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BUSINESS AND SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2012
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
BUSINESS AND SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
BUSINESS AND SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Description of Business
The Coca-Cola Company is the world's largest beverage company. We own or license and market more than 500 nonalcoholic beverage brands, primarily sparkling beverages but also a variety of still beverages such as waters, enhanced waters, juices and juice drinks, ready-to-drink teas and coffees, and energy and sports drinks. We own and market four of the world's top five nonalcoholic sparkling beverage brands: Coca-Cola, Diet Coke, Fanta and Sprite. Finished beverage products bearing our trademarks, sold in the United States since 1886, are now sold in more than 200 countries.
We make our branded beverage products available to consumers throughout the world through our network of Company-owned or -controlled bottling and distribution operations, bottling partners, distributors, wholesalers and retailers — the world's largest beverage distribution system. Of the approximately 57 billion beverage servings of all types consumed worldwide every day, beverages bearing trademarks owned by or licensed to us account for more than 1.8 billion servings.
On October 2, 2010, we acquired the former North America business of Coca-Cola Enterprises Inc. ("CCE"), one of our major bottlers, consisting of CCE's production, sales and distribution operations in the United States, Canada, the British Virgin Islands, the United States Virgin Islands and the Cayman Islands, and a substantial majority of CCE's corporate segment. Upon completion of the CCE transaction, we combined the management of the acquired North America business with the management of our existing foodservice business; Minute Maid and Odwalla juice businesses; North America supply chain operations; and Company-owned bottling operations in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, into a unified bottling and customer service organization called Coca-Cola Refreshments ("CCR"). In addition, we reshaped our remaining Coca-Cola North America ("CCNA") operations into an organization that primarily provides franchise leadership and consumer marketing and innovation for the North American market.
Our Company markets, manufactures and sells:
beverage concentrates, sometimes referred to as "beverage bases," and syrups, including fountain syrups (we refer to this part of our business as our "concentrate business" or "concentrate operations"); and
finished sparkling and still beverages (we refer to this part of our business as our "finished product business" or "finished product operations").
Generally, finished product operations generate higher net operating revenues but lower gross profit margins than concentrate operations.
In our concentrate operations, we typically generate net operating revenues by selling concentrates and syrups to authorized bottling and canning operations (to which we typically refer as our "bottlers" or our "bottling partners"). Our bottling partners either combine the concentrates with sweeteners (depending on the product), still water and/or sparkling water, or combine the syrups with sparkling water to produce finished beverages. The finished beverages are packaged in authorized containers bearing our trademarks or trademarks licensed to us — such as cans and refillable and nonrefillable glass and plastic bottles — and are then sold to retailers directly or, in some cases, through wholesalers or other bottlers. Outside the United States, we also sell concentrates for fountain beverages to our bottling partners who are typically authorized to manufacture fountain syrups, which they sell to fountain retailers such as restaurants and convenience stores which use the fountain syrups to produce beverages for immediate consumption, or to fountain wholesalers who in turn sell and distribute the fountain syrups to fountain retailers.
Our finished product operations consist primarily of the production, sales and distribution operations managed by CCR and our Company-owned or -controlled bottling and distribution operations. CCR is included in our North America operating segment, and our Company-owned or -controlled bottling and distribution operations are included in our Bottling Investments operating segment. Our finished product operations generate net operating revenues by selling sparkling beverages and a variety of still beverages, such as juices and juice drinks, energy and sports drinks, ready-to-drink teas and coffees, and certain water products, to retailers or to distributors, wholesalers and bottling partners who distribute them to retailers. In addition, in the United States, we manufacture fountain syrups and sell them to fountain retailers, such as restaurants and convenience stores who use the fountain syrups to produce beverages for immediate consumption, or to authorized fountain wholesalers or bottling partners who resell the fountain syrups to fountain retailers. In the United States, we authorize wholesalers to resell our fountain syrups through nonexclusive appointments that neither restrict us in setting the prices at which we sell fountain syrups to the wholesalers nor restrict the territories in which the wholesalers may resell in the United States.
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
Our consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States. The preparation of our consolidated financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities in our consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. Although these estimates are based on our knowledge of current events and actions we may undertake in the future, actual results may ultimately differ from these estimates and assumptions. Furthermore, when testing assets for impairment in future periods, if management uses different assumptions or if different conditions occur, impairment charges may result.
We use the equity method to account for investments in companies, if our investment provides us with the ability to exercise significant influence over operating and financial policies of the investee. Our consolidated net income includes our Company's proportionate share of the net income or loss of these companies. Our judgment regarding the level of influence over each equity method investment includes considering key factors such as our ownership interest, representation on the board of directors, participation in policy-making decisions and material intercompany transactions.
We eliminate from our financial results all significant intercompany transactions, including the intercompany transactions with consolidated variable interest entities ("VIEs") and the intercompany portion of transactions with equity method investees.
Effective January 1, 2012, the Company elected to change our accounting methodology for determining the market-related value of assets for our U.S. qualified defined benefit pension plans. The market-related value of assets is used to determine the Company's expected return on assets, a component of our annual pension expense calculation. The Company previously used a smoothing technique to calculate our market-related value of assets, which reflected changes in the fair value over no more than five years. However, we now use the actual fair value of plan assets to determine our expected return on those assets for all of our defined benefit plans. Although both methods are permitted under accounting principles generally accepted in the United States, the Company believes our new methodology is preferable as it accelerates the recognition of gains and losses in the determination of our annual pension expense. The Company's change in accounting methodology has been applied retrospectively, and we have adjusted all applicable prior period financial information presented herein as required.
On July 27, 2012, the Company's certificate of incorporation was amended to increase the number of authorized shares of common stock from 5.6 billion to 11.2 billion and effect a two-for-one stock split of the common stock. The record date for the stock split was July 27, 2012, and the additional shares were distributed on August 10, 2012. Each shareowner of record on the close of business on the record date received one additional share of common stock for each share held. All share and per share data presented herein reflect the impact of the increase in authorized shares and the stock split, as appropriate.
Any prior period amounts that were revised as a result of the changes described above have been labeled "as adjusted" herein. Certain other amounts in the prior years' consolidated financial statements and notes have been revised to conform to the current year presentation.
Principles of Consolidation
Our Company consolidates all entities that we control by ownership of a majority voting interest as well as VIEs for which our Company is the primary beneficiary. Generally, we consolidate only business enterprises that we control by ownership of a majority voting interest. However, there are situations in which consolidation is required even though the usual condition of consolidation (ownership of a majority voting interest) does not apply. Generally, this occurs when an entity holds an interest in another business enterprise that was achieved through arrangements that do not involve voting interests, which results in a disproportionate relationship between such entity's voting interests in, and its exposure to the economic risks and potential rewards of, the other business enterprise. This disproportionate relationship results in what is known as a variable interest, and the entity in which we have the variable interest is referred to as a "VIE." An enterprise must consolidate a VIE if it is determined to be the primary beneficiary of the VIE. The primary beneficiary has both (a) the power to direct the activities of the VIE that most significantly impact the entity's economic performance, and (b) the obligation to absorb losses or the right to receive benefits from the VIE that could potentially be significant to the VIE.
Our Company holds interests in certain VIEs, primarily bottling and container manufacturing operations, for which we were not determined to be the primary beneficiary. Our variable interests in these VIEs primarily relate to profit guarantees or subordinated financial support. Refer to Note 11. Although these financial arrangements resulted in us holding variable interests in these entities, they did not empower us to direct the activities of the VIEs that most significantly impact the VIEs' economic performance. Our Company's investments, plus any loans and guarantees, related to these VIEs totaled $1,776 million and $1,183 million as of December 31, 2012 and 2011, respectively, representing our maximum exposures to loss. The Company's investments, plus any loans and guarantees, related to these VIEs were not significant to the Company's consolidated financial statements.
In addition, our Company holds interests in certain VIEs, primarily bottling and container manufacturing operations, for which we were determined to be the primary beneficiary. As a result, we have consolidated these entities. Our Company's investments, plus any loans and guarantees, related to these VIEs totaled $234 million and $199 million as of December 31, 2012 and 2011, respectively, representing our maximum exposures to loss. The assets and liabilities of VIEs for which we are the primary beneficiary were not significant to the Company's consolidated financial statements.
Creditors of our VIEs do not have recourse against the general credit of the Company, regardless of whether they are accounted for as consolidated entities.
Assets and Liabilities Held for Sale
Our Company classifies long-lived assets (disposal groups) to be sold as held for sale in the period in which all of the following criteria are met: management, having the authority to approve the action, commits to a plan to sell the asset (disposal group); the asset (disposal group) is available for immediate sale in its present condition subject only to terms that are usual and customary for sales of such assets (disposal groups); an active program to locate a buyer and other actions required to complete the plan to sell the asset (disposal group) have been initiated; the sale of the asset (disposal group) is probable, and transfer of the asset (disposal group) is expected to qualify for recognition as a completed sale within one year, except if events or circumstances beyond our control extend the period of time required to sell the asset (disposal group) beyond one year; the asset (disposal group) is being actively marketed for sale at a price that is reasonable in relation to its current fair value; and actions required to complete the plan indicate that it is unlikely that significant changes to the plan will be made or that the plan will be withdrawn.
We initially measure a long-lived asset (disposal group) that is classified as held for sale at the lower of its carrying value or fair value less any costs to sell. Any loss resulting from this measurement is recognized in the period in which the held-for-sale criteria are met. Conversely, gains are not recognized on the sale of a long-lived asset (disposal group) until the date of sale. We assess the fair value of a long-lived asset (disposal group) less any costs to sell each reporting period it remains classified as held for sale and report any subsequent changes as an adjustment to the carrying value of the asset (disposal group), as long as the new carrying value does not exceed the carrying value of the asset at the time it was initially classified as held for sale.
Upon determining that a long-lived asset (disposal group) meets the criteria to be classified as held for sale, the Company reports the assets and liabilities of the disposal group, if material, in the line items assets held for sale and liabilities held for sale, respectively, in our consolidated balance sheet.
Risks and Uncertainties
Factors that could adversely impact the Company's operations or financial results include, but are not limited to, the following: obesity and other health concerns; water scarcity and poor quality; changes in the nonalcoholic beverage business environment and retail landscape; increased competition; increased demand for food products and decreased agricultural productivity; consolidation in the retail channel or the loss of key retail or foodservice customers; an inability to expand operations in developing and emerging markets; fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates; interest rate increases; an inability to maintain good relationships with our bottling partners; a deterioration in our bottling partners' financial condition; increases in income tax rates, changes in income tax laws or unfavorable resolution of tax matters; increased or new indirect taxes in the United States or in other major markets; increased cost, disruption of supply or shortage of energy or fuels; increased cost, disruption of supply or shortage of ingredients, other raw materials or packaging materials; changes in laws and regulations relating to beverage containers and packaging; significant additional labeling or warning requirements or limitations on the availability of our products; an inability to protect our information systems against service interruption, misappropriation of data or breaches of security; unfavorable general economic conditions in the United States; unfavorable economic and political conditions in international markets; litigation or legal proceedings; adverse weather conditions; climate change; damage to our brand image and corporate reputation from negative publicity related to product safety or quality, human and workplace rights, obesity or other issues, even if unwarranted; changes in, or failure to comply with, the laws and regulations applicable to our products or our business operations; changes in accounting standards; an inability to achieve our overall long-term goals; continuing uncertainty in the global credit markets; one or more of our counterparty financial institutions defaulting on their obligations to us or failing; an inability to realize additional benefits targeted by our productivity and reinvestment program; an inability to renew collective bargaining agreements on satisfactory terms, or we or our bottling partners experience strikes, work stoppages or labor unrest; future impairment charges; future multi-employer plan withdrawal liabilities; an inability to successfully integrate and manage our Company-owned or -controlled bottling operations; and global or regional catastrophic events.
Our Company monitors our operations with a view to minimizing the impact to our overall business that could arise as a result of the risks and uncertainties inherent in our business.
Revenue Recognition
Our Company recognizes revenue when persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, delivery of products has occurred, the sales price charged is fixed or determinable, and collectibility is reasonably assured. For our Company, this generally means that we recognize revenue when title to our products is transferred to our bottling partners, resellers or other customers. In particular, title usually transfers upon shipment to or receipt at our customers' locations, as determined by the specific sales terms of the transactions. Our sales terms do not allow for a right of return except for matters related to any manufacturing defects on our part.
Deductions from Revenue
Our customers can earn certain incentives including, but not limited to, cash discounts, funds for promotional and marketing activities, volume-based incentive programs and support for infrastructure programs. The costs associated with these incentives are included in deductions from revenue, a component of net operating revenues in our consolidated statements of income. For customer incentives that must be earned, management must make estimates related to the contractual terms, customer performance and sales volume to determine the total amounts earned and to be recorded in deductions from revenue. In making these estimates, management considers past results. The actual amounts ultimately paid may be different from our estimates.
In some situations, the Company may determine it to be advantageous to make advance payments to specific customers to fund certain marketing activities intended to generate profitable volume and/or invest in infrastructure programs with our bottlers that are directed at strengthening our bottling system and increasing unit case volume. The Company also makes advance payments to certain customers for distribution rights. The advance payments made to customers are initially capitalized and included in our consolidated balance sheets in prepaid expenses and other assets and noncurrent other assets, depending on the duration of the agreements. The assets are amortized over the applicable periods and included in deductions from revenue. The duration of these agreements typically ranges from 4 to 10 years.
Amortization expense for infrastructure programs was $86 million, $90 million and $137 million in 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively. The aggregate deductions from revenue recorded by the Company in relation to these programs, including amortization expense on infrastructure programs, were $6.1 billion, $5.8 billion and $5.0 billion in 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively.
Advertising Costs
Our Company expenses production costs of print, radio, television and other advertisements as of the first date the advertisements take place. All other marketing expenditures are expensed in the annual period in which the expenditure is incurred. Advertising costs included in the line item selling, general and administrative expenses in our consolidated statements of income were $3.3 billion, $3.3 billion and $2.9 billion in 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively. As of December 31, 2012 and 2011, advertising and production costs of $295 million and $349 million, respectively, were primarily recorded in the line item prepaid expenses and other assets in our consolidated balance sheets.
For interim reporting purposes, we allocate our estimated full year marketing expenditures that benefit multiple interim periods to each of our interim reporting periods. We use the proportion of each interim period's actual unit case volume to the estimated full year unit case volume as the basis for the allocation. This methodology results in our marketing expenditures being recognized at a standard rate per unit case. At the end of each interim reporting period, we review our estimated full year unit case volume and our estimated full year marketing expenditures in order to evaluate if a change in estimate is necessary. The impact of any changes in these full year estimates is recognized in the interim period in which the change in estimate occurs. Our full year marketing expenditures are not impacted by this interim accounting policy.
Shipping and Handling Costs
Shipping and handling costs related to the movement of finished goods from manufacturing locations to our sales distribution centers are included in the line item cost of goods sold in our consolidated statements of income. Shipping and handling costs incurred to move finished goods from our sales distribution centers to customer locations are included in the line item selling, general and administrative expenses in our consolidated statements of income. As a result of our acquisition of CCE's former North America business, the amount of shipping and handling costs recorded in the line item selling, general and administrative expenses increased significantly in 2011 when compared to 2010. During the years ended December 31, 2012 and 2011, the Company recorded shipping and handling costs of $2.8 billion and $2.4 billion, respectively, in the line item selling, general and administrative expenses. Our customers do not pay us separately for shipping and handling costs related to finished goods.
Net Income Per Share
Basic net income per share is computed by dividing net income by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the reporting period. Diluted net income per share is computed similarly to basic net income per share, except that it includes the potential dilution that could occur if dilutive securities were exercised. Approximately 34 million, 32 million (as adjusted) and 77 million (as adjusted) stock option awards were excluded from the computations of diluted net income per share in 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively, because the awards would have been antidilutive for the years presented.
Cash Equivalents
We classify time deposits and other investments that are highly liquid and have maturities of three months or less at the date of purchase as cash equivalents. We manage our exposure to counterparty credit risk through specific minimum credit standards, diversification of counterparties and procedures to monitor our credit risk concentrations.
Short-Term Investments
We classify time deposits and other investments that have maturities of greater than three months but less than one year as short-term investments.
Investments in Equity and Debt Securities
We use the equity method to account for our investments in equity securities if our investment gives us the ability to exercise significant influence over operating and financial policies of the investee. We include our proportionate share of earnings and/or losses of our equity method investees in equity income (loss) — net in our consolidated statements of income. The carrying value of our equity investments is reported in equity method investments in our consolidated balance sheets. Refer to Note 6.
We account for investments in companies that we do not control or account for under the equity method either at fair value or under the cost method, as applicable. Investments in equity securities are carried at fair value if the fair value of the security is readily determinable. Equity investments carried at fair value are classified as either trading or available-for-sale securities with their cost basis determined by the specific identification method. Realized and unrealized gains and losses on trading securities and realized gains and losses on available-for-sale securities are included in other income (loss) — net in our consolidated statements of income. Unrealized gains and losses, net of deferred taxes, on available-for-sale securities are included in our consolidated balance sheets as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) ("AOCI"). Trading securities are reported as either marketable securities or other assets in our consolidated balance sheets. Securities classified as available-for-sale are reported as either marketable securities, other investments or other assets in our consolidated balance sheets, depending on the length of time we intend to hold the investment. Refer to Note 3.
Investments in equity securities that we do not control or account for under the equity method and do not have readily determinable fair values are accounted for under the cost method. Cost method investments are originally recorded at cost, and we record dividend income when applicable dividends are declared. Cost method investments are reported as other investments in our consolidated balance sheets, and dividend income from cost method investments is reported in the line item other income (loss) — net in our consolidated statements of income.
Our investments in debt securities are carried at either amortized cost or fair value. Investments in debt securities that the Company has the positive intent and ability to hold to maturity are carried at amortized cost and classified as held-to-maturity. Investments in debt securities that are not classified as held-to-maturity are carried at fair value and classified as either trading or available-for-sale.
Each reporting period we review all of our investments in equity and debt securities, except for those classified as trading, to determine whether a significant event or change in circumstances has occurred that may have an adverse effect on the fair value of each investment. When such events or changes occur, we evaluate the fair value compared to our cost basis in the investment. We also perform this evaluation every reporting period for each investment for which our cost basis exceeded the fair value in the prior period. The fair values of most of our investments in publicly traded companies are often readily available based on quoted market prices. For investments in nonpublicly traded companies, management's assessment of fair value is based on valuation methodologies including discounted cash flows, estimates of sales proceeds and appraisals, as appropriate. We consider the assumptions that we believe hypothetical marketplace participants would use in evaluating estimated future cash flows when employing the discounted cash flow or estimates of sales proceeds valuation methodologies.
In the event the fair value of an investment declines below our cost basis, management determines if the decline in fair value is other than temporary. If management determines the decline is other than temporary, an impairment charge is recorded. Management's assessment as to the nature of a decline in fair value is based on, among other things, the length of time and the extent to which the market value has been less than our cost basis, the financial condition and near-term prospects of the issuer, and our intent and ability to retain the investment for a period of time sufficient to allow for any anticipated recovery in market value.
Trade Accounts Receivable
We record trade accounts receivable at net realizable value. This value includes an appropriate allowance for estimated uncollectible accounts to reflect any loss anticipated on the trade accounts receivable balances and charged to the provision for doubtful accounts. We calculate this allowance based on our history of write-offs, the level of past-due accounts based on the contractual terms of the receivables, and our relationships with, and the economic status of, our bottling partners and customers. We believe our exposure to concentrations of credit risk is limited due to the diverse geographic areas covered by our operations. Activity in the allowance for doubtful accounts was as follows (in millions):
Year Ended December 31,
2012

 
2011

 
2010

Balance at beginning of year
$
83

 
$
48

 
$
55

Net charges to costs and expenses
5

 
56

 
21

Write-offs
(19
)
 
(12
)
 
(18
)
Other1
(16
)
 
(9
)
 
(10
)
Balance at end of year
$
53

 
$
83

 
$
48

1 
Other includes acquisitions, divestitures, foreign currency translation and the impact of transferring the assets of our consolidated Philippine and Brazilian bottling operations to assets held for sale.
A significant portion of our net operating revenues and corresponding accounts receivable is derived from sales of our products in international markets. Refer to Note 19. We also generate a significant portion of our net operating revenues by selling concentrates and syrups to bottlers in which we have a noncontrolling interest, including Coca-Cola Hellenic Bottling Company S.A. ("Coca-Cola Hellenic"), Coca-Cola FEMSA, S.A.B. de C.V. ("Coca-Cola FEMSA") and Coca-Cola Amatil Limited ("Coca-Cola Amatil"). Refer to Note 6.
Inventories
Inventories consist primarily of raw materials and packaging (which includes ingredients and supplies) and finished goods (which include concentrates and syrups in our concentrate operations, and finished beverages in our finished product operations). Inventories are valued at the lower of cost or market. We determine cost on the basis of the average cost or first-in, first-out methods. Refer to Note 4.
Derivative Instruments
Our Company, when deemed appropriate, uses derivatives as a risk management tool to mitigate the potential impact of certain market risks. The primary market risks managed by the Company through the use of derivative instruments are foreign currency exchange rate risk, commodity price risk and interest rate risk. All derivatives are carried at fair value in our consolidated balance sheets in the line items prepaid expenses and other assets or accounts payable and accrued expenses, as applicable. The cash flow impact of the Company's derivative instruments is primarily included in our consolidated statements of cash flows in net cash provided by operating activities. Refer to Note 5.
Property, Plant and Equipment
Property, plant and equipment are stated at cost. Repair and maintenance costs that do not improve service potential or extend economic life are expensed as incurred. Depreciation is recorded principally by the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of our assets, which are reviewed periodically and generally have the following ranges: buildings and improvements: 40 years or less; and machinery, equipment and vehicle fleet: 20 years or less. Land is not depreciated, and construction in progress is not depreciated until ready for service. Leasehold improvements are amortized using the straight-line method over the shorter of the remaining lease term, including renewals that are deemed to be reasonably assured, or the estimated useful life of the improvement. Depreciation is not recorded during the period in which a long-lived asset (disposal group) is classified as held for sale, even if the asset (disposal group) continues to generate revenue during the period. Depreciation expense, including the depreciation expense of assets under capital lease, totaled $1,704 million, $1,654 million and $1,188 million in 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively. Amortization expense for leasehold improvements totaled $19 million, $18 million and $16 million in 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively.
Certain events or changes in circumstances may indicate that the recoverability of the carrying amount of property, plant and equipment should be assessed, including, among others, a significant decrease in market value, a significant change in the business climate in a particular market, or a current period operating or cash flow loss combined with historical losses or projected future losses. When such events or changes in circumstances are present, we estimate the future cash flows expected to result from the use of the asset (or asset group) and its eventual disposition. These estimated future cash flows are consistent with those we use in our internal planning. If the sum of the expected future cash flows (undiscounted and without interest charges) is less than the carrying amount, we recognize an impairment loss. The impairment loss recognized is the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the fair value. We use a variety of methodologies to determine the fair value of property, plant and equipment, including appraisals and discounted cash flow models, which are consistent with the assumptions we believe hypothetical marketplace participants would use. Refer to Note 7.
Goodwill, Trademarks and Other Intangible Assets
We classify intangible assets into three categories: (1) intangible assets with definite lives subject to amortization, (2) intangible assets with indefinite lives not subject to amortization and (3) goodwill. We determine the useful lives of our identifiable intangible assets after considering the specific facts and circumstances related to each intangible asset. Factors we consider when determining useful lives include the contractual term of any agreement related to the asset, the historical performance of the asset, the Company's long-term strategy for using the asset, any laws or other local regulations which could impact the useful life of the asset, and other economic factors, including competition and specific market conditions. Intangible assets that are deemed to have definite lives are amortized, primarily on a straight-line basis, over their useful lives, generally ranging from 1 to 20 years. Refer to Note 8.
When facts and circumstances indicate that the carrying value of definite-lived intangible assets may not be recoverable, management assesses the recoverability of the carrying value by preparing estimates of sales volume and the resulting gross profit and cash flows. These estimated future cash flows are consistent with those we use in our internal planning. If the sum of the expected future cash flows (undiscounted and without interest charges) is less than the carrying amount, we recognize an impairment loss. The impairment loss recognized is the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset (or asset group) exceeds the fair value. We use a variety of methodologies to determine the fair value of these assets, including discounted cash flow models, which are consistent with the assumptions we believe hypothetical marketplace participants would use.
We test intangible assets determined to have indefinite useful lives, including trademarks, franchise rights and goodwill, for impairment annually, or more frequently if events or circumstances indicate that assets might be impaired. Our Company performs these annual impairment reviews as of the first day of our third fiscal quarter. We use a variety of methodologies in conducting impairment assessments of indefinite-lived intangible assets, including, but not limited to, discounted cash flow models, which are based on the assumptions we believe hypothetical marketplace participants would use. For indefinite-lived intangible assets, other than goodwill, if the carrying amount exceeds the fair value, an impairment charge is recognized in an amount equal to that excess.
The Company has the option to perform a qualitative assessment of indefinite-lived intangible assets, other than goodwill, prior to completing the impairment test described above. The Company must assess whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of the intangible asset is less than its carrying amount. If the Company concludes that this is the case, it must perform the testing described above. Otherwise, the Company does not need to perform any further assessment. During 2012, the Company only performed qualitative assessments on less than 10 percent of our indefinite-lived intangible assets balance.
We perform impairment tests of goodwill at our reporting unit level, which is one level below our operating segments. Our operating segments are primarily based on geographic responsibility, which is consistent with the way management runs our business. Our operating segments are subdivided into smaller geographic regions or territories that we sometimes refer to as "business units." These business units are also our reporting units. The Bottling Investments operating segment includes all Company-owned or consolidated bottling operations, regardless of geographic location, except for bottling operations managed by CCR, which are included in our North America operating segment. Generally, each Company-owned or consolidated bottling operation within our Bottling Investments operating segment is its own reporting unit. Goodwill is assigned to the reporting unit or units that benefit from the synergies arising from each business combination.
The goodwill impairment test consists of a two-step process, if necessary. The first step is to compare the fair value of a reporting unit to its carrying value, including goodwill. We typically use discounted cash flow models to determine the fair value of a reporting unit. The assumptions used in these models are consistent with those we believe hypothetical marketplace participants would use. If the fair value of the reporting unit is less than its carrying value, the second step of the impairment test must be performed in order to determine the amount of impairment loss, if any. The second step compares the implied fair value of the reporting unit's goodwill with the carrying amount of that goodwill. If the carrying amount of the reporting unit's goodwill exceeds its implied fair value, an impairment charge is recognized in an amount equal to that excess. The loss recognized cannot exceed the carrying amount of goodwill.
The Company has the option to perform a qualitative assessment of goodwill prior to completing the two-step process described above to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, including goodwill and other intangible assets. If the Company concludes that this is the case, it must perform the two-step process. Otherwise, the Company will forego the two-step process and does not need to perform any further testing. During 2012, the Company only performed qualitative assessments on less than 10 percent of our consolidated goodwill balance.
Impairment charges related to intangible assets are generally recorded in the line item other operating charges or, to the extent they relate to equity method investees, in the line item equity income (loss) — net in our consolidated statements of income.
Contingencies
Our Company is involved in various legal proceedings and tax matters. Due to their nature, such legal proceedings and tax matters involve inherent uncertainties including, but not limited to, court rulings, negotiations between affected parties and governmental actions. Management assesses the probability of loss for such contingencies and accrues a liability and/or discloses the relevant circumstances, as appropriate. Refer to Note 11.
Stock-Based Compensation
Our Company currently sponsors stock option plans and restricted stock award plans. The fair value of our stock option grants is estimated on the grant date using a Black-Scholes-Merton option-pricing model. The Company recognizes compensation expense on a straight-line basis over the period the grant is earned by the employee, generally four years.
The fair value of our restricted stock awards is the quoted market value of the Company's stock on the grant date less the present value of the expected dividends not received during the relevant holding period. In the period it becomes probable that the minimum performance criteria specified in the restricted stock award plan will be achieved, we recognize expense for the proportionate share of the total fair value of the award related to the vesting period that has already lapsed. The remaining cost of the award is expensed on a straight-line basis over the balance of the vesting period. In the event the Company determines it is no longer probable that we will achieve the minimum performance criteria specified in the plan, we reverse all of the previously recognized compensation expense in the period such a determination is made. Refer to Note 12.
Pension and Other Postretirement Benefit Plans
Our Company sponsors and/or contributes to pension and postretirement health care and life insurance benefit plans covering substantially all U.S. employees. We also sponsor nonqualified, unfunded defined benefit pension plans for certain associates and participate in multi-employer pension plans in the United States. In addition, our Company and its subsidiaries have various pension plans and other forms of postretirement arrangements outside the United States. Refer to Note 13.
Effective January 1, 2012, the Company elected to change our accounting methodology for determining the market-related value of assets for our U.S. qualified defined benefit pension plans. The market-related value of assets is used to determine the Company's expected return on assets, a component of our annual pension expense calculation. The Company previously used a smoothing technique to calculate our market-related value of assets, which reflected changes in the fair value over no more than five years. However, we now use the actual fair value of plan assets to determine our expected return on those assets for all of our defined benefit plans. Although both methods are permitted under accounting principles generally accepted in the United States, the Company believes our new methodology is preferable as it accelerates the recognition of gains and losses in the determination of our annual pension expense.
The Company's change in accounting methodology has been applied retrospectively, and we have adjusted all applicable prior period financial information presented herein as required. The cumulative effect of this change on retained earnings as of January 1, 2011, was an increase of $59 million, with an offset to AOCI. The impact of this change on the Company's income before income taxes was an increase of $4 million and $19 million and a decrease of $36 million during the years ended December 31, 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively. The impact on the Company's earnings per share was not significant for any of the financial statement periods presented in this report.
Income Taxes
Income tax expense includes United States, state, local and international income taxes, plus a provision for U.S. taxes on undistributed earnings of foreign subsidiaries not deemed to be indefinitely reinvested. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the tax consequences of temporary differences between the financial reporting basis and the tax basis of existing assets and liabilities. The tax rate used to determine the deferred tax assets and liabilities is the enacted tax rate for the year and manner in which the differences are expected to reverse. Valuation allowances are recorded to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount that will more likely than not be realized. The Company records taxes that are collected from customers and remitted to governmental authorities on a net basis in our consolidated statements of income.
The Company is involved in various tax matters, with respect to some of which the outcome is uncertain. We establish reserves to remove some or all of the tax benefit of any of our tax positions at the time we determine that it becomes uncertain based upon one of the following conditions: (1) the tax position is not "more likely than not" to be sustained, (2) the tax position is "more likely than not" to be sustained, but for a lesser amount, or (3) the tax position is "more likely than not" to be sustained, but not in the financial period in which the tax position was originally taken. For purposes of evaluating whether or not a tax position is uncertain, (1) we presume the tax position will be examined by the relevant taxing authority that has full knowledge of all relevant information; (2) the technical merits of a tax position are derived from authorities such as legislation and statutes, legislative intent, regulations, rulings and case law and their applicability to the facts and circumstances of the tax position; and (3) each tax position is evaluated without consideration of the possibility of offset or aggregation with other tax positions taken. A number of years may elapse before a particular uncertain tax position is audited and finally resolved or when a tax assessment is raised. The number of years subject to tax assessments varies depending on the tax jurisdiction. The tax benefit that has been previously reserved because of a failure to meet the "more likely than not" recognition threshold would be recognized in our income tax expense in the first interim period when the uncertainty disappears under any one of the following conditions: (1) the tax position is "more likely than not" to be sustained, (2) the tax position, amount, and/or timing is ultimately settled through negotiation or litigation, or (3) the statute of limitations for the tax position has expired. Refer to Note 14.
Translation and Remeasurement
We translate the assets and liabilities of our foreign subsidiaries from their respective functional currencies to U.S. dollars at the appropriate spot rates as of the balance sheet date. Generally, our foreign subsidiaries use the local currency as their functional currency. Changes in the carrying value of these assets and liabilities attributable to fluctuations in spot rates are recognized in foreign currency translation adjustment, a component of AOCI. Refer to Note 15. Income statement accounts are translated using the monthly average exchange rates during the year.
Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in a currency that is different from a reporting entity's functional currency must first be remeasured from the applicable currency to the legal entity's functional currency. The effect of this remeasurement process is recognized in the line item other income (loss) — net in our consolidated statements of income and is partially offset by the impact of our economic hedging program for certain exposures on our consolidated balance sheets. Refer to Note 5.
Hyperinflationary Economies
A hyperinflationary economy is one that has cumulative inflation of approximately 100 percent or more over a three-year period. Effective January 1, 2010, Venezuela was determined to be a hyperinflationary economy, and the Venezuelan government devalued the bolivar by resetting the official rate of exchange ("official rate") from 2.15 bolivars per U.S. dollar to 2.6 bolivars per U.S. dollar for essential goods and 4.3 bolivars per U.S. dollar for nonessential goods. In accordance with hyperinflationary accounting under accounting principles generally accepted in the United States, our local subsidiary was required to use the U.S. dollar as its functional currency. As a result, we remeasured the net assets of our Venezuelan subsidiary using the official rate for nonessential goods of 4.3 bolivars per U.S. dollar, which resulted in a loss of $103 million during the first quarter of 2010. The loss was recorded in the line item other income (loss) - net in our consolidated statement of income. We classified the impact of the remeasurement loss in the line item effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents in our consolidated statement of cash flows.
In June 2010, the Venezuelan government introduced a newly regulated foreign currency exchange system known as the Transaction System for Foreign Currency Denominated Securities ("SITME"). This system, which was subject to annual limits, enabled entities domiciled in Venezuela to exchange their bolivars to U.S. dollars through authorized financial institutions (commercial banks, savings and lending institutions, etc.).
In December 2010, the Venezuelan government announced that it was eliminating the official rate of 2.6 bolivars per U.S. dollar for essential goods. As a result, the only two exchange rates available for remeasuring bolivar-denominated transactions as of December 31, 2010, were the official rate of 4.3 bolivars per U.S. dollar and the SITME rate. As discussed above, the Company remeasured the net assets of our Venezuelan subsidiary using the official rate for nonessential goods of 4.3 bolivars per U.S. dollar starting on January 1, 2010. Therefore, the elimination of the official rate for essential goods had no impact on the remeasurement of the net assets of our Venezuelan subsidiary.
Subsequent to December 31, 2012, the Venezuelan government devalued its currency further to an official rate of 6.3 bolivars per U.S. dollar. The government also announced that it was discontinuing the SITME foreign exchange system. As a result, the Company will remeasure the net assets of our local subsidiary and recognize the related gains or losses from remeasurement in the line item other income (loss) — net in our consolidated statement of income. Based on the carrying value of our assets and liabilities denominated in Venezuelan bolivar as of December 31, 2012, we anticipate recognizing a remeasurement loss of $100 million to $125 million during the first quarter of 2013.
The Company will continue to use the official rate to remeasure the net assets of our Venezuelan subsidiary. If the official rate devalues further, it would result in our Company recognizing additional foreign currency exchange gains or losses in our consolidated financial statements. As of December 31, 2012, our Venezuelan subsidiary held monetary assets of approximately $450 million and monetary liabilities of approximately $85 million.
In addition to the foreign currency exchange exposure related to our Venezuelan subsidiary's net assets, we also sell concentrate to our bottling partner in Venezuela from outside the country. These sales are denominated in U.S. dollars. If we are unable to utilize a government-approved exchange rate mechanism for future concentrate sales to our bottling partner in Venezuela, the amount of receivables related to these sales will increase. In addition, we have certain intangible assets associated with products sold in Venezuela. If the bolivar further devalues, it could result in the impairment of these intangible assets. As of December 31, 2012, the carrying value of our accounts receivable from our bottling partner in Venezuela and intangible assets associated with products sold in Venezuela was $216 million.
Recently Issued Accounting Guidance
In June 2011, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") 2011-05 which requires companies to present net income and other comprehensive income in one continuous statement or in two separate, but consecutive, statements. In addition, ASU 2011-05 eliminates the option for companies to present the components of other comprehensive income as part of the statement of changes in shareowners' equity. In December 2011, the FASB issued ASU 2011-12 which deferred the requirement to present components of reclassifications of other comprehensive income on the face of the income statement. The Company adopted the non-deferred provisions of ASU 2011-05 as of January 1, 2012, which did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In February 2013, the FASB issued ASU 2013-02 which requires companies to provide information about the amounts reclassified out of AOCI by component. In addition, companies are required to present, either on the face of the statement where net income is presented or in the accompanying notes, significant amounts reclassified out of AOCI by the respective line items of net income, but only if the amount reclassified is required to be reclassified to net income in its entirety in the same reporting period. For amounts that are not required to be reclassified in their entirety to net income, companies are required to cross-reference to other disclosures that provide additional detail on those amounts. ASU 2013-02 is effective prospectively for reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2012.