497 1 d316384-5.htm 497

Prospectus

Fixed income mutual fund

Delaware Floating Rate Fund

(formerly, Delaware Diversified Floating Rate Fund)

January 31, 2017

     

 

Nasdaq ticker symbols

Class A
 

 

 

DDFAX

 
Class C
 

 

 

DDFCX

 
Class R
 

 

 

DDFFX

 
Institutional Class
 

 

 

DDFLX

 

The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission has not approved or disapproved these securities or passed upon the adequacy of this Prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

Get shareholder reports and prospectuses online instead of in the mail.
Visit delawareinvestments.com/edelivery.


 

Table of contents

Fund summary
 

 

Delaware Floating Rate Fund
 

 

How we manage the Fund
 

 

Our principal investment strategies
 

 

The securities in which the Fund typically invests
 

 

Other investment strategies
 

 

The risks of investing in the Fund
 

 

Disclosure of portfolio holdings information
 

 

Who manages the Fund
 

 

Investment manager
 

 

Portfolio managers
 

 

Manager of managers structure
 

 

Who’s who
 

 

About your account
 

 

Investing in the Fund
 

 

Choosing a share class
 

 

Dealer compensation
 

 

Payments to intermediaries
 

 

How to reduce your sales charge
 

 

Buying Class A shares at net asset value
 

 

Waivers of contingent deferred sales charges
 

 

How to buy shares
 

 

Calculating share price
 

 

Fair valuation
 

 

Retirement plans
 

 

Document delivery
 

 

Inactive accounts
 

 

How to redeem shares
 

 

Low balance accounts
 

 

Investor services
 

 

Frequent trading of Fund shares (market timing and disruptive trading)
 

 

Dividends, distributions, and taxes
 

 

Certain management considerations
 

 

Financial highlights
 

 

Additional information
 

 

 


 

Fund summary

Delaware Floating Rate Fund

What is the Fund’s investment objective?

Delaware Floating Rate Fund seeks high current income and, secondarily, long-term total return.

What are the Fund’s fees and expenses?

The table below describes the fees and expenses that you may pay if you buy and hold shares of the Fund. You may qualify for sales-charge discounts if you and your family invest, or agree to invest in the future, at least $100,000 in Delaware Investments® Funds. More information about these and other discounts is available from your financial intermediary, in the Fund’s prospectus under the section entitled “About your account,” and in the Fund’s statement of additional information (SAI) under the section entitled “Purchasing Shares.”

Shareholder fees (fees paid directly from your investment)

                 

Class

A

 

C

 

R

 

Inst.

 
Maximum sales charge (load) imposed on purchases as a percentage of offering price
 

 

 

2.75%

   

none

   

none

   

none

 
Maximum contingent deferred sales charge (load) as a percentage of original purchase price or redemption price, whichever is lower
 

 

 

none

   

1.00%

1

 

none

   

none

 

Annual fund operating expenses (expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)

                 

Class

A

 

C

 

R

 

Inst.

 
Management fees
 

 

 

0.50%

   

0.50%

   

0.50%

   

0.50%

 
Distribution and service (12b-1) fees
 

 

 

0.25%

   

1.00%

   

0.50%

   

none

 
Other expenses
 

 

 

0.22%

   

0.22%

   

0.22%

   

0.22%

 
Total annual fund operating expenses
 

 

 

0.97%

   

1.72%

   

1.22%

   

0.72%

 

 

1

Class C shares redeemed within one year of purchase are subject to a 1.00% contingent deferred sales charge (CDSC).

Example

This example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other mutual funds. The example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund for the time periods indicated and then redeem all of your shares at the end of those periods. In addition, the example shows expenses for Class C shares assuming those shares were not redeemed at the end of those periods. The example also assumes that your investment has a 5% return each year and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:

                     

Class

A

 

(if not
redeemed)
C

 

C

 

R

 

Inst.

 
1 year
 

 

 

$371

   

$175

   

$275

   

$124

   

$74

 
3 years
 

 

 

$575

   

$542

   

$542

   

$387

   

$230

 
5 years
 

 

 

$797

   

$933

   

$933

   

$670

   

$401

 
10 years
 

 

 

$1,432

   

$2,030

   

$2,030

   

$1,477

   

$894

 

Portfolio turnover

The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in higher taxes when Fund shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in the annual fund operating expenses or in the example, affect the Fund’s performance. During the most recent fiscal year, the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate was 90% of the average value of its portfolio. For the next fiscal year, the Fund generally expects to have a portfolio turnover rate over 100%.

1


 

Fund summary

What are the Fund’s principal investment strategies?

Under normal circumstances, the Fund will invest at least 80% of its net assets, plus the amount of any borrowings for investment purposes, in floating rate loans and other floating rate debt securities (80% policy). Delaware Management Company (Manager) will determine how much of the Fund’s assets to allocate among the different types of securities in which the Fund may invest based on its evaluation of economic and market conditions and its assessment of the returns and potential for appreciation that can be achieved from various sectors of the fixed income market.

The Fund’s investments may be variable- and floating-rate debt securities that generally pay interest at rates that adjust whenever a specified interest rate changes and/or reset on predetermined dates (such as the last day of a month or calendar quarter). Derivatives instruments may be utilized to effectively convert the fixed-rate interest payments from a group of certain Fund portfolio securities into floating-rate interest payments. The average portfolio duration (that is, the sensitivity to general changes in interest rates) of this Fund will generally not exceed one year.

Up to 100% of the Fund’s total assets may be allocated to below-investment-grade securities within the Fund. Investments in emerging markets will, in the aggregate, be limited to no more than 15% of the Fund’s total assets. The Manager will limit non-U.S.-dollar-denominated securities to no more than 50% of net assets, but total non-U.S.-dollar currency exposure will be limited, in the aggregate, to no more than 25% of net assets. The Fund may also invest up to 50% of its total assets in a wide range of derivatives instruments, including options, futures contracts, options on futures contracts, and swaps. In addition, the Fund may hold a portion of its assets in cash or cash equivalents.

The 80% policy is nonfundamental and may be changed without shareholder approval. Fund shareholders would be given at least 60 days’ notice prior to any such change.

What are the principal risks of investing in the Fund?

Investing in any mutual fund involves the risk that you may lose part or all of the money you invest. Over time, the value of your investment in the Fund will increase and decrease according to changes in the value of the securities in the Fund’s portfolio. The Manager is an indirect wholly owned subsidiary of Macquarie Group Limited (MGL). Neither the Manager nor its affiliates referred to in this document are authorized deposit-taking institutions for the purposes of the Bank Act 1959 (Commonwealth of Australia). The obligations of these entities do not represent deposits or other liabilities of Macquarie Bank Limited (MBL), a subsidiary of MGL and an affiliate of the Manager. MBL does not guarantee or otherwise provide assurance in respect of the obligations of these entities, unless noted otherwise. The Fund is governed by U.S. laws and regulations. The Fund’s principal risks include:

Market risk — The risk that all or a majority of the securities in a certain market — such as the stock or bond market — will decline in value because of factors such as adverse political or economic conditions, future expectations, investor confidence, or heavy institutional selling.

Credit risk — The risk that an issuer of a debt security, including a governmental issuer or an entity that insures a bond, may be unable to make interest payments and/or repay principal in a timely manner.

Loans and other indebtedness risk — The risk that the portfolio will not receive payment of principal, interest, and other amounts due in connection with these investments and will depend primarily on the financial condition of the borrower and the lending institution. A portfolio’s ability to sell its loans or to realize their full value upon sale may also be impaired due to the lack of an active trading market, irregular trading activity, wide bid/ask spreads, contractual restrictions, and extended trade settlement periods. In addition, certain loans in which a fund invests may not be considered securities. A fund therefore may not be able to rely upon the anti-fraud provisions of the federal securities laws with respect to these investments.

Interest rate risk — The risk that the prices of bonds and other fixed income securities will increase as interest rates fall and decrease as interest rates rise.  Interest rate changes are influenced by a number of factors, such as government policy, monetary policy, inflation expectations, and the supply and demand of bonds. Bonds and other fixed income securities with longer maturities or duration generally are more sensitive to interest rate changes.  A fund may be subject to a greater risk of rising interest rates due to the current period of historically low interest rates.

High yield (junk bond) risk — The risk that high yield securities, commonly known as “junk bonds,” are subject to reduced creditworthiness of issuers; increased risk of default and a more limited and less liquid secondary market. High yield securities may also be subject to greater price volatility and risk of loss of income and principal than are higher-rated securities. High yield bonds are sometimes issued by municipalities that have less financial strength and therefore have less ability to make projected debt payments on the bonds.

Adjustable rate securities risk — During periods of rising interest rates, because changes in interest rates on adjustable rate securities may lag behind changes in market rates, the value of such securities may decline until their interest rates reset to market rates. During periods of declining interest rates, because the interest rates on adjustable rate securities generally reset downward, their market value is unlikely to rise to the same extent as the value of comparable fixed rate securities.

2


 

Prepayment risk — The risk that the principal on a bond that is held by a portfolio will be prepaid prior to maturity at a time when interest rates are lower than what that bond was paying. A portfolio may then have to reinvest that money at a lower interest rate.

Foreign risk — The risk that foreign securities may be adversely affected by political instability, changes in currency exchange rates, inefficient markets and higher transaction costs, foreign economic conditions, the imposition of economic or trade sanctions, or inadequate or different regulatory and accounting standards.

Emerging markets risk — The risk associated with international investing will be greater in emerging markets than in more developed foreign markets because, among other things, emerging markets may have less stable political and economic environments. In addition, there often is substantially less publicly available information about issuers and such information tends to be of a lesser quality. Economic markets and structures tend to be less mature and diverse and the securities markets may also be smaller, less liquid, and subject to greater price volatility.

Forward foreign currency risk — The use of forward foreign currency contracts may substantially change a portfolio’s exposure to currency exchange rates and could result in losses to a fund if currencies do not perform as the portfolio manager expects. The use of these investments as a hedging technique to reduce a portfolio’s exposure to currency risks may also reduce its ability to benefit from favorable changes in currency exchange rates.

Liquidity risk — The possibility that securities cannot be readily sold within seven days at approximately the price at which a portfolio has valued them.

Derivatives risk — Derivatives contracts, such as futures, forward foreign currency contracts, options, and swaps, may involve additional expenses (such as the payment of premiums) and are subject to significant loss if a security, index, reference rate, or other asset or market factor to which a derivatives contract is associated, moves in the opposite direction from what the portfolio manager anticipated. Derivatives contracts are also subject to the risk that the counterparty may fail to perform its obligations under the contract due to financial difficulties (such as a bankruptcy or reorganization).

Valuation risk — The risk that a less liquid secondary market may make it more difficult for a fund to obtain precise valuations of certain securities in its portfolio.

Government and regulatory risk — The risk that governments or regulatory authorities may, from time to time, take or consider actions that could adversely affect various sectors of the securities markets and significantly affect fund performance.

How has Delaware Floating Rate Fund performed?

The bar chart and table below provide some indication of the risks of investing in the Fund by showing changes in the Fund’s performance from year to year and by showing how the Fund’s average annual total returns for the 1-year, 5-year, and lifetime periods compare with those of a broad measure of market performance. The Fund’s past performance (before and after taxes) is not necessarily an indication of how it will perform in the future. The returns reflect any expense caps in effect during these periods. The returns would be lower without the expense caps. You may obtain the Fund’s most recently available month-end performance by calling 800 523-1918 or by visiting our website at delawareinvestments.com/performance.

Effective Jan. 31, 2017, the Fund was repositioned as a bank loan fund and changed its broad-based securities market index to the S&P/LSTA Leveraged Loan Index. The returns prior to Jan. 31, 2017 do not reflect these changes and accordingly, the performance shown in the bar chart and average annual total return table prior to that date may not be indicative of future returns.

3


 

Fund summary

Year-by-year total return (Class A)

During the periods illustrated in this bar chart, Class A’s highest quarterly return was 2.23% for the quarter ended March 31, 2012, and its lowest quarterly return was -2.42% for the quarter ended Sept. 30, 2011. The maximum Class A sales charge of 2.75%, which is normally deducted when you purchase shares, is not reflected in the highest/lowest quarterly returns or in the bar chart. If this fee were included, the returns would be less than those shown. The average annual total returns in the table below do include the sales charge.

Average annual total returns for periods ended December 31, 20161

             

 

1 year

 

5 years

 

Lifetime (2/26/10-12/31/16)

 
Class A return before taxes
 

 

 

0.69%

   

1.42%

   

1.47%

 
Class A return after taxes on distributions
 

 

 

0.02%

   

0.64%

   

0.70%

 
Class A return after taxes on distributions and sale of Fund shares
 

 

 

0.39%

   

0.75%

   

0.81%

 
Class C return before taxes
 

 

 

1.74%

   

1.24%

   

1.13%

 
Class R return before taxes
 

 

 

3.25%

   

1.74%

   

1.63%

 
Institutional Class return before taxes
 

 

 

3.77%

   

2.25%

   

2.14%

 
S&P/LSTA Leveraged Loan Index (reflects no deduction for fees, expenses, or taxes) (new benchmark)
...

 

 

10.16%

   

5.11%

   

5.07%

 
BofA Merrill Lynch U.S. Dollar 3-Month Deposit Offered Rate Constant Maturity Index (reflects no deduction for fees, expenses, or taxes) (previous benchmark)
 

 

 

0.66%

   

0.38%

   

0.36%

 

1 The performance prior to Jan. 31, 2017 was based upon a diversified floating rate security strategy.

After-tax performance is presented only for Class A shares of the Fund. The after-tax returns for other Fund classes may vary. Actual after-tax returns depend on the investor’s individual tax situation and may differ from the returns shown. After-tax returns are not relevant for shares held in tax-deferred investment vehicles such as employer-sponsored 401(k) plans and individual retirement accounts (IRAs). The after-tax returns shown are calculated using the highest individual federal marginal income tax rates in effect during the periods presented and do not reflect the impact of state and local taxes.

Who manages the Fund?

Investment manager

Delaware Management Company, a series of Delaware Management Business Trust (a Delaware statutory trust)

Portfolio managers

Title with Delaware Management Company

Start date on the Fund

J. David Hillmeyer, CFA

Senior Vice President, Senior Portfolio Manager

February 2010

Adam H. Brown, CFA

Senior Vice President, Senior Portfolio Manager

November 2011

John P. McCarthy, CFA

Senior Vice President, Co-Head of Credit Research, Senior Research Analyst

January 2017

4


 

Purchase and redemption of Fund shares

You may purchase or redeem shares of the Fund on any day that the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) is open for business (Business Day). Shares may be purchased or redeemed: through your financial advisor; through the Fund’s website at delawareinvestments.com; by calling 800 523-1918; by regular mail (c/o Delaware Investments, P.O. Box 9876, Providence, RI 02940-8076); by overnight courier service (c/o Delaware Service Center, 4400 Computer Drive, Westborough, MA 01581-1722); or by wire.

For Class A and Class C shares, the minimum initial investment is generally $1,000 and subsequent investments can be made for as little as $100. The minimum initial investment for IRAs, Uniform Gifts/Transfers to Minors Act accounts, direct deposit purchase plans, and automatic investment plans is $250 and through Coverdell Education Savings Accounts is $500, and subsequent investments in these accounts can be made for as little as $25. For Class R and Institutional Class shares (except those shares purchased through an automatic investment plan), there is no minimum initial purchase requirement, but certain eligibility requirements must be met. The eligibility requirements are described in the prospectus under “Choosing a share class” and on the Fund’s website. We may reduce or waive the minimums or eligibility requirements in certain cases.

Tax information

The Fund’s distributions primarily are taxable to you as ordinary income, unless you are investing through a tax-deferred arrangement, such as a 401(k) plan or an IRA, in which case your distributions generally will be taxed when withdrawn from the tax-deferred account.

Payments to broker/dealers and other financial intermediaries

If you purchase shares of the Fund through a broker/dealer or other financial intermediary (such as a bank), the Fund and its related companies may pay the intermediary for the sale of Fund shares and related services. These payments may create a conflict of interest by influencing the broker/dealer or other intermediary and your salesperson to recommend the Fund over another investment. Ask your salesperson or visit your financial intermediary’s website for more information.

5


 

How we manage the Fund

The Manager takes a disciplined approach to investing, combining investment strategies and risk-management techniques that it believes can help shareholders meet their goals.

Our principal investment strategies

The Manager analyzes economic and market conditions, seeking to identify the securities or market sectors that it thinks are the best investments for the Fund. Securities in which the Fund may invest include, but are not limited to, the following:

Under normal circumstances, the Fund will invest at least 80% of its net assets, plus the amount of any borrowings for investment purposes, in floating rate loans and other floating rate debt securities (80% policy).

 

Loan participations (also known as bank loans);

 

Investment grade and below-investment-grade corporate bonds;

 

Securities of foreign issuers in both developed and emerging markets, denominated in foreign currencies and U.S. dollars;

 

Nonagency mortgage-backed securities, asset-backed securities, commercial mortgage-backed securities (CMBS), collateralized mortgage obligations (CMOs), and real estate mortgage investment conduits (REMICs);

 

Securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government, such as U.S. Treasurys;

 

Securities issued by U.S. government agencies or instrumentalities, such as securities of Ginnie Mae;

 

U.S. municipal securities;

 

Various types of structured product securities; and

 

Short-term investments, cash and cash equivalents.

 

The instruments listed in the preceding paragraph may be variable- and floating-rate debt securities that generally pay interest at rates that adjust whenever a specified interest rate changes and/or reset on predetermined dates (such as the last day of a month or calendar quarter). The average portfolio duration of this Fund will generally not exceed one year.

Before selecting securities for the Fund, the Manager carefully evaluates and monitors each individual security, including its income potential and the size of the bond issuance. The size of the issuance helps the Manager evaluate how easily it may be able to buy and sell the security. The Manager also does a thorough credit analysis of the issuer to determine whether that company or entity has the financial ability to meet the security’s payments. The Manager maintains a well-diversified portfolio of investments that represents many different asset classes, sectors, industries, and global markets. Through diversification the Manager can help to reduce the impact that any individual security might have on the portfolio should the issuer have difficulty making payments.

The Fund may invest in loan participations. These types of investments are also commonly known as bank loans. Bank loans are an interest in a loan or other direct indebtedness, such as an assignment, that entitles the acquiror of such interest to payments of interest, principal, and/or other amounts due under the structure of the loan or other direct indebtedness. In addition to being structured as secured or unsecured loans, such investments could be structured as novations or assignments, or represent trade or other claims owed by a company to a supplier. Some of the Fund’s investments in bank loans may also include a “Libor floor.” Bank loans with Libor floors generally ensure investors a minimum level of coupon payment, but the coupon rates for these types of securities may not adjust upward as quickly when interest rates rise since the coupon rate only adjusts when rates go higher than the applied Libor floor.

The investment grade corporate debt obligations in which the Fund may invest include, but are not limited to, bonds, notes (which may be convertible or nonconvertible), units consisting of bonds with stock or warrants to buy stock attached, debentures and convertible debentures, and commercial paper of U.S. companies. The Fund may also invest up to 100% of its total assets in below-investment-grade securities. The Fund may invest in both rated and unrated bonds. The rated bonds that the Fund may purchase in the high yield sector will generally be rated lower than BBB- by Standard & Poor’s Financial Services LLC (S&P), Baa3 by Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. (Moody’s), or similarly rated by another nationally recognized statistical rating organization (NRSRO). Unrated bonds may be more speculative in nature than rated bonds.

The Fund may also invest in foreign securities, including up to 15% of its total assets in securities of issuers located in emerging markets. These fixed income securities may include foreign government securities, debt obligations of foreign companies, and securities issued by supranational entities. A supranational entity is an entity established or financially supported by the national governments of one or more countries to promote reconstruction or development. Examples of supranational entities include, among others, the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (more commonly known as the World Bank), the European Economic Community, the European Investment Bank, the Inter-Development Bank, and the Asian Development Bank.

The Fund may invest in securities issued in any currency and may hold non-U.S. currencies. Securities of issuers within a given country may be denominated in the currency of another country or in multinational currency units, such as the euro. The Manager will limit non-U.S.-dollar-denominated securities to no more than 50% of net assets. The Fund’s total non-U.S.-dollar currency exposure will be limited, in the aggregate, to no more than 25% of net assets. The Fund may,

6


 

from time to time, purchase or sell foreign currencies and/or engage in forward foreign currency transactions in order to facilitate or expedite settlement of Fund transactions and to minimize the impact of currency value fluctuations on the portfolio.

The Fund may also invest in mortgage-backed securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government, its agencies or instrumentalities, or by government-sponsored corporations. Other mortgage-backed securities in which the Fund may invest are issued by certain private, nongovernment entities. The Fund may also invest in securities that are backed by assets such as receivables on home equity and credit card loans, automobile, mobile home, recreational vehicle and other loans, wholesale dealer floor plans, and leases.

The Fund may invest in debt obligations issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government, its agencies or instrumentalities. The U.S. government securities in which the Fund may invest include a variety of securities which are issued or guaranteed as to the payment of principal and interest by the U.S. government, and by various agencies or instrumentalities which have been established or are sponsored by the U.S. government. The Fund may also invest in municipal debt obligations that are issued by state and local governments to raise funds for various public purposes such as hospitals, schools, and general capital expenses.

The Fund may also invest up to 50% of its total assets in a wide range of derivatives instruments, including options, futures contracts, options on futures contracts, and swaps. Derivatives instruments may be utilized to effectively convert the fixed-rate interest payments from a group of certain Fund portfolio securities into floating-rate interest payments.

The Fund’s investment objective is nonfundamental. This means that the Fund’s Board of Trustees (Board) may change the objective without obtaining shareholder approval. If the objective were changed, the Fund would notify shareholders at least 60 days before the change became effective.

The securities in which the Fund typically invests

Fixed income securities offer the potential for greater income payments than stocks, and also may provide capital appreciation. Please see the Fund’s SAI for additional information about certain of the securities described below as well as other securities in which the Fund may invest.

U.S. government securities

U.S. government securities are direct U.S. obligations that include bills, notes, and bonds, as well as other debt securities, issued by the U.S. Treasury, and securities of U.S. government agencies or instrumentalities. U.S. Treasury securities are backed by the “full faith and credit” of the United States. Securities issued or guaranteed by federal agencies and U.S. government-sponsored instrumentalities may or may not be backed by the “full faith and credit” of the U.S. In the case of securities not backed by the “full faith and credit” of the U.S., investors in such securities look principally to the agency or instrumentality issuing or guaranteeing the obligation for ultimate repayment.

How the Fund uses them: The Fund may invest in U.S. government securities for temporary purposes or otherwise, as is consistent with the Fund’s investment objective and policies.

Mortgage-backed securities

Mortgage-backed securities are fixed income securities that represent pools of mortgages, with investors receiving principal and interest payments as the underlying mortgage loans are paid back. Many are issued and guaranteed against default by the U.S. government or its agencies or instrumentalities, such as Freddie Mac, Fannie Mae, and Ginnie Mae. Others are issued by private financial institutions, with some fully collateralized by certificates issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government or its agencies or instrumentalities.

How the Fund uses them: The Fund may invest in mortgage-backed securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government, its agencies or instrumentalities or by government-sponsored corporations.

The Fund may also invest in mortgage-backed securities that are secured by the underlying collateral of the private issuer or by certificates issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government or its agencies or instrumentalities. Such mortgage-backed securities are not government securities and are not directly guaranteed by the U.S. government in any way. These include CMOs, REMICs, and CMBS.

Asset-backed securities

Asset-backed securities are bonds or notes backed by accounts receivable, including home equity, automobile, or credit loans.

How the Fund uses them: The fixed income securities in which the Fund may invest include asset-backed securities.

 

7


 

How we manage the Fund

 

Corporate bonds

Corporate bonds are bonds, notes, or debentures issued by corporations.

How the Fund uses them: The Fund may invest in bonds rated in one of the four highest rating categories by an NRSRO (for example, rated BBB- or higher by S&P or Baa3 or higher by Moody’s), and the Fund may invest in high yield corporate bonds as described below.

High yield corporate bonds (junk bonds)

High yield corporate bonds are debt obligations issued by a corporation and rated below investment grade (lower than BBB- by Standard & Poor’s Financial Services LLC (S&P) and lower than Baa3 by Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. (Moody’s), or similarly rated by another NRSRO). High yield bonds, also known as “junk bonds,” are issued by corporations that have lower credit quality and may have difficulty repaying principal and interest.

How the Fund uses them: The Fund may invest up to 100% of its total assets in below-investment-grade securities.

The Manager carefully evaluates and monitors an individual company’s financial situation, its management, the prospects for its industry, and the technical factors related to its bond offering. The Manager’s goal is to identify those companies that it believes will be able to repay their debt obligations in spite of poor ratings. The Manager may invest in unrated bonds if it believes their credit quality is comparable to the rated bonds in which the Fund is permitted to invest. Unrated bonds may be more speculative in nature than rated bonds.

Collateralized mortgage obligations (CMOs) and real estate mortgage investment conduits (REMICs)

CMOs are privately issued mortgage-backed bonds whose underlying value is the mortgages that are collected into different pools according to their maturity. They are issued by U.S. government agencies and private issuers. REMICs are privately issued mortgage-backed bonds whose underlying value is a fixed pool of mortgages secured by an interest in real property. Like CMOs, REMICs offer different pools according to the underlying mortgages’ maturities.

How the Fund uses them: The Fund may invest in CMOs and REMICs. Certain CMOs and REMICs may have variable or floating interest rates and others may be stripped. Stripped mortgage securities are generally considered illiquid and to such extent, together with any other illiquid investments, will not exceed 15% of the Fund’s net assets, which is the Fund’s limit on investments in illiquid securities. In addition, subject to certain quality and collateral limitations, the Fund may invest in CMOs and REMICs issued by private entities that are not collateralized by securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government, its agencies, or instrumentalities, so called “nonagency” mortgage-backed securities.

Short-term debt instruments

These instruments include: (1) time deposits, certificates of deposit, and banker’s acceptances issued by U.S. banks; (2) time deposits and certificates of deposit issued by foreign banks; (3) commercial paper with the highest quality rating; (4) short-term debt obligations with the highest quality rating; (5) U.S. government securities; and (6) repurchase agreements collateralized by those instruments.

How the Fund uses them: The Fund may invest in these instruments either as a means of achieving its investment objective or, more commonly, as temporary defensive investments or pending investments in the Fund’s principal investment securities. When investing all or a significant portion of the Fund’s assets in these instruments, the Fund may not be able to achieve its investment objective.

Foreign securities

Foreign securities are debts issued by a foreign company or a government other than the United States or by an agency, instrumentality, or political subdivision of such government.

Investments in foreign securities may also include investments in American depositary receipts (ADRs), European depositary receipts (EDRs), and global depositary receipts (GDRs). ADRs are receipts issued by a depositary (usually a U.S. bank) and EDRs and GDRs are receipts issued by a depositary outside of the U.S. (usually a non-U.S. bank or trust company or a foreign branch of a U.S. bank). Depositary receipts represent an ownership interest in an underlying security that is held by the depositary. Generally, the underlying security represented by an ADR is issued by a foreign issuer and the underlying security represented by an EDR or GDR may be issued by a foreign or U.S. issuer. Sponsored depositary receipts are issued jointly by the issuer of the underlying security and the depositary, and unsponsored depositary receipts are issued by the depositary without the participation of the issuer of the underlying security. Generally, the holder of the depositary receipt is entitled to all payments of interest, dividends, or capital gains that are made on the underlying security.

How the Fund uses them: The Fund may invest up to 50% of its total assets in securities of foreign companies or governments. The Fund may invest up to 15% of its total assets in securities of issuers located in emerging markets. The Fund may invest in sponsored and unsponsored ADRs. The Fund will typically invest in ADRs that are actively traded in the United States.

In conjunction with the Fund’s investments in foreign securities, it may also invest in sponsored and unsponsored EDRs and GDRs.

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Forward foreign currency contracts

A fund may invest in securities of foreign issuers and may hold foreign currency. In addition, a fund may enter into contracts to purchase or sell foreign currencies at a future date (a “forward foreign currency” contract or “forward” contract). A forward contract involves an obligation to purchase or sell a specific currency at a future date, which may be any fixed number of days from the date of the contract, agreed upon by the parties, at a price set at the time of the contract.

How the Fund uses them: Although the Manager values the Fund’s assets daily in terms of U.S. dollars, it does not intend to convert the Fund’s holdings of foreign currencies into U.S. dollars on a daily basis. The Fund may, however, from time to time, purchase or sell foreign currencies and/or engage in forward foreign currency contracts in order to facilitate or expedite settlement of Fund transactions and to minimize currency value fluctuations. The Manager will limit non-U.S.-dollar-denominated securities to no more than 50% of net assets. The Fund’s total non-U.S.-dollar currency exposure will be limited, in the aggregate, to no more than 25% of net assets.

Bank loans and other indebtedness

A bank loan represents an interest in a loan or other direct indebtedness, such as an assignment, that entitles the acquiror of such interest to payments of interest, principal, and/or other amounts due under the structure of the loan or other direct indebtedness. In addition to being structured as secured or unsecured loans, such investments could be structured as novations or assignments or represent trade or other claims owed by a company to a supplier.

How the Fund uses them: The Fund may invest without restriction in bank loans that meet the credit standards established by the portfolio managers. The portfolio managers perform their own independent credit analysis on each borrower and on the collateral securing each loan. The portfolio managers consider the nature of the industry in which the borrower operates, the nature of the borrower’s assets, and the general quality and creditworthiness of the borrower. The Fund may invest in bank loans in order to enhance total return, to effect diversification, or to earn additional income. The Fund will not use bank loans for reasons inconsistent with the Fund’s investment objective.

Repurchase agreements

A repurchase agreement is an agreement between a buyer of securities, such as a fund, and a seller of securities, in which the seller agrees to buy the securities back within a specified time at the same price the buyer paid for them, plus an amount equal to an agreed-upon interest rate. Repurchase agreements are often viewed as equivalent to cash.

How the Fund uses them: Typically, the Fund uses repurchase agreements as short-term investments for its cash position. In order to enter into these repurchase agreements, the Fund must have collateral of at least 102% of the repurchase price. The Fund will only enter into repurchase agreements in which the collateral is composed of U.S. government securities. At the Manager’s discretion, the Fund may invest overnight cash balances in short-term discount notes issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government, its agencies or instrumentalities, or government-sponsored corporations.

Futures and options on futures

Futures contracts are agreements for the purchase or sale of a security or a group of securities at a specified price, on a specified date. Unlike purchasing an option, a futures contract must be executed unless it is sold before the settlement date.

Options on futures contracts represent a right to buy or sell a futures contract at an agreed-upon price at a future date. The purchaser of an option may or may not choose to go through with the transaction. The seller of an option, however, must go through with the transaction if the purchaser exercises the option.

Certain futures and options on futures contracts may be considered illiquid.

How the Fund uses them: At times when the Manager anticipates adverse conditions, the Fund may want to protect gains on swap agreements or securities without actually selling them. The Fund might use options or futures to neutralize the effect of any price declines, without selling a swap agreement or security, or as a hedge against changes in interest rates. The Fund may also sell an option contract (often referred to as “writing” an option) to earn additional income for the Fund. The Fund may invest up to 50% of its total assets in a wide range of derivatives instruments, including options, futures contracts, options on futures contracts, and swaps.

Use of these strategies can increase the operating costs of the Fund and can lead to loss of principal.

The Fund has claimed an exclusion from the definition of the term “commodity pool operator” under the Commodity Exchange Act (CEA) and, therefore, is not subject to registration or regulation as a commodity pool operator under the CEA.

 

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How we manage the Fund

 

Short sales

Short sales are transactions in which a fund sells a security it does not own and, at the time the short sale is effected, the fund incurs an obligation to replace the security borrowed no matter what its price may be at the time the fund delivers it to the lender.

How the Fund uses them: The Manager may establish short positions in exchange traded funds in an attempt to isolate, manage, or reduce the risk of individual securities positions held by the Fund, of a decline in a particular market sector to which the Fund has significant exposure, or of the exposure to securities owned by the Fund in the aggregate. Such short sales may also be implemented in an attempt to manage the duration of the Fund’s holdings. There is no assurance that any such short sales will achieve their intended objective(s). The Manager will not engage in short sales for speculative purposes.

Restricted securities

Restricted securities are privately placed securities whose resale is restricted under U.S. securities laws.

How the Fund uses them: The Fund may invest in privately placed securities, including those that are eligible for resale only among certain institutional buyers without registration, which are commonly known as “Rule 144A Securities.” Restricted securities that are determined to be illiquid may not exceed the Fund’s limit on investments in illiquid securities.

Illiquid securities

Illiquid securities are securities that do not have a ready market and cannot be readily sold within seven calendar days at approximately the price at which a fund has valued them. Illiquid securities include repurchase agreements maturing in more than seven calendar days.

How the Fund uses them: The Fund may invest up to 15% of its net assets in illiquid securities.

Interest rate swap, index swap, and credit default swap agreements

In an interest rate swap, a fund receives payments from another party based on a variable or floating interest rate, in return for making payments based on a fixed interest rate. An interest rate swap can also work in reverse with a fund receiving payments based on a fixed interest rate and making payments based on a variable or floating interest rate.

In an index swap, a fund receives gains or incurs losses based on the total return of a specified index, in exchange for making interest payments to another party. An index swap can also work in reverse with a fund receiving interest payments from another party in exchange for movements in the total return of a specified index.

In a credit default swap, a fund may transfer the financial risk of a credit event occurring (a bond default, bankruptcy, or restructuring, for example) on a particular security or basket of securities to another party by paying that party a periodic premium; likewise, a fund may assume the financial risk of a credit event occurring on a particular security or basket of securities in exchange for receiving premium payments from another party.

Interest rate swaps, index swaps, and credit default swaps may be considered illiquid.

How the Fund uses them: The Fund may use interest rate swaps to adjust its sensitivity to interest rates or to hedge against changes in interest rates. Index swaps may be used to gain exposure to markets that the Fund invests in, such as the corporate bond market. The Fund may also use index swaps as a substitute for futures or options contracts if such contracts are not directly available to the Fund on favorable terms. The Fund may enter into credit default swaps in order to hedge against a credit event, to enhance total return, or to gain exposure to certain securities or markets. The Fund may invest up to 50% of its total assets in a wide range of derivatives instruments, including options, futures contracts, options on futures contracts, and swaps.

At times when the Manager anticipates adverse conditions, the Manager may want to protect gains on securities without actually selling them. The Manager might use swaps to neutralize the effect of any price declines without selling a bond or bonds.

If the Fund has any financial obligation under a swap agreement, it will designate cash and liquid assets sufficient to cover the obligation and will value the designated assets daily as long as the obligation is outstanding. Use of these strategies can increase the operating costs of the Fund and can lead to loss of principal.

Time deposits

Time deposits are nonnegotiable deposits maintained in a banking institution for a specified period of time at a stated interest rate.

How the Fund uses them: The Fund will not purchase time deposits maturing in more than seven calendar days, and time deposits maturing from two Business Days (as defined above) through seven calendar days will not exceed 15% of the Fund’s total assets.

 

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Zero coupon and payment-in-kind (PIK) bonds

Zero coupon bonds are debt obligations that do not entitle the holder to any periodic payments of interest prior to maturity or a specified date when the securities begin paying current interest, and therefore are issued and traded at a discount from their face amounts or par values. PIK bonds pay interest through the issuance to holders of additional securities.

How the Fund uses them: The Fund may purchase fixed income securities, including zero coupon bonds and PIK bonds consistent with its investment objective.

Tax-exempt obligations

Tax-exempt obligations are commonly known as municipal bonds. These are debt obligations issued by or for a state or territory, its agencies or instrumentalities, municipalities, or other political subdivisions. The interest on these debt obligations can generally be excluded from federal income tax as well as personal income tax in the state where the bond is issued. Determination of a bond’s tax-exempt status is based on the opinion of the bond issuer’s legal counsel. 

How the Fund uses them: The Fund may invest in tax-exempt debt obligations rated in the top four quality grades by S&P or another NRSRO, or in unrated tax-exempt obligations if, in the Manager’s opinion, they are equivalent in quality to the top four quality grades. These bonds may include general obligation bonds and revenue bonds.

Other investment strategies

Borrowing from banks

The Fund may borrow money from banks as a temporary measure for extraordinary or emergency purposes or to facilitate redemptions. The Fund will be required to pay interest to the lending banks on the amount borrowed. As a result, borrowing money could result in the Fund being unable to meet its investment objective. The Fund will not borrow money in excess of one-third of the value of its total assets.

Purchasing securities on a when-issued or delayed-delivery basis

The Fund may buy or sell securities on a when-issued or delayed-delivery basis — that is, paying for securities before delivery or taking delivery at a later date. The Fund will designate cash or securities in amounts sufficient to cover its obligations, and will value the designated assets daily.

Temporary defensive positions

In response to unfavorable market conditions, the Fund may make temporary investments in cash or cash equivalents or other high-quality, short-term instruments. These investments may not be consistent with the Fund’s investment objective. To the extent that the Fund holds such instruments, it may be unable to achieve its investment objective.

The risks of investing in the Fund

Investing in any mutual fund involves risk, including the risk that you may receive little or no return on your investment, and the risk that you may lose part or all of the money you invest. Before you invest in the Fund, you should carefully evaluate the risks. Because of the nature of the Fund, you should consider your investment to be a long-term investment that typically provides the best results when held for a number of years. The information below describes the principal risks you assume when investing in the Fund. Please see the SAI for a further discussion of these risks and other risks not discussed here.

Market risk

Market risk is the risk that all or a majority of the securities in a certain market — such as the stock or bond market — will decline in value because of factors such as adverse political or economic conditions, future expectations, investor confidence, or heavy institutional selling.

Index swaps are subject to the same market risks as the investment market or sector that the index represents. Depending on the actual movements of the index and how well the portfolio manager forecasts those movements, a fund could experience a higher or lower return than anticipated.

How the Fund strives to manage it: The Manager maintains a long-term investment approach and focuses on securities that it believes can continue to provide returns over an extended time frame regardless of interim market fluctuations. Generally, the Manager does not try to predict overall market movements.

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How we manage the Fund

In evaluating the use of an index swap for the Fund, the Manager carefully considers how market changes could affect the swap and how that compares to investing directly in the market the swap is intended to represent. When selecting counterparties with whom the Manager would make interest rate or index swap agreements for the Fund, the Manager does careful credit analysis on the counterparty before engaging in the transaction.

Industry and security risks

Industry risk is the risk that the value of securities in a particular industry (such as financial services or manufacturing) will decline because of changing expectations for the performance of that industry.

Security risk is the risk that the value of an individual stock or bond will decline because of changing expectations for the performance of the individual company issuing the stock or bond (due to situations that could range from decreased sales to events such as a pending merger or actual or threatened bankruptcy).

How the Fund strives to manage them: The Manager limits the amount of the Fund’s assets invested in any one industry and in any individual security or issuer. The Manager also follows a rigorous selection process when choosing securities for the portfolio.

Interest rate risk

Interest rate risk is the risk that the prices of bonds and other fixed income securities will increase as interest rates fall and decrease as interest rates rise. Interest rate changes are influenced by a number of factors, such as government policy, monetary policy, inflation expectations, and the supply and demand of bonds. Bonds and other fixed income securities with longer maturities or duration generally are more sensitive to interest rate changes. A fund may be subject to a greater risk of rising interest rates due to the current period of historically low interest rates.

Swaps may be particularly sensitive to interest rate changes. Depending on the actual movements of interest rates and how well the portfolio manager anticipates them, a fund could experience a higher or lower return than anticipated.

How the Fund strives to manage it: The Fund is subject to various interest rate risks depending upon its investment objectives and policies. The Manager cannot eliminate this risk, but tries to address it by monitoring economic conditions, especially interest rate trends and their potential impact on the Fund. The Manager does not try to increase returns on the Fund’s investments in debt securities by predicting and aggressively capitalizing on interest rate movements.

By investing in swaps, the Fund is subject to additional interest rate risk. Each Business Day, the Manager will calculate the amount the Fund must pay for any swaps it holds and will designate enough cash or other liquid securities to cover that amount.

Credit risk

Credit risk is the risk that an issuer of a debt security, including a governmental issuer or an entity that insures the bond, may be unable to make interest payments and/or repay principal in a timely manner. Changes in an issuer’s financial strength or in a security’s credit rating may affect a security’s value, which would impact fund performance.

Investing in so-called “junk” or “high yield” bonds entails the risk of principal loss because they are rated below investment grade, which may be greater than the risk involved in investment grade bonds. High yield bonds are sometimes issued by companies whose earnings at the time the bond is issued are less than the projected debt payments on the bonds. A protracted economic downturn may severely disrupt the market for high yield bonds, adversely affect the value of outstanding bonds, and adversely affect the ability of high yield issuers to repay principal and interest. Investment by a fund in defaulted securities poses additional risk of loss should nonpayment of principal and interest continue in respect of such securities. Even if such securities are held to maturity, recovery by a fund of its initial investment and any anticipated income or appreciation will be uncertain. A fund also may incur additional expenses in seeking recovery on defaulted securities. Defaulted securities may be considered illiquid.

How the Fund strives to manage it: The Manager carefully evaluates and monitors the financial situation of each entity whose bonds are held in the portfolio. The Manager also tends to hold a relatively large number of different bonds to minimize the risk should any individual issuer be unable to pay its interest or repay principal. The Fund may invest up to 100% of its net assets in fixed income securities rated below investment grade.

Prepayment risk

Prepayment risk is the risk that homeowners will prepay mortgages during periods of low interest rates, forcing a fund to reinvest its money at interest rates that might be lower than those on the prepaid mortgage. Prepayment risk may also affect other types of debt securities, but generally to a lesser extent than mortgage securities.

How the Fund strives to manage it: The Fund may invest in mortgage-backed securities, CMOs, and REMICs. The Manager takes into consideration the likelihood of prepayment when it selects mortgages. The Manager may look for mortgage securities that have characteristics that make them less likely to be prepaid, such as low outstanding loan balances, or below-market interest rates.

 

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Liquidity risk

Liquidity risk is the possibility that securities cannot be readily sold within seven calendar days at approximately the price at which a fund has valued them. Illiquid securities may trade at a discount from comparable, more liquid investments, and may be subject to wide fluctuations in market value. A fund also may not be able to dispose of illiquid securities at a favorable time or price during periods of infrequent trading of an illiquid security.

There is generally no established retail secondary market for high yield securities. As a result, the secondary market for high yield securities is more limited and less liquid than other secondary securities markets. The high yield secondary market is particularly susceptible to liquidity problems when institutional investors, such as mutual funds, and certain other financial institutions, temporarily stop buying bonds for regulatory, financial, or other reasons.

Adverse publicity and investor perceptions may also disrupt the secondary market for high yield securities.

How the Fund strives to manage it: The Fund limits its exposure to illiquid securities to no more than 15% of its net assets.

Short sales risk

Short positions in securities may be more risky than long positions (purchases). If a fund has a short position in a security issued by an exchange traded fund and the price of such security increases, the fund will lose money on its short position. Furthermore, during the time when a fund has a short position in such security, the fund must borrow that security in order to make delivery on the short sale, which raises the cost to the fund of entering into the transaction. A fund is therefore subject to the risk that a third party may fail to honor the terms of its contract with the fund related to the securities borrowing. Short sales also involve the risk of an unlimited increase in the market price of the security sold short, which would result in a theoretically unlimited loss. Moreover, although the trading price of a share of an exchange traded fund normally tracks the net asset value of such a share, in times of market stress, this value relationship will not necessarily prevail. Any deviation between the net asset value per share of such exchange traded fund and its trading price could create other risks for a fund if it held a short position in the securities of such an exchange traded fund. Such other risks include the possibility of a larger loss on the short position than would otherwise be the case, the reduced likelihood that the intended benefit of the short position will achieve its objective(s), and the increased likelihood of a demand to replace the borrowed security at a time when obtaining such replacement security may be difficult or impossible at a reasonable price.

Until a fund replaces a borrowed security in connection with a short sale, it will be required to maintain daily a segregated account at such a level that: (i) the amount deposited in the segregated account plus the amount deposited with the broker as collateral will at all times be equal to at least 100% of the current value of the security sold short and (ii) the amount deposited in the segregated account plus the amount deposited with the broker as collateral will not be less than the market value of the security at the time it was sold short. Consequently, in the event of an increase in the price of a security in which a fund has a short position, it may have to increase the amount of collateral to be posted and may have to sell other securities in the portfolio to be able to do so. In times of market stress, making such sales may be difficult to do because of limited and declining liquidity.

Short sale strategies are often categorized as a form of leveraging. Please refer to “Leveraging risk” for more information.

How the Fund strives to manage it: The Fund’s total investments in exchange traded funds will not exceed 5% of net assets in any one exchange traded fund and 10% in all positions in investment companies, including exchange traded funds, in the aggregate.

Leveraging risk

Leveraging risk is the risk that certain fund transactions, such as reverse repurchase agreements, short sales, loans of portfolio securities, and the use of when-issued, delayed delivery or forward commitment transactions, or derivatives instruments, may give rise to leverage, causing a fund to be more volatile than if it had not been leveraged. While it is anticipated that leverage may increase profitability, it may also accentuate the consequences of adverse price movements, resulting in increased losses.

How the Fund strives to manage it: The Fund will, consistent with industry practice, designate and mark-to-market daily cash or other liquid assets having an aggregate market value at least equal to the exposure created by these transactions.

Derivatives risk

Derivatives risk is the possibility that a fund may experience a significant loss if it employs a derivatives strategy (including a strategy involving equity-linked securities, futures, options, forward foreign currency exchanges or swaps such as interest rate swaps, index swaps, or credit default swaps) related to a security, index, reference rate, or other asset or market factor (collectively, a “reference instrument”) and the reference instrument moves in the opposite direction from what the portfolio manager had anticipated. Derivatives also involve additional expenses, which could reduce any benefit or increase any loss to a fund from using the strategy. In addition, changes in government regulation of derivatives could affect the character, timing and amount of a fund’s taxable income or gains. A fund’s use of derivatives may be limited by the requirements for taxation of the fund as a regulated investment company.

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How we manage the Fund

Investing in derivatives may subject a fund to counterparty risk. Please refer to “Counterparty risk” for more information. Other risks include illiquidity, mispricing or improper valuation of the derivatives contract, and imperfect correlation between the value of the derivatives instrument and the underlying reference instrument so that the fund may not realize the intended benefits. When used for hedging, the change in value of the derivatives instrument may also not correlate specifically with the currency, rate, or other risk being hedged.

How the Fund strives to manage it: The Fund will use derivatives for defensive purposes, such as to protect gains or hedge against potential losses in the portfolio without actually selling a security, to neutralize the impact of interest rate changes, to effect diversification, or to earn additional income.

Counterparty risk

Counterparty risk is the risk that if a fund enters into a derivatives contract (such as a futures, options, or swap contract) or a repurchase agreement, the counterparty to such a contract or agreement may fail to perform its obligations under the contract or agreement due to, among other reasons, financial difficulties (such as a bankruptcy or reorganization). As a result, the fund may experience significant delays in obtaining any recovery, may obtain only a limited recovery, or may obtain no recovery at all.

How the Fund strives to manage it: The Manager seeks to minimize this risk by considering the creditworthiness of all counterparties before the Fund enters into transactions with them. The Fund will hold collateral from counterparties consistent with applicable regulations.

Forward foreign currency risk

The use of forward foreign currency contracts may substantially change a fund's exposure to currency exchange rates and could result in losses to the fund if currencies do not perform as the portfolio manager expects. The use of these investments as a hedging technique to reduce a fund's exposure to currency risks may also reduce its ability to benefit from favorable changes in currency exchange rates.

How the Fund strives to manage it: The Fund is subject to this risk and may try to hedge currency risk by purchasing forward foreign currency contracts. By agreeing to purchase or sell foreign securities at a preset price on a future date, the Fund strives to protect the value of the securities it owns from future changes in currency rates.

If the Manager has agreed to purchase or sell a security for the Fund, it may also use foreign currency exchange contracts to “lock in” the security’s price in terms of U.S. dollars or another applicable currency. The Fund may also use forward foreign currency exchange contracts. However, there is no assurance that such strategies will be successful or that the Fund will necessarily utilize such strategies. Hedging is typically less practical in emerging markets.

Foreign risk

Foreign risk is the risk that foreign securities (particularly in emerging markets) may be adversely affected by political instability, changes in currency exchange rates, inefficient markets and higher transaction costs, foreign economic or government conditions, the imposition of economic and/or trade sanctions, inadequate or different regulatory and accounting standards, and the possibility that significant events in foreign markets, including broad market moves, may affect the value of fund shares.

How the Fund strives to manage it: The Manager attempts to reduce the risks presented by such investments by conducting worldwide fundamental research, including country visits. In addition, the Manager monitors current economic and market conditions and trends, the political and regulatory environment, and the value of currencies in different countries in an effort to identify the most attractive countries and securities. Additionally, when currencies appear significantly overvalued compared to average real exchange rates, the Fund may hedge exposure to those currencies for defensive purposes. The Fund may frequently value many foreign equity securities using fair value prices based on third-party vendor modeling tools, to the extent available, to account for significant market events that may occur after the close of a foreign market but before the Fund’s shares are priced.

Foreign government securities risk

Foreign government securities risk relates to the ability of a foreign government or government-related issuer to make timely principal and interest payments on its external debt obligations. This ability to make payments will be strongly influenced by the issuer’s balance of payments, including export performance, its access to international credits and investments, fluctuations in interest rates, and the extent of its foreign reserves.

How the Fund strives to manage it: The Fund attempts to reduce the risks associated with investing in foreign governments by limiting the portion of its assets that may be invested in such securities. The Fund will not invest more than 50% of its total assets in foreign securities and not more than 15% in securities of issuers located in emerging markets.

 

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Government and regulatory risks

Governments or regulatory authorities have, from time to time, taken or considered actions that could adversely affect various sectors of the securities markets and significantly affect fund performance. Government involvement in the private sector may, in some cases, include government investment in, or ownership of, companies in certain commercial business sectors; wage and price controls; or imposition of trade barriers and other protectionist measures. For example, an economic or political crisis may lead to price controls, forced mergers of companies, expropriation, the creation of government monopolies, foreign exchange controls, the introduction of new currencies (and the redenomination of financial obligations into those currencies), or other measures that could be detrimental to the investments of a fund.

How the Fund strives to manage them: The Manager evaluates the economic and political climate in the relevant jurisdictions before selecting securities for the Fund. The Manager typically diversifies the Fund’s assets among a number of different securities in a variety of sectors in order to minimize the impact to the Fund of any legislative or regulatory development affecting particular countries, issuers, or market sectors.

Loans and other indebtedness risk

Loans and other indebtedness risk is the risk that a fund will not receive payment of principal, interest, and other amounts due in connection with these investments and will depend primarily on the financial condition of the borrower. Loans that are fully secured offer a fund more protection than unsecured loans in the event of nonpayment of scheduled interest or principal, although there is no assurance that the liquidation of collateral from a secured loan would satisfy the corporate borrower’s obligation, or that the collateral can be liquidated. Some loans or claims may be in default at the time of purchase. Certain of the loans and the other direct indebtedness acquired by a fund may involve revolving credit facilities or other standby financing commitments that obligate a fund to pay additional cash on a certain date or on demand. These commitments may require a fund to increase its investment in a company at a time when that fund might not otherwise decide to do so (including at a time when the company’s financial condition makes it unlikely that such amounts will be repaid). To the extent that a fund is committed to advance additional funds, it will at all times hold and maintain cash or other high-grade debt obligations in an amount sufficient to meet such commitments.

As a fund may be required to rely upon another lending institution to collect and pass on to the fund amounts payable with respect to the loan and to enforce the fund’s rights under the loan and other direct indebtedness, an insolvency, bankruptcy, or reorganization of the lending institution may delay or prevent the fund from receiving such amounts. The highly leveraged nature of many such loans and other direct indebtedness may make them especially vulnerable to adverse changes in economic or market conditions. Investments in such loans and other direct indebtedness may involve additional risk to the fund.

A fund’s ability to sell its loans or to realize their full value upon sale may also be impaired due to the lack of an active trading market, irregular trading activity, wide bid/ask spreads, contractual restrictions, and extended trade settlement periods. Extended trade settlement periods may result in cash not being immediately available to a fund. As a result of these factors, a fund may have to sell other investments or engage in borrowing transactions to raise cash to meet its obligations.

Federal securities laws provide protections against fraud and misrepresentation in connection with the offering and sale of a “security.” Loans in which a fund may invest may not be deemed to be “securities” for purposes of such anti-fraud protections. A fund may therefore not have the protection of the anti-fraud provisions of the federal securities laws in the event of fraud or misrepresentation by a borrower. However, a fund in such a scenario may be able to rely on contractual provisions in the loan documents for alternative protections, or use common-law fraud protections under applicable state law.

How the Fund strives to manage it: This risk may not be completely eliminated, but the Manager will attempt to reduce this risk through portfolio diversification, credit analysis, and attention to trends in the economy, industries, and financial markets. Should the Manager determine that any of these securities are illiquid, they would be subject to the Fund’s restriction on illiquid securities.

Zero coupon and payment-in-kind (PIK) bonds risk

Zero coupon and PIK bonds involve certain risks. They are generally considered more interest sensitive than income-bearing bonds, more speculative than interest-bearing bonds, and have certain tax consequences that could, under certain circumstances, be adverse to a fund. For example, a fund accrues, and is required to distribute to shareholders, income on its zero coupon bonds. However, a fund may not receive the cash associated with this income until the bonds are sold or mature. If a fund does not have sufficient cash to make the required distribution of accrued income, the fund could be required to sell other securities in its portfolio or to borrow to generate the cash required.

How the Fund strives to manage it: The Fund may invest in zero coupon and PIK bonds to the extent consistent with its investment objective. The Manager cannot eliminate the risks of zero coupon bonds, but it does try to address them by monitoring economic conditions, especially interest rate trends and their potential impact on the Fund.

 

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How we manage the Fund

 

Valuation risk

A less liquid secondary market as described above can make it more difficult to obtain precise valuations of certain securities. During periods of reduced liquidity, judgment plays a greater role in valuing less liquid securities.

How the Fund strives to manage it: The Manager will strive to manage this risk by carefully evaluating individual bonds and by limiting the amount of the Fund’s assets that can be allocated to privately placed high yield securities.

Disclosure of portfolio holdings information

A description of the Fund’s policies and procedures with respect to the disclosure of its portfolio securities is available in the SAI.

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Who manages the Fund

Investment manager

The Manager, located at 2005 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19103, is the Fund’s investment manager. Together, the Manager and the subsidiaries of Delaware Management Holdings, Inc. (DMHI) manage, as of Sept. 30, 2016, $174.2 billion in assets, including mutual funds, separate accounts, and other investment vehicles. The Manager and its predecessors have been managing the Delaware Investments Funds since 1938. The Manager is a series of Delaware Management Business Trust (a Delaware statutory trust), which is a subsidiary of DMHI. DMHI is a wholly owned subsidiary of Macquarie Group Limited. The Manager makes investment decisions for the Fund, manages the Fund’s business affairs, and provides daily administrative services.  For its services to the Fund, the Manager was paid an aggregate fee, net of fee waivers (if applicable), of 0.50% of average daily net assets during the last fiscal year.

A discussion of the basis for the Board’s approval of the Fund’s investment advisory contract is available in the Fund’s semiannual report to shareholders for the period ended Jan. 31, 2016.

Portfolio managers

Adam Brown, David Hillmeyer, and John McCarthy have primary portfolio management responsibilities for the Fund.

J. David Hillmeyer, CFA Senior Vice President, Senior Portfolio Manager
J. David Hillmeyer is a member of the firm’s taxable fixed income portfolio management team. He is responsible for portfolio construction and asset allocation of the diversified floating rate strategy and serves as co-portfolio manager for the fixed rate multisector, core plus, and investment grade corporate bond strategies. Prior to joining Delaware Investments in August 2007 as a vice president and corporate bond trader, he worked for more than 11 years in various roles at Hartford Investment Management Company, including senior corporate bond trader, high yield portfolio manager / trader, and quantitative analyst. He began his career as an investment advisor in January 1989 at Shawmut Bank, leaving the firm as an investment officer in November 1995. Hillmeyer earned his bachelor’s degree from Colorado State University, and he is a member of the CFA Society of Philadelphia and the Philadelphia Council for Business Economics.

Adam H. Brown, CFA Senior Vice President, Senior Portfolio Manager
Adam H. Brown is a senior portfolio manager on the firm's taxable fixed income team. He manages the bank loan portfolios and is a co-portfolio manager for the high yield, fixed rate multisector, and core plus strategies. Brown joined Delaware Investments in April 2011 as part of the firm’s integration of Macquarie Four Corners Capital Management, where he worked since 2002. At Four Corners, he was a co-portfolio manager on four collateralized loan obligations (CLOs) and a senior research analyst supporting noninvestment grade portfolios. Before that, Brown was with the predecessor of Wells Fargo Securities, where he worked in the leveraged finance group arranging senior secured bank loans and high yield bond financings for financial sponsors and corporate issuers. He earned a bachelor’s degree in accounting from the University of Florida and an MBA from the A.B. Freeman School of Business at Tulane University.

John P. McCarthy, CFA Senior Vice President, Senior Portfolio Manager, Co-Head of Credit Research
John P. McCarthy is a senior portfolio manager for the firm’s high yield strategies, a role he assumed in July 2016. He is also co-head of credit research on the firm’s taxable fixed income team. McCarthy rejoined Delaware Investments in March 2007 as a senior research analyst, after he worked in the firm’s fixed income area from 1990 to 2000 as a senior high yield analyst and high yield trader, and from 2001 to 2002 as a municipal bond trader. Prior to rejoining Delaware Investments, he was a senior high yield analyst/trader at Chartwell Investment Partners. McCarthy earned a bachelor’s degree in business administration from Babson College, and he is a member of the CFA Society of Philadelphia.

The SAI provides additional information about each portfolio manager’s compensation, other accounts managed by each portfolio manager, and each portfolio manager’s ownership of Fund shares.

Manager of managers structure

The Fund and the Manager have received an exemptive order from the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) to operate under a manager of managers structure that permits the Manager, with the approval of the Fund’s Board, to appoint and replace both affiliated and unaffiliated sub-advisors, and to enter into and make material amendments to the related sub-advisory contracts on behalf of the Fund without shareholder approval. (Manager of Managers Structure). Under the Manager of Managers Structure, the Manager has ultimate responsibility, subject to oversight by the Board, for overseeing the Fund’s sub-advisors and recommending to the Board their hiring, termination, or replacement. While the Manager does not currently expect to use the Manager of Managers Structure with respect to the Fund, the Manager may, in the future, recommend to the Board the establishment of the Manager of Managers Structure by recommending the hiring of one or more sub-advisors to manage all or a portion of the Fund’s portfolio.

The Manager of Managers Structure enables the Fund to operate with greater efficiency and without incurring the expense and delays associated with obtaining shareholder approvals for matters relating to sub-advisors or sub-advisory agreements. The Manager of Managers Structure does not permit an increase in the overall management and advisory fees payable by the Fund without shareholder approval. Shareholders will be notified of the hiring of any new sub-advisor within 90 days of the hiring.

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Who manages the Fund

Who’s who

Board of trustees: A mutual fund is governed by a board of trustees, which has oversight responsibility for the management of the fund’s business affairs. Trustees establish procedures and oversee and review the performance of the fund’s service providers.

Investment manager: An investment manager is a company responsible for selecting portfolio investments consistent with the objective and policies stated in the mutual fund’s prospectus. A written contract between a mutual fund and its investment manager specifies the services the investment manager performs and the fee the manager is entitled to receive.

Portfolio managers: Portfolio managers make investment decisions for individual portfolios.

18


 

Distributor: Most mutual funds continuously offer new shares to the public through distributors that are regulated as broker/dealers and are subject to the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA) rules governing mutual fund sales practices.

Service agent: Mutual fund companies employ service agents (sometimes called transfer agents) to maintain records of shareholder accounts, calculate and disburse dividends and capital gains, and prepare and mail shareholder statements and tax information, among other functions. Many service agents also provide administrative services to a fund and oversight of other fund service providers.

Custodian/Fund accountant: Mutual funds are legally required to protect their portfolio securities, and most funds place them with a qualified bank custodian that segregates fund securities from other bank assets. The fund accountant provides services such as calculating a fund’s net asset value (NAV) and providing financial reporting information for the fund.

Financial advisors: Financial advisors provide advice to their clients. They are associated with securities broker/dealers who have entered into selling and/or service arrangements with the distributor. Selling broker/dealers and financial advisors are compensated for their services generally through sales commissions, and through 12b-1 fees and/or service fees deducted from a fund's assets.

Shareholders: Mutual fund shareholders have specific voting rights on matters such as material changes in the terms of a fund’s management contract and changes to fundamental investment policies.

19


 

About your account

Investing in the Fund

You can choose from a number of share classes for the Fund. Because each share class has a different combination of sales charges, fees, and other features, you should consult your financial intermediary or your financial advisor (hereinafter collectively referred to as the “financial intermediary”) to determine which share class best suits your investment goals and time frame. It is the responsibility of your financial intermediary to assist you in determining the most appropriate share class and to communicate such determination to us.

Information about existing sales charges and sales charge reductions and waivers is available free of charge on the Delaware Investments Funds’ website at delawareinvestments.com, including hyperlinks to relevant information in fund offering documents. Additional information on sales charges can be found in the SAI, which is available upon request.

Choosing a share class

Each share class may be eligible for purchase through programs sponsored by financial intermediaries that require the purchase of a specific class of shares.

Class A, Class C, and Class R shares of the Fund have each adopted a separate 12b-1 plan that allows them to pay distribution fees for the sale and distribution of their shares. Because these fees are paid out of the Fund’s assets on an ongoing basis, over time these fees will increase the cost of your investment and may cost you more than paying other types of sales charges.

Class A

Class A shares have an upfront sales charge of up to 2.75% that you pay when you buy the shares.

 

If you invest $100,000 or more, your front-end sales charge will be reduced.

 

You may qualify for other reduced sales charges and, under certain circumstances, the sales charge may be waived, as described in “How to reduce your sales charge” below.

 

Class A shares are also subject to an annual 12b-1 fee no greater than 0.25% of average daily net assets. See “Dealer compensation” below for further information.

 

Class A shares generally are not subject to a CDSC, except in the limited circumstances described in the table below.

 

Class A shares generally are not available for purchase by anyone qualified to purchase Class R shares, except as described below.

 

Because of the higher 12b-1 fee, Class A shares have higher expenses and any dividends paid on these shares are generally lower than dividends on Institutional Class shares.

 

Class A sales charges

The table below details your sales charges on purchases of Class A shares. The offering price for Class A shares includes the front-end sales charge. The offering price is determined by dividing the NAV per share by an amount equal to 1 minus the sales charge (expressed in decimals) applicable to the purchase, calculated to two decimal places using standard rounding criteria. The sales charge as a percentage of the net amount invested is the maximum percentage of the amount invested rounded to the nearest hundredth. The actual sales charge that you pay as a percentage of the offering price and as a percentage of the net amount invested will vary depending on the then-current NAV, the percentage rate of the sales charge, and rounding. The number of Fund shares you will be issued will equal the amount invested divided by the applicable offering price for those shares, calculated to three decimal places using standard rounding criteria. Sales charges do not apply to shares purchased through dividend reinvestment.

         

Amount of purchase

Sales charge as a %
of offering price

Sales charge as a %
of net amount invested

Less than $100,000
 

 

 

2.75%

   

3.23%

 
$100,000 but less than $250,000
 

 

 

2.00%

   

2.44%

 
$250,000 but less than $1 million
 

 

 

1.00%

   

1.34%

 
$1 million or more
 

 

 

none*

   

none*

 

* There is no front-end sales charge when you purchase $1 million or more of Class A shares. However, if Delaware Distributors, L.P. (Distributor) paid your financial intermediary a commission on your purchase of $1 million or more of Class A shares, you will have to pay a Limited CDSC of 0.75% if you redeem these shares within the first year after your purchase, unless a specific waiver of the Limited CDSC applies. The Limited CDSC will be paid to the Distributor and will be assessed on an amount equal to the lesser of: (1) the NAV at the time the Class A shares being redeemed were purchased; or (2) the NAV of such Class A shares at the time of redemption. For purposes of this formula, the “NAV at the time of purchase” will be the NAV at purchase of the Class A shares even if those shares are later exchanged for shares of another Delaware Investments Fund and, in the event of an exchange of Class A shares, the “NAV of such shares at the time of redemption” will be the NAV of the shares acquired in the exchange. In determining whether a Limited CDSC is payable, it will be assumed that shares not subject to the Limited CDSC are the first redeemed followed by other shares held for the longest period of time. See “Dealer compensation” below for a description of the dealer commission that is paid.

 

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Class C

Class C shares have no upfront sales charge, so the full amount of your purchase is invested in the Fund. However, you will pay a CDSC of 1.00% if you redeem your shares within 12 months after you buy them.

 

In determining whether the CDSC applies to a redemption of Class C shares, it will be assumed that shares held for more than 12 months are redeemed first, followed by shares acquired through the reinvestment of dividends or distributions, and finally by shares held for 12 months or less. For further information on how the CDSC is determined, please see “Calculation of contingent deferred sales charges — Class C” below.

 

Under certain circumstances, the CDSC may be waived; please see “Waivers of contingent deferred sales charges” below for further information.

 

Class C shares are subject to an annual 12b-1 fee no greater than 1.00% of average daily net assets (of which 0.25% is a service fee) paid to the Distributor, dealers, or others for providing services and maintaining shareholder accounts.

 

You may purchase only up to $1 million of Class C shares at any one time. Orders that equal or exceed $1 million will be rejected.

 

Because of their higher 12b-1 fee, Class C shares have higher expenses and any dividends paid on these shares are generally lower than dividends on Class A, Class R, and Institutional Class shares.

 

Calculation of contingent deferred sales charges — Class C
CDSCs are charged as a percentage of the dollar amount subject to the CDSC. The charge will be assessed on an amount equal to the lesser of the NAV at the time the shares being redeemed were purchased or the NAV of those shares at the time of redemption. No CDSC will be imposed on increases in NAV above the initial purchase price, nor will a CDSC be assessed on redemptions of shares acquired through reinvestment of dividends or capital gains distributions. For purposes of this formula, the “NAV at the time of purchase” will be the NAV at purchase of Class C shares of the Fund, even if those shares are later exchanged for shares of another Delaware Investments Fund. In the event of an exchange of the shares, the “NAV of such shares at the time of redemption” will be the NAV of the shares that were acquired in the exchange.

Class R

Class R shares have no upfront sales charge, so the full amount of your purchase is invested in the Fund. Class R shares are not subject to a CDSC.

 

Class R shares are subject to an annual 12b-1 fee no greater than 0.50% of average daily net assets.

 

Class R shares generally are available only to: (i) qualified and nonqualified plan shareholders covering multiple employees (including 401(k), 401(a), 457, and noncustodial 403(b) plans, as well as certain other nonqualified deferred compensation plans); and (ii) individual retirement account (IRA) rollovers from legacy Delaware Investments plans that were previously maintained on the Delaware Investments retirement recordkeeping system or the retirement recordkeeping system of Ascensus (formerly, BISYS) that are offering Class R shares to participants.

 

Except as noted above, no other IRAs are eligible for Class R shares (for example, no traditional IRAs, Roth IRAs, SIMPLE IRAs, SEPs, or SARSEPs). For purposes of determining plan asset levels, affiliated plans may be combined at the request of the plan sponsor.

 

Any account holding Class A shares of the Fund as of the date Class R shares were made available for the Fund continues to be eligible to purchase the Fund's Class A shares after that date. Any account holding the Fund's Class R shares is not eligible to purchase its Class A shares.

 

Because of their higher 12b-1 fee, Class R shares have higher expenses and any dividends paid on these shares are generally lower than dividends on Class A and Institutional Class shares.

 

Institutional Class

Institutional Class shares have no upfront sales charge, so the full amount of your purchase is invested in the Fund.

 

Institutional Class shares are not subject to a CDSC.

 

Institutional Class shares do not assess a 12b-1 fee.

 

Institutional Class shares are available for purchase only by the following:

 

rollover IRAs from retirement plans and retirement plans introduced by persons not associated with brokers or dealers that are primarily engaged in the retail securities business;

 

retirement plans or certain other programs that are maintained on platforms sponsored by financial intermediary firms, provided the financial intermediary firms or their trust companies (or entities performing similar trading/clearing functions) have entered into an agreement with the Distributor (or its affiliate) related to such plans or programs;

 

tax-exempt employee benefit plans of the Manager, its affiliates, and securities dealers that have a selling agreement with the Distributor;

 

institutional advisory clients (including mutual funds) of the Manager or its affiliates, as well as those clients’ affiliates, and their corporate sponsors, subsidiaries, related employee benefit plans, and rollover IRAs of, or from, such institutional advisory clients;

 

21


 

About your account

a bank, trust company, or similar financial institution investing for its own account or for the account of its trust customers for whom the financial institution is exercising investment discretion in purchasing Institutional Class shares, except where the investment is part of a program that requires payment to the financial institution of a Rule 12b-1 Plan fee;

 

registered investment advisors (RIAs) investing on behalf of clients that consist solely of institutions and high net worth individuals whose assets are entrusted to an RIA for investment purposes for accounts requiring Institutional Class shares (use of the Institutional Class shares is restricted to RIAs who are not affiliated or associated with a broker or dealer and who derive compensation for their services exclusively from their advisory clients);

 

programs sponsored by, controlled by, and/or clearing transactions submitted through a financial intermediary where: (1) such programs allow or require the purchase of Institutional Class shares; (2) a financial intermediary has entered into an agreement with the Distributor and/or the transfer agent allowing certain purchases of Institutional Class shares; and (3) a financial intermediary (i) charges clients an ongoing fee for advisory, investment consulting or similar services, or (ii) offers the Institutional Class shares through a no-commission network or platform; or

 

private investment vehicles, including, but not limited to, foundations and endowments.

 

Dealer compensation

The financial intermediary who sells you shares of the Fund may be eligible to receive the following amounts as compensation for your investment in the Fund. These amounts are paid by the Distributor to the securities dealer with whom your financial advisor is associated. Institutional Class shares do not have a 12b-1 fee or sales charge so they are not included in the table below.

             

 

Class A1

Class C2

Class R3

Commission (%)
 

 

 

   

1.00%

   

 
Investment less than $100,000
 

 

 

2.35%

   

   

 
$100,000 but less than $250,000
 

 

 

1.75%

   

   

 
$250,000 but less than $1 million
 

 

 

0.75%

   

   

 
$1 million but less than $5 million
 

 

 

0.75%

   

   

 
$5 million but less than $25 million
 

 

 

0.50%

   

   

 
$25 million or more
 

 

 

0.25%

   

   

 
12b-1 fee to dealer
 

 

 

0.25%

   

1.00%

   

0.50%

 

1 On sales of Class A shares, the Distributor reallows to your securities dealer a portion of the front-end sales charge depending upon the amount you invested. Your securities dealer may be eligible to receive a 12b-1 fee of up to 0.25% from the date of purchase.

2 On sales of Class C shares, the Distributor may pay your securities dealer an upfront commission of 1.00%. The upfront commission includes an advance of the first year’s 12b-1 service fee of up to 0.25%. During the first 12 months, the Distributor retains the full 1.00% 12b-1 fee to partially offset the upfront commission and the prepaid 0.25% service fee advanced at the time of purchase. Starting in the 13th month, your securities dealer may be eligible to receive the full 1.00% 12b-1 fee applicable to Class C shares. Alternatively, certain intermediaries may not be eligible to receive the upfront commission of 1.00%, but may receive the 12b-1 fee for sales of Class C shares from the date of purchase.

3 On sales of Class R shares, the Distributor does not pay your securities dealer an upfront commission. Your securities dealer may be eligible to receive a 12b-1 fee of up to 0.50% from the date of purchase.

Payments to intermediaries

The Distributor and its affiliates may pay additional compensation at their own expense and not as an expense of the Fund to certain affiliated or unaffiliated brokers, dealers, or other financial intermediaries (Financial Intermediaries) in connection with the sale or retention of Fund shares and/or shareholder servicing, including providing the Fund with “shelf space” or a higher profile with the Financial Intermediaries’ consultants, salespersons, and customers (distribution assistance). For example, the Distributor or its affiliates may pay additional compensation to Financial Intermediaries for various purposes, including, but not limited to, promoting the sale of Fund shares, maintaining share balances and/or for subaccounting, administrative, or shareholder processing services, marketing, educational support, data, and ticket charges. Such payments are in addition to any distribution fees, service fees, subaccounting fees, and/or transfer agency fees that may be payable by the Fund. The additional payments may be based on factors, including level of sales (based on gross or net sales or some specified minimum sales or some other similar criteria related to sales of the Fund and/or some or all other Delaware Investments Funds), amount of assets invested by the Financial Intermediary’s customers (which could include current or aged assets of the Fund and/or some or all other Delaware Investments Funds), the Fund’s advisory fees, some other agreed-upon amount, or other measures as determined from time to time by the Distributor. The level of payments made to a qualifying Financial Intermediary in any given year may vary. To the extent permitted by SEC and FINRA rules and other applicable laws and regulations, the Distributor may pay, or allow its affiliates to pay, other promotional incentives or payments to Financial Intermediaries.

Sub-transfer agent/recordkeeping payments may be made to third parties (including affiliates of the Manager) that provide sub-transfer agent, recordkeeping and/or shareholder services with respect to certain shareholder accounts (including omnibus accounts) in lieu of the transfer agent providing such services.

22


 

If a mutual fund sponsor or distributor makes greater payments for distribution assistance to your Financial Intermediary with respect to distribution of shares of that particular mutual fund than sponsors or distributors of other mutual funds make to your Financial Intermediary with respect to the distribution of the shares of their mutual funds, your Financial Intermediary and its salespersons may have a financial incentive to favor sales of shares of the mutual fund making the higher payments over shares of other mutual funds or over other investment options. In addition, depending on the arrangements in place at any particular time, a Financial Intermediary may also have a financial incentive for recommending a particular share class over other share classes. You should consult with your Financial Intermediary and review carefully any disclosure provided by such Financial Intermediary as to compensation it receives in connection with investment products it recommends or sells to you. A significant purpose of these payments is to increase sales of the Fund’s shares. The Manager or its affiliates may benefit from the Distributor’s or its affiliates’ payment of compensation to Financial Intermediaries through increased fees resulting from additional assets acquired through the sale of Fund shares through Financial Intermediaries. In certain instances, the payments could be significant and may cause a conflict of interest for your Financial Intermediary. Any such payments will not change the NAV or the price of the Fund’s shares.

How to reduce your sales charge

We offer a number of ways to reduce or eliminate the front-end sales charge on Class A shares. Please refer to the SAI for detailed information and eligibility requirements. You can also get additional information from your financial intermediary. You or your financial intermediary must notify us at the time you purchase shares if you are eligible for any of these programs. You may also need to provide information to your financial intermediary or the Fund in order to qualify for a reduction in sales charges. Such information may include your Delaware Investments Funds holdings in any other accounts, including retirement accounts, held indirectly or through an intermediary, and the names of qualifying family members and their holdings. We reserve the right to determine whether any purchase is entitled, by virtue of the foregoing, to the reduced sales charge. Class R and Institutional Class shares have no upfront sales charge or CDSC so they are not included in the table below.

Letter of intent and rights of accumulation

Through a letter of intent you agree to invest a certain amount in Delaware Investments Funds over a 13-month period to qualify for reduced front-end sales charges. Delaware Investments Funds no longer accept retroactive letters of intent.

You can combine your holdings or purchases of Class A and Class C shares of Delaware Investments Funds (as set forth in the SAI) as well as the holdings and purchases of your spouse — or equivalent, if recognized under local law — and children under the age of 21 to qualify for reduced front-end sales charges.

Class A

Class C

Available.

Although the letter of intent does not apply to the purchase of Class C shares, you can combine your purchase of Class C shares with your purchase of Class A shares to fulfill your letter of intent. Although the rights of accumulation do not apply to the purchase of Class C shares, you can combine the value of your Class C shares with the value of your Class A shares to receive a reduced sales charge.

Reinvestment of redeemed shares

Up to 12 months after you redeem shares, you can reinvest the proceeds without paying a sales charge.

Class A

Class C

Available.

Not available.

SIMPLE IRA, SEP, SARSEP, 401(k), SIMPLE 401(k), Profit Sharing, Money Purchase, 403(b)(7), and 457 Retirement Plans

These investment plans may qualify for reduced sales charges by combining the purchases of all members of the group. Members of these groups may also qualify to purchase shares without a front-end sales charge and may qualify for a waiver of any CDSCs on Class A shares.

Class A

Class C

Available.

Although front-end sales charges do not apply to the purchase of Class C shares, you can combine your purchase of Class A shares with your purchase of Class C shares in order to reduce your sales charge on Class A shares.

23


 

About your account

Buying Class A shares at net asset value

Class A shares of the Fund may be purchased at NAV under the following circumstances, provided that you notify the Fund in advance that the trade qualifies for this privilege. The Fund reserves the right to modify or terminate these arrangements at any time.

Shares purchased under the Delaware Investments dividend reinvestment plan and, under certain circumstances, the exchange privilege and the 12-month reinvestment privilege.

 

Purchases by: (i) current and former officers, Trustees/Directors, and employees of any Delaware Investments Fund, the Manager, or any of the Manager’s current affiliates and those that may in the future be created; (ii) current employees of legal counsel to the Delaware Investments Funds; and (iii) registered representatives, employees, officers, and directors of broker/dealers who have entered into dealer’s agreements with the Distributor. At the direction of such persons, their family members (regardless of age), and any employee benefit plan, trust, or other entity directly owned by, controlled by, or established by any of the foregoing may also purchase shares at NAV.

 

Purchases by bank employees who provide services in connection with agreements between the bank and unaffiliated brokers or dealers concerning sales of shares of the Delaware Investments Funds.

 

Purchases by certain officers, trustees, and key employees of institutional clients of the Manager or any of its affiliates.

 

Purchases by programs sponsored by, controlled by, and/or clearing transactions submitted through a financial intermediary where: (i) such programs allow or require the purchase of Class A shares; (ii) a financial intermediary has entered into an agreement with the Distributor and/or the transfer agent allowing certain purchases of Class A shares; and (iii) a financial intermediary (1) charges clients an ongoing fee for advisory, investment consulting, or similar services, or (2) offers the Class A shares through a no-commission network or platform. Investors may be charged a fee by their financial intermediary when effecting transactions in Class A shares through a financial intermediary that offers these programs.

 

Purchases for the benefit of the clients of brokers, dealers, and other financial intermediaries if such brokers, dealers, or other financial intermediaries have entered into an agreement with the Distributor providing for the purchase of Class A shares at NAV through self-directed brokerage service platforms or programs. Investors may be charged a fee by their financial intermediary when effecting transactions in Class A shares at NAV through a self-directed investment brokerage service platform or program.

 

Purchases by financial institutions investing for the accounts of their trust customers if they are not eligible to purchase shares of the Institutional Class, if applicable.

 

Purchases by retirement plans or certain other programs that are maintained or sponsored by financial intermediary firms, provided the financial intermediary firms or their trust companies (or entities performing similar trading/clearing functions) have entered into an agreement with the Distributor (or its affiliate) related to such plans or programs.

 

Purchases by certain legacy bank-sponsored retirement plans and certain legacy retirement assets that meet requirements set forth in the SAI.

 

Investments made by plan level and/or participant retirement accounts that are for the purpose of repaying a loan taken from such accounts.

 

Purchases by certain participants in defined contribution plans and members of their households whose plan assets will be rolled over into IRA accounts (IRA Program) where the financial intermediary has entered into an agreement specifically relating to such IRA Program with the Distributor and/or the transfer agent.

 

Purchases by certain participants of particular group retirement plans as described in the SAI.

 

Waivers of contingent deferred sales charges

Certain sales charges may be based on historical cost. Therefore, you should maintain any records that substantiate these costs because the Fund, its transfer agent, and financial intermediaries may not maintain this information. Please note that you or your financial intermediary will have to notify us at the time of redemption that the trade qualifies for such waiver. Class R and Institutional Class shares do not have CDSCs so they are not included in the list below. Please also see the “Shareholder fees” table in the Fund summary and “Choosing a share class” for more information about applicable CDSCs.

CDSCs for Class A and Class C shares may be waived under the following circumstances:

Redemptions in accordance with a systematic withdrawal plan: Redemptions in accordance with a systematic withdrawal plan, provided the annual amount selected to be withdrawn under the plan does not exceed 12% of the value of the account on the date that the systematic withdrawal plan was established or modified.

 

Redemptions that result from the right to liquidate a shareholder’s account: Redemptions that result from the right to liquidate a shareholder’s account if the aggregate NAV of the shares held in the account is less than the then-effective minimum account size.

 

Section 401(a) qualified retirement plan distributions: Distributions to participants or beneficiaries from a retirement plan trading on a recordkeeping platform qualified under Section 401(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (Internal Revenue Code).

 

24


 

Section 401(a) qualified retirement plan redemptions: Redemptions pursuant to the direction of a participant or beneficiary of a retirement plan trading on a recordkeeping platform qualified under Section 401(a) of the Internal Revenue Code with respect to that retirement plan.

 

Periodic distributions or systematic withdrawals from a retirement account or qualified plan: Periodic distributions or systematic withdrawals from an individual retirement account (traditional IRA, Roth IRA, SIMPLE IRA, SEP, SARSEP, and Coverdell ESA) or a qualified plan1 (401(k), SIMPLE 401(k), Profit Sharing, Money Purchase, 403(b)(7), and 457 Retirement Plans) not subject to a penalty under Section 72(t)(2)(A) of the Internal Revenue Code or a hardship or unforeseen emergency provision in the qualified plan as described in Treas. Reg. §1.401(k)-1(d)(3) and Section 457(d)(1)(A)(iii) of the Internal Revenue Code.

 

Returns of excess contributions due to any regulatory limit: Returns of excess contributions due to any regulatory limit from an individual retirement account (traditional IRA, Roth IRA, SIMPLE IRA, SEP, SARSEP, and Coverdell ESA) or a qualified plan1 (401(k), SIMPLE 401(k), Profit Sharing, Money Purchase, 403(b)(7), and 457 Retirement Plans).

 

Distributions by other employee benefit plans: Distributions by other employee benefit plans to pay benefits.

 

Distributions from an account of a redemption resulting from death or disability: Distributions from an account of a redemption resulting from the death or disability (as defined in Section 72(t)(2)(A) of the Internal Revenue Code) of a registered owner or a registered joint owner occurring after the purchase of the shares being redeemed. In the case of accounts established under the Uniform Gifts to Minors Act or Uniform Transfers to Minors Act or trust accounts, the waiver applies upon the death of all beneficial owners.

 

Redemptions by certain legacy retirement assets: Redemptions by certain legacy retirement assets that meet the requirements set forth in the SAI.

 

Redemptions in connection with a fund liquidation: Redemptions subsequent to the fund liquidation notice to shareholders.

 

1 Qualified plans that are fully redeemed at the direction of the plan’s fiduciary may be subject to any applicable CDSC or Limited CDSC, unless the redemption is due to the termination of the plan.

How to buy shares

Through your financial intermediary

Your financial intermediary (if applicable) can handle all the details of purchasing shares, including opening an account. Your financial intermediary may charge you a separate fee for this service.

Through the Fund’s Shareholder Service Center

By mail

Complete an investment slip and mail it with your check, made payable to the fund and class of shares you wish to purchase, to Delaware Investments at P.O. Box 9876, Providence, RI 02940-8076 for investments by regular mail or 4400 Computer Drive, Westborough, MA 01581-1722 for investments by overnight courier service. If you are making an initial purchase by mail, you must include a completed investment application (or an appropriate retirement plan application if you are opening a retirement account) with your check. Purchase orders will not be accepted at any other address.

Please note that purchase orders submitted by mail will not be considered received until such purchase orders arrive at 4400 Computer Drive, Westborough, MA 01581-1722 and are determined to be in good order. For a purchase request to be in “good order,” you must provide the name of the Delaware Investments Fund in which you are investing, your account registration/number (if you are an existing shareholder), and the total number of shares or dollar amount of the shares to be purchased, along with meeting any requirements set forth in applicable forms, this Prospectus, or the SAI. The Fund does not consider the U.S. Postal Service or other independent delivery services to be its agent. Therefore, deposits in the mail or with such services or receipt at the Fund’s post office box, of purchase orders, do not constitute receipt by the Fund or its agent. Please note that the Fund reserves the right to reject any purchase.

By wire

Ask your bank to wire the amount you want to invest to The Bank of New York Mellon, ABA #011001234, bank account #000073-6910. Include your account number, the name of the fund, registered account name, and class of shares in which you want to invest. If you are making an initial purchase by wire, you must first call the Shareholder Service Center at 800 523-1918 so we can assign you an account number.

By exchange

You may exchange all or part of your investment in one or more Delaware Investments Funds for shares of other Delaware Investments Funds. Please keep in mind, however, that under most circumstances you may exchange between like classes of shares only. To open an account by exchange, call the Shareholder Service Center at 800 523-1918.

25


 

About your account

 

Through automated shareholder services

You may purchase or exchange shares through our automated telephone service (for Class A, Class C, and Class R shares only), or through our website, delawareinvestments.com (for Class A and Class C shares only). For more information about how to sign up for these services, call our Shareholder Service Center at 800 523-1918.

Calculating share price

The price you pay for shares will depend on when we receive your purchase order. If your order is received by an authorized agent or us before the close of regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) (normally 4:00 p.m. Eastern time), you will pay that day’s closing Fund share price, which is based on the Fund’s NAV. If the NYSE has an unscheduled early close, we will continue to accept your order until that day’s scheduled close of the NYSE and you will pay that day’s closing Fund share price. If your order is received after the scheduled close of regular trading on the NYSE, you will pay the next Business Day’s closing Fund share price. We reserve the right to reject any purchase order.

We determine the NAV per share for each class of a Delaware Investments Fund at the close of regular trading on the NYSE on each Business Day (normally 4:00 p.m. Eastern time). The Fund does not calculate the NAV on days the NYSE is closed for trading. If the NYSE has an unscheduled early close, the Fund’s closing share price would still be determined as of that day’s regularly scheduled close of the NYSE. The NAV per share for each class of a fund is calculated by subtracting the liabilities of each class from its total assets and dividing the resulting number by the number of shares outstanding for that class. We generally price securities and other assets for which market quotations are readily available at their market value. The value of foreign securities may change on days when a shareholder will not be able to purchase or redeem fund shares because foreign markets are open at times and on days when U.S. markets are not. We price fixed income securities on the basis of valuations provided to us by an independent pricing service that uses methods approved by the Board. For all other securities, we use methods approved by the Board that are designed to price securities at their fair market values.

Fair valuation

When the Fund uses fair value pricing, it may take into account any factors it deems appropriate. The Fund may determine fair value based upon developments related to a specific security, current valuations of foreign stock indices (as reflected in U.S. futures markets), and/or U.S. sector or broad stock market indices. In determining whether market quotations are readily available or fair valuation will be used, various factors will be taken into consideration, such as market closures or suspension of trading in a security. The prices of securities used by the Fund to calculate its NAV may differ from quoted or published prices for the same securities. Fair value pricing may involve subjective judgments and it is possible that the fair value determined for a security is materially different than the value that could be realized upon the sale of that security.

The Fund anticipates using fair value pricing for securities primarily traded on U.S. exchanges only under very limited circumstances, such as the early closing of the exchange on which a security is traded or suspension of trading in the security. The Fund may use fair value pricing more frequently for securities traded primarily in non-U.S. markets because, among other things, most foreign markets close well before the Fund values its securities, normally at 4:00 p.m. Eastern time or the close of the NYSE. The earlier close of these foreign markets gives rise to the possibility that significant events, including broad market moves, may have occurred in the interim. To account for this, the Fund may frequently value many foreign equity securities using fair value prices based on third-party vendor modeling tools to the extent available.

The Board has delegated responsibility for valuing the Fund’s assets to a Pricing Committee of the Manager, which operates under the policies and procedures approved by the Board and is subject to the Board’s oversight.

Retirement plans

In addition to being an appropriate investment for your IRA, Roth IRA, and Coverdell Education Savings Account, the Fund may be suitable for group retirement plans. You may establish your IRA account even if you are already a participant in an employer-sponsored retirement plan. For more information on how the Fund can play an important role in your retirement planning or for details about group plans, please consult your financial intermediary, or call the Shareholder Service Center at 800 523-1918.

Document delivery

To reduce fund expenses, we try to identify related shareholders in a household and send only one copy of a fund’s financial reports and prospectus. This process, called “householding,” will continue indefinitely unless you instruct us otherwise. If you prefer not to have these documents householded, please call the Shareholder Service Center at 800 523-1918. At any time you may view current prospectuses and financial reports on our website.

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Inactive accounts

Please note that your account may be required to transfer to the appropriate state if no activity occurs in the account within the time period specified by state law.

How to redeem shares

Availability of these services may be limited by your financial intermediary and by the way your account is registered with the Delaware Investments Fund.

When you send us a completed request in good order to redeem or exchange shares and the request is received by an authorized agent or us before the close of regular trading on the NYSE (normally 4:00 p.m. Eastern time), you will receive the NAV next determined after we receive your request. If we receive your request after the close of regular trading on the NYSE, you will receive the NAV next determined on the next Business Day. If the NYSE has an unscheduled early close, we will continue to accept your order until that day’s scheduled close of the NYSE and you will receive that day’s closing Fund share price. We will deduct any applicable CDSCs. You may also have to pay taxes on the proceeds from your sale of shares. We will send you a check, normally the next Business Day, but no later than seven days after we receive your request to sell your shares. If you purchased your shares by check and sell them before your check has cleared, which can take up to 15 days, we will wait until your check has cleared before we send you your redemption proceeds.

If you are required to pay a CDSC when you redeem your shares, the amount subject to the fee will be based on the shares’ NAV when you purchased them or their NAV when you redeem them, whichever is less. This arrangement ensures that you will not pay a CDSC on any increase in the value of your shares. You also will not pay the charge on any shares acquired by reinvesting dividends or capital gains. If you exchange shares of one fund for shares of another, you do not pay a CDSC at the time of the exchange. If you later redeem those shares, the purchase price for purposes of the CDSC formula will be the price you paid for the original shares, not the exchange price. The redemption price for purposes of this formula will be the NAV of the shares you are actually redeeming.

If you hold your shares in certificates, you must submit the certificates with your request to sell the shares. We recommend that you send your certificates by certified mail.

Redemption proceeds will be distributed promptly, but not later than seven days after receipt of a redemption request (except as noted above). Please see the SAI for additional information.

Through your financial intermediary

Your financial intermediary (if applicable) can handle all the details of redeeming your shares (selling them back to the Fund). Your financial intermediary may charge you a separate fee for this service.

Through the Fund’s Shareholder Service Center

By mail

You may redeem your shares by mail by writing to: Delaware Investments at P.O. Box 9876, Providence, RI 02940-8076 for redemption requests by regular mail or 4400 Computer Drive, Westborough, MA 01581-1722 for redemption requests by overnight courier service. Redemption requests will not be accepted at any other address. All owners of the account must sign the request. For redemptions of more than $100,000, you must include a signature guarantee for each owner. Signature guarantees are also required when redemption proceeds are going to an address other than the address of record on the account. Please contact the Shareholder Service Center at 800 523-1918 for more information about the signature guarantee requirements.

Please note that redemption orders submitted by mail will not be considered received until such redemption orders arrive at 4400 Computer Drive, Westborough, MA 01581-1722 and are determined to be in good order. For a redemption request to be in “good order,” you must provide the name of the Delaware Investments Fund whose shares you are redeeming, your account number, account registration, and the total number of shares or dollar amount of the transaction. Redemption requests must be signed by the record owner(s) exactly as the shares are registered, along with meeting any requirements set forth in applicable forms, this Prospectus, or the SAI. The Fund does not consider the U.S. Postal Service or other independent delivery services to be its agent. Therefore, redemption requests placed in the mail or with such services or receipt at the Fund’s post office box, of redemption requests, do not constitute receipt by the Fund or the transfer agent.

By telephone

You may redeem up to $100,000 of your shares by telephone. You may have the proceeds sent to you in the following ways:

By check — Sent to your address of record, provided there has not been an address change in the last 30 days.

 

By wire — Sent directly to your bank by wire, if you redeem at least $1,000 of shares. If you request a wire transfer, a bank wire fee may be deducted from your proceeds.

 

27


 

About your account

By ACH — Sent via Automated Clearing House (ACH), subject to a $25 minimum.

 

Bank information must be on file before you request a wire or ACH redemption. Your bank may charge a fee for these services.

Through automated shareholder services

You may redeem shares through our automated telephone service or through our website, delawareinvestments.com. For more information about how to sign up for these services, call our Shareholder Service Center at 800 523-1918.

Redemptions-in-kind

The Fund has reserved the right to pay for redemptions with portfolio securities under certain conditions. A subsequent sale by an investor receiving a distribution in kind could result in the payment of brokerage commissions and taxable gains (if such investment was held in a taxable account). See the SAI for more information on redemptions-in-kind.

Low balance accounts

For Class A and Class C shares, if you redeem shares and your account balance falls below the required account minimum of $1,000 ($250 for IRAs, Roth IRAs, Uniform Gifts to Minors Act and Uniform Transfers to Minors Act accounts, or accounts with automatic investment plans, and $500 for Coverdell Education Savings Accounts) for three or more consecutive months, you will have until the end of the current calendar quarter to raise the balance to the minimum.

For Class R and Institutional Class shares, if you redeem shares and your account balance falls below $500, your shares may be redeemed after 60 days’ written notice to you.

If your account is not at the minimum for low balance purposes by the required time, you may be charged a $9 fee for that quarter and each quarter after that until your account reaches the minimum balance, or it may be redeemed after 60 days’ written notice to you. Any CDSC that would otherwise be applicable will not apply to such a redemption.

Certain accounts held in omnibus, advisory, or asset-allocation programs or programs offered by certain intermediaries may be opened below the minimum stated account balance and may maintain balances that are below the minimum stated account balance without incurring a service fee or being subject to involuntary redemption.

If the applicable account falls below the minimum due to market fluctuation, the Fund still reserves the right to liquidate the account.

Investor services

To help make investing with us as easy as possible, and to help you build your investments, we offer the investor services described below. Information about the investor services we offer is available free of charge on the Delaware Investments Funds’ website at delawareinvestments.com, including hyperlinks to relevant information in fund offering documents. Availability of these services may be limited by the way your account is registered with the Delaware Investments Funds.

Online account access

Online account access is a password-protected area of the Delaware Investments Funds’ website that gives you access to your account information and allows you to perform transactions in a secure Internet environment.

Electronic delivery

With Delaware Investments eDelivery, you can receive your fund documents electronically instead of via U.S. mail. When you sign up for eDelivery, you can access your account statements, shareholder reports, and other fund materials online, in a secure Internet environment at any time.

Automatic investment plan

The automatic investment plan allows you to make regular monthly or quarterly investments directly from your bank account.

 

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Direct deposit

With direct deposit, you can make additional investments through payroll deductions, recurring government or private payments such as Social Security, or direct transfers from your bank account.

Systematic exchange option

With the systematic exchange option, you can arrange automatic monthly exchanges between your shares in one or more Delaware Investments Funds. These exchanges are subject to the same rules as regular exchanges (see below) and require a minimum monthly exchange of $100 per fund.

Dividend reinvestment plan

Through the dividend reinvestment plan, you can have your distributions reinvested in your account or the same share class in another Delaware Investments Fund. The shares that you purchase through the dividend reinvestment plan are not subject to a front-end sales charge or to a CDSC. Under most circumstances, you may reinvest dividends only into like classes of shares.

Exchange of shares

You may generally exchange all or part of your shares for shares of the same class of another Delaware Investments Fund without paying a front-end sales charge or a CDSC at the time of the exchange. However, if you exchange shares from a fund that does not have a sales charge, you will pay any applicable sales charge on your new shares. When exchanging Class C shares of one fund for the same class of shares in other funds, your new shares will be subject to the same CDSC as the shares you originally purchased. The holding period for the CDSC will also remain the same, with the amount of time you held your original shares being credited toward the holding period of your new shares. In certain other circumstances, you may also be permitted to exchange your shares for shares of a different class of the Fund, but such exchange may be subject to a sales charge for the new shares. (Please refer to the SAI for more details.) You do not pay sales charges on shares that you acquired through the reinvestment of dividends. You may have to pay taxes on your exchange. When you exchange shares, you are purchasing shares in another fund, so you should be sure to get a copy of the fund’s prospectus and read it carefully before buying shares through an exchange. We may refuse the purchase side of any exchange request if, in the Manager’s judgment, a fund would be unable to invest effectively in accordance with its investment objective and policies or would otherwise potentially be adversely affected.

On demand service

The on demand service allows you or your financial advisor to transfer money between your Fund account and your predesignated bank account by telephone request. There is a minimum transfer of $25 and a maximum transfer of $100,000. Delaware Investments does not charge a fee for this service; however, your bank may assess one.

Direct deposit service

Through the direct deposit service, you can have $25 or more in dividends and distributions deposited directly into your bank account. Delaware Investments does not charge a fee for this service; however, your bank may assess one. This service is not available for retirement plans.

Systematic withdrawal plan

You can arrange a regular monthly or quarterly payment from your account made to you or someone you designate. If the value of your account is $5,000 or more, you can make withdrawals of at least $25 monthly, or $75 quarterly. You may also have your withdrawals deposited directly to your bank account through the direct deposit service.

The applicable Limited CDSC for Class A shares and the CDSC for Class C shares redeemed via a systematic withdrawal plan will be waived if the annual amount withdrawn in each year is less than 12% of the account balance on the date that the plan is established. If the annual amount withdrawn in any year exceeds 12% of the account balance on the date that the systematic withdrawal plan is established, all redemptions under the plan will be subject to the applicable CDSC, including an assessment for previously redeemed amounts under the plan.

Frequent trading of Fund shares (market timing and disruptive trading)

The Fund discourages purchases by market timers and purchase orders (including the purchase side of exchange orders) by shareholders identified as market timers may be rejected. The Board has adopted policies and procedures designed to detect, deter, and prevent trading activity detrimental to the Fund and its shareholders, such as market timing and disruptive trading. The Fund will consider anyone who follows a pattern of market timing in any Delaware Investments Fund or the Optimum Fund Trust to be a market timer and may consider anyone who has followed a similar pattern of market timing at an unaffiliated fund family to be a market timer.

29


 

About your account

Market timing of a fund occurs when investors make consecutive, rapid, short-term “round trips” — that is, purchases into a fund followed quickly by redemptions out of that fund. A short-term round trip is considered any redemption of fund shares within 20 Business Days of a purchase of that fund’s shares. If you make a second such short-term round trip in a fund within 90 rolling calendar days of a previous short-term round trip in that fund, you may be considered a market timer. In determining whether market timing has occurred, the Fund will consider short-term round trips to include rapid purchases and sales of Fund shares through the exchange privilege. The Fund reserves the right to consider other trading patterns to be market timing.

Your ability to use the Fund’s exchange privilege may be limited if you are identified as a market timer. If you are identified as a market timer, we will execute the redemption side of your exchange order but may refuse the purchase side of your exchange order. The Fund reserves the right to restrict or reject, without prior notice, any purchase order or exchange order for any reason, including any purchase order or exchange order accepted by any shareholder’s financial intermediary or in any omnibus-type account. Transactions placed in violation of the Fund’s market timing policy are not necessarily deemed accepted by the Fund and may be rejected by the Fund on the next Business Day following receipt by the Fund.

Redemptions will continue to be permitted in accordance with the Fund’s then-current Prospectus. A redemption of shares under these circumstances could be costly to a shareholder if, for example, the shares have declined in value, the shareholder recently paid a front-end sales charge, the shares are subject to a CDSC, or the sale results in adverse tax consequences. To avoid this risk, a shareholder should carefully monitor the purchases, sales, and exchanges of Fund shares and avoid frequent trading in Fund shares.

The Fund reserves the right to modify this policy at any time without notice, including modifications to the Fund’s monitoring procedures and the procedures to close accounts to new purchases. Although the implementation of this policy involves certain judgments that are inherently subjective and may be selectively applied, we seek to make judgments and applications that are consistent with the interests of the Fund’s shareholders. While we will take actions designed to detect and prevent market timing, there can be no assurance that such trading activity will be completely eliminated. Moreover, the Fund’s market timing policy does not require the Fund to take action in response to frequent trading activity. If the Fund elects not to take any action in response to frequent trading, such frequent trading activity could continue.

Risks of market timing

By realizing profits through short-term trading, shareholders who engage in rapid purchases and sales or exchanges of the Fund’s shares dilute the value of shares held by long-term shareholders. Volatility resulting from excessive purchases and sales or exchanges of Fund shares, especially involving large dollar amounts, may disrupt efficient portfolio management. In particular, the Fund may have difficulty implementing its long-term investment strategies if it is forced to maintain a higher level of its assets in cash to accommodate significant short-term trading activity. Excessive purchases and sales or exchanges of the Fund’s shares may also force the Fund to sell portfolio securities at inopportune times to raise cash to accommodate short-term trading activity. This could adversely affect the Fund’s performance, if, for example, the Fund incurs increased brokerage costs and realization of taxable capital gains without attaining any investment advantage.

Any fund may be subject to disruptive trading activity. However, a fund that invests significantly in foreign securities may be particularly susceptible to short-term trading strategies. This is because foreign securities are typically traded on markets that close well before the time a fund calculates its NAV (normally 4:00 p.m. Eastern time or the close of the NYSE). Developments that occur between the closing of the foreign market and a fund’s NAV calculation may affect the value of these foreign securities. The time-zone differences among international stock markets can allow a shareholder engaging in a short-term trading strategy to exploit differences in fund share prices that are based on closing prices of foreign securities established some time before a fund calculates its own share price.

Any fund that invests in securities that are thinly traded, traded infrequently, or relatively illiquid has the risk that the securities prices used to calculate the fund’s NAV may not accurately reflect current market values. A shareholder may seek to engage in short-term trading to take advantage of these pricing differences. Funds that may be adversely affected by such arbitrage include, in particular, funds that significantly invest in small-cap securities, technology, and other specific industry sector securities, and in certain fixed income securities, such as high yield bonds, asset-backed securities, or municipal bonds.

Transaction monitoring procedures

The Fund, through its transfer agent, maintains surveillance procedures designed to detect excessive or short-term trading in Fund shares. This monitoring process involves several factors, which include scrutinizing transactions in Fund shares for violations of the Fund’s market timing policy or other patterns of short-term or excessive trading. For purposes of these transaction monitoring procedures, the Fund may consider trading activity by multiple accounts under common ownership, control, or influence to be trading by a single entity. Trading activity identified by these factors, or as a result of any other available information, will be evaluated to determine whether such activity might constitute market timing. These procedures may be modified from time to time to help improve the detection of excessive or short-term trading or to address other concerns. Such changes may be necessary or appropriate, for example, to deal with issues specific to certain retirement plans; plan exchange limits; U.S. Department of Labor regulations; certain automated or pre-established exchange, asset-allocation, or dollar-cost-averaging programs; or omnibus account arrangements.

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Omnibus account arrangements are common forms of holding shares of the Fund, particularly among certain broker/dealers and other financial intermediaries, including sponsors of retirement plans and variable insurance products. The Fund will attempt to have financial intermediaries apply the Fund’s monitoring procedures to these omnibus accounts and to the individual participants in such accounts. However, to the extent that a financial intermediary is not able or willing to monitor or enforce the Fund’s frequent trading policy with respect to an omnibus account, the Fund’s transfer agent may work with certain intermediaries (such as investment dealers holding shareholder accounts in street name, retirement plan recordkeepers, insurance company separate accounts, and bank trust companies) to apply their own procedures, provided that the Fund’s transfer agent believes the intermediary’s procedures are reasonably designed to enforce the Fund’s frequent trading policies. You should refer to disclosures provided by the intermediaries with which you have an account to determine the specific trading restrictions that apply to you. If the Fund’s transfer agent identifies any activity that may constitute frequent trading, it reserves the right to contact the intermediary and request that the intermediary either provide information regarding an account owner’s transactions or restrict the account owner’s trading. If the Fund’s transfer agent is not satisfied that the intermediary has taken appropriate action, the transfer agent may terminate the intermediary’s ability to transact in Fund shares.

Limitations on ability to detect and curtail market timing

Shareholders seeking to engage in market timing may employ a variety of strategies to avoid detection and, despite the efforts of the Fund and its agents to detect market timing in Fund shares, there is no guarantee that the Fund will be able to identify these shareholders or curtail their trading practices. In particular, the Fund may not be able to detect market timing attributable to a particular investor who effects purchase, redemption, and/or exchange activity in Fund shares through omnibus accounts. The difficulty of detecting market timing may be further compounded if these entities utilize multiple tiers or omnibus accounts.

Dividends, distributions, and taxes

Dividends and distributions

The Fund intends to qualify each year as a regulated investment company under the Internal Revenue Code. As a regulated investment company, the Fund generally pays no federal income tax on the income and gains it distributes to you. The Fund expects to declare dividends daily and distribute all of its net investment income, if any, to shareholders as dividends monthly. The Fund will distribute net realized capital gains, if any, at least annually, usually in December. The Fund may distribute such income dividends and capital gains more frequently, if necessary, in order to reduce or eliminate federal excise or income taxes on the Fund. The amount of any distribution will vary, and there is no guarantee the Fund will pay either an income dividend or a capital gains distribution. We automatically reinvest all dividends and any capital gains, unless you direct us to do otherwise.

Annual statements

Each year, the Fund will send you an annual statement (Form 1099) of your account activity to assist you in completing your federal, state, and local tax returns. Distributions declared in December to shareholders of record in such month, but paid in January, are taxable as if they were paid in December. Prior to issuing your statement, the Fund makes every effort to reduce the number of corrected forms mailed to you. However, if the Fund finds it necessary to reclassify its distributions or adjust the cost basis of any covered shares (defined below) sold or exchanged after you receive your tax statement, the Fund will send you a corrected Form 1099.

Avoid “buying a dividend”

At the time you purchase your Fund shares, the Fund’s NAV may reflect undistributed income, undistributed capital gains, or net unrealized appreciation in value of portfolio securities held by the Fund. For taxable investors, a subsequent distribution to you of such amounts, although constituting a return of your investment, would be taxable. Buying shares in the Fund just before it declares an income dividend or capital gains distribution is sometimes known as “buying a dividend.”

Tax considerations

Fund distributions. The Fund expects, based on its investment objective and strategies, that its distributions, if any, will be taxable as ordinary income, capital gains, or some combination of both. This is true whether you reinvest your distributions in additional Fund shares or receive them in cash.

For federal income tax purposes, Fund distributions of short-term capital gains are taxable to you as ordinary income. Fund distributions of long-term capital gains are taxable to you as long-term capital gains no matter how long you have owned your shares. Because the income of the Fund is primarily derived from investments earning interest rather than dividend income, generally none or only a small portion of the income dividends paid to you by the Fund is anticipated to be qualified dividend income eligible for taxation by individuals at long-term capital gain tax rates, provided certain holding period requirements are met.

The use of derivatives by the Fund may cause the Fund to realize higher amounts of ordinary income or short-term capital gain, distributions from which are taxable to individual shareholders at ordinary income tax rates rather than at the more favorable tax rates for long-term capital gain.

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About your account

Sale or redemption of Fund shares. A sale or redemption of Fund shares is a taxable event and, accordingly, a capital gain or loss may be recognized. For tax purposes, an exchange of your Fund shares for shares of a different Delaware Investments Fund is the same as a sale. The Fund is required to report to you and the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) annually on Form 1099-B not only the gross proceeds of Fund shares you sell or redeem but also the cost basis of Fund shares you sell or redeem that were purchased or acquired on or after Jan. 1, 2012 (“covered shares”). Cost basis will be calculated using the Fund’s default method, unless you instruct the Fund to use a different calculation method. Shareholders should carefully review the cost basis information provided by the Fund and make any additional basis, holding period or other adjustments that are required when reporting these amounts on their federal income tax returns. If your account is held by your investment representative (financial advisor or other broker), please contact that representative with respect to reporting of cost basis and available elections for your account. Tax-advantaged retirement accounts will not be affected. Additional information and updates regarding cost basis reporting and available shareholder elections will be on the Delaware Investments website at delawareinvestments.com as the information becomes available.

Medicare tax. An additional 3.8% Medicare tax is imposed on certain net investment income (including ordinary dividends and capital gain distributions received from the Fund and net gains from redemptions or other taxable dispositions of Fund shares) of U.S. individuals, estates and trusts to the extent that such person’s “modified adjusted gross income” (in the case of an individual) or “adjusted gross income” (in the case of an estate or trust) exceeds a threshold amount. This Medicare tax, if applicable, is reported by you on, and paid with, your federal income tax return.

Backup withholding. By law, if you do not provide the Fund with your proper taxpayer identification number and certain required certifications, you may be subject to backup withholding on any distributions of income, capital gains, or proceeds from the sale of your shares. The Fund also must withhold if the IRS instructs it to do so. When withholding is required, the amount will be 28% of any distributions or proceeds paid.

State and local taxes. Fund distributions and gains from the sale or exchange of your Fund shares generally are subject to state and local taxes.

Non-U.S. investors. Non-U.S. investors may be subject to U.S. withholding tax at a 30% or lower treaty rate and U.S. estate tax and are subject to special U.S. tax certification requirements to avoid backup withholding and claim any treaty benefits. Exemptions from U.S. withholding tax are provided for capital gain dividends paid by a Fund from long-term capital gains, interest-related dividends paid by the Fund from its qualified net interest income from U.S. sources and short-term capital gain dividends, if such amounts are reported by the Fund. However, notwithstanding such exemptions from U.S. withholding at the source, any such dividends and distributions of income and capital gains will be subject to backup withholding at a rate of 28% if you fail to properly certify that you are not a U.S. person.

Other reporting and withholding requirements. Under the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA), the Fund will be required to withhold a 30% tax on the following payments or distributions made by the Fund to certain foreign entities, referred to as foreign financial institutions or nonfinancial foreign entities, that fail to comply (or be deemed compliant) with extensive reporting and withholding requirements designed to inform the U.S. Department of the Treasury of U.S.-owned foreign investment accounts: (a) income dividends and (b) after Dec. 31, 2018, certain capital gain distributions, return of capital distributions and the proceeds arising from the sale of Fund shares. The Fund may disclose the information that it receives from its shareholders to the IRS, non-U.S. taxing authorities or other parties as necessary to comply with FATCA or similar laws. Withholding also may be required if a foreign entity that is a shareholder of the Fund fails to provide the Fund with appropriate certifications or other documentation concerning its status under FATCA.

This discussion of “Dividends, distributions, and taxes” is not intended or written to be used as tax advice. Because everyone’s tax situation is unique, you should consult your tax professional about federal, state, local, or foreign tax consequences before making an investment in the Fund.

Certain management considerations

Investments by fund of funds and similar investment vehicles

The Fund may accept investments from funds of funds, as well as from similar investment vehicles, such as 529 Plans. A “529 Plan” is a college savings program that operates under Section 529 of the Internal Revenue Code. From time to time, the Fund may experience large investments or redemptions due to allocations or rebalancings by these funds of funds and/or similar investment vehicles. While it is impossible to predict the overall impact of these transactions over time, there could be adverse effects on portfolio management. For example, the Fund may be required to sell securities or invest cash at times when it would not otherwise do so. These transactions could also have tax consequences if sales of securities result in gains, and could also increase transaction costs or portfolio turnover.

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Financial highlights

Delaware Floating Rate Fund

The financial highlights tables are intended to help you understand the Fund’s financial performance for the past five years. Certain information reflects financial results for a single Fund share. The total returns in the table represent the rate that an investor would have earned or lost on an investment in the Fund (assuming reinvestment of all dividends and distributions). The information has been audited by PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, whose report, along with the Fund’s financial statements, is included in the Fund’s annual report, which is available upon request by calling 800 523-1918.

                     

 

Year ended

 

Class A shares

 

7/31/16

 

7/31/15

 

7/31/14

 

7/31/13

 

7/31/12

 
Net asset value, beginning of period
 

 

 

$8.420

   

$8.630

   

$8.600

   

$8.570

   

$8.590

 

Income (loss) from investment operations:

Net investment income1
 

 

 

0.172

   

0.177

   

0.163

   

0.163

   

0.193

 
Net realized and unrealized gain (loss)
 

 

 

(0.150

)

 

(0.208

)

 

0.042

   

0.060

   

(0.005

)

Total from investment operations
 

 

 

0.022

   

(0.031

)

 

0.205

   

0.223

   

0.188

 

Less dividends and distributions from:

Net investment income
 

 

 

(0.123

)

 

(0.168

)

 

(0.145

)

 

(0.175

)

 

(0.208

)

Return of capital
 

 

 

(0.029

)

 

(0.011

)

 

(0.030

)

 

(0.018

)

 

 
Total dividends and distributions
 

 

 

(0.152

)

 

(0.179

)

 

(0.175

)

 

(0.193

)

 

(0.208

)

Net asset value, end of period
 

 

 

$8.290

   

$8.420

   

$8.630

   

$8.600

   

$8.570

 
Total return2
 

 

 

0.29%

   

(0.35%

)

 

2.40%

   

2.61%

   

2.24%

 

Ratios and supplemental data:

Net assets, end of period (000 omitted)
 

 

 

$57,985

   

$87,398

   

$158,691

   

$194,795

   

$49,009

 
Ratio of expenses to average net assets
 

 

 

0.96%

   

0.96%

   

0.95%

   

1.01%

   

1.05%

 
Ratio of expenses to average net assets prior to fees waived
 

 

 

0.96%

   

0.96%

   

0.96%

   

1.06%

   

1.12%

 
Ratio of net investment income to average net assets
 

 

 

2.09%

   

2.08%

   

1.89%

   

1.88%

   

2.28%

 
Ratio of net investment income to average net assets prior to fees waived
 

 

 

2.09%

   

2.08%

   

1.88%

   

1.83%

   

2.21%

 
Portfolio turnover
 

 

 

90%

   

86%

   

96%

   

112%

   

97%

 

 

1

The average shares outstanding method has been applied for per share information.

2

Total investment return is based on the change in net asset value of a share during the period and assumes reinvestment of dividends and distributions at net asset value and does not reflect the impact of a sales charge. Total investment return during some of the periods shown reflects waivers by the manager and/or distributor. Performance would have been lower had the waivers not been in effect.

 

33


 

Financial highlights

Delaware Floating Rate Fund

                     

 

Year ended

 

Class C shares

 

7/31/16

 

7/31/15

 

7/31/14

 

7/31/13

 

7/31/12

 
Net asset value, beginning of period
 

 

 

$8.420

   

$8.630

   

$8.600

   

$8.570

   

$8.590

 

Income (loss) from investment operations:

Net investment income1
 

 

 

0.110

   

0.113

   

0.098

   

0.098

   

0.130

 
Net realized and unrealized gain (loss)
 

 

 

(0.150

)

 

(0.208

)

 

0.042

   

0.060

   

(0.006

)

Total from investment operations
 

 

 

(0.040

)

 

(0.095

)

 

0.140

   

0.158

   

0.124

 

Less dividends and distributions from:

Net investment income
 

 

 

(0.061

)

 

(0.104

)

 

(0.080

)

 

(0.110

)

 

(0.144

)

Return of capital
 

 

 

(0.029

)

 

(0.011

)

 

(0.030

)

 

(0.018

)

 

 
Total dividends and distributions
 

 

 

(0.090

)

 

(0.115

)

 

(0.110

)

 

(0.128

)

 

(0.144

)

Net asset value, end of period
 

 

 

$8.290

   

$8.420

   

$8.630

   

$8.600

   

$8.570

 
Total return2
 

 

 

(0.46%

)

 

(1.10%

)

 

1.64%

   

1.85%

   

1.47%

 

Ratios and supplemental data:

Net assets, end of period (000 omitted)
 

 

 

$51,400

   

$72,505

   

$100,779

   

$83,619

   

$25,495

 
Ratio of expenses to average net assets
 

 

 

1.71%

   

1.71%

   

1.70%

   

1.76%

   

1.80%

 
Ratio of expenses to average net assets prior to fees waived
 

 

 

1.71%

   

1.71%

   

1.70%

   

1.76%

   

1.82%

 
Ratio of net investment income to average net assets
 

 

 

1.34%

   

1.33%

   

1.14%

   

1.13%

   

1.53%

 
Ratio of net investment income to average net assets prior to fees waived
 

 

 

1.34%

   

1.33%

   

1.14%

   

1.13%

   

1.51%

 
Portfolio turnover
 

 

 

90%

   

86%

   

96%

   

112%

   

97%

 

 

1

The average shares outstanding method has been applied for per share information.

2

Total investment return is based on the change in net asset value of a share during the period and assumes reinvestment of dividends and distributions at net asset value and does not reflect the impact of a sales charge. Total investment return during some of the periods shown reflects a waiver by the manager. Performance would have been lower had the waiver not been in effect.

 

34


 

Delaware Floating Rate Fund

                     

 

Year ended

 

Class R shares

 

7/31/16

 

7/31/15

 

7/31/14

 

7/31/13

 

7/31/12

 
Net asset value, beginning of period
 

 

 

$8.420

   

$8.630

   

$8.600

   

$8.570

   

$8.590

 

Income (loss) from investment operations:

Net investment income1
 

 

 

0.152

   

0.156

   

0.142

   

0.141

   

0.173

 
Net realized and unrealized gain (loss)
 

 

 

(0.151

)

 

(0.208

)

 

0.041

   

0.060

   

(0.011

)

Total from investment operations
 

 

 

0.001

   

(0.052

)

 

0.183

   

0.201

   

0.162

 

Less dividends and distributions from:

Net investment income
 

 

 

(0.102

)

 

(0.147

)

 

(0.123

)

 

(0.153

)

 

(0.182

)

Return of capital
 

 

 

(0.029

)

 

(0.011

)

 

(0.030

)

 

(0.018

)

 

 
Total dividends and distributions
 

 

 

(0.131

)

 

(0.158

)

 

(0.153

)

 

(0.171

)

 

(0.182

)

Net asset value, end of period
 

 

 

$8.290

   

$8.420

   

$8.630

   

$8.600

   

$8.570

 
Total return2
 

 

 

0.03%

   

(0.61%

)

 

2.15%

   

2.36%

   

1.93%

 

Ratios and supplemental data:

Net assets, end of period (000 omitted)
 

 

 

$494

   

$570

   

$845

   

$44

   

$5

 
Ratio of expenses to average net assets
 

 

 

1.21%

   

1.21%

   

1.20%

   

1.26%

   

1.30%

 
Ratio of expenses to average net assets prior to fees waived
 

 

 

1.21%

   

1.21%

   

1.20%

   

1.36%

   

1.42%

 
Ratio of net investment income to average net assets
 

 

 

1.84%

   

1.83%

   

1.64%

   

1.63%

   

2.03%

 
Ratio of net investment income to average net assets prior to fees waived
 

 

 

1.84%

   

1.83%

   

1.64%

   

1.53%

   

1.91%

 
Portfolio turnover
 

 

 

90%

   

86%

   

96%

   

112%

   

97%

 

 

1

The average shares outstanding method has been applied for per share information.

2

Total investment return is based on the change in net asset value of a share during the period and assumes reinvestment of dividends and distributions at net asset value. Total investment return during some of the periods shown reflects waivers by the manager and/or distributor. Performance would have been lower had the waivers not been in effect.

 

35


 

Financial highlights

Delaware Floating Rate Fund

                     

 

Year ended

 

Institutional Class shares

 

7/31/16

 

7/31/15

 

7/31/14

 

7/31/13

 

7/31/12

 
Net asset value, beginning of period
 

 

 

$8.420

   

$8.630

   

$8.600

   

$8.570

   

$8.590

 

Income (loss) from investment operations:

Net investment income1
 

 

 

0.193

   

0.198

   

0.184

   

0.184

   

0.214

 
Net realized and unrealized gain (loss)
 

 

 

(0.151

)

 

(0.208

)

 

0.042

   

0.061

   

(0.005

)

Total from investment operations
 

 

 

0.042

   

(0.010

)

 

0.226

   

0.245

   

0.209

 

Less dividends and distributions from:

Net investment income
 

 

 

(0.143

)

 

(0.189

)

 

(0.166

)

 

(0.197

)

 

(0.229

)

Return of capital
 

 

 

(0.029

)

 

(0.011

)

 

(0.030

)

 

(0.018

)

 

 
Total dividends and distributions
 

 

 

(0.172

)

 

(0.200

)

 

(0.196

)

 

(0.215

)

 

(0.229

)

Net asset value, end of period
 

 

 

$8.290

   

$8.420

   

$8.630

   

$8.600

   

$8.570

 
Total return2
 

 

 

0.54%

   

(0.11%

)

 

2.66%

   

2.87%

   

2.49%

 

Ratios and supplemental data:

Net assets, end of period (000 omitted)
 

 

 

$185,674

   

$229,549

   

$268,629

   

$139,097

   

$31,663

 
Ratio of expenses to average net assets
 

 

 

0.71%

   

0.71%

   

0.70%

   

0.76%

   

0.80%

 
Ratio of expenses to average net assets prior to fees waived
 

 

 

0.71%

   

0.71%

   

0.70%

   

0.76%

   

0.82%

 
Ratio of net investment income to average net assets
 

 

 

2.34%

   

2.33%

   

2.14%

   

2.13%

   

2.53%

 
Ratio of net investment income to average net assets prior to fees waived
 

 

 

2.34%

   

2.33%

   

2.14%

   

2.13%

   

2.51%

 
Portfolio turnover
 

 

 

90%

   

86%

   

96%

   

112%

   

97%

 

 

1

The average shares outstanding method has been applied for per share information.

2

Total investment return is based on the change in net asset value of a share during the period and assumes reinvestment of dividends and distributions at net asset value. Total investment return during some of the periods shown reflects a waiver by the manager. Performance would have been lower had the waiver not been in effect.

 

36


 

How to read the financial highlights

Net investment income (loss)
Net investment income (loss) includes dividend and interest income earned from a fund's investments; it is calculated after expenses have been deducted.

Net realized and unrealized gain (loss) on investments
A realized gain occurs when we sell an investment at a profit, while a realized loss occurs when we sell an investment at a loss. When an investment increases or decreases in value but we do not sell it, we record an unrealized gain or loss. The amount of realized gain per share, if any, that we pay to shareholders would be listed under “Less dividends and distributions from: Net realized gain.”

Net asset value (NAV)
This is the value of a mutual fund share, calculated by dividing the net assets by the number of shares outstanding.

Total return
This represents the rate that an investor would have earned or lost on an investment in a fund. In calculating this figure for the financial highlights table, we include applicable fee waivers, exclude front-end sales charges and contingent deferred sales charges, and assume the shareholder has reinvested all dividends and realized gains.

Net assets
Net assets represent the total value of all the assets in a fund's portfolio, less any liabilities, that are attributable to that class of the fund.

Ratio of expenses to average net assets
The expense ratio is the percentage of net assets that a fund pays annually for operating expenses and management fees. These expenses include accounting and administration expenses, services for shareholders, and similar expenses.

Ratio of net investment income (loss) to average net assets
We determine this ratio by dividing net investment income (loss) by average net assets.

Portfolio turnover
This figure tells you the amount of trading activity in a fund's portfolio. A turnover rate of 100% would occur if, for example, a fund bought and sold all of the securities in its portfolio once in the course of a year or frequently traded a single security. A high rate of portfolio turnover in any year may increase brokerage commissions paid and could generate taxes for shareholders on realized investment gains.

37


 

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Additional information

Contact information

Website: delawareinvestments.com

 

Shareholder Service Center: 800 523-1918 (representatives available weekdays from 8:30 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. Eastern time)

 

For fund information, literature, price, yield, and performance figures.

 

For information on existing regular investment accounts and retirement plan accounts including wire investments, wire redemptions, telephone redemptions, and telephone exchanges.

 

Automated telephone service: 800 523-1918 (seven days a week, 24 hours a day)

 

For convenient access to account information or current performance information on all Delaware Investments Funds, use this touch-tone service.

 

Written correspondence: P.O. Box 9876, Providence, RI 02940-8076 (by regular mail) or 4400 Computer Drive, Westborough, MA 01581-1722 (by overnight courier service).

 

41


 

Additional information about the Fund’s investments is available in its annual and semiannual shareholder reports. In the Fund’s annual shareholder report, you will find a discussion of the market conditions and investment strategies that significantly affected the Fund’s performance during the period covered by the report. You can find more information about the Fund in its current SAI, which is filed electronically with the SEC, and which is legally a part of this Prospectus (it is incorporated by reference). To receive a free copy of the SAI, or the annual or semiannual report, or if you have any questions about investing in the Fund, write to us at P.O. Box 9876, Providence, RI 02940-8076 by regular mail or 4400 Computer Drive, Westborough, MA 01581-1722 by overnight courier service, or call toll-free 800 523-1918. The SAI and shareholder reports are available, free of charge, through the Fund’s website (delawareinvestments.com/literature). You may also obtain additional information about the Fund from your financial advisor.

You can find reports and other information about the Fund on the EDGAR database on the SEC website (sec.gov). You may obtain copies of this information, after paying a duplication fee, by e-mailing the SEC at publicinfo@sec.gov or by writing to the Public Reference Section of the SEC, 100 F Street, NE, Washington, DC 20549-1520. Information about the Fund, including its SAI, can be reviewed and copied at the SEC’s Public Reference Room in Washington, D.C. For information on the Public Reference Room, call the SEC at 202 551-8090.

PR-215 [7/16] PDF 21281 [1/17]

Investment Company Act number: 811-02071


 

Statement of Additional Information

January 31, 2017

Delaware Group® Income Funds

Nasdaq ticker symbols

Delaware Floating Rate Fund
(formerly, Delaware Diversified Floating Rate Fund)

Class A

DDFAX

Class C

DDFCX

Class R

DDFFX

Institutional Class

DDFLX

P.O. Box 9876, Providence, RI 02940-8076 (regular mail)
4400 Computer Drive, Westborough, MA 01581-1722 (overnight courier service)

For a Prospectus, Performance, and Information on Existing Accounts: 800 523-1918
For Dealer Services (Broker/Dealers only): 800 362-7500

This Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”) supplements the information contained in the current prospectus (the “Prospectus”), dated Jan. 31, 2017, as it may be amended from time to time, for Delaware Floating Rate Fund (formerly, Delaware Diversified Floating Rate Fund) (the “Fund”).

This SAI should be read in conjunction with the Prospectus. This SAI is not itself a prospectus but is, in its entirety, incorporated by reference into the Prospectus. The Prospectus may be obtained through our website at delawareinvestments.com/literature; by writing or calling your financial advisor; or by contacting the Fund’s distributor, Delaware Distributors, L.P. (the “Distributor”), at the above addresses, or by calling the above phone numbers. Please do not send any correspondence to 2005 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA. The Fund’s financial statements, the notes relating thereto, the financial highlights, and the report of the independent registered public accounting firm are incorporated by reference from the Fund's annual report (“Annual Report”) into this SAI. An Annual Report will accompany any request for this SAI. An Annual Report can be obtained, without charge, by calling 800 523-1918.

 


 

Table of contents

 

Page

Organization and Classification

Investment Objectives, Restrictions, and Policies

Investment Strategies and Risks

Disclosure of Portfolio Holdings Information

Management of the Trust

Code of Ethics

Proxy Voting Policy

Investment Manager and Other Service Providers

Portfolio Managers

Trading Practices and Brokerage

Capital Structure

Purchasing Shares

Investment Plans

Determining Offering Price and Net Asset Value

Redemption and Exchange

Distributions and Taxes

Performance Information

Financial Statements

Principal Holders

Appendix A — Description of Ratings

 


 

Organization and Classification

This SAI describes the Fund, which is a series of Delaware Group Income Funds (the “Trust”). The Fund offers Class A, Class C, and Class R shares (collectively, the “Retail Classes”). The Fund also offers an Institutional Class (the “Institutional Class”). All references to “shares” in this SAI refer to all classes of shares (each share class, the “Class”) of the Fund, except where noted. The Trust also offers other series, Delaware Corporate Bond Fund, Delaware Extended Duration Bond Fund, and Delaware High-Yield Opportunities Fund, through separate prospectuses and a combined statement of additional information. The Fund’s investment manager is Delaware Management Company (the “Manager” or “DMC”), a series of Delaware Management Business Trust.

Organization

The Trust was originally organized as a Delaware corporation in 1970 and was subsequently reorganized as a Maryland corporation on March 4, 1983 and as a Delaware statutory trust on Sept. 29, 1999.

Classification

The Trust is an open-end management investment company.

The Fund’s portfolio of assets is diversified as defined by the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”). The 1940 Act requires a “diversified” fund, with respect to 75% of the value of its total assets, to invest (1) no more than 5% of the value of the fund’s total assets in the securities of any one issuer and (2) in no more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of such issuer. This limitation generally requires a diversified fund to invest in securities issued by a minimum of 16 issuers.

Investment Objectives, Restrictions, and Policies

Investment Objectives

The Fund’s investment objective is described in the Prospectus.

Fundamental Investment Restrictions

The Fund has adopted the following restrictions that cannot be changed without approval by the holders of a “majority” of the Fund’s outstanding shares, which is a vote by the holders of the lesser of: (i) 67% or more of the voting securities present in person or by proxy at a meeting, if the holders of more than 50% of the outstanding voting securities are present or represented by proxy; or (ii) more than 50% of the outstanding voting securities. Except for the limitation on borrowing, the percentage limitations contained in the restrictions and policies set forth herein apply at the time of purchase of securities.

The Fund shall not:

1. Make investments that will result in the concentration (as that term may be defined in the 1940 Act, any rule or order thereunder, or U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) staff interpretation thereof) of its investments in the securities of issuers primarily engaged in the same industry, provided that this restriction does not limit the Fund from investing in obligations issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government, its agencies or instrumentalities, or in tax-exempt obligations.

2. Borrow money or issue senior securities, except as the 1940 Act, any rule or order thereunder, or SEC staff interpretation thereof, may permit.

3. Underwrite the securities of other issuers, except that the Fund may engage in transactions involving the acquisition, disposition, or resale of its portfolio securities under circumstances where it may be considered to be an underwriter under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “1933 Act”).

4. Purchase or sell real estate, unless acquired as a result of ownership of securities or other instruments and provided that this restriction does not prevent the Fund from investing in issuers which invest, deal, or otherwise engage in transactions in real estate or interests therein, or investing in securities that are secured by real estate or interests therein.

5. Purchase or sell physical commodities, unless acquired as a result of ownership of securities or other instruments and provided that this restriction does not prevent the Fund from engaging in transactions involving futures contracts and options thereon or investing in securities that are secured by physical commodities.

6. Make personal loans or loans of its assets to persons who control or are under common control with the Fund, except as the 1940 Act, any rule or order thereunder, or SEC staff interpretation thereof, may permit. This restriction does not prevent the Fund from, among other things, purchasing debt obligations, entering into repurchase agreements, loaning its assets to broker/dealers or institutional investors, or investing in loans, including assignments and participation interests.


 

Investment Objectives, Restrictions, and Policies

Nonfundamental Investment Restrictions

In addition to the fundamental investment policies and investment restrictions described above, and the various general investment policies described in the Prospectus, the Fund will be subject to the following investment restriction, which is considered nonfundamental and may be changed by the Trust’s Board of Trustees (“Board”) without shareholder approval: The Fund may not invest more than 15% of its net assets in securities that it cannot sell or dispose of in the ordinary course of business within seven days at approximately the value that the Fund has valued the investment.

For purposes of the Fund’s concentration policy (i.e., investing more than 25% of its net assets in the securities of issuers primarily engaged in the same industry), the Fund intends to comply with the SEC staff position that securities issued or guaranteed as to principal and interest by any single foreign government are considered to be securities of issuers in the same industry. In applying the Fund’s policy on concentration: (i) utility companies will be divided according to their services, for example, gas, gas transmission, electric, and telephone will each be considered a separate industry; (ii) financial service companies will be classified according to the end users of their services, for example, automobile finance, bank finance, and diversified finance will each be considered a separate industry; and (iii) asset-backed securities and bank loans and other direct indebtedness will be classified according to the underlying assets securing such securities.

Except for the Fund’s policy with respect to borrowing, any investment restriction or limitation that involves a maximum percentage of securities or assets shall not be considered to be violated unless an excess over the percentage occurs immediately after an acquisition of securities or a utilization of assets and such excess results therefrom.

Portfolio Turnover

Portfolio trading will be undertaken principally to accomplish the Fund’s investment objective. The Fund is free to dispose of portfolio securities at any time, subject to complying with the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Internal Revenue Code”), and the 1940 Act, when changes in circumstances or conditions make such a move desirable in light of the Fund’s investment objective. The Fund will not attempt to achieve or be limited to a predetermined rate of portfolio turnover. Such turnover always will be incidental to transactions undertaken with a view to achieving the Fund’s investment objective.

The portfolio turnover rate tells you the amount of trading activity in the Fund’s portfolio. A turnover rate of 100% would occur, for example, if all of the Fund’s investments held at the beginning of a year were replaced by the end of the year, or if a single investment was frequently traded. The turnover rate also may be affected by cash requirements from redemptions and repurchases of the Fund’s shares. A high rate of portfolio turnover in any year may increase brokerage commissions paid and could generate taxes for shareholders on realized investment gains. In investing to achieve its investment objective, the Fund may hold securities for any period of time.

The Fund may engage in active and frequent trading of portfolio securities, which means that portfolio turnover can be expected to exceed 100%. The Fund has, in the past, experienced portfolio turnover rates that were significantly in excess of 100%.

For the past two fiscal years, the Fund’s portfolio turnover rates were as follows:

         

Fund

 

7/31/15

   

7/31/16

 

Delaware Floating Rate Fund

 

86%

   

90%

 

Investment Strategies and Risks

The Fund’s investment strategies and risks are described in the Prospectus. Certain additional information is provided below. The following discussion supplements the description of the Fund’s investment strategies and risks that are included in the Prospectus. The Fund's investment strategies are nonfundamental and may be changed without shareholder approval.

Asset-Backed Securities

The Fund may invest a portion of its assets in securities that are backed by assets such as receivables on home equity and credit loans; receivables regarding automobile, mobile home and recreational vehicle loans; wholesale dealer floor plans; and leases, or other loans or financial receivables currently available or that may be developed in the future.

Asset-backed receivables are securitized in either a pass-through or a pay-through structure. Pass-through securities provide investors with an income stream consisting of both principal and interest payments in respect of the receivables in the underlying pool. Pay-through asset-backed securities are debt obligations issued usually by a special purpose entity. The securities are collateralized by the various receivables and the payments on the underlying receivables provide the proceeds to pay the debt service on the debt obligations issued.

The rate of principal payment on asset-backed securities generally depends on the rate of principal payments received on the underlying assets. Such rate of payments may be affected by economic and various other factors such as changes in interest rates or the concentration of collateral in a particular geographic area. Therefore, the yield may be difficult to predict and actual yield to maturity may be more or less than the anticipated yield


 

to maturity. The credit quality of most asset-backed securities depends primarily on the credit quality of the assets underlying such securities, how well the entities issuing the securities are insulated from the credit risk of the originator or affiliated entities, and the amount of credit support provided to the securities. Due to the shorter maturity of the collateral backing such securities, there tends to be less of a risk of substantial prepayment than with mortgage-backed securities (“MBS”) but the risk of such a prepayment does exist. Such asset-backed securities do, however, involve certain risks not associated with MBS, including the risk that security interests cannot be adequately, or in many cases ever, established, and other risks that may be peculiar to particular classes of collateral. For example, with respect to credit card receivables, a number of state and federal consumer credit laws give debtors the right to set off certain amounts owed on the credit cards, thereby reducing the outstanding balance. In the case of automobile receivables, there is a risk that the holders may not have either a proper or first security interest in all of the obligations backing such receivables due to the large number of vehicles involved in a typical issuance and technical requirements under state laws; therefore, recoveries on repossessed collateral may not always be available to support payments on the securities.

Asset-backed securities are often backed by a pool of assets representing the obligations of a number of different parties. To lessen the effect of failures by obligors on underlying assets to make payments, such securities may contain elements of credit support. Such credit support falls into two categories: (i) liquidity protection, and (ii) protection against losses resulting from ultimate default by an obligor on the underlying assets. Liquidity protection refers to the provision of advances, generally by the entity administering the pool of assets, to ensure that the receipt of payments due on the underlying pool is timely. Protection against losses resulting from ultimate default enhances the likelihood of payments of the obligations on at least some of the assets in the pool. Such protection may be provided through guarantees, insurance policies, or letters of credit obtained by the issuer or sponsor from third parties, through various means of structuring the transaction, or through a combination of such approaches. The Fund will not pay any additional fees for such credit support, although the existence of credit support may increase the price of a security.

Examples of credit support arising out of the structure of the transaction include “senior-subordinated securities” (multiple-class securities with one or more classes subordinate to other classes as to the payment of principal thereof and interest thereon, with the result that defaults on the underlying assets are borne first by the holders of the subordinated class), creation of “reserve funds” (where cash or investments, sometimes funded from a portion of the payments on the underlying assets, are held in reserve against future losses), and “over collateralization” (where the scheduled payments on, or the principal amount of, the underlying assets exceed that required to make payments of the securities and pay any servicing or other fees). The degree of credit support provided for each issue is generally based on historical information respecting the level of credit risk associated with the underlying assets. Delinquencies or losses in excess of those anticipated could adversely affect the return on an investment in such issue.

Borrowing

The 1940 Act and the SEC’s current rules, exemptions, and interpretations thereunder, permit the Fund to borrow up to one-third of the value of its total assets (including the amount borrowed, but less all liabilities and indebtedness not represented by senior securities) from banks. The Fund is required to maintain continuous asset coverage of at least 300% with respect to such borrowings and to reduce the amount of its respective borrowings (within three days excluding Sundays and holidays) to restore such coverage if it should decline to less than 300% due to market fluctuations or otherwise. In the event that the Fund is required to reduce its borrowings, it may have to sell portfolio holdings, even if such sale of the Fund’s holdings would be disadvantageous from an investment standpoint. Investment securities will not be purchased while the Fund has an outstanding borrowing.

In addition to borrowings that are subject to 300% asset coverage and are considered by the SEC to be permitted “senior securities,” the Fund is also permitted under the 1940 Act to borrow for temporary purposes in an amount not exceeding 5% of the value of its total assets at the time when the loan is made. A loan will be presumed to be for temporary purposes if it is repaid within 60 days and is not extended or renewed.

Combined Transactions

The Fund may enter into combined transactions.

Combined transactions may include multiple options transactions; multiple futures transactions; multiple currency transactions (including forward currency contracts) and multiple interest rate transactions; and any combination of futures, options, currency, and interest rate transactions (“component” transactions) instead of a single transaction, as part of a single or combined strategy when, in the opinion of the Manager, it is in the best interests of the Fund to do so. A combined transaction will usually contain elements of risk that are present in each of its component transactions. Although combined transactions are normally entered into based on the Manager’s judgment that the combined strategies will reduce risk or otherwise more effectively achieve the desired portfolio management goal, it is possible that the combination will instead increase such risks or hinder achievement of the portfolio management objective.

Convertible Securities

From time to time, a portion of the Fund’s assets may be invested in convertible and debt securities of issuers in any industry. The Fund may invest in convertible preferred stocks that offer enhanced yield features, which provide the Fund with the opportunity to earn higher dividend income than is available on a company’s common stock, or in other enhanced convertible securities as described below.

A convertible security is generally a debt obligation, preferred stock, or other security that may be converted within a specified period of time into a certain amount of common stock of the same or of a different issuer. The conversion may occur at the option of the investor in or issuer of the


 

Investment Strategies and Risks

security, or upon a predetermined event. A convertible security typically provides a fixed income stream and the opportunity, through its conversion feature, to participate in the capital appreciation resulting from a market price advance in its underlying common stock. As with a straight fixed income security, a convertible security tends to increase in market value when interest rates decline and decrease in value when interest rates rise. Like common stock, the value of a convertible security also tends to increase as the market value of the underlying stock rises, and it tends to decrease as the market value of the underlying stock declines. Because both interest rate and market movements can influence its value, a convertible security is usually not as sensitive to interest rate changes as a similar fixed income security, nor is it as sensitive to changes in share price as its underlying stock. Convertible securities are also subject to risks that affect debt securities in general.

Although less than an investment in the underlying stock, the potential for gain on an investment in a convertible security is greater than for similar nonconvertible securities. As a result, a lower yield is generally offered on convertible securities than on otherwise equivalent nonconvertible securities. There is no guarantee that the Fund will realize gains on a convertible security in excess of the foregone yield it accepts to invest in such convertible security.

A convertible security is usually issued either by an operating company or by an investment bank. When issued by an operating company, a convertible security tends to be senior to the company’s common stock, but may be subordinate to other types of fixed income securities issued by that company. When a convertible security issued by an operating company is “converted,” the operating company often issues new stock to the holder of the convertible security. However, if the convertible security is redeemable and the parity price of the convertible security is less than the call price, the operating company may pay out cash instead of common stock.

If the convertible security is issued by an investment bank or other sponsor, the security is an obligation of and is convertible through the issuing investment bank. However, the common stock received upon conversion is that of a company other than the investment bank or sponsor. The issuer of a convertible security may be important in determining the security’s true value. This is because the holder of a convertible security will have recourse only to the issuer.

Convertible preferred stock. A convertible preferred stock is usually treated like a preferred stock for the Fund’s financial reporting, credit rating, and investment policies, and limitations purposes. A preferred stock is subordinated to all debt obligations in the event of insolvency, and an issuer’s failure to make a dividend payment is generally not an event of default entitling the preferred shareholder to take action. A preferred stock generally has no maturity date, so its market value is dependent on the issuer’s business prospects for an indefinite period of time. Distributions from preferred stock are dividends, rather than interest payments, and are usually treated as such for tax purposes. Investments in convertible preferred stock, as compared to the debt obligations of an issuer, generally increase the Fund’s exposure to the credit risk of the issuer and market risk generally, because convertible preferred stock will fare more poorly if the issuer defaults or markets suffer.

Risks. An investment in a convertible security may involve risks. The Fund may have difficulty disposing of such securities because there may be a thin trading market for a particular security at any given time. Reduced liquidity may have an adverse impact on market price and the Fund’s ability to dispose of a security when necessary to meet the Fund’s liquidity needs or in response to a specific economic event, such as the deterioration in the creditworthiness of an issuer. Reduced liquidity in the secondary market for certain securities may also make it more difficult for the Fund to obtain market quotations based on actual trades for purposes of valuing the Fund’s portfolio. Although the Fund intends to acquire convertible securities that the Manager considers to be liquid (i.e., those securities that the Manager determines may be sold on an exchange, or an institutional or other substantial market), there can be no assurances that this will be achieved. Certain securities and markets can become illiquid quickly, resulting in liquidity risk for the Fund. The Fund may also encounter difficulty valuing convertible securities due to illiquidity or other circumstances that make it difficult for the Fund to obtain timely market quotations based on actual trades for convertible securities.

Depositary Receipts

Many securities of foreign issuers are represented by ADRs, GDRs, and EDRs (collectively, “depositary receipts”). Generally, depositary receipts in registered form are designed for use in the U.S. securities market and depositary receipts in bearer form are designed for use in securities markets outside the U.S. ADRs evidence ownership of, and represent the right to receive, securities of foreign issuers deposited in a domestic bank or trust company or a foreign correspondent bank. Prices of ADRs are quoted in U.S. dollars, and ADRs are traded in the U.S. on exchanges or over-the-counter. While ADRs do not eliminate all the risks associated with foreign investments, by investing in ADRs rather than directly in the stock of foreign issuers, a Fund will avoid currency and certain foreign market trading risks during the settlement period for either purchases or sales. In general, there is a large, liquid market in the U.S. for ADRs quoted on a national securities exchange. The information available for ADRs is subject to the accounting, auditing, and financial reporting standards of the U.S. market or exchange on which they are traded, which standards are generally more uniform and more exacting than those to which many foreign issuers may be subject.

EDRs and GDRs are typically issued by foreign banks or trust companies and evidence ownership of underlying securities issued by either a foreign or a U.S. corporation. EDRs and GDRs may not necessarily be denominated in the same currency as the underlying securities into which they may be converted. The underlying shares are held in trust by a custodian bank or similar financial institution in the issuer’s home country. If the issuer’s home country does not have developed financial markets, a Fund could be exposed to the credit risk of the custodian or financial institution and greater market risk. The depository bank may not have physical custody of the underlying securities at all times and may charge fees for various


 

services, including forwarding dividends and interest and corporate actions. The Fund would be expected to pay a share of the additional fees, which it would not pay if investing directly in the foreign securities. The Fund may experience delays in receiving its dividend and interest payments or exercising rights as a shareholder.

Depositary receipts may reduce some but not eliminate all the risks inherent in investing in the securities of foreign issuers. Depositary receipts are still subject to the political and economic risks of the underlying issuer’s country and are still subject to foreign currency exchange risk. Depositary receipts will be issued under sponsored or unsponsored programs. In sponsored programs, an issuer has made arrangements to have its securities traded in the form of depositary receipts. In unsponsored programs, the issuer may not be directly involved in the creation of the program. Although regulatory requirements with respect to sponsored and unsponsored programs are generally similar, in some cases it may be easier to obtain financial information about an issuer that has participated in the creation of a sponsored program. There may be an increased possibility of untimely responses to certain corporate actions of the issuer, such as stock splits and rights offerings, in an unsponsored program. Accordingly, there may be less information available regarding issuers of securities underlying unsponsored programs and there may not be a correlation between this information and the market value of the depositary receipts. If the Fund’s investment depends on obligations being met by the arranger as well as the issuer of an unsponsored program, the Fund will be exposed to additional credit risk.

Derivatives Instruments

The Fund may invest in some or all of the following types of derivatives instruments: forward foreign currency contracts, futures, options, and swaps, all of which are described in more detail in this section of the SAI.

Generally, derivatives are financial instruments whose values depend on or are derived from the value of one or more underlying assets, reference rates, indices, or other market factors (a “reference instrument”) and may relate to stocks, bonds, interest rates, currencies, commodities, or related indices. Derivatives instruments allow the Fund to gain or reduce exposure to the value of a reference instrument without actually owning or selling the instrument. Because some derivatives instruments used by the Fund may oblige it to make payments or incur additional obligations in the future, the SEC requires mutual funds to “cover” or segregate liquid assets equal to the potential exposure created by such derivatives. For more information about segregating assets, see “Segregation of Assets” in this section.

The Fund may value derivatives instruments at market value, notional value, or full exposure value (i.e., the sum of the notional amount for the contract plus the market value). The manner in which certain securities or other instruments are valued by the Fund may differ from the manner in which those investments are valued by other types of investors.

Exclusion from commodity pool operator definition. The Fund has claimed an exclusion from the definition of “commodity pool operator” (“CPO”) under the Commodity Exchange Act (“CEA”) and the rules of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”) and, therefore, is not subject to CFTC registration or regulation as a CPO. In addition, the Manager is relying upon a related exclusion from the definition of “commodity trading advisor” (“CTA”) under the CEA and the rules of the CFTC.

The terms of the CPO exclusion require the Fund, among other things, to adhere to certain limits on its investments in “commodity interests.” Commodity interests include commodity futures, commodity options, and certain swaps, which in turn include nondeliverable currency forwards, as further described below. Because the Manager and the Fund intend to comply with the terms of the CPO exclusion, the Fund may, in the future, need to adjust its investment strategies, consistent with its investment goal, to limit its investments in these types of instruments. The Fund is not intended as a vehicle for trading in the commodity futures, commodity options, or swaps markets. The CFTC has neither reviewed nor approved the Manager’s reliance on these exclusions, or the Fund, its investment strategies, or this SAI.

Generally, the exclusion from CPO regulation on which the Manager relies requires the Fund to meet one of the following tests for its commodity interest positions, other than positions entered into for bona fide hedging purposes (as defined in the rules of the CFTC): either (1) the aggregate initial margin and premiums required to establish the Fund’s positions in commodity interests may not exceed 5% of the liquidation value of the Fund’s portfolio (after taking into account unrealized profits and unrealized losses on any such positions); or (2) the aggregate net notional value of the Fund’s commodity interest positions, determined at the time the most recent such position was established, may not exceed the liquidation value of the Fund’s portfolio (after taking into account unrealized profits and unrealized losses on any such positions). In addition to meeting one of these trading limitations, the Fund may not be marketed as a commodity pool or otherwise as a vehicle for trading in the commodity futures, commodity options, or swaps markets. If, in the future, the Fund can no longer satisfy these requirements, the Manager would withdraw its notice claiming an exclusion from the definition of a CPO, and the Manager would be subject to registration and regulation as a CPO with respect to the Fund, in accordance with CFTC rules that apply to CPOs of registered investment companies. Generally, these rules allow for substituted compliance with CFTC disclosure and shareholder reporting requirements, based on the Manager’s compliance with comparable SEC requirements. However, as a result of CFTC regulation with respect to the Fund, the Fund may incur additional compliance and other expenses.

Developing government regulation of derivatives. The regulation of cleared and uncleared swaps, as well as other derivatives, is a rapidly changing area of law and is subject to modification by government and judicial action. In addition, the SEC, CFTC, and the exchanges are authorized to take extraordinary actions in the event of a market emergency, including, for example, the implementation or reduction of speculative position limits, the implementation of higher margin requirements, the establishment of daily price limits, and the suspension of trading.


 

Investment Strategies and Risks

It is not possible to predict fully the effects of current or future regulation. However, it is possible that developments in government regulation of various types of derivatives instruments, such as speculative position limits on certain types of derivatives, or limits or restrictions on the counterparties with which the Fund engages in derivatives transactions, may limit or prevent the Fund from using or limit the Fund’s use of these instruments effectively as a part of its investment strategy, and could adversely affect the Fund’s ability to achieve its investment goal(s). The Manager will continue to monitor developments in this area. New requirements, even if not directly applicable to the Fund, may increase the cost of the Fund’s investments and cost of doing business.

Duration

Most debt obligations provide interest (coupon) payments in addition to a final (par) payment at maturity. Some obligations also have call provisions. Depending on the relative magnitude of these payments and the nature of the call provisions, the market values of debt obligations may respond differently to changes in the level and structure of interest rates. Traditionally, a debt security’s term-to-maturity has been used as a proxy for the sensitivity of the security’s price to changes in interest rates (which is the interest rate risk or volatility of the security). However, term-to-maturity measures only the time until a debt security provides its final payment, taking no account of the pattern of the security’s payments prior to maturity.

Duration is a measure of the expected life of a fixed income security on a present value basis that was developed as a more precise alternative to the concept of term-to-maturity. Duration incorporates a bond’s yield, coupon interest payments, final maturity, and call features into one measure. Duration is one of the fundamental tools used by the Manager in the selection of fixed income securities. Duration takes the length of the time intervals between the present time and the time that the interest and principal payments are scheduled or, in the case of a callable bond, expected to be received, and weights them by the present values of the cash to be received at each future point in time. For any fixed income security with interest payments occurring prior to the payment of principal, duration is always less than maturity. In general, all other factors being the same, the lower the stated or coupon rate of interest of a fixed income security, the longer the duration of the security; conversely, the higher the stated or coupon rate of interest of a fixed income security, the shorter the duration of the security.

There are some situations where even the standard duration calculation does not properly reflect the interest rate exposure of a security. For example, floating and variable rate securities often have final maturities of 10 or more years; however, their interest rate exposure corresponds to the frequency of the coupon reset. Another example where the interest rate exposure is not properly captured by duration is the case of mortgage pass-through securities. The stated final maturity of such securities is generally 30 years, but current prepayment rates are more critical in determining the securities’ interest rate exposure. In these and other similar situations, the Manager will use sophisticated analytical techniques that incorporate the economic life of a security into the determination of its interest rate exposure.

Equity Securities

The Fund may invest in income-producing equity securities.

Equity securities represent ownership interests in a company and will generally consist of common stocks, preferred stocks, and warrants to acquire common stocks. Investments in equity securities in general are subject to market risks that may cause their prices to fluctuate over time. Fluctuations in the value of equity securities in which the Fund invests will cause the net asset value of the Fund to fluctuate.

Foreign Investments

The Fund has the right to purchase non-U.S. securities, including up to 15% of its total assets in securities of issuers located in emerging markets. Foreign securities may include American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”), Global Depositary Receipts (“GDRs”), and European Depositary Receipts (“EDRs”).

Overview. Investors should consider carefully the substantial risks associated with investing in the securities of certain governments and companies located in, or having substantial operations in, foreign countries, which are in addition to the usual risks inherent in domestic investments. As with U.S. securities, the value of foreign securities is affected by general economic conditions and individual issuer and industry earnings prospects.

There is the possibility of cessation of trading on foreign exchanges, expropriation, nationalization of assets, confiscatory or punitive taxation, withholding and other foreign taxes on income or other amounts, foreign exchange controls (which may include suspension of the ability to transfer currency from a given country), restrictions on removal of assets, political or social instability, military action or unrest, or diplomatic developments that could affect investments in securities of issuers in foreign nations. There is no assurance that the Manager will be able to anticipate these potential events. In addition, the value of securities denominated in foreign currencies and of dividends and interest paid with respect to such securities will fluctuate based on the relative strength of the U.S. dollar to such foreign currencies.

There may be less publicly available information about foreign issuers that is comparable to the reports and ratings published about issuers in the U.S. Foreign issuers generally are not subject to uniform accounting or financial reporting standards. Auditing practices and requirements may not be comparable to those applicable to U.S. issuers. Certain countries’ legal institutions, financial markets, and services are less developed than those in the U.S. or other major economies. The Fund may have greater difficulty voting proxies, exercising shareholder rights, securing dividends and obtaining information regarding corporate actions on a timely basis, pursuing legal remedies, and obtaining judgments with respect to foreign


 

investments in foreign courts than with respect to domestic issuers in U.S. courts. The costs associated with foreign investments, including withholding taxes, brokerage commissions, and custodial costs, are generally higher than with U.S. investments.

Certain countries require governmental approval prior to investments by foreign persons, or limit the amount of investment by foreign persons in a particular company. Some countries limit the investment of foreign persons to only a specific class of securities of an issuer that may have less advantageous terms than securities of the issuer available for purchase by nationals. Although securities subject to such restrictions may be marketable abroad, they may be less liquid than foreign securities of the same class that are not subject to such restrictions. In some countries the repatriation of investment income, capital, and proceeds of sales by foreign investors may require governmental registration and/or approval. The Fund could be adversely affected by delays in or a refusal to grant any required governmental registration or approval for repatriation.

From time to time, trading in a foreign market may be interrupted. Foreign markets also have substantially less volume than the U.S. markets and securities of some foreign issuers are less liquid and more volatile than securities of comparable U.S. issuers. The Fund, therefore, may encounter difficulty in obtaining market quotations for purposes of valuing its portfolio and calculating its net asset value (“NAV”).

In many foreign countries there is less government supervision and regulation of stock exchanges, brokers, and listed companies than in the U.S., which may result in greater potential for fraud or market manipulation. Foreign over-the-counter markets tend to be less regulated than foreign stock exchange markets and, in certain countries, may be totally unregulated. Brokerage commission rates in foreign countries, which generally are fixed rather than subject to negotiation as in the U.S., are likely to be higher. Foreign security trading, settlement, and custodial practices (including those involving securities settlement where assets may be released prior to receipt of payment) are often less developed than those in U.S. markets, may be cumbersome, and may result in increased risk or substantial delays. This could occur in the event of a failed trade or the insolvency of, or breach of duty by, a foreign broker/dealer, securities depository, or foreign subcustodian.

To the extent that the Fund invests a significant portion of its assets in a specific geographic region or country, the Fund will have more exposure to economic risks related to such region or country than the Fund whose investments are more geographically diversified. Adverse conditions or changes in policies in a certain region or country can affect securities of other countries whose economies appear to be unrelated but are otherwise connected. In the event of economic or political turmoil, a deterioration of diplomatic relations or a natural or man-made disaster in a region or country where a substantial portion of the Fund’s assets are invested, the Fund may have difficulty meeting a large number of shareholder redemption requests.

The holding of foreign securities may be limited by the Fund to avoid investment in certain Passive Foreign Investment Companies (“PFICs”).

Developing markets or emerging markets. Investments in companies domiciled or with significant operations in developing market or emerging market countries may be subject to potentially higher risks than investments in developed countries. These risks include, among others (i) less social, political, and economic stability; (ii) smaller securities markets with low or nonexistent trading volume, which result in greater illiquidity and greater price volatility; (iii) certain national policies which may restrict the Fund’s investment opportunities, including restrictions on investment in issuers or industries deemed sensitive to national interests; (iv) foreign taxation, including less transparent and established taxation policies; (v) less developed regulatory or legal structures governing private or foreign investment or allowing for judicial redress for injury to private property; (vi) the absence, until recently in many developing market countries, of a capital market structure or market-oriented economy; (vii) more widespread corruption and fraud; (viii) the financial institutions with which the Fund may trade may not possess the same degree of financial sophistication, creditworthiness, or resources as those in developed markets; and (ix) the possibility that recent favorable economic developments in some developing market countries may be slowed or reversed by unanticipated economic, political, or social events in such countries.

In addition, many developing market countries have experienced substantial and, during some periods, extremely high rates of inflation, for many years. Inflation and rapid fluctuations in inflation rates have had, and may continue to have, negative effects on the economies and securities markets of certain countries. Moreover, the economies of some developing market countries may differ unfavorably from the U.S. economy in such respects as growth of gross domestic product, rate of inflation, currency depreciation, debt burden, capital reinvestment, resource self-sufficiency, and balance of payments position. The economies of some developing market countries may be based on only a few industries, and may be highly vulnerable to changes in local or global trade conditions.

Settlement systems in developing market countries may be less organized than in developed countries. Supervisory authorities may also be unable to apply standards which are comparable with those in more developed countries. There may be risks that settlement may be delayed and that cash or securities belonging to the Fund may be in jeopardy because of failures of or defects in the settlement systems. Market practice may require that payment be made prior to receipt of the security which is being purchased or that delivery of a security must be made before payment is received. In such cases, default by a broker or bank (the “counterparty”) through whom the relevant transaction is effected might result in a loss being suffered by the Fund. The Fund seeks, where possible, to use counterparties whose financial status reduces this risk. However, there can be no certainty that the Fund will be successful in eliminating or reducing this risk, particularly as counterparties operating in developing market countries frequently lack the substance, capitalization, and/or financial resources of those in developed countries. Uncertainties in the operation of settlement systems in individual markets may increase the risk of competing claims to securities held by or to be transferred to the Fund. Legal compensation schemes may be nonexistent, limited, or inadequate to meet the Fund’s claims in any of these events.

Securities trading in developing markets presents additional credit and financial risks. The Fund may have limited access to, or there may be a limited number of, potential counterparties that trade in the securities of developing market issuers. Governmental regulations may restrict potential


 

Investment Strategies and Risks

counterparties to certain financial institutions located or operating in the particular developing market. Potential counterparties may not possess, adopt, or implement creditworthiness standards, financial reporting standards, or legal and contractual protections similar to those in developed markets. Currency and other hedging techniques may not be available or may be limited.

The local taxation of income and capital gains accruing to nonresidents varies among developing market countries and may be comparatively high. Developing market countries typically have less well-defined tax laws and procedures and such laws may permit retroactive taxation so that the Fund could in the future become subject to local tax liabilities that had not been anticipated in conducting its investment activities or valuing its assets.

Many developing market countries suffer from uncertainty and corruption in their legal frameworks. Legislation may be difficult to interpret and laws may be too new to provide any precedential value. Laws regarding foreign investment and private property may be weak or nonexistent. Investments in developing market countries may involve risks of nationalization, expropriation, and confiscatory taxation. For example, the Communist governments of a number of Eastern European countries expropriated large amounts of private property in the past, in many cases without adequate compensation, and there can be no assurance that similar expropriation will not occur in the future. In the event of expropriation, the Fund could lose all or a substantial portion of any investments it has made in the affected countries. Accounting, auditing, and reporting standards in certain countries in which the Fund may invest may not provide the same degree of investor protection or information to investors as would generally apply in major securities markets. In addition, it is possible that purported securities in which the Fund invested may subsequently be found to be fraudulent and as a consequence the Fund could suffer losses.

Finally, currencies of developing market countries are subject to significantly greater risks than currencies of developed countries. Some developing market currencies may not be internationally traded or may be subject to strict controls by local governments, resulting in undervalued or overvalued currencies and associated difficulties with the valuation of assets, including the Fund’s securities, denominated in that currency. Some developing market countries have experienced balance of payment deficits and shortages in foreign exchange reserves. Governments have responded by restricting currency conversions. Future restrictive exchange controls could prevent or restrict a company’s ability to make dividend or interest payments in the original currency of the obligation (usually U.S. dollars). In addition, even though the currencies of some developing market countries, such as certain Eastern European countries, may be convertible into U.S. dollars, the conversion rates may be artificial to the actual market values and may be adverse to the Fund’s shareholders.

Foreign governmental and supranational debt securities. Investments in debt securities of foreign governmental or supranational issuers are subject to all the risks associated with investments in U.S. and foreign securities and certain additional risks.

Foreign government debt securities, sometimes known as sovereign debt securities, include debt securities issued, sponsored, or guaranteed by: governments or governmental agencies, instrumentalities, or political subdivisions located in emerging or developed market countries; government owned, controlled, or sponsored entities located in emerging or developed market countries; and entities organized and operated for the purpose of restructuring the investment characteristics of instruments issued by any of the above issuers.

A supranational entity is a bank, commission, or company established or financially supported by the national governments of one or more countries to promote reconstruction, trade, harmonization of standards or laws; economic development; and humanitarian, political, or environmental initiatives. Supranational debt obligations include: Brady Bonds (which are debt securities issued under the framework of the Brady Plan as a means for debtor nations to restructure their outstanding external indebtedness); participations in loans between emerging market governments and financial institutions; and debt securities issued by supranational entities such as the World Bank, Asia Development Bank, European Investment Bank, and the European Economic Community.

Foreign government debt securities are subject to risks in addition to those relating to debt securities generally. Governmental issuers of foreign debt securities may be unwilling or unable to pay interest and repay principal, or otherwise meet obligations, when due and may require that the conditions for payment be renegotiated. As a sovereign entity, the issuing government may be immune from lawsuits in the event of its failure or refusal to pay the obligations when due. The debtor’s willingness or ability to repay in a timely manner may be affected by, among other factors, its cash flow situation, the extent of its non-U.S. reserves, the availability of sufficient non-U.S. exchange on the date a payment is due, the relative size of the debt service burden to the issuing country’s economy as a whole, the sovereign debtor’s policy toward principal international lenders, such as the International Monetary Fund or the World Bank, and the political considerations or constraints to which the sovereign debtor may be subject. Governmental debtors also will be dependent on expected disbursements from foreign governments or multinational agencies and the country’s access to, or balance of, trade. Some governmental debtors have in the past been able to reschedule or restructure their debt payments without the approval of debt holders or declare moratoria on payments, and similar occurrences may happen in the future. There is no bankruptcy proceeding by which the Fund may collect in whole or in part on debt subject to default by a government.

Foreign currency exchange rates. Changes in foreign currency exchange rates will affect the U.S. dollar market value of securities denominated in such foreign currencies and any income received or expenses paid by the Fund in that foreign currency. This may affect the Fund’s share price, income, and distributions to shareholders. Some countries may have fixed or managed currencies that are not free-floating against the U.S. dollar. It will be more difficult for the Manager to value securities denominated in currencies that are fixed or managed. Certain currencies may not be internationally traded, which could cause illiquidity with respect to the Fund’s investments in that currency and any securities denominated in that currency. Currency markets generally are not as regulated as securities markets. The Fund endeavors to buy and sell foreign currencies on as favorable a basis as practicable. Some price spread in currency exchanges (to cover service charges) may be incurred, particularly when the Fund changes investments


 

from one country to another or when proceeds of the sale of securities in U.S. dollars are used for the purchase of securities denominated in foreign currencies. Some countries may adopt policies that would prevent the Fund from transferring cash out of the country or withhold portions of interest and dividends at the source.

Certain currencies have experienced a steady devaluation relative to the U.S. dollar. Any devaluations in the currencies in which the Fund’s portfolio securities are denominated may have a detrimental impact on the Fund. Where the exchange rate for a currency declines materially after the Fund’s income has been accrued and translated into U.S. dollars, the Fund may need to redeem portfolio securities to make required distributions. Similarly, if an exchange rate declines between the time the Fund incurs expenses in U.S. dollars and the time such expenses are paid, the Fund will have to convert a greater amount of the currency into U.S. dollars in order to pay the expenses.

Investing in foreign currencies for purposes of gaining from projected changes in exchange rates further increases the Fund’s exposure to foreign securities losses.

The Fund does not consider currencies or other financial commodities or contracts and financial instruments to be physical commodities (which include, for example, oil, precious metals, and grains). Accordingly, the Fund interpret the fundamental restriction to permit it (subject to its investment goals and general investment policies) to invest directly in foreign currencies and other financial commodities and to purchase, sell, or enter into foreign currency futures contracts and options thereon, foreign currency forward contracts, foreign currency options, currency, commodity- and financial instrument-related swap agreements, hybrid instruments, interest rate, securities-related or foreign currency-related futures contracts or other currency-, commodity- or financial instrument-related derivatives, subject to compliance with any applicable provisions of the federal securities or commodities laws. The Fund also interprets its fundamental restriction regarding purchasing and selling physical commodities to permit the Fund to invest in exchange-traded funds or other entities that invest in physical and/or financial commodities.

Forward Foreign Currency Contracts

The Fund values its assets daily in U.S. dollars. It does not intend to convert the value of its foreign holdings into U.S. dollars on a daily basis. The Fund will, however, from time to time, purchase or sell foreign currencies and/or engage in forward foreign currency contracts in order to facilitate or expedite settlement of Fund transactions and to minimize currency value fluctuations. The Fund may conduct its foreign currency exchange contracts on a spot (i.e., cash) basis at the spot rate prevailing in the foreign currency exchange market or through entering into contracts to purchase or sell foreign currencies at a future date (i.e., a “forward foreign currency” contract or “forward” contract), and investors should be aware of the costs of currency conversion.

When the Fund enters into a contract for the purchase or sale of a security denominated in a foreign currency, or when it anticipates the receipt in a foreign currency of dividends or interest payments on a security that it holds, the Fund may desire to “lock in” the U.S. dollar price of the security or the U.S. dollar equivalent of such dividend or interest payment as the case may be. By entering into a forward contract for a fixed amount of dollars for the purchase or sale of the amount of foreign currency involved in the underlying transactions, the Fund will be able to protect itself against a possible loss resulting from an adverse change in the relationship between the U.S. dollar and the subject foreign currency during the period between the date on which the security is purchased or sold, or on which the dividend or interest payment is declared, and the date on which such payments are made or received.

Additionally, when the Manager believes that the currency of a particular foreign country may suffer a substantial decline against the U.S. dollar, the Fund may enter into a forward contract for a fixed amount of dollars, to sell the amount of foreign currency approximating the value of some or all of the securities of the Fund denominated in such foreign currency.

The Fund may use forward currency contracts to manage currency risks and to facilitate transactions in foreign securities. The following discussion summarizes the principal currency management strategies involving forward contracts that could be used by the Fund.

In connection with purchases and sales of securities denominated in foreign currencies, the Fund may enter into forward currency contracts to fix a definite price for the purchase or sale in advance of the trade’s settlement date. This technique is sometimes referred to as a “settlement hedge” or “transaction hedge.” The Manager expects to enter into settlement hedges in the normal course of managing the Fund’s foreign investments. The Fund could also enter into forward contracts to purchase or sell a foreign currency in anticipation of future purchases or sales of securities denominated in a foreign currency, even if the specific investments have not yet been selected by the Manager.

The Fund may also use forward contracts to hedge against a decline in the value of existing investments denominated in a foreign currency. For example, if the Fund owned securities denominated in pounds sterling, it could enter into a forward contract to sell pounds sterling in return for U.S. dollars to hedge against possible declines in the pound’s value. Such a hedge (sometimes referred to as a “position hedge”) would tend to offset both positive and negative currency fluctuations, but would not offset changes in security values caused by other factors. The Fund could also hedge the position by selling another currency expected to perform similarly to the pound sterling — for example, by entering into a forward contract to sell euros in return for U.S. dollars. This type of hedge, sometimes referred to as a “proxy hedge,” could offer advantages in terms of cost, yield, or efficiency, but generally will not hedge currency exposure as effectively as a simple hedge into U.S. dollars. Proxy hedges may result in losses if the currency used to hedge does not perform similarly to the currency in which the hedged securities are denominated.


 

Investment Strategies and Risks

Under certain conditions, SEC guidelines require mutual funds to set aside cash and appropriate liquid assets in a segregated custodian account to cover forward currency contracts. As required by SEC guidelines, the Fund will segregate assets to cover forward currency contracts, if any, whose purpose is essentially speculative.

Under definitions adopted by the CFTC and the SEC, nondeliverable forwards are considered swaps, and therefore are included in the definition of “commodity interests.” A nondeliverable forward is a cash-settled, short-term forward contract on a thinly traded or nonconvertible foreign currency, where the profit or loss at the time of the settlement date is calculated by taking the difference between the agreed upon exchange rate and the spot rate at the time of settlement, for an agreed upon notional amount of funds. Although nondeliverable forwards have historically been traded in the over-the-counter (“OTC”) market, as swaps they may in the future be required to be centrally cleared and traded on public facilities. Currency and cross currency forwards that qualify as deliverable forwards are not regulated as swaps for most purposes, and are not included in the definition of “commodity interests.” However these forwards are subject to some requirements applicable to swaps, including reporting to swap data repositories, documentation requirements, and business conduct rules applicable to swap dealers.

Risks of forward foreign contracts. The successful use of these transactions will usually depend on the Manager’s ability to accurately forecast currency exchange rate movements. Should exchange rates move in an unexpected manner, the Fund may not achieve the anticipated benefits of the transaction, or it may realize losses. In addition, these techniques could result in a loss if the counterparty to the transaction does not perform as promised, for example, due to bankruptcy or insolvency of the counterparty. While the Fund uses only counterparties that meet its credit quality standards, in unusual or extreme market conditions, a counterparty’s creditworthiness and ability to perform may deteriorate rapidly, and the availability of suitable replacement counterparties may become limited. Moreover, investors should bear in mind that the Fund is not obligated to actively engage in hedging or other currency transactions. For example, the Fund may not have attempted to hedge its exposure to a particular foreign currency at a time when doing so might have avoided a loss.

Currency forward contracts may limit potential gain from a positive change in the relationship between the U.S. dollar and foreign currencies. Unanticipated changes in currency prices may result in poorer overall performance for the Fund than if it had not engaged in such contracts. Moreover, there may be an imperfect correlation between the Fund’s portfolio holdings of securities denominated in a particular currency and the currencies bought or sold in the forward contracts entered into by the Fund. This imperfect correlation may cause the Fund to sustain losses that will prevent the Fund from achieving a complete hedge or expose the Fund to risk of foreign exchange loss.

Futures and Options on Futures

The Fund may invest (buy and sell) in contracts for the purchase or sale for future delivery of securities or foreign currencies. The Fund may enter into such futures contracts to protect against the adverse effects of fluctuations in interest or foreign exchange rates without actually buying or selling the securities or foreign currency. Additionally, when the Fund is not fully invested, it may purchase a call option on a futures contract to hedge against a market advance due to declining interest rates. Consistent with the limited purposes for which it may engage in the futures transactions, the Fund may enter into such transactions to protect against the adverse effects of fluctuations in interest rates without actually buying or selling the securities. With respect to options on futures contracts, when the Fund is not fully invested, it may purchase a call option on a futures contract to hedge against a market advance due to declining interest rates. The Fund may purchase or sell a futures contract on foreign currency to “lock in” exchange rates. The Fund may also purchase and write options to buy or sell futures contracts in which the Fund may invest and enter into related closing transactions. The Fund will not enter into futures contracts and options thereon to the extent that more than 5% of the Fund’s assets are required as futures contract margin deposits and premiums on options, and only to the extent that obligations under such futures contracts and options thereon would not exceed 50% of the Fund’s total assets. In the case of an option that is in-the-money at the time of purchase, the in-the-money amount may be excluded in calculating the 5% limit.

Futures contracts. Generally, a futures contract is a standard binding agreement to buy or sell a specified quantity of an underlying reference instrument, such as a specific security, currency or commodity, at a specified price at a specified later date. A “sale” of a futures contract means the acquisition of a contractual obligation to deliver the underlying reference instrument called for by the contract at a specified price on a specified date. A “purchase” of a futures contract means the acquisition of a contractual obligation to acquire the underlying reference instrument called for by the contract at a specified price on a specified date. The purchase or sale of a futures contract will allow the Fund to increase or decrease its exposure to the underlying reference instrument without having to buy the actual instrument.

The underlying reference instruments to which futures contracts may relate include non-U.S. currencies, interest rates, stock and bond indices, and debt securities, including U.S. government debt obligations. In most cases the contractual obligation under a futures contract may be offset, or “closed out,” before the settlement date so that the parties do not have to make or take delivery. The closing out of a contractual obligation is usually accomplished by buying or selling, as the case may be, an identical, offsetting futures contract. This transaction, which is effected through a member of an exchange, cancels the obligation to make or take delivery of the underlying instrument or asset. Although some futures contracts by their terms require the actual delivery or acquisition of the underlying instrument or asset, some require cash settlement.

Futures contracts may be bought and sold on U.S. and non-U.S. exchanges. Futures contracts in the U.S. have been designed by exchanges that have been designated “contract markets” by the CFTC and must be executed through a futures commission merchant (“FCM”), which is a brokerage firm that is a member of the relevant contract market. Each exchange guarantees performance of the contracts as between the clearing members of the exchange, thereby reducing the risk of counterparty default. Futures contracts may also be entered into on certain exempt markets, including exempt


 

boards of trade and electronic trading facilities, available to certain market participants. Because all transactions in the futures market are made, offset, or fulfilled by an FCM through a clearinghouse associated with the exchange on which the contracts are traded, the Fund will incur brokerage fees when it buys or sells futures contracts.

The Fund generally buys and sells futures contracts only on contract markets (including exchanges or boards of trade) where there appears to be an active market for the futures contracts, but there is no assurance that an active market will exist for any particular contract or at any particular time. An active market makes it more likely that futures contracts will be liquid and bought and sold at competitive market prices. In addition, many of the futures contracts available may be relatively new instruments without a significant trading history. As a result, there can be no assurance that an active market will develop or continue to exist.

When the Fund enters into a futures contract, it must deliver to an account controlled by the FCM (that has been selected by the Fund), an amount referred to as “initial margin” that is typically calculated as an amount equal to the volatility in the market value of a contract over a fixed period. Initial margin requirements are determined by the respective exchanges on which the futures contracts are traded and the FCM. Thereafter, a “variation margin” amount may be required to be paid by the Fund or received by the Fund in accordance with margin controls set for such accounts, depending upon changes in the marked-to-market value of the futures contract. The account is marked-to-market daily and the variation margin is monitored by the Manager and the Fund’s custodian on a daily basis. When the futures contract is closed out, if the Fund has a loss equal to or greater than the margin amount, the margin amount is paid to the FCM along with any loss in excess of the margin amount. If the Fund has a loss of less than the margin amount, the excess margin is returned to the Fund. If the Fund has a gain, the full margin amount and the amount of the gain are paid to the Fund.

Some futures contracts provide for the delivery of securities that are different than those that are specified in the contract. For a futures contract for delivery of debt securities, on the settlement date of the contract, adjustments to the contract can be made to recognize differences in value arising from the delivery of debt securities with a different interest rate from that of the particular debt securities that were specified in the contract. In some cases, securities called for by a futures contract may not have been issued when the contract was written.

Risks of futures contracts. The Fund’s use of futures contracts is subject to the risks associated with derivatives instruments generally. In addition, a purchase or sale of a futures contract may result in losses to the Fund in excess of the amount that the Fund delivered as initial margin. Because of the relatively low margin deposits required, futures trading involves a high degree of leverage; as a result, a relatively small price movement in a futures contract may result in immediate and substantial loss, or gain, to the Fund. In addition, if the Fund has insufficient cash to meet daily variation margin requirements or close out a futures position, it may have to sell securities from its portfolio at a time when it may be disadvantageous to do so. Adverse market movements could cause the Fund to experience substantial losses on an investment in a futures contract.

There is a risk of loss by the Fund of the initial and variation margin deposits in the event of bankruptcy of the FCM with which the Fund has an open position in a futures contract. The assets of the Fund may not be fully protected in the event of the bankruptcy of the FCM or central counterparty because the Fund might be limited to recovering only a pro rata share of all available funds and margin segregated on behalf of an FCM’s customers. If the FCM does not provide accurate reporting, the Fund is also subject to the risk that the FCM could use the Fund’s assets, which are held in an omnibus account with assets belonging to the FCM’s other customers, to satisfy its own financial obligations or the payment obligations of another customer to the central counterparty.

The Fund may not be able to properly hedge or effect its strategy when a liquid market is unavailable for the futures contract the Fund wishes to close, which may at times occur. In addition, when futures contracts are used for hedging, there may be an imperfect correlation between movements in the prices of the underlying reference instrument on which the futures contract is based and movements in the prices of the assets sought to be hedged.

If the Manager’s investment judgment about the general direction of market prices or interest or currency exchange rates is incorrect, the Fund’s overall performance will be poorer than if it had not entered into a futures contract. For example, if the Fund has purchased futures to hedge against the possibility of an increase in interest rates that would adversely affect the price of bonds held in its portfolio and interest rates instead decrease, the Fund will lose part or all of the benefit of the increased value of the bonds which it has hedged. This is because its losses in its futures positions will offset some or all of its gains from the increased value of the bonds.

The difference (called the “spread”) between prices in the cash market for the purchase and sale of the underlying reference instrument and the prices in the futures market is subject to fluctuations and distortions due to differences in the nature of those two markets. First, all participants in the futures market are subject to initial deposit and variation margin requirements. Rather than meeting additional variation margin requirements, investors may close futures contracts through offsetting transactions that could distort the normal pricing spread between the cash and futures markets. Second, the liquidity of the futures markets depends on participants entering into offsetting transactions rather than making or taking delivery of the underlying instrument. To the extent participants decide to make or take delivery, liquidity in the futures market could be reduced, resulting in pricing distortion. Third, from the point of view of speculators, the margin deposit requirements that apply in the futures market are less onerous than similar margin requirements in the securities market. Therefore, increased participation by speculators in the futures market may cause temporary price distortions. When such distortions occur, a correct forecast of general trends in the price of an underlying reference instrument by the Manager may still not necessarily result in a profitable transaction.


 

Investment Strategies and Risks

Futures contracts that are traded on non-U.S. exchanges may not be as liquid as those purchased on CFTC-designated contract markets. In addition, non-U.S. futures contracts may be subject to varied regulatory oversight. The price of any non-U.S. futures contract and, therefore, the potential profit and loss thereon, may be affected by any change in the non-U.S. exchange rate between the time a particular order is placed and the time it is liquidated, offset or exercised.

The CFTC and the various exchanges have established limits referred to as “speculative position limits” on the maximum net long or net short position that any person, such as the Fund, may hold or control in a particular futures contract. Trading limits are also imposed on the maximum number of contracts that any person may trade on a particular trading day. An exchange may order the liquidation of positions found to be in violation of these limits and it may impose other sanctions or restrictions. The regulation of futures, as well as other derivatives, is a rapidly changing area of law.

Futures exchanges may also limit the amount of fluctuation permitted in certain futures contract prices during a single trading day. This daily limit establishes the maximum amount that the price of a futures contract may vary either up or down from the previous day’s settlement price. Once the daily limit has been reached in a futures contract subject to the limit, no more trades may be made on that day at a price beyond that limit. The daily limit governs only price movements during a particular trading day and does not limit potential losses because the limit may prevent the liquidation of unfavorable positions. For example, futures prices have occasionally moved to the daily limit for several consecutive trading days with little or no trading, thereby preventing prompt liquidation of positions and subjecting some holders of futures contracts to substantial losses.

Options on futures contracts. Options on futures contracts trade on the same contract markets as the underlying futures contract. When the Fund buys an option, it pays a premium for the right, but does not have the obligation, to purchase (call) or sell (put) a futures contract at a set price (called the exercise price). The purchase of a call or put option on a futures contract, whereby the Fund has the right to purchase or sell, respectively, a particular futures contract, is similar in some respects to the purchase of a call or put option on an individual security or currency. Depending on the premium paid for the option compared to either the price of the futures contract upon which it is based or the price of the underlying reference instrument, the option may be less risky than direct ownership of the futures contract or the underlying reference instrument. For example, the Fund could purchase a call option on a long futures contract when seeking to hedge against an increase in the market value of the underlying reference instrument, such as appreciation in the value of a non-U.S. currency against the U.S. dollar.

The seller (writer) of an option becomes contractually obligated to take the opposite futures position if the buyer of the option exercises its rights to the futures position specified in the option. In return for the premium paid by the buyer, the seller assumes the risk of taking a possibly adverse futures position. In addition, the seller will be required to post and maintain initial and variation margin with the FCM. One goal of selling (writing) options on futures may be to receive the premium paid by the option buyer.

For more general information about the mechanics of purchasing and writing options, see “Options” below.

Risks of options on futures contracts. The Fund’s use of options on futures contracts is subject to the risks related to derivatives instruments generally. In addition, the amount of risk the Fund assumes when it purchases an option on a futures contract is the premium paid for the option plus related transaction costs. The purchase of an option also entails the risk that changes in the value of the underlying futures contract will not be fully reflected in the value of the option purchased. The seller (writer) of an option on a futures contract is subject to the risk of having to take a possibly adverse futures position if the purchaser of the option exercises its rights. If the seller were required to take such a position, it could bear substantial losses. An option writer has potentially unlimited economic risk because its potential loss, except to the extent offset by the premium received, is equal to the amount the option is “in-the-money” at the expiration date. A call option is in-the-money if the value of the underlying futures contract exceeds the exercise price of the option. A put option is in-the-money if the exercise price of the option exceeds the value of the underlying futures contract.

High Yield Securities (“Junk bonds”)

Securities rated lower than BBB- by Standard & Poor’s Financial Services LLC (“S&P”) and Baa3 by Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. (“Moody’s”) or similarly rated by another nationally recognized statistical rating organization (“NRSRO”) are commonly known as “junk bonds.” The Fund may invest up to 100% of its total assets in junk bonds.

Junk bonds are often considered to be speculative and involve significantly higher risk of default on the payment of principal and interest or are more likely to experience significant price fluctuation due to changes in the issuer’s creditworthiness. Market prices of these securities may fluctuate more than higher-rated debt securities and may decline significantly in periods of general economic difficulty which may follow periods of rising interest rates. Although the market for high yield corporate debt securities has been in existence for many years and has weathered previous economic downturns, the market in recent years has experienced a dramatic increase in the large-scale use of such securities to fund highly leveraged corporate acquisitions and restructurings. Accordingly, past experience may not provide an accurate indication of future performance of the high yield bond market, especially during periods of economic recession. See “Appendix A — Description of Ratings.”

The market for lower-rated securities and debt securities of distressed companies may be less active than that for higher-rated securities, which can adversely affect the prices at which these securities can be sold. If market quotations are not available, these securities will be valued in accordance with procedures established by the Board, including the use of outside pricing services. Judgment plays a greater role in valuing high yield corporate


 

debt securities than is the case for securities for which more external sources for quotations and last-sale information are available. Adverse publicity and changing investor perceptions may affect the ability of outside pricing services used by the Fund to value its portfolio securities and the Fund’s ability to dispose of these lower-rated debt securities.

Since the risk of default is higher for lower-quality securities, the Manager’s research and credit analysis is an integral part of managing any securities of this type. In considering junk bond investments, the Manager will attempt to identify those issuers of high yielding securities whose financial conditions are adequate to meet future obligations, have improved, or are expected to improve in the future. The Manager’s analysis focuses on relative values based on such factors as interest or dividend coverage, asset coverage, earnings prospects, and the experience and managerial strength of the issuer. There can be no assurance that such analysis will prove accurate.

The Fund may choose, at its expense or in conjunction with others, to pursue litigation or otherwise exercise its rights as security holder to seek to protect the interests of security holders if it determines this to be in the best interest of shareholders.

Illiquid and Restricted Securities

The Fund is permitted to invest up to 15% of its net assets in illiquid securities. An investment is generally deemed to be illiquid if it cannot be sold within seven days in the ordinary course of business at approximately the amount at which the Fund is valuing the investment. Illiquid securities, for purposes of this policy, include repurchase agreements maturing in more than seven days.

The Fund may purchase privately placed debt and other securities whose resale is restricted under applicable securities laws. Such restricted securities generally offer a higher return than comparable registered securities but involve some additional risk since they can be resold only in privately negotiated transactions or after registration under applicable securities laws. The registration process may involve delays which could result in the Fund obtaining a less favorable price on a resale.

The Fund may invest in restricted securities, including securities eligible for resale without registration pursuant to Rule 144A (“Rule 144A Securities”) under the 1933 Act. Rule 144A exempts many privately placed and legally restricted securities from the registration requirements of the 1933 Act and permits such securities to be freely traded among certain institutional buyers such as the Fund. Restricted securities generally offer a higher return potential than comparable registered securities but involve some additional risk since they can be resold only in privately negotiated transactions or after registration under applicable securities laws. The registration process may involve delays which would result in the Fund obtaining a less favorable price on a resale.

While maintaining oversight, the Board has delegated to the Manager the day-to-day functions of determining whether or not individual Rule 144A Securities are liquid for purposes of the Fund’s limitation on investments in illiquid assets. The Board has instructed the Manager to consider the following factors in determining the liquidity of a Rule 144A Security: (i) the frequency of trades and trading volume for the security; (ii) whether at least three dealers are willing to purchase or sell the security and the number of potential purchasers; (iii) whether at least two dealers are making a market in the security; and (iv) the nature of the security and the nature of the marketplace trades (e.g., the time needed to dispose of the security, the method of soliciting offers, and the mechanics of transfer).

If the Manager determines that a Rule 144A Security which was previously determined to be liquid is no longer liquid and, as a result, the Fund’s holdings of illiquid securities exceed its limit on investment in such securities, the Manager will determine what action shall be taken to ensure that the Fund continues to adhere to such limitation.

Investment Companies

The Fund may invest in other investment companies to the extent permitted by the 1940 Act, SEC rules thereunder and exemptions thereto.

With respect to unaffiliated funds in which the Fund may invest, Section 12(d)(1)(A) of the 1940 Act requires that, as determined immediately after a purchase is made, (i) not more than 5% of the value of the Fund’s total assets will be invested in the securities of any one investment company, (ii) not more than 10% of the value of the Fund’s total assets will be invested in securities of investment companies as a group, and (iii) not more than 3% of the outstanding voting stock of any one investment company will be owned by the Fund. The Fund will limit its investments in unaffiliated funds in accordance with the Section 12(d)(1)(A) limitations set forth above, except to the extent that any rules, regulations or no-action or exemptive relief under the 1940 Act permit the Fund’s investments to exceed such limits in unaffiliated underlying funds. To the extent that the Fund invests in another investment company, because other investment companies pay advisory, administrative and service fees that are borne indirectly by investors, such as the Fund, there may be duplication of investment management and other fees.

The Fund may invest in securities issued by closed-end funds, subject to any of its investment policies. If the Fund invests in shares issued by leveraged closed-end funds, it will face certain risks associated with leveraged investments. Investments in closed-end funds are subject to additional risks. For example, the price of the closed-end fund’s shares quoted on an exchange may not reflect the NAV of the securities held by the closed-end fund, and the premium or discount the share prices represent versus NAV may change over time based on a variety of factors, including supply of and demand for the closed-end fund’s shares, that are outside the closed-end fund’s control or unrelated to the value of the underlying portfolio securities. If the Fund invests in the closed-end fund to gain exposure to the closed-end fund’s investments, the lack of correlation between the performance of the closed-end fund’s investments and the closed-end fund’s share price may compromise or eliminate any such exposure.


 

Investment Strategies and Risks

Loans and Other Indebtedness

The Fund may purchase loans and other indebtedness.

In purchasing a loan, the Fund acquires some or all of the interest of a bank or other lending institution in a loan to a corporate, governmental or other borrower. Many such loans are secured, although some may be unsecured. Such loans may be in default at the time of purchase. Loans that are fully secured offer the Fund more protection than an unsecured loan in the event of nonpayment of scheduled interest or principal. However, there is no assurance that the liquidation of collateral from a secured loan would satisfy the corporate borrower’s obligation, or that the collateral can be liquidated. These loans are made generally to finance internal growth, mergers, acquisitions, stock repurchases, leveraged buy-outs, and other corporate activities. Such loans are typically made by a syndicate of lending institutions, represented by an agent lending institution that has negotiated and structured the loan and is responsible for collecting interest, principal, and other amounts due on its own behalf and on behalf of the others in the syndicate, and for enforcing its and their other rights against the borrower. Alternatively, such loans may be structured as a novation, pursuant to which the Fund would assume all of the rights of the lending institution in a loan or as an assignment, pursuant to which the Fund would purchase an assignment of a portion of a lender’s interest in a loan either directly from the lender or through an intermediary.

The Fund may also purchase trade or other claims against companies, which generally represent money owed by the company to a supplier of goods or services. These claims may also be purchased at a time when the company is in default.

Certain of the loans and the other direct indebtedness acquired by the Fund may involve revolving credit facilities or other standby financing commitments which obligate the Fund to pay additional cash on a certain date or on demand. These commitments may require the Fund to increase its investment in a company at a time when the Fund might not otherwise decide to do so (including at a time when the company’s financial condition makes it unlikely that such amounts will be repaid). To the extent that the Fund is committed to advance additional funds, it will at all times hold and maintain in a segregated account cash or other high grade debt obligations in an amount sufficient to meet such commitments. The Fund’s ability to receive payment of principal, interest, and other amounts due in connection with these investments will depend primarily on the financial condition of the borrower. In selecting the loans and other direct indebtedness that the Fund will purchase, the Manager will rely upon its own (and not the original lending institution’s) credit analysis of the borrower. As the Fund may be required to rely upon another lending institution to collect and pass onto the Fund amounts payable with respect to the loan and to enforce the Fund’s rights under the loan and other direct indebtedness, an insolvency, bankruptcy, or reorganization of the lending institution may delay or prevent the Fund from receiving such amounts. In such cases, the Fund will evaluate as well the creditworthiness of the lending institution and will treat both the borrower and the lending institution as an “issuer” of the loan for purposes of compliance with applicable law pertaining to the diversification of the Fund’s portfolio investments. The highly leveraged nature of many such loans and other direct indebtedness may make such loans and other direct indebtedness especially vulnerable to adverse changes in economic or market conditions. Investments in such loans and other direct indebtedness may involve additional risk to the Fund.

Mortgage-Backed Securities

The Fund may invest in mortgage-backed securities (“MBS”) issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government, its agencies or instrumentalities, or by government-sponsored corporations; collateralized mortgage obligations (“CMOs”) and real estate mortgage investment conduits (“REMICs”) securities issued by U.S. government agencies or by financial institutions and other mortgage lenders; commercial mortgage-backed securities (“CMBS”); and stripped mortgage securities. The Fund may invest in privately issued CMOs and REMICs that are not collateralized by securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government, its agencies or instrumentalities, and non-agency mortgage-backed securities only if the securities represent interests in whole loan mortgages, multi-family mortgages, commercial mortgages, and other mortgage collateral supported by a first mortgage lien on real estate. To the extent that any of these mortgage-backed securities are considered illiquid, these investments, together with any other illiquid investments held by the Fund, will not exceed 15% of the Fund’s net assets.

Overview. MBS, also referred to as mortgage securities or mortgage-related securities, represent an ownership interest in a pool of mortgage loans, usually originated by mortgage bankers, commercial banks, savings and loan associations, savings banks, and credit unions to finance purchases of homes, commercial buildings, or other real estate. The individual mortgage loans are packaged or “pooled” together for sale to investors. These mortgage loans may have either fixed or adjustable interest rates. A guarantee or other form of credit support may be attached to an MBS to protect against default on obligations.

As the underlying mortgage loans are paid off, investors receive principal and interest payments, which “pass-through” when received from individual borrowers, net of any fees owed to the administrator, guarantor, or other service providers. Some MBS make payments of both principal and interest at a range of specified intervals; others make semiannual interest payments at a predetermined rate and repay principal at maturity (like a typical bond).

MBS are based on different types of mortgages, including those on commercial real estate or residential properties. The primary issuers or guarantors of MBS have historically been Ginnie Mae, Fannie Mae, and Freddie Mac. Other issuers of MBS include commercial banks and other private lenders.

Ginnie Mae is a wholly owned U.S. government corporation within the Department of Housing and Urban Development. Ginnie Mae guarantees the principal and interest on securities issued by institutions approved by Ginnie Mae (such as savings and loan institutions, commercial banks and mortgage bankers). Ginnie Mae also guarantees the principal and interest on securities backed by pools of mortgages insured by the Federal Housing Administration (the “FHA”), or guaranteed by the Department of Veterans Affairs (the “VA”). Ginnie Mae’s guarantees are backed by the full faith


 

and credit of the U.S. government. Guarantees as to the timely payment of principal and interest do not extend to the value or yield of MBS nor do they extend to the value of the Fund’s shares which will fluctuate daily with market conditions.

Fannie Mae is a government-sponsored corporation, but its common stock is owned by private stockholders. Fannie Mae purchases conventional (i.e., not insured or guaranteed by any government agency) residential mortgages from a list of approved seller/servicers which include state and federally chartered savings and loan associations, mutual savings banks, commercial banks and credit unions, and mortgage bankers. Pass-through securities issued by Fannie Mae are guaranteed as to timely payment of principal and interest by Fannie Mae, but are not backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government.

Freddie Mac was created by Congress in 1970 for the purpose of increasing the availability of mortgage credit for residential housing. It is a government-sponsored corporation formerly owned by the 12 Federal Home Loan Banks but now its common stock is owned entirely by private stockholders. Freddie Mac issues Participation Certificates (“PCs”), which are pass-through securities, each representing an undivided interest in a pool of residential mortgages. Freddie Mac guarantees the timely payment of interest and ultimate collection of principal, but PCs are not backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government.

Although the MBS of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac are not backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government, the Secretary of the Treasury has the authority to support Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac by purchasing limited amounts of their respective obligations. The yields on these MBS have historically exceeded the yields on other types of U.S. government securities with comparable maturities due largely to their prepayment risk. The U.S. government, in the past, provided financial support to Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, but no assurance can be given that the U.S. government will continue to do so.

On Sept. 6, 2008, the Federal Housing Finance Agency (“FHFA”) placed Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac into conservatorship. As the conservator, FHFA succeeded to all rights, titles, powers, and privileges of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac and of any stockholder, officer, or director of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. FHFA selected a new chief executive officer and chairman of the board of directors for each of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. Also, the U.S. Treasury entered into a Senior Preferred Stock Purchase Agreement imposing various covenants that severely limit each enterprise’s operations.

Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac continue to operate as going concerns while in conservatorship and each remains liable for all of its obligations, including its guaranty obligations associated with its MBS. The FHFA has the power to repudiate any contract entered into by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac prior to FHFA’s appointment as conservator or receiver, including the guaranty obligations of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. Accordingly, securities issued by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac will involve a risk of nonpayment of principal and interest.

MBS that are issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government, its agencies or instrumentalities, are not subject to the Fund’s industry concentration restrictions, set forth under “Fundamental Investment Policies,” by virtue of the exclusion from that test available to securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government or any of its agencies or instrumentalities. In the case of privately issued MBS, the Fund categorizes, where possible, the securities by the issuer’s industry for purposes of the Fund’s industry concentration restrictions.

Private mortgage-backed securities. Issuers of private MBS, such as commercial banks, savings and loan institutions, private mortgage insurance companies, mortgage bankers, and other secondary market issuers, are not U.S. government agencies and may be both the originators of the underlying mortgage loans as well as the guarantors of the MBS, or they may partner with a government entity by issuing mortgage loans guaranteed or sponsored by the U.S. government or a U.S. government agency or sponsored enterprise. Pools of mortgage loans created by private issuers generally offer a higher rate of interest than government and government-related pools because there are no direct or indirect government or government agency guarantees of payment. The risk of loss due to default on private MBS is historically higher because neither the U.S. government nor an agency or instrumentality has guaranteed them. Timely payment of interest and principal is, however, generally supported by various forms of insurance or guarantees, including individual loan, title, pool, and hazard insurance. Government entities, private insurance companies or the private mortgage poolers issue the insurance and guarantees. The insurance and guarantees and the creditworthiness of their issuers will be considered when determining whether a MBS meets the Fund’s quality standards. The Fund may buy MBS without insurance or guarantees if, through an examination of the loan experience and practices of the poolers, the Manager determines that the securities meet the Fund’s quality standards. Private MBS whose underlying assets are neither U.S. government securities nor U.S. government-insured mortgages, to the extent that real properties securing such assets may be located in the same geographical region, may also be subject to a greater risk of default than other comparable securities in the event of adverse economic, political, or business developments that may affect such region and, ultimately, the ability of property owners to make payments of principal and interest on the underlying mortgages. Nongovernment MBS are generally subject to greater price volatility than those issued, guaranteed or sponsored by government entities because of the greater risk of default in adverse market conditions. Where a guarantee is provided by a private guarantor, the Fund is subject to the credit risk of such guarantor, especially when the guarantor doubles as the originator.

CMOs and REMICs. Some MBS known as collateralized mortgage obligations (CMOs) are divided into multiple classes. Each of the classes is allocated a different share of the principal and/or interest payments received from the pool according to a different payment schedule depending on, among other factors, the seniority of a class relative to their classes. Other MBS such as real estate mortgage investment conduits (REMICs) are also divided into multiple classes with different rights to the interest and/or principal payments received on the pool of mortgages. A CMO or REMIC may designate the most junior of the securities it issues as a “residual” which will be entitled to any amounts remaining after all classes of shareholders (and any fees or expenses) have been paid in full. Some of the different rights may include different maturities, interest rates, payment schedules, and


 

Investment Strategies and Risks

allocations of interest and/or principal payments on the underlying mortgage loans. Multi-class pass-through securities are equity interests in a trust composed of mortgage loans or other MBS. Payments of principal and interest on the underlying collateral provide the funds to pay the debt service on CMOs or REMICs or to make scheduled distributions on the multi-class pass-through securities. Unless the context indicates otherwise, the discussion of CMOs below also applies to REMICs and multi-class pass-through securities.

All the risks applicable to a traditional MBS also apply to the CMO or REMIC taken as a whole, even though certain classes of the CMO or REMIC will be protected against a particular risk by subordinated classes. The risks associated with an investment in a particular CMO or REMIC class vary substantially depending on the combination of rights associated with that class. An investment in the most subordinated classes of a CMO or REMIC bears a disproportionate share of the risks associated with MBS generally, be it credit risk, prepayment or extension risk (the risk of a security’s expected maturity being reduced or lengthened in duration due to a change of the timing of payment), interest rate risk, income risk, market risk, liquidity risk or any other risk associated with a debt or equity instrument with similar features to the relevant class. As a result, an investment in the most subordinated classes of a CMO or REMIC is often riskier than an investment in other types of MBS.

CMOs are generally required to maintain more collateral than REMICs to collateralize the CMOs being issued. Most REMICs are not subject to the same minimum collateralization requirements and may be permitted to issue the full value of their assets as securities, without reserving any amount as collateral. As a result, an investment in the subordinated classes of a REMIC may be riskier than an investment in equivalent classes of a CMO.

CMOs may be issued, guaranteed or sponsored by governmental entities or by private entities. Consequently, they involve risks similar to those of traditional MBS that have been issued, guaranteed or sponsored by such government and/or private entities. For example, the Fund is generally exposed to a greater risk of loss due to default when investing in CMOs that have not been issued, guaranteed or sponsored by a government entity.

CMOs are typically issued in multiple classes. Each class, often referred to as a “tranche,” is issued at a specified coupon rate or adjustable rate and has a stated maturity or final distribution date. Principal prepayments on collateral underlying CMOs may cause the CMOs to be retired substantially earlier than their stated maturities or final distribution dates. Interest is paid or accrues on most classes of a CMO on a monthly, quarterly or semiannual basis. The principal and interest on the mortgages underlying CMOs may be allocated among the several classes in many ways. In a common structure, payments of principal on the underlying mortgages, including any principal prepayments, are applied to the classes of a series of a CMO in the order of their respective stated maturities or final distribution dates, so that no payment of principal will be made on any class until all other classes having an earlier stated maturity or final distribution date have been paid in full.

One or more classes of a CMO may have interest rates that reset periodically as adjustable-rate mortgage loans (“ARMs”) do. These adjustable rate classes are known as “floating-rate CMOs” and are subject to most risks associated with ARMs. Floating-rate CMOs may be backed by fixed- or adjustable-rate mortgages. To date, fixed-rate mortgages have been more commonly used for this purpose. Floating-rate CMOs are typically issued with lifetime “caps” on the interest rate. These caps, similar to the caps on ARMs, limit the Fund’s potential to gain from rising interest rates and increase the sensitivity of the CMO’s price to interest rate changes while rates remain above the cap.

Timely payment of interest and principal (but not the market value and yield) of some of these pools is supported by various forms of insurance or guarantees issued by private issuers, those who pool the mortgage assets and, in some cases, by U.S. government agencies.

CMOs involve risks including the uncertainty of the timing of cash flows that results from the rate of prepayments on the underlying mortgages serving as collateral, and risks resulting from the structure of the particular CMO transaction and the priority of the individual tranches. The prices of some CMOs, depending on their structure and the rate of prepayments, can be volatile. Some CMOs may be less liquid than other types of MBS. As a result, it may be difficult or impossible to sell the securities at an advantageous price or time under certain circumstances. Yields on privately issued CMOs have been historically higher than the yields on CMOs issued and guaranteed by U.S. government agencies or instrumentalities. The risk of loss due to default on privately issued CMOs, however, is historically higher since the U.S. government has not guaranteed them.

To the extent any privately issued CMOs in which the Fund invests are considered by the SEC to be an investment company, the Fund will limit its investments in such securities in a manner consistent with the provisions of the 1940 Act.

Commercial mortgage-backed securities. CMBS are issued by special purpose entities that represent an undivided interest in a portfolio of mortgage loans backed by commercial properties. The loans are collateralized by various types of commercial property, which include, but are not limited to, multifamily housing, retail shopping centers, office space, hotels, and healthcare facilities. Private lenders, such as banks or insurance companies, originate these loans and then sell the loans directly into a CMBS trust or other entity. CMBS are subject to credit risk, prepayment risk, and extension risk. The Manager, through its careful credit analysis, attempts to address the risk of an issuer being unable to make timely payments of interest and principal. Although prepayment risk is present, it is of a lesser degree in CMBS than in the residential mortgage market.

Stripped mortgage securities. Some MBS referred to as stripped MBS are divided into classes which receive different proportions of the principal and interest payments or, in some cases, only payments of principal or interest (but not both). Other MBS referred to as net interest margin (“NIM”) securities give the investor the right to receive any excess interest earned on a pool of mortgage loans remaining after all classes and service providers have been paid in full. Stripped MBS may be issued by government or private entities. Stripped MBS issued or guaranteed by agencies or instrumentalities of the U.S. government are typically more liquid than privately issued stripped MBS.

Stripped MBS are usually structured with two classes, each receiving different proportions of the interest and principal distributions on a pool of mortgage assets. In most cases, one class receives all of the interest (the interest-only or “IO” class), while the other class receives all of the principal


 

(the principal-only or “PO” class). The return on an IO class is extremely sensitive not only to changes in prevailing interest rates but also to the rate of principal payments (including prepayments) on the underlying mortgage assets. A rapid rate of principal payments may have a material adverse effect on any IO class held by the Fund. If the underlying mortgage assets experience greater than anticipated prepayments of principal, the Fund may fail to recoup its initial investment fully, even if the securities are rated in the highest rating categories, AAA or Aaa, by S&P or Moody’s, respectively.

NIM securities represent a right to receive any “excess” interest computed after paying coupon costs, servicing costs and fees and any credit losses associated with the underlying pool of home equity loans. Like traditional stripped MBS, the return on a NIM security is sensitive not only to changes in prevailing interest rates but also to the rate of principal payments (including prepayments) on the underlying home equity loans. NIM securities are highly sensitive to credit losses on the underlying collateral and the timing in which those losses are taken.

Stripped MBS and NIM securities tend to exhibit greater market volatility in response to changes in interest rates than other types of MBS and are purchased and sold by institutional investors, such as the Fund, through investment banking firms acting as brokers or dealers. Some of these securities may be deemed “illiquid” and therefore subject to the Fund’s limitation on investment in illiquid securities and the risks associated with illiquidity.

Mortgage loan and home equity loan pools offering pass-through investments in addition to those described above may be created in the future. The mortgages underlying these securities may be alternative mortgage instruments, that is, mortgage instruments whose principal or interest payments may vary or whose terms to maturity may differ from customary long-term, fixed-rate mortgages. As new types of mortgage and home equity loan securities are developed and offered to investors, the Fund may invest in them if they are consistent with the Fund’s goals, policies and quality standards.

Additional risks. In addition to the special risks described below, MBS are subject to many of the same risks as other types of debt securities. The market value of MBS, like other debt securities, will generally vary inversely with changes in market interest rates, declining when interest rates rise and rising when interest rates decline. MBS differ from conventional debt securities in that most MBS are pass-through securities. This means that they typically provide investors with periodic payments (typically monthly) consisting of a pro rata share of both regular interest and principal payments, as well as unscheduled early prepayments, on the underlying mortgage pool (net of any fees paid to the issuer or guarantor of such securities and any applicable loan servicing fees). As a result, the holder of the MBS (i.e., the Fund) receives scheduled payments of principal and interest and may receive unscheduled principal payments representing prepayments on the underlying mortgages. The rate of prepayments on the underlying mortgages generally increases as interest rates decline, and when the Fund reinvests the payments and any unscheduled prepayments of principal it receives, it may receive a rate of interest that is lower than the rate on the existing MBS. For this reason, pass-through MBS may have less potential for capital appreciation as interest rates decline and may be less effective than other types of U.S. government or other debt securities as a means of “locking in” long-term interest rates. In general, fixed rate MBS have greater exposure to this “prepayment risk” than variable rate securities.

An unexpected rise in interest rates could extend the average life of a MBS because of a lower than expected level of prepayments or higher than expected amounts of late payments or defaults. In addition, to the extent MBS are purchased at a premium, mortgage foreclosures and unscheduled principal prepayments may result in some loss of the holder’s principal investment to the extent of the premium paid. On the other hand, if MBS are purchased at a discount, both a scheduled payment of principal and an unscheduled prepayment of principal will increase current and total returns and will accelerate the recognition of income that, when distributed to shareholders, will generally be taxable as ordinary income. Regulatory or tax changes may also adversely affect the MBS market as a whole.

Guarantees. The existence of a guarantee or other form of credit support on a MBS usually increases the price that the Fund pays for the security. There is always the risk that the guarantor will default on its obligations. When the guarantor is the U.S. government, there is minimal risk of guarantor default. However, the risk remains if the credit support or guarantee is provided by a private party or a U.S. government agency or sponsored enterprise. Even if the guarantor meets its obligations, there can be no assurance that the type of guarantee or credit support provided will be effective at reducing losses or delays to investors, given the nature of the default. A guarantee only assures timely payment of interest and principal, not a particular rate of return on the Fund’s investment or protection against prepayment or other risks. The market price and yield of the MBS at any given time are not guaranteed and are likely to fluctuate.

Municipal Bonds

Municipal bonds are generally understood to include debt obligations issued to obtain funds for various public purposes, including the construction of a wide range of public facilities such as airports, bridges, highways, housing, hospitals, mass transportation, schools, streets, and water and sewer works. Other public purposes for which municipal bonds may be issued include the refunding of outstanding obligations, obtaining funds for general capital expenses, and the obtaining of funds to lend to other public institutions and facilities. In addition, certain types of industrial development bonds are issued by or on behalf of public authorities to obtain funds to provide privately operated housing facilities, sports facilities, convention or trade show facilities, airport, mass transit, port or parking facilities, air or water pollution control facilities, and certain local facilities for water supply, gas, electricity, or sewage or solid waste disposals. Such obligations are included within the term “municipal bonds” provided that the interest paid thereon qualifies as exempt from federal income tax in the opinion of bond counsel to the issuer. In addition, the interest paid on industrial


 

Investment Strategies and Risks

development bonds, the proceeds from which are used for the construction, equipment, repair, or improvement of privately operated industrial or commercial facilities, may be exempt from federal income tax, although current federal tax laws place substantial limitations on the size of such issues.

The two principal classifications of municipal bonds are “general obligation” and “revenue” bonds. General obligation bonds are secured by the issuer’s pledge of its full faith, credit and taxing power for the payment of principal and interest. Revenue bonds are payable only from the revenues derived from a particular facility or class of facilities or, in some cases, from the proceeds of a special excise tax or other specific revenue source, but not from the general taxing power. Tax exempt industrial development bonds are, in most cases, revenue bonds and do not generally carry the pledge of the credit of the issuer of such bonds. There are, of course, variations in the security of municipal bonds, both within a particular classification and between classifications.

The yields on municipal bonds are dependent on a variety of factors, including general money market conditions, general conditions of the municipal bond market, size of a particular offering, maturity of the obligations, and rating of the issue. The imposition of the Fund’s management fee, as well as other operating expenses, will have the effect of reducing the yield to investors.

Options

The Fund may purchase call options, write call options on a covered basis, purchase put options and write put options (on securities). When writing put options, the Fund will generally only write such puts in circumstances where the Manager wishes to purchase the underlying security for the Fund at a price lower than the current market price of the security. The Fund intends to purchase put options in order to protect against a decline in the market value of the underlying security below the exercise price less the premium paid for the option (“protective puts”). The Fund will not engage in option strategies for speculative purposes.

Overview. An option is a contract that gives the purchaser of the option, in return for the premium paid, the right to buy an underlying reference instrument, such as a specified security, currency, index, or other instrument, from the writer of the option (in the case of a call option), or to sell a specified reference instrument to the writer of the option (in the case of a put option) at a designated price during the term of the option. The premium paid by the buyer of an option will reflect, among other things, the relationship of the exercise price to the market price and the volatility of the underlying reference instrument; the remaining term of the option, supply, demand, or interest rates; and/or currency exchange rates. An American style put or call option may be exercised at any time during the option period while a European style put or call option may be exercised only upon expiration or during a fixed period prior thereto. Put and call options are traded on national securities exchanges and in the OTC market.

Options traded on national securities exchanges are within the jurisdiction of the SEC or other appropriate national securities regulator, as are securities traded on such exchanges. As a result, many of the protections provided to traders on organized exchanges will be available with respect to such transactions. In particular, all option positions entered into on a national securities exchange in the U.S. are cleared and guaranteed by the Options Clearing Corporation, thereby reducing the risk of counterparty default. Furthermore, a liquid secondary market in options traded on a national securities exchange may be more readily available than in the OTC market, potentially permitting the Fund to liquidate open positions at a profit prior to exercise or expiration, or to limit losses in the event of adverse market movements. There is no assurance, however, that higher than anticipated trading activity or other unforeseen events might not temporarily render the capabilities of the Options Clearing Corporation inadequate, and thereby result in the exchange instituting special procedures which may interfere with the timely execution of the Fund’s orders to close out open options positions.

Purchasing call and put options. As the buyer of a call option, the Fund has a right to buy the underlying reference instrument (e.g., a currency or security) at the exercise price at any time during the option period (for American style options). The Fund may enter into closing sale transactions with respect to call options, exercise them, or permit them to expire. For example, the Fund may buy call options on underlying reference instruments that it intends to buy with the goal of limiting the risk of a substantial increase in their market price before the purchase is effected. Unless the price of the underlying reference instrument changes sufficiently, a call option purchased by the Fund may expire without any value to the Fund, in which case the Fund would experience a loss to the extent of the premium paid for the option plus related transaction costs.

As the buyer of a put option, the Fund has the right to sell the underlying reference instrument at the exercise price at any time during the option period (for American style options). As with a call option, the Fund may enter into closing sale transactions with respect to put options, exercise them or permit them to expire. The Fund may buy a put option on an underlying reference instrument owned by the Fund (a protective put) as a hedging technique in an attempt to protect against an anticipated decline in the market value of the underlying reference instrument. Such hedge protection is provided only during the life of the put option when the Fund, as the buyer of the put option, is able to sell the underlying reference instrument at the put exercise price, regardless of any decline in the underlying instrument’s market price. The Fund may also seek to offset a decline in the value of the underlying reference instrument through appreciation in the value of the put option. A put option may also be purchased with the intent of protecting unrealized appreciation of an instrument when the Manager deems it desirable to continue to hold the instrument because of tax or other considerations. The premium paid for the put option and any transaction costs would reduce any short-term capital gain that may be available for distribution when the instrument is eventually sold. Buying put options at a time when the buyer does not own the underlying reference instrument allows the buyer to benefit from a decline in the market price of the underlying reference instrument, which generally increases the value of the put option.


 

If a put option were not terminated in a closing sale transaction when it has remaining value, and if the market price of the underlying reference instrument remains equal to or greater than the exercise price during the life of the put option, the buyer would not make any gain upon exercise of the option and would experience a loss to the extent of the premium paid for the option plus related transaction costs. In order for the purchase of a put option to be profitable, the market price of the underlying reference instrument must decline sufficiently below the exercise price to cover the premium and transaction costs.

Writing call and put options. Writing options may permit the writer to generate additional income in the form of the premium received for writing the option. The writer of an option may have no control over when the underlying reference instruments must be sold (in the case of a call option) or purchased (in the case of a put option) because the writer may be notified of exercise at any time prior to the expiration of the option (for American style options). Whether or not an option expires unexercised, the writer retains the amount of the premium. Writing “covered” call options means that the writer owns the underlying reference instrument that is subject to the call option. The Fund will write call options on a covered basis only.

If the Fund writes a covered call option, any underlying reference instruments that are held by the Fund and subject to the call option will be earmarked on the books of the Fund as segregated to satisfy its obligations under the option. The Fund will be unable to sell the underlying reference instruments that are subject to the written call option until the Fund either effects a closing transaction with respect to the written call, or otherwise satisfies the conditions for release of the underlying reference instruments from segregation. As the writer of a covered call option, the Fund gives up the potential for capital appreciation above the exercise price of the option should the underlying reference instrument rise in value. If the value of the underlying reference instrument rises above the exercise price of the call option, the reference instrument will likely be “called away,” requiring the Fund to sell the underlying instrument at the exercise price. In that case, the Fund will sell the underlying reference instrument to the option buyer for less than its market value, and the Fund will experience a loss (which will be offset by the premium received by the Fund as the writer of such option). If a call option expires unexercised, the Fund will realize a gain in the amount of the premium received. If the market price of the underlying reference instrument decreases, the call option will not be exercised and the Fund will be able to use the amount of the premium received to hedge against the loss in value of the underlying reference instrument. The exercise price of a call option will be chosen based upon the expected price movement of the underlying reference instrument. The exercise price of a call option may be below, equal to (at-the-money), or above the current value of the underlying reference instrument at the time the option is written.

As the writer of a put option, the Fund has a risk of loss should the underlying reference instrument decline in value. If the value of the underlying reference instrument declines below the exercise price of the put option and the put option is exercised, the Fund, as the writer of the put option, will be required to buy the instrument at the exercise price, which will exceed the market value of the underlying reference instrument at that time. The Fund will incur a loss to the extent that the current market value of the underlying reference instrument is less than the exercise price of the put option. However, the loss will be offset in part by the premium received from the buyer of the put. If a put option written by the Fund expires unexercised, the Fund will realize a gain in the amount of the premium received.

Closing out options (exchange traded options). As the writer of an option, if the Fund wants to terminate its obligation, the Fund may effect a “closing purchase transaction” by buying an option of the same series as the option previously written. The effect of the purchase is that the clearing corporation will cancel the Fund’s position. However, a writer may not effect a closing purchase transaction after being notified of the exercise of an option. Likewise, the buyer of an option may recover all or a portion of the premium that it paid by effecting a “closing sale transaction” by selling an option of the same series as the option previously purchased and receiving a premium on the sale. There is no guarantee that either a closing purchase or a closing sale transaction may be made at a time desired by the Fund. Closing transactions allow the Fund to terminate its positions in written and purchased options. The Fund will realize a profit from a closing transaction if the price of the transaction is less than the premium received from writing the original option (in the case of written options) or is more than the premium paid by the Fund to buy the option (in the case of purchased options). For example, increases in the market price of a call option sold by the Fund will generally reflect increases in the market price of the underlying reference instrument. As a result, any loss resulting from a closing transaction on a written call option is likely to be offset in whole or in part by appreciation of the underlying instrument owned by the Fund.

Over-the-counter (“OTC”) options. Like exchange traded options, OTC options give the holder the right to buy from the writer, in the case of OTC call options, or sell to the writer, in the case of OTC put options, an underlying reference instrument at a stated exercise price. OTC options, however, differ from exchange traded options in certain material respects.

OTC options are arranged directly with dealers and not with a clearing corporation or exchange. Consequently, there is a risk of nonperformance by the dealer, including because of the dealer’s bankruptcy or insolvency. While the Fund uses only counterparties, such as dealers, that meet its credit quality standards, in unusual or extreme market conditions, a counterparty’s creditworthiness and ability to perform may deteriorate rapidly, and the availability of suitable replacement counterparties may become limited. Because there is no exchange, pricing is typically done based on information from market makers or other dealers. OTC options are available for a greater variety of underlying reference instruments and in a wider range of expiration dates and exercise prices than exchange traded options.

There can be no assurance that a continuous liquid secondary market will exist for any particular OTC option at any specific time. The Fund may be able to realize the value of an OTC option it has purchased only by exercising it or entering into a closing sale transaction with the dealer that issued it. When the Fund writes an OTC option, it generally can close out that option prior to its expiration only by entering into a closing purchase transaction with the dealer with which the Fund originally wrote the option. The Fund may suffer a loss if it is not able to exercise (in the case of a purchased option) or enter into a closing sale transaction on a timely basis.


 

Investment Strategies and Risks

Risks of options. The Fund’s options investments involve certain risks, including general risks related to derivatives instruments. There can be no assurance that a liquid secondary market on an exchange will exist for any particular option, or at any particular time, and the Fund may have difficulty effecting closing transactions in particular options. Therefore, the Fund would have to exercise the options it purchased in order to realize any profit, thus taking or making delivery of the underlying reference instrument when not desired. The Fund could then incur transaction costs upon the sale of the underlying reference instruments. Similarly, when the Fund cannot effect a closing transaction with respect to a put option it wrote, and the buyer exercises, the Fund would be required to take delivery and would incur transaction costs upon the sale of the underlying reference instruments purchased. If the Fund, as a covered call option writer, is unable to effect a closing purchase transaction in a secondary market, it will not be able to sell the underlying reference instrument until the option expires, it delivers the underlying instrument upon exercise, or it segregates enough liquid assets to purchase the underlying reference instrument at the marked-to-market price during the term of the option. When trading options on non-U.S. exchanges or in the OTC market, many of the protections afforded to exchange participants will not be available. For example, there may be no daily price fluctuation limits, and adverse market movements could therefore continue to an unlimited extent over an indefinite period of time.

The effectiveness of an options strategy for hedging depends on the degree to which price movements in the underlying reference instruments correlate with price movements in the relevant portion of the Fund’s portfolio that is being hedged. In addition, the Fund bears the risk that the prices of its portfolio investments will not move in the same amount as the option it has purchased or sold for hedging purposes, or that there may be a negative correlation that would result in a loss on both the investments and the option. If the Manager is not successful in using options in managing the Fund’s investments, the Fund’s performance will be worse than if the Manager did not employ such strategies.

Repurchase Agreements

The Fund may, from time to time, enter into repurchase agreement transactions.

Under a repurchase agreement, the Fund agrees to buy securities guaranteed as to payment of principal and interest by the U.S. government or its agencies or instrumentalities from a qualified bank or broker/dealer and then to sell the securities back to the bank or broker/dealer on an agreed upon date (generally less than seven days) at a higher price, which reflects currently prevailing short-term interest rates. Entering into repurchase agreements allows the Fund to earn a return on cash in the Fund’s portfolio that would otherwise remain uninvested. The bank or broker/dealer must transfer to the Fund’s custodian, as collateral, securities with an initial market value of at least 102% of the dollar amount paid by the Fund to the counterparty. The Manager will monitor the value of such collateral daily to determine that the value of the collateral equals or exceeds the repurchase price.

Repurchase agreements may involve risks in the event of default or insolvency of the bank or broker/dealer, including possible delays or restrictions upon the Fund’s ability to sell the underlying securities and additional expenses in seeking to enforce the Fund’s rights and recover any losses. The Fund will enter into repurchase agreements only with parties who meet certain creditworthiness standards, i.e., banks or broker/dealers that the Manager has determined, based on the information available at the time, present no serious risk of becoming involved in bankruptcy proceedings within the time frame contemplated by the repurchase agreement. Although the Fund seeks to limit the credit risk under a repurchase agreement by carefully selecting counterparties and accepting only high-quality collateral, some credit risk remains. The counterparty could default, which may make it necessary for the Fund to incur expenses to liquidate the collateral. In addition, the collateral may decline in value before it can be liquidated by the Fund. A repurchase agreement with more than seven days to maturity is considered an illiquid security and is subject to the Fund’s investment restriction on illiquid securities.

The funds in the Delaware Investments® family of mutual funds (each a “Delaware Investments Fund” and collectively, the “Delaware Investments Funds”) have obtained an exemption (the “Order”) from the joint-transaction prohibitions of Section 17(d) of the 1940 Act to allow Delaware Investments Funds jointly to invest cash balances. The Fund may invest cash balances in a joint repurchase agreement in accordance with the terms of the Order and subject generally to the conditions described above.

“Roll” Transactions

The Fund may engage in “roll” transactions.

A “roll” transaction is the sale of securities together with a commitment, for which the Fund may receive a fee, to purchase similar, but not identical, securities at a future date. Under the 1940 Act, these transactions may be considered borrowings by the Fund; accordingly, the Fund will limit its use of these transactions, together with any other borrowings, to no more than one third of its total assets. For each roll transaction, the Fund will segregate assets as set forth in “Segregation of Assets.” Although these transactions will not be entered into for leveraging purposes, to the extent the Fund’s aggregate commitments under these transactions exceed its holdings of cash and securities that do not fluctuate in value (such as short term money market instruments), the Fund temporarily will be in a leveraged position (i.e., it will have an amount greater than its net assets subject to market risk). Should the market value of the Fund’s portfolio securities decline while it is in a leveraged position, greater depreciation of its net assets would likely occur than were it not in such a position. As the Fund’s aggregate commitments under these transactions increase, its leverage risk similarly increases.


 

Securities Lending

The Fund may loan up to 25% of its assets to qualified broker/dealers or institutional investors for their use relating to short sales or other security transactions.

The Fund, along with other funds in the Delaware Investments Family of Funds, may lend its securities pursuant to a security lending agreement (“Lending Agreement”) with The Bank of New York Mellon (“BNY Mellon”). At the time a security is loaned, the borrower must post collateral equal to the required percentage of the market value of the loaned security, including any accrued interest. The required percentage is: (i) 102% with respect to U.S. securities and foreign securities that are denominated and payable in U.S. dollars; and (ii) 105% with respect to foreign securities. With respect to each loan if, on any business day, the aggregate market value of securities collateral plus cash collateral held is less than the aggregate market value of the securities which are the subject of such loan, the borrower will be notified to provide additional collateral by the end of the following business day which, together with the collateral already held, will be not less than the applicable initial collateral requirements for such security loan. If the aggregate market value of securities collateral and cash collateral held with respect to a security loan exceeds the applicable initial collateral requirement, upon request of the borrower, BNY Mellon must return enough collateral to the borrower by the end of the following business day to reduce the value of the remaining collateral to the applicable initial collateral requirement for such security loan. As a result of the foregoing, the value of the collateral held with respect to a loaned security may be temporarily more or less than the value of the security on loan.

Prior to Dec. 29, 2015, cash collateral received was generally invested in the Delaware Investments Collateral Fund No. 1 (Collective Trust), a pooled account established by BNY Mellon for the use of funds managed by DMC that participate in BNY Mellon’s securities lending program. The Collective Trust sought to maintain a net asset value per unit of $1.00. Under the previous investment guidelines, the Collective Trust was permitted to invest in U.S. government securities and high quality corporate debt, asset-backed and other money market securities and in repurchase agreements collateralized by such securities, provided that the Collective Trust would generally have a dollar-weighted average portfolio maturity of 60 days or less.

On Dec. 29, 2015, the assets in the Collective Trust were transferred to a series of individual separate accounts, each corresponding to a Fund. The investment guidelines permit each separate account to hold certain securities that would be considered eligible securities for a money market fund. Cash collateral received is generally invested in government securities; certain obligations issued by government sponsored enterprises; repurchase agreements collateralized by U.S. Treasury securities; obligations issued by the central government of any OECD country or its agencies, instrumentalities or establishments; obligations of supranational organizations, commercial paper, notes, bonds and other debt obligations; certificates of deposit, time deposits and other bank obligations; and asset-backed securities.

The Fund can also accept U.S. government securities and letters of credit (non-cash collateral) in connection with securities loans. In the event of default or bankruptcy by the lending agent, realization and/or retention of the collateral may be subject to legal proceedings. In the event the borrower fails to return loaned securities and the collateral received is insufficient to cover the value of the loaned securities and provided such collateral shortfall is not the result of investment losses, the lending agent has agreed to pay the amount of the shortfall to the Fund or, at the discretion of the lending agent, replace the loaned securities. The Fund continues to record dividends or interest, as applicable, on the securities loaned and is subject to changes in value of the securities loaned that may occur during the term of the loan. The Fund has the right under the Lending Agreement to recover the securities from the borrower on demand. With respect to security loans collateralized by non-cash collateral, the Fund receives loan premiums paid by the borrower. With respect to security loans collateralized by cash collateral, the earnings from the collateral investments are shared among the Fund, the security lending agent, and the borrower. The Fund records security lending income net of allocations to the security lending agent and the borrower.

Segregation of Assets

Consistent with SEC staff guidance, financial instruments that involve the Fund’s obligation to make future payments to third parties will not be viewed as creating any senior security provided that the Fund covers its obligations as described below. Those financial instruments can include, among others, (i) securities purchased on a when-issued, delayed delivery, or to be announced basis, (ii) futures contracts, (iii) forward currency contracts, (iv) swaps, (v) written options, (vi) unfunded commitments, (vii) securities sold short, and (viii)  reverse repurchase agreements.

Consistent with SEC staff guidance, the Fund will consider its obligations involving such a financial instrument as “covered” when the Fund (1) maintains an offsetting financial position, or (2) segregates liquid assets (constituting cash, cash equivalents, or other liquid portfolio securities) equal to the Fund’s exposures relating to the financial instrument, as determined on a daily basis. Dedicated Fund compliance policies and procedures, which the Board has approved, govern the kinds of transactions that can be deemed to be offsetting positions for purposes of (1) above, and the amounts of assets that need to be segregated for purposes of (2) above (“Asset Segregation Policies”).

With respect to futures contracts that are not legally required to “cash settle,” the Fund may cover the open position by setting aside or “earmarking” liquid assets in an amount that, when added to the amounts deposited with a futures commission merchant as margin, equal the market value of the instruments underlying the futures contract (sometimes referred to as the notional value of the contract). With respect to futures that are required to “cash settle,” however, the Fund is permitted to set aside or “earmark” liquid assets in an amount that, when added to the amounts deposited with a futures commission merchant as margin, equal the Fund’s daily marked to market (net) obligation under the contract ( i.e., the daily market value of the contract itself), if any; in other words, the Fund may set aside its daily net liability, if any, rather than the notional value of the futures contract. By


 

Investment Strategies and Risks

setting aside or “earmarking” assets equal to only its net obligation under cash-settled futures, the Fund will have the ability to utilize these contracts to a greater extent than if the Fund were required to segregate or “earmark” assets equal to the full notional value of the futures contract.

The Fund’s Asset Segregation Policies may require the Fund to sell a portfolio security or exit a transaction, including a transaction in a financial instrument, at a disadvantageous time or price in order for the Fund to be able to segregate the required amount of assets. If segregated assets decline in value, the Fund will need to segregate additional assets or reduce its position in the financial instruments. In addition, segregated assets may not be available to satisfy redemptions or for other purposes, until the Fund’s obligations under the financial instruments have been satisfied. In addition, the Fund’s ability to use the financial instruments identified above may under some circumstances depend on the nature of the instrument and amount of assets that the Asset Segregation Policies require the Fund to segregate.

Short Sales

The Fund may engage in short sales.

The Fund may make short sales on exchange traded funds in an attempt to isolate, manage, or reduce the risk of individual securities positions held by the Fund, of a decline in a particular market sector to which the Fund has significant exposure, or of the exposure to securities owned by the Fund in the aggregate. Such short sales may also be implemented in an attempt to manage the duration of the Fund’s holdings. There is no assurance that any such short sales will achieve their intended objective(s). The Manager will not engage in short sales for speculative purposes.

Typically, short sales are transactions in which the Fund sells a security it does not own and, at the time a short sale is effected, the Fund incurs an obligation to replace the security borrowed. The price at the time of replacement may be more or less than the price at which the security was sold by the Fund. When a short sale transaction is closed out by delivery of the security, any gain or loss on the transaction generally is taxable as short-term capital gain or loss. Until the security is replaced, the Fund is required to pay to the lender amounts equal to any dividends or interest that accrue during the period of the loan. To borrow the security, the Fund also may be required to pay a premium, which would increase the cost of the security sold. The proceeds of the short sale, and potentially additional margin, will be retained by the broker from whom the security is borrowed, to the extent necessary to meet margin requirements, until the short position is closed out.

Until the Fund replaces a borrowed security in connection with a short sale, the Fund will be required to maintain daily a segregated account, containing cash or eligible securities, at such a level that: (i) the amount deposited in the segregated account plus the amount deposited with the broker as collateral will at all times be equal to at least 100% of the current value of the security sold short and (ii) the amount deposited in the segregated account plus the amount deposited