F-1 1 tm229938-14_f1.htm F-1 tm229938-14_f1 - none - 48.4634509s
As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on November 9, 2023.
Registration No. 333-          
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM F-1
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
ZEEKR Intelligent Technology Holding Limited
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
Not Applicable
(Translation of Registrant’s name into English)
Cayman Islands
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
3711
(Primary Standard Industrial
Classification Code Number)
Not Applicable
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
No. 1388 Minshan Road
Xinqi Street, Beilun District
Ningbo, Zhejiang
People’s Republic of China
(Address, Including Zip Code, and Telephone Number, Including Area Code, of Registrant’s Principal Executive Offices)
Cogency Global Inc.
122 East 42nd Street, 18th Floor
New York, NY 10168
800-221-0102
(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)
Copies to:
Li He, Esq.
James C. Lin, Esq.
Davis Polk & Wardwell LLP
c/o 10 Floor, The Hong Kong Club
Building 3A Chater Road
Central, Hong Kong
+852 2533-3300
Ran Li, Esq.
Davis Polk & Wardwell LLP
22rd Floor, China World Office 2
1 Jian Guo Men Wai Avenue
Chaoyang District, Beijing
People’s Republic of China
+86 8567-5051
Yi Gao, Esq.
Simpson Thacher & Bartlett LLP
c/o 35th Floor, ICBC Tower
3 Garden Road
Central, Hong Kong
+852 2514-7600
Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: As soon as practicable after the effective date of this registration statement.
If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, check the following box.   ☐
If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.   ☐
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.   ☐
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.   ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is an emerging growth company as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act of 1933.
Emerging growth company   ☐
If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.   ☐

The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.
The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or until the registration statement shall become effective on such date as the United States Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to such Section 8(a), may determine.

The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any state where the offer or sale is not permitted.
Subject to Completion
Preliminary Prospectus Dated            , 2023
American Depositary Shares
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ZEEKR Intelligent Technology Holding Limited
Representing           Ordinary Shares
This is an initial public offering of American depositary shares, or ADSs, representing ordinary shares of ZEEKR Intelligent Technology Holding Limited. We are offering a total of          ADSs. Each ADS represents          of our ordinary shares, par value US$0.0002 per share, and may be evidenced by American depositary receipts, or ADRs.
Prior to this offering, there has been no public market for the ADSs or our ordinary shares. We expect the initial public offering price will be between US$       and US$       per ADS. We intend to apply to list the ADSs on the New York Stock Exchange, or NYSE, under the symbol “ZK.”
[Concurrently with this offering, Geely Automobile Holdings Limited, or Geely Auto, our controlling shareholder, will have the right to purchase up to a total of     ordinary shares to be issued by us in a private placement. Assuming Geely Auto’s full subscription of the ordinary shares to be issued by us in such concurrent private placement, we will remain a “controlled company” within the meaning of the applicable rules of the NYSE because Geely Auto will have (i)   % of the total voting power of our then outstanding ordinary shares, assuming the underwriters do not exercise their over-allotment option, or (ii)    % of the total voting power of our then outstanding ordinary shares, assuming the underwriters exercise their over-allotment option in full. See “Principal Shareholders” for details.]
Investors in the ADSs are not purchasing equity securities of our subsidiaries that have substantive business operations, but instead are purchasing equity securities of a Cayman Islands holding company. ZEEKR Intelligent Technology Holding Limited, or ZEEKR Intelligent Technology, is a Cayman Islands holding company that conducts its business operations primarily through a series of subsidiaries in China. ZEEKR Intelligent Technology controls these subsidiaries through Zhejiang ZEEKR Intelligent Technology Co., Ltd., or Zhejiang ZEEKR, which in turn is wholly owned by its Hong Kong subsidiary, ZEEKR Technology Limited, or ZEEKR Technology. This structure involves unique risks to investors. For a detailed discussion of the associated risks, see “Prospectus Summary — Holding Company Structure” and “Prospectus Summary — Certain Risks Associated with Our Corporate Structure.” Throughout this prospectus, unless the context indicates otherwise, “ZEEKR Intelligent Technology” refers to ZEEKR Intelligent Technology Holding Limited, the holding company, and “we,” “us,” “our company” or “our” refer to ZEEKR Intelligent Technology Holding Limited and its subsidiaries as a group.
We face various legal and operational risks and uncertainties as a company based in and primarily operating in China. Changes in China’s economic, political or social conditions or government policies could have a material adverse effect on our business and operations. We could be adversely affected by uncertainties with respect to the Chinese legal system. Rules and regulations in China can change quickly with little advance notice. In addition, the interpretation and enforcement of Chinese laws and regulations involve additional uncertainties. Since administrative and court authorities in China have significant discretion in interpreting and implementing statutory provisions and contractual terms, it may be difficult to evaluate the outcome of administrative and court proceedings and the level of legal protection we enjoy.
The Chinese government exerts substantial influence over the conduct of our business and may intervene with or influence our operations as the government deems appropriate to further regulatory, political and societal goals. The Chinese government has recently published new policies that significantly affected certain industries, and we cannot rule out the possibility that it will in the future release regulations or policies regarding our industry that could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Furthermore, the Chinese government has recently exerted more oversight and control over overseas securities offerings and other capital markets activities and foreign investment in China-based companies like us. Any such action, once taken by the Chinese government, could significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors and cause the value of such securities to significantly decline or, in extreme cases, become worthless. See “Risk Factors — Risks Related to Doing Business in China — The PRC government exerts substantial influence over the manner in which we conduct our business operations. It may influence or intervene in our operations at any time as part of its efforts to enforce PRC law, which could result in a material adverse change in our operations and the value of the ADSs.”
We also face risks associated with the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, or HFCAA. Trading in our securities on U.S. markets, including the NYSE, may be prohibited under the HFCAA if the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, or PCAOB, determines that it is unable to inspect or investigate completely our auditor for two consecutive years. On December 16, 2021, the PCAOB issued the HFCAA Determination Report to notify the SEC of its determinations that the PCAOB was unable to inspect or investigate completely registered public accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and Hong Kong, including our auditor. On December 15, 2022, the PCAOB announced that it was able to conduct inspections and investigations completely of PCAOB-registered public accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and Hong Kong in 2022. The PCAOB vacated its previous determination accordingly. As a result, we do not expect to be identified as a “Commission-Identified Issuer” under the HFCAA. However, whether the PCAOB will continue to conduct inspections and investigations completely to its satisfaction of PCAOB-registered public accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and Hong Kong is subject to uncertainty and depends on a number of factors out of our, and our auditor’s, control, including positions taken by authorities of the PRC and the PCAOB. The PCAOB is required under the HFCAA to make its determination on an annual basis with regards to its ability to inspect and investigate completely accounting firms based in mainland China and Hong Kong. The possibility of being a “Commission-Identified Issuer” and risk of delisting could continue to adversely affect the trading price of our securities. If the PCAOB determines

in the future that it no longer has full access to inspect and investigate accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and Hong Kong and we continue to use such accounting firm to conduct audit work, we would be identified as a “Commission-Identified Issuer” under the HFCAA following the filing of the annual report for the relevant fiscal year, and if we were so identified for two consecutive years, trading in our securities on U.S. markets would be prohibited. See “Risk Factors — Risks Related to Doing Business in China — The continued U.S. regulatory and legislative focus, including the enactment of the HFCAA, may adversely affect the market price of the ADSs and may eventually require us to delist our securities from the U.S. markets” for details.
Cash is transferred among ZEEKR Intelligent Technology, our British Virgin Island subsidiary, ZEEKR Technology Innovation Limited, or ZEEKR Innovation, our Hong Kong subsidiary, ZEEKR Technology, and our Chinese subsidiaries, in the following manner: (i) funds and offering proceeds from ZEEKR Intelligent Technology are transferred to ZEEKR Technology through ZEEKR Innovation, and subsequently to our Chinese subsidiaries through Zhejiang ZEEKR, the wholly-owned subsidiary of ZEEKR Technology, in the form of capital contributions or shareholder loans, as the case may be; (ii) dividends or other distributions may be paid by our Chinese subsidiaries through Zhejiang ZEEKR, which will transfer the dividends or other distributions to ZEEKR Technology; and (iii) payments may be paid by our Chinese subsidiaries to China-Euro Vehicle Technology Aktiebolag, or CEVT, for research and development services provided. ZEEKR Technology will then transfer the dividends or other distributions to ZEEKR Innovation, which will then transfer the dividends or other distributions to ZEEKR Intelligent Technology. Finally the dividends or other distributions can be distributed by ZEEKR Intelligent Technology to its shareholders, whether they are in the United States or elsewhere. Subject to the satisfaction of relevant statutory conditions and procedures under applicable PRC laws and regulations, cash can be transferred between Zhejiang ZEEKR and its Chinese subsidiaries and CEVT. In 2020, 2021, 2022 and the six months ended June 30, 2023, ZEEKR Intelligent Technology transferred nil, US$275.8 million (RMB2,000.0 million), US$350.3 million (RMB2,540.0 million) and US$689.5 million (RMB5,000.0 million), respectively, to its Chinese subsidiaries as investments through ZEEKR Innovation and ZEEKR Technology. During the same periods, ZEEKR Intelligent Technology transferred (i) nil, nil, US$90.0 million (RMB652.6 million) and nil, respectively, to CEVT as borrowings and (ii) nil, nil, SEK1,032.6 million and SEK1,420.3 million, respectively, to CEVT for research and development services provided, and Zhejiang ZEEKR transferred (i) nil, nil, US$110.3 million (RMB800.0 million) and US$27.6 million (RMB200.0 million), respectively, to CEVT as borrowings. Save for the dividends made by ZEEKR Automobile (Shanghai) Co., Ltd. to Geely Group before we acquired it, none of our Chinese subsidiaries have issued any dividends or distributions to their respective holding companies or any investors as of the date of this prospectus. As a result, we do not expect to pay any cash dividends in the near future. Our subsidiaries in China generate and retain cash generated from operating activities and re-invest it in our business. In the future, ZEEKR Intelligent Technology’s ability to pay dividends, if any, to its shareholders and to service any debt it may incur will depend upon dividends paid by its Chinese subsidiaries. For details about the applicable Chinese regulations and rules relating to such cash transfers through our group and the associated risks, see “Risk Factors — Risks Related to Doing Business in China — We may use dividends and other distributions on equity paid by our principal operating subsidiaries to fund offshore cash and financing requirements. Any limitation on the ability of our PRC operating subsidiaries to make payments to us could have an adverse effect on our ability to conduct our business” and “Risk Factors — Risks Related to Doing Business in China — PRC regulation of loans to, and direct investment in, PRC entities by offshore holding companies and governmental control of currency conversion may restrict or prevent us from using the proceeds of this offering to make loans or additional capital contributions to our PRC subsidiaries.”
Neither the United States Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
Investing in the ADSs involves risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 21 of this prospectus for factors you should consider before buying the ADSs.
Per ADS
Total
Public offering price
US$      
US$      
Underwriting discounts and commissions(1)
US$      
US$      
Proceeds, before expenses, to us
US$      
US$      
(1)
For a description of the compensation payable to the underwriters, see “Underwriting.”
We have granted the underwriters the right to purchase up to             additional ADSs to cover over-allotments at the initial public offering price, less the underwriting discounts and commissions.
The underwriters expect to deliver the ADSs against payment in U.S. dollars in New York, New York on         , 2023.
Goldman Sachs
Morgan Stanley
BofA Securities
CICC
BNP PARIBAS BOCI HSBC ICBC International Santander SPDB International Capital Limited
(in alphabetical order)
The date of this prospectus is            , 2023.

 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
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We have not authorized anyone to provide any information other than that contained in this prospectus or in any free writing prospectus prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we may have referred you. We take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. We and the underwriters have not authorized any other person to provide you with different or additional information. Neither we nor the underwriters are making an offer to sell the ordinary shares in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. This offering is being made in the United States and elsewhere solely on the basis of the information contained in this prospectus. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus is accurate only as of the date on the front cover of this prospectus, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any sale of the ADSs representing our ordinary shares. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since the date on the front cover of this prospectus.
Until            , 2023 (the 25th day after the date of this prospectus), all dealers that buy, sell or trade the ADSs, whether or not participating in this offering, may be required to deliver a prospectus. This is in addition to the obligation of dealers to deliver a prospectus when acting as underwriters and with respect to their unsold allotments or subscriptions.
 
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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY
The following summary highlights selected information contained in greater detail elsewhere in this prospectus. Therefore, the following summary is qualified in its entirety by, and should be read in conjunction with, the more detailed information and financial statements and the related notes appearing elsewhere in this prospectus. In addition to the following summary, we urge you to read the entire prospectus carefully, especially the risks of investing in the ADSs discussed under “Risk Factors,” and information contained in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” before deciding whether to invest in the ADSs. In particular, we call your attention to the risk that investors in the ADSs are purchasing equity securities of ZEEKR Intelligent Technology, a Cayman Islands holding company that conducts its operations through its subsidiaries. As a result, investors will not hold direct investments in the operating subsidiaries.
OUR MISSION
To create the ultimate experience of mobility life through our technology and solutions.
OVERVIEW
We are a fast-growing BEV technology company. Through developing and offering next-generation premium BEVs and technology-driven solutions, we aspire to lead the electrification, intelligentization and innovation of the automobile industry. Since our inception, we have focused on innovation in BEV architecture, hardware, software, and application of new technologies. Our efforts are backed by our strong in-house R&D capabilities, deep understanding of products, high operational flexibility, and flat, efficient organization structure. Together, these features enable fast product development, launch and iteration, and a series of customer-oriented products and go-to-market strategies. Thus, we are able to rapidly expand even with a limited operating history.
We strategically spearheaded the premium intelligent BEV market with unique positioning, featuring strong sense of technology, in-house R&D capabilities, stylish design, high caliber performance and premium user experience. Our current product portfolio primarily includes ZEEKR 001, ZEEKR 001 FR, ZEEKR 009 and ZEEKR X.

ZEEKR 001.   With an unwavering commitment to our mission, we released ZEEKR 001 in April 2021, a five-seater, cross-over hatchback vehicle model with superior performance and functionality. Targeting the premium BEV market, ZEEKR 001 is our first vehicle model and the world’s first mass-produced pure electric shooting brake, according to Frost & Sullivan. It is also the first mass-produced BEV model with over 1,000km CLTC range, according to Frost & Sullivan.We began the delivery of ZEEKR 001 in October 2021. In October 2023, we released ZEEKR 001 FR, our latest cross-over hatchback vehicle model based on ZEEKR 001. Featuring unique exterior and interior design and our proprietary technologies, ZEEKR 001 FR is designed to offer outstanding vehicle performance with various driving modes. We started to deliver ZEEKR 001 FR in November 2023.

ZEEKR 009.   In November 2022, we launched our second model, ZEEKR 009, a luxury six-seater MPV model providing a comfortable, ultra-luxury mobility experience for both families and business uses. It is the world’s first premium MPV based on pure-electric platform, according to Frost & Sullivan. ZEEKR 009 has enjoyed wide popularity since launch, and we started to deliver ZEEKR 009 to our customers in January 2023.

ZEEKR X.   In April 2023, we released ZEEKR X, our compact SUV model featuring spacious interior design, advanced technology and superior driving performance. We began to deliver ZEEKR X in June 2023.
Our current and future BEV models will define our success. Going forward, we plan to capture the extensive potential of the premium BEV market globally through an expanding portfolio of vehicles. For instance, in November 2023, we will launch our first premium sedan model targeting tech-savvy adults and families. We also plan to launch vehicles for next generation mobility lifestyle. Through these future models, we intend to provide premium mobility solutions of innovation, comfort and intelligence, as well as a spacious and luxurious high-tech experience with enhanced performance.
 
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As a testament to the popularity of our current products and our capabilities, we have achieved a total delivery of 10,000 units of ZEEKR 001 in less than four months after the initial delivery, which, according to Frost & Sullivan, is one of the fastest among the major mid- to high-end NEV models and premium BEV models in China. In October 2022, we delivered 10,119 units of ZEEKR 001 to the market, making it the first pure-electric premium vehicle model manufactured by a Chinese BEV brand with over 10,000 units of single-month delivery volume, according to Frost & Sullivan. As of October 31, 2023, cumulatively we had delivered a total of 170,053 units of ZEEKR vehicles, which is among the fastest delivery in the premium BEV market in China from October 2021 to October 2023, according to Frost & Sullivan.
The development of our BEV models is powered by SEA, a set of open-source, electric and modularized platforms owned by Geely Holding compatible with A segment to E segment, covering sedan, SUV, MPV, hatchback, roadster, pick up truck and robotaxi, which have a wheelbase mainly between 1,800mm to 3,300mm. We depend on Geely Holding to allow us to continue to utilize SEA, which is currently the most suitable platform for us. The widely compatible SEA enables robust R&D capabilities, execution efficiency, cost efficiency and control consistency in the vehicle development process, giving our BEVs significant competitive advantages in the market. SEA also offers the flexibility to quickly adopt and accommodate the latest and most advanced technology improvements. For example, we were able to equip ZEEKR 009 with CATL’s latest Qilin battery, making ZEEKR 009 the first mass-produced BEV model equipped with Qilin battery, according to Frost & Sullivan. Together with our proprietary advanced battery solutions and highly efficient electric drive system, ZEEKR 009’s extended range version is the world’s first pure-electric MPV model with an over 800km CLTC range and the longest all electric range in the MPV market by the end of October 2023, according to Frost & Sullivan.
As a premium BEV brand incubated by Geely Group, we inherit unique competitive edges from Geely Group that are developed through years of execution experience at the frontier of the industry, such as innovative and agile engineering capabilities, robust R&D capabilities, deep industry expertise, extreme attention to safety, top-notch professionals, strong supply chain and manufacturing management capabilities and operational know-how. Geely Group’s powerful and world-class brand equity also echoes product innovation, performance and reliability in its broad customer base, which, in turn, contributes to the significant consumer interest and demand for the ZEEKR brand. These competitive advantages enable us to quickly incorporate the customer needs and concepts into our products and manage the complex operation process to achieve the fast ramp up of production and deliveries. We also leverage Geely Group’s advanced and well-established manufacturing capacity, which helps us retain effective oversight over key steps in procurement, manufacturing and product quality control with minimal capital outlay. At the same time, our BEVs are manufactured at the ZEEKR Factory or the Chengdu Factory, which are owned and operated by Geely Group, and Geely Holding was our largest supplier for 2022 and the six months ended June 30, 2023. Furthermore, before the launch of ZEEKR 001, a significant portion of our revenue has historically been derived from the sales of batteries and other components and research and development services to Geely Group.
We have strong in-house technological capabilities focusing on electrification and intelligentization. Our in-house design, engineering and R&D enable us to achieve high product development efficiency and rapid product iteration, as well as to provide engineering services to external parties. In particular, our in-house capabilities are also supported by (i) our Sweden-based R&D center CEVT in the research and development of intelligent mobility solutions, and (ii) Ningbo Viridi, our PRC subsidiary focused on the products and systems relating to battery, motor and electric control, power solutions and energy storage. Leveraging our in-house E/E Architecture design and operating system, ZEEKR OS, we continuously update our BEV functions through effective and efficient FOTA. We deploy into our BEVs with cutting-edge autonomous driving technology by world-leading players such as Mobileye, and have also announced our plan to integrate NVIDIA DRIVE Thor, the 2,000 TOPS AV superchip, into our centralized vehicle computer for our next generation intelligent BEV. We also offer intelligent cockpit to deliver interactive, immersive and enjoyable driving experiences.
To successfully achieve our mission, we assembled a top-notch management team with diversified yet complementary backgrounds and experiences. Our management team possesses entrepreneurial spirit, deep automotive and technology sector expertise along with customer-centric operation experience, which are essential to driving our future development. Our co-founder and CEO Conghui An has over 25 years’
 
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experience in multiple executive management positions in Geely Group and accumulated profound industry insights and senior management experience with an excellent track record. In addition to ZEEKR, Mr. An has successfully established, developed and operated both Geely and Lynk&Co, two well-established vehicle brands of Geely Group.
We are guided by our customer-oriented principle to provide customers with service and experience in every aspect of their journey with us. We adopt a customer-oriented DTC sales model with a focus on innovative and interactive engagement with our customers. We have established extensive customer touchpoints including 18 ZEEKR Centers, 219 ZEEKR Spaces, 29 ZEEKR Delivery Centers and 40 ZEEKR Houses as of June 30, 2023. In addition, we closely interact with customers through building an integrated online and offline customer community to provide a holistic experience that goes beyond purchase of intelligent BEVs. Within ZEEKR APP, customers can enjoy one-stop car purchase, charging solution, financial service, roadside assistance, intelligent car control, online shopping of ZEEKR lifestyle products, social interaction, and seamless communication with the customer services team. We also hold a variety of offline customer events to nurture a vibrant ZEEKR user community. Our customer engagement efforts enable us to better understand customer needs to be incorporated into our future product design, and continuously strengthen customer loyalty and stickiness. Underpinned by our superior capability in supply chain and manufacturing planning and management, we are also able to offer a wide range of customized options in terms of vehicle designs and functionalities, which are highly appreciated by our customers.
We have established a comprehensive charging network and provided hassle-free charging services through at-home charging solutions, on-the-road charging solutions and 24/7 charging fleets. The ultra charging stations, in particular, provide users with an ultimate charging experience through our proprietary ultra-fast charging technology developed by Ningbo Viridi. As of June 30, 2023, there were 746 ZEEKR charging stations with different charging capabilities, including 321 ultra charging stations, 308 super charging stations and 117 light charging stations, covering over 120 cities in China, further supported by third-party charging stations that cover over 340 cities in China with over 520 thousand charging piles in total.
We have established in-depth partnerships with a number of internationally renowned smart mobility companies, laying a solid foundation for our business development and global expansion. For example, we collaborate with Mobileye, a subsidiary of Intel and one of our strategic investors, for consumer-ready autonomous driving solutions. We are working with Waymo, a leader in L4 autonomous driving technology, to supply vehicles for the Waymo One Fleet. The vehicles are purpose-built TaaS vehicles based on SEA-M, which is an advanced version of SEA and a high-tech mobility solution that supports a range of future mobility products including robotaxis and logistics vehicles. Furthermore, we have deep relationships with a range of leading suppliers, such as CATL, Bosch and Aptiv. In addition, we have a relationship with Onsemi, a leader in intelligent power and sensor technologies. We will be provided with Onsemi’s EliteSiC, its silicon carbide power devices, to enhance the performance, charging efficiency and driving range for our BEV products.
We operate in a rapidly growing market with extensive potential. Driven by improving battery and smart technologies, supportive regulatory policies and enhancement of charging infrastructure, China’s BEV market has substantial room for growth in both volume and BEV penetration. China’s BEV sales volume is expected to be more than five times to 14.0 million units in 2027 from 2021, according to Frost & Sullivan. The premium BEV market is expected to experience an even faster growth, almost increasing to over six times the volume in 2021 by 2027, according to Frost & Sullivan. The European BEV market has significant size and growth potential, which is expected to reach 4.9 million units in sales volume in 2027, representing a CAGR of 23.8% from 2023 to 2027, according to Frost & Sullivan. In the future, we also plan to tap into the BEV market in Europe and robotaxi market in the United States.
Our revenue from vehicle sales amounted to RMB1,544.3 million and RMB19,671.2 million (US$2,712.8 million) in 2021 and 2022, and RMB5,296.7 million and RMB13,175.4 million (US$1,817.0 million) in the six months ended June 30, 2022 and 2023, respectively, with a gross profit margin of 1.8%, 4.7%, 4.7% and 12.3%, respectively. In addition to vehicle sales, we generated revenues from research and development service and other services and sales of batteries and other components. Our total revenue amounted to RMB6,527.5 million and RMB31,899.4 million (US$4,399.1 million) in 2021 and 2022, and RMB9,012.2 million and RMB21,270.1 million (US$2,933.3 million) in the six months ended June 30, 2022 and 2023, respectively, with a gross profit margin of 15.9%, 7.7%, 9.7% and 10.5%, respectively. We
 
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recorded net loss of RMB4,514.3 million and RMB7,655.1 million (US$1,055.7 million) in 2021 and 2022, and RMB3,085.2 million and RMB3,870.6 million (US$533.8 million) in the six months ended June 30, 2022 and 2023, respectively.
OUR COMPETITIVE STRENGTHS
We believe the following competitive strengths contribute to our success and differentiate us from our competitors:

An innovative automotive technology company with strong product offering to capture massive premium BEV market opportunity;

Fast growth and success empowered by significant advantages inherited from Geely Group;

Dedication to delivering superior user experience and creating user community;

Advanced technology and R&D capabilities supporting product leadership and fast iteration;

Strategic partnership with global industry leaders bringing synergies throughout product lifecycle; and

Visionary and experienced senior leadership and world class management team.
OUR GROWTH STRATEGIES
We intend to pursue the following growth strategies to solidify our market leadership and achieve sustainable growth:

Continue to invest in R&D in electrification and intelligentization;

Continue to develop new models to expand the breadth of product portfolio;

Expand our international footprints;

Continue to strengthen our agile development capability and operation efficiency;

Continue to expand sales and service network and enhance customer engagement; and

Continue to improve customers’ experience with full lifecycle services.
SUMMARY OF RISK FACTORS
Investing in the ADSs involves significant risks. Investors in the ADSs are not purchasing equity securities of our subsidiaries that have substantive business operations, but instead are purchasing equity securities of a Cayman Islands holding company. ZEEKR Intelligent Technology is a Cayman Islands holding company that conducts its business operations primarily through a series of subsidiaries in China. ZEEKR Intelligent Technology controls these subsidiaries through Zhejiang ZEEKR, which in turn is wholly owned by its Hong Kong subsidiary, ZEEKR Technology. This structure involves unique risks to investors.
Additionally, we face various legal and operational risks and uncertainties as a company based in and primarily operating in China. Changes in China’s economic, political or social conditions or government policies could have a material adverse effect on our business and operations. We could be adversely affected by uncertainties with respect to the Chinese legal system. Rules and regulations in China can change quickly with little advance notice. In addition, the interpretation and enforcement of Chinese laws and regulations involve additional uncertainties. Since administrative and court authorities in China have significant discretion in interpreting and implementing statutory provisions and contractual terms, it may be difficult to evaluate the outcome of administrative and court proceedings and the level of legal protection we enjoy.
The Chinese government exerts substantial influence over the conduct of our business and may intervene with or influence our operations as the government deems appropriate to further regulatory, political and societal goals. The Chinese government has recently published new policies that significantly affected certain industries, and we cannot rule out the possibility that it will in the future release regulations
 
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or policies regarding our industry that could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Furthermore, the Chinese government has recently indicated an intent to exert more oversight and control over overseas securities offerings and other capital markets activities and foreign investment in China-based companies like us. Any such action, once taken by the Chinese government, could significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors and cause the value of such securities to significantly decline or, in extreme cases, become worthless.
We also face risks associated with the HFCAA. Trading in our securities on U.S. markets may be prohibited under the HFCAA if the PCAOB determines that it is unable to inspect or investigate completely our auditor for two consecutive years. On December 16, 2021, the PCAOB issued the HFCAA Determination Report to notify the SEC of its determinations that the PCAOB was unable to inspect or investigate completely registered public accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and Hong Kong, including our auditor. On December 15, 2022, the PCAOB announced that it was able to conduct inspections and investigations completely of PCAOB-registered public accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and Hong Kong in 2022. The PCAOB vacated its previous determination accordingly. As a result, we do not expect to be identified as a “Commission-Identified Issuer” under the HFCAA. However, whether the PCAOB will continue to conduct inspections and investigations completely to its satisfaction of PCAOB-registered public accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and Hong Kong is subject to uncertainty and depends on a number of factors out of our, and our auditor’s, control, including positions taken by authorities of the PRC and the PCAOB. The PCAOB is required under the HFCAA to make its determination on an annual basis with regards to its ability to inspect and investigate completely accounting firms based in mainland China and Hong Kong. The possibility of being a “Commission-Identified Issuer” and risk of delisting could continue to adversely affect the trading price of our securities. If the PCAOB determines in the future that it no longer has full access to inspect and investigate accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and Hong Kong and we continue to use such accounting firm to conduct audit work, we would be identified as a “Commission-Identified Issuer” under the HFCAA following the filing of the annual report for the relevant fiscal year, and if we were so identified for two consecutive years, trading in our securities on U.S. markets would be prohibited.
Geely Auto has been our controlling shareholder since our incorporation in 2021, and will continue to control us upon the completion of this offering. As a “controlled company,” we are permitted to elect not to comply with certain corporate governance requirements. If we rely on these exemptions, you will not have the same protection afforded to shareholders of companies that are subject to these corporate governance requirements. Furthermore, although we will become a stand-alone public company, we expect to operate, for as long as Geely Auto is our controlling shareholder, as a subsidiary of Geely Auto. Geely Auto may from time to time make strategic decisions that it believes are in the best interests of its business as a whole. These decisions may be different from the decisions that we would have made on our own. Geely Auto’s decisions with respect to us or our business, including any related party transactions between Geely Auto and us, may be resolved in ways that favor Geely Auto and therefore Geely Auto’s own shareholders, which may not coincide with the interests of us and our other shareholders. Additionally, Geely Holding is a controlling shareholder of Geely Auto and we are dependent on Geely Holding for the continued use of SEA and the manufacturing of our BEVs, which are both critical to our business.
Our relationship with Geely Group may subject us to various risks. In particular, potential conflicts of interest may arise between Geely Group and us in a number of areas, such as disputes around the manufacturing of our BEVs. We may choose not to bring a legal claim against Geely Group in the event of contractual breaches in consideration of our close relationship with Geely Group, notwithstanding our contractual rights under the relevant agreements. We have also historically provided batteries and other components and research and development services to Geely Group. To the extent we cannot maintain our cooperative relationships with Geely Group at reasonable terms, or at all, we will need to source other business partners to obtain the relevant services and other customers for our products and services. Finally, Geely Group may offer products or services that directly compete with ours. Our inability to maintain a cooperative relationship with Geely Group or if Geely Group does not maintain its cooperation framework agreements with us, or if Geely Group competes directly with us, our business, growth and prospects could be materially and adversely affected.
You should carefully consider all of the information in this prospectus before making an investment in the ADSs, especially the risks and uncertainties discussed under “Risk Factors,” and information contained
 
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in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.” Please find below a summary of the principal risks and uncertainties we face, organized under relevant headings. These risks are discussed more fully in “Risk Factors.”
Risks Related to Our Business and Industry

Our BEV business has a limited operating history and faces significant challenges as a new entrant into our industry. For details, see page 22 of this prospectus.

If we cannot achieve and sustain profitability, our business, financial condition and operating results may be adversely affected. For details, see page 23 of this prospectus.

Our research and development efforts may not yield expected results. For details, see page 23 of this prospectus.

Our BEVs, including software systems, may contain defects and fail to offer a good mobility experience to meet customer expectations, and our business, results of operations and reputation would be materially and adversely affected. For details, see page 24 of this prospectus.

China’s BEV market is highly competitive, and demand for BEVs may be cyclical and volatile. For details, see page 24 of this prospectus.

We are dependent on our suppliers, some of which are single-source suppliers. Suppliers may fail to deliver necessary components of our BEVs according to our schedule and at prices, quality levels and volumes acceptable to us. For details, see page 26 of this prospectus.

A severe or prolonged downturn in the PRC or global economy could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. For details, see page 27 of this prospectus.

Our business and prospects depend significantly on our ability to build our ZEEKR brand. We may not succeed in continuing to maintain and strengthen the ZEEKR brand, and our brand and reputation could be harmed by negative publicity and customer complaints regarding our company, products or services. For details, see page 29 of this prospectus.

Any dysfunction or outdated developments in SEA may negatively affect the production of our BEVs. For details, see page 30 of this prospectus.

Any problems or delays in ramping and maintaining operations of the ZEEKR Factory or the Chengdu Factory could negatively affect the production of our BEVs. For details, see page 30 of this prospectus.
Risks Related to Our Relationship with Geely Group

We have no experience operating as a stand-alone public company. For details, see page 49 of this prospectus.

We may have conflicts of interest with Geely Auto and, because of Geely Auto’s controlling ownership interest in our company, we may not be able to resolve such conflicts on terms favorable to us. For details, see page 49 of this prospectus.

Our business may be adversely affected if our collaboration with Geely Group is terminated or curtailed, or if we are no longer able to benefit from the synergies of our business cooperation, or if we compete directly with, Geely Group. For details, see page 50 of this prospectus.

If we lose our right to use “ZEEKR” or other trademarks that are material to us, our business, results of operations and financial condition would be materially and adversely affected. For details, see page 49 of this prospectus.

Geely Auto will control the outcome of shareholder actions in our company. For details, see page 50 of this prospectus.
Risks Related to Doing Business in China

Changes in the political and economic policies of the PRC government may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations and may result in our inability to sustain our growth and expansion strategies. For details, see page 50 of this prospectus.
 
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The PRC government exerts substantial influence over the manner in which we conduct our business operations. It may influence or intervene in our operations at any time as part of its efforts to enforce PRC law, which could result in a material adverse change in our operations and the value of the ADSs. For details, see page 53 of this prospectus.

There are uncertainties regarding the interpretation and enforcement of PRC laws, rules and regulations.

The continued U.S. regulatory and legislative focus, including the enactment of the HFCAA, may adversely affect the market price of the ADSs and may eventually require us to delist our securities from the U.S. markets. For details, see page 54 of this prospectus.

The approval or record filing of the CSRC, or other PRC government authorities may be required in connection with this offering and our future capital raising activities under the PRC laws. For details, see page 56 of this prospectus.

China’s Anti-Monopoly Law, M&A Rules and certain other PRC laws and regulations also establish complex procedures for acquisitions conducted by foreign investors that could make it more difficult for us to grow through acquisitions in China.

Complying with evolving laws and regulations regarding cybersecurity, information security, privacy and data protection and other related laws and requirements may entail significant expenses and force us to make adverse changes to our business. For details, see page 59 of this prospectus.

PRC regulations relating to investments in offshore companies by PRC residents may subject our PRC-resident beneficial owners or our PRC subsidiaries to liability or penalties, limit our ability to inject capital into our PRC subsidiaries, or limit our PRC subsidiaries’ ability to increase their registered capital or distribute profits.

Any failure to comply with PRC regulations regarding our share incentive plan may subject the PRC plan participants or us to fines and other legal or administrative sanctions.
Risks Related to the ADSs and This Offering

There has been no public market for our shares or the ADSs prior to this offering, and you may not be able to resell the ADSs at or above the price you paid, or at all. For details, see page 71 of this prospectus.

The trading price of the ADSs may be volatile, which could result in substantial losses to you. For details, see page 71 of this prospectus.

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, the market price for the ADSs and trading volume could decline. For details, see page 72 of this prospectus.
Recent Regulatory Development
Cybersecurity Review Measures
On December 28, 2021, the Cyberspace Administration of China (the “CAC”) and several other regulatory authorities in China jointly promulgated the Cybersecurity Review Measures, which came into effect on February 15, 2022. Pursuant to the Cybersecurity Review Measures, (i) the purchase of network products and services by “critical information infrastructure operator” ​(the “CIIO”) and the data processing activities of a network platform operator that affect or may affect national security are subject to the cybersecurity review: (ii) an application for cybersecurity review should be made by the internet platform operator holding personal information of more than one million users before such internet platform operator lists its securities in a foreign country: and (iii) relevant governmental authorities in the PRC may initiate cybersecurity review if they determine an operator’s network products or services or data processing activities affect or may affect national security.
Uncertainties still exist in relation to the interpretation and implementation of the Cybersecurity Review Measures. For instance, if we are deemed to be a CIIO, our purchases of network products or
 
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services, if deemed to be affecting or possibly affecting national security, will need to be subject to cybersecurity review. The critical information infrastructure has a relatively broad definition and the interpretation in this regard remains vague. However, the relevant administration departments of each critical industry and sector (the “Protection Departments”) are responsible to formulate eligibility criteria and determine the CIIOs in the respective industry or field. The operators will be informed about the final determination as to whether they are categorized as CIIOs from the Protection Departments. We have been closely monitoring regulatory developments in China regarding any necessary approvals from the CAC or other Chinese regulatory authorities required for cybersecurity. For details of the associated risks, see “Risk Factors — Risks Related to Doing Business in China — Complying with evolving laws and regulations regarding cybersecurity, information security, privacy and data protection and other related laws and requirements may entail significant expenses and force us to make adverse changes to our business.”
As a network platform operator who possesses personal information of more than one million users for purposes of the Cybersecurity Review Measures, we have applied for and completed a cybersecurity review with respect to our proposed overseas listing pursuant to the Cybersecurity Review Measures.
Several Provisions on the Management of Automobile Data Security (Trial Implementation)
The Several Provisions on the Management of Automobile Data Security (Trial Implementation) (the “Provisions on MADS”), which was promulgated by the CAC and certain other PRC regulatory authorities on August 16, 2021 and came into effect on October 1, 2021, reiterate that automobile data processors can process personal information and important data and further provide several specific requirements for such processing.
The Provisions on MADS clearly stipulate that:
(i)
to carry out personal information processing activities, automobile data processors must notify individuals of relevant information in a prominent manner, obtain personal consent or comply with laws and administrative regulations in other circumstances;
(ii)
for the processing of sensitive personal information, the automobile data processor must obtain separate consent from individuals, and meet specific requirements; and
(iii)
automobile data processors must collect biometric information only with sufficient necessity and for the purpose to enhance driving safety.
We have been closely monitoring regulatory developments and adjusted our policies and practices to comply with the Provisions on MADS. As of the date of this prospectus, as advised by King & Wood Mallesons, our PRC counsel, we have not received any inquiry, negative notice, warning, sanctions, or regulatory objection from relevant authorities in this regard.
Regulations on the Management of Network Data Security (Draft for Comments)
On November 14, 2021, the CAC issued the Regulations on the Management of Network Data Security (Draft for Comments) (the “Draft Regulations on MNDS”), which stipulate the general guidelines applicable to the protection of personal information, the security of important data, the security management of data exports, the obligations of Internet platform operators, and the supervision, management and legal responsibilities related to the foregoing. The Draft Regulations on MNDS stipulate that data processors who handle important data or are listed overseas must conduct annual data security assessments on their own or by entrusting data security service agencies and submit the data security assessment reports to local cyberspace administration authorities by January 31 of the following year. Nonetheless, there remain substantial uncertainties with respect to the interpretation and implementation of these rules and regulations.
As advised by King & Wood Mallesons, our PRC counsel, the Draft Regulations on MNDS were released only for public comments and their provisions and anticipated adoption date are subject to changes, and their interpretation and implementation remain uncertain. However, if the Draft Regulations on MNDS become effective in their current forms, we will be required to conduct annual data security assessments and comply with the relevant reporting obligations after listing overseas. As of the date of
 
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this prospectus, we have not received any formal inquiry, notice, warning, sanction, or any regulatory objection from relevant authorities in this regard.
CSRC Filing Requirements
On December 24, 2021, the CSRC published the following draft regulations (collectively, the “Draft Regulations”) for public comments.
On February 17, 2023, the CSRC promulgated the Trial Administrative Measures of the Overseas Securities Offering and Listing by Domestic Companies, or the Trial Measures, and the relevant five guidelines, which became effective on March 31, 2023. The Trial Measures comprehensively reformed the existing regulatory regime for overseas offering and listing of PRC domestic companies’ securities and will regulate both direct and indirect overseas offering and listing of PRC domestic companies’ securities by adopting a filing-based regulatory regime.
Pursuant to the Trial Measures, PRC domestic companies that seek to offer and list securities in overseas markets, either in direct or indirect means, are required to fulfill the filing procedure with the CSRC and report relevant information. The Trial Measures provides that if the issuer meets both the following criteria, the overseas securities offering and listing conducted by such issuer will be deemed as indirect overseas offering by PRC domestic companies: (i) 50% or more of any of the issuer’s operating revenue, total profit, total assets or net assets as documented in its audited consolidated financial statements for the most recent fiscal year is accounted for by domestic companies; and (ii) the main parts of the issuer’s business activities are conducted in mainland China, or its main place(s) of business are located in mainland China, or the majority of senior management staff in charge of its business operations and management are PRC citizens or have their usual place(s) of residence located in mainland China.
On the same day, the CSRC also held a press conference for the release of the Trial Measures and issued the Notice on Administration for the Filing of Overseas Offering and Listing by Domestic Companies, or the Filing Notice, which, among others, clarifies that (1) a six-month transition period will be granted to domestic companies which, prior to the effective date of the Trial Measures, have already obtained the approval from overseas regulatory authorities or stock exchanges, such as completion of registration in the market of the United States, but have not completed the overseas listing; and (2) domestic companies that have already submitted valid applications for overseas offering and listing but have not obtained approval from overseas regulatory authorities or stock exchanges on or prior to the effective date of the Trial Measures, may reasonably arrange the timing for submitting their filing applications with the CSRC, and shall complete the filing before completion of their overseas offering and listing.
We have been closely monitoring regulatory developments in China regarding any necessary approvals from the CSRC, the CAC, or other PRC regulatory authorities required for overseas listings and securities offerings. However, we cannot predict the impact of these regulations on the listing status of the ADSs and/or other securities, or on any of our future security offerings in foreign countries. For details of the associated risks, see “Risk Factors — Risks Related to Doing Business in China —  The approval or record filing of the CSRC, or other PRC government authorities may be required in connection with this offering and our future capital raising activities under the PRC laws.”
As advised by King & Wood Mallesons, our PRC counsel, taking into consideration the above-mentioned criteria, this offering is an indirect offering under the Trial Measures, and we are subject to the filing requirements of the CSRC. We are required to fulfill the filing procedure with the CSRC in a accordance with the Trial Measures. We submitted initial filing documents to the CSRC on April 4, 2023, and the CSRC published the notification on our completion of the required filing procedures on August 25, 2023 for this offering.
Implications of the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act
Under the HFCAA, if the SEC determines that an issuer has filed audit reports issued by a registered public accounting firm that has not been subject to inspection by the PCAOB for two consecutive years, the SEC will prohibit the securities of such issuer from being traded on a national securities exchange or in the over-the-counter trading market in the United States.
 
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On December 16, 2021, the PCAOB issued a report to notify the SEC of its determination that the PCAOB is unable to inspect or investigate completely registered public accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and Hong Kong. The PCAOB identified our external auditor as one of the registered public accounting firms that the PCAOB is unable to inspect or investigate completely.
On August 26, 2022, the PCAOB signed a Statement of Protocol with the CSRC and the MoF, taking the first step toward opening access for the PCAOB to completely inspect and investigate registered public accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and Hong Kong.
On December 15, 2022, the PCAOB announced that it was able to conduct inspections and investigations completely of PCAOB-registered public accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and Hong Kong in 2022. The PCAOB vacated its previous determinations accordingly. As a result, we do not expect to be identified as a “Commission-Identified Issuer” under the HFCAA.
However, whether the PCAOB will continue to conduct inspections and investigations completely to its satisfaction of PCAOB-registered public accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and Hong Kong is subject to uncertainty and depends on a number of factors out of our, and our auditor’s, control, including positions taken by authorities of the PRC and the PCAOB. The PCAOB is expected to continue to demand complete access to inspections and investigations against accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and Hong Kong in the future. The PCAOB is required under the HFCAA to make its determination on an annual basis with regards to its ability to inspect and investigate completely accounting firms based in mainland China and Hong Kong. The possibility of being a “Commission-Identified Issuer” and risk of delisting could continue to adversely affect the trading price of our securities. If the PCAOB determines in the future that it no longer has full access to inspect and investigate accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and Hong Kong and we continue to use such accounting firm to conduct audit work, we would be identified as a “Commission-Identified Issuer” under the HFCAA following the filing of the annual report for the relevant fiscal year, and if we were so identified for two consecutive years, trading in our securities on U.S. markets would be prohibited.
For details about the risks associated with the enactment of the HFCAA, see “Risk Factors — Risks Related to Doing Business in China — The continued U.S. regulatory and legislative focus, including the enactment of the HFCAA, may adversely affect the market price of the ADSs and may eventually require us to delist our securities from the U.S. markets.”
Corporate Structure
The following diagram illustrates our corporate structure, including our principal subsidiaries, as of the date of this prospectus. Certain entities that are immaterial to our results of operations, business and financial condition are omitted.
[MISSING IMAGE: tm229938d2-fc_corpstubw.jpg]
 
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(1)
China-Euro Vehicle Technology Aktiebolag, or CEVT, was founded in 2013 in Sweden as an indirect subsidiary of Geely Holding and as an innovation center engaging in the R&D of software systems and modular and virtual engineering for NEV. It offers its services to several auto brands under Geely Holding. In July 2021, we entered into an acquisition agreement with Zhejiang Geely, a subsidiary of Geely Holding, pursuant to which we agreed to acquire 100% equity interests in CEVT from Zhejiang Geely. Upon the completion of this acquisition on February 1, 2022, CEVT became our wholly-owned subsidiary. CEVT started to generate revenue in July 2013.
(2)
In July 2021, ZEEKR Automobile (Shanghai) Co., Ltd., or ZEEKR Shanghai, acquired 100% equity interest in ZEEKR Automobile (Ningbo Hangzhou Bay New Zone) Co., Ltd., or ZEEKR Hangzhou Bay, from Geely Holding. In August 2021, we acquired 100% equity interest in ZEEKR Shanghai (99% from Geely Auto and 1% from Geely Holding).
(3)
Viridi E-Mobility Technology (Ningbo) Co., Ltd., or Ningbo Viridi, was founded in 2017 as an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of Geely Holding and is engaged in the R&D and production of key NEV components, including electric powertrains and battery packs. In July 2021, we entered into a share purchase agreement with Ningbo Viridi and Zhejiang Jichuang Industrial Development Co., Ltd., pursuant to which we agreed to purchase a 51% equity interest in Ningbo Viridi. In October 2021, the acquisition was completed. Currently, Ningbo Viridi is owned as to 51% by us and 49% by Geely Holding. Ningbo Viridi started to generate revenue in March 2019.
Our Corporate Information
Our principal executive offices are located at No. 1388 Minshan Road, Xinqi Street, Beilun District, Ningbo, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China. Our telephone number at this address is +86 400-003-6036. Our registered office in the Cayman Islands is located at the offices of 89 Nexus Way, Camana Bay, Grand Cayman, KY1-9009, Cayman Islands. Our agent for service of process in the United States is located at 122 East 42nd Street, 18th Floor, New York, NY 10168.
Investors should contact us for any inquiries through the address and telephone number of our principal executive office. Our principal website is www.zeekrlife.com. The information contained on our website is not a part of this prospectus.
Certain Risks Associated with Our Corporate Structure
We are an exempted company incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands that conducts all of our operations in China through our PRC subsidiaries. In addition, all our executive officers reside within China for a significant portion of the time and all of them are PRC nationals. As a result, it may be difficult for our shareholders to effect service of process upon us or those persons inside China.
The recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments are provided for under the PRC Civil Procedures Law. PRC courts may recognize and enforce foreign judgments in accordance with the requirements of the PRC Civil Procedures Law based either on treaties or similar arrangements between China and the jurisdiction where the judgment is made or on principles of reciprocity between jurisdictions. China does not have treaties or similar arrangements and only has limited reciprocity arrangements with the United States, the Cayman Islands or many other countries and regions that provide for the reciprocal recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments as of the date of this prospectus. Therefore, recognition and enforcement in China of judgments of a court in any of these non-PRC jurisdictions in relation to any matter not subject to a binding arbitration provision may be difficult or impossible. In addition, according to the PRC Civil Procedures Law, PRC courts will not enforce a foreign judgment if it is decided as having violated the basic principles of PRC laws or national sovereignty, security or public interest. As a result, it is uncertain whether and on what basis a PRC court would enforce a judgment rendered by a court in the United States or the Cayman Islands.
The SEC, U.S. Department of Justice and other U.S. authorities often have substantial difficulties in bringing and enforcing actions against non-U.S. companies and non-U.S. persons, including company directors and officers, in certain emerging markets, including China. Legal and other obstacles to obtaining information needed for investigations or litigation or to obtaining access to funds outside the United States, lack of support from local authorities, and other various factors make it difficult for the U.S. authorities to pursue actions against non-U.S. companies and individuals, who may have engaged in fraud or other wrongdoing. Additionally, public shareholders investing in the ADSs have limited rights and few practical remedies in emerging markets where we operate, as shareholder claims that are common in the United States, including class actions under securities law and fraud claims, generally are difficult or impossible
 
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to pursue as a matter of law or practicality in many emerging markets, including China. See also “Risk Factors — Risks Related to Doing Business in China — You may experience difficulties in effecting service of legal process, enforcing foreign judgments or bringing original actions in China, based on United States or other foreign laws, against us, our directors, executive officers or the expert named in this prospectus. Therefore, you may not be able to enjoy the protection of such laws in an effective manner.”
Holding Company Structure
As of the date of this prospectus, ZEEKR Intelligent Technology has not previously declared or paid any cash dividend or dividend in kind, and has no plan to declare or pay any dividends in the near future on its ordinary shares or the ADSs. ZEEKR Intelligent Technology is a holding company with no operations of its own. ZEEKR Intelligent Technology conducts its business operations through its subsidiaries, including its subsidiaries in China. If the PRC government deems that any of our business operations carried out by our Hong Kong or PRC subsidiaries were to be restricted or prohibited from foreign investment in the future, we may be required to stop our business operations in China, and we could be subject to material penalties or be forced to relinquish our interests in the affected operations. Such events could result in a material change in our operations and a material change in the value of our securities, including causing the value of such securities to significantly decline or become worthless. Save for the dividends made by ZEEKR Shanghai and CEVT before we acquired them, none of our subsidiaries have issued any dividends or distributions to their respective holding companies or any investors as of the date of this prospectus. If we become profitable, ZEEKR Intelligent Technology’s ability to pay dividends, if any, to the shareholders and ADS investors and to service any debt it may incur will come from dividends paid by its operating subsidiaries.
Under PRC laws and regulations, our PRC subsidiaries are subject to certain restrictions with respect to paying dividends or otherwise transferring any of their net assets offshore to ZEEKR Intelligent Technology. In particular, under the current effective PRC laws and regulations, dividends may be paid only out of distributable profits upon satisfaction of relevant statutory conditions and procedures. Distributable profits are the net profit after tax as determined under PRC GAAP, less any recovery of accumulated losses and appropriations to statutory and other reserves required to be made. Each of our PRC subsidiaries is required to appropriate 10% of the net profits as reported in its respective statutory financial statements (after offsetting any prior year’s losses) to the statutory reserves until such reserves have reached 50% of its respective registered capital. In addition, the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law, or EIT Law, and its implementation rules provide that a withholding tax rate of up to 10% will be applicable to dividends payable by PRC companies to non-PRC-resident enterprises unless otherwise exempted or reduced according to treaties or arrangements between the PRC central government and governments of other countries or regions where the non-PRC-resident enterprises are incorporated.
Furthermore, the payment of current account items, including profit distributions, trade and service related foreign exchange transactions, can be made in foreign currencies without prior approval from State Administration of Foreign Exchange (“SAFE”), or its local branches, provided that (i) the declaration and payment of such current account items comply with applicable PRC laws and regulations and the constitutional documents of the related company, and (ii) the remittance of dividends and other distributions out of the PRC complies with the procedures required by the relevant PRC laws and regulations relating to foreign exchange administration and withholding tax provisions, such as the overseas investment registrations by our shareholders or the ultimate shareholders of our corporate shareholders who are PRC residents. However, where RMB is to be converted into foreign currency and remitted out of the PRC to pay capital expenses, such as the repayment of loans denominated in foreign currencies, approval from or registration with competent government authorities or its authorized banks is required. The PRC government may take measures from time to time to restrict access to foreign currencies for current account or capital account transactions in accordance with the procedural requirments of PRC laws. If the foreign exchange control system prevents us from obtaining sufficient foreign currencies to satisfy our foreign currency demands, we may not be able to pay dividends in foreign currencies to our offshore intermediary holding companies or ultimate parent company, and therefore, our shareholders or investors in the ADSs. Further, we cannot assure you that new regulations or policies will not be promulgated in the future, which may further restrict the remittance of RMB into or out of the PRC. We cannot assure you, in light of the restrictions in place, or any amendment to be made from time to time, that our current or future PRC subsidiaries will be able to satisfy their respective payment obligations that are denominated in foreign currencies, including the remittance of dividends outside of the PRC.
 
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Implications of Being a Foreign Private Issuer
We are a foreign private issuer within the meaning of the rules under the Exchange Act, and as such we are exempt from certain provisions of the securities rules and regulations in the United States that are applicable to U.S. domestic issuers. Moreover, the information we are required to file with or furnish to the SEC will be less extensive and less timely compared to that required to be filed with the SEC by U.S. domestic issuers. In addition, as an exempted company incorporated in the Cayman Islands with limited liability, we are permitted to adopt certain home country practices in relation to corporate governance matters that differ significantly from the corporate governance standards of the NYSE applicable to U.S. domestic companies.
Implication of Being a Controlled Company
[Concurrently with this offering, Geely Automobile Holdings Limited, or Geely Auto, our controlling shareholder, will have the right to purchase up to a total of     ordinary shares to be issued by us in a private placement. Assuming Geely Auto’s full subscription of the ordinary shares to be issued by us in such concurrent private placement, we will remain a “controlled company” within the meaning of the applicable rules of the NYSE because Geely Auto will have (i)    % of the total voting power of our then outstanding ordinary shares, assuming the underwriters do not exercise their over-allotment option, or (ii)     % of the total voting power of our then outstanding ordinary shares, assuming the underwriters exercise their over-allotment option in full. See “Principal Shareholders” for details.]
As a result, we will be a “controlled company” as defined under the applicable rules of the NYSE because Geely Auto will hold more than 50% of the voting power for the election of directors. As a “controlled company,” we are entitled to certain exemptions with respect to corporate governance requirements, although we do not plan to rely on such exemptions. If we rely on these exemptions, you will not have the same protection afforded to shareholders of companies that are subject to these corporate governance requirements. Currently, we do not plan to utilize the exemptions available for controlled companies after we complete this offering, but will rely on the exemption available for foreign private issuers to follow our home country governance practices instead. See “— We are a foreign private issuer within the meaning of the rules under the Exchange Act, and as such we are exempt from certain provisions applicable to U.S. domestic public companies.”
Conventions which Apply to This Prospectus
Except where the context otherwise requires and for purposes of this prospectus only:

“ADAS” refers to advanced driver assistance system;

“ADSs” refers to the American depositary shares, each representing        ordinary shares;

“BEV(s)” refers to battery electric passenger vehicle(s);

“CEVT” refers to China-Euro Vehicle Technology Aktiebolag;

“China” or “PRC” refers to the People’s Republic of China, and only in the context of describing PRC rules, laws, regulations, regulatory authority, and any PRC entities or citizens under such rules, laws and regulations and other legal or tax matters in this prospectus, excludes Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan;

“Geely Auto” refers to Geely Automobile Holdings Limited, a company incorporated in the Cayman Islands with limited liability controlled by Geely Holding and listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange under stock code “0175” and its controlled entities, other than us;

“Geely Group” refers to Geely Holding and Geely Auto;

“Geely Hangzhou Bay” refers to Ningbo Hangzhou Bay Geely Auto Parts Co., Ltd.;

“Geely Holding” refers to Zhejiang Geely Holding Group Co., Ltd and its controlled entities, other than Geely Auto and us;

“Hong Kong” refers to Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China;
 
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“MoF” refers to Ministry of Finance of the People’s Republic of China;

“Ningbo Viridi” refers to Viridi E-Mobility Technology Co., Ltd., one of our PRC subsidiaries founded in 2017;

“NEV(s)” refers to new energy passenger vehicle(s);

“NVH” refers to noise, vibration and harshness characteristics of vehicles;

“ordinary share” refers to our ordinary shares, par value US$0.0002 per share;

“RMB” or “Renminbi” refers to the legal currency of the People’s Republic of China;

“SEA” refers to Sustainable Experience Architecture, an open-source, pure electric and modularized platform for BEV development inside Geely Group;

“TaaS” refers to transportation as a service;

“US$,” “dollars” or “U.S. dollars” refers to the legal currency of the United States;

“Waymo” refers to an American autonomous driving technology company;

“we,” “us,” “our company,” and “our” refer to ZEEKR Intelligent Technology Holding Limited, the holding company, and its subsidiaries, as a group;

“ZEEKR Intelligent Technology” refers to ZEEKR Intelligent Technology Holding Limited, the holding company;

“ZEEKR Power” refers to Zhejiang Haohan Energy Technology Co., Ltd., in which we own 30% equity interest; and

“Zhejiang Geely” refers to Zhejiang Geely Automobile Co., Ltd.
Unless otherwise noted, all translations from Renminbi to U.S. dollars and from U.S. dollars to Renminbi in this prospectus are made at RMB7.2513 to US1.00, the exchange rate set forth in the H.10 statistical release of the Federal Reserve Board on June 30, 2023. We make no representation that any Renminbi or U.S. dollar amounts could have been, or could be, converted into U.S. dollars or Renminbi, as the case may be, at any particular rate, the rates stated below, or at all.
This prospectus contains information derived from various public sources and certain information from an industry report commissioned by us and prepared by Frost & Sullivan, a third-party industry research firm, to provide information regarding our industry and market position. Such information involves a number of assumptions and limitations, and you are cautioned not to give undue weight to these estimates. We have not independently verified the accuracy or completeness of the data contained in these industry publications and reports. The industry in which we operate is subject to a high degree of uncertainty and risk due to variety of factors, including those described in “Risk Factors.” These and other factors could cause results to differ materially from those expressed in these publications and reports.
 
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THE OFFERING
ADSs offered by us
          ADSs (or          ADSs if the underwriters exercise their over-allotment option in full).
Over-allotment option
We have granted the underwriters the right to purchase up to          additional ADSs from us within 30 days of the date of this prospectus, to cover over-allotments, if any, in connection with the offering.
The ADSs
Each ADS represents          ordinary shares, par value US$0.0002 per share. The depositary will hold the ordinary shares underlying the ADSs. You will have rights as provided in the deposit agreement.
We do not expect to pay dividends in the foreseeable future. If, however, we declare dividends on our ordinary shares, the depositary will pay you the cash dividends and other distributions it receives on our ordinary shares, after deducting its fees and expenses in accordance with the terms set forth in the deposit agreement.
You may turn in the ADSs to the depositary in exchange for our ordinary shares. The depositary will charge you fees for any exchange.
We may amend or terminate the deposit agreement without your consent. If you continue to hold the ADSs after an amendment to the deposit agreement, you agree to be bound by the deposit agreement as amended.
To better understand the terms of the ADSs, you should carefully read the “Description of American Depositary Shares” section. You should also read the deposit agreement, which is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement that includes this prospectus.
Ordinary shares
We will issue          ordinary shares represented by the ADSs in this offering (or          ordinary shares if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional ADSs in full).
All options, regardless of grant dates, will entitle holders to the equivalent number of ordinary shares once the vesting and exercising conditions on such share-based compensation awards are met.
See “Description of Share Capital.”
Ordinary shares outstanding immediately after this
offering
          ordinary shares, par value US$0.0002 per share (or          ordinary shares if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional ADSs in full).
ADSs outstanding immediately after this offering
          ADSs, comprised of          ADSs to be offered in this offering [and          ADSs to be issued in connection with the concurrent private placement for the Assured Entitlement Distribution (assuming Geely Auto’s full subscription of the ordinary shares to be issued by us in such concurrent private placement and assuming Geely Auto fully converts such ordinary shares into ADSs)], or          ADSs if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional ADSs in full.
 
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[Concurrent private placement for Assured Entitlement Distribution
Geely Auto, our controlling shareholder, has agreed, concurrently with, and subject to, the completion of this offering, to purchase from us a certain number of ordinary shares with an aggregate value of up to HK$      million (US$     million) at the public offering price per share for distribution to its eligible shareholders pursuant to Practice Note 15 under the Rules Governing The Listing of Securities on The Stock Exchange of Hong Kong Limited, which is the public offering price per ADS divided by the number of ordinary shares represented by one ADS.
This purchase will be made by Geely Auto pursuant to Regulation S of the U.S. Securities Act of 1933, as amended. The Assured Entitlement Distribution will only be made by Geely Auto if this offering is completed and will not involve an underwriter. The distribution in specie of ADSs by Geely Auto to its eligible shareholders is not part of this offering. Each of Geely Auto and us will bear all expenses incurred by itself in connection with such concurrent private placement and the Assured Entitlement Distribution.
We do not expect to use any proceeds from this offering to pay for or facilitate the Assured Entitlement Distribution.]
Listing
We intend to apply to list the ADSs representing our ordinary shares on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “ZK”.
Use of proceeds
Based on the midpoint of the estimated initial public offering price range set forth on the front cover of this prospectus, we estimate that the net proceeds to us will comprise approximately US$      from this offering (or approximately US$      , if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional ADSs in full), after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and the estimated offering expenses payable by us[, and additional net proceeds of approximately US$      from the concurrent private placement to Geely Auto to effect its Assured Entitlement Distribution (assuming Geely Auto’s full subscription of the ordinary shares to be issued by us in such concurrent private placement)].
We intend to use the net proceeds from the offering for: (i) the development of more advanced BEV technologies, as well as expansion of product portfolio; (ii) selling and marketing, and expansion of our service and charging network; and (iii) general corporate purposes, including working capital needs, to support our business operations and growth. See “Use of Proceeds.”
Lock-up
We, [our directors, executive officers and certain of our existing shareholders] have agreed with the underwriters, subject to certain exceptions, not to offer, sell, or dispose of any shares of our share capital or securities convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for any shares of our share capital during the 180-day period following the date of this prospectus. See “Shares Eligible for Future Sale” and “Underwriting” for more information.
Payment and settlement
The underwriters expect to deliver the ADSs against payment therefor through the facilities of The Depository Trust Company on          , 2023.
 
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Depositary
The Bank of New York Mellon
Taxation
For Cayman, PRC and U.S. federal income tax considerations with respect to the ownership and disposition of the ADSs, see “Taxation.”
Risk Factors
See “Risk Factors” and other information included in this prospectus for discussions of the risks relating to investing in the ADSs. You should carefully consider these risks before deciding to invest in the ADSs.
Unless otherwise indicated, all information contained in this prospectus assumes no exercise of the option granted to the underwriters to purchase up to           additional ordinary shares to cover over-allotments, if any, in connection with the offering.
 
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SUMMARY COMBINED AND CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL DATA AND OPERATING DATA
The following summary combined and consolidated statements of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2021 and 2022, summary combined and consolidated balance sheets data as of December 31, 2020, 2021 and 2022 and summary combined and consolidated cash flow data for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2021 and 2022 have been derived from audited combined and consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. The following summary combined and consolidated statements of operations data for the six months ended June 30, 2022 and 2023, summary combined and consolidated balance sheets data as of June 30, 2023 and summary combined and consolidated cash flow data for the six months ended June 30, 2022 and 2023 have been derived from unaudited condensed combined and consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in the prospectus. Our combined and consolidated financial statements are prepared and presented in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, or U.S. GAAP. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of results expected for future periods. You should read this section together with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our combined and consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus.
The following table presents our summary combined and consolidated statements of operations for the periods presented.
Year Ended December 31,
Six Months Ended June 30,
2020
2021
2022
2022
2023
RMB
RMB
RMB
US$
RMB
RMB
US$
(in thousands)
Net revenues:
3,185,065 6,527,518 31,899,448 4,399,135 9,012,236 21,270,082 2,933,278
Cost of revenues:
(2,334,831) (5,489,349) (29,427,398) (4,058,224) (8,135,330) (19,037,286) (2,625,363)
Gross profit
850,234 1,038,169 2,472,050 340,911 876,906 2,232,796 307,915
Operating expenses:
Research and development expenses
(22,605) (3,160,304) (5,446,320) (751,082) (2,042,825) (3,188,554) (439,722)
Selling, general and administrative expenses
(803,560) (2,200,056) (4,245,317) (585,456) (1,725,489) (2,898,733) (399,754)
Other operating income, net
59,035 19,552 67,764 9,345 33,023 134,296 18,521
Total operating
expenses
(767,130) (5,340,808) (9,623,873) (1,327,193) (3,735,291) (5,952,991) (820,955)
Income (Loss) from
operations
83,104 (4,302,639) (7,151,823) (986,282) (2,858,385) (3,720,195) (513,040)
Interest expense
(66,753) (53,205) (283,731) (39,128) (80,648) (192,165) (26,501)
Interest income
1,755 23,022 112,142 15,465 39,966 41,243 5,688
Other income (expenses), net
134,121 (184,582) (31,679) (4,369) (88,885) 38,147 5,260
Income (Loss) before
income tax expense and
share of losses in equity
method investments
152,227 (4,517,404) (7,355,091) (1,014,314) (2,987,952) (3,832,970) (528,593)
Share of losses in equity method investments
(7,984) (16,871) (172,787) (23,828) (34,580) (55,240) (7,618)
Income tax (expense)
benefits
(40,643) 19,983 (127,268) (17,551) (62,668) 17,632 2,432
Net income (loss)
103,600 (4,514,292) (7,655,146) (1,055,693) (3,085,200) (3,870,578) (533,779)
 
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The following table presents our combined and consolidated balance sheets data as of the dates presented.
As of December 31,
As of June 30,
2020
2021
2022
2023
RMB
RMB
RMB
US$
RMB
US$
(in thousands)
Summary Combined and
Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:
Cash and cash equivalents
141,929 3,893,980 3,561,544 491,159 2,772,201 382,304
Restricted cash
3,986 193,360 26,666 492,737 67,952
Notes receivable
3,376 33,881 148,673 20,503 569,726 78,569
Accounts receivable
11,687 24,208 158,581 21,869 178,366 24,598
Inventories
194,054 1,214,080 3,164,809 436,447 3,835,271 528,908
Amounts due from related
parties-current
5,382,253 3,848,577 6,132,982 845,777 5,736,397 791,085
Prepayments and other current
assets
293,792 413,095 1,240,175 171,028 2,648,027 365,179
Total current assets
6,027,091 9,431,807 14,600,124 2,013,449 16,232,725 2,238,595
Total assets
7,552,412 11,939,932 19,477,316 2,686,044 21,485,258 2,962,953
Total current liabilities
3,354,809 10,150,503 17,625,914 2,430,725 22,890,532 3,156,749
Total liabilities
4,172,443 11,010,506 25,450,183 3,509,741 26,007,723 3,586,630
Total shareholder’s equity (deficit)
3,379,969 929,426 (5,972,867) (823,697) (4,522,465) (623,677)
Total liabilities and shareholder’s equity (deficit)
7,552,412 11,939,932 19,477,316 2,686,044 21,485,258 2,962,953
The following table sets forth a summary of our combined and consolidated cash flows for the periods presented.
Year Ended December 31,
Six Months Ended June 30,
2020
2021
2022
2022
2023
RMB
RMB
RMB
US$
RMB
RMB
US$
(in thousands)
Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities
415,474 630,182 (3,523,597) (485,924) (1,163,785) 349,884 48,250
Net cash (used in) provided by investing
activities
(877,610) 379,525 (2,006,947) (276,772) (1,660,371) (822,981) (113,494)
Net cash provided by (used in) financing
activities
92,171 2,785,064 5,373,325 741,015 7,554,826 (71,267) (9,829)
Net (decrease) increase in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash
(369,965) 3,794,771 (157,219) (21,681) 4,730,670 (544,364) (75,073)
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at beginning of year/period
498,145 141,929 3,897,966 537,554 3,897,966 3,754,904 517,825
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash
13,749 (38,734) 14,157 1,952 (9,201) 54,398 7,504
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at end of year/period
141,929 3,897,966 3,754,904 517,825 8,619,435 3,264,938 450,256
 
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Our Monthly Vehicle Deliveries
Our results of operations and financial conditions substantially depend on the sales of our BEVs. Therefore, the delivery volume of our ZEEKR 001, ZEEKR 009 and ZEEKR X, which are our mass-produced BEV models, is a key indicator used to monitor our business operations and performance.
ZEEKR vehicles are well received by the market driven by their superior performance, stylish design and functionality that meets diversified customer needs and provides outstanding mobility experience. In October 2022, we delivered 10,119 units of ZEEKR 001 to the market, making it the first pure-electric premium vehicle model manufactured by a Chinese BEV brand with over 10,000 units of single-month delivery volume, according to Frost & Sullivan. As of October 31, 2023, cumulatively we had delivered a total of 170,053 units of ZEEKR vehicles, which is among the fastest delivery in the premium BEV market in China from October 2021 to October 2023, according to Frost & Sullivan.
The following chart summarizes the monthly deliveries of ZEEKR vehicles for the periods indicated.
Months
Delivery Volume (units)
2023
October 13,077
September 12,053
August 12,303
July 12,039
June
10,620
May
8,678
April
8,101
March
6,663
February
5,455
January 3,116
 
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RISK FACTORS
      You are purchasing equity securities of ZEEKR Intelligent Technology, a Cayman Islands holding company, rather than equity securities of its operating subsidiaries. Such structure involves unique risks to investors in the ADSs. You should carefully consider all the information in this prospectus, including the risks and uncertainties described below and our combined and consolidated financial statements and related notes, before making an investment in the ADSs. You should also carefully review the cautionary statements referred to under “Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-looking Statements.” Any of the following risks could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently deem to be immaterial may also materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. In any such case, the market price of the ADSs could decline significantly, and you may lose all or part of your investment.
Risks Related to Our Business and Industry
Our BEV business has a limited operating history and faces significant challenges as a new entrant into our industry.
Our BEV business initially commenced within Geely Auto, and was restructured as a separate business in 2021. Therefore, we have a limited operating history as a separate business in most aspects of the BEV segment, including designing, testing, marketing, selling and related services associated with BEVs. We announced the development of our first BEV model, ZEEKR 001, in April 2021 and started to deliver ZEEKR 001 in October 2021. In November 2022, we launched our second BEV model, ZEEKR 009, and started delivery in January 2023. In April 2023, we released ZEEKR X, our compact SUV model, and began to deliver ZEEKR X in June 2023. We also started to deliver ZEEKR 001 FR in November 2023 and will launch our first premium sedan model in November 2023. For details, see “Our History and Corporate Structure.”
You should consider our business and prospects in light of the risks and challenges we face as a new entrant in China’s BEV market, including, among other things:

design and produce safe, reliable, customer-centric and quality vehicles on an ongoing basis;

build a well-recognized and respected brand;

expand our customer base;

properly price our products and services;

advance our technological capabilities in key areas, such as autonomous driving, intelligent operating system, and electric powertrain;

successfully market our BEVs and our services, including our advanced autonomous driving system, our charging solutions and various value-added services, such as vehicle maintenance and convenient chauffeur service;

improve operating efficiency and economies of scale;

manufacture our BEV products in a safe and cost-efficient manner;

attract, retain and motivate our employees;

anticipate and adapt to changing market conditions, including changes in consumer preferences and competitive landscape; and

navigate a complex and evolving regulatory environment.
If we fail to address any or all of these risks and challenges, our business may be materially and adversely affected. In addition, our BEVs are highly technical products that require ongoing maintenance and support. As a result, consumers will be less likely to purchase our BEVs now if they are not convinced that our business will succeed or that our operations will continue for many years. Similarly, suppliers and
 
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other third parties will be less likely to invest time and resources in developing business relationships with us if they are not convinced that our business will succeed.
We expect to mainly generate revenues from the sales of a limited number of BEV models.
Typically, customers would expect an OEM to frequently offer and improve vehicle models. However, we only had one mass-produced BEV in the market before the end of 2022, and our business substantially depended on the sales and success of ZEEKR 001. In November 2022, we launched our second vehicle model, ZEEKR 009, and started delivery in January 2023. In April 2023, we released ZEEKR X, our compact SUV model, and began to deliver ZEEKR X in June 2023. We also started to deliver ZEEKR 001 FR in November 2023 and will launch our first premium sedan model in November 2023. Since our business will depend on a limited number of BEV models for the foreseeable future, our sales volume could be materially and adversely affected if a particular model is not well received by the market. Our existing models may also face fluctuations in delivery volume and cannot deliver as much as historical level. This could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.
Going forward, we plan to launch more new models to enrich our product portfolio and periodically introduce new versions of existing vehicle models. Therefore, our future sales may be adversely affected to the extent our BEVs do not meet consumer expectations in terms of product variety or upgrade cycles, or cannot be produced pursuant to expected timelines, costs or volume targets.
If we cannot achieve and sustain profitability, our business, financial condition, and operating results may be adversely affected.
We had an unstable and volatile revenue performance. For example, our total revenue increased significantly by RMB25,371.9 million, or approximately 388.7%, from RMB6,527.5 million in 2021 to RMB31,899.4 million (US$4,399.1 million) in 2022. The increase was primarily due to the increase in (i) vehicle sales of RMB19,671.2 million and (ii) sales of batteries and other components of RMB10,317.8 million. However, as a result of the corresponding rising cost of revenues and increasing operating expenses, we incurred a significant increase of RMB3,140.8 million in net loss and recorded a net loss of RMB7,655.1 million (US$1,055.7 million) in 2022, compared to a net loss of RMB4,514.3 million in 2021.
We cannot assure you that we will achieve profitability in the near future as we are still at an early stage. Our revenue growth may slow down or our revenue may decline for a number of reasons, including reduced demand for our BEVs, increased competition, or our failure to capitalize on growth opportunities. Meanwhile, we expect our overall selling, general and administrative expenses, including employee compensation, marketing and promotional expenses, to continue to increase in the foreseeable future, as we plan to hire additional personnel and incur additional expenses in connection with the expansion of our business operations. In addition, we also expect to incur significant additional expenses in relation to professional services as a newly public company. These efforts and additional expenses may be more costly than we currently expected, and there is no assurance that we will be able to maintain sufficient revenue to offset our operating expenses. Any failure to increase revenue or to manage our costs as we continue to grow and invest in our business would prevent us from achieving or maintaining profitability or maintaining positive operating cash flow or on a consistent basis, which would cause our business, financial condition, and results of operations to suffer.
Our research and development efforts may not yield expected results.
Technological innovation is critical to our success, and we strategically develop most of key technologies in-house, such as our electrical and electronic architecture, or our E/E Architecture, ZEEKR OS, Firmware Over-the-Air, or FOTA, and electric powertrain. We have been investing heavily in our research and development efforts. The BEV industry is experiencing rapid changes in technology, and we need to invest significant resources in research and development to lead technological breakthrough, in order to remain competitive in the market. Therefore, we expect that our research and development expenses will continue to be significant. Furthermore, research and development activities are inherently uncertain, and there can be no assurance that we will continue to achieve technological breakthroughs and successfully commercialize such breakthroughs. As a result, our significant expenditures on research and development may not
 
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generate corresponding benefits. If our research and development efforts fail to keep up with the latest technological developments, we would suffer a decline in our competitive position. If we made any misjudgment with respect to technological developments or experience any delay or other setbacks in our efforts to improve our technology, it could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and prospects.
Besides our in-house expertise, we also rely on certain technologies of our suppliers to enhance the performance of our BEVs. In particular, we do not manufacture battery cells or semiconductors, which makes us dependent upon suppliers for the relevant technologies. There can be no assurance that we will be able to equip our BEVs with the latest technologies. As technologies change, we plan to upgrade our existing models and introduce new models in order to provide our BEVs with the latest technologies, including battery cells and semiconductors, which could involve substantial costs and lower our return on investment for existing models. Even if we are able to keep pace with changes in technologies and develop new models, our prior models could become obsolete more quickly than expected, potentially reducing our return on investment.
Our BEVs, including software systems, may contain defects and fail to offer a good mobility experience to meet customer expectations, and our business, results of operations and reputation would be materially and adversely affected.
Our BEVs offer smart technological functions, including autonomous driving and smart connectivity, to make the mobility experience more convenient. There can be no assurance that we will be able to continue to enhance such smart technological functions and make them more valuable to our customers. In the design process, we pay close attention to the preferences of our target customers. For example, our autonomous driving system is also customized for driving behaviors and road conditions in China. However, there can be no assurance that we are able to accurately identify consumer preferences and effectively address such preferences in our BEVs’ design. Furthermore, the driving experience of a BEV is different from that of an ICE vehicle, and our customers may experience difficulties in adapting to the driving experience of a BEV. As consumer preferences are constantly evolving, we may fail to introduce desirable product features in a timely manner.
Our BEVs may contain defects in design or manufacturing that cause them not to perform as expected or that require repair, and certain features of our BEVs, for example, the operation of our BEVs is highly dependent on our proprietary software, such as ZEEKR OS, which is inherently complex. These software systems may contain latent defects and errors or be subject to external attacks. Although we attempt to remedy any issues we observe in our BEVs as effectively and rapidly as possible, such efforts may not be timely or may not be to the satisfaction of our customers. Furthermore, while we have performed extensive internal testing on our BEVs, we currently have a limited frame of reference by which to evaluate detailed long-term quality, reliability, durability and performance characteristics of our BEVs. We cannot assure you that our BEVs are free of defects, which may manifest over time. Product defects, delays or other failures of our products to perform as expected could damage our reputation and result in product recalls, product liability claims and/or significant warranty and other expenses, and could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, operating results and prospects.
China’s BEV market is highly competitive, and demand for BEVs may be cyclical and volatile.
China’s NEV market is large yet competitive. Since we are strategically focused on offering premium BEVs, we directly compete with major players in China’s premium BEV market, i.e., pure-play BEV companies and traditional OEMs that also produce BEVs. We may also in the future face competition from new entrants that will increase the level of competition. For a detailed discussion, see “Industry Overview — Competitive Landscape.” In addition, as we plan to expand our global presence, we expect to compete with existing and future market players in the European and the U.S. markets. Our current and potential competitors, particularly international competitors, may have more financial, technical, manufacturing, marketing and other resources than we do, and may be able to devote significant resources to the design, development, manufacturing, distribution, promotion, sale and support of their products.
We expect competition in our industry to intensify in the future in light of increased demand and regulatory push for alternative fuel vehicles, continuing globalization and consolidation in the worldwide
 
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automotive industry. Factors affecting competition include, among others, product quality and features, innovation and development time, pricing, reliability, safety, energy efficiency, customer service and financing terms. Increased competition may lead to lower vehicle unit sales and increased inventory, which may result in downward price pressure and adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results and prospects. There can be no assurance that we will be able to compete successfully. Our competitors may introduce new vehicles or services that surpass the quality or performance of our BEVs or services, which would adversely affect our competitive position in the market. They may also offer vehicles or services at more competitive prices, which would have an adverse impact on our sales and profitability. In addition, we may compete with state-owned enterprises or companies that have received investments or other forms of support from state-owned enterprises or other government entities, and such competitors may therefore possess more resources than us.
In addition, volatility in the automobile industry may materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition. The sales volume of BEVs in the premium segment in China may not grow at the rate that we expect, or at all. Demand for BEVs depends to a large extent on general, economic, political and social conditions in a given market and the introduction of new vehicles and technologies. As a new entrant to the BEV market, we have less financial resources than more established OEMs to withstand changes in the market and disruptions in demand. Demand for our BEVs may also be affected by factors directly impacting automobile price or the cost of purchasing and operating automobiles, such as sales and financing incentives, prices of raw materials and components, cost of oil and gasoline and governmental regulations, including tariffs, import regulation and sales taxes. Volatility in demand may lead to lower vehicle unit sales and increased inventory, which may result in further downward price pressure and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results. These effects may have a more pronounced impact on our business given our relatively smaller scale and less financial resources as compared to many traditional OEMs.
The unavailability, reduction or elimination of government and economic incentives or government policies that are favorable for NEVs and domestically produced vehicles could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our business has benefited from government subsidies, economic incentives and government policies that support the growth of NEVs. For example, each qualified purchaser of our BEVs enjoys subsidies from China’s central government and certain local governments. Furthermore, in certain cities, quotas that limit the purchase of ICE vehicles do not apply to NEVs, thereby incentivizing customers to purchase NEVs. In April 2020, the MoF, together with several other PRC government departments, issued the Announcement on Policies concerning the Exemption of New Energy Vehicles from Vehicle Purchase Tax, and the Circular on Improving the Fiscal Subsidy Policies for the Promotion and Application of New Energy Vehicles, or the 2020 Subsidy Circular, which extended certain subsidies and tax exemptions on EV purchases to the end of 2022. In September 2022, the MoF, together with several other PRC government departments, issued the Announcement on Extending the Policies concerning the Exemption of New Energy Vehicles from Vehicle Purchase Tax, pursuant to which the new energy vehicles purchased during the period from January 1, 2023 to December 31, 2023 shall be exempted from the vehicle purchase tax. China’s central government also provides certain local governments with funds and subsidies to support the roll out of charging infrastructure. These policies are subject to certain limits as well as changes that are beyond our control, and we cannot assure you that future changes, if any, would be favorable to our business. For instance, the Circular on Further Improving the Fiscal Subsidy Policies for the Promotion and Application of New Energy Vehicles, effective from March 26, 2019, reduced the amount of national subsidies and canceled local subsidies. The 2020 subsidy standard, effective from April 23, 2020, reduced the base subsidy amount in general by 10% for each NEV, set subsidies for two million vehicles as the upper limit of annual subsidy scale; and provide that national subsidy shall only apply to NEVs that are either (i) with the sale price under RMB300,000 or (ii) equipped with battery swapping mechanism. In December 2021, the MoF, together with several other PRC government departments, issued the Notice on the Fiscal Subsidy Policies for the Promotion and Application of New Energy Vehicles for 2022, or the 2022 Subsidy Notice, which took effect on January 1, 2022. The 2022 Subsidy Notice provides that the subsidies for new energy vehicles purchased in 2022 will be generally lowered by 30% compared to the previous year with limited exceptions in the area of public transport. The total number of new energy vehicles in China that will be entitled to such subsidies should be no more than two million each year and only NEVs with a manufacturer suggested retail price of
 
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RMB300,000 or less before subsidies are eligible for such subsidies. Such subsidies have been eliminated at the end of 2022. Furthermore, we have received subsidies from certain local governments. Any reduction or elimination of government subsidies and economic incentives because of policy changes, fiscal tightening or other factors may result in the diminished competitiveness of the EV industry generally or our BEVs in particular. Any of the foregoing could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may also face increased competition from foreign OEMs due to changes in government policies. For example, the tariff on imported passenger vehicles (other than those originating in the United States) was reduced to 15% starting from July 1, 2018. There used to be a certain limitation on foreign ownership of automakers in China, but for automakers of NEVs, such limit was lifted in 2018. Further, on December 27, 2021, the National Development and Reform Commission, or NDRC, and the Ministry of Commerce, or the MOFCOM, promulgated the Special Administrative Measures for Market Access of Foreign Investment, or the 2021 Negative List, effective on January 1, 2022, under which there is no limit on foreign ownership of ICE vehicle manufacturers. As a result, foreign EV competitors could build wholly-owned facilities in China without the need for a domestic joint venture partner. For example, Tesla has constructed the Tesla Giga Shanghai factory in Shanghai without a joint venture partner. These changes could increase our competition and reduce our pricing advantage.
We are dependent on our suppliers, some of which are single-source suppliers. Suppliers may fail to deliver necessary components of our BEVs according to our schedule and at prices, quality levels and volumes acceptable to us.
We procure components from both domestic suppliers and global suppliers, some of which are our single-source suppliers for certain components. In 2022 and the six months ended June 30, 2023, purchases from our largest supplier amounted to RMB18,605.1 million (US$2,565.8 million) and RMB12,092.2 million (US$1,667.6 million), respectively, accounting for 53.5% and 55.0%, respectively, of our total purchase and representing costs charged under the cooperation framework agreements discussed in “Our Relationship with Geely Group.” In addition, we depend on a limited number of sources for battery cells, battery packs and chips used on BEVs. Some of our suppliers were unable to deliver sufficient components to us due to the COVID-19 outbreak, requiring us to switch to alternative suppliers. However, even through alternative suppliers, we may still experience component shortages or the components may not meet our specifications or quality needs which could lead to delays in vehicle production. Furthermore, approving alternative suppliers or developing our own replacements for certain highly customized components of our BEVs may be time consuming and costly. Any disruption in the supply of components, whether or not from a single-source supplier, could disrupt production of our BEVs until an alternative supplier is fully qualified by us or we are able to procure the relevant components in sufficient quantities from alternative suppliers. For example, we do not manufacture certain key hardware components for our BEVs’ autonomous driving system, such as semiconductors, short-range ultrasonic radars and cameras. Our sourcing strategy is to import certain of such components from foreign countries. The loss of any supplier for any reason, including any export control measures adopted by any foreign country to limit the import of supplies into China, could lead to vehicle design changes, production delays and potential loss of access to important technologies, any of which could result in quality issues, delays and disruptions in deliveries, negative publicity and damage to our brand. Developments that we cannot presently anticipate, such as changes in business conditions or government policies, natural disasters or epidemics, could also affect our suppliers’ ability to deliver components to us in a timely manner. In addition, our suppliers may fail to comply with applicable laws and regulations, or they may be involved in product liability claims or incidents of negative publicity. If any of these incidents occur, customers may also lose confidence in our BEVs that incorporate components from the relevant suppliers, and our reputation, business and results of operations could be adversely affected.
Any significant ramp up in production of our BEVs, such as the launch of a new model, has required and may in the future require us to procure a significant amount of additional components in a short amount of time. Our suppliers may not ultimately be able to sustainably and timely meet our cost, quality and volume needs. Therefore, unless we are able to find alternative suppliers or develop our own replacements for certain highly customized components, our production supply lines may experience material and significant delays and volume shortages. Additionally, we continuously negotiate with existing suppliers to obtain cost reductions and avoid unfavorable changes to terms, seek new and less expensive suppliers for certain parts,
 
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and attempt to redesign certain parts to make them less expensive to produce. If we are unsuccessful in our efforts to control and reduce supplier costs, our operating results will suffer.
Furthermore, as the scale of our vehicle production increases, we will need to accurately forecast, purchase, warehouse and transport components to the relevant manufacturing facilities and service stores and at much higher volumes. If we are unable to accurately match the timing and quantities of component purchases to our actual needs or successfully implement automation, inventory management and other systems to accommodate the increased complexity in our supply chain, we may incur unexpected production disruption, as well as storage, transportation and write-off costs, which could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, business, financial condition and operating results.
As we continue to grow, we may not be able to effectively manage our growth, which could negatively impact our brand image and financial performance.
We have experienced significant growth since the launch of ZEEKR 001 in 2021, and our net revenues for vehicle sales increased from nil in 2020 to RMB1,544.3 million in 2021. In 2022, we recorded net revenues for vehicle sales of RMB19,671.2 million (US$2,712.8 million). Our net revenues for vehicle sales further increased from RMB5,296.7 million in the six months ended June 30, 2022 to RMB13,175.4 million (US$1,817.0 million) in the six months ended June 30, 2023. We plan to further grow our business by, among other things, investing in technology, expanding our product portfolio, strengthening our brand recognition, expanding our sales and marketing network and service offerings and entering into overseas markets. Our future operating results will depend to a large extent on our ability to manage our expansion and growth successfully.
Risks that we face in undertaking this expansion include, among others:

managing a larger organization with a greater number of employees in different divisions;

controlling expenses and investments in anticipation of expanded operations;

establishing or expanding design, manufacturing, sales and service facilities;

implementing and enhancing administrative infrastructure, systems and processes; and

executing our strategies and business initiatives successfully.
Any failure to manage our growth effectively could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, results of operations and financial condition.
A severe or prolonged downturn in the PRC or global economy could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
The success of our business ultimately depends on consumer spending. We derive a substantial part of our revenues from China. As a result, our revenues and financial results are impacted to a significant extent by economic conditions in China and globally. The global macroeconomic environment is facing challenges, including the economic slowdown in the Eurozone since 2014, potential impact of the United Kingdom’s exit from the EU on January 31, 2020, and the adverse impact on the global economies and financial markets from the COVID-19 pandemic. There is considerable uncertainty over the long-term effects of the expansionary monetary and fiscal policies adopted by the central banks and financial authorities of some of the world’s leading economies, including the United States and China. There have been concerns over unrest and terrorist threats in the Middle East, Europe and Africa and over the conflicts involving Ukraine, Syria and North Korea. There have also been concerns about the relationship among China and other Asian countries, which may result in or intensify potential conflicts in relation to territorial disputes, and the trade disputes between the United States and China. The ongoing trade tensions between the United States and China may have tremendous negative impact on the economies of not merely the two countries concerned, but the global economy as a whole. It is unclear whether these challenges and uncertainties will be contained or resolved, and what effects they may have on the global political and economic conditions in the long term.
Economic conditions in China are sensitive to global economic conditions, changes in domestic economic and political policies, and the expected or perceived overall economic growth rate in China. While
 
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the economy in China has grown significantly over the past decades, growth has been uneven, both geographically and among various sectors of the economy, and the rate of growth has been slowing in recent years. Although growth of China’s economy remained relatively stable, there is a possibility that China’s economic growth may fluctuate or even decline in the near future. Any prolonged slowdown in China’s economic development might lead to tighter credit markets, increased market volatility, sudden drops in business and consumer confidence and dramatic changes in business and consumer behaviors. The potential adverse economic conditions may cause a significant impact on our ability to raise capital, if needed, on a timely basis and on acceptable terms or at all.
Sales of high-end and luxury consumer products, such as our performance electric vehicles, depend in part on discretionary consumer spending and are even more exposed to adverse changes in general economic conditions. In response to their perceived uncertainty in economic conditions, consumers might delay, reduce or cancel purchases of our electric vehicles and our results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.
The COVID-19 outbreak has adversely affected, and may continue to adversely affect, our results of operations.
The COVID-19 outbreak has become a global pandemic since 2020. It has affected many regions across the world, including locations where we have our headquarters, production facilities, supply chain, sales network and R&D centers. In particular, there were certain disruptions in our operations, including but not limited to the following:

Vehicle production in ZEEKR Factory was temporarily suspended in early 2022.

In the beginning of 2022, we temporarily closed the retail stores and delivery centers in Shanghai, Shenzhen and Xi’an. Our vehicle delivery, marketing and the expansion of retail stores have been adversely affected. In January, February, and March 2022, our vehicle delivery amounted to 3,530 units, 2,916 units and 1,795 units, respectively.

Due to the worldwide travel difficulties, we have to suspend the usual face-to-face interaction and testing with Sweden-based R&D personnel in CEVT, which adversely affected our R&D efficiency.

In early 2022, the supply of certain auto parts for our production and the delivery of certain raw materials experienced fluctuation due to COVID-19.
If the COVID-19 outbreak continues or worsens, it could materially and adversely impact our results of operations and financial performance. At this point, we cannot accurately predict what effects these conditions would have on our business, which will depend on, among other factors, the ultimate geographic spread of the virus, the duration of the outbreak and the corresponding travel restrictions and business closures imposed by government authorities. Concerns about the COVID-19 outbreak and its potential impact on global economy have created uncertainty about the overall demand for automobile products, which could have negative implications for the demand of our BEVs.
We may be subject to risks associated with autonomous driving technologies.
Capitalizing on our in-house R&D capabilities and strategic partnerships with third parties, we have continued to upgrade ZEEKR AD, the autonomous driving technologies on our BEVs, since our inception. Autonomous driving technologies are subject to risks and there have been accidents associated with such technologies from time to time. Although we attempt to remedy any issues we observe in our BEVs as effectively and rapidly as possible, such efforts may not be timely, may hamper production or may not be to the satisfaction of our customers. Moreover, autonomous driving technology is still evolving and is yet to achieve wide market acceptance. The safety of autonomous driving technologies depends in part on driver interaction, and drivers may not be accustomed to using such technologies. To the extent accidents associated with our BEVs’ autonomous driving systems occur, we could be subject to liability, government scrutiny and further regulation. Furthermore, accidents or defects caused by third parties’ autonomous driving technology may negatively affect public perception, or result in regulatory restrictions, with respect to autonomous driving technology.
Our autonomous driving technologies may be affected by regulatory restrictions. For example, our research and development activities on autonomous driving are subject to regulatory restrictions on
 
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surveying and mapping, as well as driverless road testing. According to the Notice on Strengthening the Administration of the Making, Testing, Application and Management regarding Maps for Autonomous Driving issued by National Administration of Surveying, Mapping and Geo-Information in 2016, the autonomous map is a new type of electronic navigation map and data collection, editing, processing and production of autonomous driving maps can only be handled by an entity holding an electronic navigation maps license. The notice further specifies that when an electronic navigation maps license holder cooperates with automakers in developing and testing maps for autonomous driving, the electronic navigation maps license holder must separately conduct the surveying and mapping. Without the approval of the authorities of surveying, mapping and geographic information above the provincial level, it is not allowed to provide or share map data to foreign organizations and individuals as well as foreign-invested companies registered in China. According to the Notice on Promoting the Development of Intelligent Connected Vehicles and Maintaining Surveying and Mapping Geographic Information Security promulgated by the Ministry of Natural Resources on August 25, 2022, automakers and developers of autonomous driving software should either apply for surveying and mapping licenses or engage a licensed entity to collect, store, transform and process geographic data. The notice also requires that foreign invested automakers shall engage a licensed entity to collect, store, transfer and process geographic mapping information and data of vehicles and surrounding road infrastructure, such as spatial coordinates, images, point clouds and attribute information.
According to the 2021 Negative List, we and our PRC subsidiaries which are foreign invested enterprises, or FIEs, are prohibited from directly carrying out surveying and mapping activities in China, and as such, we are not able to obtain the qualification certificate on surveying and mapping by ourselves but instead rely on our third-party collaborators’ qualification certificate on surveying and mapping in the development of BEVs. If we cannot collaborate with these third parties who have surveying and mapping qualification certificates, or these third parties fail to maintain the effectiveness of such qualification certificates during the collaboration term, the relevant regulatory authorities in China may require us to suspend the development or use of ZEEKR AD. Any further tightening of regulatory restrictions could have a material adverse impact on our development of autonomous driving technology. If we cannot launch updates for ZEEKR AD or continue to provide ZEEKR AD, our BEVs may be less attractive to consumers, which would have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition, and results of operations.
Our business and prospects depend significantly on our ability to build our ZEEKR brand. We may not succeed in continuing to maintain and strengthen the ZEEKR brand, and our brand and reputation could be harmed by negative publicity and customer complaints regarding our company, products or services.
Our business and prospects are heavily dependent on our ability to develop, maintain and strengthen the “ZEEKR” brand. If we do not continue to develop, maintain and strengthen our brand, we may lose the opportunity to build a critical mass of customers. Promoting and positioning our brand will likely depend significantly on our ability to provide high quality BEVs and services, and we have limited experience in these areas. In addition, we expect that our ability to develop, maintain and strengthen the ZEEKR brand will depend heavily on the success of our sales and marketing efforts. For example, we seek to enhance our brand recognition and exposure by locating ZEEKR Center, ZEEKR Space, ZEEKR Deliver Center and ZEEKR House in shopping malls or other central areas in Chinese cities. We also advertise our BEVs through various online channels, including several social media platforms and e-commerce platforms. While we seek to optimize resource allocation through careful selection of sales and marketing channels, such efforts may not achieve the desired results. To promote our brand, we may be required to change our branding practices, which could result in substantially increased expenses, including the need to utilize traditional media and offline advertising. If we do not develop and maintain a strong brand, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results will be materially and adversely impacted.
We have received customer complaints during the ordinary course of our business and may continue to receive customer complaints going forward. As of the date of this prospectus, the majority of customer complaints we received are in relation to (i) alleged improperly used marketing language, (ii) unsatisfactory quality of after sales services, and (iii) alleged vehicle delivery delays. As of the date of this prospectus, we have not experienced any material customer complaints that affected our operations or any production suspensions due to customer complaints. However, if we receive a high number of or material customer complaints in the future, our brand image could be negatively affected, which, in turn, could negatively affect the sales of our products. If incidents occur or are perceived to have occurred, whether or not such incidents
 
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are our fault, we could be subject to adverse publicity. In particular, given the popularity of social media in China, any negative publicity or customer complaint, whether true or not, could quickly proliferate and harm consumer perceptions and confidence in our brand. In addition, from time to time, our products are evaluated and reviewed by third parties. Any negative reviews or reviews which compare us unfavorably to competitors could adversely affect consumer perception about our brand. If any of the foregoing negative events materialize, the demand for our BEVs, our financial performance and results of operations will be adversely affected.
Any dysfunction or outdated developments in SEA may negatively affect the production of our BEVs.
We develop our BEV models on SEA, an innovative platform tailor-made for BEV design and engineering. Therefore, if we encounter any dysfunction with respect to SEA, our vehicle design and production will be negatively impacted. Although we would attempt to remedy any issues we observe in SEA as effectively and rapidly as possible, such efforts may not be timely, may hamper the vehicle development and production of our BEV models or may not meet the requirement of our customers.
Moreover, we expect competition in our industry to intensify in the future in light of increasing demand and regulatory push for alternative fuel vehicles, continuing globalization and consolidation in the worldwide automotive industry. Our competitors may expedite their progress on upgrading their manufacturing infrastructure. We cannot assure you that SEA would always apply the most leading technologies in the industry. Any outdated development may adversely and negatively affect the demand of our future models, and lead to customer dissatisfaction. These will materially and adversely affect our reputation, results of operations and growth prospects. Furthermore, there can be no assurance that Geely Holding will always permit us to utilize SEA. In the event that we have to develop our own BEV platform or explore cooperation with other BEV platform providers, we would incur significant costs, and our results of operations and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected. Finally, Geely Group’s portfolio BEV brands are also authorized to adopt SEA in its BEV development process. Therefore, we may face competition from the market and lose some of our competitive advantages with other brands in Geely Group that have adopted SEA in its development process, which would negatively affect our results of operations.
Any problems or delays in ramping and maintaining operations of the ZEEKR Factory or the Chengdu Factory could negatively affect the production of our BEVs.
We have entered into cooperation framework agreements with Geely Group for the manufacturing of our ZEEKR 001, ZEEKR 001 FR and ZEEKR 009 at the manufacturing plant in Ningbo owned by Geely Holding (the “ZEEKR Factory”), and the manufacturing of our ZEEKR X at the manufacturing plant in Chengdu owned by Geely Auto (the “Chengdu Factory”). Our future operation and prospects depend on the successful ramping and maintaining of operation in the ZEEKR Factory and the Chengdu Factory. See “Business — Manufacturing and Quality Control.”
There can be no assurance that our oversight on BEV manufacturing will always be effective, as the ZEEKR Factory and the Chengdu Factory are not owned by ourselves. Vehicle production at the ZEEKR Factory and the Chengdu Factory may also experience delays or suspensions. For example, vehicle production at the ZEEKR Factory was temporarily suspended in early 2022 due to the COVID-19 pandemic, and we also encountered a temporary suspension in production at the ZEEKR Factory in the first quarter of 2023 due to production line upgrades at the factory. As of the date of this prospectus, we have not experienced any material customer complaints caused by the delays or suspensions of vehicle production at ZEEKR Factory and Chengdu Factory. In addition, there will be a negative impact on our business operation if, in the future, such OEM model is limited by applicable laws and regulations, or becomes subject to more stringent regulatory oversight. Given the size and complexity of the manufacturing of BEVs, it is possible that the ZEEKR Factory or the Chengdu Factory may experience issue or delays in further expanding its production output. If the ZEEKR Factory or the Chengdu Factory experiences any such issues or delays, our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition could be adversely impacted.
We may build or acquire manufacturing facilities in the future, which may significantly increase our capital outlay and adversely impact our operations and financial condition.
Currently, we have partnered with Geely Group to produce our ZEEKR vehicles on an OEM basis under the Cooperation Framework Agreements at the ZEEKR Factory and the Chengdu Factory. If
 
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market demand for our ZEEKR vehicles increases in the future, we may consider building our own manufacturing factories or acquiring manufacturing facilities from third parties, including Geely Group, to produce our ZEEKR vehicles independently. In such a scenario, we would need to significantly increase our capital outlay and our business model will transition to an asset-heavy model. Additionally, we do not have any experience operating manufacturing facilities independently. All of these factors could adversely impact our operations and financial condition.
The disruption of supply or shortage of components and materials could have a material adverse impact on our business.
We may experience supply interruption and/or shortages relating to components and raw materials, which could materially and adversely impact our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results. We use various components and raw materials in our business, such as steel, aluminum, as well as semiconductor chips and battery cells. The available supply for these materials has historically fluctuated and may continue to be unstable in future, depending on market conditions and global demand for these materials. Factors affecting supply and price include variables such as increased production of BEVs by our competitors, the ongoing trade tensions between the United States and China, and any future regulatory restrictions on our suppliers, among others, any of which could adversely affect our business and operating results. In October 2022, the Bureau of Industry and Security of the U.S. Department of Commerce (“BIS”) released broad changes in export controls, including new regulations restricting the export to China of advanced semiconductors, supercomputer technology, equipment for the manufacturing of advanced semiconductors and associated components and technology. On October 17, 2023, BIS announced additional semiconductor regulations expanding and enhancing export controls under the October 2022 regulations. While we do not expect the new regulations to materially affect our business, there can be no assurance that the United States or other countries will not impose more stringent export controls that may prohibit or restrict our ability to, directly or indirectly, source semiconductor and other components and raw materials, or otherwise affect our business. It is difficult to predict what further trade-related actions the United States or other governments may take, and we may be unable to quickly and effectively react to or mitigate such actions.
In addition, growth in popularity of BEVs without a corresponding and significant expansion in production capacity for semiconductor chips and battery cells could result in shortages and increased materials costs to us. Any attempts by us to increase our end product prices in response to supply interruption could result in decrease in sales and therefore materially and adversely affect our brand, image, business, prospects and operating results.
If our suppliers fail to use ethical business practices and comply with applicable laws and regulations, our brand image could be harmed due to negative publicity.
Our core values, which include developing high quality electric vehicles while operating with integrity, are an important component of our brand image, which makes our reputation sensitive to allegations of unethical business practices. We do not control our independent suppliers or their business practices. Accordingly, we cannot guarantee their compliance with ethical business practices, such as environmental responsibilities, fair wage practices, and compliance with child labor laws, among others. A lack of demonstrated compliance could lead us to seek alternative suppliers, which could increase our costs and result in delayed delivery of our products, product shortages or other disruptions of our operations.
Violation of labor or other laws by our suppliers or the divergence of an independent supplier’s labor or other practices from those generally accepted as ethical in the markets in which we do business could also attract negative publicity for us and our brand. This could diminish the value of our brand image and reduce demand for our electric vehicles if, as a result of such violation, we were to attract negative publicity. If we, or other players in our industry, encounter similar problems in the future, it could harm our brand image, business, prospects, results of operations and financial condition.
We may be unable to adequately control the costs associated with our operation.
We have devoted significant capital to developing and growing our business, including developing our BEV models, purchasing equipment, procuring required raw materials, and building our sales and servicing
 
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infrastructure. We expect to further incur significant costs, including research and development expenses, as we roll out new models and improve existing BEV models, additional operating costs and expenses for production ramp up, raw material procurement costs, and selling and distribution expenses as we build our brand and market our vehicles. In particular, the prices for raw materials such as aluminum and steel fluctuate upon factors beyond our control, and could adversely affect our business and results of operations. Substantial increases in the prices for raw materials such as aluminum and steel would increase our cost of revenues and could reduce our margins. Furthermore, currency fluctuations, tariffs or shortages in petroleum and other economic or political conditions may result in significant increases in freight charges and raw material costs. In addition, we may lose control over the increase of costs in connection with our services including after-sales services. Our ability to become profitable in the future will not only depend on our ability to successfully market our vehicles and other products and services but also to control our costs. If we are unable to design, develop, market, sell, and service our vehicles and provide services in a cost-efficient manner, our margins, profitability, and prospects would be materially and adversely affected.
Any large-scale delays in the delivery, manufacturing and launch of our pipeline products could have a material adverse impact on our business.
OEMs often experience delays in the launch, manufacturing and deliveries of new vehicle models. To the extent we need to delay the launch of our BEVs, our growth prospects could be adversely affected as we may fail to grow our market share. We plan to periodically launch upgrades to our existing BEV models, and such upgrades could also be subject to delays. Currently, our vehicles are manufactured at the ZEEKR Factory or the Chengdu Factory, and any delays or suspensions at the factories will negatively affect our vehicle production and deliveries. For example, vehicle production at the ZEEKR Factory was temporarily suspended in early 2022 due to the COVID-19 pandemic, and we also encountered a temporary suspension in production at the ZEEKR Factory in the first quarter of 2023 due to production line upgrades at the factory. Furthermore, we rely on third-party suppliers for the provision and development of many of the key components used in our BEVs. To the extent our suppliers experience any delays in providing us with or developing necessary components or experience quality issues, we could experience delays in delivering according to our timelines. Any delay in the launch, manufacturing and delivery of our future models, or in offering upgrades or performing after-sales services to existing models could lead to customer dissatisfaction and materially and adversely affect our reputation, demand for our BEVs, results of operations and growth prospects.
Actual or alleged failure to comply with data privacy and protection laws and regulations could damage our reputation, and discourage consumers from purchasing our BEVs.
We are subject to various data privacy and protection laws and regulations in China, including, without limitation, the PRC Cybersecurity Law, the PRC Data Security Law, the PRC Personal Information Protection Law, and the Provisions on MADS. Pursuant to these laws and regulations, a service provider is required to obtain a user’s consent to collect the user’s personal information. See “Regulation —  Regulations Related to Internet Security and Privacy Protection.”
We have adopted strict information security policies, and we use a variety of technologies to protect the data with which we are entrusted. We mainly collect and store data relating to the usage of our BEVs, the autonomous driving system and intelligent operating system, as well as data collected through our sales and services channels. To the extent we collect customer information, we obtain prior consent from our customers in accordance with applicable laws and regulations. We desensitize customer data by removing personally identifiable information, when such information is not relevant to our business. We then analyze such information to improve our technologies, products and services. For further information, see “Business —Data Security and Protection.”
Nevertheless, collection, use and transmission of customer data may subject us to legislative and regulatory burdens in China and other jurisdictions, which could, among other things, require notification of data breach, restrict our use of such information and hinder our ability to acquire new customers or serve existing customers. We have not experienced any material noncompliance with respect to data privacy and protection laws and regulations. If we were found to be in violation of customers’ rights to data privacy, we could face administrative investigation, disciplinary actions, civil claims and reputational damage. We
 
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may incur significant expenses to comply with laws and regulations relating to data privacy, data security and consumer protection, as well as relevant industry standards and contractual obligations. If third parties improperly obtain and use the personal information of our customers, we may be required to expend significant resources to resolve such problems.
In addition, the interpretation and application of personal information protection laws and regulations and standards are still uncertain and evolving. We cannot assure you that relevant governmental authorities will not interpret or implement the laws or regulations in ways that negatively affect us. We may also become subject to additional or new laws and regulations regarding the protection of personal information or privacy-related matters in connection with our methods for data collection and storage. In addition to the regulatory requirements, consumer attitudes towards data privacy are also evolving, and consumer concerns about the extent to which their data is collected by us may adversely affect our ability to gain access to data and improve our technologies, products and services. If consumers allege that we have improperly collected, used, transmitted, released or disclosed their personal information, we could face legal claims and reputational damage. Furthermore, the integrity of our data protection measures could be compromised by system failures, security breaches or cyberattacks. If we are unable to comply with the applicable laws and regulations or effectively address data privacy and protection concerns, such actual or alleged failure could damage our reputation, discourage consumers from purchasing our BEVs and subject us to significant legal liabilities.
We may not be able to maintain and enhance our strategic relationships with our strategic partners.
Strategic business relationships will be an important factor in the growth and success of our business. We have also formed strategic partnerships with several key suppliers and partners. See “Business — Collaboration and Strategic Partnerships” for details regarding our collaboration with third-party partners. If we are unable to maintain and enhance our strategic relationship with any of such partners, our business, financial condition and results of operations would be materially and adversely affected.
We may not be able to expand our physical sales and service network cost-efficiently.
Our offline sales and service network consists of ZEEKR Center, ZEEKR Space, ZEEKR Delivery Center and ZEEKR House. As of June 30, 2023, we had 18 ZEEKR Centers, 219 ZEEKR Spaces, 29 ZEEKR Delivery Centers and 40 ZEEKR Houses in China. We plan to further expand our physical sales and service network. This planned expansion may not have the desired effect of increasing sales and enhancing our brand recognition in a cost-efficient manner. We may need to invest significant capital and management resources to operate existing direct stores and open new ones, and there can be no assurance that we will be able to improve the operational efficiency of our direct stores.
Our services, including those provided through third parties, may not be generally accepted by our customers. If we are unable to provide or arrange adequate services for our customers, our business and reputation may be materially and adversely affected.
We cannot assure you that our services or our efforts to engage with our customers using both our online and offline channels, will be successful, which could affect our revenues as well as our customer satisfaction and marketing. Moreover, we are unable to ensure the availability or quality of services provided by third parties, such as road assistance, vehicle logistics, and automobile financing and insurance. If any of the services provided by third parties becomes unavailable or inadequate, our customers’ experience may be adversely affected, which in turn may materially and adversely affect our business and reputation. For instance, certain of our after-sales services, such as metal works or painting, are provided through the service centers of Lynk&Co dealerships. We cannot assure you that our service arrangements will adequately address the service requirements of our customers to their satisfaction, or that our and Lynk&Co’s dealerships will have sufficient resources to meet these service requirements in a timely manner as the volume of vehicles we deliver increases.
In addition, if we are unable to roll out and establish a widespread service network through a combination of our and third parties’ delivery and servicing centers and authorized body and painting shops, customer satisfaction could be adversely affected, which in turn could materially and adversely affect our sales, results of operations, and prospects.
 
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We may face challenges in providing charging solutions.
We have marketed our ability to provide our customers a convenient charging experience. We offer installation of at-home charging solutions for our customers. Customers may also charge through ZEEKR on-the-road charging solutions and charging fleets. We plan to expand our charging network by partnering with third parties to provide more choices for our customers. As of June 30, 2023, we offered a charging network that is connected to over 520 thousand third-party charging piles across China. There can be no assurance that our partners will continue to expand their charging facilities, or that such partners will continue their cooperation on terms acceptable to us, or at all. As a result, we may need to invest significant capital to establish more ZEEKR on-the-road charging solutions and/or engage additional franchisees to operate such stations. In addition, the installation of home-use charging piles is handled by third-party service providers, although the installation process is supervised by our internal employees, the installation service may not meet our customers’ expectations. To the extent we or the relevant third parties are unable to meet customer expectations or experience difficulties in providing charging solutions, our reputation and business may be materially and adversely affected.
The range of our BEVs on a single charge may be adversely affected by a number of factors, which may negatively influence potential customers’ decisions on whether to purchase our BEVs.
The range of our BEVs on a single charge declines principally as a function of environment temperature, usage, time and charging patterns as well as other factors. For example, a customer’s use of his or her BEV as well as the frequency with which the battery is charged can result in additional deterioration of the battery’s ability to hold a charge. Battery deterioration and the related decrease in range may negatively influence potential customer decisions on whether to purchase our BEVs, which may adversely affect our ability to market and sell our BEVs. There can be no assurance that we will be able to continue to improve the cycle life of our battery packs in the future.
We may have to accept cancellations for our customers’ non-refundable orders for our BEVs.
Currently, our customers place orders for our products through the ZEEKR APP, with these orders being non-refundable. Depending on our marketing strategy, we may offer refundable orders to customers in the future. We have experienced cancellations in the past. Our users may cancel their orders for many reasons out of our control. The potentially long waiting time from the time a reservation is made until the time the vehicle is delivered could also impact user decisions on whether to ultimately make a purchase, due to potential changes in preferences, competitive developments and other factors. If we encounter significant delays in the delivery of the ZEEKR 001, ZEEKR 001 FR, ZEEKR 009, ZEEKR X or our future vehicle models, we believe that a significant number of reservations may be cancelled, which would negatively affect our results of operations.
Our business plans require a significant amount of capital. In addition, our future capital needs may require us to sell additional equity or debt securities that may dilute our shareholders’ equity or introduce covenants that may restrict our operations or our ability to pay dividends.
We will need significant capital to, among other things, conduct research and development, ramp up our production capacity and expand our sales and service network. As of June 30, 2023, we were still in a deficit situation. As we ramp up our production capacity and operations, we may also require significant capital with respect to our business, such as our R&D activities, and such costs may be greater than anticipated. We expect that our level of capital expenditures will be significantly affected by user demand for our BEVs and services. Given that we have a limited operating history, we have limited historical data on the demand for our BEVs and services. As a result, our future capital requirements may be uncertain and actual capital requirements may be different from those we currently anticipate. We plan to seek equity or debt financing to finance a portion of our capital expenditures. Such financing might not be available to us in a timely manner or on terms that are acceptable, or at all. Furthermore, our ability to obtain the necessary financing to carry out our business plan is subject to a number of factors, including general market conditions and investor acceptance of our business plan. These factors may make the timing, amount, terms and conditions of such financing unattractive or unavailable to us. In particular, recent disruptions in the financial markets and volatile economic conditions could affect our ability to raise capital. If we are unable to obtain any
 
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needed additional funding, we may be required to reduce the scope of, delay, or eliminate some or all of, our planned research, development, manufacturing and marketing activities, any of which could materially harm our business. In addition, our future capital needs and other business reasons could require us to sell additional equity or debt securities or obtain a credit facility. The sale of additional equity or equity-linked securities could dilute our shareholders’ interest.
Our industry is rapidly evolving and may be subject to unforeseen changes. Developments in alternative technologies or improvements in the ICE may materially and adversely affect the demand for our BEVs.
We operate in China’s BEV market, which is rapidly evolving and may not develop as we anticipate. The regulatory framework governing the industry is currently uncertain and may remain uncertain for the foreseeable future. As our industry and our business develop, we may need to modify our business model or change our products and services. These changes may not achieve expected results, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and prospects.
Developments in alternative technologies, such as advanced diesel, ethanol, fuel cells or compressed natural gas, or improvements in the fuel economy of the internal combustion engine, may materially and adversely affect our business and prospects in ways we do not currently anticipate. In addition, a sustained depression of petroleum price could make the ownership of ICE vehicles more attractive to consumers. Any failure by us to successfully react to changes in alternative technologies and market conditions could materially harm our competitive position and growth prospects.
We may face risks associated with the international sale of our BEVs, and if we are unable to effectively manage these risks, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.
While we have historically sold all of our BEVs in China, we may explore opportunities to expand into international markets in the future. While we expect China will continue to be our primary market, the marketing and sale of our BEVs to international markets may increase in the future, which will expose us to a number of risks, including, but not limited, to:

fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates;

increased costs associated with maintaining the ability to understand the local markets and develop and maintain effective marketing and distributing presence in various countries;

providing customer service and support in these markets;

difficulty with staffing and managing overseas operations;

uncertainties in local markets in developing countries, such as unstable demands and underdeveloped market conditions;

unstable geopolitical environments that generally affect the overseas markets, such as wars, conflicts and regional tensions;

failure to develop appropriate risk management and internal control structures tailored to overseas operations;

difficulty and cost relating to compliance with different commercial and legal requirements of the overseas markets in which we offer or plan to offer our products and services including charging and other electric infrastructures;

failure to obtain or maintain permits for our products or services in these markets;

different safety concerns and measures needed to address accident related risks in different countries and regions;

inability to obtain, maintain or enforce intellectual property rights;

unanticipated changes in prevailing economic conditions and regulatory requirements;

ineligiblity for tax credits or other incentives offered by governments in these markets; and
 
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adverse impact from economic sanctions and trade barriers such as export, import and international trade controls, tariffs, taxes and other restrictions and expenses.
On October 4, 2023, the European Commission published a notice of initiation of EU anti-subsidy investigations into EU imports of BEVs from China (the “EU Subsidy Probe”). Using the sampling method, the European Commission selected Geely Auto as one of the investigation targets of the EU Subsidy Probe, and Geely Auto is actively cooperating with the investigation. However, anti-subsidy investigations, such as the EU Subsidy Probe, or other similar investigations in overseas markets may adversely affect the imports of BEVs from China, such as ours, into overseas markets, and our strategy of expanding into overseas markets may be negatively impacted.
Our potential expansion into international markets will require us to respond timely and effectively to rapid changes in market conditions in the relevant countries. Our success in international expansion depends, in part, on our ability to succeed in different legal, regulatory, economic, environmental, social and political conditions which we have little control over. We may not be able to develop and implement policies and strategies that will be effective in each location where we do business. A change in one or more of the factors described above may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our future growth is dependent upon consumers’ willingness to adopt NEVs and specifically our BEVs.
The demand for our BEVs and services will highly depend upon the adoption by consumers of NEVs in general and BEVs in particular. The market for NEVs is still rapidly evolving, characterized by rapidly changing technologies, prices and the competitive landscape, evolving government regulation and industry standards and changing consumer demands and behaviors.
Other factors that may influence the adoption of NEVs, and specifically BEVs, include:

perceptions about NEV quality, safety, design, performance and cost, especially if adverse events or accidents occur that are linked to the quality or safety of NEVs, whether or not such vehicles are produced by us or other OEMs;

perceptions about vehicle safety in general, in particular safety issues that may be attributed to the use of advanced technologies, such as autonomous driving and battery cells;

the limited range over which NEVs may be driven on a single battery charge and the speed at which batteries can be charged;

the decline of an NEV’s range resulting from deterioration over time in the battery’s ability to hold a charge;

the availability of other types of NEVs, including plug-in hybrid electric vehicles;

improvements in the fuel economy of the internal combustion engine;

the availability of after-sales service for NEVs;

the environmental consciousness of consumers;

access to charging stations, standardization of BEV charging systems and consumers’ perceptions about convenience and cost for charging a BEV;

the availability of tax and other governmental incentives to purchase and operate NEVs or future regulation requiring increased use of nonpolluting vehicles;

perceptions about and the actual cost of alternative fuel; and

macroeconomic factors.
Any of the factors described above may cause current or potential customers not to purchase our BEVs and use our services. If the market for NEVs does not develop in the way as we expect or develops more slowly than we expect, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results will be affected.
 
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Our financial results may vary significantly from period to period due to the seasonality of our business and fluctuations in our operating costs.
Our operating results may vary significantly from period to period due to many factors, including seasonal factors that may have an effect on the demand for our BEVs. Demand for new cars typically declines over the winter season and during the Chinese New Year holiday, while sales are generally higher in September and October. Our limited operating history makes it difficult for us to judge the exact nature or extent of the seasonality of our business. We may record significant increase in revenues when we commence mass delivery of a new product to fulfill customer orders accumulated in prior periods, but we may not be able to maintain our revenue at similar levels in subsequent periods. Also, any health pandemic or epidemics such as the COVID-19 outbreak and natural disasters such as unusually severe weather conditions in some markets may impact demand for, and our ability to deliver, our BEVs. Our operating results could also suffer if we do not achieve revenue consistent with our expectations for this seasonal demand because many of our expenses are based on anticipated levels of annual revenue.
We also expect our period to period operating results to vary based on our operating costs, which we anticipate will increase significantly in the future periods as we, among other things, design and develop new models, develop new technological capabilities, ramp up our manufacturing facilities and expand our physical sales network, as well as expand our general and administrative functions to support our growing operations. We may incur substantial research and development and/or selling expenses when we develop and/or promote a new product in a given period without generating any revenue from such product until we start delivery of such products to customers in the future periods. As a result of these factors, we believe that period to period comparisons of our operating results are not necessarily meaningful and that these comparisons may not be indicative of future performance. Moreover, our operating results may not meet expectations of equity research analysts or investors. If this occurs, the trading price of the ADSs could fall substantially either suddenly or over time.
If we fail to effectively collaborate with financial service providers, our business may be adversely affected.
We cooperate with financial service providers and connect them with customers who seek automotive financing solutions. We believe the availability of financing options is important to our customers. If affordable automotive financing solutions are not available for our customers, we may not be able to grow our sales. We collaborate with Genius Auto Finance, a vehicle financing solution provider under Geely Auto, as well as a number of commercial banks, such as China Construction Bank, Industrial Bank, Bank of China and Industrial and Commercial Bank of China, with quality service capabilities, to facilitate auto finance for our customers. As we continue to grow our business, we may not be able to connect all customers who qualify for auto finance with financial service providers. In addition, if we do not successfully monitor and comply with applicable national and/or local financial regulations and consumer protection laws governing finance lease transactions, we may become subject to enforcement actions or penalties, which would adversely affect our business.
Any cyberattacks, unauthorized access or control of our BEVs’ systems could result in loss of confidence in us and our BEVs and harm our business.
Our BEVs contain complex information technological systems to support smart technological functions and to accept and install periodic FOTA updates. We have designed, implemented and tested security measures intended to prevent unauthorized access to our information technology networks and our BEVs’ technological systems. However, hackers may attempt to gain unauthorized access to modify, alter and use such networks and systems. We encourage reporting of potential vulnerabilities in the security of our BEVs, and we aim to remedy any reported and verified vulnerability. However, there can be no assurance that vulnerabilities will not be exploited in the future before they can be identified, or that our remediation efforts are or will be successful. Any cyberattacks, unauthorized access, disruption, damage or control of our information technology networks or our BEVs’ systems or any loss or leakage of data or information stored in our systems could result in legal claims or proceedings. In addition, regardless of their veracity, reports of cyberattacks to our information technology networks or our BEVs’ systems or data, as well as other factors that may result in the perception that our information technology networks or our BEVs’ systems or data are vulnerable to “hacking,” could negatively affect our brand and harm our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operation.
 
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Interruption or failure of our information technology and communications systems could impact our ability to effectively provide our services.
We enable our customers to access a variety of features and services through our mobile apps. In addition, certain of NEVs’ features depend to a certain extent on connectivity to our information technology systems. As such, the availability and effectiveness of our services depend on the continued operation of our information technology and communications systems. Our systems are vulnerable to damage or interruption from, among others, fire, terrorist attacks, natural disasters, power loss, telecommunications failures, computer viruses or other attempts to harm our systems. Our data centers are also subject to break-ins, sabotage, and intentional acts of vandalism, and to potential disruptions. Some of our systems are not fully redundant, and our disaster recovery planning cannot account for all eventualities. Any problems at our data centers could result in lengthy interruptions in our service. In addition, our products and services are highly technical and complex and may contain errors or vulnerabilities, which could result in interruptions in our services or the failure of our systems.
Our business depends substantially on the continuing efforts of our executive officers, key employees and qualified personnel, and our operations may be severely disrupted if we lose their services.
Our success depends substantially on the continued efforts of our executive officers and key employees. If one or more of our executive officers or key employees were unable or unwilling to continue their services with us, we might not be able to replace them easily, in a timely manner, or at all. As we build our brand and become more well-known, the risk that competitors or other companies may poach our talent increases. Our industry is characterized by high demand and intense competition for talent and therefore we cannot assure you that we will be able to attract or retain qualified staff or other highly skilled employees. In addition, because our BEVs are based on a different technology platform than traditional ICE vehicles, individuals with sufficient training in NEVs may not be available for hiring, and we will need to expend significant time and expense training the employees we hire. We also require sufficient talents in areas such as software development. Furthermore, as our company is relatively young, our ability to train and integrate new employees into our operations may not meet the growing demands of our business, which may materially and adversely affect our ability to grow our business and our results of operations.
If any of our executive officers and key employees terminates his or her services with us, our business may be disrupted, our financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected and we may incur additional expenses to recruit, train and retain qualified personnel. From time to time, our executive officers and key employees have been, and may in the future be, subject to negative news. Lawsuits or regulatory investigations or actions against our executive officers or key employees may also generate negative publicity that significantly harms our reputation, which may adversely affect our business and results of operations. We have not obtained any “key person” insurance on our key personnel. If any of our executive officers or key employees joins a competitor or forms a competing company, we may lose customers, know-how and key professionals and staff members. Each of our executive officers and key employees has entered into an employment agreement with us, which includes non-competition clauses, confidentiality clauses and intellectual property ownership clauses. However, if any dispute arises between our executive officers or key employees and us, the non-competition provisions contained in their employment agreements may not be enforceable, especially in China, where these executive officers reside, on the ground that we have not provided adequate compensation to them for their non-competition obligations, which is required under relevant PRC laws.
Misconduct by our employees during and before their employment with us could expose us to potentially significant legal liabilities, reputational harm and/or other damages to our business.
Many of our employees play critical roles in ensuring the safety and reliability of our products and services and/or our compliance with relevant laws and regulations. Certain of our employees have access to sensitive information and/or proprietary technologies and know-how. While we have adopted codes of conduct for all of our employees and implemented detailed policies and procedures relating to intellectual property, proprietary information and trade secrets, we cannot assure you that our employees will always abide by these codes, policies and procedures nor that the precautions we take to detect and prevent employee misconduct will always be effective. If any of our employees engage in any misconduct, illegal or suspicious activities,
 
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including but not limited to, misappropriation or leakage of sensitive client information or proprietary information, we and such employees could be subject to legal claims and liabilities and our reputation and business could be adversely affected as a result.
In addition, while we have screening procedures during the recruitment process, we cannot assure you that we will be able to uncover misconduct of job applicants that occurred before we offered them employment, or that we will not be affected by legal proceedings against our existing or former employees as a result of their actual or alleged misconduct. We have put in place various safeguards and spend significant amount of time and efforts to address the risk of unauthorized third-party information being introduced into our systems or used in our operations. We could be involved in related proceedings that may arise in the future, or be forced to defend against any allegations in the future, even when the allegations are not justified. Any negative publicity surrounding these allegations, especially in the event that any of these employees is found to have committed any wrongdoing, could negatively affect our reputation and may have an adverse impact on our business. Likewise, suppose our sales forces do not comply with applicable laws and regulations, for example, false or misleading promotion, this could materially impact our brand image and customers’ trust in our brand and could result in harming our business and financial condition.
We may become subject to product liability claims, which could harm our financial condition and liquidity if we are not able to successfully defend against such claims.
If we become liable for product liability claims, our business, operating results and financial condition may be harmed. The automotive industry experiences significant product liability claims and we face inherent risk of exposure to claims in the event our BEVs do not meet applicable standards or requirements, resulting in property damage, personal injury or death. Our risks in this area are particularly pronounced given we have limited experience of offering BEVs. Although we implement full-cycle quality control, covering design, procurement, production, sales and after-sales services, we cannot assure you that our quality control measures will be as effective as we expect. Any failure in any of our quality control steps would cause a defect in our BEVs, and in turn, could harm our customers. A successful product liability claim against us could require us to pay a substantial monetary compensation. Moreover, a product liability claim could generate substantial negative publicity about our BEVs and business and inhibit or prevent commercialization of our future NEVs, which would have material adverse effect on our brand, business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
We may choose to or be compelled to undertake product recalls or take other similar actions, which could adversely affect our brand image, business and results of operations.
Our existing and future BEVs may not perform as expected or may require repair. Our BEVs’ performance depends on various complex components supplied by various suppliers. There is no guarantee that all product specifications of our BEVs, which reflect our current expectations and development targets, will actually be realized. The software used to operate our BEVs is complex and may contain defects and errors. Our quality management system may not be effective or sufficient and the number of defective vehicles may be substantially higher than anticipated.
Our BEVs have not been recalled so far, but this may happen in the future. As a result, we may be subject to adverse publicity, damage to our brand and liability for costs. In the future, we may at various times, voluntarily or involuntarily, initiate a recall if any of our BEVs, including any systems or parts sourced from our suppliers, prove to be defective or noncompliant with applicable laws and regulations. Such recalls, whether voluntary or involuntary or caused by systems or components engineered or manufactured by us or our suppliers, could involve significant expense and could adversely affect our brand image, business and results of operations.
Our vehicles are subject to motor vehicle standards and the failure to satisfy such mandated safety standards would materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.
In China, vehicles must meet or exceed all mandated safety standards. Rigorous testing and the use of approved materials and equipment are among the requirements for achieving such standards. Vehicles must pass various tests and undergo a certification process and be affixed with China Compulsory Certification, or CCC, before receiving delivery from the factory, being sold, or being used in any commercial activity, and
 
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such certification is also subject to periodic renewal. Although our ZEEKR 001 and ZEEKR 009 have received CCC certifications, we cannot assure you that each of our future BEV models will be able to receive such certifications. Furthermore, the government carries out the supervision and scheduled and unscheduled inspection of certified vehicles on a regular basis. In the event that our certification fails to be renewed upon expiry, a certified vehicle has a defect resulting in quality or safety accidents, or consistent failure of certified vehicles to comply with certification requirements is discovered during follow-up inspections, the CCC may be suspended or even revoked. With effect from the date of revocation or during suspension of the CCC, any vehicle that fails to satisfy the requirements for certification may not continue to be delivered, sold or used in any commercial activity. Failure of any of our BEV models to satisfy motor vehicle standards would have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
Our BEVs make use of battery cells, and battery cells may catch fire or vent smoke and flame on rare occasions.
Our BEVs’ battery packs make use of battery cells. On rare occasions, battery cells can rapidly release the energy they contain by venting smoke and flames in a manner that can ignite nearby materials as well as other battery cells. While our batteries are built with robust safety features and strong thermal management capabilities, there can be no assurance that our batteries will always function safely. If any safety accident occurs to any of our BEVs’ battery pack, we could be subject to lawsuits, product recalls or redesign efforts, all of which would be time consuming and expensive. Also, negative public perceptions regarding the suitability of battery cells for automotive applications or any future incident involving battery cells, such as a vehicle fire, even if such incident does not involve our BEVs, could seriously harm customers’ confidence in our BEVs.
If our vehicle owners make unauthorized modification to our BEVs, the vehicle may not operate properly.
Automobile enthusiasts may seek to “hack” our BEVs to modify their performance which could compromise vehicle safety systems. Also, customers may customize our BEVs with after-market parts that can compromise driver safety. We do not test, nor do we endorse, such changes. In addition, the use of improper external cabling or unsafe charging outlets can expose our customers to injury from high voltage electricity. Such unauthorized modifications could reduce the safety of our BEVs and any injuries resulting from such modifications could result in adverse publicity, which would negatively affect our brand and harm our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
We may need to defend ourselves against patent or trademark infringement claims, which may be time-consuming and would cause us to incur substantial costs and potential adverse effect on our business operations.
Companies, organizations or individuals, including our competitors, may hold or obtain patents, trademarks or other proprietary rights that would prevent, limit or interfere with our ability to make, use, develop, sell or market our BEVs, which could make it more difficult for us to operate our business. From time to time, we may receive communications from holders of patents, copyrights or trademarks regarding their proprietary rights. Companies holding patents, copyrights, trademarks or other intellectual property rights may bring suits alleging infringement of such rights by us or our employees or otherwise assert their rights and urge us to take licenses. Any such intellectual property infringement claim could result in costly litigation and divert our management’s attention and resources.
If we or our employees are determined to have infringed upon a third-party’s intellectual property rights, we may be required to do one or more of the following:

cease offering NEVs or services that incorporate or use the challenged intellectual property;

pay substantial damages;

seek a license from the holder of the infringed intellectual property right, in which case the license may not be available on reasonable terms or at all;

redesign our BEVs or relevant services which would incur significant cost; or

establish and maintain alternative branding for our BEVs and services.
 
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In the event of a successful claim of infringement against us and our failure or inability to obtain a license to the infringed technology or other intellectual property right, our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operation could be materially and adversely affected. In addition, any litigation or claims, whether or not valid, could result in substantial costs, negative publicity and diversion of resources and management attention, which would negatively affect our brand and harm our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
As our intellectual property rights may expire and may not be extended, our applications may not be granted, and our intellectual property rights may be contested, circumvented, invalidated, or limited in scope, our intellectual property rights may not protect us effectively. In particular, we may not be able to prevent others from developing or exploiting competing technologies, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
We rely on a combination of patents, trademarks, copyrights, trade secrets and confidentiality agreements to protect our proprietary rights. As of June 30, 2023, we had 795 patents (including 74 invention patents) and 1,648 pending patent applications, which we have invested significant resources to develop. In addition, we have been licensed 476 and 433 registered trademarks in mainland China and overseas from Geely Holding, respectively, and Geely Holding has 2,088 pending trademark applications relating to our business in China and certain other jurisdictions. As of the same date, we also had 50 registered software copyrights and 278 registered domain names. Also, the patents related to SEA are licensed from Geely Holding. We rely on trademark and patent law, trade secret protection and confidentiality and license arrangements or agreements with our affiliates, employees and others to protect our intellectual property rights. In addition, any unauthorized use of our intellectual property by third parties may adversely affect our current and future revenues and our reputation.
There can be no assurance that our application for the registration with competent government authorities of trademarks and other intellectual property rights related to our current or future business will be approved, or our intellectual property rights will not be challenged by third parties or found by the relevant governmental or judicial authority to be invalid or unenforceable. From time to time, we may encounter difficulties registering our intellectual properties or have disputes with third parties regarding our intellectual properties. If the relevant trademarks or other intellectual properties could not be registered, we may fail to prevent others from using such intellectual properties, and our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.
Especially, the rights granted under any issued patents may not provide us with meaningful protection or competitive advantages. The claims under any patents that issue from our patent applications may not be broad enough to prevent others from developing technologies that are similar or that achieve results similar to ours. It is also possible that the intellectual property rights of others could bar us from licensing and exploiting any patents that issue from our pending applications. Numerous patents and pending patent applications owned by others exist in the fields in which we have developed and are developing our technology. These patents and patent applications might have priority over our patent applications and could subject our patent applications to invalidation. Finally, in addition to those who may claim priority, any of our existing or pending patents may also be challenged by others on the basis that they are otherwise invalid or unenforceable.
PRC intellectual property-related legal system has been established in the recent decades and is still evolving. Accordingly, protection of intellectual property rights in China may not be as effective as in the United States or other developed countries. Furthermore, policing unauthorized use of proprietary technology is difficult and expensive. Despite our efforts to protect our proprietary rights, third parties may attempt to copy or otherwise obtain and use our intellectual property or seek court declarations that they do not infringe upon our intellectual property rights. Monitoring unauthorized use of our intellectual property is difficult and costly, and we cannot assure you that the steps we have taken or will take will prevent misappropriation of our intellectual property. From time to time, we may have to resort to litigation to enforce our intellectual property rights, which could result in substantial costs and diversion of our resources.
In addition, as our patents may expire and may not be extended and our patent rights may be contested, circumvented, invalidated or limited in scope, our patent rights may not protect us effectively. In particular,
 
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we may not be able to prevent others from developing or exploiting competing technologies, which could have a material and adverse effect on our business operations, financial condition and results of operations.
We may not be able to prevent others from unauthorized use of our intellectual property, which could harm our business and competitive position.
We regard our patents, domain names, trade secrets, proprietary technologies, and similar intellectual property as critical to our success. We rely on trademark and patent law, trade secret protection and confidentiality and license arrangement and agreements with our employees and others to protect our proprietary rights.
We have invested significant resources to develop our own intellectual property. Failure to maintain or protect these rights could harm our business. In addition, any unauthorized use of our intellectual property by third parties may adversely affect our current and future revenues and our reputation.
PRC laws relating to intellectual property legal system has been established in the recent decades and is still evolving. Accordingly, the protection of intellectual property rights in China may not be as effective as in the United States or other developed countries. Furthermore, policing the unauthorized use of proprietary technology is difficult and expensive. We rely on a combination of patent, copyright, trademark, and trade secret laws and restrictions on disclosure to protect our intellectual property rights. Despite our efforts to protect our proprietary rights, third parties may attempt to copy or otherwise obtain and use our intellectual property or seek court declarations that they do not infringe upon our intellectual property rights. Monitoring unauthorized use of our intellectual property is difficult and costly, and we cannot assure you that the steps we have taken or will take will prevent the misappropriation of our intellectual property. From time to time, we may have to resort to litigation to enforce our intellectual property rights, which could result in substantial costs and the diversion of our resources.
Some of our leasehold interests may be defective, which may challenge or affect our right to use the leased properties. In addition, we have not completed registration procedures in respect of our leased properties with the relevant PRC authorities.
We lease a number of properties for our stores, service centers, and offices (“Leased Properties”) across China. Certain Leased Properties are not used in accordance with PRC laws and our leasehold interests in such Leased Properties are therefore under defective situations (these “Situations”). These Situations include having some of our Leased Properties located on lands designated for industrial usage instead of commercial usage, and on allocated lands which can only be used under limited purposes such as public interest or infrastructure facilities usage instead of commercial usage. Under the PRC legal regime regarding the land use right, land shall be used strictly in line with its approved usage. Any change to the contemplated usages of land shall go through relevant land alteration registration procedures. Failure to do so may subject the lessors to monetary fines or other penalties and may lead to the invalidation or termination of our leases by competent government authorities, and therefore we may need to move our leases somewhere else and additional relocation costs will be incurred.
Furthermore, we have not been provided by certain lessors with the applicable certificates, approvals, consents or other similar documents proving their right to lease or sublease these Leased Properties to us. If any lessor is not the owner of the Leased Properties, or is not entitled to lease or sublease the Leased Properties to us, or have not obtained consents from the owners or their lessors or permits or approvals from the relevant governmental authorities, we may not be able to enforce our rights to lease such Leased Properties under the respective lease agreements against the lessors and our leases may be invalidated. For example, certain of our Leased Properties are currently located on allocated lands or collectively-owned construction lands, and the lessors have not provided the title certificates to these Leased Properties or the governmental or other applicable approval permitting the leases. If the lessor fails to obtain such approval, our leases may be invalidated or challenged, and we may also need to vacate our premises.
In addition, certain Leased Properties had been mortgaged by the landlords to third parties before entering into lease agreements with us. If the mortgagees of the Leased Properties exercise their mortgage right, we will not be able to continue our leases on the said properties. Moreover, the majority of our lease agreements for our leased properties in China have not been registered with the relevant authorities. With
 
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respect to the unregistered leases in China, we may be subject to a fine ranging from RMB1,000 to RMB10,000 per unregistered lease agreement if we fail to make such registration within a given timeframe put forward by the Chinese government. In addition, there is also risks of violating the lease agreements. For example, if we fail to purchase insurance as required by the lessors in certain lease agreements. If any of our leases are terminated or become unenforceable as a result of challenges from third parties or the above mentioned defects, we would need to seek alternative properties, relocate the relevant functions and move our stores, offices or service centers somewhere else and incur relocation costs, and there is no guarantee that we would be able to find suitable alternative properties on reasonable commercial terms, if at all. Any relocation could lead to disruptions to our operations and may have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
We may be required to change our registered address or relocate our operating offices under PRC law.
Under PRC law, the registered address of a company shall be its main premises for business operations. If a company intends to set up other premises for business operations outside its registered address, the company shall register those premises for business operations as branch offices with the relevant local market regulation authorities at the place where the premises are located and obtain business licenses for them as branch offices.
Currently, some of our subsidiaries have set up premises for business operations outside their registered addresses as the operating addresses, and use these premises as the main premises for business operations. We may not be able to change the registered address of our subsidiaries to its operating addresses or register such premises as branch offices in a timely manner or at all due to complex procedural requirements and relocation of branch offices from time to time. Our PRC subsidiaries may be listed as “enterprises with abnormal operations” and disclose the same to the public if they fail to register such premises, and failure to make rectification in a timely manner may further subject our PRC subsidiaries to fines, or subject their respective legal representative or person in charge to administrative orders suspending their term of office for a certain period of time. In the future, we may expand our business to additional locations in China and we may fail to update the registered addresses for our subsidiaries or register those premises as branch offices in a timely manner. If the PRC regulatory authorities determine that we are in violation of the relevant laws and regulations, we may be subject to penalties, including but not limited to fines, being listed on the List of Enterprises with Serious Illegal and Dishonest Acts and publicized to the public, and our business licenses may be revoked under serious circumstances. As of the date of this prospectus, we have not received any regulatory or governmental administrative penalties in relation to the registered address of our subsidiaries. If we become subject to these penalties, our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects could be materially and adversely affected.
If our estimates or judgments relating to our critical accounting policies prove to be inaccurate, our results of operations could be adversely affected.
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP and our key metrics require management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the combined and consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes and amounts reported in our key metrics. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, as provided in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.” The results of these estimates form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets, liabilities and equity and the amount of revenue and expenses that are not readily apparent from other sources. Our results of operations may be adversely affected if our assumptions change or if actual circumstances differ from those in our assumptions, which could cause our results of operations to fall below the expectations of securities analysts and investors, resulting in a decline in the trading price of the ADSs.
Our insurance coverage strategy may not be adequate to protect us from all business risks.
We have limited liability insurance coverage for our products and business operations. A successful liability claim against us due to injuries suffered by our customers could materially and adversely affect our
 
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financial condition, results of operations and reputation. In addition, we do not have any business disruption insurance. Any business disruption event could result in substantial cost to us and diversion of our resources.
From time to time we may evaluate and potentially consummate strategic investments or acquisitions, which could require significant management attention, disrupt our business and adversely affect our financial results.
We may evaluate and consider strategic investments, combinations, acquisitions or alliances to enhance our competitive position. These transactions could be material to our financial condition and results of operations if consummated. If we are able to identify an appropriate business opportunity, we may not be able to successfully consummate the transaction and, even if we do consummate such a transaction, we may be unable to obtain the benefits or avoid the difficulties and risks of such transaction, which may result in investment losses.
Strategic investments or acquisitions will involve risks commonly encountered in business relationships, including:

difficulties in assimilating and integrating the operations, personnel, systems, data, technologies, products and services of the acquired business;

inability of the acquired technologies, products or businesses to achieve expected levels of revenue, profitability, productivity or other benefits including the failure to successfully further develop the acquired technology;

difficulties in retaining, training, motivating and integrating key personnel;

diversion of management’s time and resources from our normal daily operations and potential disruptions to our ongoing businesses;

strain on our liquidity and capital resources;

difficulties in executing intended business plans and achieving synergies from such strategic investments or acquisitions;

difficulties in maintaining uniform standards, controls, procedures and policies within the overall organization;

difficulties in retaining relationships with existing suppliers and other partners of the acquired business;

risks of entering markets in which we have limited or no prior experience;

regulatory risks, including remaining in good standing with existing regulatory bodies or receiving any necessary pre-closing or post-closing approvals, as well as being subject to new regulators with oversight over an acquired business;

assumption of contractual obligations that contain terms that are not beneficial to us, require us to license or waive intellectual property rights or increase our risk for liability;

liability for activities of the acquired business before the acquisition, including intellectual property infringement claims, violations of laws, commercial disputes, tax liabilities and other known and unknown liabilities; and

unexpected costs and unknown risks and liabilities associated with strategic investments or acquisitions.
Any future investments or acquisitions may not be successful, may not benefit our business strategy, may not generate sufficient revenues to offset the associated acquisition costs or may not otherwise result in the intended benefits.
We are subject to laws and regulations relating to environmental protection, fire protection, health and safety, work safety, hazardous chemicals and construction.
During the ordinary course of our business, the relevant production, manufacturing or construction works may subject us to PRC laws and regulations on environmental protection, fire protection, health and
 
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safety, work safety, hazardous chemicals and radiation devices. In addition, we may be required to obtain additional permits or make additional filings or registrations for the construction works in relation to decoration we made on the leased properties, especially those used as stores, depending on the amount of investment and area of the properties, including but not limited to obtaining construction permit, filing for as-built inspection of projects and the relevant fire protection inspection and filing procedures. As of the date of this prospectus, we have not completed all necessary construction permits or fire protection inspection and filing procedures for certain of decorations on our leased properties in a timely manner. We may be subject to fines, orders to make rectification, or required to terminate or demolish our decoration within a given timeframe. If any of our decorations are ordered to be terminated or demolished due to the above mentioned defects, we would not be able to recover our investment in such construction works, and we would need to seek alternative properties, relocate the relevant functions and move our stores, offices or service centers somewhere else and incur relocation costs. There is no guarantee that we would be able to find suitable alternative properties on reasonable commercial terms, if at all. Any demolishment or relocation could lead to disruptions to our operations and may have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
We have been compliant with such laws and regulations in all material aspects except for the above mentioned defects. However, as we continue to expand our business operations and the PRC regulators continue to exert more oversight on administrative management of certain aspects such as environmental protection, health and work safety, as well as other factors beyond our control, we cannot assure you that there will not be violations or suspected violations that result in us becoming subject to governmental investigations, fines and other legal or administrative sanctions. If we or the manufacturer of our BEVs fail to comply with applicable regulations in relation to environmental protection, fire protection, health and safety, work safety, hazardous chemicals, radiation devices and construction or maintain and renew the relevant permits in a timely manner, we could be subject to fines or be forced to close or temporarily cease part or all of our operations or other penalties, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operation.
Certain of our operating subsidiaries may be required to obtain additional licenses or permits or make additional filings or registrations.
In order to operate our business, we need to obtain a series of licenses, permits and approvals, make filings or complete registrations according to relevant PRC laws and regulations. However, given the intent of the PRC regulators to exert more oversight on administrative management of certain aspects such as environmental protection, health and work safety, as well as other factors beyond our control, we cannot guarantee you that we have obtained or will be able to obtain and maintain all requisite licenses, permits, filings and registrations.
For example, PRC governments impose sanctions for engaging in value-added telecommunication services, or the VATS, without having obtained the VATS licenses for relevant categories. These sanctions include corrective orders and warnings from the PRC communication administration authority, fines and confiscation of illegal gains and, in the case of significant infringements, the websites and mobile apps may be ordered to cease operation. We are cooperating with ZEEKR Power, which has obtained a VATS license for Internet content provider service and online data and transaction processing service (for e-commerce), to operate ZEEKR APP and ZEEKR Subscription APP and promote our products and services online as required by us. Given that the relevant PRC laws and regulations do not contain explicit provision in relation to such cooperation, and the interpretation of such regulations and PRC regulatory authorities’ enforcement of such regulations in the context of VATS industry are evolving, it is unclear whether such cooperation complies with the applicable laws and regulations. If we can no longer continue our cooperation with ZEEKR Power, we may be required to obtain a VATS license. If we are not able to comply with all applicable legal requirements, we may be subject to fines, confiscation of the gains derived from our non-compliant operations or suspension of our non-compliant operations, any of which may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may from time to time be subject to claims, disputes, lawsuits and other legal and administrative proceedings.
We are currently not a party to any material legal or administrative proceedings. However, in light of the nature of our business, we and our management are susceptible to potential claims or disputes. We and
 
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certain of our management have been, and may from time to time in the future be, subject to or involved in various claims, disputes, lawsuits and other legal and administrative proceedings. Lawsuits and litigations may cause us to incur defense costs, utilize a significant portion of our resources and divert management’s attention from our day-to-day operations, any of which could harm our business. Claims arising out of actual or alleged violations of law, breach of contract or torts could be asserted against us by customers, business partners, suppliers, competitors, employees or governmental entities in investigations and legal proceedings. In particular, according to the PRC Social Insurance Law and the Regulations on the Administration of Housing Provident Fund and other relevant laws and regulations, employers are required to establish a social insurance system and other employee benefits including pension insurance, medical insurance, work-related injury insurance, unemployment insurance, maternity insurance and housing provident fund (collectively, the “Employee Benefits”). Employers shall open the social insurance and housing provident fund accounts and to make adequate contributions of Employee Benefits for their employees. Employers that fail to do so may be subject to fines and legal sanctions. However, some of our PRC subsidiaries failed to make adequate contributions to social insurance and housing provident fund for certain of our employees, or engaged third-party human resources agencies to pay social insurance premium and housing provident funds for certain of our employees. For details, see “Risk Factors — We may be subject to additional contributions of social insurance and housing provident fund and late payments and fines imposed by relevant governmental authorities.” If the relevant PRC authorities determine that we shall make supplemental contributions, that we are not in compliance with labor laws and regulations, or that we are subject to fines or other legal sanctions, such as order of timely rectification, and our business, financial condition and results of operation may be adversely affected.
We may be subject to additional contributions of social insurance and housing provident fund and late payments and fines imposed by relevant governmental authorities.
In accordance with the above-mentioned PRC laws, companies incorporated in the PRC are required to participate in the Employee Benefits and contribute to the amounts which are equal to a certain percentage of salaries, including bonuses and allowances, of their employees. According to the Social Insurance Law, an employer that has not made social insurance contributions at a rate and based on an amount prescribed by the law, or at all, may be ordered to rectify the non-compliance and pay the required contributions within a stipulated deadline and be subject to a late payment fine at a daily rate of 0.05% per day of the outstanding amount. If the employer still fails to rectify the failure to make social insurance contributions within the stipulated deadline, it may be subject to a fine ranging from one to three times of the amount overdue. Pursuant to the Regulations on the Administration of Housing Provident Fund, in the event that the payment and deposit of the housing provident fund is not made in full or at all in time by an employer, the housing provident fund management center may order it to make the payment and deposit within a prescribed period, and where the payment and deposit has not been made within the prescribed period, an application may be made to the PRC courts for compulsory enforcement.
In addition, under the Social Insurance Law and the Regulations on the Administration of Housing Provident Fund, PRC subsidiaries shall register with local social insurance agencies and register with applicable housing provident fund management centers and establish a special housing provident fund account in an entrusted bank. Employers that do not open the social insurance account may be ordered by the social security administrative authorities to make correction within a stipulated period; where correction is not made within the stipulated period, employers may be subject to a fine ranging from one to three times the amount of the social security premiums payable, and the direct liable administrative staff of such employers may by subject to a fine ranging from RMB500 to RMB3,000. Employers that do not register the housing provident fund may be ordered by the housing provident fund management center to complete the housing fund payment registration within a prescribed time limit, failing to do so may be subjected to a fine from RMB10,000 to RMB50,000.
We cannot assure you that the relevant governmental authorities will not require us to pay the outstanding amount and impose late fees or fines on us. If we are otherwise subject to investigations related to non-compliance with labor and social security laws and regulations and are imposed severe penalties or incur significant legal fees in connection with labor or social security law disputes or investigations, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.
 
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If we fail to maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting, we may be unable to accurately report our financial results or prevent fraud, and investor confidence in our company and the market price of the ADSs may be adversely affected.
Prior to this offering, we were a private company with limited accounting personnel and other resources with which to address our internal controls and procedures. Our management has not completed an assessment of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting and our independent registered public accounting firm has not conducted an audit of our internal control over financial reporting. In connection with the preparation and audit of our combined and consolidated financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2022, we and our independent registered public accounting firm identified two material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting. As defined in the standards established by the PCAOB, a “material weakness” is a deficiency, or combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of the annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis.
The material weaknesses identified relate to (i) lack of sufficient accounting personnel for financial information processing and reporting and with appropriate U.S. GAAP knowledge and (ii) lack of formal risk assessment process over financial reporting. We have implemented and are continuing to implement a number of measures to address the material weaknesses that has been identified. For details, see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Internal Control Over Financial Reporting.” However, we cannot assure you that we will be able to continue implementing these measures in the future, or that we will not identify additional material weaknesses or significant deficiencies in the future.
We will be subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the rules and regulations of the NYSE after the completion of this offering. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires, among other things, that we maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures and internal controls over financial reporting. Commencing with our fiscal year ending December 31, 2024, we must perform system and process evaluation and testing of our internal controls over financial reporting to allow management to report on the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting in our Form 20-F filing for that year, as required by Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. Our management may conclude that our internal control over financial reporting is not effective. Moreover, even if our management concludes that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, our independent registered public accounting firm, after conducting its own independent testing, may issue a report that is qualified if it is not satisfied with our internal controls or the level at which our controls are documented, designed, operated or reviewed, or if it interprets the relevant requirements differently from us. This will require that we incur substantial additional professional fees and internal costs to expand our accounting and finance functions and that we expend significant management efforts.
In addition, our internal control over financial reporting will not prevent or detect all errors and all fraud. A control system, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurance that the control system’s objectives will be met. Because of the inherent limitations in all control systems, no evaluation of controls can provide absolute assurance that misstatements due to error or fraud will not occur or that all control issues and instances of fraud will be detected.
If we are not able to comply with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act in a timely manner, or if we are unable to maintain proper and effective internal controls, we may not be able to produce timely and accurate financial statements. If that were to happen, the market price of the ADSs could decline and we could be subject to sanctions or investigations by the NYSE, SEC or other regulatory authorities.
Our warranty reserves may be insufficient to cover future warranty claims which could adversely affect our financial performance.
We offer competitive warranty terms to cover all parts and labor to repair defects in material or workmanship in the body, chassis, suspension, interior, electric systems, battery, powertrain, and brake system. It also covers free road assistance under the warranty coverage. We recorded and plan to adjust
 
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warranty reserves based on changes in estimated costs and actual warranty costs. For a detailed discussion, see “Business — Our Sales and Services — After-sales Services and Value-added Services.”
We cannot assure you that our warranty reserves will be sufficient to cover future warranty claims. In particular, we started the delivery of ZEEKR 001 in October 2021 and we have limited experience with warranty claims regarding our vehicles or with estimating warranty reserves. We could, in the future, become subject to a significant and unexpected warranty claims, resulting in significant expenses, which would in turn materially and adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.
We will recognize a substantial amount of share-based compensation expense upon the completion of this offering, and may incur more share-based compensation in the future, which will have a significant impact on our results of operations.
In 2021, we adopted a share incentive plan, pursuant to which restricted share units, or RSUs, were granted to certain employees, officers and directors of us. As of June 30, 2023, 96,682,363 RSUs had been granted and are outstanding. We are required to recognize compensation expense for an equity award over the period in which the recipient is required to provide service in exchange for the equity award. Because the vesting of the RSUs will be contingent upon the completion of an initial public offering or change in control, we have not recognized, and do not expect to recognize, share-based compensation expense relating to such equity awards prior to the completion of this offering. Upon the completion of this offering, we expect to begin to recognize a significant amount of share-based compensation expense. As of June 30, 2023, the total unrecognized share-based compensation expense amounted to RMB1,365.2 million (US$188.3 million), out of which RMB393.3 million (US$54.2 million) was related to RSUs for which the service condition had been met and is expected to be recognized upon the completion of this offering. Moreover, if additional RSUs or other share incentives are granted to our employees, directors in the future, we will incur additional share-based compensation expense and our results of operations will be further adversely affected.
We face risks related to natural disasters, health epidemics and other outbreaks, which could significantly disrupt our operations.
Our business could be adversely affected by the effects of epidemics. In recent years, there have been outbreaks of epidemics in China and globally. If any of our employees are identified as a possible source of spreading COVID-19, H1N1 flu, avian flu or another epidemic, we may be required to quarantine employees that are suspected of being infected, as well as others that have come into contact with those employees. We may also be required to disinfect our affected premises, which could cause a temporary suspension of certain business operations. A recurrence of an outbreak of COVID-19, H1N1 flu, avian flu or another epidemic could restrict the level of economic activities generally and/or slow down or disrupt our business activities, which could in turn adversely affect our results of operations.
We are also vulnerable to natural disasters and other calamities. Although we have servers that are hosted in an offsite location, our backup system does not capture data on a real-time basis and we may be unable to recover certain data in the event of a server failure. We cannot assure you that any backup systems will be adequate to protect us from the effects of fire, floods, typhoons, earthquakes, power loss, telecommunications failures, break-ins, war, riots, terrorist attacks or similar events. Any of the foregoing events may give rise to interruptions, breakdowns, system failures, technology platform failures or internet failures, which could cause the loss or corruption of data or malfunctions of software or hardware as well as adversely affect our ability to provide services to our customers.
We are subject to anti-corruption, anti-bribery, anti-money laundering, financial and economic sanctions, export, import, and international trade controls, and similar laws, and non-compliance with such laws can subject us to administrative, civil and criminal fines and penalties, collateral consequences, remedial measures and legal expenses, all of which could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition, reputation, and value of the our securities.
We are subject to anti-corruption, anti-bribery, anti-money laundering, financial and economic sanctions, export, import, and international trade controls and similar laws and regulations in various jurisdictions in which we conduct activities, including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, or FCPA, the U.K. Bribery Act 2010, and other anti-corruption laws and regulations. The FCPA and the U.K. Bribery
 
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Act 2010 prohibit us and our officers, directors, employees and business partners acting on our behalf, including agents, from corruptly offering, promising, authorizing or providing anything of value to a “foreign official” for the purposes of influencing official decisions or obtaining or retaining business or otherwise obtaining favorable treatment. The FCPA also requires companies to make and keep books, records and accounts that accurately reflect transactions and dispositions of assets and to maintain a system of adequate internal accounting controls.
The U.K. Bribery Act also prohibits non-governmental “commercial” bribery and soliciting or accepting bribes. A violation of these laws or regulations could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and reputation. We have direct or indirect interactions with officials and employees of government agencies and state-owned affiliated entities in the ordinary course of business. These interactions subject us to an increased level of compliance-related concerns.
The U.S., U.K, E.U. and other governments have adopted various financial, economic and trade sanctions programs as well as export/import controls, which impose varying degrees of restrictions on dealings with certain countries and regions as well as specific entities and persons. These sanctions programs and export/import controls evolve and expand frequently and it is not possible to predict with a reasonable degree of certainty how the regulations may develop or if we may become the target of these sanctions, export, or import controls or other international trade controls.
We are in the process of implementing policies and procedures designed to ensure compliance by us and our directors, officers, employees, representatives, consultants, agents and business partners with applicable anti-corruption, anti-bribery, anti-money laundering, financial and economic sanctions, export and import controls and similar laws and regulations. However, our policies and procedures may not be sufficient and our directors, officers, employees, representatives, consultants, agents, and business partners could engage in improper conduct for which we may be held responsible.
Non-compliance with anti-corruption, anti-bribery, anti-money laundering or financial and economic sanctions, export, import, and other international trade controls laws could subject us, our affiliates and business partners, including suppliers, to whistleblower complaints, adverse media coverage, investigations, and severe administrative, civil and criminal sanctions, collateral consequences, remedial measures and legal expenses, all of which could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and reputation. In the future, if we, our affiliates or business partners become subject to administrative, civil and criminal fines and penalties, collateral consequences, sanctions, remedial measures and legal expenses, our business, results of operations, financial condition and reputation will be negatively affected. In addition, changes in economic sanctions and import/export laws in the future could adversely impact our business and investments in our shares.
Rising international political tension and recent disruptions in the financial markets and economic conditions may adversely impact our business, operating results and value of our securities.
Political tensions between the United States and China have escalated in recent years due to, among other things, the trade war between the two countries since 2018, the COVID-19 outbreak, the PRC National People’s Congress’ passage of Hong Kong national security legislation, the imposition of U.S. sanctions on certain Chinese officials from China’s central government and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region by the U.S. government, the inclusion of Chinese entities and individuals on sanctions and other restrictive lists, the recently announced investment restrictions by the U.S., and the imposition of sanctions, export, and import restrictions on certain persons from the U.S. by the Chinese government.
The U.S. government has made statements and taken certain actions that may lead to potential changes to U.S. and international trade policies towards China. In January 2020, the “Phase One” agreement was signed between the United States and China on trade matters. However, it remains unclear what additional actions, if any, will be taken by the U.S. or other governments with respect to international trade agreements, the imposition of tariffs on goods imported into the U.S., tax policy related to international commerce, or other trade matters. While cross-border business may not currently be an area of our focus, any unfavorable government policies on international trade, such as capital controls or tariffs, may affect the demand for our products and services, impact the competitive position of our products or prevent us from selling products in certain countries. Additionally, our products may be ineligible for tax credits and other incentives
 
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offered for BEVs in certain jurisdictions, including the U.S., E.U., among other jurisdictions. Moreover, many of the recent policy updates in the United States, including the Clean Network project initiated by the U.S. Department of State in August 2020, the Entity List regime maintained and regularly updated by the U.S. Bureau of Industry and Security, and the recently announced outbound investment restrictions announced by the U.S. government may have unforeseen implications for our business. If any new tariffs, import, export, or investment restrictions, legislation or regulations are implemented, or if existing trade agreements are renegotiated or, in particular, if the U.S. government takes retaliatory trade actions due to the recent U.S.-China trade tension, such changes could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Additionally, in recent years, the United States and global economies suffered dramatic downturns as the result of a deterioration in the credit markets and related financial crisis as well as a variety of other factors including, among other things, extreme volatility in security prices, severely diminished liquidity and credit availability, ratings downgrades of certain investments and declining valuations of others. The United States and various foreign governments have taken unprecedented actions in an attempt to address and rectify these extreme market and economic conditions by providing liquidity and stability to the financial markets, which may have a negative impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations. If the actions taken by these governments are not successful, the return of adverse economic conditions may cause a significant impact on our ability to raise capital, if needed, on a timely basis and on acceptable terms or at all.
Risks Related to Our Relationship with Geely Group
We have no experience operating as a stand-alone public company.
We have no experience conducting our operations as a stand-alone public company. After we become a stand-alone public company, we may face enhanced administrative and compliance requirements, which may result in substantial costs.
In addition, since we are becoming a public company, our management team will need to develop the expertise necessary to comply with the regulatory and other requirements applicable to public companies, including requirements relating to corporate governance, listing standards and securities and investor relations issues. However, as a stand-alone public company, our management will have to evaluate our internal control system independently with new thresholds of materiality, and to implement necessary changes to our internal control system. We cannot guarantee that we will be able to do so in a timely and effective manner.
We may have conflicts of interest with Geely Auto and, because of Geely Auto’s controlling ownership interest in our company, we may not be able to resolve such conflicts on terms favorable to us.
Conflicts of interest may arise between Geely Auto and us in a number of areas relating to our ongoing relationships. Potential conflicts of interest that we have identified include the following:

Our board members may have conflicts of interest.   Our directors Mr. Shufu Li, Mr. Donghui Li and Mr. Shengyue Gui are also directors of Geely Auto. These relationships could create, or appear to create, conflicts of interest when these persons are faced with decisions with potentially different implications for Geely Auto and us. Mr. Conghui An is currently an executive director of Geely Auto but is expected to not hold any positions in Geely Auto prior to or upon the completion of this offering.

Sale of shares in our company.   Geely Auto may decide to sell all or a portion of our shares that it holds to a third-party, including to one of our competitors, thereby giving that third-party substantial influence over our business and our affairs. Such a sale could be in conflict with the interests of our other shareholders.

Developing business relationships with Geely Auto’s competitors.   So long as Geely Auto remains our controlling shareholder, we may be limited in our ability to do business with its competitors. This may limit our ability to operate our business for the best interests of our company and our other shareholders.
 
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Allocation of business opportunities.   Business opportunities may arise that both we and Geely Auto find attractive, and which would complement our businesses. We may be prevented from taking advantage of new business opportunities that Geely Auto has entered into.

Competition.   As a vehicle manufacturer, Geely Auto may offer products or services that directly compete with ours.
Although we will become a stand-alone public company, we expect to operate, for as long as Geely Auto is our controlling shareholder, as a subsidiary of Geely Auto. Geely Auto may from time to time make strategic decisions that it believes are in the best interests of its business as a whole, including our company. These decisions may be different from the decisions that we would have made on our own. Geely Auto’s decisions with respect to us or our business, including any related party transactions between Geely Auto and us, may be resolved in ways that favor Geely Auto and therefore Geely Auto’s own shareholders, which may not coincide with the interests of us and our other shareholders. If Geely Auto were to directly compete with us, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially and adversely affected.
Potential conflicts of interest could arise in connection with our agreements with Geely Group.
We have entered into several agreements with Geely Group and may enter into additional agreements with Geely Group in the future. For further information, see “Our Relationship with Geely Group.” Potential conflicts of interest could arise in connection with the resolution of any dispute between Geely Group and us, regarding the terms of the arrangements governing our relationship with Geely Group. For example, so long as Geely Group continues to substantially and deeply collaborate with us in our future operations, we may not choose to bring a legal claim against Geely Group in the event of contractual breaches in consideration of our close relationship with Geely Group, notwithstanding our contractual rights under the various agreements entered into by Geely Group and us from time to time.
Our business may be adversely affected if our collaboration with Geely Group is terminated or curtailed, or if we are no longer able to benefit from the synergies of our business cooperation, or if we compete directly with, Geely Group.
We have benefited significantly from Geely Group’s technological capabilities, R&D capabilities, vehicle production and delivery, financial support and market position. For example, we have entered into cooperation framework agreements with Geely Group for the manufacturing of ZEEKR 001, ZEEKR 001 FR and ZEEKR 009 at the ZEEKR Factory and ZEEKR X at the Chengdu Factory. In addition, we develop our EV models based on Geely Holding’s proprietary SEA, an open-source, pure electric and modularized platform for BEV development. Furthermore, on April 15, 2022, we entered into a 10-year loan agreement with Zhejiang Geely Automobile Manufacturing Co., Ltd. in the total amount of RMB9.7 billion, and we have no outstanding balance as of the date of this prospectus. On November 30, 2022, our subsidiary Ningbo Viridi entered into another 10-year loan with Zhejiang Geely Automobile Manufacturing Co., Ltd. in the total principal amount of RMB1.6 billion to supplement its working capital and the outstanding balance was RMB1.1 billion as of the date of this prospectus.
However, we cannot assure you that we will continue to maintain our cooperative relationships with Geely Group in the future. To the extent we cannot maintain our cooperative relationships with Geely Group at reasonable prices or at all, we will need to source other business partners to obtain the relevant services, which could result in material and adverse effects to our business and results of operations. We may also need to obtain financing through other means if Geely Group ceases to provide financial support to us. We also cannot assure you that Geely Group will continue to provide us with state-of-the-art tooling, machinery and other manufacturing equipment. In addition, our current customers and business partners may react negatively to our spin-off from Geely Auto. Finally, Geely Group may offer products or services that directly compete with ours. Our inability to maintain a cooperative relationship with Geely Group or if Geely Group does not provide us with the necessary machinery and equipment to manufacture our vehicles, or if Geely Group competes directly with us, our business, growth and prospects could be materially and adversely affected.
 
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If we lose our right to use “ZEEKR” or other trademarks that are material to us, our business, results of operations and financial condition would be materially and adversely affected.
Geely Holding owns “ZEEKR” and certain other trademarks that we use in our business. Geely Holding and Zhejiang ZEEKR, which is one of our subsidiaries, have entered into a trademarks license agreement. Pursuant to such agreement, Zhejiang ZEEKR has been granted free, sublicensable and exclusive licenses relating to “ZEEKR” and certain other trademarks. The trademarks license agreement may be terminated if, among other things, (i) there is a change of control upon Zhejiang ZEEKR, (ii) Geely Holding or its associates cease to have any equity interests in Zhejiang ZEEKR or (iii) such termination is otherwise required by applicable laws and regulation. In the event the trademarks license agreement is terminated, we will lose our right to use “ZEEKR” and certain other material trademarks. Meanwhile, some of the trademarks we are currently using or intend to use in the future may fall beyond the scope of licensed trademarks under such trademarks license agreement. We cannot assure you that the trademarks license agreement will be updated or any supplemental license agreement will be entered into in a timely manner, or at all, by Geely Holding to grant the free, sublicensable and exclusive license to Zhejiang ZEEKR. If we cannot use “ZEEKR” and certain other material trademarks, our business, results of operations and financial condition may be materially and adversely affected. For further information, see “Our Relationship with Geely Group — Trademarks License Agreement.”
Geely Auto will control the outcome of shareholder actions in our company.
Immediately upon completion of this offering [and the concurrent private placement to Geely Auto to effect its Assured Entitlement Distribution (assuming Geely Auto’s full subscription of the ordinary shares to be issued by us in such concurrent private placement)], Geely Auto will beneficially own    % of our outstanding ordinary shares, representing    % of our total voting power, assuming the underwriters do not exercise the over-allotment option. Geely Auto has been, and will continue to be, our controlling shareholder immediately upon completion of this offering.
Geely Auto’s voting power gives it the power to control certain actions that require shareholder approval under Cayman Islands law, our memorandum and articles of association and NYSE requirements, including approval of mergers and other business combinations, changes to our memorandum and articles of association, the number of shares available for issuance under any share incentive plans, and the issuance of significant amounts of our ordinary shares in private placements.
Geely Auto’s voting control may cause transactions to occur that might not be beneficial to you as a holder of ADSs and may prevent transactions that could have been beneficial to you. For example, Geely Auto’s voting control may prevent a transaction involving a change of control of us, including transactions in which you as a holder of the ADSs might otherwise receive a premium for your securities over the then-current market price. In addition, Geely Auto is not prohibited from selling a controlling interest in us to a third-party and may do so without your approval and without providing for a purchase of your ADSs. In addition, the significant concentration of share ownership may adversely affect the trading price of the ADSs due to investors’ perception that conflicts of interest may exist or arise. See “— We may have conflicts of interest with Geely Auto and, because of Geely Auto’s controlling ownership interest in our company, we may not be able to resolve such conflicts on terms favorable to us.”
We are a “controlled company” within the meaning of the applicable rules of the NYSE.
We are a “controlled company” as defined under the applicable rules of the NYSE because Geely Auto beneficially owns more than 50% of our total voting power. For so long as we remain a controlled company under that definition, we are entitled to certain exemptions from corporate governance rules, including:

an exemption from the rule that a majority of our board of directors must be independent directors;

an exemption from the rule that the compensation of our chief executive officer must be determined or recommended solely by independent directors; and

an exemption from the rule that our director nominees must be selected or recommended solely by independent directors.
 
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If we choose to rely on these exemptions, you will not have the same protection afforded to shareholders of companies that are subject to these corporate governance requirements.
Currently, we do not plan to utilize the exemptions available for controlled companies after we complete this offering, but will rely on the exemption available for foreign private issuers to follow our home country governance practices instead. See “— We are a foreign private issuer within the meaning of the rules under the Exchange Act, and as such we are exempt from certain provisions applicable to U.S. domestic public companies.” If we cease to be a foreign private issuer or if we cannot rely on the home country governance practice exemption for any reason, we may decide to invoke the exemptions available for a controlled company as long as we remain a controlled company. As a result, you will not have the same protection afforded to shareholders of companies that are subject to all the NYSE corporate governance requirements.
Risks Related to Doing Business in China
Changes in the political and economic policies of the PRC government may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations and may result in our inability to sustain our growth and expansion strategies.
Our operations are mainly conducted in the PRC, and all the majority of our revenue has historically been sourced from the PRC. Accordingly, our financial condition and results of operations are affected to a significant extent by economic, political and legal developments in the PRC.
The PRC economy differs from the economies of most developed countries in many respects, including the extent of government involvement, level of development, growth rate, control of foreign exchange and allocation of resources. Although the PRC government has implemented measures emphasizing the utilization of market forces for economic reform, the reduction of state ownership of productive assets, and the establishment of improved corporate governance in business enterprises, a substantial portion of productive assets in China is still owned by the government. In addition, the PRC government continues to play a significant role in regulating industry development by imposing industrial policies. The PRC government also exercises significant control over China’s economic growth by allocating resources, controlling payment of foreign currency-denominated obligations, setting monetary policy, regulating financial services and institutions and providing preferential treatment to particular industries or companies.
While the PRC economy has experienced significant growth in the past four decades, growth has been uneven, both geographically and among various sectors of the economy. The PRC government has implemented various measures to encourage economic growth and guide the allocation of resources. Some of these measures may benefit the overall PRC economy, but may also have a negative effect on us. Our financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected by government control over capital investments or changes in tax regulations that are applicable to us. In addition, the PRC government has implemented in the past certain measures to control the pace of economic growth. These measures may cause decreased economic activity, which in turn could lead to a reduction in demand for our services and consequently have a material adverse effect on our businesses, financial condition and results of operations.
Furthermore, the global macroeconomic environment faces significant challenges in the near-term future. For example, there is considerable uncertainty about the short- and long-term economic impact of the monetary and fiscal policies adopted by the central banks and government authorities of some of the world’s leading economies, including but not limited to the United States and China. There are also material concerns about the current and future relationship between the United States and China. Specifically, it is possible that relations between these two countries may deteriorate further. Deterioration in political conditions and abrupt changes in Sino-U.S. relations are difficult to predict and could adversely affect China’s overall economic and market conditions and consequently our business, operating results and financial condition. Moreover, any ongoing controversies between the United States and China, whether or not related to our business, could cause investors to be unwilling to hold or buy the ADSs and consequently cause the trading price of the ADSs to decline.
 
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The PRC government exerts substantial influence over the manner in which we conduct our business operations. It may influence or intervene in our operations at any time as part of its efforts to enforce PRC law, which could result in a material adverse change in our operations and the value of the ADSs.
Our operations are mainly conducted in the PRC, and are governed by PRC laws, rules and regulations. The PRC government exerts substantial influence over the manner in which we conduct our business, and may intervene in or influence our operations at any time. The PRC government has recently published new policies that substantially affected certain industries. We cannot rule out the possibility that it will in the future release regulations or policies that directly or indirectly affect our industry or require us to seek additional permission to continue our operations, which could result in a material adverse change in our operation and/or the value of the ADSs. Therefore, investors of our company and our business face potential uncertainty from actions taken by the PRC government affecting our business.
The Chinese government has exerted more oversight and control over offerings that are conducted overseas and foreign investment in China-based issuers. Such actions could significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors and cause the value of the ADSs to significantly decline or be worthless. For more details, see “— Risks Related to Doing Business in China — The approval or record filing of the CSRC, or other PRC government authorities may be required in connection with this offering and our future capital raising activities under the PRC laws.”
There are uncertainties regarding the interpretation and enforcement of PRC laws, rules and regulations.
PRC legal system is a civil law system based on written statutes. Unlike the common law system, prior court decisions may be cited for reference but have limited precedential value. In 1979, the PRC government began to promulgate a comprehensive system of laws, rules and regulations governing economic matters in general. The overall effect of legislation over the past four decades has significantly enhanced the protections afforded to various forms of foreign investment in China. However, China has not developed a fully integrated legal system, and recently enacted laws, rules and regulations may not sufficiently cover all aspects of economic activities in China or may be subject to various degrees of interpretation and discretion by PRC regulatory agencies. In particular, because these laws, rules and regulations are relatively new, and because of the limited number of published decisions and the nonbinding nature of such decisions, the interpretation and enforcement of these laws, rules and regulations involve uncertainties and are not always uniform and predictable. These uncertainties may affect our judgment on the relevance of legal requirements and our ability to enforce our contractual rights or tort claims. In addition, the PRC legal system is based in part on government policies and internal rules, some of which are not published on a timely basis or at all, and which may have a retroactive effect. As a result, we may not be aware of our violation of these policies and rules until sometime after the occurrence of the violation.
Any administrative and court proceedings in China may be protracted, resulting in substantial costs and diversion of resources and management attention. Since PRC administrative and court authorities have different degrees of discretion in interpreting and implementing statutory and contractual terms, it may be more difficult to evaluate the outcome of administrative and court proceedings and the level of legal protection we enjoy than in more developed legal systems. These uncertainties may impede our ability to enforce the contracts we have entered into and could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The continued U.S. regulatory and legislative focus, including the enactment of the HFCAA, may adversely affect the market price of the ADSs and may eventually require us to delist our securities from the U.S. markets.
Over the past decade, the U.S. securities regulators (SEC and PCAOB) and their Chinese counterparts (the CSRC and the MoF) have been at an impasse over the PCAOB’s ability to inspect or investigate the audit work of accounting firms that audit the financial statements of China-based companies. Under U.S. securities laws, publicly listed companies are required to have their financial statements audited by independent public accounting firms registered with the PCAOB. Under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the PCAOB is required to inspect the PCAOB-registered accounting firms to assess compliance with auditing standards and bring enforcement actions for non-compliance with such standards. If requested by the PCAOB or the SEC, PCAOB-registered accounting firms are required to provide the audit work papers and other related information for inspection. However, Article 177 of the revised PRC Securities Law prohibits, without the
 
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approval of the securities regulatory authority in China, (i) foreign securities regulators from engaging in any inspection activities within China and (ii) anyone from providing any documents or materials relating to capital markets activities to foreign parties.
To seek a framework for cooperation, in May 2013, the PCAOB entered into a Memorandum of Understanding on Enforcement Cooperation, or the MOU, with the CSRC and the MoF, which establishes a cooperative framework among the parties for the production and exchange of audit documents relevant to investigations undertaken by the PCAOB, the CSRC or the MoF in the United States and the PRC, respectively. Despite the MOU, the Chairmen of each of the SEC and the PCAOB issued a joint statement in December 2018 alleging continuing, significant issues relating to the ability of the PCAOB to inspect the audit work papers and practices of PCAOB-registered accounting firms in China with respect to their audit work of U.S.-listed companies with operations in China. The SEC and the PCAOB reiterated these allegations and highlighted such risks in another joint statement in April 2020.
As part of the continued regulatory scrutiny in the United States on access to audit and other information currently protected by laws in China, in December 2020, the U.S. Congress passed the HFCAA, which had passed the U.S. Senate in May 2020. The HFCAA was signed into law by the President in December 2020. The HFCAA amended the Sarbanes-Oxley Act to require the SEC to determine each company that is required to file periodic reports with the SEC that has retained an accounting firm: (i) that is located in a foreign jurisdiction and (ii) whom the PCAOB is unable to inspect or investigate due to the position taken by an authority in the foreign jurisdiction (as determined by the PCAOB). If the SEC determines that the PCAOB has been unable to inspect or investigate such accounting firm for three consecutive years, it will prohibit such company from trading its securities on a U.S. securities exchange or in any “over-the-counter” exchange. In addition, in August 2020, the President’s Working Group on Financial Markets, or the PWG, released a report recommending that the SEC take certain steps, including adopting enhanced listing standards on U.S. stock exchanges, to protect U.S. investors from the perceived risks of Chinese companies. This would require, as a condition to initial and continued listing on a U.S. stock exchange, PCAOB access to work papers of the principal audit firm for the audit of the listed company.
On September 22, 2021, the PCAOB adopted PCAOB Rule 6100, Board Determinations Under the HFCAA, which was approved by the SEC on November 4, 2021. The PCAOB Rule 6100 establishes a framework for the PCAOB to make determinations as to whether PCAOB is unable to inspect an audit firm in a foreign jurisdiction, or a PCAOB-Identified Firm, including the timing, factors, bases, publication and revocation or modification of such determinations, and such determinations will be made on a jurisdiction-wide basis in a consistent manner applicable to all firms headquartered in the jurisdiction. On December 16, 2021, pursuant to PCAOB Rule 6100, PCAOB issued a report setting forth the PCAOB-registered public accounting firms headquartered in Mainland China and Hong Kong that it is unable to inspect or investigate completely, which included our auditor, because of positions taken by PRC authorities in those jurisdictions.
On December 2, 2021, the SEC adopted amendments to finalize the interim final rules adopted earlier on March 24, 2021 relating to the implementation of certain disclosure and documentation requirements of the HFCAA, or final amendments. Pursuant to the final amendments, promptly after filing an annual report, the SEC will evaluate whether the annual report contains an audit report signed by a PCAOB-Identified Firm. Once a registrant has been so identified, the SEC will provisionally identify such issuer as a “Commission-Identified Issuer” on its website. For a period of 15 business days after the provisional identification, a registrant may contact the SEC if it believes it has been incorrectly identified and may provide evidence supporting such claims. After reviewing the information, the registrant will be notified whether the SEC will conclusively identify the registrant as a “Commission-Identified Issuer.” The SEC will identify registrants pursuant to the HFCAA based on the PCAOB’s determination and on registrants’ annual reports for fiscal years beginning after December 18, 2020. If we are conclusively identified as a “Commission-Identified Issuer” for three consecutive years, the SEC will impose an initial trading prohibition on us as soon as practicable. If the SEC ends the initial trading prohibition and, thereafter, we are again determined to be a “Commission-Identified Issuer,” the SEC will impose a subsequent trading prohibition on us for a minimum of five years. To end an initial or subsequent trading prohibition, we must certify that we have retained or will retain a registered public accounting firm that the PCAOB has determined it is able to inspect or investigate. To make that certification, we must file financial statements that include an audit report signed by such a registered public accounting firm.
 
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Furthermore, on December 29, 2022, the Consolidated Appropriation Act, 2023 was enacted. Among other things, it amended the HFCAA to require the SEC to prohibit an issuer’s securities from trading on any U.S. stock exchanges if its auditor is not subject to PCAOB inspections for two consecutive years instead of three.
On August 26, 2022, the PCAOB signed a Statement of Protocol with the CSRC and the MoF which contains provisions that, if abided by, would give the PCAOB access to inspect and investigate registered public accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and Hong Kong completely. On December 15, 2022, the PCAOB announced that it was able to conduct inspections and investigations completely of PCAOB registered public accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and Hong Kong in 2022. The PCAOB vacated its previous determinations accordingly. As a result, we do not expect to be identified as a “Commission-Identified Issuer” under the HFCAA.
However, whether the PCAOB will continue to conduct inspections and investigations completely to its satisfaction of PCAOB-registered public accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and Hong Kong is subject to uncertainty and depends on a number of factors out of our, and our auditor’s, control, including positions taken by authorities of the PRC and the PCAOB. The PCAOB is expected to continue to demand complete access to inspections and investigations against accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and Hong Kong in the future and states that it has already made plans to resume regular inspections in early 2023 and beyond. The PCAOB is required under the HFCAA to make its determination on an annual basis with regards to its ability to inspect and investigate completely accounting firms based in mainland China and Hong Kong. The possibility of being a “Commission-Identified Issuer” and risk of delisting could continue to adversely affect the trading price of our securities. If the PCAOB determines in the future that it no longer has full access to inspect and investigate accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and Hong Kong and we continue to use such accounting firm to conduct audit work, we would be identified as a “Commission-Identified Issuer” under the HFCAA following the filing of the annual report for the relevant fiscal year, and if we were so identified for two consecutive years, trading in our securities on U.S. markets would be prohibited. Such a prohibition would substantially impair your ability to sell or purchase the ADSs when you wish to do so. The market price of the ADSs could be materially and adversely affected as a result of anticipated negative impacts of these actions upon, as well as negative investor sentiment towards, companies with significant operations in China that are listed in the United States, regardless of whether these actions are implemented and regardless of our actual operating performance. Also, such a prohibition would significantly affect our ability to raise capital on terms acceptable to us, or at all, which would have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and prospects.
The approval or record filing of the CSRC, or other PRC government authorities may be required in connection with this offering and our future capital raising activities under the PRC laws.
On August 8, 2006, six PRC regulatory agencies, including the MOFCOM, the State-Owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission, the State Administration of Taxation, or the SAT, the State Administration for Industry and Commerce, currently known as the SAMR, the CSRC, and the State Administration of Foreign Exchange, or the SAFE, jointly adopted the Regulations on Mergers and Acquisitions of Domestic Enterprises by Foreign Investors, or the M&A Rules, which came into effect on September 8, 2006 and were amended on June 22, 2009. The M&A Rules include, among other things, provisions that purport to require that an offshore special purpose vehicle that is controlled by PRC domestic companies or individuals and that has been formed for the purpose of an overseas listing of securities through acquisitions of PRC domestic companies or assets to obtain the approval of the CSRC prior to the listing and trading of such special purpose vehicle’s securities on an overseas stock exchange. On September 21, 2006, the CSRC published on its official website procedures regarding its approval of overseas listings by special purpose vehicles. However, substantial uncertainty remains regarding the scope and applicability of the M&A Rules to offshore special purpose vehicles.
While the application of the M&A Rules remains unclear, King & Wood Mallesons, our PRC counsel, has advised us that the CSRC approval is not required in the context of this offering because our wholly-owned PRC subsidiary Zhejiang ZEEKR was incorporated as a FIE by means of foreign direct investment rather than by merger with or acquisition of any PRC domestic companies as defined under the M&A Rules. There can be no assurance that the relevant PRC government agencies, including the CSRC, would reach
 
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the same conclusion as that of our PRC legal counsel. If the CSRC or other PRC regulatory body subsequently determines that we need to obtain the CSRC’s approval for this offering or if the CSRC or any other PRC government authorities promulgates any interpretation or implements rules before our listing that would require us to obtain CSRC or other governmental approvals for this offering, we may face adverse actions or sanctions by the CSRC or other PRC regulatory agencies. In any such event, these regulatory agencies may impose fines and penalties on our operations in China, limit our operating privileges in China, delay or restrict the repatriation of the proceeds from this offering into the PRC or take other actions that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, reputation and prospects, as well as our ability to complete this offering. The CSRC or other PRC regulatory agencies may also take actions requiring us, or making it advisable for us, to halt this offering before settlement and delivery of the ADSs offered by this prospectus. Consequently, if you engage in market trading or other activities in anticipation of and prior to settlement and delivery, you do so at the risk that such settlement and delivery may not occur. In addition, if the CSRC or other regulatory agencies later promulgate new rules or explanations requiring us to obtain their approvals for this offering, we may be unable to obtain waivers of such approval requirements. Any uncertainties and/or negative publicity regarding such approval requirements could have a material adverse effect on the trading price of the ADSs.
Furthermore, the PRC government has also recently exerted more oversight and control over securities offerings and other capital markets activities that are conducted overseas and foreign investment in China-based companies like us. Such actions taken by the PRC government authorities may intervene in our operations at any time, which are beyond our control. For example, the General Office of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the General Office of the State Council jointly issued Opinions on Strictly Cracking Down on Illegal Securities Activities, or the July 6 Opinions, which were made available to the public on July 6, 2021. The July 6 Opinions emphasized the need to strengthen the administration and supervision over overseas-listed China-based companies, the need to revise the special provisions of the State Council on overseas issuance and listing of shares by such companies and the need to clarify the responsibilities of domestic industry competent authorities and regulatory authorities.
Following the July 6 Opinion, the CAC and other Chinese regulatory authorities have issued laws and regulations strengthening their administration on cybersecurity. For example, on November 14, 2021, the CAC commenced to publicly solicit comments on the Draft Regulations on MNDS, pursuant to which data processors shall apply for a cybersecurity review when carrying out certain specified types of activities. The Draft Regulations on MNDS provide the circumstances under which data processors shall apply for cybersecurity review, including, among others, when (i) merger, reorganization or spin-off of Internet platform operators that have acquired a large number of data resources related to national security, economic development or public interests affects or may affect national security; (ii) listing abroad of data processors processing over one million users’ personal information; (iii) listing in Hong Kong which affects or may affect national security; and (iv) other data processing activities that affect or may affect national security. Since the Draft Regulations on MNDS being drafted, it is uncertain how they will be enacted, interpreted or implemented and how they will affect us. Furthermore, the Draft Regulations on MNDS stipulate that data processors who handle important data or are listed overseas shall conduct annual data security assessments on their own or by entrusting data security service agencies and submit the data security assessment reports to local cyberspace administration authorities by January 31 of the following year. When data collected and generated within the PRC are provided by the data processors overseas, if such data includes important data, or if the relevant data processor is a CIIO or processes personal information of more than one million people, the data processor shall go through the security assessment of cross-border data transfer organized by the national cyberspace administration. As of the date of this prospectus, the Draft Regulations on MNDS have not been formally adopted. Nonetheless, the security assessment mechanism has already come into force since the CAC issued the Measures for the Security Assessment of Cross-border Data Transfer, or the Security Assessment Measures, which came into effect on September 1, 2022. It is uncertain when the final regulation will be issued and take effect, how it will be enacted, interpreted and implemented, and whether or to what extent it will affect us. The scope of business operations and financing activities that are subject to such draft regulations and the implementation thereof is not yet clear.
In addition, on December 28, 2021, the CAC, and several other administrations jointly promulgated the revised Cybersecurity Review Measures, which became effective on February 15, 2022 and supersede and replace the Cybersecurity Review Measures previously promulgated on April 13, 2020. The Cybersecurity
 
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Review Measures provide that (i) the purchase of network products and services by a CIIO and the data processing activities of a network platform operator that affects or may affect national security shall apply for a cybersecurity review, (ii) an application for cybersecurity review should be made by the internet platform operator holding personal information of more than one million users before such internet platform operator lists its securities in a foreign country, and (iii)  the relevant PRC governmental authorities may initiate a cybersecurity review if they determine certain network products, services, or data processing activities affect or may affect national security. As a network platform operator who possesses personal information of more than one million users for purposes of the Cybersecurity Review Measures, we have applied for and completed a cybersecurity review with respect to our proposed overseas listing pursuant to the Cybersecurity Review Measures.
On July 7, 2022, the CAC issued the Security Assessment Measures, which came into effect on September 1, 2022. The Security Assessment Measures provide that certain types of data processors transferring important data or personal information collected and generated during operations within the territory of the PRC to an overseas recipient must apply for security assessment of cross-border data transfer.
In addition, on September 28, 2023, CAC published the Provisions on Regulating and Promoting Cross-border Data Transfer (Draft for Comments), or the Cross-border Data Transfer Provisions. The Cross-border Data Transfer Provisions provide certain exemptions from obligations under the circumstances of cross-border data transfer, including, among others, the obligations for data security assessment, concluding a standard contract for provision of personal information abroad or passing the certification for personal information protection. However, the Cross-border Data Transfer Provisions were released for public comment only and their provisions and anticipated adoption date are subject to changes with substantial uncertainty, and their interpretation and implementation remain uncertain.
Moreover, the Chinese government has also reiterated its intention to oversight over the offshore listing activities of Chinese companies. On December 24, 2021, the CSRC published draft Administration Provisions and the draft Filing Measures for public comments. These Draft Regulations require “PRC domestic companies” that directly or indirectly issue or list their securities overseas to file with CSRC certain required documents. On February 17, 2023, the CSRC promulgated the Trial Measures, and the relevant five guidelines, which became effective on March 31, 2023. The Trial Measures will comprehensively improve and reform the existing regulatory regime for overseas offering and listing of PRC domestic companies’ securities and will regulate both direct and indirect overseas offering and listing of PRC domestic companies’ securities by adopting a filing-based regulatory regime. Pursuant to the Trial Measures, PRC domestic companies that seek to offer and list securities in overseas markets, either in direct or indirect means, are required to fulfill the filing procedure with the CSRC and report relevant information. The Trial Measures provides that if the issuer meets both the following criteria, the overseas securities offering and listing conducted by such issuer will be deemed as indirect overseas offering by PRC domestic companies: (i) 50% or more of any of the issuer’s operating revenue, total profit, total assets or net assets as documented in its audited consolidated financial statements for the most recent fiscal year is accounted for by domestic companies; and (ii) the main parts of the issuer’s business activities are conducted in mainland China, or its main place(s) of business are located in mainland China, or the majority of senior management staff in charge of its business operations and management are PRC citizens or have their usual place(s) of residence located in mainland China. On the same day, the CSRC also held a press conference for the release of the Trial Measures and issued the Filing Notice, which, among others, clarifies that (1) a six-month transition period will be granted to domestic companies which, prior to the effective date of the Trial Measures, have already obtained the approval from overseas regulatory authorities or stock exchanges, such as completion of registration in the market of the United States, but have not completed the overseas listing; and (2) domestic companies that have already submitted valid applications for overseas offering and listing but have not obtained approval from overseas regulatory authorities or stock exchanges on or prior to the effective date of the Trial Measures, may reasonably arrange the timing for submitting their filing applications with the CSRC, and shall complete the filing before completion of their overseas offering and listing. See “— Risks Related to Doing Business in China — Complying with evolving laws and regulations regarding cybersecurity, information security, privacy and data protection and other related laws and requirements may entail significant expenses and force us to make adverse changes to our business.”
According to the Trail Measures, where a domestic company fails to fulfill filing procedure or in violation of the provisions as stipulated above, in respect of its overseas offering and listing, the CSRC shall
 
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order rectification, issue warnings to such domestic company, and impose a fine ranging from RMB1,000,000 to RMB10,000,000. Also the directly responsible person-in-charge and other directly responsible persons of such domestic company may be warned and imposed fines, and the controlling shareholders and the actual controllers of such domestic company that organize or instruct the aforementioned violations shall be imposed fines. However, since the Trial Measures were newly promulgated, its interpretation, application and enforcement remain unclear. If the filing procedure with the CSRC under the Trial Measures is required for this offering and any future offerings, listing or any other capital raising activities, it is uncertain whether we could complete the filing procedure in a compliant and timely manner, or at all. In addition, the Trial Measures may subject us to additional compliance requirement in the future, and we cannot assure you that we will be able to get the clearance of filing procedures under the Trial Measures on a timely basis, or at all. Any failure of us to fully comply with the Trail Measures may significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer our ordinary shares, cause significant disruption to our business operations, and severely damage our reputation, which would materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations and cause our ordinary shares to significantly decline in value or become worthless.
On February 24, 2023, the CSRC, together with other PRC government authorities, released the Provisions on Strengthening the Confidentiality and Archives Administration Related to the Overseas Securities Offering and Listing by Domestic Enterprises, or the Confidentiality and Archives Administration Provisions, which came into effect on March 31, 2023. The Confidentiality and Archives Administration Provisions require, among others, that PRC domestic enterprises seeking to offer and list securities in overseas markets, either directly or indirectly, shall establish the confidentiality and archives system, and shall complete approval and filing procedures with competent authorities, if such PRC domestic enterprises or their overseas listing entities provide or publicly disclose documents or materials involving state secrets and work secrets of PRC government agencies to relevant securities companies, securities service institutions, overseas regulatory agencies and other entities and individuals. It further stipulates that providing or publicly disclosing by domestic companies, or providing or publicly disclosing through its overseas listing entities, to the relevant securities companies, securities service agencies, overseas regulatory authorities and other entities or individuals documents and materials that may adversely affect national security or public interests after leakage, the domestic enterprise shall strictly go through the corresponding procedures in accordance with relevant laws and regulations. Where a domestic company provides to the relevant securities companies, securities service institutions, overseas regulatory authorities and other entities or individuals, any accounting records or duplicates of such accounting records, it shall complete relevant procedures according to the relevant regulations. The Confidentiality and Archives Administration Provisions were also newly published, and there remains uncertainty as to their interpretation, application and implementation.
Furthermore, if the CSRC, CAC or other regulatory agencies later promulgate new rules or explanations requiring that we obtain their approvals or complete the filing or reporting procedures for this offering or to maintain our listing status or for our future offshore securities offerings, we may be unable to obtain such approvals or complete such filing or reporting procedures in a timely manner, or at all, and such approvals may be rescinded even if obtained. Any such circumstance could significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to continue to offer securities to investors and cause the value of such securities to significantly decline or be worthless.
As advised by King & Wood Mallesons, our PRC counsel, taking into consideration the above-mentioned criteria, this offering is an indirect offering under the Trial Measures, and we are subject to the filing requirements of the CSRC. We are required to fulfill the filing procedure with the CSRC in accordance with the Trial Measures. We submitted initial filing documents to the CSRC on April 4, 2023, and the CSRC published the notification on our completion of the required filing procedures on August 25, 2023 for this offering.
China’s Anti-Monopoly Law, M&A rules and certain other PRC laws and regulations also establish complex procedures for acquisitions conducted by foreign investors that could make it more difficult for us to grow through acquisitions in China.
A number of regulations also established additional procedures and requirements that are expected to make merger and acquisition activities in China by foreign investors more time-consuming and complex.
 
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For example, the M&A rules require that the MOFCOM be notified in advance of any change-of-control transaction in which a foreign investor takes control of a PRC domestic enterprise if (i) any important industry is concerned, (ii) such transaction involves factors that have or may have impact on the national economic security, or (iii) such transaction will lead to a change in control of a domestic enterprise which holds a famous trademark or PRC time-honored brand.
The approval from the MOFCOM shall be obtained in circumstances where overseas companies established or controlled by PRC enterprises or residents acquire affiliated domestic companies. Mergers, acquisitions or contractual arrangements that allow one market player to take control of or to exert decisive impact on another market player must also be notified in advance to the anti-monopoly authority under the State Council when the threshold under the Provisions on Thresholds for Prior Notification of Concentrations of Undertakings, or the Prior Notification Rules, issued by the State Council in August 2008 and amended in September 2018, is triggered. In addition, the Rules of the Ministry of Commerce on Implementation of Security Review System of Mergers and Acquisitions of Domestic Enterprises by Foreign Investors, or the Security Review Rule issued by the MOFCOM that became effective in September 2011 specify that mergers and acquisitions by foreign investors that raise “national defense and security” concerns and mergers and acquisitions through which foreign investors may acquire de facto control over domestic enterprises that raise “national security” concerns are subject to strict review by the MOFCOM, and the rules prohibit any activities attempting to bypass a security review, including by structuring the transaction through a proxy or contractual control arrangement.
Furthermore, on December 19, 2020, the NDRC and MOFCOM promulgated the Measures for Security Review of Foreign Investment, or the Foreign Investment Security Review Measures, which took effect on January 18, 2021. Under the Foreign Investment Security Review Measures, investment in certain key areas which results in acquiring the actual control of the assets is required to obtain approval from designated governmental authorities in advance. We may grow our business in part by acquiring other companies operating in our industry. Complying with the requirements of the new regulations to complete such transactions could be time-consuming, and any required approval processes, including approval from the MOFCOM, the SAMR and other governmental authorities, may delay or inhibit our ability to complete such transactions, which could affect our ability to expand our business or maintain our market share. It is unclear whether our business would be deemed to be in an industry that raises “national defense and security” or “national security” concerns. However, MOFCOM or other government agencies may publish explanations in the future determining that our business is in an industry subject to the security review, in which case our future acquisitions in China may be closely scrutinized or prohibited. Our ability to expand our business or maintain or expand our market share through future acquisitions would as such be materially and adversely affected. See “Regulation — The M&A Rules.”
Complying with evolving laws and regulations regarding cybersecurity, information security, privacy and data protection and other related laws and requirements may entail significant expenses and force us to make adverse changes to our business.
Laws and regulations governing cybersecurity, information security, privacy and data protection, the use of the internet as a commercial medium, the use of data in artificial intelligence and machine learning, and data sovereignty requirements are rapidly evolving, extensive, complex, and include uncertainties.
Laws and regulations regarding cybersecurity and information security
According to the PRC National Security Law, the State shall establish institutions and mechanisms for national security review and regulation, conduct national security review on certain matters which affect or may affect the national security, such as key technologies and IT products and services. According to the PRC Cybersecurity Law and relevant regulations, network constructors, network operators and service providers that provide services via network are obligated to take technical and other necessary measures to ensure the security and stable operation of network, maintain the integrity, confidentiality and availability of network data, and furthermore provide technical assistance and support in accordance with the law for public security and national security authorities to protect national security or assist with criminal investigations. In addition, the PRC Cybersecurity Law provides that personal information and important data collected and generated by operators of critical information infrastructure in the course of their operations in the PRC
 
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should be stored in the PRC, and the law imposes heightened regulation and additional security obligations on operators of critical information infrastructure. On September 12, 2022, the CAC proposed a series of draft amendments to the PRC Cybersecurity Law, which impose more stringent legal liabilities for certain violations. Such draft amendments were released for soliciting public comments and its final form, interpretation and implementation remain substantially uncertain.
On June 10, 2021, the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress of China promulgated the PRC Data Security Law, which came into effect on September 1, 2021. The PRC Data Security Law provides for data security and privacy obligations on entities and individuals carrying out data processing activities, introduces a data classification and hierarchical protection system based on the importance of data in economic and social development, as well as the degree of harm it will cause to national security, public interests, or legitimate rights and interests of individuals or organizations when such data is tampered with, destroyed, leaked, or illegally acquired or used, provides for a national security review procedure for those data activities which may affect national security and imposes export restrictions on certain data and information. The PRC Data Security Law provides that “data” refers to any recording of information by electronic or other means. Data processing includes the collection, storage, use, processing, transmission, availability and disclosure of data, etc.
Laws and regulations stipulating on compliance requirements regarding overseas listing
According to the Cybersecurity Review Measures promulgated by the CAC and certain other PRC regulatory authorities in December 2021, which became effective in February 2022, the CIIO that intends to purchase internet products and services that affect or may affect national security shall apply for a cybersecurity review. On July 30, 2021, the State Council promulgated the Regulations on the Protection of the Security of Critical Information Infrastructure or the Regulations on SCII, which took effect in September 2021. The Regulations on SCII supplement and specify the provisions on the security of critical information infrastructure as stated in the Cybersecurity Review Measures. The Regulations on SCII provide, that “critical information infrastructures” shall mean any important network facilities or information systems of important industries or fields such as public communication and information service, energy, communications, water conservation, finance, public services, e-government affairs and national defense science, and any other important network facilities or information systems which may endanger national security, people’s livelihood and public interest in case of damage, function loss or data leakage. In addition, the Protection Departments are responsible to formulate eligibility criteria and determine the CIIOs in the respective industry or field. The operators shall be informed about the final determination as to whether they are categorized as CIIOs. The regulations further require CIIOs, among others, (i) to report to the competent Protection Departments in a timely manner when the identification result may be affected due to material changes in the critical information infrastructures; (ii) to plan, construct or put into use the security protection measures and the critical information infrastructures simultaneously; and (iii) to report to the competent Protection Departments in a timely manner in the event of merger division or dissolution, and deal with critical information infrastructures as required by the competent Protection Departments. Operators in violation of the regulations may be ordered to rectify, subject to warnings, fines and other administrative penalties or even criminal liabilities, and the directly responsible personnel in charge may also be imposed on fines or other liabilities.
We have developed a data-driven, closed-loop digital platform to manage our customer interactions from sales leads to customer reviews. If we are deemed to be a CIIO, we would be required to follow cybersecurity review procedures. During such review, we may be required to suspend providing any existing or new services to our customers and/or experience other disruptions of our operations, and such review could also result in negative publicity with respect to our Company and diversion of our managerial and financial resources. As of the date of this prospectus, we have not been informed by any Protection Departments that we have been identified as a CIIO.
Furthermore, according to the Cybersecurity Review Measures, in addition to CIIOs, any “network platform operator” carrying out data processing activities that affect or may affect national security or “network platform operator” holding over one million users’ personal information and is going to list its securities “in a foreign country” should also be subject to the cybersecurity review. The relevant PRC governmental authorities may initiate a cybersecurity review if they determine certain network products,
 
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services, or data processing activities may affect national security. Cybersecurity Review Measures further elaborate the factors to be considered when assessing the national security risks of the relevant activities, including among others, the risk of core data, important data or a large amount of personal information being stolen, leaked, destroyed, and illegally used or exited the country, or the risk of critical information infrastructure, core data, important data or a large amount of personal information being affected, controlled and maliciously used by overseas governments after being listed abroad. When providing services to our customers, we have access to certain data, including certain personal information and important data. As a network platform operator who possesses personal information of more than one million users for purposes of the Cybersecurity Review Measures, we have applied for and completed a cybersecurity review with respect to our proposed overseas listing pursuant to the Cybersecurity Review Measures. As the Cybersecurity Review Measures are newly issued, we still face uncertainties how the measures may be interpreted or implemented and how they will affect us. Any non-compliance or perceived non-compliance with the PRC Cybersecurity Law or related regulations may prevent us from using or providing certain network products and services, and may result in fines or other penalties such as making certain required rectification, suspending our related business, closing our website or taking down our operations and reputational damages or proceedings or actions against us by PRC regulatory authorities, customers or others, which may have a material adverse effect on our business, operation or financial conditions, as well as the trading price of ADSs. The CAC or other relevant authorities may also take actions requiring us or making it advisable for us, to halt operations before any potential future offerings. See also “— Risks Related to Doing Business in China — The approval or record filing of the CSRC, or other PRC government authorities may be required in connection with this offering and our future capital raising activities under the PRC laws”, and “— Risks Related to Doing Business in China —  China’s Anti-Monopoly Law, M&A rules and certain other PRC laws and regulations also establish complex procedures for acquisitions conducted by foreign investors that could make it more difficult for us to grow through acquisitions in China.”
On November 14, 2021, the CAC commenced to publicly solicit comments on the Draft Regulations on MNDS, pursuant to which data processors shall apply for a cybersecurity review when carrying out certain specified types of activities. The Draft Regulations on MNDS provide the circumstances under which data processors shall apply for cybersecurity review, including, among others, when (i) merger, reorganization or spin-off of Internet platform operators that have acquired a large number of data resources related to national security, economic development or public interests affects or may affect national security; (ii) listing abroad of data processors processing over one million users’ personal information; (iii) listing in Hong Kong which affects or may affect national security; and (iv) other data processing activities that affect or may affect national security. Furthermore, the Draft Regulations on MNDS stipulate that data processors who handle important data or are listed overseas shall conduct annual data security assessments on their own or by entrusting data security service agencies and submit the data security assessment reports to local cyberspace administration authorities by January 31 of the following year. As of the date of this prospectus, the Draft Regulations on MNDS have not been formally adopted. It is uncertain when the final regulation will be issued and take effect, how it will be enacted, interpreted and implemented, and whether or to what extent it will affect us. The scope of business operations and financing activities that are subject to such draft regulations and the implementation thereof is not yet clear. However, if the Draft Regulations on MNDS become effective in their current forms, we will be required to conduct annual data security assessments and comply with the relevant reporting obligations after listing overseas.
Laws and regulations regarding automobile data processors’ obligations to protect data security and privacy
On August 20, 2021, the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress promulgated the PRC Personal Information Protection Law, which came into effect on November 1, 2021. As the first systematic and comprehensive law specifically for the protection of personal information in the PRC, the PRC Personal Information Protection Law provides, among others, that (i) an individual’s separate consent shall be obtained before processing of such individual’s sensitive personal information, e.g., biometric characteristics and individual location tracking; (ii) personal information handlers processing sensitive personal information shall notify individuals of the necessity of such processing and the influence on the individuals’ rights; and (iii) if personal information handlers reject individuals’ requests to exercise their rights, individuals may file a lawsuit with a People’s Court.
 
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Besides, the Provisions on MADS, which promulgated by CAC and certain other PRC regulatory authorities on August 16, 2021 and came into effect on October 1, 2021, reiterate that automobile data processors can process personal information and important data and further provide several specific requirements for such processing. The Provisions on MADS clearly stipulate that (i) to carry out personal information processing activities, automobile data processors shall notify individuals of relevant information in a prominent manner, obtain personal consent or comply with laws and administrative regulations in other circumstances; (ii) for the processing of sensitive personal information, automobile data processor shall obtain separate consent from individuals, and meet specific requirements, including without limitation to process sensitive personal information for the purpose of enhancing driving safety; and (iii) automobile data processors shall collect biometric information only with sufficient necessity and for the purpose to enhance driving safety. Where the automobile data processors collect data containing images of people outside the vehicle and transmit the data out of the vehicle for the purpose of improving driving safety, such personal information shall be anonymized if it is not possible to obtain the consent of these people.
Furthermore, the Provisions on MADS define the term “important data” as any data that, once tampered with, sabotaged, leaked or illegally obtained or used, may lead to endangerment of national security or public interests, or infringement of the lawful rights and interests of an individual or organization, including the following data: (i) geographical information, flows of people or vehicles and other data in respect of any important sensitive area such as a military administrative zone, national defense science and technological development entity, or Party or government agency at or above the county level; (ii) traffic volume, logistics and other data that reflect performance of the economy; (iii) operating data of a vehicle charging network; (iv) video or image data collected outside of a vehicle, including human facial information, license plate information, etc.; (v) personal information of more than 100,000 data subjects; and (vi) other types of data that may endanger national security, public interests, or the lawful rights and interests of individual or organization as designated by the competent authorities. The Provisions on MADS require automobile data processors who process important data to: (i) store important data domestically and pass the security assessment organized by the CAC in conjunction with relevant authorities of the State Council if it’s necessary to provide such data outside of China due to business needs; (ii) perform risk assessment in accordance with the regulations and submit risk assessment reports to relevant authorities at provincial levels; and (iii) report annually to such authorities on automotive data security management. As there are still uncertainties in the interpretation and application of current regulations, such as the meaning of personal consent and the scope of “enhancing driving safety”, we cannot assure you that laws or regulations will not be interpreted or implemented in a way that negatively affects us. In addition to regulatory requirements, consumer attitudes towards data privacy are constantly evolving, and consumer concerns about our collection of their data may adversely affect our ability to access data and improve our technologies, products, and services.
We collect and process personal information of more than 100,000 data subjects, which may be broadly defined as important data under the Provisions on MADS, in our on-premises servers as well as in cloud storages. We store such personal information or important data in China and do not transfer any users’ personal information or important data outside of China. In addition, we have submitted the risk assessment reports of 2021 and 2022 to relevant authorities at provincial levels.
Laws and regulations regarding the security assessment
On August 12, 2021, the MIIT issued the Opinion on Strengthening the Access Administration of Intelligent Connected Vehicles Manufacturing Enterprises and Their Products, or the Access Administration Opinion, which provided responsibilities of intelligent connected vehicles manufacturing enterprises, and required such enterprises to strengthen the management of vehicle data security, cyber security, software updates, function safety and intended function safety. Furthermore, the Access Administration Opinion stated that vehicles manufacturing enterprises shall conduct security assessment prior to transmitting data abroad.
On July 7, 2022, the CAC promulgated the Security Assessment Measures, which took effect on September 1, 2022. Pursuant to the Security Assessment Measures, a data processor shall apply to competent authorities for security assessment prior to transferring any data abroad if the transfer involves (i) important data; (ii) personal information transferred overseas by a CIIO and a data processor that has processed
 
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personal information of more than one million individuals; (iii) personal information transferred overseas by a data processor who has already provided personal information of 100,000 persons or sensitive personal information of 100,000 persons overseas since January 1 of the previous year; or (iv) other circumstances as requested by the CAC. Furthermore, on August 31, 2022, the CAC promulgated the Guidelines for filing the Outbound Data Transfer Security Assessment (Version 1), which provides that acts of outbound data transfer include (i) overseas transmission and storage by data processors of data generated during PRC domestic operations; (ii) the access to, use, download or export of the data collected and generated by data processors and stored in the PRC by overseas institutions, organizations or individuals; and (iii) other acts as specified by the CAC. On September 28, 2023, CAC published the Cross-border Data Transfer Provisions. The Cross-border Data Transfer Provisions provide certain exemptions from obligations under the circumstances of cross-border data transfer, including, among others, the obligations for data security assessment, concluding a standard contract for provision of personal information abroad or passing the certification for personal information protection. However, the Cross-border Data Transfer Provisions were released for public comment only and their provisions and anticipated adoption date are subject to changes with substantial uncertainty, and their interpretation and implementation remain uncertain. As of the date of this prospectus, we do not transfer any users’ personal information or important data outside of China.
However, as there are still regulatory uncertainties in this regard, we cannot assure you that we will be able to comply with new laws and regulations in all respects, and we may be ordered to rectify, suspend or terminate any actions or services that are deemed illegal by the regulatory authorities and become subject to material penalties, which may materially harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
These promulgated laws and regulations reflect PRC government’s further attempts to strengthen the legal protection for the national network security, the security of key information infrastructure and the security of personal information protection. These and other similar legal and regulatory developments could lead to legal and economic uncertainty, affect how we design, market and sell solutions, how we operate our business, how our customers process and share data, how we process and use data, and how we transfer personal data from one jurisdiction to another, which could negatively impact demand for our solutions. We may incur substantial costs to comply with such laws and regulations, to meet the demands of our customers relating to their own compliance with applicable laws and regulations, and to establish and maintain internal compliance policies.
Moreover, different regulatory bodies in China, including among others, the MIIT, the CAC and the Ministry of Public Security have enforced laws and regulations regarding cybersecurity, information security, privacy and data protection with various standards and applications.
We have established rigorous and comprehensive policies and other documentation for the collection, processing, sharing, disclosure authorization and other aspects of data use and privacy and taken necessary measures to comply with the applicable laws and regulations regarding cybersecurity, information security, privacy and data protection. However, we cannot guarantee the effectiveness of these policies and measures undertaken by us, our employees, vendors or other business partners. We may be from time to time required to rectify or further improve our measures regarding cybersecurity, information security, privacy and data protection. Any failure or perceived failure by us to comply with all applicable laws and regulations regarding cybersecurity, information security, privacy and data protection, or any failure or perceived failure of our business partners to do so, or any failure or perceived failure of our employees to comply with our internal control measures, may result in negative publicity and legal proceedings or regulatory actions against us, and could result in fines, revocation of licenses, suspension of relevant operations or other legal or administrative penalties, which may in turn damage our reputation, discourage our current and potential consumers and subject us to fines and damages, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations. In addition, it is possible that we may become subject to additional or new laws and regulations regarding cybersecurity, information security, privacy and data protection in other jurisdictions if we extend our business outside of the PRC in the future, which may result in additional expenses to us and subject us to potential liability and negative publicity. We expect that these areas will receive greater attention and focus from regulators, and attract continued or greater public scrutiny and attention going forward, which could increase our compliance costs and subject us to heightened risks and challenges regarding cybersecurity, information security, privacy and data protection. If we are unable to
 
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manage these risks, we could become subject to penalties, fines, suspension of business and revocation of required licenses, and our reputation and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
PRC regulations relating to investments in offshore companies by PRC residents may subject our PRC-resident beneficial owners or our PRC subsidiaries to liability or penalties, limit our ability to inject capital into our PRC subsidiaries or limit our PRC subsidiaries’ ability to increase their registered capital or distribute profits.
PRC residents are subject to restrictions and filing requirements when investing in offshore companies. The SAFE promulgated the Circular on Relevant Issues Concerning Foreign Exchange Administration on Domestic Residents’ Offshore Investment and Financing and Roundtrip Investment through Special Purpose Vehicles, or SAFE Circular 37, on July 4, 2014. SAFE Circular 37 requires PRC residents to register with local branches of the SAFE in connection with their direct establishment or indirect control of an offshore entity, for the purpose of overseas investment and financing, with such PRC residents’ legally owned assets or equity interests in domestic enterprises or offshore assets or interests, referred to in SAFE Circular 37 as a “special purpose vehicle.” Pursuant to SAFE Circular 37, “control” refers to the act through which a PRC resident obtains the right to carry out business operations of, to gain proceeds from or to make decisions on a special purpose vehicle by means of, among others, shareholding entrustment arrangement. SAFE Circular 37 further requires amendment to the registration in the event of any significant changes with respect to the special purpose vehicle, such as change of shareholders of the special purpose vehicles, increase or decrease of capital contributed by PRC individuals, share transfer or exchange, merger, division or other material event. In the event that a PRC shareholder holding interests in a special purpose vehicle fails to fulfill the required SAFE registration, the PRC subsidiaries of that special purpose vehicle may be prohibited from making profit distributions to the offshore parent and from carrying out subsequent cross-border foreign exchange activities, and the special purpose vehicle may be restricted in its ability to contribute additional capital into its PRC subsidiary. Moreover, failure to comply with the various SAFE registration requirements described above could result in liability under PRC law for evasion of foreign exchange controls. According to the Notice on Further Simplifying and Improving Policies for the Foreign Exchange Administration of Direct Investment released on February 13, 2015 by the SAFE, local banks will examine and handle foreign exchange registration for overseas direct investment, including the initial foreign exchange registration and amendment registration, under SAFE Circular 37 from June 1, 2015.
We may not be aware of the identities of all of our beneficial owners who are PRC residents. We do not have control over our beneficial owners and there can be no assurance that all of our PRC-resident beneficial owners will comply with SAFE Circular 37 and subsequent implementation rules, and there is no assurance that the registration under SAFE Circular 37 and any amendment will be completed in a timely manner, or will be completed at all. The failure of our beneficial owners who are PRC residents to register or amend their foreign exchange registrations in a timely manner pursuant to SAFE Circular 37 and subsequent implementation rules, or the failure of future beneficial owners of our company who are PRC residents to comply with the registration procedures set forth in SAFE Circular 37 and subsequent implementation rules, may subject such beneficial owners or our PRC subsidiaries to fines and legal sanctions. Failure to register or comply with relevant requirements may also limit our ability to contribute additional capital to our PRC subsidiaries and limit our PRC subsidiaries’ ability to distribute dividends to our company. These risks may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Any failure to comply with PRC regulations regarding our share incentive plan may subject the PRC plan participants or us to fines and other legal or administrative sanctions.
Pursuant to SAFE Circular 37, PRC residents who participate in share incentive plans in overseas non-publicly-listed companies due to their position as director, senior management or employees of the PRC subsidiaries of the overseas companies may submit applications to SAFE or its local branches for the foreign exchange registration with respect to offshore special purpose companies before they obtain the incentive shares or exercise the share options. Our directors, executive officers and other employees who are PRC residents and who have been granted restricted shares, RSUs, other types of share incentive, or any combination thereof, may follow SAFE Circular 37 to apply for the foreign exchange registration before our company becomes an overseas listed company. After our company becomes an overseas listed company upon completion of this offering, we and our directors, executive officers and other employees who are PRC residents and who have been granted options will be subject to the Notice on Issues Concerning the
 
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Foreign Exchange Administration for Domestic Individuals Participating in Stock Incentive Plan of Overseas Publicly Listed Company, issued by SAFE in February 2012, according to which, employees, directors, supervisors and other management members participating in any stock incentive plan of an overseas publicly listed company who are PRC residents are required to register with SAFE through a domestic qualified agent, which could be a PRC subsidiary of such overseas listed company, and complete certain other procedures. We will make efforts to comply with these requirements. However, there can be no assurance that they can successfully register with SAFE in full compliance with the rules. Failure to complete the SAFE registrations may subject them to fines and legal sanctions and may also limit the ability to make payment under our share incentive plan or receive dividends or sales proceeds related thereto, or our ability to contribute additional capital into our wholly-foreign owned enterprise in China and limit our wholly-foreign owned enterprise’s ability to distribute dividends to us. We also face regulatory uncertainties that could restrict our ability to adopt additional share incentive plans for our directors and employees under PRC law.
We and our shareholders face uncertainty with respect to indirect transfers of equity interests in or other assets attributed to PRC resident enterprises by non-PRC resident companies, or immovable properties located in China owned by non-Chinese companies.
On February 3, 2015, the SAT issued the Public Notice Regarding Certain Corporate Income Tax Matters on Indirect Transfer of Properties by Non-Tax Resident Enterprises, or SAT Bulletin 7, which provided comprehensive guidelines relating to, and also heightened the PRC tax authorities’ scrutiny over, indirect transfers by a non-resident enterprise of PRC taxable assets. SAT Bulletin 7 redefines the applicable scope to expand the subject of the indirect share transfers to PRC taxable assets which includes equity investments in PRC resident enterprises, assets of a Chinese establishment and immovable properties in China. In addition, SAT Bulletin 7 has introduced safe harbors for internal group restructurings and the purchase and sale of equity through a public securities market. SAT Bulletin 7 also brings challenges to both the foreign transferor and transferee (or other person who is obligated to pay for the transfer) of PRC taxable assets. SAT Bulletin 7 does not apply to transactions of sale of shares by investors through a public stock exchange where such shares were acquired from a transaction through a public stock exchange.
On October 17, 2017, the SAT issued the Announcement of the State Administration of Taxation on Issues Concerning the Withholding of Non-resident Enterprise Income Tax at Source, or SAT Bulletin 37, which came into effect on December 1, 2017, and was most recently amended on June 15, 2018. SAT Bulletin 37 amends certain provisions in SAT Bulletin 7, but does not touch upon other provisions of SAT Bulletin 7, which remain in full force. The SAT Bulletin 37 further clarifies the practice and procedure of the withholding of non-resident enterprise income tax.
Where a non-resident enterprise transfers taxable assets in China indirectly by disposing of the equity interests of an overseas holding company, which is an Indirect Transfer, the non-resident enterprise as either transferor or transferee, or the PRC entity whose equity is transferred, may report such Indirect Transfer to the relevant tax authority. Using a “substance over form” principle, the PRC tax authority may disregard the existence of the overseas holding company if it lacks a reasonable commercial purpose and was established for the purpose of reducing, avoiding or deferring PRC tax. When determining whether there is a “reasonable commercial purpose” of the transaction arrangement, features to be taken into consideration include, without limitation: whether the main value of the equity interest of the relevant offshore enterprise derives directly or indirectly from PRC taxable assets; whether the assets of the relevant offshore enterprise mainly consists of direct or indirect investment in China or if its income mainly derives directly or indirectly from China; whether the offshore enterprise and its subsidiaries directly or indirectly holding PRC taxable assets have real commercial nature which is evidenced by their actual function and risk exposure; the duration of the existence of the shareholders, business model and the organizational structure; the income tax payable abroad on the income from the indirect transfer of PRC taxable assets; the replicability of the transaction by direct transfer of PRC taxable assets; and the applicable tax treaties or similar arrangements to such indirect transfer. As a result, gains derived from such Indirect Transfer may be subject to PRC enterprise income tax, and the transferee or other person who is obligated to pay for the transfer is obligated to withhold the applicable taxes, currently at a rate of 10% for the transfer of equity interests in a PRC resident enterprise, subject to available preferential tax treatment under applicable tax treaties or similar arrangements.
 
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Both the transferor and the transferee may be subject to penalties under PRC tax laws if the transferee fails to withhold the taxes and the transferor fails to pay the taxes.
We face uncertainties as to the reporting and other implications of certain past and future transactions where PRC taxable assets are involved, such as offshore restructuring and sales of the shares in our company or our offshore subsidiaries and investments. Our company may be subject to filing obligations or taxed if our company is transferor in such transactions, and may be subject to withholding obligations if our company is transferee in such transactions, under SAT Bulletin 7 and/or SAT Bulletin 37. For transfers of shares in our company by investors who are non-PRC resident enterprises, our PRC subsidiaries may be requested to assist in the filing under SAT Bulletin 7 and/or SAT Bulletin 37. As a result, we may be required to expend valuable resources to comply with SAT Bulletin 7 and/or SAT Bulletin 37 or to request the relevant transferors from whom we purchase taxable assets to comply with these bulletins, or to establish that our company should not be taxed under these bulletins, which may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Increases in labor costs and enforcement of stricter labor laws and regulations in China and our additional payments of statutory employee benefits may adversely affect our business and profitability.
The average wage in China has increased in recent years and is expected to continue to grow. The average wage level for our employees has also increased in recent years. We expect that our labor costs, including wages and employee benefits, will continue to increase. Unless we are able to pass on these increased labor costs to our customers, our profitability and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected. In addition, we have been subject to stricter regulatory requirements in terms of entering into labor contracts with our employees and paying various statutory employee benefits, including pensions, housing funds, medical insurance, work related injury insurance, unemployment insurance and maternity insurance to designated government agencies for the benefit of our employees.
Pursuant to the PRC Labor Contract Law and its implementation rules, employers are subject to stricter requirements in terms of signing labor contracts, paying remuneration, determining the term of employee’s probation and unilaterally terminating labor contracts. In the event that we decide to terminate some of our employees or otherwise change our employment or labor practices, the PRC Labor Contract Law and its implementation rules may limit our ability to effect those changes in a desirable or cost-effective manner, which could adversely affect our business and results of operations. As the interpretation and implementation of labor-related laws and regulations are still evolving, we cannot assure you that our current employment practices do not and will not violate labor-related laws and regulations in China, which may subject us to labor disputes or government investigations. In addition, we may incur additional expenses in order to comply with such laws and regulations, which may adversely affect our business and profitability.
We are subject to restrictions on currency exchange.
All of our revenue is denominated in Renminbi. The Renminbi is currently convertible under the “current account,” which includes dividends, trade and service-related foreign exchange transactions, but need to observe certain requirements if under the “capital account,” which includes foreign direct investment and loans, including loans we may secure from our PRC subsidiaries. Currently, our PRC subsidiaries may purchase foreign currency for settlement of “current account transactions,” including payment of dividends to us, by complying with certain procedural requirements. However, we cannot assure you that the relevant PRC governmental authorities will not limit or eliminate our ability to purchase foreign currencies in the future for current account transactions. Foreign exchange transactions under the capital account remain subject to limitations and require approvals from, or registration with, the SAFE and other relevant PRC governmental authorities. Since a significant amount of our future revenue and cash flow will be denominated in Renminbi, any existing and future restrictions on currency exchange may limit our ability to utilize cash generated in Renminbi to fund our business activities outside of the PRC or pay dividends in foreign currencies to our shareholders, including holders of the ADSs, and may limit our ability to obtain foreign currency through debt or equity financing for our onshore subsidiaries.
Fluctuations in exchange rates could result in foreign currency exchange losses and could materially reduce the value of your investment.
The value of the Renminbi against the U.S. dollar and other currencies may fluctuate and is affected by, among other things, changes in political and economic conditions and the foreign exchange policy
 
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adopted by the PRC government. On July 21, 2005, the PRC government changed its policy of pegging the value of the Renminbi to the U.S. dollar. Following the removal of the U.S. dollar peg, the Renminbi appreciated more than 20% against the U.S. dollar over the following three years. Between July 2008 and June 2010, this appreciation halted and the exchange rate between the Renminbi and the U.S. dollar remained within a narrow band. Since June 2010, the Renminbi has fluctuated against the U.S. dollar, at times significantly and unpredictably. On November 30, 2015, the Executive Board of the International Monetary Fund, completed the regular five-year review of the basket of currencies that make up the Special Drawing Right, or the SDR, and decided that with effect from October 1, 2016, Renminbi is determined to be a freely usable currency and will be included in the SDR basket as a fifth currency, along with the U.S. dollar, the Euro, the Japanese yen and the British pound. In the fourth quarter of 2016, the Renminbi has depreciated significantly in the backdrop of a surging U.S. dollar and persistent capital outflows of China. With the development of the foreign exchange market and progress towards interest rate liberalization and Renminbi internationalization, the PRC government may in the future announce further changes to the exchange rate system, and we cannot assure you that the Renminbi will not appreciate or depreciate significantly in value against the U.S. dollar in the future. It is difficult to predict how market forces or PRC or U.S. government policy may impact the exchange rate between the Renminbi and the U.S. dollar in the future.
Most of our revenue and costs are denominated in Renminbi. We are a holding company and we rely on dividends paid by our operating subsidiaries in China for our cash needs. Any significant revaluation of Renminbi may materially and adversely affect our results of operations and financial position reported in Renminbi when translated into U.S. dollars, and the value of, and any dividends payable on, the ADSs in U.S. dollars. To the extent that we need to convert U.S. dollars we receive from this offering into Renminbi for our operations, appreciation of the Renminbi against the U.S. dollar would have an adverse effect on the Renminbi amount we would receive. Conversely, if we decide to convert our Renminbi into U.S. dollars for the purpose of making payments for dividends on our ordinary shares or ADSs or for other business purposes, appreciation of the U.S. dollar against the Renminbi would have a negative effect on the U.S. dollar amount.
We may use dividends and other distributions on equity paid by our principal operating subsidiaries to fund offshore cash and financing requirements. Any limitation on the ability of our PRC operating subsidiaries to make payments to us could have an adverse effect on our ability to conduct our business.
We are a holding company and may use dividends and other distributions on equity paid by our principal operating subsidiaries, for our offshore cash and financing requirements, including the funds necessary to pay dividends and other cash distributions to our shareholders, fund inter-company loans, service any debt we may incur outside of China and pay our expenses. When our principal operating subsidiaries incur additional debt, the instruments governing the debt may restrict their ability to pay dividends or make other distributions or remittances to us. Furthermore, the laws, rules and regulations applicable to our PRC subsidiaries and certain other subsidiaries permit payments of dividends only out of their accumulated after-tax profits upon satisfaction of relevant statutory conditions and procedures, if any, determined in accordance with applicable accounting standards and regulations.
Under PRC laws, rules and regulations, each of our subsidiaries incorporated in China is required to set aside at least 10% of its after-tax profits each year, if any, to fund certain statutory reserves until the cumulative amount of such reserves reaches 50% of its registered capital. These reserves, together with the registered capital, are not distributable as cash dividends. As a result of these laws, rules and regulations, our subsidiaries incorporated in China are restricted in their ability to transfer a portion of their respective net assets to their shareholders as dividends, loans or advances. Certain of our subsidiaries did not have any retained earnings available for distribution in the form of dividends as of December 31, 2021. In addition, registered capital is also restricted from withdrawal in the PRC while the capital reserve accounts are prohibited from making up for losses. Furthermore, the incurrence of indebtedness by our PRC subsidiaries could result in operating and financing covenants and undertakings to creditors that would restrict the ability of our PRC subsidiaries to pay dividends to us.
We may be treated as a resident enterprise for PRC tax purposes under the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law, and we may therefore be subject to PRC income tax on our global income.
Under the EIT Law and its implementing rules, enterprises established under the laws of jurisdictions outside of China with “de facto management bodies” located in China may be considered PRC tax resident
 
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enterprises for tax purposes and may be subject to the PRC enterprise income tax at the rate of 25% on their global income. “De facto management body” refers to a managing body that exercises substantial and overall management and control over the production and operations, personnel, accounting and assets of an enterprise. The SAT issued the Notice Regarding the Determination of Chinese-Controlled Offshore-Incorporated Enterprises as PRC Tax Resident Enterprises on the Basis of De Facto Management Bodies, or Circular 82, on April 22, 2009, which was most recently amended on December 29, 2017. Circular 82 provides certain specific criteria for determining whether the “de facto management body” of a Chinese-controlled offshore-incorporated enterprise is located in China. Although Circular 82 only applies to offshore enterprises controlled by PRC enterprises or PRC enterprise groups, not those controlled by foreign enterprises or individuals, the determining criteria set forth in Circular 82 may reflect the State Administration of Taxation’s general position on how the “de facto management body” test should be applied in determining the tax resident status of offshore enterprises, regardless of whether they are controlled by PRC enterprises or PRC enterprise groups. According to Circular 82, an offshore incorporated enterprise controlled by a PRC enterprise or a PRC enterprise group will be regarded as a PRC tax resident by virtue of having its “de facto management body” in China and will be subject to PRC enterprise income tax on its global income only if all of the following conditions are met: (i) the primary location of the day-to-day operational management and the management department is in the PRC; (ii) decisions relating to the enterprise’s financial and human resource matters are made or are subject to approval by organizations or personnel in the PRC; (iii) the enterprise’s primary assets, accounting books and records, company seals, and board and shareholder resolutions and minutes, are located or maintained in the PRC; and (iv) at least 50% of voting board members or senior executives habitually reside in the PRC. If we were to be considered a PRC resident enterprise, we would be subject to PRC enterprise income tax at the rate of 25% on our global income. In such case, our profitability and cash flow may be materially reduced as a result of our global income being taxed under the Enterprise Income Tax Law. In addition, our shareholders (including ADS holders) may be subject to PRC tax, as described in “— Dividends paid to our foreign investors and gains on the sale or other disposition of the ADSs or ordinary shares by our foreign investors may become subject to PRC tax” below. We believe that none of our entities outside of China is a PRC resident enterprise for PRC tax purposes. However, the tax resident status of an enterprise is subject to determination by the PRC tax authorities and uncertainties remain with respect to the interpretation of the term “de facto management body.”
Discontinuation of any of the preferential tax treatments and government subsidies or imposition of any additional taxes and surcharges could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operation.
Our PRC subsidiaries currently benefit from a number of preferential tax treatments. For example, our subsidiary, Ningbo Viridi, is entitled to enjoy 15% preferential enterprise income tax from 2020 as it had been qualified as a “High New Technology Enterprise” under the EIT Law and related regulations. The discontinuation of any of the preferential income tax treatments that we currently enjoy could have a material and adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition. We cannot assure you that we will be able to maintain or lower our current effective tax rate in the future.
In addition, our PRC subsidiaries have received various financial subsidies from PRC local governmental authorities. The financial subsidies result from discretionary incentives and policies adopted by PRC local governmental authorities. Local governments may decide to change or discontinue such financial subsidies at any time. The discontinuation of such financial subsidies or imposition of any additional taxes could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
Dividends paid to our foreign investors and gains on the sale or other disposition of the ADSs or ordinary shares by our foreign investors may become subject to PRC tax.
Under the Enterprise Income Tax Law and its implementation rules issued by the State Council, a 10% PRC withholding tax is applicable to dividends paid to investors that are non-resident enterprises, which do not have an establishment or place of business in the PRC or which have such establishment or place of business but the dividends are not effectively connected with such establishment or place of business, to the extent such dividends are derived from sources within the PRC. Any gain realized on the transfer of ADSs or ordinary shares by such investors is also subject to PRC tax at a current rate of 10%, if such gain is regarded as income derived from sources within the PRC. If we are deemed a PRC resident enterprise (as
 
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discussed above under “— We may be treated as a resident enterprise for PRC tax purposes under the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law, and we may therefore be subject to PRC income tax on our global income”), dividends paid on our ordinary shares or ADSs, and any gain realized from the transfer of our ordinary shares or ADSs, would be treated as income derived from sources within the PRC and would as a result be subject to PRC taxation. Furthermore, if we are deemed a PRC resident enterprise, dividends paid to individual investors who are non-PRC residents and any gain realized on the transfer of ADSs or ordinary shares by such investors may be subject to PRC tax (which in the case of dividends may be withheld at source) at a rate of 20%. Any PRC tax liability may be reduced by an applicable tax treaty or under applicable tax arrangements between jurisdictions. However, if we or any of our subsidiaries established outside China are considered a PRC resident enterprise, it is unclear whether holders of the ADSs or ordinary shares would be able to obtain the benefit of income tax treaties or agreements entered into between China and other countries or areas. If dividends paid to our non-PRC investors, or gains from the transfer of the ADSs or ordinary shares by such investors, are deemed as income derived from sources within the PRC and thus are subject to PRC tax, the value of your investment in the ADSs or ordinary shares may decline significantly.
PRC regulation of loans to, and direct investment in, PRC entities by offshore holding companies and governmental control of currency conversion may restrict or prevent us from using the proceeds of this offering to make loans or additional capital contributions to our PRC subsidiaries.
In utilizing the proceeds of this offering, we, as an offshore holding company, are permitted under PRC laws and regulations to provide funding to our PRC subsidiaries, which are treated as foreign-invested enterprises under PRC laws, through loans or capital contributions. However, loans by us to our PRC subsidiaries to finance their activities cannot exceed statutory limits and must be registered with the local counterpart of SAFE and capital contributions to our PRC subsidiaries are subject to the requirement of making necessary filings or registrations through enterprise registration system with competent governmental authorities in China.
SAFE promulgated the Notice of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange on Reforming the Administration of Foreign Exchange Settlement of Capital of Foreign-invested Enterprises, or Circular 19, effective on June 1, 2015, and last amended on March 23, 2023. According to Circular 19, the flow and use of the RMB capital converted from foreign currency-denominated registered capital of a foreign-invested company is regulated such that RMB capital may not be used for the issuance of RMB entrusted loans, the repayment of inter-enterprise loans or the repayment of banks loans that have been transferred to a third-party. Although Circular 19 allows RMB capital converted from foreign currency-denominated registered capital of a foreign-invested enterprise to be used for equity investments within the PRC, it also reiterates the principle that RMB converted from the foreign currency-denominated capital of a foreign-invested company may not be directly or indirectly used for purposes beyond its business scope. SAFE promulgated the Notice of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange on Reforming and Standardizing the Foreign Exchange Settlement Management Policy of Capital Account, or Circular 16, effective on June 9, 2016, which reiterates some of the rules set forth in Circular 19, but changes the prohibition against using RMB capital converted from foreign currency-denominated registered capital of a foreign-invested company to issue RMB entrusted loans to a prohibition against using such capital to issue loans to non-associated enterprises. Violations of SAFE Circular 19 and Circular 16 could result in administrative penalties. Circular 19 and Circular 16 may significantly limit our ability to transfer any foreign currency we hold, including the net proceeds from this offering, to our PRC subsidiaries, which may adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business in the PRC.
On October 23, 2019, SAFE promulgated the Circular of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange on Further Promoting the Facilitation of Cross-border Trade and Investment, or SAFE Circular 28, which permits non-investment foreign-invested enterprises to use their capital funds to make equity investments in China, with genuine investment projects and in compliance with effective foreign investment restrictions and other applicable laws.
In light of the various requirements imposed by PRC regulations on loans to, and direct investment in, PRC entities by offshore holding companies, we cannot assure you that we will be able to complete the necessary government registrations or obtain the necessary government approvals on a timely basis, if at all, with respect to future loans or future capital contributions by us to our PRC subsidiaries. As a result,
 
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uncertainties exist as to our ability to provide prompt financial support to our PRC subsidiaries when needed. If we fail to complete such registrations or obtain such approvals, our ability to use foreign currency, including the proceeds we received from this offering, and to capitalize or otherwise fund our PRC operations may be negatively affected, which could materially and adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business.
The ability of U.S. authorities to bring actions for violations of U.S. securities law and regulations against us, our directors, executive officers or the expert named in this prospectus may be limited. Therefore, you may not be afforded the same protection as provided to investors in U.S. domestic companies.
The SEC, the U.S. Department of Justice, or the DOJ, and other U.S. authorities often have substantial difficulties in bringing and enforcing actions against non-U.S. companies such as us, and non-U.S. persons, such as our directors and executive officers in China. Due to jurisdictional limitations, matters of comity and various other factors, the SEC, the DOJ and other U.S. authorities may be limited in their ability to pursue bad actors, including in instances of fraud, in emerging markets such as China. We conduct our operations mainly in China and our assets are mainly located in China. In addition, all of our directors and executive officers reside within China. There are significant legal and other obstacles for U.S. authorities to obtain information needed for investigations or litigation against us or our directors, executive officers or other gatekeepers in case we or any of these individuals engage in fraud or other wrongdoing. In addition, local authorities in China may be constrained in their ability to assist U.S. authorities and overseas investors in connection with legal proceedings. As a result, if we, our directors, executive officers or other gatekeepers commit any securities law violation, fraud or other financial misconduct, the U.S. authorities may not be able to conduct effective investigations or bring and enforce actions against us, our directors, executive officers or other gatekeepers. Therefore, you may not be able to enjoy the same protection provided by various U.S. authorities as it is provided to investors in U.S. domestic companies.
You may experience difficulties in effecting service of legal process, enforcing foreign judgments or bringing original actions in China, based on United States or other foreign laws, against us, our directors, executive officers or the expert named in this prospectus. Therefore, you may not be able to enjoy the protection of such laws in an effective manner.
We conduct our operations mainly in China, and our assets are mainly located in China. In addition, a majority of our directors and executive officers reside within China. As a result, it may be difficult or impossible to effect service of process within the United States or elsewhere outside China upon us, our directors and executive officers, including with respect to matters arising under U.S. federal securities laws or applicable state securities laws. Even if you obtain a judgment against us, our directors, executive officers or the expert named in this prospectus in a U.S. court or other court outside China, you may not be able to enforce such judgment against us or them in China. China does not have treaties providing for the reciprocal recognition and enforcement of judgments of courts in the United States, the United Kingdom, Japan or most other western countries and regions. Therefore, recognition and enforcement in China of judgments of a court in any of these non-PRC jurisdictions may be difficult or impossible. In addition, you may not be able to bring original actions in China based on the U.S. or other foreign laws against us, our directors, executive officers or the expert named in this prospectus. As a result, shareholder claims that are common in the United States, including class actions based on securities law and fraud claims, are difficult or impossible to pursue as a matter of law and practicality in China. Although the local authorities in China may establish a regulatory cooperation mechanism with the securities regulatory authorities of another country or region to implement cross-border supervision and administration, such regulatory cooperation with the securities regulatory authorities in the Unities States have not been efficient in the absence of mutual and practical cooperation mechanism. According to Article 177 of the PRC Securities Law which became effective in March 2020, no overseas securities regulator is allowed to directly conduct investigation or evidence collection activities within the territory of the PRC. Accordingly, without the consent of the competent PRC securities regulators and relevant authorities, no organization or individual may provide the documents and materials relating to securities business activities to overseas parties. While detailed interpretation of or implementation rules under Article 177 of the PRC Securities Law is not yet available, the inability for an overseas securities regulator to directly conduct investigation or evidence collection activities within China
 
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may further increase difficulties faced by investors in protecting your interests. Therefore, you may not be able to effectively enjoy the protection offered by the U.S. laws and regulations that are intended to protect public investors.
Risks Related to the ADSs and This Offering
There has been no public market for our shares or the ADSs prior to this offering, and you may not be able to resell the ADSs at or above the price you paid, or at all.
Prior to this offering, there has been no public market for our shares or ADSs. We will apply for approval of the ADSs representing ordinary shares for listing on the NYSE. Our ordinary shares will not be listed on any exchange or quoted for trading on any over-the-counter trading system. If an active trading market for the ADSs does not develop after this offering, the market price and liquidity of the ADSs will be materially and adversely affected.
Negotiations with the underwriters will determine the initial public offering price for the ADSs which may bear no relationship to their market price after the initial public offering. There can be no assurance that an active trading market for the ADSs will develop or that the market price of the ADSs will not decline below the initial public offering price.
The trading price of the ADSs may be volatile, which could result in substantial losses to you.
The trading prices of the ADSs are likely to be volatile and could fluctuate widely due to factors beyond our control. This may happen because of broad market and industry factors, like the performance and fluctuation in the market prices or the underperformance or deteriorating financial results of other listed companies based in China. The securities of some of these companies have experienced significant volatility since their initial public offerings, including, in some cases, substantial price declines in the trading prices of their securities. The trading performances of other Chinese companies’ securities after their offerings, including technology companies, may affect the attitudes of investors toward Chinese companies listed in the United States, which consequently may impact the trading performance of the ADSs, regardless of our actual operating performance. In addition, any negative news or perceptions about inadequate corporate governance practices or fraudulent accounting, corporate structure or matters of other Chinese companies may also negatively affect the attitudes of investors towards Chinese companies in general, including us, regardless of whether we have conducted any inappropriate activities. Furthermore, securities markets may from time to time experience significant price and volume fluctuations that are not related to our operating performance, such as the large decline in share prices in the United States, China and other jurisdictions in late 2008, early 2009, the second half of 2011, 2015 and the first quarter of 2020. In particular, concerns about the economic impact of the coronavirus outbreak have triggered significant price fluctuations in the U.S. stock market. All these fluctuations and incidents may have a material and adverse effect on the trading price of the ADSs.
In addition to the above factors, the price and trading volume of the ADSs may be highly volatile due to multiple factors, including the following:

regulatory developments affecting us or our industry;

announcements of studies and reports relating to the quality of our product offerings or those of our competitors;

changes in the economic performance or market valuations of other providers of electric vehicles;

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly results of operations and changes or revisions of our expected results;

changes in financial estimates by securities research analysts;

conditions in the BEV market in China;

announcements by us or our competitors of new product and service offerings, acquisitions, strategic relationships, joint ventures, capital raisings or capital commitments;
 
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additions to or departures of our senior management;

fluctuations of exchange rates between the Renminbi and the U.S. dollar;

release or expiry of lock-up or other transfer restrictions on our issued shares or ADSs; and

sales or perceived potential sales of additional ordinary shares or ADSs.
If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, the market price for the ADSs and trading volume could decline.
The trading market for the ADSs will depend in part on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. If research analysts do not establish and maintain adequate research coverage or if one or more of the analysts who covers us downgrades the ADSs or publishes inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, the market price for the ADSs would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of our company or fail to publish reports on us regularly, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which, in turn, could cause the market price or trading volume for the ADSs to decline.
As our initial public offering price is substantially higher than our net tangible book value per share, you will experience immediate and substantial dilution.
If you purchase ADSs in this offering, you will pay more for your ADSs than the amount paid by our existing shareholders for their ordinary shares on a per ADS basis. As a result, you will experience immediate and substantial dilution of approximately US$     per ADS (assuming no exercise of outstanding options to acquire ordinary shares and no exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional ADSs), representing the difference between our pro forma net tangible book value per ADS as of June 30, 2023, after giving effect to this offering, and the assumed initial public offering price of US$     per ADS. In addition, you will experience further dilution to the extent that our ordinary shares are issued upon the vesting of the RSUs under our share incentive plan. Ordinary shares issuable under our share incentive plan may be issued at a purchase price on a per ADS basis that is less than the public offering price per ADS in this offering. See “Dilution” for a more complete description of how the value of your investment in the ADSs will be diluted upon completion of this offering [and the concurrent private placement to Geely Auto].
Because we do not expect to pay cash dividends in the foreseeable future after this offering, you may not receive any return on your investment unless you sell your ordinary shares or ADSs for a price greater than that which you paid for them.
We currently intend to retain most, if not all, of our available funds and any future earnings after this offering to fund the development and growth of our business. We do not expect to pay any cash dividends in the near future. See “Dividend Policy.” Therefore, you should not rely on an investment in the ADSs as a source for any future dividend income.
Our board of directors has complete discretion as to whether to distribute dividends. Even if our board of directors decides to declare and pay dividends, the timing, amount and form of future dividends, if any, will depend on, among other things, our future results of operations and cash flow, our capital requirements and surplus, the amount of distributions, if any, received by us from our subsidiaries, our financial condition, contractual restrictions and other factors deemed relevant by our board of directors. Accordingly, the return on your investment in the ADSs will likely depend entirely upon any future price appreciation of the ADSs. There is no guarantee that the ADSs will appreciate in value after this offering or even maintain the price at which you purchased the ADSs. You may not realize a return on your investment in the ADSs and you may even lose your entire investment in the ADSs.
Substantial future sales or perceived potential sales of the ADSs in the public market could cause the price of the ADSs to decline.
Sales of the ADSs in the public market after this offering, or the perception that these sales could occur, could cause the market price of the ADSs to decline significantly. Upon completion of this offering [and the concurrent private placement to Geely Auto to effect its Assured Entitlement Distribution (assuming Geely Auto’s full subscription of the ordinary shares to be issued by us in such concurrent private
 
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placement)], we will have      ordinary shares outstanding, including ordinary shares represented by ADSs newly issued in connection with this offering, assuming the underwriters do not exercise their option to purchase additional ADSs. We, [our directors, executive officers, and certain of our existing shareholders] have agreed not to sell any ordinary shares or ADSs for 180 days after the date of this prospectus without the prior written consent of the underwriters, subject to certain exceptions. All ADSs representing our ordinary shares sold in this offering are expected to be freely transferable by persons other than our “affiliates” without restriction or additional registration under the U.S. Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. All of the other ordinary shares outstanding after this offering will be available for sale, upon the expiration of the lock-up periods described above, subject to volume and other restrictions as applicable under Rule 144 and Rule 701 under the Securities Act. Any or all of these ordinary shares may be released prior to the expiration of the applicable lock-up period at the discretion of the designated representatives. To the extent shares are released before the expiration of the applicable lock-up period and sold into the market, the market price of the ADSs could decline significantly. See “Shares Eligible for Future Sale — Lock-up Agreements.”
Certain major holders of our ordinary shares after completion of this offering will have the right to cause us to register under the Securities Act the sale of their shares, subject to the applicable lock-up periods in connection with this offering. Registration of these shares under the Securities Act would result in ADSs representing these shares becoming freely tradable without restriction under the Securities Act immediately upon the effectiveness of the registration. Sales of ADSs representing these registered shares in the public market could cause the price of the ADSs to decline significantly.
You, as holders of ADSs, may have fewer rights than holders of our ordinary shares and must act through the depositary to exercise those rights.
Holders of ADSs do not have the same rights of our shareholders and may only exercise the voting rights with respect to the underlying ordinary shares in accordance with the provisions of the deposit agreement. Under our third amended and restated memorandum and articles of association, the minimum notice period required to convene a general meeting will be fourteen days. When a general meeting is convened, you may not receive sufficient notice of a shareholders’ meeting to permit you to withdraw your ordinary shares to allow you to cast your vote with respect to any specific matter. In addition, the depositary and its agents may not be able to send voting materials to you or carry out your voting instructions in a timely manner. We will make all reasonable efforts to cause the depositary to extend voting rights to you in a timely manner, but there can be no assurance that you will receive the voting materials in time to ensure that you can instruct the depositary to vote your ADSs. Furthermore, the depositary and its agents will not be responsible for any failure to carry out any instructions to vote, for the manner in which any vote is cast or for the effect of any such vote. As a result, you may not be able to exercise your right to vote and you may lack recourse if your ADSs are not voted as you requested. In addition, in your capacity as an ADS holder, you will not be able to call a shareholders’ meeting.
Your right to participate in any future rights offerings may be limited, which may cause dilution to your holdings.
We may, from time to time, distribute rights to our shareholders, including rights to acquire our securities. However, we cannot make rights available to you in the United States unless we register both the distribution and sale of the rights and the securities to which the rights relate under the Securities Act or an exemption from the registration requirements is available. Under the deposit agreement, the depositary will not make rights available to you unless both the distribution and sale of the rights and the underlying securities to be distributed to ADS holders are either registered under the Securities Act or exempt from registration under the Securities Act. We are under no obligation to file a registration statement with respect to any such rights or securities or to endeavor to cause such a registration statement to be declared effective and we may not be able to establish a necessary exemption from registration under the Securities Act. Accordingly, you may be unable to participate in our rights offerings in the future and may experience dilution in your holdings.
You may not receive cash dividends or other distributions if the depositary determines it is illegal or impractical to make them available to you.
The depositary will pay cash distribution on the ADSs only to the extent that we decide to distribute dividends on our ordinary shares or other deposited securities, and we do not have any present plan to pay
 
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any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. See “Dividend Policy.” To the extent that there is a distribution, the depositary of the ADSs has agreed to pay to you the cash dividends or other distributions it or the custodian receives on our ordinary shares or other deposited securities after deducting its fees and expenses. You will receive these distributions in proportion to the number of ordinary shares your ADSs represent. However, the depositary may, at its discretion, decide that it is illegal or impractical to make a distribution available to any holders of ADSs. For example, the depositary may determine that it is not practicable to distribute certain property through the mail, or that the value of certain distributions may be less than the cost of mailing them. In these cases, the depositary may decide not to distribute such property to you.
We will incur increased costs and become subject to additional regulations and requirements as a result of becoming a public company, which could lower our profits or make it more difficult to run our business.
Upon completion of this offering, we will become a public company and expect to incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act, as well as rules subsequently implemented by the SEC and the NYSE, impose various requirements on the corporate governance practices of public companies. We expect to incur significant expenses and devote substantial management effort toward ensuring compliance with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes- Oxley Act of 2002 and the other rules and regulations of the SEC.
We expect these rules and regulations to increase our legal and financial compliance costs and to make some corporate activities more time-consuming and costly. For example, as a result of becoming a public company, we will need to increase the number of independent directors and adopt policies regarding internal controls and disclosure controls and procedures. We also expect that operating as a public company will make it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance, and we may be required to accept reduced policy limits and coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain the same or similar coverage. In addition, we will incur additional costs associated with our public company reporting requirements. It may also be more difficult for us to find qualified persons to serve on our board of directors or as executive officers. We are currently evaluating and monitoring developments with respect to these rules and regulations, and we cannot predict or estimate with any degree of certainty the amount of additional costs we may incur or the timing of such costs.
In the past, shareholders of a public company often brought securities class action suits against companies following periods of instability in the market price of those companies’ securities. If we were involved in a class action suit, it could divert a significant amount of our management’s attention and other resources from our business and operations, which could harm our results of operations and require us to incur significant expenses to defend the suit. Any such class action suit, whether or not successful, could harm our reputation and restrict our ability to raise capital in the future. In addition, if a claim is successfully made against us, we may be required to pay significant damages, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
You may be subject to limitations on transfer of your ADSs.
Your ADSs are transferable on the books of the depositary. However, the depositary may close its transfer books at any time or from time to time when it deems expedient in connection with the performance of its duties.
In addition, the depositary may refuse to deliver, transfer or register transfers of ADSs generally when our books or the books of the depositary are closed, or at any time if we or the depositary deems it advisable to do so because of any requirement of law or of any government or governmental body, or under any provision of the deposit agreement, or for any other reason.
Our third amended and restated memorandum and articles of association contain anti-takeover provisions that could discourage a third-party from acquiring us, which could limit our shareholders’ opportunity to sell their shares, including ordinary shares represented by the ADSs, at a premium.
We have adopted the third amended and restated memorandum and articles of association to be effective immediately prior to the completion of this offering that contain provisions to limit the ability of others to acquire control of our company or cause us to engage in change-of-control transactions. These provisions could have the effect of depriving our shareholders of an opportunity to sell their shares at a
 
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premium over prevailing market prices by discouraging third parties from seeking to obtain control of our company in a tender offer or similar transaction. For example, our board of directors has the authority, without further action by our shareholders, to issue preferred shares in one or more series and to fix their designations, powers, preferences, privileges, and relative participating, optional or special rights and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions, including dividend rights, conversion rights, voting rights, terms of redemption and liquidation preferences, any or all of which may be greater than the rights associated with our ordinary shares, including ordinary shares represented by ADS. Preferred shares could be issued quickly with terms calculated to delay or prevent a change in control of our company or make removal of management more difficult. If our board of directors decides to issue preferred shares, the price of the ADSs may fall and the voting and other rights of the holders of our ordinary shares and the ADSs may be materially and adversely affected. In addition, our third amended and restated memorandum and articles of association contains other provisions that could limit the ability of third parties to acquire control of our company or cause us to engage in a transaction resulting in a change of control.
ADS holders may not be entitled to a jury trial with respect to claims arising under the deposit agreement, which could result in less favorable outcomes to the plaintiff(s) in any such action.
The deposit agreement governing the ADSs provides that, to the extent permitted by law, holders of the ADSs waive the right to a jury trial of any claim they may have against us or the depositary arising out of or relating to the ADSs or the deposit agreement, including any claim under U.S. federal securities laws. However, you will not be deemed, by agreeing to the terms of the deposit agreement, to have waived our or the depositary’s compliance with U.S. federal securities laws and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.
If we or the depositary oppose a jury trial demand based on the above-mentioned jury trial waiver, the court will determine whether the waiver is enforceable in the facts and circumstances of that case in accordance with applicable case law. The deposit agreement governing the ADSs provides that, as an owner of ADSs, you irrevocably agree that any legal action arising out of the deposit agreement and the ADSs involving us or the depositary may only be instituted in a state or federal court in the city of New York. While to our knowledge, the enforceability of a jury trial waiver under the federal securities laws has not been finally adjudicated by a federal court, we believe that a jury trial waiver provision is generally enforceable under the laws of the State of New York by a federal or state court in the City of New York. In determining whether to enforce a jury trial waiver provision, New York courts will consider whether the visibility of the jury trial waiver provision within the agreement is sufficiently prominent such that a party has knowingly waived any right to trial by jury. We believe that this is the case with respect to the deposit agreement and the ADSs. In addition, New York courts will not enforce a jury trial waiver provision in order to bar a viable setoff or counterclaim sounding in fraud or one which is based upon a creditor’s negligence in failing to liquidate collateral upon a guarantor’s demand, or in the case of an intentional tort claim, none of which we believe are applicable in the case of the deposit agreement or the ADSs. If you or any other holder or beneficial owner of ADSs brings a claim against us or the depositary in connection with matters arising under the deposit agreement or the ADSs, including claims under federal securities laws, you or such other holder or beneficial owner may not be entitled to a jury trial with respect to such claims, which may have the effect of limiting and discouraging lawsuits against us and/or the depositary. If a lawsuit is brought against us and/or the depositary under the deposit agreement, it may be heard only by a judge or justice of the applicable trial court, which would be conducted according to different civil procedures and may result in different outcomes than a trial by jury would have had, including results that could be less favorable to the plaintiff(s) in any such action, depending on, among other things, the nature of the claims, the judge or justice hearing such claims and the venue of the hearing.
Moreover, as the jury trial waiver relates to claims arising out of or relating to the ADSs or the deposit agreement, we believe that, as a matter of construction of the clause, the waiver would likely to continue to apply to ADS holders who withdraw the ordinary shares from the ADS facility with respect to claims arising before the cancellation of the ADSs and the withdrawal of the ordinary shares, and the waiver would most likely not apply to ADS holders who subsequently withdraw the ordinary shares represented by ADSs from the ADS facility with respect to claims arising after the withdrawal. However, to our knowledge, there has been no case law on the applicability of the jury trial waiver to ADS holders who withdraw the ordinary shares represented by the ADSs from the ADS facility.
 
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You may face difficulties in protecting your interests, and your ability to protect your rights through U.S. courts may be limited, because we are incorporated under Cayman Islands law.
We are an exempted company limited by shares incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands. Our corporate affairs are governed by our memorandum and articles of association, the Companies Act (as revised) of the Cayman Islands and the common law of the Cayman Islands.
The rights of shareholders to take action against the directors, actions by minority shareholders and the fiduciary duties of our directors to us under Cayman Islands law are to a large extent governed by the common law of the Cayman Islands. The common law of the Cayman Islands is derived in part from comparatively limited judicial precedent in the Cayman Islands as well as from the common law of England, the decisions of whose courts are of persuasive authority, but are not binding, on a court in the Cayman Islands. The rights of our shareholders and the fiduciary duties of our directors under Cayman Islands law are not as clearly established as they would be under statutes or judicial precedent in some jurisdictions in the United States. In particular, the Cayman Islands have a less developed body of securities laws than the United States. Some U.S. states, such as Delaware, have more fully developed and judicially interpreted bodies of corporate law than the Cayman Islands. In addition, Cayman Islands companies may not have standing to initiate a shareholder derivative action in a federal court of the United States.
Shareholders of Cayman Islands exempted companies like us have no general rights under Cayman Islands law to inspect corporate records or to obtain copies of lists of shareholders of these companies. Our directors will have discretion under the third amended and restated memorandum and articles of association, which are both expected to be effective immediately prior to completion of this offering, to determine whether or not, and under what conditions, our corporate records may be inspected by our shareholders, but are not obliged to make them available to our shareholders. This may make it more difficult for you to obtain the information needed to establish any facts necessary for a shareholder resolution or to solicit proxies from other shareholders in connection with a proxy contest.
As a result of all of the above, our public shareholders may have more difficulty in protecting their interests in the face of actions taken by management, members of the board of directors or controlling shareholders than they would as public shareholders of a company incorporated in the United States. For a discussion of significant differences between the provisions of the Companies Act (as revised) of the Cayman Islands and the laws applicable to companies incorporated in the United States and their shareholders, see “Description of Share Capital — Differences in Corporate Law.”
We are a foreign private issuer within the meaning of the rules under the Exchange Act, and as such we are exempt from certain provisions applicable to U.S. domestic public companies.
Because we qualify as a foreign private issuer under the Exchange Act, we are exempt from certain provisions of the securities rules and regulations in the United States that are applicable to U.S. domestic issuers, including: (i) the rules under the Exchange Act requiring the filing with the SEC of quarterly reports on Form 10-Q or current reports on Form 8-K; (ii) the sections of the Exchange Act regulating the solicitation of proxies, consents, or authorizations in respect of a security registered under the Exchange Act; (iii) the sections of the Exchange Act requiring insiders to file public reports of their stock ownership and trading activities and liability for insiders who profit from trades made in a short period of time; and (iv) the selective disclosure rules by issuers of material nonpublic information under Regulation FD.
We are required to file an annual report on Form 20-F within four months of the end of each fiscal year. In addition, we intend to publish our results on a quarterly basis as press releases, distributed pursuant to the rules and regulations of the NYSE. Press releases relating to financial results and material events will also be furnished to the SEC on Form 6-K. However, the information we are required to file with or furnish to the SEC will be less extensive and less timely compared to that required to be filed with the SEC by U.S. domestic issuers. As a result, you may not be afforded the same protections or information that would be made available to you were you investing in a U.S. domestic issuer.
We will be a “controlled company” under the applicable rules of the NYSE and, as a result, are entitled to exemptions from certain corporate governance requirements that would otherwise provide protection to shareholders of other companies.
Upon the completion of this offering, we will be a “controlled company” as defined under the NYSE Listed Company Manual. For so long as we remain a controlled company, we may rely on exemptions from
 
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certain corporate governance rules, including (i) the requirement that a majority of the board of directors consist of independent directors, (ii) the requirement that the compensation of our officers be determined or recommended to our board of directors by a compensation committee that is comprised solely of independent directors, and (iii) the requirement that director nominees be selected or recommended to the board of directors by a majority of independent directors or a nominating committee comprised solely of independent directors.
Currently, we do not plan to utilize the exemptions available for controlled companies after we complete this offering, but will rely on the exemption available for foreign private issuers to follow our home country governance practices instead. See “— We are a foreign private issuer within the meaning of the rules under the Exchange Act, and as such we are exempt from certain provisions applicable to U.S. domestic public companies.” If we cease to be a foreign private issuer or if we cannot rely on the home country governance practice exemption for any reason, we may decide to invoke the exemptions available for a controlled company as long as we remain a controlled company. As a result, you will not have the same protection afforded to shareholders of companies that are subject to all the NYSE corporate governance requirements.
As a company with limited liability incorporated in the Cayman Islands, we are permitted to adopt certain home country practices in relation to corporate governance matters that differ significantly from the NYSE corporate governance listing standards; these practices may afford less protection to shareholders than they would enjoy if we complied fully with the NYSE corporate governance listing standards.
We are a company incorporated in the Cayman Islands, and we have applied for listing of the ADSs on the NYSE. The NYSE market rules permit a foreign private issuer like us to follow the corporate governance practices of its home country. Certain corporate governance practices in the Cayman Islands, which is our home country, may differ significantly from the NYSE corporate governance listing standards.
Among other things, we are not required to: (i) have a majority of the board be independent; (ii) have a compensation committee or a nominating committee consisting entirely of independent directors; (iii) have a minimum of three members on the audit committee; (iv) obtain shareholders’ approval for issuance of securities in certain situations; or (v) have regularly scheduled executive sessions with only independent directors each year.
We intend to rely on the first four exemptions described above. As a result, you may not be provided with the benefits of certain corporate governance requirements of the NYSE.
There can be no assurance that we will not be a passive foreign investment company, or PFIC, for U.S. federal income tax purposes for any taxable year, which could result in adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences to U.S. investors in the ADSs or ordinary shares.
In general, a non-U.S. corporation is a PFIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes for any taxable year in which (i) 50% or more of the average value of its assets (generally determined on a quarterly basis) consists of assets that produce, or are held for the production of, passive income, or (ii) 75% or more of its gross income consists of passive income. For purposes of the above calculations, a non-U.S. corporation that owns, directly or indirectly, at least 25% by value of the shares of another corporation is treated as if it held its proportionate share of the assets of the other corporation and received directly its proportionate share of the income of the other corporation. Passive income generally includes dividends, interest, investment gains and certain rents and royalties (other than rents and royalties that are derived in the conduct of an active business and meet certain requirements). Cash is generally a passive asset for these purposes. Goodwill is treated as an active asset to the extent associated with business activities that produce active income.
Based on the current and expected composition of our income and assets and the estimated value of our assets, including goodwill (which is based, in part, on the expected price of the ADSs in this offering), we do not expect to be a PFIC for our current taxable year. However, our PFIC status for any taxable year is an annual determination that can be made only after the end of that year and will depend on the composition of our income and assets and the value of our assets from time to time. The composition of our assets and income may be affected by how, and how quickly, we use our cash (including the cash raised in this offering). In addition, the value of our goodwill may be determined, in part, by reference to the market price of the ADSs from time to time, which could be volatile. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that
 
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we will not be a PFIC for our current or any future taxable year. If we are a PFIC for any taxable year during which a U.S. investor holds ADSs or ordinary shares, certain adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences could apply to such U.S. investor. See “Taxation — Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations —  Passive Foreign Investment Company Rules.”
 
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CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus contains statements that constitute forward-looking statements. Many of the forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus can be identified by the use of forward-looking words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “could,” “will,” “expect,” “should,” “plan,” “intend,” “estimate” and “potential,” among others.
Forward-looking statements appear in a number of places in this prospectus and include, but are not limited to, statements regarding our intent, belief or current expectations. Forward-looking statements are based on our management’s beliefs and assumptions and on information currently available to our management. Such statements are subject to risks and uncertainties, and actual results may differ materially from those expressed or implied in the forward-looking statements due to of various factors, including, but not limited to, those identified under “Risk Factors”. These risks and uncertainties include factors relating to:

general economic, political, demographic and business conditions in China and globally;

our ability to implement our growth strategy;

the success of operating initiatives, including advertising and promotional efforts and new product development by us and our competitors;

our ability to develop and apply our technologies to support and expand our product offerings;

the expected growth of the NEV industry in China;

the trends in, and size of, China’s BEV market;

competition in the industry that we operate in China;

changes in government policies and regulation relating to the industry in which we operate;

other factors that may affect our financial condition, liquidity and results of operations; and

other risk factors discussed under “Risk Factors.”
In light of the significant uncertainties in these forward-looking statements, you should not regard these statement as a representation or warranty by us or any other person that we will achieve our objectives and plans in any specified time frame, or at all. Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date they are made, and we do not undertake any obligation to update them in light of new information or future developments or to release publicly any revisions to these statements in order to reflect later events or circumstances or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events.
This prospectus contains certain data and information that we obtained from various government and private publications. Statistical data in these publications also include projections based on a number of assumptions. The NEV industry may not grow at the rate projected by market data, or at all. Failure of this market to grow at the projected rate may have a material and adverse effect on our business and the market price of the ADSs. In addition, the rapidly evolving nature of the NEV industry results in significant uncertainties for any projections or estimates relating to the growth prospects or future condition of our market. Furthermore, if any one or more of the assumptions underlying the market data are later found to be incorrect, actual results may differ from the projections based on these assumptions. You should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements.
You should read this prospectus and the documents that we reference in this prospectus and have filed as exhibits to the registration statement, of which this prospectus is a part, completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements. We operate in a rapidly evolving environment. New risks emerge from time to time and it is impossible for our management to predict all risk factors, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ from those contained in any forward-looking statement.
 
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USE OF PROCEEDS
We expect to receive estimated net proceeds from this offering of approximately US$       million, or approximately US$       million if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional ADSs in full, based on the midpoint of the estimated initial public offering price range set forth on the front cover of this prospectus, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated expenses payable by us. [Concurrently with this offering, Geely Automobile Holdings Limited, or Geely Auto, our controlling shareholder, will have the right to purchase up to a total of             ordinary shares to be issued by us in a private placement. We expect to receive estimated net proceeds from the concurrent private placement to Geely Auto of approximately US$       million.] A US$1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed initial public offering price of US$       per ADS would increase (decrease) the net proceeds to us from this offering by US$       million, assuming the underwriters do not exercise their option to purchase additional ADSs and the number of ADSs offered by us, as set forth on the front cover of this prospectus, remains the same, and after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated expenses payable by us.
We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering [, including the net proceeds from the private placement to Geely Auto,] for the following purposes:

approximately [45]%, or US$      million, for [the development of more advanced BEV technologies, as well as expansion of product portfolio];

approximately [45]%, or US$      million, for [selling and marketing, and expansion of our service and charging network]; and

approximately [10]%, or US$      million, for [general corporate purposes, including working capital needs, to support our business operations and growth].
The foregoing represents our current intentions based upon our present plans and business conditions to use the net proceeds of this offering and the concurrent private placement. Our management, however, will have significant flexibility and discretion to apply the net proceeds. If an unforeseen event occurs or business conditions change, we may use the proceeds of this offering differently than as described in this prospectus. In utilizing the proceeds from this offering and concurrent private placement, we are permitted under PRC laws and regulations to provide funding to our PRC subsidiaries only through loans or capital contributions, and only if we satisfy the applicable government registration and approval requirements. We cannot assure you that we will be able to meet these requirements on a timely basis, if at all. See “Risk Factors — Risks Related to Doing Business in China — PRC regulation of loans to, and direct investment in, PRC entities by offshore holding companies and governmental control of currency conversion may restrict or prevent us from using the proceeds of this offering to make loans or additional capital contributions to our PRC subsidiaries.”
To the extent that the net proceeds we receive from this offering are not immediately applied for the above purposes, we intend to invest our net proceeds in short-term, interest bearing, debt instruments or bank deposits.
 
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DIVIDEND POLICY
We have not previously declared or paid any cash dividend or dividend in kind and we have no plan to declare or pay any dividends in the near future on our shares or the ADSs representing our ordinary shares. We currently intend to retain most, if not all, of our available funds and any future earnings to operate and expand our business.
We are a holding company incorporated in the Cayman Islands. We rely principally on dividends from our PRC subsidiaries for our cash requirements, including any payment of dividends to our shareholders. PRC regulations may restrict the ability of our PRC subsidiaries to pay dividends to us. See “Regulation — Regulation s Related to Foreign Exchange Registration of Overseas Investment by PRC Residents.”
Our board of directors has discretion as to whether to distribute dividends, subject to certain requirements of Cayman Islands law. In addition, our shareholders may by ordinary resolution declare a dividend, but no dividend may exceed the amount recommended by our board of directors. Under Cayman Islands law, a Cayman Islands company may pay a dividend out of either profit or share premium account, provided that in no circumstances may a dividend be paid if this would result in the company being unable to pay its debts as they fall due in the ordinary course of business. Even if our board of directors decides to pay dividends, the form, frequency and amount will depend upon our future operations and earnings, capital requirements and surplus, general financial condition, contractual restrictions and other factors that the board of directors may deem relevant. If we pay any dividends on our ordinary shares, we will pay those dividends which are payable in respect of the ordinary shares underlying the ADSs to the depositary, as the registered holder of such ordinary shares, and the depositary then will pay such amounts to the ADS holders in proportion to the ordinary shares underlying the ADSs held by such ADS holders, subject to the terms of the deposit agreement, including the fees and expenses payable thereunder. See “Description of American Depositary Shares.”
 
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CAPITALIZATION
The table below sets forth our capitalization as of June 30, 2023:

on an actual basis;

on a pro forma basis to give effect to (i) the automatic conversion of all of the issued and outstanding preferred shares on a one-for-one basis into ordinary shares immediately prior to the completion of this offering; (ii) the issuance of 4,382,686 series A preferred shares and automatic conversion of such preferred shares on a one-for-one basis into ordinary shares immediately prior to the completion of this offering; and

on a pro forma as adjusted basis to give effect to (i) the automatic conversion of all of the issued and outstanding preferred shares on a one-for-one basis into ordinary shares immediately prior to the completion of this offering, (ii) the issuance of 4,382,686 series A preferred shares and automatic conversion of such preferred shares on a one-for-one basis into ordinary shares immediately prior to the completion of this offering; (iii) the issuance and sale of           ordinary shares in this offering, and the receipt of approximately US$      million in estimated net proceeds, considering an offering price of US$      per ADS (the midpoint of the estimated initial public offering price range set forth on the front cover of this prospectus), after deduction of the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, and the use of proceeds therefrom, [and (iv) the issuance and sale of           ordinary shares to Geely Auto assuming Geely Auto’s full subscription of the ordinary shares to be issued by us in a concurrent private placement to effect its Assured Entitlement Distribution,] which number of shares has been calculated based on an assumed initial public offering price of US$      per ADS, the midpoint of the estimated range of the initial public offering price shown on the front cover of this prospectus.
 
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You should read this table together with our combined and consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus and the information under “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”
As of June 30, 2023
Actual
Pro Forma
Pro Forma
as adjusted(1)
RMB
US$
RMB
US$
RMB
US$
(in thousands)
Non-current liability
Loans from related parties
1,200,000 165,488 1,200,000 165,488 1,200,000 165,488
SHAREHOLDERS’ EQUITY
Ordinary shares (US$0.0002
par value; 4,734,153,746
shares authorized,
2,000,000,000 shares issued
and outstanding on an actual
basis; 2,265,846,254 issued
and outstanding on a pro
forma basis; or a pro forma
as adjusted basis)
2,584 356 2,946 406
      
      
Convertible preferred shares
(US$0.0002 par value;
265,846,254 shares
authorized, 261,463,568
shares issued and outstanding
on an actual basis; and nil
issued and outstanding on a
pro forma and a pro forma as
adjusted basis)
356 49
Additional paid-in capital
10,979,770 1,514,180 11,148,593 1,537,763
Accumulated other comprehensive income
14,111 1,946 14,111 1,946 14,111 1,946
Accumulated deficit
(16,402,736) (2,262,041) (16,402,736) (2,262,041) (16,402,736) (2,262,041)
ZEEKR Intelligent Technology
Holding Limited shareholders’
deficit
(5,405,915) (745,510) (5,237,085) (721,926)
Non-controlling interest
883,450 121,833 883,450 121,833 883,450 121,833
Total shareholders’ deficit
(4,522,465) (623,677) (4,353,635) (600,093)