and ethylene
Sadara Chemical Company 2
Saudi Arabia35.00 %Manufactures chlorine, ethylene, propylene and aromatics for internal consumption and manufactures and sells polyethylene, ethylene oxide and propylene oxide derivative products, and isocyanates
The SCG-Dow Group:
Siam Polyethylene Company LimitedThailand50.00 %Manufactures polyethylene
Siam Polystyrene Company LimitedThailand50.00 %Manufactures polystyrene
Siam Styrene Monomer Company LimitedThailand50.00 %Manufactures styrene
Siam Synthetic Latex Company LimitedThailand50.00 %Manufactures latex and specialty elastomers
1.The Company's effective ownership of Map Ta Phut is 32.77 percent, of which the Company directly owns 20.27 percent and indirectly owns 12.5 percent through its equity interest in Siam Polyethylene Company Limited.
2.The Company is responsible for marketing the majority of Sadara products outside of the Middle East zone through the Company's established sales channels. Under this arrangement, the Company purchases and sells Sadara products for a marketing fee. In March 2021, Dow and the Saudi Arabian Oil Company agreed to transition the marketing rights and responsibilities for Sadara’s finished products to levels more consistent with each partner’s equity ownership. This transition began in July 2021 and is being implemented over the next five years.

See Note 12 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information regarding nonconsolidated affiliates.

PROTECTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT
The world is at a critical juncture and needs environmental leadership from all sectors. As a leading materials science company, Dow believes it has the responsibility and opportunity to take action and lead the industry in areas that Dow's science and expertise can make a difference. For that reason, Dow has integrated sustainability across its businesses and is collaborating across the globe to make inroads in the transition to a sustainable economy and society. The Company has identified three focus areas where it believes Dow is making a difference to drive industry-wide change:
Climate Protection - As both a major user of energy and producer of technologies that are essential to a low-carbon future, the Company believes it has a responsibility to act. Dow has set an ambitious target to become carbon neutral by 2050 (Scopes 1+2+3, as defined by the Greenhouse Gas Protocol, plus product benefits) while helping its customers reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by innovating lower-carbon products.
Circular Economy - As one of the world's largest producers of plastic, Dow is taking a leading role in supporting a more circular economy and ending plastic waste. Dow's "stop the waste" goal is a commitment to invest and/or collaborate in key technologies and infrastructure to significantly increase global recycling. Dow's "close the loop" goal is a commitment to help customers redesign and promote reusable or recyclable packaging applications.
Safer Materials - As a world-leading materials science company, Dow plays a pivotal role in innovating materials that bring social and environmental value alongside business value. Dow is committed to innovating and bringing safer materials to the market by continuously evaluating and improving how the Company measures, designs, manufactures, reports, and acts on the impact of its products. Dow envisions a future where every material it brings to market is sustainable for people and the planet. To that end, Dow is innovating the sustainable materials of tomorrow by leading candid conversations about product safety and committing to the advancement of open and transparent chemistry with Dow's value chain partners, customers and the public.

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To accelerate the Company's sustainability agenda, Dow announced new, multi-decade targets in 2020 to put the Company on a path to achieve carbon neutrality and eliminate plastic waste. These new targets align to and build upon Dow's 2025 Sustainability Goals – 10-year commitments aimed at magnifying the Company’s positive impact through collaboration with like-minded partners. Targets include reducing the Company's net annual greenhouse gas emissions by an additional 5 million metric tons by 2030, compared with its 2020 baseline, a reduction of approximately 15 percent. This target follows the Company's reduction in greenhouse gas emissions of 15 percent from its 2005 baseline, which was achieved in 2020. The Company also intends to enable 1 million metric tons of plastic to be collected, reused or recycled through direct actions and partnerships by 2030. Dow will also work with customers, brand owners and the value chain to help redesign and promote reusable and recyclable packaging applications to enable 100 percent of Dow products sold into packaging applications to be reusable or recyclable by 2035. The Company's progress in achieving these targets is reviewed regularly by management and with the Environment, Health, Safety & Technology Committee of the Board.

Additional discussion of matters pertaining to the environment is included in Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors; Part II, Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations; and Notes 1 and 16 to the Consolidated Financial Statements. In addition, detailed information on the Company's performance regarding environmental matters and goals is accessible through the Science & Sustainability webpage at www.dow.com/sustainability. Dow's website and its content are not deemed incorporated by reference into this report.

HUMAN CAPITAL
Dow’s ambition – to be the most innovative, customer-centric, inclusive and sustainable materials science company in the world - starts with people. Dow employees create innovative and sustainable materials science solutions to advance the world. Every answer starts with asking the right questions. This is why the diverse, dedicated Dow team collaborates with customers and other stakeholders to find solutions to the world's toughest challenges. The Company's values of Respect for People, Integrity and Protecting Our Planet are fundamental beliefs that are ingrained in each action taken, can never be compromised and are the foundation of the Company's Code of Conduct.

The Company is dedicated to employee health and safety and is invested in fostering a culture of inclusion and continuous learning while supporting its employees through its Total Rewards plans and programs to ensure all Dow employees are respected, valued and encouraged to make their fullest contribution.

Safety, Employee Health and Well-Being
A commitment to safety and employee health is ingrained in Dow’s culture and central to how the Dow team works. Dow uses a comprehensive, integrated operating discipline management system that includes policies, requirements, best practices and procedures associated with health and safety. In 2021, the Company achieved an Occupational Safety and Health Administration ("OSHA") Total Recordable Injury and Illness Rate of 0.14, based upon the number of incidents per 200,000 work hours for employees and contractors globally. This measure, along with a consistent set of globally applied, as well as locally defined, leading indicators of safety performance, are cornerstones of Dow's worker protection program. The Company maintains a robust, globally tracked near-miss program for situations that did not result in an injury, but could have been high consequence had circumstances been slightly different. This data is reviewed regularly by management and the Environment, Health, Safety & Technology Committee of the Dow Inc. Board of Directors ("Board"), is visible to all employees and is built into digital dashboards that include actual injury information for every Dow location around the world.

As part of the Company’s total worker health strategy, employees have access to occupational health services at no cost through on-site, Company-managed clinics at its manufacturing locations or an offsite provider overseen by Dow Occupational Health. In addition to access for occupational health needs, the Company also has a comprehensive well-being strategy, which is framed across four dimensions – physical, mental, community and financial well-being – for an approach that is holistic, global, employee centered and outcome-driven. Key ambitions across the four dimensions focus on elements such as workplace stress, psychological safety, resiliency, workload, healthy eating and activities, and social community and inclusion opportunities.


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Dow maintains active Crisis Management Teams at the corporate level and in each region where the Company operates to ensure appropriate plans are in place in the event of natural disasters or other emergencies, and currently in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 ("COVID-19") pandemic. For additional information on the Company’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic, see Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

Inclusion, Diversity & Equity
At Dow, inclusion, diversity and equity (“ID&E”) is a business imperative evidenced by inclusion serving as a core pillar of the Company's ambition statement. A strategic and intentional focus on ID&E not only enhances the employee experience and satisfaction, but it also supports innovation, customer experience and understanding of the communities the Company serves. In 2021, Dow ranked #19 in the DiversityInc Top 50 Companies for Diversity and for the first time was named to the Fortune 100 Best Companies to Work For® list. These are significant accomplishments that represent only two of the many awards the Company received related to its efforts in ID&E.

Dow's strategic ID&E efforts are directed by its Chief Inclusion Officer and Office of Inclusion, which supports implementation throughout Dow’s businesses, functions and regions. Three Inclusion Councils drive the ID&E strategy from the top of the Company down and across the enterprise:
The President’s Inclusion Council defines and supports Dow's ID&E strategy from the top.
A Senior Leaders’ Inclusion Council influences change through senior and mid-level business, geographic and functional leaders.
A Joint Inclusion Council collaborates to drive maximum employee engagement through Employee Resource Group (“ERG”) leadership.

Dow’s 10 ERGs are representative of the Company’s diverse workforce and help foster an inclusive workplace. Dow’s ERGs are organized around historically underrepresented groups including women, people of color, LGBTQ+ individuals, people with disabilities and veterans, as well as groups both for professionals who are new to the Company and those who are 50 years or older. Senior leaders serve as executive sponsors for each ERG. In 2021, 52 percent of Dow’s workforce and 97 percent of Dow people leaders participated in at least one ERG. Also in 2021, Dow implemented a new Paid Time Off Policy, which provides employees time off to volunteer and engage in ERG activities.

Inclusion and diversity metrics, including ERG participation, global representation of women and U.S. ethnic minority representation in the United States, are published internally on a quarterly basis, are embedded in the same scorecard where Dow’s financial and safety results are measured and are directly connected to leaders’ annual performance and compensation. This data is reviewed regularly by management and with the Compensation and Leadership Development Committee of the Board.

Global pay disparity studies have been conducted at Dow for over 20 years to assess fair treatment between genders and between U.S. ethnic minorities and non-minorities and to ensure Dow’s pay practices are being implemented as intended. As part of Dow’s ID&E efforts, the Company will continue to conduct annual pay gap studies and actively engage with an external partner to further develop and continue to apply best practices.

Total Rewards
To achieve Dow’s ambition to be the most innovative, customer-centric, inclusive and sustainable materials science company in the world, the Company invests in its people, who are at the heart of the Company, through its Total Rewards plans and programs. The Total Rewards plans and programs are structured to attract, retain and motivate Dow’s employees. Dow’s Total Rewards are designed to support all aspects of its employees – their compensation, future, health, life and career. The Company is committed to aligning its strategy and culture with the needs of its employees and optimizing the investment Dow makes in Total Rewards.

As a global company with a diverse team, Dow aims to ensure employees have access to resources that allow them to meet their unique needs. That is why Dow has established three guiding principles that define its Total Rewards strategy: 1) ensuring programs are market competitive, while leading peer companies in equitable and inclusive offerings; 2) providing employees with offerings that align with their preferences; and 3) offering programs that promote fulfilling career and life experiences. Dow adapts its programs for geography-specific requirements, as well as cultural standards and expectations.
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Employee Engagement, Learning and Development
Throughout an employee’s career, the Company supports development through a blend of learning approaches including in-person and virtual trainings, digital learning platforms, on-the-job training and a series of leadership development programs. Annually, all employees have the opportunity to provide feedback on employee experience and offer insights into how to improve Dow’s working culture through a global employee opinion survey. A key component of the survey is an opportunity for employees to provide feedback on the effectiveness of their direct leader. In 2021, 70 percent of employees responded to the annual survey. The feedback received through this annual survey and additional quarterly checkpoint surveys is used to drive actions to improve the overall Dow experience for employees across the Company, as well as to support continuous improvement in leader effectiveness.

At December 31, 2021, the Company permanently employed approximately 35,700 people on a full-time basis.

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*
U.S. Minority includes employees who self-identify as Hispanic or Latino, Black or African American, Asian, American Indian or Alaskan Native, Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander, or two or more races. Employees who self-identify as White are considered U.S. Non-Minority.

Additional information regarding Dow’s human capital measures can be found in the Company's annual Environmental, Social and Governance ("ESG") Report, as well as Dow's U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Report (EEO-1), accessible through the Inclusion and Diversity webpage at www.dow.com/diversity. Dow’s website and its content are not deemed incorporated by reference into this report.

OTHER ACTIVITIES
The Company engages in property and casualty insurance and reinsurance primarily through its Liana Limited subsidiaries.
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EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF THE REGISTRANT
Set forth below is information related to the Company's executive officers as of February 4, 2022:

Name, AgePresent Position with RegistrantYear Elected as Executive Officer of Dow Inc.Other Business Experience since January 1, 2017
Jack Broodo, 63President, Feedstocks & Energy2020Dow Inc.: President, Feedstocks & Energy since February 2020; Business President, Feedstocks & Energy from April 2019 to February 2020.

TDCC: President, Feedstocks & Energy since February 2020; Business President, Feedstocks & Energy from February 2016 to February 2020.
Karen S. Carter, 51Chief Human Resources Officer and Chief Inclusion Officer2019Dow Inc.: Chief Human Resources Officer and Chief Inclusion Officer since April 2019.

TDCC: Chief Human Resources Officer since October 2018; Chief Inclusion Officer since July 2017; North America Commercial Vice President, Dow Packaging and Specialty Plastics from February 2016 to July 2017.
Diego Donoso, 54President, Packaging & Specialty Plastics2020
Dow Inc.: President, Packaging & Specialty Plastics since February 2020; Business President, Packaging & Specialty Plastics from April 2019 to February 2020.

TDCC: President, Packaging & Specialty Plastics since February 2020; Business President, Packaging & Specialty Plastics from August 2012 to February 2020.
Ronald C. Edmonds, 64Controller and Vice President of Controllers and Tax2019
Dow Inc.: Controller and Vice President of Controllers and Tax since April 2019.

TDCC: Controller and Vice President since November 2009; Vice President of Tax since January 2016.
Jim Fitterling, 60Chairman and Chief Executive Officer2018Dow Inc.: Chairman since April 2020; Chief Executive Officer since August 2018.

TDCC: Chairman since April 2020; Chief Executive Officer since July 2018; President and Chief Operating Officer from February 2016 to July 2018.
Mauro Gregorio, 59President, Performance Materials & Coatings2020Dow Inc.: President, Performance Materials & Coatings since February 2020; Business President, Performance Materials & Coatings from April 2019 to February 2020.

TDCC: President, Performance Materials & Coatings since February 2020; Business President, Consumer Solutions from January 2016 to February 2020.
Jane M. Palmieri, 52President, Industrial Intermediates & Infrastructure2020Dow Inc.: President, Industrial Intermediates & Infrastructure since February 2020; Business President, Polyurethanes and Chlor-Alkali & Vinyl from April 2019 to February 2020.

TDCC: President, Industrial Intermediates & Infrastructure since February 2020; Business President, Polyurethanes and Chlor-Alkali & Vinyl from April 2018 to February 2020; Business President, Polyurethanes and Chlor-Alkali from October 2016 to April 2018; Business President, Building and Construction from June 2013 to April 2018.
John M. Sampson, 61Senior Vice President, Operations, Manufacturing & Engineering2021Dow Inc.: Senior Vice President, Operations, Manufacturing & Engineering since October 2020.

Olin Corporation: Executive Vice President, Business Operations from April 2019 to September 2020; Vice President, Business Operations from October 2015 to April 2019.
A. N. Sreeram, 54Senior Vice President of Research & Development and Chief Technology Officer2019
Dow Inc.: Senior Vice President of Research & Development and Chief Technology Officer since April 2019.

TDCC: Chief Technology Officer since October 2015; Senior Vice President of Research & Development since August 2013.
Howard Ungerleider, 53President and Chief Financial Officer2018
Dow Inc.: President and Chief Financial Officer since August 2018.

TDCC: Chief Financial Officer since October 2014; President since July 2018; Vice Chairman from October 2015 to July 2018.
Amy E. Wilson, 51General Counsel and Corporate Secretary2018
Dow Inc.: General Counsel and Corporate Secretary since April 2019; Secretary from August 2018 to April 2019.

TDCC: General Counsel since October 2018; Corporate Secretary since February 2015; Associate General Counsel from April 2017 to September 2018; Assistant General Counsel from February 2015 to April 2017; Director of the Office of the Corporate Secretary from August 2013 to October 2018.
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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
The factors described below represent the Company's principal risks.

CLIMATE CHANGE - RELATED RISKS
Climate Change: Climate change-related risks and uncertainties, legal or regulatory responses to climate change and failure to meet the Company’s climate change commitments could negatively impact the Company’s results of operations, financial condition and/or reputation.
The Company is subject to increasing climate-related risks and uncertainties, many of which are outside of its control. Climate change may result in more frequent severe weather events, potential changes in precipitation patterns and extreme variability in weather patterns, which can disrupt the operations of the Company as well as those of its customers, partners and vendors.

The transition to lower greenhouse gas emissions technology, the effects of carbon pricing and changes in public sentiment, regulations, taxes, public mandates or requirements and increases in climate-related lawsuits, insurance premiums and implementation of more robust disaster recovery and business continuity plans could increase costs to maintain or resume the Company’s operations or achieve its sustainability commitments in the expected timeframes, which would negatively impact the Company’s results of operations.

In 2020, the Company announced commitments to reduce its net annual greenhouse gas emissions by an additional 5 million metric tons, or 15 percent compared with its 2020 baseline, by 2030 (the 2020 baseline represents a 15 percent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions since 2005) and its intention to be carbon neutral by 2050 (Scopes 1+2+3, as defined by the Greenhouse Gas Protocol, plus product benefits). Execution and achievement of these commitments within the currently projected costs and expected timeframes are also subject to risks and uncertainties which include, but are not limited to: advancement, availability, development and affordability of technology necessary to achieve these commitments; unforeseen design, operational and technological difficulties; availability of necessary materials and components; adapting products to customer preferences and customer acceptance of sustainable supply chain solutions; changes in public sentiment and political leadership; the Company’s ability to comply with changing regulations, taxes, mandates or requirements related to greenhouse gas emissions or other climate-related matters; and the pace of regional and global recovery from the pandemic caused by coronavirus disease 2019 ("COVID-19"). Given the focus on sustainable investing, if the Company fails to meet its climate change commitments within the committed timeframe and adopt policies and practices to enhance sustainability, the Company’s reputation and its customer and other stakeholder relationships could be negatively impacted and it may be more difficult for the Company to compete effectively or gain access to financing on acceptable terms when needed, which would have an adverse effect on the Company’s results of operations.

COVID-19 PANDEMIC - RELATED RISKS
Public Health Crisis: A public health crisis or global outbreak of disease, including the pandemic caused by COVID-19 has had, and could continue to have, a negative effect on the Company's manufacturing operations, supply chain and workforce, creating business disruptions that could continue to have a substantial negative impact on the Company’s results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
The pandemic caused by COVID-19 has impacted all geographic regions where Dow products are produced and sold. The global, regional and local spread of COVID-19, including existing and new variants, has resulted in significant global mitigation measures, including government-directed quarantines, social distancing and shelter-in-place mandates, travel restrictions and/or bans, mask and vaccination mandates, restrictions on large gatherings and restricted access to certain corporate facilities and manufacturing sites. Uncertainty with respect to the severity and duration of the COVID-19 pandemic, coupled with oil price fluctuations due in part to the global spread of COVID-19 and the continued increase in global cases, has contributed to the volatility of financial markets. While the severity and duration of the COVID-19 pandemic in key geographic regions and end-markets cannot be reasonably estimated at this time, impacts to the Company include, but are not limited to: fluctuations in the Company’s stock price due to market volatility; a decrease in demand for certain Company products; price declines; reduced profitability; supply chain disruptions impeding the Company’s ability to ship and/or receive product; temporary idling or permanent closure of select manufacturing facilities and/or manufacturing assets; asset impairment charges; interruptions or limitations to manufacturing operations imposed by local, state or federal governments; reduced market liquidity and increased borrowing costs; workforce absenteeism and distraction; labor shortages; customer credit concerns; increased cyber security risk and data accessibility disruptions due to remote working arrangements; workforce reductions and fluctuations in foreign currency markets. Additional risks may include, but are not limited to: shortages of key raw materials; potential impairment in the carrying value of goodwill; additional asset impairment charges; increased obligations related to the Company’s pension and other
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postretirement benefit plans; and tax valuation allowances. Business disruptions and market volatility resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic have had and could have a substantial negative impact on the Company’s results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. The adverse impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the Company may also have the effect of heightening many of the other risks described in this "Risk Factors" section.

MACROECONOMIC RISKS
Financial Commitments and Credit Markets: Market conditions could reduce the Company's flexibility to respond to changing business conditions or fund capital needs.
Adverse economic conditions could reduce the Company’s flexibility to respond to changing business and economic conditions or to fund capital expenditures or working capital needs. The economic environment could result in a contraction in the availability of credit in the marketplace and reduce sources of liquidity for the Company. This could result in higher borrowing costs.

Global Economic Considerations: The Company operates in a global, competitive environment which gives rise to operating and market risk exposure.
The Company sells its broad range of products and services in a competitive, global environment, and competes worldwide for sales on the basis of product quality, price, technology and customer service. Increased levels of competition could result in lower prices or lower sales volume, which could have a negative impact on the Company’s results of operations. Sales of the Company's products are also subject to extensive federal, state, local and foreign laws and regulations; trade agreements; import and export controls; taxes; and duties and tariffs. The imposition of additional regulations, controls, taxes and duties and tariffs or changes to bilateral and regional trade agreements could result in lower sales volume, which could negatively impact the Company’s results of operations.

Economic conditions around the world, and in certain industries in which the Company does business, also impact sales price and volume. As a result, market uncertainty or an economic downturn driven by political tensions, war, terrorism, epidemics, pandemics or political instability in the geographic regions or industries in which the Company sells its products could reduce demand for these products and result in decreased sales volume, which could have a negative impact on the Company’s results of operations.

In addition, volatility and disruption of financial markets could limit customers’ ability to obtain adequate financing to maintain operations, which could result in a decrease in sales volume and have a negative impact on the Company’s results of operations. The Company’s global business operations also give rise to market risk exposure related to changes in inflation, foreign currency exchange rates, interest rates, commodity prices and other market factors such as equity prices. To manage such risks, the Company enters into hedging transactions, where deemed appropriate, pursuant to established guidelines and policies. If the Company fails to effectively manage such risks, it could have a negative impact on its results of operations.

Pension and Other Postretirement Benefits: Increased obligations and expenses related to the Company's defined benefit pension plans and other postretirement benefit plans could negatively impact its financial condition and results of operations.
The Company has defined benefit pension plans and other postretirement benefit plans (the “plans”) in the United States and a number of other countries. The assets of the Company's funded plans are primarily invested in fixed income securities, equity securities of U.S. and foreign issuers and alternative investments, including investments in real estate, private equity and absolute return strategies. Changes in the market value of plan assets, investment returns, discount rates, mortality rates, regulations and the rate of increase in compensation levels may affect the funded status of the Company's plans and could cause volatility in the net periodic benefit cost, future funding requirements of the plans and the funded status of the plans. A significant increase in the Company's obligations or future funding requirements could have a negative impact on the Company's results of operations and cash flows for a particular period and on the Company's financial condition.

Supply/Demand Balance: Earnings generated by the Company's products vary based in part on the balance of supply relative to demand within the industry.
The balance of supply relative to demand within the industry may be significantly impacted by the addition of new capacity, especially for basic commodities where capacity is generally added in large increments as world-scale facilities are built. This may disrupt industry balances and result in downward pressure on prices due to the increase in supply, which could negatively impact the Company’s results of operations.


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LEGAL AND REGULATORY RISKS
Environmental Compliance: The costs of complying with evolving regulatory requirements could negatively impact the Company's financial results. Actual or alleged violations of environmental laws or permit requirements could result in restrictions or prohibitions on plant operations, substantial civil or criminal sanctions, as well as the assessment of strict liability and/or joint and several liability.
The Company is subject to extensive federal, state, local and foreign laws, regulations, rules and ordinances relating to pollution, protection of the environment, climate change, greenhouse gas emissions, and the generation, storage, handling, transportation, treatment, disposal and remediation of hazardous substances and waste materials. In addition, the Company may have costs related to environmental remediation and restoration obligations associated with past and current sites as well as related to its past or current waste disposal practices or other hazardous materials handling. Although management will estimate and accrue liabilities for these obligations, it is reasonably possible that the Company’s ultimate cost with respect to these matters could be significantly higher, which could negatively impact the Company’s financial condition and results of operations. Costs and capital expenditures relating to environmental, health or safety matters are subject to evolving regulatory requirements and depend on the timing of the promulgation and enforcement of specific standards which impose the requirements. Moreover, changes in environmental regulations could inhibit or interrupt the Company’s operations, or require modifications to its facilities. Accordingly, environmental, health or safety regulatory matters could result in significant unanticipated costs or liabilities. For additional information, see Part II, Item 7. Other Matters, Environmental Matters in Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

Health and Safety: Increased concerns regarding the safe use of chemicals and plastics in commerce and their potential impact on the environment has resulted in more restrictive regulations and could lead to new regulations.
Concerns regarding the safe use of chemicals and plastics in commerce and their potential impact on health and the environment reflect a growing trend in societal demands for increasing levels of product safety and environmental protection. These concerns could manifest themselves in stockholder proposals, preferred purchasing, delays or failures in obtaining or retaining regulatory approvals, delayed product launches, lack of market acceptance and continued pressure for more stringent regulatory intervention and litigation. These concerns could also influence public perceptions, the viability or continued sales of certain of the Company's products, its reputation and the cost to comply with regulations. In addition, terrorist attacks and natural disasters have increased concerns about the security and safety of chemical production and distribution. These concerns could have a negative impact on the Company's results of operations.

Local, state, federal and foreign governments continue to propose new regulations related to the security of chemical plant locations and the transportation of hazardous chemicals, which could result in higher operating costs.

Litigation: The Company is party to a number of claims and lawsuits arising out of the normal course of business with respect to product liability, patent infringement, employment matters, governmental tax and regulation disputes, contract and commercial litigation, and other actions.
Certain of the claims and lawsuits facing the Company purport to be class actions and seek damages in very large amounts. All such claims are contested. With the exception of the possible effect of the asbestos-related liability of Union Carbide Corporation (“Union Carbide”) and Chapter 11 related matters of Dow Silicones Corporation ("Dow Silicones") as described below, it is the opinion of the Company’s management that the possibility is remote that the aggregate of all such claims and lawsuits will have a material adverse impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.

Union Carbide is and has been involved in a large number of asbestos-related suits filed primarily in state courts during the past four decades. At December 31, 2021, Union Carbide's total asbestos-related liability, including future defense and processing costs, was $1,016 million ($1,098 million at December 31, 2020).

In 1995, Dow Silicones, a former 50:50 joint venture, voluntarily filed for protection under Chapter 11 of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code in order to resolve breast implant liabilities and related matters (the “Chapter 11 Proceeding”). Dow Silicones emerged from the Chapter 11 Proceeding on June 1, 2004, and is implementing the Joint Plan of Reorganization (the “Plan”). The Plan provides funding for the resolution of breast implant and other product liability litigation covered by the Chapter 11 Proceeding. Dow Silicones’ liability for breast implant and other product liability claims was $130 million at December 31, 2021 ($160 million at December 31, 2020). See Note 16 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information on litigation matters.

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Plastic Waste: Increased concerns regarding plastic waste in the environment, consumers selectively reducing their consumption of plastic products, a lack of plastic waste collection and recycling infrastructure, or new or more restrictive regulations and rules related to plastic waste could reduce demand for the Company’s plastic products and could negatively impact the Company’s financial results.
Local, state, federal and foreign governments have been increasingly proposing regulations to address the global plastic waste challenge, including, but not limited to, extended producer responsibility fees, a Global Plastics Treaty and bans on non-essential items. These regulations on plastic waste drive demand toward plastic solutions that are recyclable, reusable, made with recycled content and/or renewable raw materials. In addition, without proper waste collection and recycling infrastructure at scale, plastics have faced increased public scrutiny due to negative coverage of plastic waste in the environment, including the world’s oceans and rivers. As Dow is one of the world’s largest producers of plastics, increased pressure on the use of plastics, despite positive carbon benefits and essential functions such as food preservation and medical uses, could cause reduced demand for the Company’s polyethylene products which could negatively impact the Company’s financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

OPERATIONAL AND STRATEGIC RISKS
Company Strategy: Implementing certain elements of the Company's strategy could negatively impact its financial results.
The Company currently has manufacturing operations, sales and marketing activities, and joint ventures in emerging geographic regions. Activities in these geographic regions are accompanied by uncertainty and risks including: navigating different government regulatory environments; relationships with new, local partners; project funding commitments and guarantees; expropriation, military actions, war, terrorism and political instability; sabotage; uninsurable risks; suppliers not performing as expected resulting in increased risk of extended project timelines; and determining raw material supply and other details regarding product movement. In addition, disruptions to supply chains, distribution chains and/or public and private infrastructure, including those caused by industry capacity constraints, material availability, global logistics delays and constraints arising from, among other things, the transportation capacity of ocean shipping containers and labor availability constraints, could materially and adversely impact our business operations. If the manufacturing operations, supply chains, sales and marketing activities, and/or implementation of these projects is not successful, it could adversely affect the Company’s financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.

Cyber Threat: The risk of loss of the Company’s trade secrets, know-how or other sensitive business information or disruption of operations could negatively impact the Company’s financial results.
Cyber-attacks or security breaches could compromise confidential, business critical information, cause a disruption in the Company’s operations or harm the Company's reputation. The Company has attractive information assets, including trade secrets, know-how and other sensitive, business critical information. While the Company has a comprehensive cyber-security program that is continuously reviewed, maintained and upgraded, a significant cyber-attack could result in the loss of critical business information and/or could negatively impact operations, which could have a negative impact on the Company’s financial results.

Goodwill: An impairment of goodwill could negatively impact the Company’s financial results.
At least annually, the Company assesses goodwill for impairment. If testing indicates that goodwill is impaired, the carrying value is written down based on fair value with a charge against earnings. Where the Company utilizes a discounted cash flow methodology in determining fair value, continued weak demand for a specific product line or business could result in an impairment. Accordingly, any determination requiring the write-off of a significant portion of goodwill could negatively impact the Company's results of operations. See Note 13 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information regarding the Company's goodwill impairment testing.

Operational Event: A significant operational event could negatively impact the Company's results of operations.
As a diversified chemical manufacturing company, the Company's operations, the transportation of products, cyber-attacks, pandemics and other public health-related events or severe weather conditions and other natural phenomena (such as freezing, drought, hurricanes, earthquakes, tsunamis, floods, etc.) could result in an unplanned event that could be significant in scale and could negatively impact operations, neighbors or the public at large, which could have a negative impact on the Company's results of operations.


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Major hurricanes and other weather-related events have caused significant disruption in the Company's operations on the U.S. Gulf Coast, logistics across the region, and the supply of certain raw materials, which had an adverse impact on volume and cost for some of its products. Due to the Company's substantial presence on the U.S. Gulf Coast, similar severe weather conditions or other natural phenomena in the future could negatively impact the Company's results of operations.

Raw Materials: Availability of purchased feedstock and energy, and the volatility of these costs, impact Dow’s operating costs and add variability to earnings.