10-K 1 d10k.htm FORM 10-K Form 10-K
Table of Contents

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

Form 10-K

 

x ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2009

OR

 

¨ TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from              to             

Commission file number: 1-3247

CORNING INCORPORATED

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

NEW YORK   16-0393470

(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

  (I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

 

ONE RIVERFRONT PLAZA, CORNING, NY   14831

(Address of principal executive offices)

  (Zip Code)

607-974-9000

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class

 

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock, $0.50 par value per share

  New York State Exchange

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.

                                                                        Yes  x                                           No  ¨

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act.

                                                                        Yes  ¨                                           No  x

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.

                                                                        Yes  x                                           No  ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files.)

                                                                        Yes  x                                           No  ¨

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§ 229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment of this Form 10-K.  x

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer   x    Accelerated filer   ¨
Non-accelerated filer   ¨  (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)    Smaller reporting company   ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).

                                                                        Yes  ¨                                           No  x

As of June 30, 2009, the aggregate market value of the registrant’s common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was $24.3 billion based on the $16.06 price as reported on the New York Stock Exchange.

There were 1,558,884,218 shares of Corning’s common stock issued and outstanding as of January 29, 2010.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the Registrant’s Definitive Proxy Statement dated March 15, 2010, and filed for the Registrant’s 2010 Annual Meeting of Shareholders are incorporated into Part III, as specifically set forth in Part III.


Table of Contents

PART I

Corning Incorporated and its consolidated subsidiaries are hereinafter sometimes referred to as the “Company,” the “Registrant,” “Corning,” or “we.”

This report contains forward-looking statements that involve a number of risks and uncertainties. These statements relate to our future plans, objectives, expectations and estimates and may contain words such as “believes,” “expects,” “anticipates,” “estimates,” “forecasts,” or similar expressions. Our actual results could differ materially from what is expressed or forecasted in our forward-looking statements. Some of the factors that could contribute to these differences include those discussed under “Forward-Looking Statements,” “Risk Factors,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” and elsewhere in this report.

Item 1.    Business

General

Corning traces its origins to a glass business established in 1851. The present corporation was incorporated in the State of New York in December 1936. The Company’s name was changed from Corning Glass Works to Corning Incorporated on April 28, 1989.

Corning is a global, technology-based corporation that operates in five reportable business segments: Display Technologies, Telecommunications, Environmental Technologies, Specialty Materials and Life Sciences. Corning manufactures and processes products at approximately 60 plants in 13 countries.

Display Technologies Segment

Corning’s Display Technologies segment manufactures glass substrates for active matrix liquid crystal displays (LCDs), that are used primarily in notebook computers, flat panel desktop monitors, and LCD televisions. Corning’s facilities in Kentucky, Japan, Taiwan, and China and those of Samsung Corning Precision Glass Co., Ltd. (Samsung Corning Precision) develop, manufacture and supply high quality glass substrates using a proprietary fusion manufacturing process and technology expertise. Corning owns 50% of Samsung Corning Precision, Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. owns 43% and three other shareholders own the remaining 7%. Samsung Corning Precision sells LCD glass to panel manufacturers in Korea, while those panel manufacturers in other leading LCD-producing areas of the world - Japan, Taiwan, Singapore and China - are supplied by Corning. Samsung Corning Precision’s financial statements are attached in Item 15, Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules.

Corning is a technology leader in this market introducing new large-sized glass substrates used by our customers in the production of larger LCDs for monitors and television. We are recognized for providing product innovations that help our customers produce larger, lighter, thinner and higher-resolution displays more affordably. In industry language, glass sizes advance in what are called generations. Glass substrates are currently available from Corning in sizes up to Generation 10 (2,850mm x 3,050mm). Generation 10 glass substrates are produced at our newest manufacturing facility which opened in October 2009. This advanced facility, located at Sharp Corporation’s plant in Sakai City, Japan, eliminates the need for traditional packaging, shipping, and delivery methods. Large substrates (Generation 5 and higher) allow LCD manufacturers to produce larger and a greater number of panels from each substrate. The larger size leads to economies of scale for LCD manufacturers.

Corning invented its proprietary fusion manufacturing process, which is the cornerstone of the Company’s technology leadership in the LCD industry. The automated process yields high quality glass substrates with excellent dimensional stability and uniformity - essential attributes for the production of increasingly larger, high performance active matrix LCDs. Corning’s fusion process is scalable and has proven to be among the most effective processes in producing large size substrates. In 2006, Corning launched EAGLE XG, the industry’s first environmentally-friendly LCD glass substrate that is free of heavy metals.

LCD glass manufacturing is a highly capital intensive business. Corning has made significant investments to expand its LCD glass facilities in response to customer demand. The environment is very competitive. Important attributes for success include efficient manufacturing, access to capital, technology know-how, and patents.

Patent protection and proprietary trade secrets are important to this segment’s operations. Corning has a growing portfolio of patents relating to its products, technologies and manufacturing processes. Corning licenses certain of its patents to Samsung Corning Precision and other third parties and generates royalty income from these licenses. Refer to the material under the heading “Patents and Trademarks” for information relating to patents and trademarks.

The Display Technologies segment represented 45% of Corning’s sales for 2009.

 

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Telecommunications Segment

The Telecommunications segment produces optical fiber and cable, and hardware and equipment products for the worldwide telecommunications industry. Corning invented the world’s first low-loss optical fiber 40 years ago and now offers a range of optical fiber technology products and enhancements for a variety of applications, including premises, fiber-to-the-home access, metropolitan, long-haul and submarine networks. Corning makes and sells InfiniCor® fibers for local area networks, data centers and central offices; SMF-28e+™ single-mode optical fiber that provides additional transmission wavelengths in metropolitan and access networks; SMF-28® ULL fiber; LEAF® optical fiber for long-haul, regional and metropolitan networks; ClearCurve® ultra-bendable single-mode fiber for use in multiple dwelling units and fiber-to-the-home applications; ClearCurve® ultra-bendable multimode fiber for data centers and other enterprise networks; and Vascade® submarine optical fibers for use in submarine networks. Corning has two large optical fiber manufacturing facilities in North Carolina and another facility in China. As a result of lowered demand for optical fiber products, in 2002 Corning mothballed its optical fiber manufacturing facility in Concord, North Carolina and transferred certain capabilities to its Wilmington, North Carolina facility. In 2007, Corning reopened a portion of the Concord, North Carolina facility primarily as a result of volume growth in the optical fiber market.

A significant portion of Corning’s optical fiber is sold to subsidiaries such as Corning Cable Systems LLC (Corning Cable Systems), and Corning Cable Systems Polska Sp. Z o.o. Optical fiber is cabled prior to being sold to end users in cabled form. Corning’s remaining fiber production is sold directly to end users or third party cablers around the world. Corning’s cabling operations include facilities in North Carolina, Poland, and Germany and smaller regional locations and equity affiliates.

Corning’s hardware and equipment products include cable assemblies, fiber optic hardware, fiber optic connectors, optical components and couplers, closures and pedestals, splice and test equipment and other accessories for optical connectivity. For copper connectivity, Corning’s products include subscriber demarcation, connection and protection devices, xDSL (different variations of digital subscriber lines) passive solutions and outside plant enclosures. Each of the product lines may be combined in Corning’s fiber-to-the-premises solutions. Corning has manufacturing operations for hardware and equipment products in North Carolina, Arizona, and Texas, as well as Europe, Mexico, and China. In addition, Corning offers products for the cable television industry, including coaxial connectors and associated tools.

Patent protection is important to the segment’s operations. The segment has an extensive portfolio of patents relating to its products, technologies and manufacturing processes. The segment licenses certain of its patents to third parties and generates revenue from these licenses, although the royalty income is not currently material to this segment’s operating results. Corning is licensed to use certain patents owned by others, which are considered important to the segment’s operations. Refer to the material under the heading “Patents and Trademarks” for information relating to the Company’s patents and trademarks.

The Telecommunications segment represented 31% of Corning’s sales for 2009.

Environmental Technologies Segment

Corning’s environmental products include ceramic technologies for emissions and pollution control in mobile and stationary applications around the world, including automotive and diesel substrate and filter products. In the early 1970’s, Corning developed an economical, high-performance cellular ceramic substrate that is now the standard for catalytic converters worldwide. In response to tightening emission control regulations around the world, Corning has continued to develop more efficient substrate products with lower resistance to flow and greater surface area. In addition, Corning continues to develop new ceramic substrate and filter technologies for diesel emission control products to meet the tightening emission control regulations around the world. Corning manufactures substrate and filter products in New York, Virginia, China, Germany and South Africa. Corning sells its ceramic substrate and filter products worldwide to manufacturers of emission control systems who then sell to automotive and diesel engine manufacturers. Although most sales are made to the emission control systems manufacturers, the use of Corning substrates and filters is generally required by the specifications of the automotive and diesel engine manufacturers.

Patent protection is important to the segment’s operations. The segment has an extensive portfolio of patents relating to its products, technologies and manufacturing processes. Corning is licensed to use certain patents owned by others, which are considered important to the segment’s operations. Refer to the material under the heading “Patents and Trademarks” for information relating to the Company’s patents and trademarks.

The Environmental Technologies segment represented 11% of Corning’s sales for 2009.

 

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Specialty Materials Segment

The Specialty Materials segment manufactures products that provide more than 150 material formulations for glass, glass ceramics and fluoride crystals to meet demand for unique customer needs. Consequently, this segment operates in a wide variety of commercial and industrial markets that include display optics and components, semiconductor optics components, aerospace and defense, astronomy, ophthalmic products, telecommunications components and a protective cover glass that is optimized for portable display devices. Semiconductor optics manufactured by Corning include high-performance optical material products, optical-based metrology instruments, and optical assemblies for applications in the global semiconductor industry. Corning’s semiconductor optics products are manufactured in New York. Other specialty glass products include glass lens and window components and assemblies and are made in New York, Virginia, New Hampshire, Kentucky and France or sourced from China.

The Specialty Materials segment represented approximately 6% of Corning’s sales for 2009.

Life Sciences Segment

As a leading developer, manufacturer and global supplier of scientific laboratory products for more than 90 years, Corning’s Life Sciences segment collaborates with researchers seeking new approaches to increase efficiencies, reduce costs and compress timelines in the drug discovery process. Using unique expertise in the fields of optics, materials science, surfaces, and biology, the segment provides innovative solutions that improve productivity and enable breakthrough discoveries.

Life Sciences laboratory products include general labware and equipment as well as tools for cell culture and bioprocess, genomics and proteomics, and high-throughput screening. Corning manufactures these products in Maine, New York, New Jersey, California, Utah, Mexico, France, Poland, and China. The products are marketed worldwide, primarily through distributors, to pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, academic institutions, hospitals, government entities, and other research facilities. In addition to being a global leader in consumable glass and plastic laboratory tools for life science research, Corning continues to be a leader with the development and production of unique technologies such as the Corning® HYPERFlask® Cell Culture Vessel for increased cell yields, and novel surfaces, such as the Corning® CellBIND® Surface and the Corning® Osteo-Assay surface.

In September 2009, Corning acquired Axygen BioScience, Inc. and its subsidiaries (Axygen). Axygen is a leading manufacturer and distributor of high quality plastic consumables, liquid handling products and bench-top laboratory equipment. The acquisition of Axygen, which will be integrated into Corning’s Life Sciences segment, supports Corning’s strategy to expand its portfolio of life sciences products and enhance global customer access in this business. In addition to its existing Corning, Costar and Pyrex brands, Corning now sells life science products under the Axygen, Sorenson BioScience, Labnet, HTL, and ALP brands.

Patent protection is important to the segment’s operations. The segment has a growing portfolio of patents relating to its products, technologies and manufacturing processes. Brand recognition, through some well known trademarks, is important to the segment. Refer to the material under the heading “Patents and Trademarks” for information relating to the Company’s patents and trademarks.

The Life Sciences segment represented approximately 7% of Corning’s sales for 2009.

All Other

Other products primarily include development projects and new product lines, certain corporate investments, Samsung Corning Precision’s non-LCD business, and Corning’s Eurokera and Keraglass equity affiliates with Saint Gobain Vitrage S.A. of France which manufacture smooth cooktop glass/ceramic products in France, China, and South Carolina. Development projects and new product lines involve the use of various technologies for new products such as synthetic green lasers, silicon-on-glass, advanced flow reactors, thin-film photovoltaics, and mercury abatement. In 2006, Corning announced the commercial launch of the Epic™ system, a high-throughput label-free screening platform based on optical biosensor technology. The system offers drug developers the ability to evaluate promising new drug targets through both biochemical and cell-based drug discovery applications.

In September 2009, Corning and Samsung Corning Precision formed Corsam Technologies LLC (Corsam), a new equity affiliate established to provide glass technology research for future product applications. Corning and Samsung Corning Precision each own 50% of the common stock of Corsam and Corning has agreed to provide research and development services to Corsam.

Until December 31, 2007, Corning had a 50% interest in Samsung Corning Company, Ltd. (Samsung Corning), a producer of glass panels and funnels for cathode ray tubes for televisions and computer monitors, which had manufacturing facilities in Korea, Germany, China and Malaysia. Samsung Electronics Company, Ltd. and affiliates owned the remaining 50% interest in Samsung Corning. On December 31, 2007, Samsung Corning Precision acquired all of the outstanding shares of Samsung Corning. After the transaction, Corning retained its 50% interest in Samsung Corning Precision. As noted above, equity earnings from the non-LCD business of Samsung Corning Precision are included in the All Other category.

 

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All Other products represented less than 1% of Corning’s sales for 2009.

Additional explanation regarding Corning and its five segments is presented in Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition under Operating Review and Results of Operations and Note 20 (Operating Segments) to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

Corporate Investments

Corning and The Dow Chemical Company (Dow Chemical) each own half of Dow Corning Corporation (Dow Corning), an equity company headquartered in Michigan that manufactures silicone products worldwide. Dow Corning is a leader in silicon-based technology and innovation, offering more than 7,000 products and services. Dow Corning is the majority-owner of Hemlock Semiconductor, a market leader in the production of high purity polycrystalline for the semiconductor and solar energy industries. Dow Corning’s sales were $5.1 billion in 2009. Additional discussion about Dow Corning appears in the Legal Proceedings section. Dow Corning’s financial statements are attached in Item 15, Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules.

Corning and PPG Industries, Inc. each own half of Pittsburgh Corning Corporation (PCC), an equity company in Pennsylvania that manufactures glass products for architectural and industrial uses. PCC filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy reorganization in April 2000. Corning also owns half of Pittsburgh Corning Europe N.V. (PCE), a Belgian corporation that manufactures glass products for industrial uses primarily in Europe. Additional discussion about PCC and PCE appears in the Legal Proceedings section.

Additional information about corporate investments is presented in Note 7 (Investments) to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

Competition

Corning competes across all of its product lines with many large and varied manufacturers, both domestic and foreign. Some of these competitors are larger than Corning, and some have broader product lines. Corning strives to maintain its position through technology and product innovation. For the future, Corning believes its competitive advantage lies in its commitment to research and development, and its commitment to quality. There is no assurance that Corning will be able to maintain its market position or competitive advantage.

Display Technologies Segment

Corning, including Samsung Corning Precision, is the largest worldwide producer of glass substrates for active matrix LCD displays. Although the LCD glass substrate industry was negatively impacted by economic conditions in 2008 and in the first quarter of 2009, demand increased in the second quarter and remained strong during the rest of 2009, allowing Corning to remain in a strong competitive position. Corning believes it has sustained its competitive advantages in LCD glass substrate products by investing in new technologies, providing a consistent and reliable supply and using its proprietary fusion manufacturing process. This process allows us to deliver glass that is larger, thinner and lighter, with exceptional surface quality and without heavy metals. Asahi Glass, Nippon Electric Glass and Avan Strate, Inc. (formerly NH Techno) are Corning’s principal competitors in display glass substrates.

Telecommunications Segment

Competition within the telecommunications equipment industry is intense among several significant companies. Corning is a leading competitor in the segment’s principal product lines, which include optical fiber and cable and hardware and equipment. Price and new product innovations are significant competitive factors. The competitive landscape includes increasing competition, causing price pressure in all regions. These competitive conditions are likely to persist.

Corning is the largest producer of optical fiber and cable products, but faces significant competition due to continued excess manufacturing capacity in the market, price pressure and new product innovations. Corning believes its large scale manufacturing experience, fiber process, technology leadership and intellectual property assets yield cost advantages relative to several of its competitors. The primary competing producers of optical fiber and cable products are Furukawa Electric/OFS, Fujikura Ltd., Sumitomo Electric, Prysmian Cables & Systems and Draka Comteq.

For hardware and equipment products, significant competitors are 3M Company (3M), Tyco Electronics, Furukawa OFS, CommScope, and ADC Communications.

 

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Environmental Technologies Segment

For worldwide automotive ceramic substrate products, Corning has a leading market position that has remained relatively stable over the past year. Corning believes its competitive advantage in automotive ceramic substrate products for catalytic converters is based upon global presence, customer service, engineering design services and product innovation. Corning has established a strong presence in the heavy duty and light duty diesel vehicle market. Corning’s Environmental Technologies products face principal competition from NGK, Denso, and Ibiden.

Specialty Materials Segment

Corning is one of very few manufacturers with deep capabilities in materials science, optical design, shaping, coating, finishing, metrology, and system assembly. Corning is addressing emerging needs of the consumer electronics industry with the development of its chemically strengthened glass. Our capabilities include sophisticated technologies in forming, coating, and finishing that deliver high performance, durable solutions. These capabilities position the Company to meet the needs of a broad array of markets including aerospace/defense, display, semiconductor, astronomy, vision care, industrial/commercial, and telecommunications. For this segment, Schott, Shin-Etsu Quartz Products, Asahi Fine Glass, Carl Zeiss, Nikon, NEG, Transitions Optical, Oerlikon, Hoya and Heraeus are the main competitors.

Life Sciences Segment

Corning is a leading supplier of glass and plastic laboratory products, with a growing plastics products market presence in North America and Europe, and a solid laboratory glass products market presence. Corning seeks to maintain competitive advantages by emphasizing product quality, product availability, supply chain efficiency, a wide product line and superior product attributes. For laboratory products, Greiner, Becton Dickinson, Kimble-Chase, and Duran are the principal worldwide competitors. Corning also faces increasing competition from two large distributors that have pursued backward integration or introduced private label products.

Raw Materials

Corning’s production of specialty glasses, ceramics, and related materials requires significant quantities of energy, uninterrupted power sources, certain precious metals, and various batch materials.

Although energy shortages have not been a problem recently, the cost of energy remains volatile. Corning has achieved flexibility through important engineering changes to take advantage of low-cost energy sources in most significant processes. Specifically, many of Corning’s principal manufacturing processes can be operated with natural gas, propane, oil or electricity, or a combination of these energy sources.

Availability of resources (ores, minerals, polymers, and processed chemicals) required in manufacturing operations, appears to be adequate. Corning’s suppliers, from time to time, may experience capacity limitations in their own operations, or may eliminate certain product lines. Corning believes it has adequate programs to ensure a reliable supply of batch materials and precious metals. For many products, Corning has alternate glass compositions that would allow operations to continue without interruption in the event of specific materials shortages.

Certain key materials and proprietary equipment used in the manufacturing of products are currently sole-sourced or available only from a limited number of suppliers. Any future difficulty in obtaining sufficient and timely delivery of components could result in lost sales due to delays or reductions in product shipments, or reductions in Corning’s gross margins.

Patents and Trademarks

Inventions by members of Corning’s research and engineering staff have been, and continue to be, important to the Company’s growth. Patents have been granted on many of these inventions in the United States and other countries. Some of these patents have been licensed to other manufacturers, including companies in which Corning has equity investments. Many of the earlier patents have now expired, but Corning continues to seek and obtain patents protecting its newer innovations. In 2009, Corning was granted over 180 patents in the U.S. and over 300 patents in countries outside the U.S.

 

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Each business segment possesses its own patent portfolio that provides certain competitive advantages in protecting Corning’s innovations. Corning has historically enforced, and will continue to enforce, its intellectual property rights. At the end of 2009, Corning and its wholly-owned subsidiaries owned over 4,350 unexpired patents in various countries of which about 2,450 were U.S. patents. Between 2010 and 2012, approximately 11% of these patents will expire, while at the same time Corning intends to seek patents protecting its newer innovations. Worldwide, Corning has over 5,700 patent applications in process, with about 1,760 in process in the U.S. Corning believes that its patent portfolio will continue to provide a competitive advantage in protecting Corning’s innovation, although Corning’s competitors in each of its businesses are actively seeking patent protection as well.

The Display Technologies segment has over 310 patents in various countries, of which over 125 are U.S. patents. No one patent is considered material to this business segment. Some of the important issued U.S. patents in this segment include patents relating to glass compositions and methods for the use and manufacture of glass substrates for display applications. There is no group of important Display Technology segment patents set to expire between 2010 and 2012.

The Telecommunications segment has over 1,850 patents in various countries, of which over 900 are U.S. patents. No one patent is considered material to this business segment. Some of the important issued U.S. patents in this segment include: (i) patents relating to optical fiber products including dispersion compensating fiber, low loss optical fiber and high data rate optical fiber and processes and equipment for manufacturing optical fiber, including methods for making optical fiber preforms and methods for drawing, cooling and winding optical fiber; (ii) patents relating to optical fiber ribbons and methods for making such ribbon, fiber optic cable designs and methods for installing optical fiber cable; and (iii) patents relating to optical fiber connectors, termination and storage and associated methods of manufacture. A few patents relating to optical fiber manufacturing will expire between 2010 and 2012.

The Environmental Technologies segment has over 380 patents in various countries of which over 200 are U.S. patents. No one patent is considered material to this business segment. Some of the important issued U.S. patents in this segment include patents relating to cellular ceramic honeycomb products, together with ceramic batch and binder system compositions, honeycomb extrusion and firing processes, and honeycomb extrusion dies and equipment for the high-volume, low-cost manufacture of such products. There is no group of important Environmental Technologies patents set to expire between 2010 and 2012.

The Specialty Materials segment has over 600 patents in various countries of which over 370 are U.S. patents. No one patent is considered material to this business segment. Some of the important issued U.S. patents in this segment include patents relating to ophthalmics, LCD imagemask and semiconductor/ microlithography optics and blanks, metrology instrumentation and laser/precision optics, protective cover glass, glass polarizers, specialty fiber, and refractories. There is no group of important Specialty Materials patents set to expire between 2010 and 2012.

The Life Sciences segment has over 175 patents in various countries of which over 95 are U.S. patents. No one patent is considered material to this business segment. Some of the important issued U.S. patents in this segment include patents relating to methods and apparatus for the manufacture and use of scientific laboratory equipment including nucleic acid arrays, multiwell plates, and cell culture products. There is no group of important Life Sciences patents set to expire between 2010 and 2012.

Products reported in All Other include development projects, new product lines, and other businesses or investments that do not meet the threshold for separate reporting. Some of the important issued U.S. patents in this segment include patents relating to equipment for label independent drug discovery, advanced flow reactors, and methods of manufacture, and semiconductor lasers and related packaging.

Many of the Company’s patents are used in operations or are licensed for use by others, and Corning is licensed to use patents owned by others. Corning has entered into cross licensing arrangements with some major competitors, but the scope of such licenses has been limited to specific product areas or technologies.

Corning’s principal trademarks include the following: Corning, Celcor, DuraTrap, Eagle2000, EagleXG, Epic, Evolant, HPFS, Lanscape, Pyrex, ClearCurve, SMF-28e, Gorilla, and Jade.

Protection of the Environment

Corning has a program to ensure that its facilities are in compliance with state, federal and foreign pollution-control regulations. This program has resulted in capital and operating expenditures during the past several years. In order to maintain compliance with such regulations, capital expenditures for pollution control in continuing operations were approximately $26 million in 2009 and are estimated to be $5 million in 2010.

Corning’s 2009 consolidated operating results were charged with approximately $42 million for depreciation, maintenance, waste disposal and other operating expenses associated with pollution control. Corning believes that its compliance program will not place it at a competitive disadvantage.

 

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Employees

At December 31, 2009, Corning had approximately 23,500 full-time employees, including approximately 10,200 employees in the United States. From time to time, Corning also retains consultants, independent contractors, and temporary and part-time workers. Unions are certified as bargaining agents for approximately 26% of Corning’s United States employees.

Executive Officers of the Registrant

Wendell P. Weeks  Chairman and Chief Executive Officer

Mr. Weeks joined Corning in 1983 and was named a vice president and deputy general manager of the Telecommunications Products division in 1995, vice president and general manager in 1996, senior vice president in 1997, senior vice president of Opto-Electronics in 1998, executive vice president in 1999, president, Corning Optical Communications in 2001, president and chief operating officer of Corning in 2002, and president and chief executive officer in 2005. Mr. Weeks became chairman and chief executive officer on April 26, 2007. Mr. Weeks is a director of Merck & Co. Inc. Mr. Weeks has been a member of Corning’s Board of Directors since 2000. Age 50.

James B. Flaws  Vice Chairman and Chief Financial Officer

Mr. Flaws joined Corning in 1973 and served in a variety of controller and business management positions. Mr. Flaws was elected assistant treasurer of Corning in 1993, vice president and controller in 1997 and vice president of finance and treasurer in May 1997, senior vice president and chief financial officer in December 1997, executive vice president and chief financial officer in 1999 and to his current position in 2002. Mr. Flaws is a director of Dow Corning Corporation. Mr. Flaws has been a member of Corning’s Board of Directors since 2000. Age 61.

Peter F. Volanakis  President and Chief Operating Officer

Mr. Volanakis joined Corning in 1982 and subsequently held various marketing, development and commercial positions in several divisions. He was named managing director Corning GmbH in 1992, executive vice president of CCS Holding, Inc., formerly known as Siecor Corporation, in 1995, senior vice president of Advanced Display Products in 1997, executive vice president of Display Technologies and Life Sciences in 1999, president of Corning Technologies in 2001, and became chief operating officer in 2005. Mr. Volanakis became president and chief operating officer on April 26, 2007. Mr. Volanakis is a director of Dow Corning Corporation and The Vanguard Group. Mr. Volanakis has been a member of Corning’s Board of Directors since 2000. Age 54.

Kirk P. Gregg  Executive Vice President and Chief Administrative Officer

Mr. Gregg joined Corning in 1993 as director of Executive Compensation. He was named vice president of Executive Resources and Employee Benefits in 1994, senior vice president, Administration in December 1997 and to his current position in 2002. He is responsible for Human Resources, Information Technology, Procurement and Transportation, Aviation, Community Affairs, Government Affairs, Business Services and Corporate Security. Prior to joining Corning, Mr. Gregg was with General Dynamics Corporation as corporate director, Key Management Programs, and was responsible for executive compensation and benefits, executive development and recruiting. Age 50.

Joseph A. Miller  Executive Vice President and Chief Technology Officer

Dr. Miller joined Corning in 2001 as senior vice president and chief technology officer. He was elected to his current position in 2002. Prior to joining Corning, Dr. Miller was with E.I. DuPont de Nemours, Inc., where he served as chief technology officer and senior vice president for research and development since 1994. He began his career with DuPont in 1966. Dr. Miller is a director of Greatbatch, Inc. and Dow Corning Corporation. Age 68.

Pamela C. Schneider  Senior Vice President and Operations Chief of Staff

Ms. Schneider joined Corning in 1986 as senior financial analyst in the Controllers Division. In 1988 she became manager of internal audit. In 1990 she was named controller and in 1991 chief financial officer of Corning Asahi Video Products Company. In January 1993, she was appointed vice president and chief financial officer for Corning Consumer Products Company, and in 1995 vice president Finance and Administration. In 1997, she was named vice president and in 1999 senior vice president, Human Resources and diversity officer for Corning Incorporated. Ms. Schneider was elected to her present position in April 2002. Age 55.

Lawrence D. McRae  Senior Vice President, Strategy and Corporate Development

Mr. McRae joined Corning in 1985 and served in various financial, sales and marketing positions. He was elected vice president Corporate Development in 2000, senior vice president Corporate Development in 2003 and most recently, senior vice president Strategy and Corporate Development in October 2005. Mr. McRae is on the board of directors of Dow Corning Corporation, and Samsung Corning Precision Glass Co., Ltd. Age 51.

 

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R. Tony Tripeny  Senior Vice President, Corporate Controller and Principal Accounting Officer

Mr. Tripeny joined Corning in 1985 as the corporate accounting manager of Corning Cable Systems, and became the Keller facility’s plant controller in 1989. In 1993, he was appointed equipment division controller of Corning Cable Systems and, in 1996 corporate controller. Mr. Tripeny was appointed to chief financial officer of Corning Cable Systems in July 2000. In 2003, he took on the additional role of group controller, Telecommunications, Corning Incorporated. He was appointed to division vice president, Operations Controller in August 2004, and vice president, Corporate Controller in October 2005. Mr. Tripeny was elected to his current position in April 2009. Age 50.

Vincent P. Hatton  Senior Vice President and General Counsel

Mr. Hatton joined Corning in 1981 as an assistant corporate counsel and became a division counsel in 1984. Mr. Hatton was named assistant general counsel, Specialty Materials in May 1993, and director of the Legal Department in 1995. Mr. Hatton was elected vice president in 1998 and senior vice president in 2003. Mr. Hatton was elected to his current position on March 1, 2007. Age 59.

Document Availability

A copy of Corning’s 2009 Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is available upon written request to Ms. Denise A. Hauselt, Vice President, Secretary and Assistant General Counsel, Corning Incorporated, HQ-E2-10, Corning, NY 14831. The Annual Report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act of 1934 and other filings are available as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed or furnished to the SEC, and can be accessed electronically free of charge, through the Investor Relations category of the Corning home page on the Internet at www.corning.com. The information contained on the Company’s website is not included in, or incorporated by reference into, this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Item 1A.    Risk Factors

Set forth below are some of the principal risks and uncertainties that could cause our actual business results to differ materially from any forward-looking statements contained in this Report or otherwise have a detrimental affect on the Company. These risks should be considered in making any investment decisions in Corning. Future results could be materially affected by general industry and market conditions, changes in laws or accounting rules, general economic and political conditions, including a global economic slowdown, fluctuation of interest rates or currency exchange rates, terrorism, political unrest or international conflicts, political instability or major health concerns, natural disasters or other disruptions of expected business conditions. These risk factors should be considered in addition to our cautionary comments concerning forward-looking statements in this Annual Report. Additional risks not described above, or unknown to us, may also adversely affect Corning or its results.

As a result of the recession in the economies of the United States and many other countries and volatility and uncertainty in global capital and credit markets, a number of the risks we normally face may increase in both our consolidated operations and at our equity method investments. These include:

 

 

Reduced consumer demand for the products our customers manufacture, notably automobiles and heavy duty trucks, LCD televisions and computer monitors which results in lowering demand for the products we sell.

 

Increased price competition resulting in lower sales, profitability and cash flow.

 

Deterioration in the financial condition of our customers resulting in reduced sales, an inability to collect receivables, payment delays or potentially bankruptcy or insolvency.

 

Increased risk of insolvency of financial institutions, which may limit Corning’s liquidity in the future or adversely affect its ability to use its revolving credit facility, or result in losses from hedged transactions or from counterparty risk on various financial transactions.

 

Increased turmoil in the financial markets may limit Corning’s, its customers’ or suppliers’ ability to access the capital markets or require limitations or terms and conditions for such access that are more restrictive and costly than in the past.

 

Declines in our businesses that could result in material charges for restructuring or asset impairments.

 

Increased risk that financial investments by our customers, suppliers or equity companies may not achieve historical levels of liquidity.

Our sales could be negatively impacted by the actions or circumstances of one or more key customers leading to the substantial reduction in orders for our products

In 2009, Corning’s ten largest customers accounted for 52% of our sales.

 

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In addition, a relatively small number of customers accounted for a high percentage of net sales in the majority of our reportable operating segments. For 2009, three customers of the Display Technologies segment accounted for 62% of total segment net sales when combined. In the Telecommunications segment, one customer accounted for 12% of segment net sales. In the Environmental Technologies segment, three customers accounted for 85% of total segment sales in aggregate. In the Life Sciences segment, two distributors accounted for 45% of segment sales in 2009. As a result of mergers and consolidations between customers, Corning’s customer base could become more concentrated.

Samsung Corning Precision’s sales were also concentrated in 2009, with sales to two LCD panel makers located in South Korea accounting for approximately 93% of total Samsung Corning Precision sales.

The sale of LCD glass substrates in 2009 and previous years provide no assurance that positive trends will continue. Our customers are LCD panel and color filter makers. As they switch to larger size glass, the pace of their orders may be uneven while they adjust their manufacturing processes and facilities. Additionally, consumer preferences for panels of differing sizes, designs, price, or other seasonal factors, may lead to pauses in market growth from time to time. Our customers may not be able to maintain their profitability or access sufficient capital to fund routine maintenance and operations or planned expansions, which may limit their pace of orders to us. Emerging material technologies could replace our glass substrates for certain applications resulting in a decline in demand for our LCD products. Technologies for displays in competition with LCD panels may reduce or eliminate the need for our glass substrates. These technologies may include organic light emitting diodes and plasma display panels. New process technologies developed by our competitors may also place us at a cost or quality disadvantage. Our inability to manufacture glass substrates in the sizes and quantities needed by our customers may result in loss of revenue, margins and profits or liabilities for failure to supply. A scarcity of resources, limitations on technology, personnel or other factors resulting in a failure to produce commercial quantities of very large size glass substrates, particularly from facilities at a major customer in Japan, could have adverse financial consequences to us.

Our Telecommunications segment customers’ purchases of our products are affected by their capital expansion plans, general market and economic uncertainty and regulatory changes, including broadband policy. Sales in the Telecommunications segment are expected to be impacted by the pace of fiber-to-the-premises deployments by our customers such as Verizon Communications Inc. Our sales will be dependent on planned targets for homes passed and connected. Changes in our customers’ deployment plans could adversely affect future sales in any quarter or for the full year.

In the Environmental Technologies segment, sales of our ceramic substrate and filter products for automotive and diesel emissions and pollution control are expected to fluctuate with vehicle production. Changes in governmental laws and regulations for air quality and emission controls may also influence future sales. Sales in our Environmental Technologies segment are mainly to three catalyzers and emission system component manufacturers. Our customers sell these systems to automotive original equipment manufacturers and diesel engine manufacturers. Sales within this segment may be affected by adverse developments in the global vehicle or U.S. freight hauling industries or by such factors as higher fuel prices that may affect vehicle sales or downturns in freight traffic.

Sales in our Specialty Materials segment track worldwide economic cycles and our customers’ responses to that cycle.

Sales in our Life Sciences segment are through two large distributors, and the remaining balance is to a variety of government entities, pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, hospitals, universities and other research facilities. In 2009, our two largest distributors accounted for 45% of Life Sciences’ segment sales. Changes in our distribution arrangements in this segment may adversely affect this segment’s financial results.

If the markets for our products do not develop and expand as we anticipate, demand for our products may decline, which would negatively impact our results of operations and financial performance

The markets for our products are characterized by rapidly changing technologies, evolving industry or government standards and new product introductions. Our success is expected to depend, in substantial part, on the successful introduction of new products, or upgrades of current products, and our ability to compete with new technologies. The following factors related to our products and markets, if not achieved, could have an adverse impact on our results of operations:

 

 

our ability to introduce leading products such as glass substrates for liquid crystal displays, optical fiber and cable and hardware and equipment, and environmental substrate and filter products at competitive prices;

 

our ability to manufacture adequate quantities of increasingly larger glass substrates to satisfy our customers technical requirements and our contractual obligations;

 

continued strong demand for notebook computers and LCD monitors;

 

growth in purchases of LCD televisions to replace other technologies;

 

screen size of LCD televisions, which affects glass demand;

 

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our ability to develop new products in response to government regulations and laws, particularly diesel filter products in the Environmental Technologies segment;

 

growth of the fiber-to-the-premises build-out in North America and western Europe; and

 

growth in emerging markets in other geographic regions.

We face pricing pressures in each of our leading businesses that could adversely affect our financial performance

We face pricing pressure in each of our leading businesses as a result of intense competition, emerging new technologies, or over-capacity. While we will work toward reducing our costs to offset pricing pressures, we may not be able to achieve proportionate reductions in costs or to sustain our current rate of cost reduction We anticipate pricing pressures will continue into 2010 and beyond in all our businesses.

We face risks related to our international operations and sales

We have customers and significant operations, including manufacturing and sales, located outside the U.S. We have large manufacturing operations for liquid crystal display glass substrates in Taiwan, Japan and Korea, including an equity investment in Samsung Corning Precision operating in South Korea that makes glass substrates for the Korean LCD market. All of our Display segment customers are located in the Asia-Pacific region. As a result of these and other international operations, we face a number of risks, including:

 

 

geographical concentration of our factories and operations and regional shifts in our customer base;

 

periodic health epidemic concerns;

 

difficulty of managing global operations;

 

difficulty in protecting intellectual property or sensitive commercial and operations data or information technology systems generally;

 

tariffs, duties and other trade barriers including anti-dumping duties;

 

differing legal systems;

 

natural disasters such as earthquakes;

 

potential power loss affecting glass production and equipment damage;

 

political and economic instability in foreign markets; and

 

foreign currency risk.

Any of these items could cause our sales or profitability to be significantly reduced.

Additionally, a significant amount of the specialized manufacturing capacity for our Display Technologies segment is concentrated in three overseas countries and it is reasonably possible that the use of one or more such facilities could be disrupted. Due to the specialized nature of the assets and the customers’ locations, it may not be possible to find replacement capacity quickly or substitute production from facilities in other countries. Accordingly, loss of these facilities could produce a near-term severe impact on our display business and the Company as a whole.

We face risks due to foreign currency fluctuations

Because we have significant customers and operations outside the U.S., fluctuations in foreign currencies, especially the Japanese yen, New Taiwan dollar, Korean won, and euro, affect our sales and profit levels. Foreign exchange rates may make our products less competitive in countries where local currencies decline in value relative to the U.S. dollar and Japanese yen. Sales in our Display Technologies segment, representing 45% of Corning’s sales in 2009, are denominated in Japanese yen. If sales grow in our Display Technologies segment, that will increase our exposure to currency fluctuations. Corning hedges significant transaction and balance sheet currency exposures and uses derivatives instruments to limit exposure to foreign currency fluctuations associated with certain monetary assets and liabilities as well as operating results. Although we selectively hedge these items, changes in exchange rates (especially the Japanese yen to U.S. dollar) may significantly impact our reported revenues and profits.

If the financial condition of our customers declines, our credit risks could increase

Although we have a rigorous process to administer credit and believe our reserve is adequate, we have experienced, and in the future may experience, losses as a result of our inability to collect our accounts receivable. If our customers or our indirect customers fail to meet their payment obligations for our products, we could experience reduced cash flows and losses in excess of amounts reserved. Some customers of our Display Technologies segment are thinly capitalized and/or marginally profitable. In our Environmental Technologies segment, the U.S. auto makers and certain of their suppliers have encountered credit downgrades or have filed for bankruptcy protection. These factors may result in an inability to collect receivables or a possible loss in business. As of December 31, 2009 reserves and allowances for trade receivables totaled approximately $20 million.

 

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If we do not successfully adjust our manufacturing volumes and fixed cost structure, or achieve manufacturing yields or sufficient product reliability, our operating results and cash flow could suffer, and we may not achieve anticipated profitability levels

Investments in additional manufacturing capacity of certain businesses, including liquid crystal display glass and diesel emission substrates and filters present challenges. We may face technical and process issues in moving to commercial production and there can be no assurance that Corning will be able to pace its capacity expansion to the actual demand. Economic results may adversely affect our ability to complete planned capacity expansion and products. It is possible that manufacturing capacity may exceed or lag customer demand during certain periods.

The manufacturing of our products involves highly complex and precise processes, requiring production in highly controlled and dust-free environments. Changes in our manufacturing processes could significantly reduce our manufacturing yields and product reliability. In some cases, existing manufacturing may be insufficient to achieve the requirements of our customers. We will need to develop new manufacturing processes and techniques to achieve targeted volume, pricing and cost levels that will permit profitable operations. While we continue to fund projects to improve our manufacturing techniques and processes, we may not achieve satisfactory cost levels in our manufacturing activities that will fully satisfy our profitability targets.

Our future financial performance depends on our ability to purchase a sufficient amount of materials, precious metals, parts, and manufacturing equipment components to meet the demands of our customers

Our ability to meet customer demand depends, in part, on our ability to obtain timely and adequate delivery of materials, precious metals, parts and components from our suppliers. We may experience shortages that could adversely affect our operations. Although we work closely with our suppliers to avoid shortages, there can be no assurances that we will not encounter these problems in the future. Furthermore, certain manufacturing equipment, raw materials or components are available only from a single source or limited sources. We may not be able to find alternate sources in a timely manner. A reduction, interruption or delay of supply, or a significant increase in the price for supplies, such as manufacturing equipment, precious metals, raw materials or energy, could have a material adverse effect on our businesses.

We have incurred, and may in the future incur, restructuring and other charges, the amounts of which are difficult to predict accurately

We have recorded several charges for restructuring, impairment of assets, and the write-off of cost and equity-based investments. As a result of the decline in the economy and its impact on Corning’s businesses, we recorded restructuring charges of $228 million in 2009. Certain of our equity affiliates have also recorded restructuring charges. We and our affiliates may have additional actions that result in restructuring charges in the future.

We have incurred, and may in the future incur, goodwill and other intangible asset impairment charges

At December 31, 2009, Corning had goodwill and other intangible assets of $676 million. While we believe the estimates and judgments about future cash flows used in the goodwill impairment tests are reasonable, we cannot provide assurance that future impairment charges will not be required if the expected cash flow estimates as projected by management do not occur, especially if an economic recession occurs and continues for a lengthy period or becomes severe, or if acquisitions made by the Company fail to achieve expected returns.

If our products, including materials purchased from our suppliers, experience performance issues, our business will suffer

Our business depends on the production of products of consistently high quality. Our products, components and materials purchased from our suppliers, are typically tested for quality. These testing procedures are limited to evaluating our products under likely and foreseeable failure scenarios. For various reasons, our products, including materials purchased from our suppliers, may fail to perform as expected. In some cases, product redesigns or additional expense may be required to correct a defect. A significant or systemic product failure could result in customer relations problems, lost sales, and financial damages.

We face competition in most of our businesses

We expect that we will face additional competition from existing competitors, low cost manufacturers and new entrants. We must invest in research and development, expand our engineering, manufacturing and marketing capabilities, and continue to improve customer service and support in order to remain competitive. We cannot provide assurance that we will be able to maintain or improve our competitive position.

 

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Changes in our effective tax rate or tax liability may have an adverse effect on our results of operations

Our effective tax rate could be adversely impacted by several factors, some of which are outside of our control, including:

 

 

changes in the relative amounts of income before taxes in the various jurisdictions in which we operate that have differing statutory tax rates;

 

changes in tax laws and the interpretation of those tax laws;

 

changes to our assessments about the realizability of our deferred tax assets that are based on estimates of our future results, the prudence and feasibility of possible tax planning strategies, and the economic environments in which we do business;

 

the outcome of current and future tax audits, examinations, or administrative appeals;

 

changes in generally accepted accounting principles that affect the accounting for taxes; and

 

limitations or adverse findings regarding our ability to do business in some jurisdictions.

In the ordinary course of our business, there are many transactions and calculations where the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. Significant judgment is required in determining our worldwide provision for income taxes. Although we believe our tax estimates are reasonable, the final determination could be materially different from our historical tax provisions and accruals.

Accounting and disclosure rules may affect financial results

Generally accepted accounting principles and accompanying accounting pronouncements, implementation guidelines, and interpretations for many areas of our business, such as revenue recognition, accounting for investments, and accounting for stock options, are very complex and involve significant and sometimes subjective judgments. Changes in these rules or their interpretation could significantly impact our reported earnings and operating income and could add significant volatility to those measures in the future, without a corresponding change in our cash flows.

We rely on key personnel and the loss of their services or the inability to attract and retain them may negatively affect our businesses

Our ability to continue to attract, retain and motivate qualified research and development, engineering and operating personnel, generally and during periods of rapid growth, especially in those of our businesses focused on new products and advanced manufacturing processes, is essential to our business success. We also depend on the services of experienced key senior management.

The loss of the services of any of our key research and development, engineering or operational personnel or senior management without adequate replacement, or the inability to attract new qualified personnel, could have a material adverse effect on our operations and financial performance.

We are subject to strict environmental regulations and regulatory changes that could result in fines or restrictions that interrupt our operations

Our manufacturing process generates chemical waste, waste water and other industrial waste and various green house gases at various stages in the manufacturing process, and we are currently or may be in the future subject to a variety of laws and regulations relating to the use, storage, discharge and disposal of such substances. We have installed various types of anti-pollution equipment for the treatment of chemical waste and waste water at our various facilities. We have taken steps to affect the amount of greenhouse gases created by our manufacturing operations. However, we cannot provide assurance that environmental claims will not be brought against us or that the local or national governments will not take steps toward adopting more stringent environment standards.

Any failure on our part to comply with any present or future environmental regulations could result in the assessment of damages or imposition of fines against us, or the suspension/cessation of production or operations. In addition, environmental regulations could require us to acquire costly equipment, incur other significant compliance expenses or limit or restrict production or operations and thus materially and negatively affect our financial condition and results of operations.

Changes in regulations and the regulatory environment in the U.S. and other countries, such as those resulting from the regulation and impact of global warming and CO2 abatement, may affect our businesses and their results in adverse ways by, among other things, substantially increasing manufacturing costs, limiting availability of scarce resources, especially energy, or requiring limitations on production and sale of our products or those of our customers.

 

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We may experience difficulties in enforcing our intellectual property rights and we may be subject to claims of infringement of the intellectual property rights of others

We may encounter difficulties in protecting our intellectual property rights or obtaining rights to additional intellectual property necessary to permit us to continue or expand our businesses. We cannot assure you that the patents that we hold or may obtain will provide meaningful protection against our competitors. Changes in laws concerning intellectual property may affect our ability to protect our intellectual property. Litigation may be necessary to enforce our intellectual property rights. Litigation is inherently uncertain and the outcome is often unpredictable. Other companies hold patents on technologies used in our industries and are aggressively seeking to expand, enforce and license their patent portfolios.

The intellectual property rights of others could inhibit our ability to introduce new products. We are, and may in the future be, subject to claims of intellectual property infringement or misappropriation that may result in loss of revenue, require us to incur substantial costs, or lead to monetary damages or injunctive relief against us. We cannot assure you as to the outcome of any such claims.

Current or future litigation may harm our financial condition or results of operations

Pending, threatened or future litigation is subject to inherent uncertainties. Our financial condition or results of operations may be adversely affected by unfavorable outcomes, expenses and costs exceeding amounts estimated or insured. In particular, we have been named as a defendant in numerous lawsuits alleging personal injury from exposure to asbestos, and adverse rulings in such lawsuits or the inability to successfully resolve such matters may adversely affect the Company. As described in Legal Proceedings, a new PCC Plan of Reorganization was filed with the Bankruptcy Court on January 29, 2009 proposing a resolution of PCC asbestos claims. It remains reasonably possible that changes to the Amended PCC Plan may be negotiated, and the elements of the plan and its approval are subject to a number of contingencies before the resolution outlined in the Plan becomes final.

We face risks through our equity method investments in companies that we do not control

Corning’s net income includes significant equity in earnings of associated companies. For the year ended December 31, 2009, we recognized $1.4 billion of equity earnings, of which 98% came from our two largest investments: Dow Corning (which makes silicone and high purity polycrystalline products) and Samsung Corning Precision (which primarily makes liquid crystal display glass). Samsung Corning Precision is located in the Asia-Pacific region and is subject to political and geographic risks mentioned above, as well as business and other risks within the Display segment. Our equity investments may not continue to perform at the same levels as in recent years. In 2007, we recognized equity losses associated with Samsung Corning Co., Ltd. (a 50% equity method investment that made glass panels and funnels for conventional televisions), which recorded fixed asset and other impairment charges. Dow Corning emerged from Chapter 11 bankruptcy in 2004 and has certain obligations under its Plan of Reorganization to resolve and fund claims of its creditors and personal injury claimants. Dow Corning may incur further bankruptcy charges in the future, which may adversely affect its operations or assets.

We may not have adequate insurance coverage for claims against us

We face the risk of loss resulting from product liability, securities, fiduciary liability, intellectual property, antitrust, contractual, warranty, environmental, fraud and other lawsuits, whether or not such claims are valid. In addition, our product liability, fiduciary, directors and officers, property including business interruption, natural catastrophe and comprehensive general liability insurance may not be adequate to cover such claims or may not be available to the extent we expect in the future. Our insurance costs can be volatile and, at any time, can increase given changes in market supply and demand and our claim history. We may not be able to obtain adequate insurance coverage in the future at acceptable costs. A successful claim that exceeds or is not covered by our policies could require us to pay substantial sums. Some of the carriers in our primary and excess insurance programs are in liquidation and may not be able to respond if we should have claims reaching into their layers. The financial health of other insurers may deteriorate. Several of our insurance carriers are litigating with us the extent, if any, of their obligation to provide insurance coverage for asbestos liabilities asserted against us. The results of that litigation may adversely affect our insurance coverage for those risks. In addition, we may not be able to obtain adequate insurance coverage for certain types of risk such as political risks, terrorism or war.

Our businesses may be subject to increased regulatory enforcement

Some of our business segments operate in industries with a concentrated number of competitors and customers both foreign and domestic. While we have adopted a corporate-wide compliance program, we may become the subject of antitrust or other governmental investigations from many jurisdictions that may adversely impact our reputation or our ability to make and sell products in the future.

 

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Other

Additional information in response to Item 1 is found in Note 20 (Operating Segments) to the Consolidated Financial Statements and in Item 6 (Selected Financial Data).

Item 1B.    Unresolved Staff Comments

None.

Item 2.    Properties

We operate approximately 60 manufacturing plants and processing facilities, of which approximately one-half are located in the U.S. We own substantially all of our executive and corporate buildings, which are located in Corning, New York. We also own substantially all of our research and development facilities and the majority of our manufacturing facilities. We own approximately 23% of our sales and administrative facilities, while the remaining portion are leased facilities.

For the years ended 2009, 2008 and 2007, we invested a total of $4.1 billion, primarily in facilities outside of the U.S. in our Display Technologies segment. Of the $890 million spent in 2009, approximately half was for facilities outside the U.S.

Manufacturing, sales and administrative, and research and development facilities have an aggregate floor space of approximately 24 million square feet. Distribution of this total area follows:

 

(million square feet)    Total    Domestic    Foreign

Manufacturing

   18    7    11

Sales and administrative

   2    1    1

Research and development

   2    2   

Warehouse

   2    2     

Total

   24    12    12

Total assets and capital expenditures by operating segment are included in Note 20 (Operating Segments) to the Consolidated Financial Statements. Information concerning lease commitments is included in Note 14 (Commitments, Contingencies, and Guarantees) to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

As a result of a decline in demand for our LCD glass in the second half of 2008, we had temporarily idled more than half of our manufacturing capacity in the Display Technologies segment by the end of 2008. A large portion of this capacity was brought back on-line in 2009 to meet an increase in demand and to replace existing capacity when needed.

Since 2002, we have had excess manufacturing capacity in our Telecommunications segment and have not utilized a portion of space in the facilities listed above. The largest unused portion is our optical fiber manufacturing facility in Concord, North Carolina that was mothballed in 2002 as a result of lowered demand of optical fiber products. In 2007, we re-opened a portion of the Concord, North Carolina facility as a result of volume growth in the optical fiber market.

Item 3.    Legal Proceedings

Environmental Litigation. Corning has been named by the Environmental Protection Agency (the Agency) under the Superfund Act, or by state governments under similar state laws, as a potentially responsible party for 21 active hazardous waste sites. Under the Superfund Act, all parties who may have contributed any waste to a hazardous waste site, identified by such Agency, are jointly and severally liable for the cost of cleanup unless the Agency agrees otherwise. It is Corning’s policy to accrue for its estimated liability related to Superfund sites and other environmental liabilities related to property owned by Corning based on expert analysis and continual monitoring by both internal and external consultants. At December 31, 2009, Corning had accrued approximately $26 million (undiscounted) for its estimated liability for environmental cleanup and related litigation. Based upon the information developed to date, management believes that the accrued reserve is a reasonable estimate of the Company’s liability and that the risk of an additional loss in an amount materially higher than that accrued is remote.

Dow Corning Bankruptcy. Corning and Dow Chemical each own 50% of the common stock of Dow Corning. In May 1995, Dow Corning filed for bankruptcy protection to address pending and claimed liabilities arising from many thousands of breast implant product lawsuits. On June 1, 2004, Dow Corning emerged from Chapter 11 with a Plan of Reorganization (the Plan) which provided for the settlement or other resolution of implant claims. The Plan also includes releases for Corning and Dow Chemical as shareholders in exchange for contributions to the Plan.

 

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Under the terms of the Plan, Dow Corning has established and is funding a Settlement Trust and a Litigation Facility to provide a means for tort claimants to settle or litigate their claims. Inclusive of insurance, Dow Corning has paid approximately $1.6 billion to the Settlement Trust. As of December 31, 2009, Dow Corning had recorded a reserve for breast implant litigation of $1.6 billion and anticipates insurance receivables of $16 million. As a separate matter arising from the bankruptcy proceedings, Dow Corning is defending claims asserted by a number of commercial creditors who claim additional interest at default rates and enforcement costs, during the period from May 1995 through June 2004. As of December 31, 2009, Dow Corning has estimated the liability to commercial creditors to be within the range of $83 million to $260 million. As Dow Corning management believes no single amount within the range appears to be a better estimate than any other amount within the range, Dow Corning has recorded the minimum liability within the range. Should Dow Corning not prevail in this matter, Corning’s equity earnings would be reduced by its 50% share of the amount in excess of $83 million, net of applicable tax benefits. In addition, the London Market Insurers (the LMI Claimants) have claimed a reimbursement right with respect to a portion of insurance proceeds previously paid by the LMI Claimants to Dow Corning. This claim is based on a theory that the LMI Claimants overestimated Dow Corning’s liability for the resolution of implant claims pursuant to the Plan. The LMI Claimants offered two calculations of their claim amount: $54 million and $93 million, plus minimum interest of $67 million and $116 million, respectively. These estimates were explicitly characterized as preliminary and subject to change. Litigation regarding this claim is in the discovery stage. Dow Corning disputes the claim and is unable to reasonably estimate any potential liability. There are a number of other claims in the bankruptcy proceedings against Dow Corning awaiting resolution by the U.S. District Court, and it is reasonably possible that Dow Corning may record bankruptcy-related charges in the future. There are no remaining tort claims against Corning, other than those that will be channeled by the Plan into facilities established by the Plan or otherwise defended by the Litigation Facility.

Pittsburgh Corning Corporation. Corning and PPG Industries, Inc. (PPG) each own 50% of the capital stock of Pittsburgh Corning Corporation (PCC). Over a period of more than two decades, PCC and several other defendants have been named in numerous lawsuits involving claims alleging personal injury from exposure to asbestos. On April 16, 2000, PCC filed for Chapter 11 reorganization in the U.S. Bankruptcy Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania. At the time PCC filed for bankruptcy protection, there were approximately 11,800 claims pending against Corning in state court lawsuits alleging various theories of liability based on exposure to PCC’s asbestos products and typically requesting monetary damages in excess of one million dollars per claim. Corning has defended those claims on the basis of the separate corporate status of PCC and the absence of any facts supporting claims of direct liability arising from PCC’s asbestos products. Corning is also currently involved in approximately 10,400 other cases (approximately 38,800 claims) alleging injuries from asbestos and similar amounts of monetary damages per case. Those cases have been covered by insurance without material impact to Corning to date. As described below, several of Corning’s insurance carriers have filed a legal proceeding concerning the extent of any insurance coverage for these claims. Asbestos litigation is inherently difficult, and past trends in resolving these claims may not be indicators of future outcomes.

On March 28, 2003, Corning announced that it had reached agreement with the representatives of asbestos claimants for the resolution of all current and future asbestos claims against it and PCC, which might arise from PCC products or operations (the 2003 Plan). The 2003 Plan would have required Corning to relinquish its equity interest in PCC, contribute its equity interest in Pittsburgh Corning Europe N.V. (PCE), a Belgian corporation, contribute 25 million shares of Corning common stock, and pay a total of $140 million in six annual installments (present value $131 million at March 2003), beginning one year after the plan’s effective date, with 5.5 percent interest from June 2004. In addition, the 2003 Plan provided that Corning would assign certain insurance policy proceeds from its primary insurance and a portion of its excess insurance.

On December 21, 2006, the Bankruptcy Court issued an order denying confirmation of the 2003 Plan for reasons it set out in a memorandum opinion. Several parties, including Corning, filed motions for reconsideration. These motions were argued on March 5, 2007, and the Bankruptcy Court reserved decision.

On January 10, 2008, some of the parties in the proceeding advised the Bankruptcy Court that they had made substantial progress on a proposed amended plan of reorganization (the Amended PCC Plan) that resolved issues raised by the Court in denying the confirmation of the 2003 Plan and that would therefore make it unnecessary for the Bankruptcy Court to decide the motion for reconsideration. On March 27, 2008 and May 22, 2008, the parties further informed the Bankruptcy Court on the progress toward the Amended PCC Plan. The parties filed a partial tentative plan on August 8, 2008. The parties continued to inform the Bankruptcy Court of the status of their discussions on the Amended PCC Plan. The complete Amended PCC Plan and its ancillary documents were filed with the Bankruptcy Court on January 29, 2009.

 

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As a result, Corning believes the Amended PCC Plan now represents the most probable outcome of this matter and expects that the Amended PCC Plan will be confirmed by the Court. At the same time, Corning believes the 2003 Plan no longer serves as the basis for the Company’s best estimate of liability. Key provisions of the Amended PCC Plan address the concerns expressed by the Bankruptcy Court. Accordingly, in the first quarter of 2008, Corning adjusted its asbestos litigation liability to reflect components of the Amended PCC Plan. The proposed resolution of PCC asbestos claims under the Amended PCC Plan requires Corning to contribute its equity interests in PCC and PCE and to contribute a fixed series of payments, recorded at present value. Corning will have the option to use its shares rather than cash to make these payments, but the liability is fixed by dollar value and not the number of shares. The Amended PCC Plan would require Corning to make (1) one payment of $100 million one year from the date the Amended PCC Plan becomes effective and certain conditions are met and (2) five additional payments of $50 million, on each of the five subsequent anniversaries of the first payment, the final payment of which is subject to reduction based on the application of credits under certain circumstances.

The Amended PCC Plan does not include non-PCC asbestos claims that may be or have been raised against Corning. Corning has recorded an additional $150 million for such claims in its estimated asbestos litigation liability. The liability for non-PCC claims was estimated based upon industry data for asbestos claims since Corning does not have recent claim history due to the injunction issued by the Bankruptcy Court. The estimated liability represents the undiscounted projection of claims and related legal fees over the next 20 years. The amount may need to be adjusted in future periods as more Company-specific data becomes available.

The Amended PCC Plan is subject to a number of contingencies. Payment of the amounts required to fund the Amended PCC Plan from insurance and other sources are subject to a number of conditions which may not be achieved. The approval of the Amended PCC Plan by the Bankruptcy Court is not certain and faces objections by some parties. Any approval of the Amended PCC Plan by the Bankruptcy Court is subject to appeal. The Amended PCC Plan is subject to a vote of PCC’s creditors. For these and other reasons, Corning’s liability for these asbestos matters may be subject to changes in subsequent quarters. The estimate of the cost of resolving the non-PCC asbestos claims may also be subject to change as developments occur. Management continues to believe that the likelihood of the uncertainties surrounding these proceedings causing a material adverse impact to Corning’s financial statements is remote.

Several of Corning’s insurers have commenced litigation for a declaration of the rights and obligations of the parties under insurance policies, including rights that may be affected by the potential resolutions described above. Corning is vigorously contesting these cases. Management is unable to predict the outcome of this insurance litigation and therefore cannot estimate the range of any possible loss.

Seoul Guarantee Insurance Co. and other creditors against Samsung Group and affiliates. Prior to their merger, Samsung Corning Precision Glass Co., Ltd. (Samsung Corning Precision) and Samsung Corning Co. Ltd. (Samsung Corning) were two of approximately thirty co-defendants in a lawsuit filed by Seoul Guarantee Insurance Co. and thirteen other creditors (SGI and Creditors) for alleged breach of an agreement that approximately twenty-eight affiliates of the Samsung group (Samsung Affiliates) entered into with SGI and Creditors on August 24, 1999 (the Agreement). The lawsuit is pending in the courts of South Korea. Under the Agreement it is alleged that the Samsung Affiliates agreed to sell certain shares of Samsung Life Insurance Co., Ltd. (SLI), which had been transferred to SGI and Creditors in connection with the petition for court receivership of Samsung Motor Inc. In the lawsuit, SGI and Creditors allege a breach of the Agreement by the Samsung Affiliates and are seeking the loss of principal (approximately $1.95 billion) for loans extended to Samsung Motors Inc., default interest and a separate amount for breach. On January 31, 2008, the Seoul District Court ordered the Samsung Affiliates: to pay approximately $1.30 billion by disposing of 2,334,045 shares of SLI less 1,165,955 shares of SLI previously sold by SGI and Creditors and paying the proceeds to SGI and Creditors; to satisfy any shortfall by participating in the purchase of equity or subordinate debentures issued by them; and pay default interest of 6% per annum. The ruling has been appealed. On November 10, 2009, the Appellate Court directed the parties to attempt to resolve this matter through mediation. As a result, the parties are discussing the possibility of a settlement of this matter. Due to the uncertainties around the financial impact to each of the respective Samsung affiliates, Samsung Corning Precision is unable to reasonably estimate the amount of potential loss, if any, associated with this case and therefore no provision for such loss is reflected in its financial statements. Other than as described above, no claim in these matters has been asserted against Corning or any of its affiliates.

Ellsworth Industrial Park, Downers Grove, IL Environmental Litigation. Corning has settled claims for contribution for personal injury and property damage arising from the alleged release of solvents from the operations of several corporate defendants at the Ellsworth Industrial Park into soil and groundwater. Corning has also settled a cost-recovery action by the State of Illinois against a number of corporate defendants as a result of an alleged groundwater contamination at this industrial park site. Two additional corporate defendants have made claims for contribution for property damage and cost recovery for remediations at this industrial park site, one of which has been voluntarily dismissed. The second case was dismissed by the Court on August 12, 2009. On November 17, 2009, the Court denied plaintiff’s request to file an amended complaint. On December 14, 2009, plaintiff gave notice of its appeal of the District Court’s opinion and order dismissing its case to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit.

 

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Commission of European Communities Competition Investigation. In connection with an investigation by the Commission of the European Communities, Competition DG, of alleged anticompetitive behavior relating to the worldwide production of LCD glass, Corning and Samsung Corning Precision received a request on March 30, 2009, for certain information from the Competition DG. Corning and Samsung Corning Precision have responded to those requests for information. On October 9, 2009, in connection with its investigation, the Competition DG made a further request for information from both Corning and Samsung Corning Precision to which each party has responded. Samsung Corning Precision has also responded to the Competition DG and authorities in other jurisdictions, including the United States in connection with similar investigations of alleged anticompetitive behavior relating to worldwide production of cathode ray tube glass.

Supply Agreement Disputes. In early September 2009, a significant customer of Corning’s LCD glass display business in Asia notified Corning Display Technologies Taiwan Co. Ltd. in writing that it considers Corning Display Technologies to be in breach of the supply agreement between the companies. Corning Display Technologies disagrees that any breach exists, and the parties are currently engaged in discussions with a view to resolving these matters. Corning Display Technologies anticipates an amicable resolution. However, failure to resolve the disputed claims could result in arbitration and the award of damages to the customer and/or the termination of the supply agreement.

In January 2010, Corning received notification from one of the indirect customers for its environmental products seeking reassurance from Corning that Corning would honor certain supply obligations regarding the supply of catalytic converter substrates and objecting to a proposed allocation of such products that might affect that customer. Corning is discussing these issues with this and other indirect and direct customers of its Environmental Technologies segment.

Item 4.    Submission of Matters to a Vote of Security Holders

None.

 

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PART II

Item 5.    Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

(a) Corning Incorporated common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange. In addition, it is traded on the Boston, Midwest, Pacific and Philadelphia stock exchanges. Common stock options are traded on the Chicago Board Options Exchange. The abbreviated ticker symbol for Corning Incorporated is “GLW.”

The following table sets forth the high and low sales price of Corning’s common stock as reported on the Composite Tape.

 

       

First

quarter

    

Second

quarter

    

Third

quarter

    

Fourth

quarter

2009

                                   

Price range

                   

High

     $ 14.44      $ 16.54      $ 17.20      $ 19.55

Low

     $ 8.97      $ 13.20      $ 13.98      $ 14.14

2008

                                   

Price range

                   

High

     $ 25.24      $ 28.07      $ 23.05      $ 15.64

    Low

     $ 20.04      $ 23.02      $ 14.46      $ 7.36

As of December 31, 2009, there were approximately 22,825 record holders of common stock and approximately 600,000 beneficial shareholders.

Between July 1, 2007 and December 31, 2009, Corning paid a quarterly cash dividend of $0.05 per share on the Company’s common stock.

Equity Compensation Plan Information

The following table shows the total number of outstanding options and shares available for other future issuances of options under all of our existing equity compensation plans, including our 2005 Employee Equity Participation Program, our 2003 Equity Plan for Non-Employee Directors and our 2002 Worldwide Employee Share Purchase Plan as of December 31, 2009.

 

      A    B    C
Plan category    Number of
securities to be
issued upon exercise
of outstanding
options, warrants and rights
   Weighted-
average
exercise price
of outstanding
options,
warrants
and rights
   Number of securities
remaining available
for future issuance
under equity
compensation
plans (excluding
securities reflected
in column A)

Equity compensation plans approved by security holders (1)

   92,504,000    $ 25.83    59,275,949

Equity compensation plans not approved by security holders

   0      0    0

Total

   92,504,000    $ 25.83    59,275,949

 

(1) Shares indicated are total grants under the most recent shareholder approved plans as well as any shares remaining outstanding from any prior shareholder approved plans.

 

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Performance Graph

The following graph illustrates the cumulative total shareholder return over the last five years of Corning’s Common Stock, the S&P 500 and the S&P Communications Equipment Companies (in which Corning is currently included). The graph includes the capital weighted performance results of those companies in the communications equipment companies classification that are also included in the S&P 500.

LOGO

 

(b) Not applicable.

 

(c) The following table provides information about our purchases of our common stock during the fiscal fourth quarter of 2009:

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

Period    Total
number
of shares
purchased 
(1)
   Average
price
paid per
share 
(1)
   Total number
of shares
purchased as
part of publicly
announced plans
or programs 
(2)
   Approximate dollar
value of shares
that may yet
be purchased
under the plans or
programs 
(2)

October 1-31, 2009

   14,501    $ 14.93    0    $ 625,036,742

November 1-30, 2009

   12,421    $ 16.94    0    $ 625,036,742

December 1-31, 2009

   8,127    $ 18.00    0    $ 625,036,742

Total

   35,049    $ 16.35    0    $ 625,036,742

 

(1) This column includes the following transactions during the fiscal fourth quarter of 2009: (i) the deemed surrender to us of 15,915 shares of common stock to pay the exercise price and to satisfy tax withholding obligations in connection with the exercise of employee stock options, and (ii) the surrender to us of 19,134 shares of common stock to satisfy tax withholding obligations in connection with the vesting of restricted stock issued to employees.
(2) On July 18, 2007 we publicly announced the start of a program covering the repurchase of up to $500 million of our common stock by December 31, 2008, and on July 30, 2008 we announced authorization to repurchase up to an additional $1 billion of our common stock by the end of 2009. The repurchase program expired after December 31, 2009.

 

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Item 6.    Selected Financial Data (Unaudited)

(In millions, except per share amounts and number of employees)

 

     Years ended December 31,
     2009      2008      2007      2006      2005

Results of operations

                     

Net sales

  $ 5,395      $ 5,948      $ 5,860      $ 5,174      $ 4,579

Research, development and engineering expenses

  $ 563      $ 627      $ 565      $ 517      $ 443

Equity in earnings of affiliated companies

  $ 1,435      $ 1,358      $ 983      $ 989      $ 637

Net income attributable to Corning Incorporated

  $ 2,008      $ 5,257      $ 2,150      $ 1,855      $ 585

Earnings per common share attributable to Corning Incorporated:

                     

Basic

  $ 1.30      $ 3.37      $ 1.37      $ 1.20      $ 0.40

Diluted

  $ 1.28      $ 3.32      $ 1.34      $ 1.16      $ 0.38

Cash dividends declared per common share

  $ 0.20      $ 0.20      $ 0.10                  

Shares used in computing per share amounts:

                     

Basic earnings per common share

    1,550        1,560        1,566        1,550        1,464

Diluted earnings per common share

    1,568        1,584        1,603        1,594        1,535

Financial position

                     

Working capital

  $ 3,982      $ 2,567      $ 2,782      $ 2,479      $ 1,490

Total assets

  $ 21,295      $ 19,256      $ 15,215      $ 13,065      $ 11,207

Long-term debt

  $ 1,930      $ 1,527      $ 1,514      $ 1,696      $ 1,789

Total Corning Incorporated shareholders’ equity

  $ 15,543      $ 13,443      $ 9,496      $ 7,246      $ 5,487

Selected data

                     

Capital expenditures

  $ 890      $ 1,921      $ 1,262      $ 1,182      $ 1,553

Depreciation and amortization

  $ 792      $ 695      $ 607      $ 591      $ 512

Number of employees

    23,500        27,000        24,800        24,500        26,000

Reference should be made to the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements and Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

 

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Table of Contents

Item 7.    Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

Organization of Information

Management’s Discussion and Analysis provides a historical and prospective narrative on the Company’s financial condition and results of operations. This discussion includes the following sections:

 

 

Overview

 

Results of Operations

 

Operating Segments

 

Liquidity and Capital Resources

 

Environment

 

Critical Accounting Estimates

 

New Accounting Standards

 

Forward-Looking Statements

OVERVIEW

Corning delivered strong operating results in 2009 in spite of the recession that followed last year’s global economic decline and financial market disruption. Although results for most of our operating segments were down when compared to last year, we saw demand for Display Technologies products increase as the year progressed and some strength in our other segments as well. Government incentives helped to improve results in the Environmental Technologies segment in the second half of the year. Results in the Telecommunications segment reflected strength in demand for optical fiber and cable products in China. In the Life Sciences segment, we completed the acquisition of Axygen BioScience, Inc. to support our strategy to expand our portfolio of products and enhance global customer access in this business. We saw an increase in sales of Corning Gorilla® glass, our protective cover glass that is optimized for portable display devices. We ended the year on a positive note as sales in most of our segments continued to improve in the fourth quarter of 2009 when compared to the third quarter of 2009. Net income, although substantially lower than the previous year, reflected a number of non-operating items in 2008 that were not repeated in the current year. Those items are described more fully in the discussion of our profitability below.

In the second half of 2008 and in early 2009, the Company responded to a decline in demand by scaling back manufacturing operations, reducing research, development, and engineering expenses, reducing capital spending, and reducing operating costs. In 2009, we recorded restructuring charges totaling $228 million for costs associated with workforce reductions in all of our operating segments.

We faced other challenges this past year, as well. In August, an earthquake halted production at one of the Company’s LCD glass manufacturing facilities in Japan. In mid-October, production at our LCD glass manufacturing facility in Taichung, Taiwan was impacted by a power disruption. Production capacity in Taiwan and our ability to quickly resume some manufacturing helped to ease the impact of both of these disruptions.

Corning remains committed to a strategy of growing through global innovation while preserving our financial independence. This strategy has served us well. Our key priorities for 2009 are similar to those of the previous four years: protect our financial health and invest in the future. During 2009, we made the following progress on these priorities:

Financial Health

Despite the uncertainty in the global economic environment, our financial position remained sound and we delivered strong cash flows from operating activities. Significant items in 2009 included the following:

 

 

Our debt to capital ratio at 11% was unchanged from December 31, 2008.

 

Operating cash flow for the year was $2.1 billion.

 

We ended the year with $3.6 billion of cash and short-term investments, which was approximately $800 million higher than last year.

Profitability

For the year ended December 31, 2009, we generated net income of $2.0 billion or $1.28 per share compared to net income of $5.3 billion or $3.32 per share for 2008. When compared to last year, the decline in net income was due largely to the following items:

 

 

The absence of certain tax adjustments totaling $2.5 billion which included a $2.4 billion valuation allowance release in 2008 on our deferred tax assets resulting from a change in the judgment about the realizability of deferred tax assets in future years.

 

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The absence of a credit to asbestos litigation expense of $340 million reflecting the change in the estimate of our asbestos litigation liability compared to expense of $20 million reported in the current year. In the first quarter of 2008, Corning reduced its liability for asbestos litigation by $327 million as a result of the increase in the likelihood of a settlement under more recently proposed terms and a corresponding decrease in the likelihood of a settlement under terms established in 2003. For additional information on this matter, refer to Note 7 (Investments) to the Consolidated Financial Statements and Item 3. Legal Proceedings.

 

Lower net income in the Display Technologies segment due to lower volume and lower prices.

 

The impact of restructuring charges in 2009 totaling $228 million for costs associated with workforce reductions in all of our operating segments.

The decrease in net income in 2009 was offset somewhat by $393 million from the favorable impact of movements in foreign exchange rates along with lower operating expenses resulting from the Company’s restructuring activities.

Investing in our future

We continue to focus on the future and on what we do best - creating and making keystone components that enable high-technology systems. While our spending levels for research, development and engineering were lower in 2009 when compared to 2008, we remain committed to investing in research, development, and engineering to drive innovation. We continue to work on technologies for glass substrates for active matrix LCDs, diesel filters and substrates in response to tightening emissions control standards, and the optical fiber and cable and hardware and equipment that enable fiber-to-the-premises. We continue to make investments in promising technologies such as the Epic™ system, synthetic green lasers, and advanced flow reactors. In 2010, we are broadening our innovation strategy to include a focus on opportunities that are adjacent or closely related to our existing capabilities. These opportunities, which include products such as Gorilla® glass for consumer products and thin-film photovoltaics for solar applications, leverage existing materials or manufacturing processes with slight modifications.

Our research, development and engineering expenditures decreased by $64 million in 2009 when compared to 2008, but remained somewhat constant as a percentage of net sales. Reduced spending in 2009 was driven primarily by the impact of restructuring actions and cost reduction efforts. We believe our spending levels are adequate to support our technology and innovation strategies.

Our capital expenditures have been focused on expanding manufacturing capacity in the Display Technologies segment in anticipation of a larger display market in 2010 and growing demand for Corning’s Gorilla® glass. In December 2007, we announced a 5-year capital expenditure plan to locate a glass manufacturing facility at Sharp Corporation’s plant in Sakai City, Japan. We continued to advance this project to align with Sharp Corporation’s progress on their adjoining facility and in October of 2009, the facility was opened. In February 2008, we announced a $453 million expansion of our LCD manufacturing facility in Taichung, Taiwan. Given the dramatic changes to the global economic landscape and the decline in demand for our products in late 2008, we stopped further expansion in Taiwan. Total capital expenditures for 2009 were $890 million. Approximately $552 million was directed toward our Display Technologies segment in 2009, of which about $525 million related to construction in 2008. Approximately $51 million in 2009 was invested in our Environmental Technologies segment.

We expect our 2010 capital spending to be about $600 million to $700 million, but there could also be up to $300 million of additional spending for adjacent opportunities, possible capacity in China, and precious metals to support growing capacity. Approximately $250 million to $350 million will be directed toward our Display Technologies segment.

Corporate Outlook

Our outlook for 2010 is favorable. Although we believe our sales and profitability will continue to be buffeted by the difficult global economic climate, we believe worldwide demand for LCD glass will continue to increase. We expect sales in 2010 to be higher than 2009 driven by continued strength in demand for LCD televisions, computer notebooks, and desktop monitors. We believe gross margin will expand driven by improvements in the Display and Environmental Technologies segments. We think equity earnings will improve as well. We expect to continue to generate positive cash flow from operations in line with recent years. We will monitor the levels of recovery in certain of our businesses and we may incur further charges to reduce our workforce and consolidate capacity, where necessary. We will continue to focus on protecting our financial health, controlling our costs, and accelerating new products while maintaining our emphasis on research and development investments for longer term growth. We may take advantage of acquisition opportunities that support the long-term strategies of our businesses, such as our recent purchase of Axygen. We remain confident that our strategy to grow through global innovation, while preserving our financial stability, will enable our continued long-term success.

 

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RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Selected highlights from our continuing operations follow (dollars in millions):

 

       % change  
        2009        2008        2007     09 vs. 08      08 vs. 07  
                   

Net sales

     $ 5,395        $ 5,948        $ 5,860     (9    2  

Gross margin

     $ 2,093        $ 2,738        $ 2,749     (24    0  

  (gross margin %)

       39        46 %        47 %     

Selling, general and administrative expenses

     $ 881        $ 901        $ 912     (2    (1

  (as a % of net sales)

       16        15 %        16 %     

Research, development and engineering expenses

     $ 563        $ 627        $ 565     (10    11  

  (as a % of net sales)

       10        11 %        10 %     

Restructuring, impairment and other charges (credits)

     $ 228        $ 19        $ (4 )   *      *  

  (as a % of net sales)

       4        0 %        0 %     

Asbestos litigation charge (credit)

     $ 20        $ (340 )      $ 185     *      (284

  (as a % of net sales)

       0        (6 )%         3 %     

Equity in earnings of affiliated companies

     $ 1,435        $ 1,358        $ 983     6      38  

  (as a % of net sales)

       27        23 %        17 %     

Income before income taxes

     $ 1,934        $ 2,882        $ 2,271     (33    27  

  (as a % of net sales)

       36        48 %        39 %     

Benefit (provision) for income taxes

     $ 74        $ 2,375        $ (121 )   (97    *  

  (as a % of net sales)

       1        40 %        (2 )%      

Net income attributable to Corning Incorporated

     $ 2,008        $ 5,257        $ 2,150     (62    145  

  (as a % of net sales)

       37        88 %        37 %             

 

* The percentage change calculation is not meaningful.

Net Sales

Net sales in 2009 decreased 9% due to lower sales in the majority of our segments when compared to 2008, driven primarily by volume and price declines in the Display Technologies segment offset somewhat by $194 million from the positive impact of movements in foreign exchange rates. The largest portion of the net sales decline occurred in the first quarter of 2009 as LCD glass demand fell rapidly in response to worsening economic conditions. Over the remainder of 2009, we saw demand levels for LCD glass increase in comparison to first quarter levels and, we believe, a corresponding expansion in the LCD industry supply chain as demand for LCD televisions improved. In the fourth quarter of 2009, net sales increased 41% when compared to the same period last year and 4% when compared to the third quarter of 2009, driven by increased net sales in the Display Technologies segment. For the full year of 2009, lower volume in the Environmental Technologies and Telecommunications segments also contributed to the decline in net sales as demand for automotive products declined and spending for telecommunications networks contracted.

Net sales in 2008 were up slightly when compared to 2007, primarily due to the positive impact of $354 million from the movement in foreign exchange rates offset by volume and price declines in a number of our segments as sales results followed the changing global economic conditions in 2008. Net sales for the first half of 2008 were up 21% when compared with the first half of 2007, but down 16% for the second half of 2008 when compared to the second half of 2007, as the LCD glass market experienced a supply chain contraction that worsened with deteriorating economic conditions. Declines in consumer spending reduced demand for LCD televisions and monitors and automotive products in the second half of 2008.

In 2009, net sales into international markets continued to surpass those into the U.S. market. For 2009, net sales into international markets accounted for 76% of net sales. For 2008 and 2007, net sales into international markets accounted for 74% and 72%, respectively, of net sales.

 

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Cost of Sales

The types of expenses included in the cost of sales line item are: raw materials consumption, including direct and indirect materials; salaries, wages and benefits; depreciation and amortization; production utilities; production-related purchasing; warehousing (including receiving and inspection); repairs and maintenance; inter-location inventory transfer costs; production and warehousing facility property insurance; rent for production facilities; and other production overhead.

Gross Margin

For 2009, gross margin in dollars and as a percentage of net sales declined when compared to 2008, due primarily to the impact of price declines in the Display Technologies segment and reduced volume in the Environmental Technologies and Telecommunications segments. As a percentage of net sales, gross margin of 27% in the first quarter of 2009, reflected the sharp decline in net sales as first quarter LCD glass demand continued to fall in response to worsening economic conditions. As a percentage of net sales, gross margin approximated 41% in the second, third, and fourth quarters of 2009 and reflected improved demand in a number of our businesses.

For 2008, gross margin in dollars and as a percentage of net sales was relatively even when compared with 2007. Although gross margin was comparable on a full year basis, in 2008 our gross margin percent remained above 47% in each of the first three quarters and then fell to 28% in the fourth quarter. The decline in gross margin in the fourth quarter resulted from significantly lower volume in our Display Technologies, Telecommunications, and Environmental Technologies segments, the impact of excess idle capacity costs, and accelerated depreciation as we idled the manufacturing capacity in our Display Technologies segment by more than 50%.

Selling, General, and Administrative Expenses

Selling, general, and administrative expenses, in dollars, for 2009 were down slightly when compared to 2008, due primarily to the favorable impact of cost reduction efforts and restructuring actions in 2009, offset somewhat by an increase in performance-based compensation costs. As a percentage of net sales, selling, general, and administrative expenses in 2009 were up slightly because the rate of decline in sales exceeded the rate of decline in spending for selling, general, and administrative costs.

The slight decrease in selling, general and administrative expenses for 2008 when compared to 2007, in dollars, resulted from a decrease in performance-based compensation costs caused by the impact of the decline in profitability in most of our operating segments in the second half of 2008.

The types of expenses included in the selling, general and administrative expenses line item are: salaries, wages and benefits; travel; sales commissions; professional fees; and depreciation and amortization, utilities, and rent for administrative facilities.

Research, Development, and Engineering Expenses

Research, development, and engineering expenses for 2009 decreased by $64 million in 2009 when compared to 2008, but remained constant as a percentage of net sales. Reduced spending in 2009 was driven primarily by the impact of restructuring actions and cost reduction efforts. We believe our spending levels are adequate to support our technology and innovation strategies.

Research, development, and engineering expenses increased by $62 million in 2008 when compared to 2007, but remained fairly constant as a percentage of net sales. The largest driver of increased spending was for the development of new businesses.

Restructuring, Impairment, and Other Charges and (Credits)

Corning recorded restructuring, impairment, and other charges and credits in 2009 and in 2008, which affect the comparability of our results for the periods presented. A description of those charges follows:

2009 Restructuring Actions

In response to anticipated lower sales in 2009, we recorded charges of $228 million in 2009 primarily for a corporate-wide restructuring plan to reduce our global workforce. The charges included costs for severance, special termination benefits, outplacement services, and the impact of a $32 million curtailment loss for postretirement benefits in 2009. Total cash expenditures associated with these actions are expected to be approximately $155 million, with the majority of spending completed by 2010. We estimate annualized savings from these actions will be about $224 million and will be reflected largely in cost of sales and selling, general, and administrative expenses.

2008 Restructuring Actions

In the fourth quarter of 2008, we recorded $22 million of severance costs primarily for a restructuring plan in the Telecommunications segment.

 

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Table of Contents

Asbestos Litigation

In 2009, we recorded an increase to our asbestos litigation liability of $20 million compared to a net decrease of $340 million in 2008. The net decrease in 2008 was due primarily to a $327 million reduction to our estimated liability for asbestos litigation that was recorded in the first quarter of 2008, as a result of the increase in the likelihood of a settlement under more recently proposed terms and a corresponding decrease in the likelihood of a settlement under terms that had been established in 2003. For the remainder of 2008, we recorded net credit adjustments of $13 million to reflect the change in value of the estimated settlement liability.

In 2007 we recorded an increase to our asbestos litigation liability of $185 million for the change in the estimated fair value of the components of the asbestos litigation liability under terms established in 2003.

Our asbestos litigation liability was estimated to be $682 million at December 31, 2009, compared with an estimate of $662 million at December 31, 2008. The entire obligation is classified as a non-current liability as installment payments for the cash portion of the obligation are not planned to commence until more than 12 months after the proposed plan is ultimately effective, and a portion of the obligation fulfilled through the direct contribution of Corning’s investment in PCE (currently recorded as a non-current other equity method investment).

See Legal Proceedings for additional information about this matter.

Equity in Earnings of Affiliated Companies, Net of Impairments

The following provides a summary of equity earnings of affiliated companies, net of impairments (in millions):

 

     Years ended December 31,  
     2009    2008    2007  

Samsung Corning Precision

  $ 1,115    $ 927    $ 596  

Dow Corning

    287      369      345  

Samsung Corning

          (42

All other

    33      62      84  

Total equity earnings

  $ 1,435    $ 1,358    $ 983  

The increase in equity earnings of affiliated companies in 2009 was driven by Samsung Corning Precision when compared to the same period last year. Equity earnings at Samsung Corning Precision reflected increased volume, manufacturing efficiency gains, and the positive impact of $187 million from movements in foreign exchange rates, offset somewhat by lower pricing when compared to 2008.

The 2008 increase in equity earnings of affiliated companies reflected strong sales and earnings performance at both Samsung Corning Precision and Dow Corning when compared to 2007.

The change in equity earnings from Samsung Corning Precision is explained more fully in the discussion of the performance of the Display Technologies segment and in All Other.

The decline in equity earnings from Dow Corning in 2009 was primarily due to lower sales and restructuring charges at Dow Corning, offset somewhat by the impact of excess foreign tax credits on foreign dividends when compared to the previous year. Sales at Dow Corning declined 7% in 2009 when compared to the prior year and included volume declines in Dow Corning’s traditional silicone businesses that were offset somewhat by an increase in volume at Hemlock Semiconductor Corporation (Hemlock), Dow Corning’s consolidated subsidiary that makes high purity polycrystalline for the semiconductor and solar industries. Sales of Dow Corning’s traditional silicone businesses reflected the impact of the economic downturn in 2009. Sales at Hemlock increased in 2009, driven by improvements in sales for solar applications when compared to 2008. Movements in foreign exchange rates did not significantly impact equity earnings from Dow Corning.

Dow Corning’s 2008 performance was driven by sales growth in its traditional silicone product lines and at Hemlock. Dow Corning sales grew 10% in 2008 with the largest growth at Hemlock. Sales of Dow Corning’s traditional silicone product lines were also higher when compared to 2007. Net income at Dow Corning, and Corning’s resulting equity earnings from Dow Corning, increased 7% in 2008 when compared to 2007, reflecting the growth in net sales along with the positive impact from both a change in depreciation method and a change in the useful lives of certain fixed assets, offset in part by an other-than-temporary impairment for certain securities of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. Our share of this impairment was $18 million.

 

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Sales at Dow Corning in 2010 are expected to increase greater than 10% when compared to 2009, driven by higher sales of silicone products and an increase in sales at Hemlock. When compared to 2009, equity earnings of Dow Corning are expected to improve in 2010 offset somewhat by an increase in costs for additional capacity. In the first quarter of 2010, equity earnings from Dow Corning are expected to be down when compared to the fourth quarter of 2009, driven by seasonably lower sales at Hemlock.

Until December 31, 2007, Corning had a 50% interest in Samsung Corning. Samsung Electronics Company, Ltd. and affiliates owned the remaining 50% interest in Samsung Corning. On December 31, 2007, Samsung Corning Precision acquired all of the outstanding shares of Samsung Corning. After the transaction, Corning retained its 50% interest in Samsung Corning Precision. In 2007, equity earnings from Samsung Corning were reduced by $40 million primarily due to restructuring and impairment charges.

Other Income (Expense), Net

“Other income (expense), net” in Corning’s consolidated statements of income includes the following (in millions):

 

     Years ended December 31,  
     2009      2008      2007  

Royalty income from Samsung Corning Precision

  $ 232      $ 184      $ 141  

Foreign currency exchange and hedge (losses) / gains

    (54      (112      29  

Net realized losses of available-for-sale securities

    (2      (53      (6

Loss on sale of Steuben glass business

       (14   

Gain on sale of Corning’s submarine cabling business

          19  

Loss on repurchase of debt, net

          (15

Net (income) loss attributable to noncontrolling interests

    (6      1        (3

Other, net

    3        (28      (21

Total

  $ 173      $ (22    $ 144  

Income Before Income Taxes

In addition to the items identified under Gross Margin, Restructuring, Impairment and Other Charges and (Credits), Asbestos Litigation (Credit) Charges, and Other (Expense) Income, Net, movements in foreign exchange rates also impacted results for the years presented. In 2009, Income Before Income Taxes included $414 million from the positive impact of movements in foreign exchange rates when compared to 2008. In 2008, Income Before Income Taxes, included $35 million for the positive impact of movements in foreign exchange rates when compared to the previous year.

Provision for Income Taxes

Our (benefit) provision for income taxes and the related effective income tax rates were as follows (in millions):

 

     Years ended December 31,  
     2009      2008      2007  

(Benefit) provision for income taxes

  $ (74 )    $ (2,375 )    $ 121  

Effective income tax (benefit) rate

    (3.8 )%       (82.4 )%       5.3

The effective income tax rate for 2009 differed from the U.S. statutory rate of 35% primarily due to the following items:

 

 

Rate differences on income/(losses) of consolidated foreign companies;

 

The impact of equity in earnings of affiliated companies;

 

The benefit of tax holidays and investment credits in foreign jurisdictions;

 

The benefit of the U.S. Research and Experimentation tax credit for years 2005-2009;

 

The benefit of recording additional deferred taxes for the tax exempt subsidy attributable to our OPEB liability; and

 

The impact of the net increase in valuation allowances due to changes in judgment on the realizability of certain state and foreign deferred tax assets.

The effective income tax (benefit) rate for 2008 differed from the U.S. statutory rate of 35% primarily due to the following items:

 

 

The release of $2.5 billion of valuation allowances attributable to a change in judgment about the realizability of U.S. deferred tax assets in future years, described below;

 

The impact of not recording net tax expense on income generated in the U.S.;

 

The impact of equity in earnings of affiliated companies;

 

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The benefit of tax holidays and investment and other credits in foreign jurisdictions; and

 

A $40 million benefit related to a favorable tax settlement with the Canadian Revenue Agency.

The effective income tax rate for 2007 differed from the U.S. statutory rate of 35% primarily due to the following items:

 

 

The impact of not recording net tax expense on income generated in the U.S.;

 

The release of valuation allowances on foreign deferred tax assets;

 

The impact of equity in earnings of affiliated companies; and

 

The benefit of tax holidays in foreign jurisdictions.

Prior to 2007, we recorded valuation allowances against our U.S. deferred tax assets as a result of significant losses in the U.S. In 2007, we generated income from continuing operations in the U.S. The tax expense on such income was fully offset by the tax benefit of releasing a portion of the valuation allowance to reflect the realization of deferred taxes resulting from the generation of U.S. income.

As more fully described in Note 6 (Income Taxes) to the Consolidated Financial Statements, all of our U.S. deferred tax assets had full valuation allowances until the second quarter of 2008. At that time, we concluded that it was more likely than not that we would realize substantially all of our U.S. deferred tax assets because we expect to generate sufficient levels of income in the U.S. As a result, we released $2.4 billion of valuation allowances on our U.S. deferred tax assets in the second quarter of 2008. We considered all available evidence, both positive and negative, to determine whether, based on the weight of that evidence, a valuation allowance was needed.

The evaluation of the realizability of deferred tax assets is inherently subjective. Following are the key items that provided positive evidence to support the release of the valuation allowance for a large portion of our deferred tax assets in the second quarter of 2008:

 

 

Positive pre-tax income in the U.S. for the first half of 2008 and the preceding year;

 

The impact of positive results in the Display Technologies operating segment and the royalty income generated from the foreign locations in this segment;

 

The number of years remaining to utilize our net operating loss carryforwards; and

 

Increased confidence in our longer-term forecasted income levels, which were supported by detailed sensitivity analyses.

At June 30, 2008, the following items were considered as negative evidence in our valuation allowance assessment, but were less heavily weighted than our positive evidence:

 

 

Uncertainty of future taxable earnings;

 

Historical utilization of deferred tax assets caused largely by non-recurring items; and

 

Economic and consumer demand uncertainty.

Deferred tax liabilities totaled $26 million at December 31, 2008, and therefore, were not a significant factor in our assessment of the realizability of deferred tax assets.

U.S. profits of approximately $8.3 billion dollars will be required to fully realize the deferred tax assets as of December 31, 2009. Of that amount, $3.6 billion of U.S. profits will be required over the next 16 years to fully realize the deferred tax assets associated with federal net operating loss carry forwards.

In 2008 and 2007, we generated income from continuing operations in the U.S. The tax expense on such income was fully offset by the tax benefit of releasing a portion of our existing valuation allowance to reflect the realization of deferred taxes resulting from the generation of U.S. income. The impact of the release of the valuation allowances, and thus not recording tax expense on income generated in the U.S., was a reduction in our effective tax rate of 8.6 and 8.1 percentage points for 2008 and 2007, respectively.

Certain shorter-lived deferred tax assets such as those represented by capital loss carry forwards and state tax net operating loss carry forwards, as well as other federal and state tax credits, will remain with a valuation allowance recorded against them as of December 31, 2009, because we cannot conclude that it is more likely than not that we will earn income of the character required to utilize these assets before they expire. The amount of U.S. and foreign deferred tax assets that had valuation allowances at December 31, 2009 and 2008 was $245 million and $230 million, respectively.

 

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We do not provide income taxes on the post-1992 earnings of domestic subsidiaries that we expect to recover tax-free without significant cost. Income taxes have been provided for post-1992 unremitted earnings of domestic corporate joint ventures that we do not expect to recover tax-free. Unremitted earnings of domestic subsidiaries and corporate joint ventures that arose in fiscal years beginning on or before December 31, 1992 have been indefinitely reinvested. We currently provide U.S. income taxes on the earnings of foreign subsidiaries and affiliated companies to the extent these earnings are currently taxable or expected to be remitted. As of December 31, 2009, U.S. taxes have not been provided on approximately $7.3 billion of accumulated foreign unremitted earnings that are expected to remain invested indefinitely. It is not practical to calculate the unrecognized deferred tax liability on those earnings.

In 2004, we recorded valuation allowances against our entire German deferred tax assets due to losses in recent years. In 2007, due to sustained profitability and positive earnings projections for our overall German operations, we concluded that it is more likely than not that the German national deferred tax assets are realizable and that the related valuation allowance was no longer required. The impact of the releases of the valuation allowances on our effective rate is a reduction in the rate of 7.1 percentage points for 2007.

Certain foreign subsidiaries in China and Taiwan are operating under tax holiday arrangements. The nature and extent of such arrangements vary, and the benefits of such arrangements phase out through 2013 according to the specific terms and schedules of the relevant taxing jurisdictions. The impact of the tax holidays on our effective rate is a reduction in the rate of 7.3, 5.3 and 6.9 percentage points for 2009, 2008 and 2007, respectively.

While we expect the amount of unrecognized tax benefits to change in the next 12 months, we do not expect the change to have a significant impact on the results of operations or our financial position.

See Note 6 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further details regarding income tax matters.

Net Income Attributable to Corning Incorporated

As a result of the items discussed above, net income and per share data was as follows (in millions, except per share amounts):

 

     Years ended December 31,
     2009    2008    2007

Net income attributable to Corning Incorporated

  $ 2,008    $ 5,257    $ 2,150

Basic earnings per common share

  $ 1.30    $ 3.37    $ 1.37

Diluted earnings per common share

  $ 1.28    $ 3.32    $ 1.34

Shares used in computing per share amounts

       

Basic earnings per common share

    1,550      1,560      1,566

Diluted earnings per common share

    1,568      1,584      1,603

OPERATING SEGMENTS

Effective January 1, 2008, Corning changed its internal reporting structure to better reflect the Company’s focus on new business development and later-stage research projects and to provide more transparency on our Specialty Materials operating segment. As a result, our segment reporting includes the following changes that are in accordance with the requirements for disclosures about segments:

 

 

We have provided separate financial information for the Specialty Materials operating segment. This operating segment was previously included in All Other.

 

Certain later-stage development projects, such as advanced flow reactors and green lasers, meet the criteria for operating segments and are included in All Other. Spending for these projects was previously part of Exploratory Research and was reported in the reconciliation of reportable segment net income to total net income.

 

Certain other new product lines meet the criteria for operating segments and are included in All Other. Spending related to these businesses was previously included in our Life Sciences and Display Technologies operating segments.

Our reportable operating segments are now as follows:

 

 

Display Technologies - manufactures liquid crystal display glass for flat panel displays.

 

Telecommunications - manufactures optical fiber and cable and hardware and equipment components for the telecommunications industry.

 

Environmental Technologies - manufactures ceramic substrates and filters for automotive and diesel applications. This reportable operating segment is an aggregation of our Automotive and Diesel operating segments as these two segments share similar economic characteristics, products, customer types, production processes and distribution methods.

 

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Specialty Materials - manufactures products that provide more than 150 material formulations for glass, glass ceramics and fluoride crystals to meet demand for unique customer needs.

 

Life Sciences - manufactures glass and plastic consumables for scientific applications.

All other operating segments that do not meet the quantitative threshold for separate reporting have been grouped as “All Other.” This group is primarily comprised of development projects and results for new product lines.

We prepared the financial results for our reportable segments on a basis that is consistent with the manner in which we internally disaggregate financial information to assist in making internal operating decisions. We included the earnings of equity affiliates that are closely associated with our operating segments in the respective segment’s net income. We have allocated certain common expenses among segments differently than we would for stand-alone financial information prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the U.S. (U.S. GAAP). Segment net income may not be consistent with measures used by other companies. The accounting policies of our reportable segments are the same as those applied in the consolidated financial statements.

Effective January 1, 2009, we began providing U.S. income tax expense (or benefit) on U.S. earnings (losses) due to the change in our conclusion about the realizability of our U.S. deferred tax assets in 2008. As a result of the change in our tax position, we adjusted the allocation of taxes to our operating segments in 2009 to reflect this difference. The impact of changing our allocation methodology was not significant.

Display Technologies

(dollars in millions):

 

     % change
        2009      2008      2007   09 vs. 08        08 vs. 07

Net sales

     $ 2,426      $ 2,724      $ 2,613   (11      4

Equity earnings of affiliated companies

     $ 1,102      $ 916      $ 596   20        54

Net income

     $ 1,992      $ 2,221      $ 2,015   (10      10

2009 vs. 2008

The decrease in net sales in 2009, reflected price declines of 19% and a decline in volume of 2% (measured in square feet of glass sold) offset somewhat by the positive impact of $228 million from movements in foreign exchange rates. Net sales of this segment are denominated in Japanese yen and, as a result, are susceptible to movements in the U.S. dollar-Japanese yen exchange rate. When compared to last year, the volume decline in 2009 occurred largely in the first quarter of 2009 and reflected a number of industry dynamics. Because Corning sells to panel makers and not to end market consumers, supply chain expansion and contraction for this industry is a key factor in Corning’s volume. During the second half of 2008, the LCD market experienced a supply chain contraction that worsened as global economic conditions deteriorated and demand rapidly declined. We believe the industry supply chain contraction ended in the first quarter of 2009, followed by replenishment in the second quarter. Over the remainder of 2009, we saw demand levels for LCD glass increase in comparison to first quarter levels. In the fourth quarter of 2009, net sales increased 84% when compared to the same period last year and 6% when compared to the third quarter of 2009. With increasing demand over the course of 2009, we strategically restarted some capacity that had been temporarily idled towards the end of last year.

In the third quarter of 2009, an earthquake in Shizuoka, Japan halted production at the Company’s LCD glass manufacturing facility located there. In the fourth quarter of 2009, production at the Company’s LCD glass manufacturing facility in Taichung, Taiwan was impacted by a power disruption. Incremental production capacity and the ability to resume some manufacturing in our affected facilities helped to ease the impact of both disruptions and support LCD glass shipments. We believe our market share was negatively impacted because our capacity was lower during a period when demand remained robust. The Company incurred approximately $30 million of costs for accelerated depreciation charges and asset write-offs from these events.

In 2009, equity earnings of Samsung Corning Precision reflected the positive impact of $187 million from movements in foreign exchange rates and an increase in volume of 35% offset somewhat by price declines of 20% when compared to the same period last year. Equity earnings from Samsung Corning Precision are impacted by movements in both the U.S. dollar - Japanese yen and U.S. dollar - Korean won exchange rates. Results of Samsung Corning Precision reflected improvements in the overall LCD glass market which grew approximately 20% in 2009 when compared to previous year. The economic recession has had a greater impact on our wholly-owned business in Taiwan than on Samsung Corning Precision. Since Taiwanese panel makers do not have strong brand recognition, they are the first to experience supply chain corrections and slower to benefit from improvements in demand.

 

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When compared to 2008, the decline in net income in 2009 was primarily due to the impact of volume and price declines, costs associated with the earthquake in Japan, and restructuring charges in the first quarter of 2009. These items were offset somewhat by $342 million from the positive impact of movements in foreign exchange rates and stronger equity earnings. Net income of this segment in 2009 included $31 million of restructuring charges associated with the Company’s corporate-wide restructuring plan to reduce its global workforce in response to anticipated lower sales in 2009. Net income also includes royalty income from Samsung Corning Precision, which was higher in 2009 when compared to last year reflecting the improvements in sales volume at Samsung Corning Precision. Corning licenses certain of its patents and know-how to Samsung Corning Precision, as well as to third parties, which generate royalty income. Refer to Note 7 (Investments) to the Consolidated Financial Statements for more information about related party transactions.

2008 vs. 2007

The net sales increase for the Display Technologies segment in 2008 resulted from a slight improvement in volume (measured in square feet of glass sold) along with a $294 million positive impact from movements in foreign exchange rates, offset by price declines of 7% when compared to 2007. Net sales of this segment are denominated in Japanese yen and, as a result, are susceptible to movements in the U.S. dollar - Japanese yen exchange rate. In the first half of 2008, glass volume of this segment increased by 37%, when compared to the same period in 2007 driven by LCD television market growth and demand for LCD monitors and notebook computers. In the second half of 2008, as a result of worsening global economic conditions, our LCD glass volume declined by 27% when compared to the second half of 2007. The largest decline in our glass volume occurred in the fourth quarter when volume fell about 50% when compared to the prior year.

The overall LCD glass market grew approximately 15% in 2008. Growth rates by region differed dramatically, resulting in volume in our wholly-owned business increasing only 1% while volume at Samsung Corning Precision in Korea increased 28% compared to 2007. The lower growth rate in our wholly-owned business was caused in part by a decline in volume in Taiwan, particularly in the second half of the year, and reflected a number of key market dynamics. As described above, Taiwanese panel makers do not have as strong of brand recognition with consumers as do Korean and Japanese panel makers. In addition, a number of Taiwanese panel makers were providing capacity to customers that also produce their own LCD panels, and as demand has slowed, purchases of this excess capacity declined. Fluctuating exchange rates also appear to have made Korean panel makers more competitive during the industry downturn in 2008. Finally, we believe the Taiwanese panel makers had to reduce production to align their inventory levels with lower demand.

When compared to 2007, net income for 2008 was up 10% primarily due to improvements in equity earnings from Samsung Corning Precision and the positive impact of movement in foreign exchange rates. These improvements were offset somewhat by lower volume and price declines in Corning’s wholly-owned business. During the first half of 2008, operating performance at Corning’s wholly-owned business benefited from manufacturing facilities that were running at or near capacity. As demand leveled off in the third quarter and then sharply declined in the fourth quarter, we temporarily idled certain production assets. These actions resulted in accelerated depreciation for glass tanks that were taken out of production earlier than planned. By the end of 2008, more than half of the manufacturing capacity in our wholly-owned business was temporarily idled.

Equity earnings from Samsung Corning Precision’s LCD business for 2008 increased by 54% when compared to 2007, due to volume gains of 28%, improved manufacturing performance, and the positive impact of movements in foreign exchange rates offset somewhat by price declines of 9%. Samsung Corning Precision experienced a similar, but less severe, decline in second half performance. At the end of 2008, Samsung Corning Precision had idled approximately 25% of its capacity. Equity earnings for 2008 were positively impacted by approximately $210 million due to movements in foreign exchange rates when compared to 2007.

Other Information

The Display Technologies segment has a concentrated customer base comprised of LCD panel and color filter makers primarily located in Japan and Taiwan. For 2009 and 2008, three customers of the Display Technologies segment, which individually accounted for more than 10% of segment net sales, accounted for 62% and 65%, respectively, of total segment sales when combined. Our customers face the same global economic dynamics as we do in this market. We believe panel makers in Taiwan have been more significantly impacted by the economic downturn given their relative size when compared to Korean panel makers who have a stronger presence in the end market for LCD products. While we are not aware of any significant customer credit issues, our near-term sales and profitability would be impacted if any individual customers were unable to continue to purchase our products.

In addition, Samsung Corning Precision’s sales are concentrated across a small number of its customers. In 2009 and 2008, sales to two LCD panel makers located in Korea accounted for 93% and 94%, respectively, of Samsung Corning Precision sales.

 

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Corning has invested heavily to expand capacity to meet the demand for LCD glass substrates. In 2009, 2008 and 2007, capital spending in this segment was $552 million, $1.4 billion, and $883 million, respectively. We expect capital spending for 2010 to be approximately $250 million to $350 million.

In 2005 and 2004, several of Corning’s customers entered into long-term purchase and supply agreements in which Corning’s Display Technologies segment would supply large-size glass substrates to these customers over periods of up to six years. As part of the agreements, these customers agreed to advance cash deposits to Corning for a portion of the contracted glass to be purchased. We received our last deposit of $105 million in July 2007 and do not expect to receive additional deposits related to these agreements. During 2009, 2008 and 2007, we issued $253 million, $266 million, and $231 million, respectively, in credits that were applied to customer receivable balances when payments were due. In the event customers do not purchase the agreed upon quantities of product, subject to specific conditions outlined in the agreements, Corning may retain certain amounts of the customer deposits. If Corning does not deliver agreed upon product quantities, subject to specific conditions outlined in the agreements, Corning may be required to return certain amounts of our customers’ deposits. Refer to Note 11 (Other Liabilities) to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.

Outlook:

We expect the overall LCD glass market in 2010, measured in square feet of glass, will increase by approximately 14% to 22% when compared to 2009, resulting from increased demand for LCD televisions and computer notebook sales. We expect gross margin to expand in 2010 driven by increased volume, cost reduction, and moderate price declines. We think regional market share will stabilize although regional mix shifts as described, that benefit volume at Samsung Corning Precision more than Corning’s wholly owned business, remain possible. We will also pursue growth opportunities in China as that country’s LCD TV market continues to grow. Although the LCD supply chain has been impacted by the global recession, we believe that the long-term drivers of this market, specifically increased penetration of LCD into the total television market, increased screen size and increased televisions per household, remain intact.

In the first quarter of 2010, we expect volume at our wholly-owned business to increase 8% to 12% and volume at Samsung Corning Precision to be flat to up slightly when compared to the fourth quarter of 2009. We expect moderate price declines in the first quarter of 2010 at both our wholly-owned business and Samsung Corning Precision when compared to the fourth quarter of 2009.

The end market demand for LCD televisions, monitors and notebooks is dependent on consumer retail spending, among other things. We are cautious about the potential negative impacts that economic conditions, particularly the global economic recession, and world political tensions could have on consumer demand. While the industry has grown rapidly in recent years, economic volatility along with consumer preferences for panels of differing sizes, prices, or other factors may lead to pauses in market growth. Therefore, it is possible that glass manufacturing capacity may exceed demand from time to time. We may incur further charges in this segment to reduce our workforce and consolidate capacity. In addition, changes in foreign exchange rates, principally the Japanese yen, will continue to impact the sales and profitability of this segment.

Telecommunications

(dollars in millions):

 

     % change  
        2009      2008      2007   09 vs. 08        08 vs. 07  

Net sales:

                     

Optical fiber and cable

     $ 909      $ 920      $ 880   (1      5  

Hardware and equipment

       768        879        899   (13      (2
                                 

Total net sales

     $ 1,677      $ 1,799      $ 1,779   (7      1  
                                 

Net income

     $ 19      $ 45      $ 118   (58      (62

2009 vs. 2008

In 2009, net sales of this segment decreased when compared to the same period last year and reflected declines across all of our businesses. When compared to the previous year, lower volumes in both North America and Europe were offset somewhat by higher net sales for optical fiber and cable in China as the country continues to expand its telecommunications infrastructure. Volume in North America and Europe reflected the continuing impact of the economic recession. In addition, net sales of this segment were negatively impacted by $23 million from movements in foreign exchange rates.

 

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For 2009, the decline in net income reflected the volume impacts as described above and the impact of restructuring charges, offset somewhat by lower operating expenses resulting from restructuring actions when compared to 2008. Net income of this segment included the impact of $42 million of restructuring charges in 2009 associated with the Company’s corporate-wide restructuring plan. Actions in this segment included workforce reductions, the consolidation of manufacturing operations that resulted in the closure of two plants and the exit of some minor businesses. Movements in foreign exchange rates did not have a significant impact on the comparability of net income for the periods presented.

The Telecommunications segment has a concentrated customer base. In 2009, one customer of the Telecommunications segment accounted for 12% of total segment net sales. In 2008 and 2007, two customers of the Telecommunications segment, which individually accounted for more than 10% of total segment net sales, collectively accounted for 24% and 25%, respectively, of total segment sales when combined.

2008 vs. 2007

Net sales for the segment were up slightly over 2007 primarily due to volume gains in fiber-to-the-premises products and the positive impact of movements in foreign exchange rates. Increased sales in fiber-to-the-premises products reflected strong demand in Europe, and North America. The increase was partially offset by moderating price declines, reduced demand for copper based products in Europe and the absence of sales from Corning’s European submarine cabling business that was sold in April 2007.

Net income in 2008 included $17 million for the cost of a restructuring plan that was implemented in the fourth quarter. The decline in net income in 2008 reflected the impact of the restructuring charge, price declines, higher operating expenses, and the absence of a $19 million gain on the sale of the European submarine cabling business when compared to 2007. In 2008, movements in foreign exchange rates did not significantly impact the net income of this segment.

Outlook:

We expect net sales of the Telecommunications segment to be down in 2010, driven by a decline in demand for private and public network products, lower spending for telecommunications infrastructure in China in 2010, and lower sales due to the exit of certain businesses in 2009.

Changes in our customers’ expected deployment plans, or additional reductions in their inventory levels of fiber-to-the-premises products, could also affect sales levels. Should these plans not occur at the pace anticipated, our sales and earnings would be adversely affected. In the first quarter of 2010, we expect net sales of this segment to be down 10% to 15%, when compared to the fourth quarter of 2009, due to lower demand for private network products and fiber demand in China.

Environmental Technologies

(dollars in millions):

 

     % change  
        2009        2008      2007   09 vs. 08        08 vs. 07  

Net sales:

                     

Automotive

     $ 360         $ 458      $ 508   (21      (10

Diesel

       230           253        249   (9      2   
                                   

Total net sales

     $ 590         $ 711      $ 757   (17      (6
                                   

Net income

     $ (42      $ 33      $ 61   (227      (46

2009 vs. 2008

When compared to 2008, net sales for 2009 were negatively impacted by lower automotive production caused by the global recession and subsequent inventory reductions at automotive manufacturers and dealers. In the first quarter of 2009, U.S. automotive builds were at their lowest levels since Corning entered this business. In the first half of 2009, net sales of this segment declined 40% when compared to the first half of 2008. In the second half of 2009, year-over-year net sales were up 14% when compared to the same period last year due to government incentives in China, Europe and the U.S. In addition, we believe inventories at automotive manufacturers and dealers returned to more normalized levels in the fourth quarter of 2009, which also caused increased demand. Diesel product sales in 2009 reflected the impact of the recession-driven weak freight industry in the U.S. This was offset somewhat by improved demand in the second half of 2009 as engine manufacturers prepared for next year’s stricter heavy duty diesel emission standards. Net sales in 2009 were negatively impacted by $9 million due to movements in foreign exchange rates when compared to the same period last year.

 

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Net loss in 2009 reflected lower sales and manufacturing volume of both automotive and diesel products, offset somewhat by lower operating expenses, when compared to net income 2008. In addition, net loss of this segment in 2009 included the impact of restructuring charges. Restructuring charges for this segment totaled $28 million for the Company’s corporate-wide restructuring plan to reduce its global workforce in response to lower sales in 2009. Movements in foreign exchange rates did not significantly impact the results of this operating segment.

The Environmental Technologies reportable operating segment sells to a concentrated customer base of catalyzer and emission control systems manufacturers, who then sell to automotive and diesel engine manufacturers. Although our sales are to the emission control systems manufacturers, the use of our substrates and filters is generally required by the specifications of the automotive and diesel engine manufacturers. Our customers and their customers are experiencing the negative impact of the automotive and freight industry downturns. For 2009, three customers of the Environmental Technologies segment, which individually accounted for more than 10% of segment sales, accounted for 85% of total segment sales. For 2008 and 2007, net sales to those same three customers accounted for 81% of total segment sales. While we are not aware of any significant customer credit issues with our direct customers, our near-term sales and profitability would be impacted if any individual customers were unable to continue to purchase our products.

2008 vs. 2007

Sales of the Environmental Technologies segment in 2008 were down 6% when compared to the previous year and reflected lower sales of automotive and diesel products, offset somewhat by favorable foreign exchange rate movements. Sales of automotive products reflected the significant decline in demand in the European and U.S. automotive industry in the second half of 2008 in line with worsening economic conditions. Diesel product sales increased due to the positive impact of movements in foreign exchange rates, offset somewhat by volume declines. Diesel product sales reflect the continued decline in the U.S. freight industry that began in late 2007. Net sales of this segment in 2008 were positively impacted by $24 million due to movements in foreign exchange rates when compared to the prior year.

Net income of this segment was down when compared to last year, due primarily to reduced sales volumes and manufacturing inefficiencies in both businesses. Net income was positively impacted by $3 million due to movements in foreign exchange rates when compared to the prior year.

Outlook:

We expect net sales of this segment to improve in 2010 driven by moderate growth in demand for automotive products. We expect to see continued strength in demand due to replenishment of dealer and supply chain inventories through the first quarter of 2010. Diesel product sales are expected to improve slightly driven by regulation tightening, but will not reflect any significant growth until the freight industry recovers and excess fleet inventory is fully utilized. When compared to the fourth quarter of 2009, net sales of this segment in the first quarter of 2010, are expected to start strongly but decline 10% in the full quarter as the rebuild of auto inventories nears completion.

Specialty Materials

(dollars in millions):

 

       % change  
        2009        2008        2007     09 vs. 08        08 vs. 07  

Net sales

     $ 331        $ 372        $ 379     (11      (2

Net loss

     $ (54      $ (7      $ (3 )   *         *  

 

* The percentage change calculation is not meaningful.

2009 vs. 2008

The Specialty Materials segment manufactures products that provide more than 150 material formulations for glass, glass ceramics and fluoride crystals to meet demand for unique customer needs. Consequently, this segment operates in a wide variety of commercial and industrial markets that include consumer electronics, display optics and components, semiconductor optics and components, aerospace and defense, astronomy, ophthalmic products, and telecommunications components.

 

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Net sales decreased in 2009 due primarily to lower sales of semiconductor optics and components as a result of the significant market downturn when compared to the prior year. This decrease was offset somewhat by an increase in sales of Gorilla® glass, a protective cover glass that is optimized for portable display devices. Sales of Gorilla® glass have continued to increase as the Company moves to capitalize on market opportunities for this product. The net loss for 2009 resulted from the decline in net sales along with manufacturing development costs for Gorilla® glass when compared to 2008. The net loss in 2009 also included $17 million of restructuring charges for the Company’s corporate-wide restructuring plan to reduce its global workforce in response to anticipated lower sales in 2009, and costs associated with closing one of this segment’s manufacturing facilities. In 2009, movements in foreign exchange rates did not significantly impact the profitability of this segment.

In the Specialty Materials segment, there were no individual customers that accounted for 10% or more of this segment’s net sales for 2009.

2008 vs. 2007

When compared to the previous year, net sales were down 2% in 2008 due to a decline in sales of semiconductor materials products that were negatively impacted by the global recession, offset somewhat by increased sales of Gorilla® glass and the favorable impact of movements in foreign exchange rates. The increase in net loss for this segment was due to the decline in sales along with higher operating expenses for Gorilla® glass.

For 2008, one customer of the Specialty Materials segment accounted for 11% of total segment sales.

Outlook:

For 2010, we expect sales of this segment to increase driven by increased sales of Gorilla® glass when compared to 2009. We expect a modest increase in sales of semiconductor products as the semiconductor industry begins to improve. In the first quarter of 2010, we expect net sales to be down 10% to 15%, when compared to the fourth quarter of 2009.

Life Sciences

(dollars in millions):

 

     % change
        2009      2008      2007   09 vs. 08        08 vs. 07

Net sales

     $ 366      $ 326      $ 305   12        7

Net income

     $ 39      $ 53      $ 44   (26      20

2009 vs. 2008

For 2009, the increase in net sales of this segment reflected sales from the acquisition of Axygen, which was completed in the third quarter of 2009, offset somewhat by volume declines in the Company’s existing life sciences products. Sales of Axygen products were approximately $36 million in the fourth quarter of 2009. For 2009, the decline in net income resulted primarily from acquisition-related costs and the impact of $8 million of restructuring charges associated with the Company’s corporate-wide restructuring plan, when compared to the 2008. Movements in foreign exchange rates did not significantly impact net sales or net income of this operating segment in 2009.

For 2009, two customers in the Life Sciences segment which individually accounted for more than 10% of total segment net sales collectively accounted for 45% of total segment sales. For 2008 and 2007, one customer accounted for 45% and 44%, respectively, of total segment sales.

2008 vs. 2007

Net sales of the Life Sciences segment for 2008 were up when compared to 2007 driven by sales growth of scientific laboratory products in all of this segment’s global markets, price increases, and $8 million from the favorable impact of movements in foreign exchange rates. Government and private spending for drug development, discovery, and production, fueled market growth in this segment. The improvement in net income in 2008 reflected the sales increases as described offset somewhat by higher operating expenses.

Outlook:

Sales of the Life Sciences segment for 2010 are expected to be up primarily due to the acquisition of Axygen when compared to 2009. In the first quarter of 2010, we expect net sales to be even with or up 5% when compared to the fourth quarter of 2009.

 

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All Other

(dollars in millions):

 

       % change  
        2009        2008        2007     09 vs. 08        08 vs. 07  

Net sales

     $ 5        $ 16        $ 27     (69      (41

Research, development and engineering expenses

     $ 125        $ 163        $ 121     (23      35  

Equity earnings (loss) of affiliated companies

     $ 32        $ 56        $ 18     (43      211  

Net loss

     $ (80      $ (168      $ (161 )   *         *  

 

* The percentage change calculation is not meaningful.

2009 vs. 2008

All Other includes all other operating segments that do not meet the quantitative threshold for separate reporting. This group is primarily comprised of development projects, such as advanced flow reactors and synthetic green lasers, and results for new product lines, such as the Epic system. This segment also includes results for certain corporate investments such as Samsung Corning Precision’s non-LCD glass businesses and the results of Corsam Technologies LLC (Corsam), an equity affiliate established between Corning and Samsung Corning Precision to provide glass technology research. Refer to Note 7 (Investments) for additional information about Samsung Corning Precision and related party transactions.

The decrease in this segment’s net loss for 2009 resulted primarily from lower operating expenses as a result of restructuring actions in the first quarter of 2009, cost reduction efforts, and the impact of the change in the Company’s tax position. Net loss of this segment for 2009 included $4 million of restructuring charges associated with the Company’s corporate-wide restructuring plan.

2008 vs. 2007

In 2008, the increase in net loss reflected higher spending for new development projects and a $14 million loss on the sale of Corning’s Steuben glass business, offset somewhat by the absence of restructuring and impairment charges. In 2007, equity earnings of All Other included $40 million for our share of restructuring and impairment charges for Samsung Corning Precision’s non-LCD businesses.

LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES

Financing and Capital Structure

The following items impacted Corning’s financing and capital structure during 2009 and 2008:

 

 

In the first quarter of 2009, we recorded the impact of a capital lease obligation for a manufacturing facility associated with our Display Technologies segment. The balance of this obligation at December 31, 2009 was $150 million.

 

In the second quarter of 2009, we issued $250 million of 6.625% senior unsecured notes and $100 million of 7% senior unsecured notes that mature on May 15, 2019, and May 15, 2024, respectively. The net proceeds of $346 million were designated for general corporate purposes.

 

In the third and fourth quarters of 2008, we recognized $53 million of net losses on short-term investments. Net losses included other-than-temporary impairments of $26 million for securities of Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc., which filed for bankruptcy protection in mid-September, and $11 million for securities which had declined in value and been down-graded. The remaining losses resulted from the sale of asset-backed debt securities and debt securities of financial institutions as we reduced our exposure to these sectors. In addition, we classified $40 million of mortgage-backed securities from current assets to long-term assets.

 

Through the end of September 2008, we repurchased 29.5 million shares of common stock for $625 million as part of repurchase programs announced in July 2007 and July 2008. We have made no additional repurchases.

We have access to a $1.1 billion committed, unsecured, multi-currency credit facility. This credit facility expires in November 2011. The facility includes two financial covenants: a leverage ratio and an interest coverage ratio. At December 31, 2009, we were in compliance with both financial covenants.

 

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Capital Spending

Capital spending totaled $890 million, $1.9 billion and $1.3 billion in 2009, 2008 and 2007, respectively. Capital spending in 2009 was driven primarily by projects in our Display Technologies segment that were started in 2008. Capital spending in 2008 and 2007 primarily included expansion of LCD glass capacity in the Display Technologies segment and new capacity for diesel products in the Environmental Technologies segment. Our 2010 capital spending program is expected to be approximately $600 million to $700 million, but there could also be up to $300 million of additional spending for adjacent opportunities, possible capacity in China, and precious metals to support growing capacity. Approximately $250 million to $350 million will be directed toward our Display Technologies segment.

Cash Flows

Summary of cash flow data:

 

     Years ended December 31,  
  2009      2008      2007  

Net cash provided by operating activities

  $ 2,077      $ 2,128      $ 2,077  

Net cash used in investing activities

  $ (1,370    $ (1,699    $ (561

Net cash used in financing activities

  $ (15    $ (798    $ (539

2009 vs. 2008

Although 2009 net income decreased significantly from 2008, operating cash flow declined only slightly. The decrease in net income resulted primarily from two non-recurring, non-cash items: the release of $2.5 billion of deferred tax asset valuation allowances and a $340 million reduction in asbestos related liabilities. When compared to 2008, operating cash flow in 2009 reflected higher pension contributions and restructuring payments, offset somewhat by an increase in cash from changes in working capital and higher dividends from equity affiliates.

Net cash used in investing activities was lower in 2009 when compared to 2008 due to lower capital expenditures in our Display Technologies segment, offset partially by the acquisition of Axygen.

Net cash used in financing activities also decreased in 2009 when compared to the prior year due to the issuance of long-term debt and the discontinuation of common stock repurchases.

2008 vs. 2007

As the significant increase in 2008 net income was largely driven by two non-cash items, 2008 operating cash increased only slightly when compared to 2007. The two non-cash items were the release of $2.5 billion of deferred tax asset valuation allowances and a $340 million reduction in asbestos related liabilities.

In addition, cash from operating activities benefited from slower growth in working capital, higher dividends from equity affiliates, and lower contributions for retirement-related benefits compared to 2007. These benefits were partially offset by an increase in taxes paid and customer deposit credits issued.

Net cash used in investing activities in 2008 increased when compared to the previous year due to a $659 million increase in capital spending largely attributable to higher spending in the Display Technologies segment and a smaller reduction in short-term investments compared to 2007.

Net cash used in financing activities was higher when compared to the previous year due to an increase in repurchases of common stock and an increase in dividends paid. Corning began paying a quarterly dividend of $0.05 per share in the third quarter of 2007.

Defined Benefit Pension Plans

We have defined benefit pension plans covering certain domestic and international employees. Our largest single pension plan is Corning’s U.S. qualified plan. At December 31, 2009, this plan accounted for 81% of our consolidated defined benefit pension plans’ projected benefit obligation and 90% of the related plans’ assets.

We have traditionally contributed to the U.S. qualified pension plan on an annual basis in excess of the IRS minimum requirements, and as a result, mandatory contributions are not expected to be required for this plan until some time after 2010. In 2009, we made voluntary cash contributions of $75 million to our domestic defined benefit pension plan and $5 million to our international pension plans. In 2008, we made voluntary cash contributions of $50 million to our domestic defined benefit pension plan and $2 million to our international pension plans.

 

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In 2008, we experienced significant negative returns on our pension assets for our primary defined benefit plan as a result of deteriorating financial market conditions which increased pension expense for 2009 by $33 million. In 2009, actual investment experience on the pension assets of our primary defined benefit plan was favorable.

Although we will not be subject to any mandatory contributions in 2010, we anticipate making voluntary cash contributions of up to $230 million to our domestic and international pension plans in 2010.

Refer to Note 13 (Employee Retirement Plans) to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.

Customer Deposits

Certain customers of our Display Technologies segment have entered into long-term supply agreements and have agreed to make advance cash deposits to secure supply of large-size glass substrates. The deposits will be reduced through future product purchases, thus reducing operating cash flows in later periods as credits are applied for cash deposits received in earlier periods.

Between 2004 and 2007, we received a total of $937 million for customer deposit agreements. We received our last deposit of $105 million in 2007 and do not expect to receive additional deposits related to these agreements.

In 2009, 2008 and 2007, we issued credit memoranda which totaled $253 million, $266 million, and $231 million, respectively. These credit amounts were applied to customer receivable balances when payments were due. Customer deposit liabilities were $104 million and $369 million at December 31, 2009 and 2008, respectively. In 2010, we expect to issue approximately $80 million in credit memoranda.

Restructuring

In 2009, we recorded charges of $228 million associated with a corporate-wide restructuring plan to reduce our global workforce in response to anticipated lower sales in 2009. The charge included costs for severance, special termination benefits, outplacement services, asset write-offs, and the impact of a curtailment loss for postretirement benefits. Total cash expenditures associated with these actions are expected to be approximately $155 million primarily related to termination benefits.

During 2009, 2008 and 2007, we made payments of $89 million, $17 million, and $39 million, respectively, related to employee severance and other exit costs resulting from restructuring actions. Refer to Note 2 (Restructuring, Impairment and Other Charges (Credits)) to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.

Key Balance Sheet Data

Balance sheet and working capital measures are provided in the following table (dollars in millions):

 

     December 31,  
  2009      2008  

Working capital

  $ 3,982       $ 2,567   

Working capital, excluding cash, cash equivalents, and short-term investments

  $ 399       $ (249

Current ratio

    3.6:1         2.3:1   

Trade accounts receivable, net of allowances

  $ 753       $ 512   

Days sales outstanding

    44         43   

Inventories

  $ 579       $ 798   

Inventory turns

    5.1         4.3   

Days payable outstanding (1)

    36         33   

Long-term debt

  $ 1,930       $ 1,527   

Total debt to total capital

    11      11

 

(1) Includes trade payables only.

 

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Credit Ratings

As of February 10, 2010, our credit ratings were as follows:

 

RATING AGENCY   

Rating

long-term debt

  

Outlook

last update

Fitch

   BBB+    Stable

June 29, 2007

Standard & Poor’s

   BBB+    Stable

July 2, 2007

Moody’s

   Baa1    Negative

March 24, 2009

Management Assessment of Liquidity

We ended the fourth quarter of 2009 with $3.6 billion of cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments. The Company has adequate sources of liquidity and we are confident in our ability to generate cash to meet existing or reasonably likely future cash requirements. Our cash, cash equivalents, and short-term investments are held in various locations throughout the world and are generally unrestricted. At December 31, 2009 about half of the consolidated amount was held outside of the U.S. Almost all of the amounts held outside of the U.S. are available for repatriation, subject to relevant tax consequences. We utilize a variety of tax planning and financing strategies to ensure that our worldwide cash is available in the locations in which it is needed. We expect accumulated non-U.S. cash balances will remain outside of the U.S. and that we will meet U.S. liquidity needs through future cash flows, use of U.S. cash balances, external borrowings, or some combination of these sources.

In 2009, realized gains and losses on available-for-sale securities were not significant. In 2008, we recorded $53 million of net realized losses on short-term investments which represented less than 6% of our total holdings of available-for-sale securities at that time. Refer to Note 3 (Available-for-Sale Investments) to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.

In July 2007, Corning’s Board of Directors approved a stock repurchase program of up to $500 million to be completed by the end of 2008. In July 2008, Corning announced that its Board of Directors and Executive Committee had approved a second stock repurchase program of up to an additional $1 billion to be completed by the end of 2009. Through December 31, 2008, we had repurchased approximately 40 million shares of common stock for $875 million under these programs. There were no repurchases in 2009.

We complete comprehensive reviews of our significant customers and their creditworthiness by analyzing their financial statements at least annually or more frequently for customers where we have identified a measure of increased risk. We closely monitor payments and developments which may signal possible customer credit issues. We currently have not identified any potential material impact on our liquidity resulting from customer credit issues.

Our major source of funding for 2010 and beyond will be our operating cash flow and our existing balances of cash, cash equivalents, and short term investments. We believe we have sufficient liquidity for the next several years to fund operations, the asbestos litigation, research and development, capital expenditures, scheduled debt repayments, and dividend payments. Corning also has access to a $1.1 billion unsecured committed credit through November 2011. If market conditions are favorable, the Company may seek to enter into negotiations with its bank group prior to the expiration date to renew and extend the credit arrangements. The existing credit agreement includes two financial covenants: a leverage ratio and an interest coverage ratio. At December 31, 2009, we were in compliance with both financial covenants.

The required leverage ratio, which measures debt to total capital, is a maximum of 50%. At December 31, 2009 and 2008, our leverage using this measure was 11%. The required interest coverage ratio, which is an adjusted earnings measure as defined by our facility, compared to interest expense, is a ratio of at least 3.5 times. At December 31, 2009 and 2008, our interest coverage ratio using this measure was 30.3 times and 43.5 times, respectively.

Our debt instruments contain customary event of default provisions, which allow the lenders the option of accelerating all obligations upon the occurrence of certain events. In addition, the majority of our debt instruments contain a cross default provision, whereby a default on one debt obligation of the Company in excess of a specified amount, also would be considered a default under the terms of another debt instrument. As of December 31, 2009, we were in compliance with all such provisions.

 

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Management is not aware of any known trends or any known demands, commitments, events or uncertainties that will result in or that are reasonably likely to result in a material increase or decrease in our liquidity. In addition, other than items discussed, there are no known material trends, favorable or unfavorable, in our capital resources and no expected material changes in the mix and relative cost of such resources.

Off Balance Sheet Arrangements

Off balance sheet arrangements are transactions, agreements, or other contractual arrangements with an unconsolidated entity for which Corning has an obligation to the entity that is not recorded in our consolidated financial statements.

Corning’s off balance sheet arrangements include the following:

 

 

Guarantee contracts; and

 

Variable interests held in certain unconsolidated entities.

At the time a guarantee is issued, the Company is required to recognize a liability for the fair value or market value of the obligation it assumes. In the normal course of our business, we do not routinely provide significant third-party guarantees. Generally, third-party guarantees provided by Corning are limited to certain financial guarantees, including stand-by letters of credit and performance bonds, and the incurrence of contingent liabilities in the form of purchase price adjustments related to attainment of milestones. These guarantees have various terms, and none of these guarantees are individually significant.

Refer to Note 14 (Commitments, Contingencies, and Guarantees) to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.

Corning leases certain transportation equipment from three Trusts that qualify as variable interest entities. The sole purpose of these entities is to lease transportation equipment to Corning.

For variable interest entities, we assess the terms of our interest in each entity to determine if we are the primary beneficiary. The primary beneficiary of a variable interest entity is the party that absorbs a majority of the entity’s expected losses, receives a majority of its expected residual returns, or both, as a result of holding variable interests, which are the ownership, contractual, or other pecuniary interests in an entity that change with changes in the fair value of the entity’s net assets excluding variable interests.

Corning has identified three entities that qualify as variable interest entities. None of these entities is considered to be significant to Corning’s consolidated statements of position.

Corning does not have retained interests in assets transferred to an unconsolidated entity that serve as credit, liquidity or market risk support to that entity.

Contractual Obligations

The amounts of our obligations follow (in millions):

 

           Amount of commitment and contingency expiration per period
   Total   Less than
1 year
   1 to 2
years
   2 to 3
years
   3 to 4
years
   5 years and
thereafter

Performance bonds and guarantees

   $ 58   $ 28    $ 10    $ 3       $ 17

Credit facilities for equity companies

     125     25      25      25    $ 25      25

Stand-by letters of credit (1)

     60     59      1         

Loan guarantees

     9                                 9

Subtotal of commitment expirations per period

   $ 252   $ 112    $ 36    $ 28    $ 25    $ 51

Purchase obligations

   $ 63   $ 37    $ 12    $ 7    $ 5    $ 2

Capital expenditure obligations (2)

     217     217            

Total debt (3)

     1,706     72      23      21      122      1,468

Minimum rental commitments

     201     41      34      28      24      74

Capital leases (3)(4)

     385     16      43      13      13      300

Interest on long-term debt (5)

     1,334     111      107      107      107      902

Uncertain tax positions (6)

     9     3      2      2      2       

Subtotal of contractual obligation payments due by period

     3,915     497      221      178      273      2,746

Total commitments and contingencies

   $ 4,167   $ 609    $ 257    $ 206    $ 298    $ 2,797

 

(1) At December 31, 2009, $41 million of the $60 million was included in other accrued liabilities on our consolidated balance sheets.
(2) Capital expenditure obligations, primarily related to our Display Technologies segment expansions, are included on our balance sheet.

 

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(3) At December 31, 2009, $2.0 billion was included on our balance sheet. Total debt above is stated at maturity value.
(4) At December 31, 2009, $151 million of the $385 million represents imputed interest.
(5) The estimate of interest payments assumes interest is paid through the date of maturity or expiration of the related debt, based upon stated rates in the respective debt instruments.
(6) At December 31, 2009, $16 million was included on our balance sheet related to uncertain tax positions. Of this amount, we are unable to estimate when $7 million of that amount will become payable.

We are required, at the time a guarantee is issued, to recognize a liability for the fair value or market value of the obligation it assumes. In the normal course of our business, we do not routinely provide significant third-party guarantees. Generally, third-party guarantees provided by Corning are limited to certain financial guarantees, including stand-by letters of credit and performance bonds, and the incurrence of contingent liabilities in the form of purchase price adjustments related to attainment of milestones. These guarantees have various terms, and none of these guarantees are individually significant.

We have agreed to provide a credit facility related to Dow Corning. The funding of the Dow Corning credit facility will be required only if Dow Corning is not otherwise able to meet its scheduled funding obligations in its confirmed Bankruptcy Plan. The purchase obligations primarily represent raw material and energy-related take-or-pay contracts. We believe a significant majority of these guarantees and contingent liabilities will expire without being funded.

ENVIRONMENT

Corning has been named by the Environmental Protection Agency (the Agency) under the Superfund Act, or by state governments under similar state laws, as a potentially responsible party for 21 active hazardous waste sites. Under the Superfund Act, all parties who may have contributed any waste to a hazardous waste site, identified by the Agency, are jointly and severally liable for the cost of cleanup unless the Agency agrees otherwise. It is Corning’s policy to accrue for its estimated liability related to Superfund sites and other environmental liabilities related to property owned by Corning based on expert analysis and continual monitoring by both internal and external consultants. At December 31, 2009 and 2008, Corning had accrued approximately $26 million (undiscounted) and $21 million (undiscounted), respectively, for its estimated liability for environmental cleanup and related litigation. Based upon the information developed to date, management believes that the accrued reserve is a reasonable estimate of the Company’s liability and that the risk of an additional loss in an amount materially higher than that accrued is remote.

CRITICAL ACCOUNTING ESTIMATES

The preparation of financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect amounts reported therein. The estimates, including future projections of performance and relevant discount rates, that required us to make difficult, subjective or complex judgments follow.

Impairment of assets held for use

We are required to assess the recoverability of the carrying value of long-lived assets when an indicator of impairment has been identified. We review our long-lived assets in each quarter to assess whether impairment indicators are present. We must exercise judgment in assessing whether an event of impairment has occurred.

Manufacturing equipment includes certain components of production equipment that are constructed of precious metals, primarily platinum and rhodium. These metals are not depreciated because they have very low physical losses and are repeatedly reclaimed and reused in our manufacturing process over a very long useful life. Precious metals are reviewed for impairment as part of our assessment of long-lived assets. This review considers all of the Company’s precious metals that are either in place in the production process; in reclamation, fabrication, or refinement in anticipation of re-use; or awaiting use to support increased capacity. Precious metals are only acquired to support our operations and are not held for trading or other purposes.

Examples of events or circumstances that may be indicative of impairments include:

 

 

A significant decrease in the market price of an asset;

 

A significant change in the extent or manner in which a long-lived asset is being used or in its physical condition;

 

A significant adverse change in legal factors or in the business climate that could affect the value of the asset, including an adverse action or assessment by a regulator;

 

An accumulation of costs significantly in excess of the amount originally expected for the acquisition or construction of an asset;

 

A current-period operating or cash flow loss combined with a history of operating or cash flow losses or a projection or forecast that demonstrates continuing losses associated with the use of an asset; and

 

A current expectation that, more likely than not, an asset will be sold or otherwise disposed of significantly before the end of its previously estimated useful life.

 

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For purposes of recognition and measurement of an impairment loss, a long-lived asset or assets is grouped with other assets and liabilities at the lowest level for which identifiable cash flows are largely independent of the cash flows of other assets and liabilities. We must exercise judgment in assessing the lowest level for which identifiable cash flows are largely independent of the cash flows of other assets and liabilities. For the majority of our reporting segments, we concluded that locations or businesses which share production along the supply chain must be combined in order to appropriately identify cash flows that are largely independent of the cash flows of other assets and liabilities.

For long-lived assets, when impairment indicators are present, we compare estimated undiscounted future cash flows, including the eventual disposition of the asset group at market value, to the assets’ carrying value to determine if the asset group is recoverable. This assessment requires the exercise of judgment in assessing the future use of and projected value to be derived from the assets to be held and used. Assessments also consider changes in asset utilization, including the temporary idling of capacity and the expected timing for placing this capacity back into production. If there is an impairment, a loss is recorded to reflect the difference between the assets’ fair value and carrying value. This may require judgment in estimating future cash flows and relevant discount rates and residual values in estimating the current fair value of the impaired assets to be held and used.

The fair value of long-lived assets is determined using an “income approach” that starts with the forecast of all the expected future net cash flows including the eventual disposition at market value of long-lived assets, and also considers the fair market value of all precious metals. Some of the more significant estimates and assumptions in our analysis include: market size and growth, market share, projected selling prices, manufacturing cost and discount rate. Our estimates are based upon our historical experience, our commercial relationships, and available external information about future trends. We believe fair value assessments are most sensitive to market growth and the corresponding impact on volume and selling prices and that these are also more subjective than manufacturing cost and other assumptions. The Company believes its current assumptions and estimates are reasonable and appropriate.

As of December 31, 2009 and 2008, we have not identified any instances where the carrying values of our long-lived assets were not recoverable. At December 31, 2009 the fair market value of precious metals was higher than our carrying value by $193 million. At December 31, 2008, the fair market value of precious metals was lower than our carrying value by $598 million. Currently these precious metal assets, primarily in the Display Technologies segment, are recoverable as part of their asset groupings. There is the potential for impairment in the future if negative events significantly decrease the cash flow of our segments. Such events include, but are not limited to, a significant decrease in demand for products of our Display Technologies segment or a significant decrease in its profitability.

Impairment of goodwill

We are required to make certain subjective and complex judgments on a number of matters, including assumptions and estimates used to determine the fair value of our reporting units.

Our annual goodwill recoverability assessment is completed in the fourth quarter, as it is traditionally based on our annual strategic planning process. This process includes an extensive review of expectations for the long-term growth of our businesses and forecasting future cash flows. Our valuation method is an “income approach” using a discounted cash flow model in which cash flows anticipated over several periods, plus a terminal value at the end of that time horizon, are discounted to their present value using an appropriate rate of return. Our estimates are based upon our historical experience, our current knowledge from our commercial relationships, and available external information about future trends. As disclosed in Note 10 (Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets) to the Consolidated Financial Statements, Corning’s goodwill relates primarily to the Telecommunications, Specialty Materials and Life Sciences operating segments.

Telecommunications

Goodwill for the Telecommunication segment is tested at the operating segment level. We have aggregated the Telecommunications operating segment businesses into a single reporting unit for goodwill impairment testing based on the manner in which we operate our businesses; the vertically integrated nature of these operations; shared assets, operating and finance resources, and management; the nature of production processes and the regulatory environment; and the shared support and benefit from common research and development activity.

 

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Results for the Telecommunications segment in 2009 were down when compared with 2008. We expect the worldwide telecommunications industry market to be negatively impacted by the global recession with lower sales in 2010 than in 2009. The results of our impairment tests in 2009 indicated that the fair value of the reporting unit exceeded its book value by a significant amount. A discount rate of 9% was used in 2009 and 10% was used in 2008. We determined a range of discount rates between 7% and 11% would not have affected our conclusion.

Specialty Materials

Goodwill for the Specialty Materials segment is tested at the component level, which is one level below an operating segment, because the goodwill is the result of transactions associated with certain businesses in this operating segment. Although the Specialty Materials segment had small reported losses in 2009 and 2008, we expect in the near term new products will partially offset some of the declines resulting from recent economic conditions, and we anticipate growth in new products will also improve longer-term profitability. The results of our impairment test in 2009 and 2008 indicated that the fair value of the reporting unit significantly exceeded its book value. A discount rate of 9% was used in 2009 and 10% was used in 2008. We determined a range of discount rates between 7% and 11% would not have affected our conclusion.

Life Sciences

In 2009, the Life Sciences segment recorded goodwill in connection with the acquisition of Axygen. Goodwill for the Life Sciences segment is tested at the operating segment level. We have aggregated the Life Sciences operating segment businesses into a single reporting unit for goodwill impairment testing based on the manner in which we operate our businesses.

Results in the Life Sciences segment in 2009 reflected the impact of acquisition-related costs and $8 million of restructuring charges associated with the Company’s corporate-wide restructuring plan, when compared to 2008. The results of our impairment tests in 2009 indicated that the fair value of the reporting unit exceeded its book value by a significant amount. A discount rate of 8% was used in 2009. We determined a range of discount rates between 6% and 10% would not have affected our conclusion.

Restructuring charges and impairments resulting from restructuring actions

We are required to assess whether and when a restructuring event has occurred and in which periods charges related to such events should be recognized. We must estimate costs of plans to restructure including, for example, employee termination costs. Restructuring charges require us to exercise judgment about the expected future of our businesses, of portions thereof, their profitability, cash flows and in certain instances eventual outcome. The judgment involved can be difficult, subjective and complex in a number of areas, including assumptions and estimates used in estimating the future profitability and cash flows of our businesses.

Restructuring events often give rise to decisions to dispose of or abandon certain assets or asset groups which, as a result, require impairment. We are required to carry assets to be sold or abandoned at the lower of cost or fair value. We must exercise judgment in assessing the fair value of the assets to be sold or abandoned.

Income taxes

We are required to exercise judgment about our future results in assessing the realizability of our deferred tax assets. Inherent in this estimation process is the requirement for us to estimate future book taxable income and possible tax planning strategies. These estimates require us to exercise judgment about our future results, the prudence and feasibility of possible tax planning strategies, and the economic environments in which we do business. It is possible that actual results will differ from assumptions and require adjustments to allowances.

In the second quarter of 2008, we released $2.4 billion of valuation allowances because we believe it is more likely than not that we will be able to generate sufficient levels of profitability in the U.S. to realize substantially all of our U.S. deferred tax assets. A key trend included in our projections was the rate of penetration of LCD televisions driven by an increase in televisions per household, faster LCD television replacement rates, the continued decline of cathode ray tube products, and growth in emerging markets such as China. Another key trend included global demand improvements for diesel products based on the timing of new government regulations and economic growth. In the third and fourth quarters of 2008, we released an additional $70 million, and $45 million, respectively, of valuation allowances on our U.S. deferred tax assets as a result of a change in our estimate of U.S. taxable income.

Significant estimates and assumptions used in assessing the realizability of our deferred tax assets included: the long-term stabilization of U.S. income from forecasted royalty income in our Display Technologies operating segment, the long-term growth of our diesel business, and the future success of new products.

 

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In determining our provision for income taxes, we use an annual effective income tax rate based on full year income, permanent differences between book and tax income, and statutory income tax rates. Significant judgment is required in determining the Company’s worldwide income tax position, as well as the effective tax rate.

Equity method investments

At December 31, 2009 and 2008, the carrying value of our equity method investments was $4.0 billion and $3.1 billion, respectively, with our two largest equity method investments comprising approximately 94% of the balance. We review our equity method investments for indicators of impairment on a periodic basis or if an event or circumstances change to indicate the carrying amount may be other-than-temporarily impaired. When such indicators are present, we then perform an in-depth review for impairment. An impairment assessment requires the exercise of judgment related to key assumptions such as forecasted revenue and profitability, forecasted tax rates, foreign currency exchange rate movements, terminal value assumptions, historical experience, our current knowledge from our commercial relationships, and available external information about future trends.

As of December 31, 2009 and 2008, we have not identified any instances where the carrying values of our equity method investments were not recoverable.

Fair value measures

As required, Corning uses two kinds of inputs to determine the fair value of assets and liabilities: observable and unobservable. Observable inputs are based on market data or independent sources, while unobservable inputs are based on the Company’s own market assumptions. Once inputs have been characterized, we prioritize the inputs used to measure fair value into one of three broad levels. Characterization of fair value inputs is required for those accounting pronouncements that prescribe or permit fair value measurement. In addition, observable market data must be used when available. Corning’s major categories of financial assets and liabilities required to be measured at fair value are short-term and long-term investments and derivatives. These categories use observable inputs only and are measured using a market approach based on quoted prices in markets considered active or in markets in which there are few transactions.

Derivative assets and liabilities may include interest rate swaps and forward exchange contracts that are measured using observable quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities. In arriving at the fair value of Corning’s derivative assets and liabilities, we have considered the appropriate valuation and risk criteria, including such factors as credit risk of the relevant party to the transaction. Amounts related to credit risk are not material.

Probability of litigation outcomes

We are required to make judgments about future events that are inherently uncertain. In making determinations of likely outcomes of litigation matters, we consider the evaluation of legal counsel knowledgeable about each matter, case law, and other case-specific issues. See Part II - Item 1. Legal Proceedings for a discussion of the material litigation matters we face. The most significant matter involving judgment is the liability for asbestos litigation. There are a number of factors bearing upon our potential liability, including the inherent complexity of a Chapter 11 filing, our history of success in defending asbestos claims, our assessment of the strength of our corporate veil defenses, and our continuing dialogue with our insurance carriers and the claimants’ representatives. The proposed asbestos resolution (Amended PCC Plan) is subject to a number of contingencies. The approval of the Amended PCC Plan by the Bankruptcy Court is not certain and faces objections by some parties. Any approval of the Amended PCC Plan by the Bankruptcy Court is subject to appeal. The proposed Amended PCC Plan is also subject to a vote of PCC’s creditors. For these and other reasons, Corning’s liability for these asbestos matters may be subject to changes in subsequent quarters. The estimate of the cost of resolving the non-PCC asbestos claims may also be subject to change as developments occur. Management continues to believe that the likelihood of the uncertainties surrounding these proceedings causing a material adverse impact to Corning’s financial statements is remote.

Other possible liabilities

We are required to make judgments about future events that are inherently uncertain. In making determinations of likely outcomes of certain matters, including certain tax planning and environmental matters, these judgments require us to consider events and actions that are outside our control in determining whether probable or possible liabilities require accrual or disclosure. It is possible that actual results will differ from assumptions and require adjustments to accruals.

 

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Variable interest entities

The Company has interests in certain unconsolidated entities. These investments are evaluated periodically to determine if they qualify as variable interest entities and whether Corning is a primary beneficiary for any of those qualifying interests. A variable interest entity (VIE) is an entity that lacks sufficient equity investment or in which the equity investors do not have certain characteristics of a controlling financial interest. A company that absorbs a majority of the expected losses or receives a majority of the expected returns of a VIE is considered to be a primary beneficiary and must consolidate the VIE. The determination of whether an entity is a VIE and if a company is the primary beneficiary of a VIE are complex areas that require judgments about items such as the sufficiency of the equity at risk, the evaluation of contractual arrangements, and assessments about forecasted information. While management believes the assumptions used are appropriate, changes in these judgments or estimates could affect Corning’s results.

Pension and other postretirement employee benefits (OPEB)

Pension and OPEB costs and obligations are dependent on assumptions used in calculating such amounts. These assumptions include discount rates, health care cost trend rates, benefits earned, interest cost, expected return on plan assets, mortality rates, and other factors. In accordance with U.S. GAAP, actual results that differ from the assumptions are accumulated and amortized over future periods and, therefore, generally affect recognized expense and the recorded obligation in future periods. While management believes that the assumptions used are appropriate, differences in actual experience or changes in assumptions may affect Corning’s pension and other postretirement obligations and future expense.

As of December 31, 2009, the Projected Benefit Obligation (PBO) for U.S. pension plans was $2,465 million.

The following information illustrates the sensitivity to a change in certain assumptions for U.S. pension plans:

 

Change in assumption   

Effect on 2010
pre-tax pension

expense

  

Effect on
December 31, 2009

PBO

25 basis point decrease in discount rate

   +$5.0 million    +$64 million

25 basis point increase in discount rate

   -$5.0 million    -$62 million

25 basis point decrease in expected return on assets

   +$5.3 million   

25 basis point increase in expected return on assets

   -$5.3 million     

The above sensitivities reflect the impact of changing one assumption at a time. Note that economic factors and conditions often affect multiple assumptions simultaneously and the effects of changes in key assumptions are not necessarily linear. These changes in assumptions would have no effect on Corning’s funding requirements.

In addition, at December 31, 2009, a 25 basis point decrease in the discount rate would decrease stockholders’ equity by $87 million before tax, and a 25 basis point increase in the discount rate would increase stockholders’ equity by $85 million. In addition, the impact of greater than a 25 basis point decrease in discount rate would not be proportional to the first 25 basis point decrease in the discount rate.

The following table illustrates the sensitivity to a change in the discount rate assumption related to Corning’s U.S. OPEB plans:

 

Change in assumption   

Effect on 2010
pre-tax OPEB

expense

  

Effect on
December 31, 2009

APBO

25 basis point decrease in discount rate

   +$1 million    +$23 million

25 basis point increase in discount rate

   -$1 million    -$23 million

The above sensitivities reflect the impact of changing one assumption at a time. Note that economic factors and conditions often affect multiple assumptions simultaneously and the effects of changes in key assumptions are not necessarily linear.

Revenue recognition

The Company recognizes revenue when it is realized or realizable and earned. In certain instances, revenue recognition is based on estimates of fair value of deliverables as well as estimates of product returns, allowances, discounts, and other factors. These estimates are supported by historical data. While management believes that the estimates used are appropriate, differences in actual experience or changes in estimates may affect Corning’s future results.

 

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Stock compensation

Stock-based compensation expense and disclosures are dependent on assumptions used in calculating such amounts. These assumptions include risk-free discount rates, expected term of the stock based compensation instrument granted, volatility of stock and option prices, expected time between grant date and date of exercise, attrition, performance, and other factors. These assumptions require us to exercise judgment. Our estimates of these assumptions typically are based upon our historical experience, currently available market place data, and forward looking explanatory variables. While management believes that the assumptions used are appropriate, differences in actual experience or changes in assumptions may affect Corning’s future stock based compensation expense and disclosures.

NEW ACCOUNTING STANDARDS

Refer to Note 1 (Summary of Significant Accounting Policies) to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

The statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, in reports subsequently filed by Corning with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) on Forms 10-Q, Forms 8-K, and related comments by management which are not historical facts or information and contain words such as “believes,” “expects,” “anticipates,” “estimates,” “forecasts,” and similar expressions are forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties that may cause the actual outcome to be materially different. Such risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to:

 

- global business, financial, economic and political conditions;
- tariffs and import duties;
- currency fluctuations between the U.S. dollar and other currencies, primarily the Japanese yen, Euro, and Korean won;
- product demand and industry capacity;
- competitive products and pricing;
- availability and costs of critical components and materials;
- new product development and commercialization;
- order activity and demand from major customers;
- fluctuations in capital spending by customers;
- possible disruption in commercial activities due to terrorist activity, armed conflict, political or financial instability, natural disasters, or major health concerns;
- unanticipated disruption to equipment, facilities, or operations;
- facility expansions and new plant start-up costs;
- effect of regulatory and legal developments;
- ability to pace capital spending to anticipated levels of customer demand;
- credit rating and ability to obtain financing and capital on commercially reasonable terms;
- adequacy and availability of insurance;
- financial risk management;
- acquisition and divestiture activities;
- rate of technology change;
- level of excess or obsolete inventory;
- ability to enforce patents;
- adverse litigation;
- product and components performance issues;
- retention of key personnel;
- stock price fluctuations;
- trends for the continued growth of the Company’s businesses;
- the ability of research and development projects to produce revenues in future periods;
- a downturn in demand or decline in growth rates for LCD glass substrates;
- customer ability, most notably in the Display Technologies segment, to maintain profitable operations and obtain financing to fund their manufacturing expansions and ongoing operations;
- loss of significant customers;
- fluctuations in supply chain inventory levels;
- equity company activities, principally at Dow Corning Corporation and Samsung Corning Precision;
- changes in tax laws and regulations;
- changes in accounting rules and standards;
- the potential impact of legislation, government regulations, and other government action and investigations;
- potential liability for losses not covered by, or in excess of, insurance;
- temporary idling of capacity;
- the ability to implement productivity, consolidation and cost reduction efforts, and to realize anticipated benefits;
- restructuring actions and charges; and
- other risks detailed in Corning’s SEC filings.

 

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Item 7A.    Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risks

We operate and conduct business in many foreign countries and as a result are exposed to movements in foreign currency exchange rates. Our exposure to exchange rates has the following effects:

 

 

Exchange rate movements on financial instruments and transactions denominated in foreign currencies that impact earnings; and

 

Exchange rate movements upon conversion of net assets and net income of foreign subsidiaries for which the functional currency is not the U.S. dollar, which impact our net equity.

We have foreign currency exposure to the Japanese yen, euro, New Taiwan dollar and Korean won. We selectively enter into foreign exchange forward and option contracts with durations generally 18 months or less to hedge our exposure to exchange rate risk on foreign source income and purchases. These hedges are scheduled to mature coincident with the timing of the underlying foreign currency commitments and transactions. The objective of these contracts is to neutralize the impact of exchange rate movements on our operating results. We also enter into foreign exchange forward contracts when situations arise where our foreign subsidiaries or Corning enter into lending situations, generally on an intercompany basis, denominated in currencies other than their local currency. We do not hold or issue derivative financial instruments for trading purposes. Corning uses derivative instruments (forwards) to limit the exposure to foreign currency fluctuations associated with certain monetary assets and liabilities. These derivative instruments are not designated as hedging instruments for accounting purposes and, as such, are referred to as undesignated hedges. Changes in the fair value of undesignated hedges, along with foreign currency gains and losses arising from the underlying monetary assets or liabilities, are recorded in current period earnings in Other (Expense) Income, Net in the consolidated statements of income.

Equity in earnings of affiliated companies has historically contributed a significant amount to our income from continuing operations. Equity in earnings of affiliated companies, net of impairments were $1.4 billion in 2009 and 2008 with foreign-based affiliates comprising over 78% of this amount in 2009. Equity earnings from Samsung Corning Precision totaled $1.1 billion for 2009 and $927 million for 2008. Exchange rate fluctuations and actions taken by management of these entities can affect the earnings of these companies.

We use a sensitivity analysis to assess the market risk associated with our foreign currency exchange risk. Market risk is defined as the potential change in fair value of assets and liabilities resulting from an adverse movement in foreign currency exchange rates. At December 31, 2009, we had open forward contracts, and foreign denominated debt with values exposed to exchange rate movements, all of which were designated as hedges at December 31, 2009. A 10% adverse movement in quoted foreign currency exchange rates could result in a loss in fair value of these instruments of $278 million compared to $215 million at December 31, 2008. Specific to the Japanese yen, a 10% adverse movement in quoted yen exchange rates could result in a loss in fair value of these instruments of $131 million compared to $118 million at December 31, 2008. Specific to the euro, a 10% adverse movement in quoted euro exchange rates could result in a loss in fair value of these instruments of $107 million compared to $68 million at December 31, 2008.

As we derive approximately 76% of our net sales from outside the U.S., our sales and net income could be affected if the U.S. dollar significantly strengthens or weakens against foreign currencies, most notably the Japanese yen and euro. Our forecasts generally assume exchange rates during 2010 remain constant at January 2010 levels. A plus or minus 10 point movement in the U.S. dollar - Japanese yen exchange rate would result in a change to 2010 net sales of approximately $246 million and net income of approximately $340 million. A plus or minus 10 point movement in the U.S. dollar - euro exchange rate would result in a change to 2010 net sales of approximately $34 million and net income of approximately $8 million.

Interest Rate Risk Management

It is our policy to conservatively manage our exposure to changes in interest rates. At December 31, 2009, our consolidated debt portfolio contained less than 1% of variable rate instruments.

Item 8.    Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

See Item 15 (a) 1.

Item 9.    Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

None.

 

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Item 9A.    Controls and Procedures

Disclosure Controls and Procedures

Our principal executive and principal financial officers, after evaluating the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (Exchange Act) Rules 13a-15(e) or 15d-15(e)) as of the end of the period covered by this report, have concluded that based on the evaluation of these controls and procedures required by paragraph (b) of Exchange Act Rules 13a-15 or 15d-15, that our disclosure controls and procedures were effective.

Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

 

(a) Management’s Annual Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

Management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate disclosure controls and procedures and adequate internal control over financial reporting for Corning. Management is also responsible for the assessment of the effectiveness of disclosure controls and procedures and the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting.

Disclosure controls and procedures mean controls and other procedures of an issuer that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the issuer in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized, and reported, within the time periods specified in the SEC’s rules and forms. Corning’s disclosure controls and procedures include, without limitation, controls and procedures designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by Corning in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to Corning’s management, including Corning’s principal executive and principal financial officers, or other persons performing similar functions, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure.

Corning’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. Corning’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of Corning’s assets; (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, and that Corning’s receipts and expenditures are being made only in accordance with authorizations of Corning’s management and directors; and (iii) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of Corning’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements. Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies and procedures may deteriorate.

Management conducted an evaluation of the effectiveness of the system of internal control over financial reporting based on the framework in Internal Control - Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission. Based on this evaluation, management concluded that Corning’s internal control over financial reporting was effective as of December 31, 2009. The effectiveness of Corning’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2009, has been audited by PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their report which is included herein.

 

(b) Attestation Report of the Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

Refer to Part IV, Item 15.

 

(c) Changes in Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

There were no changes in our internal control over financial reporting identified in connection with the evaluation required by paragraph (d) of Exchange Act Rules 13a-15 or 15d-15 that occurred during our last fiscal quarter that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.

Item 9B.    Other Information

None.

 

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PART III

Item 10.    Directors and Executive Officers of the Registrant

Directors of the Registrant

The section entitled “Nominees for Election as Directors” in our Definitive Proxy Statement relating to our annual meeting of shareholders to be held on April 29, 2010, is incorporated by reference in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Information regarding executive officers is presented in Item I of this report on Form 10-K under the caption “Executive Officers of the Registrant.”

Audit Committee and Audit Committee Financial Expert

Corning has an Audit Committee and has identified three members of the Audit Committee as Audit Committee Financial Experts. See sections entitled “Meetings and Committees of the Board” and “Corporate Governance Matters” in our Definitive Proxy Statement relating to our annual meeting of shareholders to be held on April 29, 2010, which are incorporated by reference in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Compliance with Section 16(a) of the Exchange Act

The section entitled “Section 16(a) Beneficial Ownership Reporting Compliance” in our Definitive Proxy Statement relating to our annual meeting of shareholders to be held on April 29, 2010, is incorporated by reference in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Code of Ethics

Our Board of Directors adopted the (i) Code of Ethics for the Chief Executive Officer and Financial Executives and the (ii) Code of Conduct for Directors and Executive Officers, which supplements the Code of Conduct. These Codes have been in existence for more than ten years and govern all employees and directors. During 2009, no amendments to or waivers of the provisions of the Code of Ethics were made with respect to any of our directors or executive officers. A copy of the Code of Ethics is available on our website at www.corning.com/investor_relations/corporate_governance/codes_of_conduct.aspx. We will also provide a copy of the Code of Ethics to shareholders without charge upon written request to Ms. Denise A. Hauselt, Vice President, Secretary and Assistant General Counsel, Corning Incorporated, HQ-E2-10, Corning, NY 14831. We will disclose future amendments to, or waivers from, the Code of Ethics on our website within four business days following the date of such amendment or waiver.

Item 11.    Executive Compensation

The sections entitled “Executive Compensation,” “Compensation Discussion and Analysis,” “Compensation Committee Report,” and “Directors Compensation” in our Definitive Proxy Statement relating to the annual meeting of shareholders to be held on April 29, 2010, are incorporated by reference in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Item 12.    Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

The section entitled “Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners” in our Definitive Proxy Statement relating to the annual meeting of shareholders to be held on April 29, 2010, is incorporated by reference in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The information required by this item related to the Company’s securities authorized for issuance under equity compensation plans as of December 31, 2009 is included in Part I, “Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Item 13.    Certain Relationships and Related Transactions

The section entitled “Corporate Governance Matters - Related Party Policy and Procedures,” and “Corporate Governance Matters” in our Definitive Proxy Statement relating to the annual meeting of shareholders to be held on April 29, 2010, is incorporated by reference in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

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Item 14.    Principal Accounting Fees and Services

The sections entitled “Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm – Fees Paid to Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm” and “Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm - Policy Regarding Audit Committee Pre-Approval of Audit and Permitted Non-Audit Services of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm” in our Definitive Proxy Statement relating to the annual meeting of shareholders to be held on April 29, 2010, are incorporated by reference in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

In October 2009, PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (PwC) issued its annual Public Company Accounting Oversight Board Rule 3526 independence letter to the Audit Committee of our Board of Directors and therein reported that it is independent under applicable standards in connection with its audit opinion for the financial statements contained in this report. The Audit Committee has discussed with PwC its independence from Corning and concurred with PwC.

 

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PART IV

Item 15.    Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

 

(a) Documents filed as part of this report:

 

            Page
    

1.      Financial statements

   60
    

2.      Financial statement schedule:

  
    

(i)          Valuation accounts and reserves

   108
    

See   separate index to financial statements and financial statement schedules

  

 

(b) Exhibits filed as part of this report:

 

3 (i) 1    Restated Certificate of Incorporation dated December 6, 2000, filed with the Secretary of State of the State of New York on January 22, 2001 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3(i) of Corning’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2000).
3 (i) 2    Certificate of Amendment to Restated Certificate of Incorporation filed with the Secretary of State of the State of New York on August 5, 2002 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 99.1 to Corning’s Form 8-K filed on August 7, 2002).
3 (ii)    By-Laws of Corning amended to and effective as of February 4, 2009 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3(ii) of Corning’s Form 10-K filed February 24, 2009.
10.1    1994 Employee Equity Participation Program (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 1 of Corning Proxy Statement, Definitive 14A filed March 16, 1994 for April 28, 1994 Annual Meeting of Shareholders).
10.2    1998 Variable Compensation Plan (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 1 of Corning Proxy Statement, Definitive 14A filed March 9, 1998 for April 30, 1998 Annual Meeting of Shareholders).
10.3    1998 Worldwide Employee Share Purchase Plan (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 2 of Corning Proxy Statement, Definitive 14A filed March 9, 1998 for April 30, 1998 Annual Meeting of Shareholders).
10.4    1998 Employee Equity Participation Program (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3 of Corning Proxy Statement, Definitive 14A filed March 9, 1998 for April 30, 1998 Annual Meeting of Shareholders).
10.5    2002 Worldwide Employee Share Purchase Plan (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 1 of Corning Proxy Statement, Definitive 14A filed March 7, 2002 for April 25, 2002 Annual Meeting of Shareholders).
10.6    2000 Employee Equity Participation Program and 2003 Amendments (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 1 of Corning Proxy Statement, Definitive 14A filed March 10, 2003 for April 24, 2003 Annual Meeting of Shareholders).
10.7    2003 Variable Compensation Plan (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 2 of Corning Proxy Statement, Definitive 14A filed March 10, 2003 for April 24, 2003 Annual Meeting of Shareholders).
10.8    2003 Equity Plan for Non-Employee Directors (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3 of Corning Proxy Statement, Definitive 14A filed March 10, 2003 for April 24, 2003 Annual Meeting of Shareholders).
10.9    Form of Officer Severance Agreement dated as of February 1, 2004 between Corning Incorporated and each of the following four individuals: James B. Flaws, James R. Houghton, and Peter F. Volanakis (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 of Corning’s 10-Q filed May 4, 2004).
10.10    Officer Severance Agreement dated as of February 1, 2004 between Corning Incorporated and Joseph A. Miller, Jr. (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.2 of Corning’s 10-Q filed May 4, 2004).
10.11    Change In Control Agreement dated as of February 1, 2004 between Corning Incorporated and James R. Houghton (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.3 of Corning’s 10-Q filed May 4, 2004).

 

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10.12    Form of Amendment dated as of February 1, 2004 to Change In Control Agreement dated as of October 4, 2000 between Corning Incorporated and the following two individuals: James B. Flaws and Peter F. Volanakis (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.4 of Corning’s 10-Q filed May 4, 2004).
10.13    Form of Change In Control Amendment dated as of October 4, 2000 between Corning Incorporated and the following two individuals: James B. Flaws and Peter F. Volanakis (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.5 of Corning’s 10-Q filed May 4, 2004).
10.14    Amendment dated as of February 1, 2004 to Change In Control Agreement dated as of June 1, 2001 between Corning Incorporated and Joseph A. Miller, Jr. (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.6 of Corning’s 10-Q filed May 4, 2004).
10.15    Change In Control Agreement dated as of June 1, 2001 between Corning Incorporated and Joseph A. Miller, Jr. (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.7 of Corning’s 10-Q filed May 4, 2004).
10.16    Amendment dated as of February 1, 2004 to Change In Control Agreement dated as of April 23, 2002 between Corning Incorporated and Wendell P. Weeks (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.8 of Corning’s 10-Q filed May 4, 2004).
10.17    Change In Control Agreement dated as of April 23, 2002 between Corning Incorporated and Wendell P. Weeks (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.9 of Corning’s 10-Q filed May 4, 2004).
10.18    Form of Corning Incorporated Incentive Stock Plan Agreement for Restricted Stock Grants (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 of Corning’s 10-Q filed October 28, 2004).
10.19    Form of Corning Incorporated Incentive Stock Plan Agreement for Restricted Stock Retention Grants (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.2 of Corning’s 10-Q filed October 28, 2004).
10.20    Form of Corning Incorporated Incentive Stock Option Agreement (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.3 of Corning’s 10-Q filed October 28, 2004).
10.21    Form of Corning Incorporated Non-Qualified Stock Option Agreement (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.4 of Corning’s 10-Q filed October 28, 2004).
10.22    2005 Employee Equity Participation Program (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit I of Corning Proxy Statement, Definitive 14A filed March 1, 2005 for April 28, 2005 Annual Meeting of Shareholders).
10.23    Amended and Restated Credit Agreement with Citibank, N.A.; J.P. Morgan Chase Bank, N.A.; Bank of America, N.A.; Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ, Ltd.; Wachovia Bank, National Association; Barclays Bank PLC; Deutsche Bank A.G. New York Branch Mizuho Corporate Bank, Ltd. and Standard Chartered Bank dated November 21, 2006 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to Corning’s Form 8-K filed November 27, 2006).
10.24    Amended 2002 Worldwide Employee Share Purchase Plan (Incorporated by reference to Appendix I of Corning Proxy Statement, Definitive 14A filed March 8, 2006 for April 27, 2006 Annual Meeting of Shareholders).
10.25    2006 Variable Compensation Plan (Incorporated by reference to Appendix J of Corning Proxy Statement, Definitive 14A filed March 8, 2006 for April 27, 2006 Annual Meeting of Shareholders).
10.26    Amended 2003 Equity Plan for Non-Employee Directors (Incorporated by reference to Appendix K of Corning Proxy Statement, Definitive 14A filed March 8, 2006 for April 27, 2006 Annual Meeting of Shareholders).
10.27    Corning Incorporated Amended 2002 Worldwide Employee Share Purchase Plan effective September 19, 2006 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.27 of Corning’s Form 10-K filed February 25, 2007).
10.28    Amended Corning Incorporated 2003 Equity Plan for Non-Employee Directors effective October 4, 2006 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.28 of Corning’s Form 10-K filed February 25, 2007).
10.29    Amended Corning Incorporated 2005 Employee Equity Participation Program effective October 4, 2006 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.29 of Corning’s Form 10-K filed February 25, 2007).

 

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10.30    Form of Corning Incorporated Incentive Stock Plan Agreement for Restricted Stock Grants, amended effective December 6, 2006 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.30 of Corning’s Form 10-K filed February 25, 2007).
10.31    Executive Supplemental Pension Plan effective February 7, 2007 and signed February 12, 2007 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.31 of Corning’s Form 10-K filed February 25, 2007).
10.32    Director Compensation Arrangements effective February 7, 2007 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.32 of Corning’s Form 10-K filed February 25, 2007).
10.33    Executive Supplemental Pension Plan as restated and signed April 10, 2007 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10 of Corning’s Form 10-Q filed April 27, 2007).
10.34    Amendment No. 1 to 2006 Variable Compensation Plan dated October 3, 2007 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.34 of Corning’s Form 10-K filed February 15, 2008).
10.35    Corning Incorporated Goalsharing Plan dated October 3, 2007 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.35 of Corning’s Form 10-K filed February 15, 2008).
10.36    Corning Incorporated Performance Incentive Plan dated October 3, 2007 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.36 of Corning’s Form 10-K filed February 15, 2008).
10.37    Amendment No. 1 to Deferred Compensation Plan for Directors dated October 3, 2007 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.37 of Corning’s Form 10-K filed February 15, 2008).
10.38    Corning Incorporated Supplemental Pension Plan dated October 3, 2007 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.38 of Corning’s Form 10-K filed February 15, 2008).
10.39    Corning Incorporated Supplemental Investment Plan dated October 3, 2007 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.39 of Corning’s Form 10-K filed February 15, 2008).
10.40    Form of Corning Incorporated Incentive Stock Plan Agreement for Restricted Stock Grants, amended effective December 5, 2007 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.40 of Corning’s Form 10-K filed February 15, 2008).
10.41    Form of Corning Incorporated Non-Qualified Stock Option Agreement, amended effective December 5, 2007 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.41 of Corning’s Form 10-K filed February 15, 2008).
10.42    Amendment No. 2 dated February 13, 2008 and Amendment dated as of February 1, 2004 to Letter of Understanding between Corning Incorporated and Wendell P. Weeks, and Letter of Understanding dated April 23, 2002 between Corning Incorporated and Wendell P. Weeks (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.42 of Corning’s Form 10-K filed February 15, 2008).
10.43    Form of Change in Control Agreement Amendment No. 2, effective December 5, 2007 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.43 of Corning’s Form 10-K filed February 15, 2008).
10.44    Form of Officer Severance Agreement Amendment, effective December 5, 2007 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.44 of Corning’s Form 10-K filed February 15, 2008).
10.45    Amendment No. 1 to Corning Incorporated Supplemental Investment Plan, approved December 17, 2007 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.45 of Corning’s Form 10-K filed February 15, 2008).
10.46    Amendment No. 1 to Corning Incorporated Supplemental Pension Plan, approved December 17, 2007 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.46 of Corning’s Form 10-K filed February 15, 2008).
10.47    Amendment No. 1 to Corning Incorporated Executive Supplemental Pension Plan, approved December 17, 2007 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.47 of Corning’s Form 10-K filed February 15, 2008).
10.48    Second Amended 2005 Employee Equity Participation Program (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10 of Corning’s Form 8-K filed April 25, 2008).

 

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  10.49    Amendment No. 2 to Executive Supplemental Pension Plan effective July 16, 2008 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10 of Corning’s Form 10-Q filed July 30, 2008).
  10.50    Form of Corning Incorporated Non-Qualified Stock Option Agreement effective as of December 3, 2008 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.50 of Corning’s Form 10-K filed February 24, 2009).
  10.51    Form of Corning Incorporated Incentive Stock Right Agreement effective as of December 3, 2008 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.51 of Corning’s Form 10-K filed February 24, 2009).
  10.52    Form of Corning Incorporated Incentive Stock Plan Agreement for Restricted Stock Grants effective December 3, 2008 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.52 of Corning’s Form 10-K filed February 24, 2009).
  10.53    Form of Change of Control Agreement Amendment No. 3 effective December 19, 2008 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.53 of Corning’s Form 10-K filed February 24, 2009).
  10.54    Form of Officer Severance Agreement Amendment No. 2 effective December 19, 2008 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.54 of Corning’s Form 10-K filed February 24, 2009).
  10.55    Amendment No. 3 dated December 19, 2008 to Letter of Understanding dated April 23, 2002 between Corning Incorporated and Wendell P. Weeks (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.55 of Corning’s Form 10-K filed February 24, 2009).
  10.56    Amendment No. 2 to Corning Incorporated Supplemental Investment Plan approved April 29, 2009 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 of Corning’s Form 10-Q filed July 29, 2009).
  10.57    Amendment No. 2 to Deferred Compensation Plan for Directors dated April 29, 2009 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.2 of Corning’s Form 10-Q filed July 29, 2009).
  10.58    Amendment No. 2 to 2006 Variable Compensation Plan dated December 2, 2009.
  10.59    Form of Corning Incorporated Cash Performance Unit Agreement, effective December 2, 2009.
  10.60    Form of Corning Incorporated Incentive Stock Right Agreement for Time-Based Restricted Stock Units, effective December 2, 2009.
  12    Computation of Ratio of Earnings to Fixed Charges.
  14    Corning Incorporated Code of Ethics for Chief Executive Officer and Financial Executives, and Code of Conduct for Directors and Executive Officers (Incorporated by reference to Appendix G of Corning Proxy Statement, Definitive 14A filed March 16, 2009 for April 30, 2009 Annual Meeting of Shareholders).
  21    Subsidiaries of the Registrant at December 31, 2009.
  23    Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm.
  24    Powers of Attorney.
  31.1    Certification Pursuant to Rule 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e), As Adopted Pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.
  31.2    Certification Pursuant to Rule 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e), As Adopted Pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.
  32    Certification Pursuant to 18 U.S.C. Section 1350, As Adopted Pursuant to Section 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.
101.INS    XBRL Instance Document
101.SCH    XBRL Taxonomy Extension Schema Document

 

54


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101.CAL    XBRL Taxonomy Calculation Linkbase Document
101.LAB    XBRL Taxonomy Label Linkbase Document
101.PRE    XBRL Taxonomy Presentation Linkbase Document
101.DEF    XBRL Taxonomy Definition Document

 

(c) Financial Statements

 

    

1.      Financial Statements of Dow Corning Corporation for the years ended December 31, 2009, 2008 and 2007

   110
    

2.      Financial Statements of Samsung Corning Precision Glass Co., Ltd. for the years ended December 31, 2009, 2008 and 2007

   150

 

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Signatures

Pursuant to the requirements of Sections 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the Registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized.

Corning Incorporated

 

By   

/s/ Wendell P. Weeks

  Chairman of the Board of Directors and Chief Executive Officer   February 10, 2010
   (Wendell P. Weeks)    

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, this report has been signed below by the following persons on behalf of the Registrant and in the capacities and on the date indicated.

 

   Capacity   Date

/s/ Wendell P. Weeks

(Wendell P. Weeks)

  

Chairman of the Board of Directors and Chief
Executive Officer

(Principal Executive Officer)

  February 10, 2010

/s/ James B. Flaws

(James B. Flaws)

  

Vice Chairman of the Board of Directors and Chief
Financial Officer

(Principal Financial Officer)

  February 10, 2010

/s/ R. Tony Tripeny

(R. Tony Tripeny)

  

Senior Vice President - Corporate Controller

(Principal Accounting Officer)

  February 10, 2010

*

(John Seely Brown)

   Director   February 10, 2010

*

(Robert F. Cummings, Jr.)

   Director   February 10, 2010

*

(James B. Flaws)

   Director   February 10, 2010

*

(Gordon Gund)

   Director   February 10, 2010

*

(Carlos M. Gutierrez)

   Director   February 10, 2010

*

(James R. Houghton)

   Director   February 10, 2010

*

(Kurt M. Landgraf)

   Director   February 10, 2010

*

(James J. O’Connor)

   Director   February 10, 2010

*

(Deborah D. Rieman)

   Director   February 10, 2010

*

(H. Onno Ruding)

   Director   February 10, 2010

*

(William D. Smithburg)

   Director   February 10, 2010

 

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Table of Contents

*

(Hansel E. Tookes II)

   Director   February 10, 2010

*

(Peter F. Volanakis)

   Director   February 10, 2010

*

(Mark S. Wrighton)

   Director   February 10, 2010

 

*By  

/s/ Vincent P. Hatton

  (Vincent P. Hatton, Attorney-in-fact)

 

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Corning Incorporated

2009 Annual Report

Index to Financial Statements and Financial Statement Schedules

 

     Page

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

   59

Consolidated Statements of Income

   60

Consolidated Balance Sheets

   61

Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows

   62

Consolidated Statements of Changes in Shareholders’ Equity

   63

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

  

1.      Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

   64

2.      Restructuring, Impairment and Other Charges (Credits)

   70

3.      Available-for-Sale Investments

   72

4.      Significant Customers

   73

5.      Inventories

   73

6.      Income Taxes

   74

7.      Investments

   77

8.      Acquisition

   84

9.      Property, Net of Accumulated Depreciation

   85

10.    Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets

   85

11.    Other Liabilities

   86

12.    Debt

   87

13.    Employee Retirement Plans

   88

14.    Commitments, Contingencies, and Guarantees

   93

15.    Hedging Activities

   95

16.    Fair Value Measurements

   97

17.    Shareholders’ Equity

   98

18.    Earnings Per Common Share

   100

19.    Share-based Compensation

   100

20.    Operating Segments

   104

Financial Statement Schedule

  

II.     Valuation Accounts and Reserves

   108

Quarterly Operating Results

   109

Financial Statements of Dow Corning Corporation for the years ended December 31, 2009, 2008 and 2007

   110

Financial Statements of Samsung Corning Precision Glass Co., Ltd. for the years ended December  31, 2009, 2008 and 2007

   150

 

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Table of Contents

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

To the Board of Directors and Shareholders of Corning Incorporated:

In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements listed in the accompanying index present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of Corning Incorporated and its subsidiaries at December 31, 2009 and 2008, and the results of their operations and their cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2009 in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. In addition, in our opinion, the financial statement schedule listed in the accompanying index presents fairly, in all material respects, the information set forth therein when read in conjunction with the related consolidated financial statements. Also in our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2009 based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO). The Company’s management is responsible for these financial statements and financial statement schedule, for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in “Management’s Annual Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting,” appearing under Item 9A. Our responsibility is to express opinions on these financial statements, on the financial statement schedule, and on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our integrated audits. We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement and whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audits of the financial statements included examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements, assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, and evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audits also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinions.

A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (iii) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

/s/ PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP

New York, New York

February 10, 2010

 

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Consolidated Statements of Income

   Corning Incorporated and Subsidiary Companies

 

 

        Years ended December 31,  
(In millions, except per share amounts)      2009        2008        2007  

Net sales

     $ 5,395        $ 5,948        $ 5,860  

Cost of sales

       3,302          3,210          3,111  
          

Gross margin

       2,093          2,738          2,749  

Operating expenses:

              

Selling, general and administrative expenses

       881          901          912  

Research, development and engineering expenses

       563          627          565  

Amortization of purchased intangibles

       10          11          10  

Restructuring, impairment and other charges (credits) (Note 2)

       228          19          (4

Asbestos litigation charge (credit) (Note 7)

       20          (340        185  
          

Operating income

       391          1,520          1,081  

Equity in earnings of affiliated companies (Note 7)

       1,435          1,358          983  

Interest income

       19          85          145  

Interest expense

       (82        (59        (82

Other-than-temporary impairment (OTTI) losses (Note 3):

              

Total OTTI losses

       (16          

Portion of OTTI losses recognized in other comprehensive income (before taxes)

       14            
          

Net OTTI losses recognized in earnings

       (2          

Other income (expense), net

       173          (22        144  
          

Income before income taxes

       1,934          2,882          2,271  

Benefit (provision) for income taxes (Note 6)

       74          2,375          (121
          

Net income attributable to Corning Incorporated

     $ 2,008        $ 5,257        $ 2,150  
          

Earnings per common share attributable to Corning Incorporated:

              

Basic (Note 18)

     $ 1.30        $ 3.37        $ 1.37  
          

Diluted (Note 18)

     $ 1.28        $ 3.32        $ 1.34  
          

Dividends declared per common share

     $ 0.20        $ 0.20          0.10  

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

Certain amounts for prior periods were reclassified to conform to the 2009 presentation.

 

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Consolidated Balance Sheets

   Corning Incorporated and Subsidiary Companies

 

 

      December 31,  
(In millions, except share and per share amounts)    2009        2008  

Assets

       

Current assets:

       

Cash and cash equivalents

   $ 2,541        $ 1,873  

Short-term investments, at fair value

     1,042          943  
        

Total cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments

     3,583          2,816  

Trade accounts receivable, net of doubtful accounts and allowances - $20 and $20

     753          512  

Inventories (Note 5)

     579          798  

Deferred income taxes (Note 6)

     235          158  

Other current assets

     371          335  
        

Total current assets

     5,521          4,619  

Investments (Note 7)

     3,992          3,056  

Property, net of accumulated depreciation - $5,503 and $5,070 (Note 9)

     7,995          8,199  

Goodwill and other intangible assets, net (Note 10)

     676          305  

Deferred income taxes (Note 6)

     2,982          2,932  

Other assets

     129          145  
        

Total Assets

   $ 21,295        $ 19,256  

Liabilities and Equity

       

Current liabilities:

       

Current portion of long-term debt (Note 12)

   $ 74        $ 78  

Accounts payable

     550          846  

Other accrued liabilities (Note 11)

     915          1,128  
        

Total current liabilities

     1,539          2,052  

Long-term debt (Note 12)

     1,930          1,527  

Postretirement benefits other than pensions (Note 13)

     858          784  

Other liabilities (Note 11)

     1,373          1,402  
        

Total liabilities

     5,700          5,765  
        

Commitments and contingencies (Note 14)

       

Shareholders’ equity (Note 17):

       

Common stock - Par value $0.50 per share; shares authorized: 3.8 billion

       

Shares issued: 1,617 million and 1,609 million

     808          804  

Additional paid-in capital

     12,707          12,502  

Retained earnings

     3,636          1,940  

Treasury stock, at cost; shares held: 64 million and 61 million

     (1,207        (1,160

Accumulated other comprehensive loss

     (401        (643
        

Total Corning Incorporated shareholders’ equity

     15,543          13,443  
        

Noncontrolling interests

     52          48  
        

Total equity

     15,595          13,491  
        

Total Liabilities and Equity

   $ 21,295        $ 19,256  

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

Certain amounts for prior periods were reclassified to conform to the 2009 presentation.

 

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Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows

   Corning Incorporated and Subsidiary Companies

 

 

        Years ended December 31,  
(In millions)      2009        2008      2007  

Cash Flows from Operating Activities:

            

Net income

     $ 2,008        $ 5,257      $ 2,150  

Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities:

            

Depreciation

       782          684        597  

Amortization of purchased intangibles

       10          11        10  

Asbestos litigation

       20          (340      185  

Restructuring, impairment and other charges (credits)

       228          19        (4

Loss on repurchases and retirement of debt

               15  

Stock compensation charges

       127          118        138  

Loss (gain) on sale of business

            14        (19

Undistributed earnings of affiliated companies

       (680        (812      (493

Deferred tax benefit

       (218        (2,585      (95

Restructuring payments

       (89        (17      (39

Customer deposits, net of (credits) issued

       (253        (266      (126

Employee benefit payments (in excess of) expense

       (10        (47      (111

Changes in certain working capital items:

            

Trade accounts receivable

       (201        410        (128

Inventories

       238          (136      5  

Other current assets

       16          (76      (27

Accounts payable and other current liabilities, net of restructuring payments

       56          (210      48  

Other, net

       43          104        (29
          

Net cash provided by operating activities

       2,077          2,128        2,077  
          

Cash Flows from Investing Activities:

            

Capital expenditures

       (890        (1,921      (1,262

Acquisitions of businesses, net of cash received

       (410        (15      (4

Net proceeds (payments) from sale or disposal of assets

       21          19        (5

Short-term investments - acquisitions

       (1,372        (1,865      (2,152

Short-term investments - liquidations

       1,281          2,083        2,862  
          

Net cash used in investing activities

       (1,370        (1,699      (561
          

Cash Flows from Financing Activities:

            

Net repayments of short-term borrowings and current portion of long-term debt

       (86        (24      (20

Proceeds from unwind of interest rate swap agreements

            65     

Proceeds from issuance of long-term debt, net

       346          

Retirements of long-term debt

               (238

Principal payments under capital lease obligations

       (10        

Proceeds from issuance of common stock, net

       20          23        21  

Proceeds from the exercise of stock options

       24          80        109  

Repurchases of common stock

            (625      (250

Dividends paid

       (312        (313      (158

Other, net

       3          (4      (3
          

Net cash used in financing activities

       (15        (798      (539
          

Effect of exchange rates on cash

       (24        26        82  
          

Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents

       668          (343      1,059  

Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of year

       1,873          2,216        1,157  
          

Cash and cash equivalents at end of year

     $ 2,541        $ 1,873      $ 2,216  

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

Certain amounts for prior periods were reclassified to conform to the 2009 presentation.

 

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Consolidated Statements of Changes in Shareholders’ Equity

   Corning Incorporated and Subsidiary Companies

 

 

(In millions)    Common
stock
    Additional
paid-in
capital
    (Accumulated
deficit)
retained
earnings
    Treasury
stock
    Accumulated
other
comprehensive
income (loss)
    Total
Corning
Incorporated
shareholders’
equity
    Non-
controlling
interests
    Total  

Balance, December 31, 2006

   $ 791     $ 12,008     $ (4,992 )   $ (201 )   $ (360 )   $ 7,246     $ 45     $ 7,291  

Net income

         2,150           2,150       3       2,153  

Foreign currency translation adjustment

             165       165       2       167  

Net unrealized loss on investments without credit losses

             (11 )     (11 )       (11

Unrealized loss on cash flow hedges

             (49 )     (49 )       (49

Reclassification adjustments on cash flow hedges

             12       12         12  

Amortized postretirement benefit plans gains and prior service costs

             153       153         153  
                  

Total comprehensive income

               2,420       5       2,425  
                  

Purchase of common stock for treasury

           (250 )       (250 )       (250

Shares issued to benefit plans and for option exercises

     8       273         (12 )       269         269  

Dividends on shares

         (158 )         (158 )       (158

Other, net

         (2 )     (29 )       (31 )     (4 )     (35
        

Balance, December 31, 2007

   $ 799     $ 12,281     $ (3,002 )   $ (492 )   $ (90 )   $ 9,496     $ 46     $ 9,542  

Net income

         5,257           5,257       (1 )     5,256  

Foreign currency translation adjustment

             99       99       3       102  

Net unrealized loss on investments without credit losses

             (81 )     (81 )       (81

Unrealized loss on cash flow hedges

             (61 )     (61 )       (61

Reclassification adjustments on cash flow hedges

             45       45         45  

Amortized postretirement benefit plans losses and prior service costs

             (555 )     (555 )       (555
                  

Total comprehensive income

               4,704       2       4,706  
                  

Purchase of common stock for treasury

           (625 )       (625 )       (625

Shares issued to benefit plans and for option exercises

     6       222         (6 )       222         222  

Dividends on shares

         (313 )         (313 )       (313

Other, net

     (1 )     (1 )     (2 )     (37 )       (41 )       (41
        

Balance, December 31, 2008

   $ 804     $ 12,502     $ 1,940     $ (1,160 )   $ (643 )   $ 13,443     $ 48     $ 13,491  

Net income

         2,008           2,008       6       2,014  

Foreign currency translation adjustment

             166       166         166  

Net unrealized gain on investments without credit losses

             44       44         44  

Unrealized gain on investments with credit losses

             9       9         9  

Unrealized gain on cash flow hedges

             92       92         92  

Reclassification adjustments on cash flow hedges

             (53 )     (53 )       (53

Amortized postretirement benefit plans losses and prior service costs

             (16 )     (16 )       (16
                  

Total comprehensive income

               2,250       6       2,256  
                  

Shares issued to benefit plans and for option exercises

     4       203         (36 )       171         171  

Dividends on shares

         (312 )         (312 )       (312

Other, net

       2         (11 )       (9 )     (2 )     (11
        

Balance, December 31, 2009

   $ 808     $ 12,707     $ 3,636     $ (1,207 )   $ (401 )   $ 15,543     $ 52     $ 15,595  

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

 

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Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

   Corning Incorporated and Subsidiary Companies

 

 

1. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Organization

Corning Incorporated is a provider of high-performance glass for LCD televisions, computer monitors, and other information display applications; optical fiber and cable and hardware and equipment products for the telecommunications industry; ceramic substrates for gasoline and diesel engines in automotive and heavy duty vehicle markets; laboratory products for the scientific community and specialized polymer products for biotechnology applications; advanced optical materials for the semiconductor industry and the scientific community; and other technologies. In these notes, the terms “Corning,” “Company,” “we,” “us,” or “our” mean Corning Incorporated and subsidiary companies.

Basis of Presentation and Principles of Consolidation

Our consolidated financial statements were prepared in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles in the U.S. (U.S. GAAP) and include the assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses of all majority-owned subsidiaries over which Corning exercises control and, when applicable, entities for which Corning has a controlling financial interest.

The equity method of accounting is used for investments in affiliated companies that are not controlled by Corning and in which our interest is generally between 20% and 50% and we have significant influence over the entity. Our share of earnings or losses of affiliated companies, in which at least 20% of the voting securities is owned and we have significant influence but not control over the entity, is included in consolidated operating results.

We use the cost method to account for our investments in companies that we do not control and for which we do not have the ability to exercise significant influence over operating and financial policies. In accordance with the cost method, these investments are recorded at cost or fair value, as appropriate.

All material intercompany accounts, transactions and profits are eliminated in consolidation.

Certain prior year amounts have been reclassified to conform to the current-year presentation. These reclassifications had no impact on our results of operations, financial position, or changes in shareholders’ equity.

Effective September 30, 2009, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) established The FASB Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) as the source of authoritative accounting to be applied by nongovernmental entities in the preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP. Except for newly issued standards that have not been codified, references to codified literature have been updated to reflect this change.

Corning evaluates all events or transactions that occur after the balance sheet date through the date of issuance of our financial statements. For the year ended December 31, 2009, subsequent events were evaluated through February 10, 2010.

Effective January 1, 2009, the Company, as required, adopted U.S. GAAP requirements for reporting noncontrolling interests in financial statements. A noncontrolling interest, previously called a minority interest, is the portion of equity in a subsidiary not attributable, directly or indirectly, to a parent. Under the new standard, noncontrolling interests in subsidiaries are now included as a component of equity in the consolidated statements of financial position. This guidance also provides the required accounting treatment for changes in ownership of noncontrolling interests. As required, the related presentation and disclosure provisions have been applied retrospectively. For all years presented, amounts attributable to noncontrolling interests were not significant and therefore, are not presented separately on the consolidated statements of income. These amounts, which have been included in “Other income (expense), net,” are provided below.

Effective January 1, 2009, the Company changed the presentation of equity in earnings of affiliated companies in the Consolidated Statements of Income from below “Benefit (provision) for income taxes” to above “Income before income taxes.” The change in presentation reflects the strategic nature and economic importance of the Company’s investments accounted for under the equity method of accounting. There was no effect on the Company’s consolidated results of operation, financial condition, or cash flows as a result of this change.

 

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1. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (continued)

Effective April 1, 2009, the Company, as required, adopted the following which resulted from the issuance of new fair value accounting standards under U.S. GAAP:

 

 

We changed the method for determining whether an other-than temporary impairment exists for debt securities and for determining the amount of an impairment charge to be recorded in earnings;

 

We adopted new guidance for addressing the determination of (a) when a market for an asset or a liability is active or inactive and (b) when a particular transaction is distressed; and

 

If applicable, we will provide required disclosures about fair value of financial instruments for interim reporting periods as well as in annual financial statements.

The impact of adopting these fair value standards was not significant.

Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements and related notes. Significant estimates and assumptions in these consolidated financial statements include restructuring and other charges and credits, allowances for doubtful accounts receivable, estimates of fair value associated with goodwill and long-lived asset impairment tests, estimates of the fair value of assets held for disposal, estimates of fair value of investments, environmental and legal liabilities, warranty liabilities, income taxes and deferred tax valuation allowances, the determination of discount and other rate assumptions for pension and other postretirement employee benefit expenses and the determination of the fair value of stock based compensation involving assumptions about termination rates, stock volatility, discount rates, and expected time to exercise. Due to the inherent uncertainty involved in making estimates, actual results reported in future periods may be different from these estimates.

Revenue Recognition

Revenue for sales of goods is recognized when a firm sales agreement is in place, delivery has occurred and sales price is fixed or determinable and collectability is reasonably assured. If customer acceptance of products is not reasonably assured, sales are recorded only upon formal customer acceptance. Sales of goods typically do not include multiple product and/or service elements.

At the time revenue is recognized, allowances are recorded, with the related reduction to revenue, for estimated product returns, allowances and price discounts based upon historical experience and related terms of customer arrangements. Where we have offered product warranties, we also establish liabilities for estimated warranty costs based upon historical experience and specific warranty provisions. Warranty liabilities are adjusted when experience indicates the expected outcome will differ from initial estimates of the liability.

Other Income (Expense), Net

“Other income (expense), net” in Corning’s consolidated statements of income includes the following (in millions):

 

     Years ended December 31,  
  2009        2008        2007  

Royalty income from Samsung Corning Precision

  $ 232        $ 184        $ 141  

Foreign currency exchange and hedge (losses) / gains

    (54        (112        29  

Net realized losses of available-for-sale securities

    (2        (53        (6

Loss on sale of Steuben glass business

         (14     

Gain on sale of Corning’s submarine cabling business

              19  

Loss on repurchase of debt, net

              (15

Net (income) loss attributable to noncontrolling interests

    (6        1          (3

Other, net

    3          (28        (21

Total

  $ 173        $ (22      $ 144  

Research and Development Costs

Research and development costs are charged to expense as incurred. Research and development costs totaled $465 million in 2009, $510 million in 2008, and $446 million in 2007.

 

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1. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (continued)

Foreign Currency Translation and Transactions

The determination of the functional currency for Corning’s foreign subsidiaries is made based on the appropriate economic factors. For most foreign operations, the local currencies are generally considered to be the functional currencies. Corning’s most significant exception is our Taiwanese subsidiary which uses the Japanese yen as its functional currency. For all transactions denominated in a currency other than a subsidiary’s functional currency, exchange rate gains and losses are included in income for the period in which the exchange rates changed.

Foreign subsidiary functional currency balance sheet accounts are translated at current exchange rates, and statement of operations accounts are translated at average exchange rates for the year. Translation gains and losses are recorded as a separate component of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) in shareholders’ equity. The effects of remeasuring non-functional currency assets and liabilities into the functional currency are included in current earnings.

Stock-Based Compensation

Corning’s stock-based compensation programs include employee stock option grants, time-based restricted stock awards, time-based restricted stock units, performance-based restricted stock awards, performance-based restricted stock units, and the Worldwide Employee Share Purchase Plan, as more fully described in Note 19 (Share-based Compensation). On January 1, 2006, the Company began expensing share-based payments using the “prospective adoption” transition method allowed under U.S. GAAP. Following the prospective adoption transition method, prior periods were not restated. We applied the stated and nominal vesting period attribution approach for any share-based awards granted prior to January 1, 2006. The Company elected the alternative transition method for calculating the tax effects of employee share-based compensation awards that were outstanding at January 1, 2006. All awards granted prior to January 1, 2006 were fully amortized as of December 31, 2009.

The cost of stock-based compensation awards is equal to the fair value of the award at the date of grant and compensation expense is recognized for those awards earned over the vesting period, except as noted below. Corning estimates the fair value of stock based awards using a lattice-based option valuation model, which incorporates assumptions including expected volatility, dividend yield, risk-free rate, expected time to exercise and departure rates.

Under U.S. GAAP, an award is considered vested when the employee’s retention of the award is no longer contingent on providing subsequent service (the “non-substantive vesting period approach”). Prior to December 1, 2008, the terms and conditions of Corning’s stock option agreement specified that employees continue to vest in option awards after retirement without providing any additional services. For awards granted from January 1, 2006 to December 1, 2008, compensation cost was recognized immediately for awards granted to retirement eligible employees. For employees who become retirement eligible during the vesting period, expense is recognized evenly from the grant date to the date of retirement eligibility.

On December 1, 2008, Corning amended the terms and conditions of its stock option agreement for awards to retirement eligible employees. Under the terms of this agreement, awards are earned ratably each month the employee provides service over the twelve months following the grant date, and the related compensation expense is recognized over this twelve month service period or over the period from the grant date to the date retirement eligibility is achieved, whichever is longer.

Refer to Note 19 (Share-based Compensation).

Cash and Cash Equivalents

Cash equivalents consist of highly liquid investments that are readily convertible into cash. We consider securities with contractual maturities of three months or less, when purchased, to be cash equivalents. The carrying amount of these securities approximates fair value because of the short-term maturity of these instruments.

 

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1. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (continued)

Supplemental disclosure of cash flow information follows (in millions):

 

     Years ended December 31,
  2009      2008      2007

Non-cash transactions:

           

Issued credit memoranda for settlement of customer receivables (1)

  $ 253      $ 266      $ 231

Capital leases

  $ 162      $ 6      $ 44

Accruals for capital expenditures

  $ 217      $ 525      $ 244

Cash paid for interest and income taxes:

           

Interest (2)

  $ 116      $ 100      $ 113

Income taxes, net of refunds received

  $ 164      $ 287      $ 153

 

(1) Amounts represent credits applied to customer receivable balances for customers that made advance cash deposits under long-term purchase and supply agreements.
(2) Included in this amount are approximately $29 million, $31 million, and $19 million of interest costs that were capitalized as part of property, net in 2009, 2008 and 2007, respectively.

Short-Term Investments

Our short-term investments consist of available-for-sale securities that are stated at fair value. Consistent with Corning’s cash investment policy, our short-term investments consist primarily of fixed-income securities. Preservation of principal is the primary principle of our cash investment policy that is carried out by limiting interest rate, reinvestment, security, quality and event risk. Our investments are generally liquid and all are investment grade quality. The portfolio is invested predominantly in U.S. Treasury securities. Unrealized gains and losses, net of tax, are computed on the first-in first-out basis and are reported as a separate component of accumulated other comprehensive loss in shareholders’ equity until realized. Realized gains and losses are recorded in other income (expense), net.

Allowance for Doubtful Accounts

The Company’s allowance for doubtful accounts is determined based on a variety of factors that affect the potential collectability of the related receivables, including length of time receivables are past due, customer credit ratings, financial stability of customers, specific one-time events and past customer history. In addition, in circumstances where the Company is made aware of a specific customer’s inability to meet its financial obligations, a specific allowance is established. The majority of accounts are individually evaluated on a regular basis and appropriate reserves are established as deemed appropriate based on the above criteria. The remainder of the reserve is based on management’s estimates and takes into consideration the length of time receivables are past due, historical trends, market conditions, and the composition of the Company’s customer base.

Environmental Liabilities

The Company accrues for its environmental investigation, remediation, operating, and maintenance costs when it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount can be reasonably estimated. For environmental matters, the most likely cost to be incurred is accrued based on an evaluation of currently available facts with respect to each individual site, current laws and regulations and prior remediation experience. For sites with multiple potential responsible parties, the Company considers its likely proportionate share of the anticipated remediation costs and the ability of the other parties to fulfill their obligations in establishing a provision for those costs. Where no amount within a range of estimates is more likely to occur than another, the minimum is accrued. When future liabilities are determined to be reimbursable by insurance coverage, an accrual is recorded for the potential liability and a receivable is recorded related to the insurance reimbursement when reimbursement is virtually certain. The uncertain nature inherent in such remediation and the possibility that initial estimates may not reflect the final outcome could result in additional costs.

Inventories

Inventories are stated at the lower of cost (first-in, first-out basis) or market.

Property, Net of Accumulated Depreciation

Land, buildings, and equipment, including precious metals, are recorded at cost. Depreciation is based on estimated useful lives of properties using the straight-line method. Except as described in Note 2 (Restructuring, Impairment and Other Charges and (Credits)) related to accelerated depreciation arising from restructuring programs and Note 9 (Property, Net of Accumulated Depreciation) related to the depletion of precious metals, the estimated useful lives range from 10 to 40 years for buildings and 2 to 20 years for equipment.

 

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1. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (continued)

Included in the subcategory of equipment are the following types of assets:

 

Asset type    Range of useful life

Computer hardware and software

   3 to 7 years

Manufacturing equipment

   2 to 15 years

Furniture and fixtures

   5 to 10 years

Transportation equipment

   5 to 20 years

Manufacturing equipment includes certain components of production equipment that are constructed of precious metals. These assets are not depreciated because they have very low physical losses and are repeatedly reclaimed and reused in our manufacturing process over a very long useful life. We treat the physical loss of precious metals in the manufacturing and reclamation process as depletion and account for these losses as a period expense based on actual units lost. Precious metals are integral to many of our glass production processes. They are only acquired to support our operations and are not held for trading or other purposes.

Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets

Goodwill is the excess of cost of an acquired entity over the amounts assigned to assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination. Goodwill is tested for impairment annually in the fourth quarter, and will be tested for impairment between annual tests if an event occurs or circumstances change that more likely than not would indicate the carrying amount may be impaired. Impairment testing for goodwill is done at a reporting unit level. Reporting units are either operating segments or one level below the operating segment. Goodwill relates to and is assigned directly to a specific reporting unit. An impairment loss generally would be recognized when the carrying amount of the reporting unit’s net assets exceeds the estimated fair value of the reporting unit. The estimated fair value of a reporting unit is determined using a discounted cash flow analysis. Refer to Note 10 (Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets) for additional information.

Other intangible assets include patents, trademarks, and other intangible assets acquired from an independent party. Such intangible assets have a definite life and are amortized on a straight-line basis over estimated useful lives ranging from 4 to 50 years.

Impairment of Long-Lived Assets

We review the recoverability of our long-lived assets, such as plant and equipment and intangible assets, when events or changes in circumstances occur that indicate that the carrying value of the asset or asset group may not be recoverable. When impairment indicators are present, we compare estimated undiscounted future cash flows, including the eventual disposition of the asset group at market value, to the assets’ carrying value to determine if the asset group is recoverable. The fair value of long-lived assets is determined using an “income approach” that starts with the forecast of all the expected future net cash flows including the eventual disposition at market value of long-lived assets, and also considers the fair market value of all precious metals. We assess the recoverability of the carrying value of long-lived assets at the lowest level for which identifiable cash flows are largely independent of the cash flows of other assets and liabilities. If there is an impairment, a loss is recorded to reflect the difference between the assets’ fair value and carrying value.

Treasury Stock

Shares of common stock repurchased by us are recorded at cost as treasury stock and result in a reduction of shareholders’ equity in the consolidated balance sheets. From time to time, treasury shares may be reissued as contributions to our employee benefit plans and for the retirement or conversion of certain debt instruments. When shares are reissued, we use an average cost method for determining cost. The difference between the cost of the shares and the reissuance price is added to or deducted from additional paid-in capital.

Income Taxes

The Company accounts for income taxes using the asset and liability method prescribed by U.S. GAAP. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to operating loss and tax credit carry forwards and for differences between the carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases.

 

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1. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (continued)

In determining our provision for income taxes, we use an annual effective income tax rate based on full year income, permanent differences between book and tax income, and statutory income tax rates. The effective income tax rate also reflects our assessment of the ultimate outcome of tax audits. In evaluating the tax benefits associated with our various tax filing positions, we record a tax benefit for uncertain tax positions using the highest cumulative tax benefit that is more likely than not to be realized. Adjustments are made to our liability for unrecognized tax benefits in the period in which we determine the issue is effectively settled with the tax authorities, the statute of limitations expires for the return containing the tax position or when more information becomes available. Our liability for unrecognized tax benefits, including accrued penalties and interest, is included in other long-term liabilities on our consolidated balance sheets and in income tax expense in our consolidated statements of earnings.

Discrete events such as audit settlements or changes in tax laws are recognized in the period in which they occur. Valuation allowances are established when management is unable to conclude that it is more likely than not that some portion, or all, of the deferred tax asset will ultimately be realized.

The Company is subject to income taxes in the United States and in numerous foreign jurisdictions. No provision is made for U.S. income taxes on the undistributed earnings of wholly owned foreign subsidiaries because substantially all such earnings are indefinitely reinvested in those companies. Provision for the tax consequences of distributions, if any, from consolidated foreign subsidiaries is recorded in the year in which the earnings are no longer indefinitely reinvested in those subsidiaries.

Equity Method Investments

Our equity method investments, as required, are reviewed for impairment on a periodic basis or if an event occurs or circumstances change that indicate the carrying amount may be impaired. This assessment is based on a review of the equity investments’ performance and a review of indicators of impairment to determine if there is evidence of a loss in value of an equity investment. Factors we consider include:

 

 

Absence of our ability to recover the carrying amount;

 

Inability of the equity affiliate to sustain an earnings capacity which would justify the carrying amount of the investment; and

 

Significant litigation, bankruptcy or other events that could impact recoverability.

For an equity investment with impairment indicators, we measure fair value on the basis of discounted cash flows or other appropriate valuation methods, depending on the nature of the company involved. If it is probable that we will not recover the carrying amount of our investment, the impairment is considered other-than-temporary and recorded in earnings, and the equity investment balance is reduced to its fair value accordingly. We require our equity method affiliates to provide audited financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Consequently, required assessments of asset recoverability are included in their results. We also include these financial statements in our recoverability assessment.

Fair Value of Financial Instruments

As prescribed by U.S. GAAP, major categories of financial assets and liabilities, including short-term investments, other assets and derivatives are measured at fair value on a recurring basis. Certain assets and liabilities including long-lived assets, goodwill, asset retirement obligations, and cost and equity investments are measured at fair value on a nonrecurring basis.

Fair value is the price that would be received from selling an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. When determining the fair value measurements for assets and liabilities required to be recorded at fair value, we consider the principal or most advantageous market in which we would transact and consider assumptions that market participants would use when pricing the asset or liability, such as inherent risk, transfer restrictions, and risk of nonperformance.

Derivative Instruments

We participate in a variety of foreign exchange forward contracts and foreign exchange option contracts entered into in connection with the management of our exposure to fluctuations in foreign exchange rates. These financial exposures are managed in accordance with corporate policies and procedures.

 

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1. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (continued)

All derivatives are recorded at fair value on the balance sheet. Changes in the fair value of derivatives designated as cash flow hedges and hedges of net investments in foreign operations are recorded in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss). Amounts related to cash flow hedges are reclassified from accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) when the underlying hedged item impacts earnings. This reclassification is recorded in the same line item of the consolidated statement of operations as where the effects of the hedged item are recorded, typically sales, royalties, or cost of sales. Changes in the fair value of derivatives designated as fair value hedges are recorded currently in earnings offset, to the extent the derivative was effective, by the change in the fair value of the hedged item. Changes in the fair value of derivatives not designated as hedging instruments are recorded currently in earnings in the other income line of the consolidated statement of operations.

We have issued foreign currency denominated debt that has been designated as a hedge of the net investment in a foreign operation. The effective portion of the changes in fair value of the debt is reflected as a component of other comprehensive income (loss) as part of the foreign currency translation adjustment.

Variable Interest Entities

For variable interest entities, we assess the terms of our interest in each entity to determine if we are the primary beneficiary as prescribed under U.S. GAAP. The primary beneficiary of a variable interest entity is the party that absorbs a majority of the entity’s expected losses, receives a majority of its expected residual returns, or both, as a result of holding variable interests, which are the ownership, contractual, or other pecuniary interests in an entity that change with changes in the fair value of the entity’s net assets excluding variable interests.

Corning has performed the required assessments and has identified three entities as being variable interest entities. None of these entities are considered to be significant to Corning’s consolidated statements of position.

New Accounting Standards

In June 2009, the FASB issued SFAS No. 167, “Amendments to FASB Interpretation No. 46 (R)” (SFAS 167). In December 2009, the FASB amended their codification for SFAS 167 to Accounting Standards Update 2009-17, Consolidations (Topic 810): Improvements to Financial Reporting by Enterprises Involved with Variable Interest Entities (ASU 2009-17). ASU 2009-17 revises the consolidation guidance for variable interest entities and modifies the approach for determining the primary beneficiary of a variable interest entity (VIE). Under ASU 2009-17, the primary beneficiary is the variable interest holder that has (1) the power to direct the activities of the VIE that most significantly impact the entity’s economic performance and (2) the obligation to absorb losses of the VIE or the right to receive benefits from the VIE that could potentially be significant to the VIE. In addition, ASU 2009-17 provides guidance on shared power and joint venture relationships, removes the scope exemption for qualified special purpose entities, revises the definition of a VIE, and requires additional disclosures. ASU 2009-17 is effective for fiscal years beginning after November 15, 2009. Corning does not expect adoption of this standard to have a material impact on its consolidated results of operations and financial condition.

In October 2009, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2009-13, Revenue Recognition (Topic 605): Multiple-Deliverable Revenue Arrangements - a consensus of the FASB Emerging Issues Task Force (ASU 2009-13). ASU 2009-13 addresses the accounting for sales arrangements that include multiple products or services by revising the criteria for when deliverables may be accounted for separately rather than as a combined unit. Specifically, this guidance establishes a selling price hierarchy for determining the selling price of a deliverable, which is necessary to separately account for each product or service. This hierarchy provides more options for establishing selling price than existing guidance. ASU 2009-13 is required to be applied prospectively to new or materially modified revenue arrangements in fiscal years beginning on or after June 15, 2010. Early adoption is permitted. Corning does not expect adoption of this standard to have a material impact on its consolidated results of operations and financial condition.

 

2. Restructuring, Impairment and Other Charges (Credits)

2009 Actions

Corning recorded net charges of $228 million in 2009. A summary of the charges follows:

 

 

We recorded a charge of $228 million associated with a corporate-wide restructuring plan to reduce our global workforce in response to anticipated lower sales in 2009. The charge included costs for severance, special termination benefits, outplacement services, asset disposal costs, and the impact of a $32 million curtailment loss for postretirement benefits in 2009. Total cash expenditures associated with this plan are expected to be approximately $155 million with the majority of spending completed in 2010.

 

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2. Restructuring, Impairment and Other Charges (Credits) (continued)

The following table summarizes the restructuring, and other charges and (credits) as of and for the year ended December 31, 2009 (in millions):

 

      Reserve at
January 1,
2009
   Charges    Non-cash
settlements
    Cash
payments
     Reserve at
December 31,
2009

Restructuring:

             

Employee related costs

   $ 17    $ 203    $ (54   $ (86    $ 80

Other charges (credits)

     17      6        (3      20
      

Total restructuring activity

   $ 34    $ 209    $ (54   $ (89    $ 100
      

Impairment of long-lived assets:

             

Assets to be disposed of

      $ 19        
                 

Total impairment charges

      $ 19        
                 

Total restructuring, impairment and other charges

          $ 228                        

The year-to-date cost of these plans for each of our reportable operating segments was as follows (in millions):

 

Operating segment    Employee-
related
and other
costs

Display Technologies

   $ 31

Telecommunications

     42

Environmental Technologies

     28

Specialty Materials

     17

Life Sciences

     8

Corporate and All Other

     102

Total restructuring, impairment and other charges

   $ 228

2008 Actions

Corning recorded net charges of $19 million in 2008. A summary of the charges and credits follows:

 

 

We recorded a charge of $22 million, which was comprised primarily of severance costs for a restructuring plan in the Telecommunications segment.

 

We recorded net credit adjustments of $3 million for revisions to existing restructuring plans.

The following table summarizes the restructuring, and other charges and (credits) as of and for the year ended December 31, 2008 (in millions):

 

            Year ended December 31, 2008                      
   Reserve
at
Jan. 1,
2008
   Charges    Revisions
to
existing
plans
    Net
charges
   Non-cash
settlements
     Cash
payments
     Reserve
at
Dec. 31,
2008

Restructuring:

                   

Employee related costs

   $ 12    $ 22    $ (3   $ 19    $ (2    $ (12    $ 17

Other charges (credits)

     22                                     (5      17

Total restructuring activity

   $ 34    $ 22    $ (3   $ 19    $ (2    $ (17    $ 34

 

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2. Restructuring, Impairment and Other Charges (Credits) (continued)

2007 Actions

In 2007, Corning recorded net credit adjustments of $4 million for revisions to existing restructuring plans.

The following table summarizes the restructuring, impairment, and other charges and (credits) as of and for the year ended December 31, 2007 (in millions):

 

      Reserve at
Jan. 1,
2007
   2007
Revisions to
existing plans
    Cash
payments
    Reserve at
Dec. 31,
2007

Restructuring:

         

Employee related costs

   $ 40      $ (28   $ 12

Other charges (credits)

     36    $ (3     (11     22
      

Total restructuring activity

   $ 76    $ (3   $ (39   $ 34
      

Impairment of long-lived assets:

         

Assets to be held and used

      $ (1    
               

Total impairment activity

      $ (1    
               

Total restructuring, impairment and other credits

          $ (4              

 

3. Available-for-Sale Investments

The following is a summary of the fair value of available-for-sale