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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-Q
þ
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended September 30, 2018
Or
o
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Commission File Number 001-5424
deltacra01a01a01a02a49.jpg
DELTA AIR LINES, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

State of Incorporation: Delaware

I.R.S. Employer Identification No.: 58-0218548

Post Office Box 20706, Atlanta, Georgia 30320-6001

Telephone: (404) 715-2600
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Yes þ No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).
Yes þ No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large accelerated filer 
þ
Accelerated filer 
o
Non-accelerated filer 
o
(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
Smaller reporting company
o
Emerging growth company
o
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).
Yes o No þ
Number of shares outstanding by each class of common stock, as of September 30, 2018:
Common Stock, $0.0001 par value - 685,618,701 shares outstanding
This document is also available through our website at http://ir.delta.com/.
 



Table of Contents
 
 
 
Page
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 




Unless otherwise indicated, the terms "Delta," "we," "us" and "our" refer to Delta Air Lines, Inc. and its subsidiaries.

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

Statements in this Form 10-Q (or otherwise made by us or on our behalf) that are not historical facts, including statements about our estimates, expectations, beliefs, intentions, projections or strategies for the future, may be "forward-looking statements" as defined in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from historical experience or our present expectations. Known material risk factors applicable to Delta are described in "Item 1A. Risk Factors" of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017 ("Form 10-K") and "Item 1A. Risk Factors" of Part II of the Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2018, other than risks that could apply to any issuer or offering. All forward-looking statements speak only as of the date made, and we undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances that may arise after the date of this report.


1


REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

The Board of Directors and Stockholders of
Delta Air Lines, Inc.

Results of Review of Interim Financial Statements
        
We have reviewed the accompanying consolidated balance sheet of Delta Air Lines, Inc. (the Company) as of September 30, 2018, the related condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income for the three-month and nine-month periods ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, and the condensed consolidated statements of cash flows for the nine-month periods ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the "condensed consolidated interim financial statements"). Based on our reviews, we are not aware of any material modifications that should be made to the condensed consolidated interim financial statements for them to be in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.

We have previously audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the consolidated balance sheet of Delta Air Lines, Inc. as of December 31, 2017, the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive income, cash flows, and stockholders' equity for the year then ended, and the related notes (not presented herein); and in our report dated February 23, 2018, we expressed an unqualified audit opinion on those consolidated financial statements. In our opinion, the information set forth in the accompanying consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2017, is fairly stated, in all material respects, in relation to the consolidated balance sheet from which it has been derived.

Basis for Review Results

These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the SEC and the PCAOB. We conducted our review in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. A review of interim financial statements consists principally of applying analytical procedures and making inquiries of persons responsible for financial and accounting matters. It is substantially less in scope than an audit conducted in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB, the objective of which is the expression of an opinion regarding the financial statements taken as a whole. Accordingly, we do not express such an opinion.

            

 
/s/ Ernst & Young LLP
Atlanta, Georgia
 
October 11, 2018
 


2



DELTA AIR LINES, INC.
Consolidated Balance Sheets
(Unaudited)
(in millions, except share data)
September 30,
2018
 
December 31,
2017
ASSETS
Current Assets:
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
1,380

 
$
1,814

Short-term investments
478

 
825

Accounts receivable, net of an allowance for uncollectible accounts of $12 at September 30,
2018 and December 31, 2017
2,517

 
2,377

Fuel inventory
715

 
916

Expendable parts and supplies inventories, net of an allowance for obsolescence of $125 and $113
at September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively
455

 
413

Prepaid expenses and other
1,181

 
1,499

Total current assets
6,726

 
7,844

Property and Equipment, Net:
 
 
 
Property and equipment, net of accumulated depreciation and amortization of $15,552 and $14,097
at September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively
28,565

 
26,563

Other Assets:
 
 
 
Goodwill
9,794

 
9,794

Identifiable intangibles, net of accumulated amortization of $857 and $845 at September 30, 2018
and December 31, 2017, respectively
4,835

 
4,847

Cash restricted for airport construction
1,214

 

Deferred income taxes, net
432

 
1,354

Other noncurrent assets
3,437

 
3,309

Total other assets
19,712

 
19,304

Total assets
$
55,003

 
$
53,711

LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY
Current Liabilities:
 
 
 
Current maturities of long-term debt and capital leases
$
1,176

 
$
2,242

Air traffic liability
5,535

 
4,364

Accounts payable
3,265

 
3,674

Accrued salaries and related benefits
2,852

 
3,022

Frequent flyer deferred revenue
2,935

 
2,762

Fuel card obligation
1,066

 
1,067

Other accrued liabilities
1,329

 
1,868

Total current liabilities
18,158

 
18,999

Noncurrent Liabilities:
 
 
 
Long-term debt and capital leases
8,115

 
6,592

Pension, postretirement and related benefits
8,902

 
9,810

Frequent flyer deferred revenue
3,607

 
3,559

Other noncurrent liabilities
2,517

 
2,221

Total noncurrent liabilities
23,141


22,182

Commitments and Contingencies

 

Stockholders' Equity:
 
 
 
Common stock at $0.0001 par value; 1,500,000,000 shares authorized, 693,799,424 and 714,674,160
shares issued at September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively

 

Additional paid-in capital
11,740

 
12,053

Retained earnings
9,696

 
8,256

Accumulated other comprehensive loss
(7,535
)
 
(7,621
)
Treasury stock, at cost, 8,180,723 and 7,476,181 shares at September 30, 2018 and
December 31, 2017, respectively
(197
)
 
(158
)
Total stockholders' equity
13,704

 
12,530

Total liabilities and stockholders' equity
$
55,003

 
$
53,711

 
 
 
 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.

3


DELTA AIR LINES, INC.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income
(Unaudited)
 
Three Months Ended September 30,
 
Nine Months Ended September 30,
(in millions, except per share data)
2018
 
2017
 
2018
 
2017
Operating Revenue:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Passenger
$
10,796

 
$
9,979

 
$
30,107

 
$
27,925

Cargo
226

 
191

 
651

 
542

Other
931

 
891

 
2,938

 
2,443

  Total operating revenue
11,953

 
11,061

 
33,696

 
30,910

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating Expense:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Salaries and related costs
2,753

 
2,619

 
8,004

 
7,525

Aircraft fuel and related taxes
2,498

 
1,785

 
6,693

 
4,954

Regional carriers expense, excluding fuel
903

 
887

 
2,643

 
2,589

Depreciation and amortization
580

 
571

 
1,780

 
1,639

Contracted services
562

 
543

 
1,646

 
1,572

Passenger commissions and other selling expenses
535

 
499

 
1,473

 
1,371

Ancillary businesses and refinery
410

 
387

 
1,396

 
975

Aircraft maintenance materials and outside repairs
371

 
390

 
1,233

 
1,214

Landing fees and other rents
421

 
392

 
1,201

 
1,126

Profit sharing
395

 
314

 
978

 
803

Passenger service
329

 
331

 
892

 
849

Aircraft rent
99

 
89

 
291

 
258

Other
455

 
431

 
1,305

 
1,230

Total operating expense
10,311

 
9,238

 
29,535

 
26,105

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating Income
1,642

 
1,823

 
4,161

 
4,805

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Non-Operating Income/(Expense):

 

 
 
 
 
Interest expense, net
(84
)
 
(100
)
 
(274
)
 
(297
)
Unrealized gain/(loss) on investments, net
50

 

 
(171
)
 

Miscellaneous, net
66

 
53

 
48

 
(51
)
Total non-operating income/(expense), net
32

 
(47
)
 
(397
)
 
(348
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Income Before Income Taxes
1,674

 
1,776

 
3,764

 
4,457

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Income Tax Provision
(362
)
 
(617
)
 
(880
)
 
(1,550
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net Income
$
1,312

 
$
1,159

 
$
2,884

 
$
2,907

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic Earnings Per Share
$
1.91

 
$
1.62

 
$
4.15

 
$
4.01

Diluted Earnings Per Share
$
1.91

 
$
1.61

 
$
4.14

 
$
4.00

Cash Dividends Declared Per Share
$
0.35

 
$
0.31

 
$
0.96

 
$
0.71

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Comprehensive Income
$
1,383

 
$
1,233

 
$
2,970

 
$
3,067

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.

4


DELTA AIR LINES, INC.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
(Unaudited)
 
Nine Months Ended September 30,
(in millions)
2018
 
2017
Net Cash Provided by Operating Activities
$
5,650

 
$
3,132

 
 
 
 
Cash Flows from Investing Activities:
 
 
 
Property and equipment additions:
 
 
 
Flight equipment, including advance payments
(2,833
)
 
(1,905
)
Ground property and equipment, including technology
(980
)
 
(826
)
Purchase of equity investments

 
(795
)
Purchase of short-term investments
(145
)
 
(868
)
Redemption of short-term investments
490

 
395

Other, net
87

 
38

Net cash used in investing activities
(3,381
)

(3,961
)
 
 
 
 
Cash Flows from Financing Activities:
 
 
 
Payments on long-term debt and capital lease obligations
(2,741
)
 
(819
)
Repurchase of common stock
(1,250
)
 
(1,350
)
Cash dividends
(670
)
 
(516
)
Fuel card obligation
(1
)
 
341

Proceeds from long-term obligations
3,124

 
2,004

Other, net
64

 
(140
)
Net cash used in financing activities
(1,474
)
 
(480
)
 
 
 
 
Net Increase (Decrease) in Cash, Cash Equivalents and Restricted Cash
795

 
(1,309
)
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at beginning of period
1,853

 
2,826

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at end of period
$
2,648

 
$
1,517

 
 
 
 
Non-Cash Transactions:
 
 
 
Treasury stock contributed to our qualified defined benefit pension plans
$

 
$
350

Flight and ground equipment acquired under capital leases
93

 
249

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The following table provides a reconciliation of cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash reported within the Consolidated Balance Sheets to the total of the same such amounts shown above:
 
September 30,
(in millions)
2018
 
2017
Current assets:
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
1,380

 
$
1,478

Restricted cash included in prepaid expenses and other
54

 
39

Other assets:
 
 
 
Cash restricted for airport construction
1,214

 

Total cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash
$
2,648

 
$
1,517

 
 
 
 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.




5


DELTA AIR LINES, INC.
Notes to the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
(Unaudited)

NOTE 1. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

Basis of Presentation

The accompanying unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements include the accounts of Delta Air Lines, Inc. and our wholly owned subsidiaries and have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States ("GAAP") for interim financial information. Consistent with these requirements, this Form 10-Q does not include all the information required by GAAP for complete financial statements. As a result, this Form 10-Q should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and accompanying Notes in our Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017.

Management believes the accompanying unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements reflect all adjustments, including normal recurring items, considered necessary for a fair statement of results for the interim periods presented.

Due to seasonal variations in the demand for air travel, the volatility of aircraft fuel prices and other factors, operating results for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 are not necessarily indicative of operating results for the entire year.

We have recast prior period financial statements to conform with the adoption of the revenue recognition and retirement benefits standards described below. In addition, we have reclassified regional carriers fuel expense from regional carriers expense to aircraft fuel and related taxes, and consolidated ancillary businesses and refinery expenses into one financial statement line item, in addition to making other classification changes to conform to the current year presentation.

Unless otherwise noted, all amounts disclosed are stated before consideration of income taxes.

Recent Accounting Standards

Standards Effective in Future Years

Leases. In 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") No. 2016-02, "Leases (Topic 842)." This ASU and subsequently issued amendments will require leases with durations greater than 12 months to be recognized on the balance sheet and is effective for interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018.

In July 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-11, "Targeted Improvements - Leases (Topic 842)." This update provides an optional transition method that allows entities to elect to apply the standard prospectively at its effective date, versus recasting the prior periods presented. If elected, an entity would recognize a cumulative-effect adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings in the period of adoption.

We have not completed our assessment, including our evaluation of transition method and whether to early adopt, but the adoption of ASU 2016-02 will have a material impact on our Consolidated Balance Sheets. However, we do not expect the adoption to have a material impact on the recognition, measurement or presentation of lease expenses within the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income ("income statement") or the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows ("cash flows statement"). Information about our undiscounted future lease payments and the timing of those payments is in Note 7, "Lease Obligations," in our Form 10-K.

Comprehensive Income. In February 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-02, "Income Statement—Reporting Comprehensive Income (Topic 220)." This standard provides an option to reclassify stranded tax effects within accumulated other comprehensive income/(loss) ("AOCI") to retained earnings due to the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate change in the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017. This standard is effective for interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018, and early adoption is permitted. We have not completed our assessment, but the adoption of the standard may impact tax amounts stranded in AOCI related to our pension plans. We will adopt this standard effective January 1, 2019.


6


Recently Adopted Standards

Revenue from Contracts with Customers. In 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-09, "Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606)." Under this ASU and subsequently issued amendments, revenue is recognized at the time a good or service is transferred to a customer for the amount of consideration received. Entities may use a full retrospective approach or report the cumulative effect as of the date of adoption. We adopted this standard using the full retrospective transition method effective January 1, 2018 and recast prior year results as shown below.

While the adoption of the new standard did not have a significant effect on earnings, approximately $2 billion of certain annual revenues that were previously classified in other revenue have been reclassified to passenger revenue. These revenues include baggage fees, administrative charges and other travel-related fees, which are deemed part of the single performance obligation of providing passenger transportation.

In addition, the adoption of the new standard increased the rate used to account for frequent flyer miles. We previously analyzed our standalone sales of mileage credits to other airlines and customers to establish the accounting value for frequent flyer miles. Considering the guidance in the new standard, we changed our valuation of a mileage credit to an analysis of the award redemption value. The new valuation considers the quantitative value a passenger receives by redeeming miles for a ticket rather than paying cash. This change increased our frequent flyer liability at December 31, 2017 by $2.2 billion. The mileage deferral and redemption rates are approximately the same; therefore, assuming stable volume, there would not be a significant change in revenue recognized from the program in a given period.

The adoption of the new standard also reduced our air traffic liability at December 31, 2017 by $524 million. This change primarily results from estimating the tickets that will expire unused and recognizing revenue at the scheduled flight date rather than when the unused tickets expire.

See Note 2, "Revenue Recognition," for more information.

Statement of Cash Flows. In 2016, the FASB issued ASU Nos. 2016-15 and 2016-18 related to the classification of certain cash receipts and cash payments, and the presentation of restricted cash within an entity's cash flows statement, respectively. We adopted these standards effective January 1, 2018.

Financial Instruments. In 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-01, "Financial Instruments—Overall (Subtopic 825-10)." This standard makes several changes, including the elimination of the available-for-sale classification of equity investments, and requires equity investments with readily determinable fair values to be measured at fair value with changes in fair value recognized in net income. In February 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-03, "Technical Corrections and Improvements to Financial Instruments—Overall (Subtopic 825-10)" to clarify certain aspects of ASU No. 2016-01. We adopted these standards effective January 1, 2018.

Our investments in GOL Linhas Aéreas Inteligentes, the parent company of VRG Linhas Aéreas (operating as GOL), and China Eastern were accounted for as available-for-sale with changes in fair value recognized in other comprehensive income. At the time of adoption, we reclassified an unrealized gain of $162 million related to these investments from AOCI to retained earnings.

Our investment in Air France-KLM was accounted for at cost during 2017 as our investment agreement restricts the sale or transfer of these shares for five years. Upon adopting ASU Nos. 2016-01 and 2018-03, we recognized a $148 million gain in unrealized gain/(loss) on investments in our income statement related to the value of Air France-KLM's stock compared to our investment basis at December 31, 2017. Consistent with our investments in GOL and China Eastern, this investment is now accounted for at fair value with changes in fair value recognized in net income.

Retirement Benefits. In 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-07, "Compensation—Retirement Benefits (Topic 715)." This standard requires an entity to report the service cost component in the same line item as other compensation costs. The other components of net (benefit) cost are required to be presented in the income statement separately from the service cost component and outside a subtotal of income from operations. We adopted this standard effective January 1, 2018. The components of the net (benefit) cost are shown in Note 7, "Employee Benefit Plans." As a result of the adoption, for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017, we reclassified expense of $12 million and $36 million, respectively, from operating expense into non-operating income/(expense) in our income statement.



7


Impact of Recently Adopted Standards

We recast certain prior period amounts to conform with the adoption of the revenue recognition and retirement benefits standards, as shown in the tables below.
 
Three Months Ended September 30, 2017
 
Nine Months Ended September 30, 2017

(in millions, except per share data)
As Previously Reported
Adjustments
Current Presentation
 
As Previously Reported
Adjustments
Current Presentation
Income statement:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Passenger revenue
$
9,399

$
580

$
9,979

 
$
26,318

$
1,607

$
27,925

Cargo revenue
187

4

191

 
530

12

542

Other revenue
1,474

(583
)
891

 
4,151

(1,708
)
2,443

Total operating revenue
11,060

1

11,061

 
30,999

(89
)
30,910

Operating expense
9,221

17

9,238

 
26,079

26

26,105

Non-operating expense
(34
)
(13
)
(47
)
 
(309
)
(39
)
(348
)
Income tax provision
(627
)
10

(617
)
 
(1,606
)
56

(1,550
)
Net income
1,178

(19
)
1,159

 
3,005

(98
)
2,907

Diluted earnings per share
$
1.64

$
(0.03
)
$
1.61

 
$
4.13

$
(0.13
)
$
4.00


 
December 31, 2017

(in millions)
As Previously Reported
Adjustments
Current Presentation
Balance sheet:
 
 
 
Deferred income taxes, net
$
935

$
419

$
1,354

Air traffic liability
4,888

(524
)
4,364

Frequent flyer deferred revenue (current and noncurrent)
4,118

2,203

6,321

Other accrued and other noncurrent liabilities
3,969

120

4,089

Retained earnings
9,636

(1,380
)
8,256




NOTE 2. REVENUE RECOGNITION

Passenger Revenue

Passenger revenue is primarily composed of passenger ticket sales, loyalty travel awards and travel-related services performed in conjunction with a passenger’s flight.
 
Three Months Ended September 30,
 
Nine Months Ended September 30,
(in millions)
2018
2017
 
2018
2017
Ticket
$
9,553

$
8,812

 
$
26,514

$
24,523

Loyalty travel awards
678

622

 
1,976

1,826

Travel-related services
565

545

 
1,617

1,576

Total passenger revenue
$
10,796

$
9,979

 
$
30,107

$
27,925



Ticket

Passenger tickets. We record sales of passenger tickets to be flown by us or that we sell on behalf of other airlines in air traffic liability. Passenger revenue is recognized when we provide transportation or when ticket breakage occurs. For tickets that we sell on behalf of other airlines, we reduce the air traffic liability when consideration is remitted to those airlines. We periodically evaluate the estimated air traffic liability and record any adjustments in our income statement. These adjustments relate primarily to refunds, exchanges, ticket breakage, transactions with other airlines and other items for which final settlement occurs in periods subsequent to the sale of the related tickets at amounts other than the original sales price.


8


We recognized approximately $3.5 billion in passenger revenue during each of the nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017 that was recorded in our air traffic liability balances at December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively. We expect the remaining balance of the December 31, 2017 liability to be recognized by the end of 2018.

Ticket breakage. We estimate the value of tickets that will expire unused and recognize revenue at the scheduled flight date.

Regional carriers. Our regional carriers include both our contract carrier agreements with third-party regional carriers ("contract carriers") and Endeavor Air, Inc., our wholly owned subsidiary. Our contract carrier agreements are primarily structured as capacity purchase agreements where we purchase all or a portion of the contract carrier's capacity and are responsible for selling the seat inventory we purchase. We record revenue related to our capacity purchase agreements in passenger revenue and the related expenses in regional carriers expense, excluding fuel.

Loyalty Travel Awards

Loyalty travel awards revenue is related to the redemption of mileage credits for travel. We recognize loyalty travel awards revenue in passenger revenue as mileage credits are redeemed and travel is provided. See below for discussion of our frequent flyer program accounting policies.

Travel-Related Services

Travel-related services are primarily composed of services performed in conjunction with a passenger’s flight, including administrative fees (such as ticket change fees), baggage fees and on-board sales. We recognize revenue for these services when the related transportation service is provided. Prior to the adoption of the new standard, the majority of these fees were classified in other revenue.

Frequent Flyer Program

Our frequent flyer program (the "SkyMiles program") generates customer loyalty by rewarding customers with incentives to travel on Delta. This program allows customers to earn mileage credits by flying on Delta, Delta Connection and other airlines that participate in the SkyMiles program. When traveling, customers earn redeemable mileage credits based on the passenger's loyalty program status and travel fare paid. Customers can also earn mileage credits through participating companies such as credit card companies, hotels and car rental agencies. To facilitate transactions with participating companies, we sell mileage credits to non-airline businesses, customers and other airlines. Mileage credits are redeemable by customers in future periods for air travel on Delta and other participating airlines, membership in our Sky Club and other program awards.

To reflect the mileage credits earned, the SkyMiles program includes two types of transactions that are considered revenue arrangements with multiple performance obligations: (1) mileage credit earned with travel and (2) mileage credit sold to participating companies.

Passenger Ticket Sales Earning Mileage Credits. Passenger ticket sales earning mileage credits under our SkyMiles program provide customers with (1) mileage credits earned and (2) air transportation. We value each performance obligation on a standalone basis. To value the mileage credits earned, we consider the quantitative value a passenger receives by redeeming miles for a ticket rather than paying cash which is referred to as equivalent ticket value ("ETV"). Our estimate of ETV is adjusted for mileage credits that are not likely to be redeemed ("breakage"). Management uses statistical models to estimate breakage based on historical redemption patterns. A change in assumptions as to the actual redemption activity for mileage credits or the estimated fair value of mileage credits expected to be redeemed could have a material impact on our revenue in the year in which the change occurs and in future years. We recognize breakage proportionally during the period in which the remaining mileage credits are actually redeemed.

We defer revenue for the mileage credits when earned and recognize loyalty travel awards in passenger revenue as the miles are redeemed and services are provided. We record the air transportation portion of the passenger ticket sales in air traffic liability and recognize passenger revenue when we provide transportation or if the ticket goes unused.


9


Sale of Mileage Credits. During the nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, total cash sales from marketing agreements were $2.6 billion and $2.3 billion, respectively, which are allocated to travel and other performance obligations, as discussed below. Customers may earn mileage credits based on their spending with participating companies such as credit card companies, hotels and car rental agencies with which we have marketing agreements to sell mileage credits. Our contracts to sell mileage credits under these marketing agreements have multiple performance obligations. Payments are typically due monthly based on the volume of miles sold during the period, and the terms of our marketing contracts are generally from one to eight years. During the nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, total cash sales from marketing agreements were $2.6 billion and $2.3 billion, respectively, which are allocated to travel and other performance obligations, as discussed below.

Our most significant contract to sell mileage credits relates to our co-brand credit card relationship with American Express. Our agreements with American Express provide for joint marketing, grant certain benefits to Delta-American Express co-branded credit card holders ("cardholders") and American Express Membership Rewards program participants, and allow American Express to market using our customer database. Cardholders earn mileage credits for making purchases using co-branded cards, may check their first bag for free, are granted discounted access to Delta Sky Club lounges and receive other benefits while traveling on Delta. Additionally, participants in the American Express Membership Rewards program may exchange their points for mileage credits under the SkyMiles program. We sell mileage credits at agreed-upon rates to American Express which are then provided to their customers under the co-brand credit card program and the Membership Rewards program.

We account for marketing agreements, including American Express, consistent with the accounting method that allocates the consideration received to the individual products and services delivered. We allocate the value based on the relative selling prices of those products and services, which generally consist of award travel, baggage fee waivers, lounge access and the use of our brand. We determined our best estimate of the selling prices by considering discounted cash flow analysis using multiple inputs and assumptions, including: (1) the expected number of miles awarded and number of miles redeemed, (2) ETV for the award travel obligation, (3) published rates on our website for baggage fees, discounted access to Delta Sky Club lounges and other benefits while traveling on Delta and (4) brand value.

We defer the amount for award travel obligation as part of frequent flyer deferred revenue and recognize loyalty travel awards in passenger revenue as the mileage credits are used for travel. Revenue allocated to services performed in conjunction with a passenger’s flight, such as baggage fee waivers, is recognized as travel-related services in passenger revenue when the related service is performed. Revenue allocated to access Delta Sky Club lounges is recognized as miscellaneous in other revenue as access is provided. Revenue allocated to the remaining performance obligations, primarily brand value, is recorded as loyalty program in other revenue over time as miles are delivered.

Current Activity of the Frequent Flyer Program. Mileage credits are combined in one homogeneous pool and are not separately identifiable. As such, the revenue is comprised of miles that were part of the frequent flyer deferred revenue balance at the beginning of the period as well as miles that were issued during the period.

The table below presents the activity of the current and noncurrent frequent flyer liability, and includes miles earned through travel and miles sold to participating companies, which are primarily through marketing agreements.
(in millions)
 
 
2018
2017
Balance at January 1
 
 
$
6,321

$
5,922

Mileage credits earned
 
 
2,322

2,193

Travel mileage credits redeemed
 
 
(1,976
)
(1,826
)
Non-travel mileage credits redeemed
 
 
(125
)
(114
)
Balance at September 30
 
 
$
6,542

$
6,175



The timing of mileage redemptions can vary widely; however, the majority of new miles are redeemed within two years.


10


Passenger Revenue by Geographic Region

Passenger revenue is recognized in a specific geographic region based on the origin and destination of each flight segment. Our passenger revenue by geographic region (as defined by the U.S. Department of Transportation) is summarized in the following table:
 
Three Months Ended September 30,
 
Nine Months Ended September 30,
(in millions)
2018
2017
 
2018
2017
Domestic
$
7,395

$
6,775

 
$
21,093

$
19,521

Atlantic
1,996

1,802

 
4,837

4,297

Latin America
675

693

 
2,228

2,226

Pacific
730

709

 
1,949

1,881

Total passenger revenue
$
10,796

$
9,979

 
$
30,107

$
27,925



Cargo Revenue

Cargo revenue is recognized when we provide the transportation.

Other Revenue
 
Three Months Ended September 30,
 
Nine Months Ended September 30,
(in millions)
2018
2017
 
2018
2017
Ancillary businesses and refinery
$
433

$
419

 
$
1,475

$
1,050

Loyalty program
369

317

 
1,075

939

Miscellaneous
129

155

 
388

454

Total other revenue
$
931

$
891

 
$
2,938

$
2,443



Ancillary Businesses and Refinery. Ancillary businesses and refinery includes aircraft maintenance and staffing services we provide to third parties, our vacation wholesale operations, our private jet operations and refinery production sales to third parties. Third-party refinery production sales are at or near cost; accordingly, the margin on these sales is de minimis. See Note 10, "Segments," for more information on revenue recognition within our refinery segment.

Loyalty Program. Loyalty program revenues relate to brand usage and other performance obligations embedded in mileage credits sold, including redemption of mileage credits for non-travel awards. These revenues are included within the total cash sales from marketing agreements, discussed above.

Miscellaneous. Miscellaneous revenue is primarily composed of lounge access and codeshare revenues.

Accounts Receivable

Accounts receivable primarily consist of amounts due from credit card companies from the sale of passenger tickets, ancillary businesses and refinery sales, and other companies for the purchase of mileage credits under the SkyMiles program. We provide an allowance for uncollectible accounts equal to the estimated losses expected to be incurred based on historical chargebacks, write-offs, bankruptcies and other specific analyses. Bad debt expense was not material in any period presented.

Passenger Taxes and Fees

We are required to charge certain taxes and fees on our passenger tickets, including U.S. federal transportation taxes, federal security charges, airport passenger facility charges and foreign arrival and departure taxes. These taxes and fees are assessments on the customer for which we act as a collection agent. Because we are not entitled to retain these taxes and fees, we do not include such amounts in passenger revenue. We record a liability when the amounts are collected and reduce the liability when payments are made to the applicable government agency or operating carrier (i.e., for codeshare-related fees).



11


NOTE 3. FAIR VALUE MEASUREMENTS

Assets (Liabilities) Measured at Fair Value on a Recurring Basis
(in millions)
September 30,
2018
Level 1
Level 2
Cash equivalents
$
982

$
982

$

Short-term investments
 
 

U.S. government and agency securities
50

45

5

Asset- and mortgage-backed securities
91


91

Corporate obligations
258


258

Other fixed income securities
79


79

Restricted cash equivalents
1,268

1,268


Long-term investments
809

781

28

Hedge derivatives, net
 
 
 
Fuel hedge contracts
(29
)
(19
)
(10
)
Interest rate contracts
(38
)

(38
)
Foreign currency exchange contracts
(9
)

(9
)
(in millions)
December 31,
2017
Level 1
Level 2
Cash equivalents
$
1,357

$
1,357

$

Short-term investments
 
 


U.S. government and agency securities
93

84

9

Asset- and mortgage-backed securities
173


173

Corporate obligations
467


467

Other fixed income securities
92


92

Restricted cash equivalents
38

38


Long-term investments
513

485

28

Hedge derivatives, net
 
 
 
Fuel hedge contracts
(66
)
(43
)
(23
)
Foreign currency exchange contracts
(17
)

(17
)


Cash Equivalents and Restricted Cash Equivalents. Cash equivalents generally consist of money market funds. Restricted cash equivalents generally consist of money market funds and time deposits, which primarily relate to proceeds from debt issued to finance a portion of the construction costs for the new terminal facilities at the LaGuardia Airport, certain self-insurance obligations and other airport commitments. The fair value of these cash equivalents is based on a market approach using prices and other relevant information generated by market transactions involving identical or comparable assets.

Short-Term Investments. The fair values of short-term investments are based on a market approach using industry standard valuation techniques that incorporate observable inputs such as quoted market prices, interest rates, benchmark curves, credit ratings of the security and other observable information.

Long-Term Investments. Our long-term investments that are measured at fair value primarily consist of equity investments in the parent company of GOL, China Eastern and, as of January 1, 2018, Air France-KLM. Our equity investments are valued based on market prices and are classified in other noncurrent assets.


12


Hedge Derivatives. A portion of our derivative contracts are negotiated over-the-counter with counterparties without going through a public exchange. Accordingly, our fair value assessments give consideration to the risk of counterparty default (as well as our own credit risk). Such contracts are classified as Level 2 within the fair value hierarchy. The remainder of our hedge contracts are comprised of futures contracts, which are traded on a public exchange. These contracts are classified within Level 1 of the fair value hierarchy.

Fuel Contracts. Our fuel hedge portfolio consists of options, swaps and futures. The hedge contracts include crude oil and refined products, as these commodities are highly correlated with the price of fuel that we consume. Option contracts are valued under an income approach using option pricing models based on data either readily observable in public markets, derived from public markets or provided by counterparties who regularly trade in public markets. Volatilities used in these valuations ranged from 18% to 32% depending on the maturity dates, underlying commodities and strike prices of the option contracts. Swap contracts are valued under an income approach using a discounted cash flow model based on data either readily observable or provided by counterparties who regularly trade in public markets. Discount rates used in these valuations vary based on maturity dates utilizing the London Interbank Offered Rate ("LIBOR"). Futures contracts and options on futures contracts are traded on a public exchange and valued based on quoted market prices.

Interest Rate Contracts. Our interest rate derivatives are swap contracts and they are valued based on data readily observable in public markets.

Foreign Currency Exchange Contracts. Our foreign currency derivatives consist of Japanese yen and Euro forward contracts and are valued based on data readily observable in public markets.


NOTE 4. INVESTMENTS

Short-Term Investments

The estimated fair values of short-term investments, which approximate cost at September 30, 2018, are shown below by contractual maturity. Actual maturities may differ from contractual maturities because issuers of the securities may have the right to retire our investments without prepayment penalties.
(in millions)
Total
Due in one year or less
$
226

Due after one year through three years
228

Due after three years through five years
6

Due after five years
18

Total
$
478



Long-Term Investments

We have developed strategic relationships with a number of airlines through equity investments and other forms of cooperation and support. Strategic relationships improve our coordination with these airlines and enable our customers to seamlessly connect to more destinations while enjoying a consistent, high-quality travel experience.

Equity Method Investments

Aeroméxico. We have a non-controlling 49% equity stake in Grupo Aeroméxico, the parent company of Aeroméxico.

Virgin Atlantic. We have a non-controlling 49% equity stake in Virgin Atlantic Limited, the parent company of Virgin Atlantic Airways.

We account for these investments under the equity method of accounting and recognize our portion of their financial results in miscellaneous in our income statement under non-operating income/(expense).

13


Fair Value Investments

Air France-KLM. We own 9% of the outstanding shares of Air France-KLM. In addition, we have a joint venture with Air France-KLM and have developed a combined long-term joint venture with Air France-KLM and Virgin Atlantic, subject to required regulatory approvals.

GOL. We own 9% of the outstanding capital stock of GOL's parent company through our investment in preferred shares.

Additionally, GOL has a $300 million five-year term loan facility with third parties, which we have guaranteed. Our entire guaranty is secured by GOL's ownership interest in Smiles, GOL's publicly traded loyalty program. Because GOL remains in compliance with the terms of its loan facility, we have not recorded a liability on our Consolidated Balance Sheet as of September 30, 2018.

China Eastern. We own a 3% equity interest in China Eastern.

We account for these investments at fair value with adjustments to fair value recognized in unrealized gain/(loss) on investments in our income statement under non-operating income/(expense).


NOTE 5. DERIVATIVES AND RISK MANAGEMENT

Changes in fuel prices, interest rates and foreign currency exchange rates impact our results of operations. In an effort to manage our exposure to these risks, we enter into derivative contracts and adjust our derivative portfolio as market conditions change.

Fuel Price Risk

Changes in fuel prices materially impact our results of operations. Our derivative contracts to hedge the financial risk from changing fuel prices are primarily related to Monroe’s refining margins.

During the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018, we recorded fuel hedge gains of $7 million and fuel hedge losses of $85 million, respectively. During the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017, we recorded fuel hedge losses of $100 million and $3 million, respectively.

Foreign Currency Exchange Risk

We are subject to foreign currency exchange rate risk because we have revenue and expense denominated in foreign currencies with our primary exposures being the Japanese yen and the Euro. To manage exchange rate risk, we execute both our international revenue and expense transactions in the same foreign currency to the extent practicable. From time to time, we may also enter into foreign currency option and forward contracts. Our Japanese yen foreign currency exchange contracts are designated as cash flow hedges with the effective portion of the gains or losses on the derivatives recorded in passenger revenue in the income statement in the same period in which the hedged transaction affects earnings.

In January 2018, we entered into a three-year U.S. dollar-Euro cross currency swap with a notional value of €375 million. This swap was intended to mitigate foreign currency volatility resulting from our Euro-denominated investment in Air France-KLM. In response to favorable changes in interest rates and the U.S. dollar-Euro exchange rate, we settled the cross currency swap in August 2018. Upon settlement, realized gains of $12 million and $18 million were reflected in miscellaneous under non-operating income/(expense) during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018, respectively. Subsequently, we entered into a new U.S. dollar-Euro cross currency swap with a notional value of 397 million and a maturity date in December 2020. During the three months ended September 30, 2018, we recorded an unrealized loss on this new swap of $12 million, which is reflected in unrealized gain/(loss) on investments under non-operating income/(expense).

Interest Rate Risk

Our exposure to market risk from adverse changes in interest rates is primarily associated with our long-term debt obligations. Market risk associated with our fixed and variable rate long-term debt relates to the potential reduction in fair value and negative impact to future earnings, respectively, from an increase in interest rates.


14


In April 2018, we entered into interest rate swaps which are designated as fair value hedges. These swaps range from three to ten years and have a total notional value of $1.6 billion. The objective of the swaps is to manage toward a higher percentage of net floating rate debt by swapping payments of fixed rate interest on the unsecured notes that we issued in the June 2018 quarter for payments of floating rate interest. The gains/losses on the swaps are recorded within interest expense in the income statement and offset the gain/losses in the related debt obligations due to interest rate fluctuations.

Hedge Position as of September 30, 2018
(in millions)
Volume
 
Final Maturity Date
Prepaid Expenses and Other
Other Noncurrent Assets
Other Accrued Liabilities
Other Noncurrent Liabilities
Hedge Derivatives, net
Designated as hedges
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Interest rate contracts (fair value hedges)
1,893

U.S. dollars
April 2028
$
1

$

$
(3
)
$
(36
)
$
(38
)
Foreign currency exchange contracts
9,863

Japanese yen
November 2019
3




3

Not designated as hedges
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Foreign currency exchange contract
397

Euros
December 2020
10



(22
)
(12
)
Fuel hedge contracts
215

gallons - crude oil and refined products
December 2019
45

15

(73
)
(16
)
(29
)
Total derivative contracts
 
 
$
59

$
15

$
(76
)
$
(74
)
$
(76
)

Hedge Position as of December 31, 2017
(in millions)
Volume
 
Final Maturity Date
Prepaid Expenses and Other
Other Noncurrent Assets
Other Accrued Liabilities
Other Noncurrent Liabilities
Hedge Derivatives, net
Designated as hedges
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Foreign currency exchange contracts
23,512

Japanese yen
November 2019
$
1

$
1

$
(13
)
$
(6
)
$
(17
)
490

Canadian dollars
May 2020
Not designated as hedges
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fuel hedge contracts
249

gallons - crude oil and refined products
May 2019
638

8

(694
)
(18
)
(66
)
Total derivative contracts
 
 
$
639

$
9

$
(707
)
$
(24
)
$
(83
)

Offsetting Assets and Liabilities

We have master netting arrangements with our counterparties giving us the right to offset hedge assets and liabilities. However, we have elected not to offset the fair value positions recorded on our Consolidated Balance Sheets. The following table shows the net fair value positions by counterparty had we elected to offset.
(in millions)
Prepaid Expenses and Other
Other Noncurrent Assets
Other Accrued Liabilities
Other Noncurrent Liabilities
Hedge Derivatives, net
September 30, 2018
 
 
 
 
 
Net derivative contracts
$
14

$

$
(31
)
$
(59
)
$
(76
)
December 31, 2017
 
 
 
 
 
Net derivative contracts
$

$
1

$
(68
)
$
(16
)
$
(83
)


15


Designated Hedge Gains (Losses)

Gains (losses) related to our foreign currency exchange contracts are as follows:
 
Effective Portion Reclassified from AOCI to Earnings
 
Effective Portion Recognized in Other Comprehensive Income
(in millions)
2018
2017
 
2018
2017
Three Months Ended September 30,
 
 
 
 
 
Foreign currency exchange contracts
$
(1
)
$

 
$
4

$
(15
)
Nine Months Ended September 30,
 
 
 
 
 
Foreign currency exchange contracts
$
(4
)
$
11

 
$
3

$
(48
)


Credit Risk

To manage credit risk associated with our fuel price, interest rate and foreign currency hedging programs, we evaluate counterparties based on several criteria including their credit ratings.


NOTE 6. LONG-TERM DEBT

The following table summarizes our long-term debt:
 
Maturity
Interest Rate(s)(5) Per Annum at
September 30,
December 31,
(in millions)
Dates
September 30, 2018
2018
2017
Pacific Facilities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Pacific Term Loan B-1
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
$

$
1,048

Pacific Revolving Credit Facility
n/a
n/a
 
n/a


2015 Credit Facilities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Term Loan Facility
n/a
n/a
 
n/a

490

Revolving Credit Facility
n/a
n/a
 
n/a