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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Commission file number 001-41490
fg-20221231_g1.jpg
F&G Annuities & Life, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
85-2487422
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
801 Grand Avenue, Suite 2600
Des Moines, Iowa 50309
(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)
(515) 330-3340
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common stock, par value $0.001 per shareFGNew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports); and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No    



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Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes    No ☐ 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer  
 ☒
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
    
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report    Yes  ☐   No  

If the company’s securities are registered under Section 12(b), indicate by check mark whether the company’s financial statements included in the Form 10-K reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.     Yes  ☐   No ☐ 

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the company’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to Rule 10D-1(b) under the Exchange Act.     Yes     No ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).     Yes     No  

As of the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, the registrant’s Common Stock was not publicly traded.

The registrant had outstanding 126,409,904 shares of common stock as of January 31, 2023.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
None.
 
The information in Part III hereof for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022, will be filed within 120 days after the close of the fiscal year that is the subject of this Report on a Form 10-K/A..




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F&G ANNUITIES & LIFE, INC.
FORM 10-K
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page


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Introductory Note
The following describes the business of F&G Annuities & Life, Inc. and its subsidiaries. Except where otherwise noted in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, all references to “we,” “us,” “our,” the “Company,” or “F&G” are to F&G Annuities & Life, Inc. and its subsidiaries, taken together.
Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Information
Certain statements included in this Annual Report and the documents incorporated into this document by reference are “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). Such forward-looking statements include statements about our plans and objectives, including our future financial condition, anticipated capital expenditures, anticipated distributions, and our belief that we have the liquidity and capital resources necessary to meet our known obligations and to make additional real estate acquisitions and capital improvements when appropriate to enhance long-term growth.
This Annual Report and other materials that F&G has filed or will file with the SEC contains information that includes or is based upon forward-looking statements that are intended to enhance the reader’s ability to assess our future financial and business performance.
Some of the forward-looking statements can be identified by the use of terms such as “believes”, “expects”, “may”, “will”, “should”, “could”, “seeks”, “intends”, “plans”, “estimates”, “anticipates” or other comparable terms. However, not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words. These forward-looking statements include all matters that are not related to present facts or current conditions or that are not historical facts. They appear in a number of places throughout this report and include statements regarding our intentions, beliefs or current expectations concerning, among other things, our consolidated results of operations, financial condition, liquidity, prospects and growth strategies and the industries in which we operate and including, without limitation, statements relating to our future performance.
Forward-looking statements are subject to known and unknown risks and uncertainties, many of which are beyond our control. We caution you that forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and that our actual consolidated results of operations, financial condition and liquidity, and industry development may differ materially from those made in or suggested by the forward-looking statements contained in this report. In addition, even if our consolidated results of operations, financial condition and liquidity, and industry development are consistent with the forward-looking statements contained in this report, those results or developments may not be indicative of results or developments in subsequent periods. A number of important factors could cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in or implied by the forward-looking statements, including the risks and uncertainties discussed in “Risk Factors” and the Risk Factor Summary provided below. Factors that could cause actual results to differ from those reflected in forward-looking statements relating to our operations and business include the following (among others):
general economic conditions and other factors, including prevailing interest and unemployment rate levels and stock and credit market performance;
natural disasters, public health crises, international tensions and conflicts, geopolitical events, terrorist acts, labor strikes, political crises, accidents and other events;
concentration in certain states for distribution of our products;
the impact of interest rate fluctuations;
equity market volatility;
credit market volatility or disruption;
the impact of credit risk of our counterparties;
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volatility or decline in the market price of our common stock could impair our ability to raise necessary capital;
changes in our assumptions and estimates regarding the amortization of our deferred acquisition costs, deferred sales inducements and value of business acquired balances;
changes in our methodologies, estimates and assumptions regarding our valuation of investments and the determinations of the amounts of allowances and impairments;
changes in our valuation allowance against our deferred tax assets, and restrictions on our ability to fully utilize such assets;
the accuracy of management’s reserving assumptions;
regulatory changes or actions, including those relating to regulation of financial services affecting (among other things) underwriting of insurance products and regulation of the sale, underwriting and pricing of products, and minimum capitalization and statutory reserve requirements for insurance companies, or the ability of our insurance subsidiaries to make cash distributions to us (including dividends or payments on surplus notes those insurance subsidiaries issue to us);
the ability to maintain or obtain approval of the Iowa Insurance Division (“IID”), The New York State Department of Financial Services (“NYDFS”) and other regulatory authorities as required for our operations and those of our insurance subsidiaries;
the impact of fiduciary standards on us and on our products, distribution and business model;
changes in the federal income tax laws and regulations which may affect the relative income tax advantages of our products;
changes in tax laws which affect us and/or our shareholders;
the impact on our business of new accounting rules or changes to existing accounting rules;
our potential need and our insurance subsidiaries’ potential need for additional capital to maintain our and their financial strength and credit ratings and meet other requirements and obligations;
our ability to successfully acquire new companies or businesses and integrate such acquisitions into our existing framework;
the impact of potential litigation, including class action litigation;
our ability to protect our intellectual property;
our ability to maintain effective internal controls over financial reporting;
the impact of restrictions in our debt instruments on its ability to operate its business, finance its capital needs or pursue or expand its business strategies;
our ability and our insurance subsidiaries’ ability to maintain or improve financial strength ratings;
the performance of third parties including third-party administrators, investment managers, independent distributors, underwriters, actuarial consultants and other outsourcing relationships;
the loss of key personnel;
interruption or other operational failures in telecommunication, information technology and other operational systems, or a failure to maintain the security, integrity, confidentiality or privacy of sensitive data residing on such systems;
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our exposure to unidentified or unanticipated risk not adequately addressed by our risk management policies and procedures;
the impact on our business of natural and man-made catastrophes, pandemics, and malicious and terrorist acts;
our ability to compete in a highly competitive industry;
our ability to attract and retain national marketing organizations and independent agents;
our subsidiaries’ ability to pay dividends to us; and
the other factors discussed in “Risk Factors” of this Annual Report
Consequently, any forward-looking statements should be regarded solely as F&G’s current plans, estimates and beliefs and are based on management’s beliefs and assumptions about the businesses in which F&G competes, global and domestic economic conditions and other factors. F&G does not intend, and will not undertake any obligation, to update any forward-looking statements to reflect future events or circumstances or changed assumptions after the date of such statements.
You should review carefully the section captioned “Risk Factors” in this Annual Report to better understand the risks and uncertainties inherent in our business and underlying any forward-looking statements.
Risk Factor Summary
Risks Related to Our Business
Our debt instruments may restrict our current and future operations, particularly our ability to respond to changes or to take certain actions.
A financial strength ratings downgrade, potential downgrade, or any other negative action by a rating agency could increase our cost of capital, making it challenging to grow our business, and could hinder our ability to participate in certain market segments, thereby adversely affecting our results of operations and our financial condition.
We may face losses if our actual experience differs significantly from our reserving assumptions.
Our valuation of investments and the determinations of the amounts of allowances and impairments taken on our investments may include methodologies, estimates and assumptions which are subject to differing interpretations and, if changed, could materially adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
Change in our evaluation of the recoverability of our deferred tax assets could materially adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
We are subject to the credit risk of our counterparties, including companies with whom we have reinsurance agreements or from whom we have purchased options.
Interruption or other operational failures in telecommunication, information technology and other operational systems, or a failure to maintain the security, integrity, confidentiality or privacy of sensitive data residing on such systems, including as a result of human error, could result in a loss or disclosure of confidential information, damage to our reputation, monetary losses, additional costs and impairment of our ability to conduct business effectively.
We have a long-term contractual relationship with Blackstone ISG-I Advisors LLC (“BIS”) that limits our ability to terminate this relationship or retain another investment manager without BIS’s consent.
Increased regulation or scrutiny of alternative investment advisers, arrangements with such investment advisers and investment activities may affect BIS’s or, if engaged, any other asset manager’s ability to manage our investment portfolio or impact the reputation of our business.
Risks Related to Economic Conditions and Market Conditions
Conditions in the economy generally could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
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Our investments are subject to credit risks of the underlying issuer, borrower, or physical collateral which can change over time with the credit cycle.
Interest rate fluctuations could adversely affect our business, financial condition, liquidity and results of operations.
Our business could be materially and adversely affected by the occurrence of a catastrophe, including natural or man-made disasters.
Legal, Regulatory and Tax Risks
Our business is subject to government regulation in each of the jurisdictions in which we conduct business and regulators have broad administrative and discretionary authority over our business and business practices.
Current and emerging developments relating to market conduct standards for the financial industry emerging from the U. S. Department of Labor’s (“DOL”) implementation of the “fiduciary rule” may over time materially affect our business.
The SECURE Act of 2022 may impact our business and the markets in which we compete.
Risks Related to the Separation and Distribution and our Status as a subsidiary of Fidelity National Financial, Inc. (“FNF”)
We may not achieve some or all of the expected benefits of the separation and distribution, and the separation and distribution may materially adversely affect our business, financial condition or operating results.
Although we have past history of operating as a public company, our historical financial information and summary historical financial information are not necessarily representative of the results that we would have achieved as a separate, publicly traded company and may not be a reliable indicator of our future results.
FNF is our principal shareholder and retains significant rights with respect to our governance and certain corporate actions. In certain cases, FNF may have interests which differ from our other stockholders.
Provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and bylaws, and of Delaware law, may prevent or delay an acquisition of us, which could decrease the trading price of our common stock.
We are a “controlled company” within the meaning of the NYSE rules and, as a result, we qualify for, and rely on, exemptions from certain corporate governance requirements.
Insurance holding company laws generally provide that no person, corporation or other entity may acquire control of an insurance company, which is presumed to exist if a person owns, directly or indirectly, 10% or more of the voting securities of an insurance company, without the prior approval of such insurance company's domiciliary state insurance regulator. Persons considering an investment in our common stock should take into consideration their ownership of FNF voting securities and consult their own legal advisors regarding such laws in light of their particular circumstances.
Our amended and restated bylaws contain an exclusive forum provision that could limit our stockholders’ ability to choose a judicial forum that they find favorable for certain disputes with us or our directors, officers, stockholders, employees or agents, and may discourage lawsuits with respect to such claims.
We and certain of our subsidiaries file consolidated federal income tax returns with FNF.
Risks Related to Our Common Stock
Substantial sales of our common stock may occur which could cause our stock price to be volatile and to decline.
We cannot guarantee the timing, amount or payment of dividends on our common stock in the future.
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Part I
Item 1. Business
Overview
Founded in 1959, F&G is a leading provider of insurance solutions serving retail annuity and life customers as well as institutional clients. Our mission is to help people turn their aspirations into reality and, as of December 31, 2022, F&G has approximately 623,000 policyholders who count on the safety and protection our fixed annuity and life insurance products provide.
Through our insurance subsidiaries, including Fidelity & Guaranty Life Insurance Company (“FGL Insurance”) and Fidelity & Guaranty Life Insurance Company of New York (“FGL NY Insurance”), we market a broad portfolio of annuities, including fixed indexed annuities (“FIAs”) and multi-year guarantee annuities (“MYGAs”), pension risk transfer (“PRT”) solutions, as well as indexed universal life (“IUL”) insurance and institutional funding agreements.
We were acquired on June 1, 2020, by Fidelity National Financial, Inc. (“FNF”) . We benefited from immediate financial strength ratings upgrades following the acquisition; S&P and Fitch upgraded us to A-, A.M. Best affirmed at A-, and Moody’s upgraded to Baa1. These upgrades, valued by our distribution partners, positioned us to quickly expand our business in our existing channels and gain access to new markets. Gross sales increased from $4.5 billion for the full year 2020 to $11.3 billion in 2022 and did so profitably. With our success in expanding distribution under FNF’s ownership, we have grown assets under management (“AUM”) from $26.5 billion at the time of acquisition to $43.6 billion as of December 31, 2022. We now operate in and source significant premiums from five distinct channels, versus a single channel prior to the acquisition by FNF in June of 2020. For a discussion of the five distinct channels, see We Play in Large and Growing Markets” and Our Retail Distribution Channels” within this section of the Annual Report.
We believe the strength of our balance sheet provides confidence to our policyholders and business partners and positions us for continued growth. Our invested assets comprise what we believe to be a highly rated and well diversified portfolio. As of December 31, 2022, 94% of our fixed maturity securities were rated under criteria of the National Association of Insurance Commissioners (the “NAIC”) as NAIC 1 or NAIC 2, the two highest credit rating designations of the NAIC. These assets are managed against what we believe to be prudently underwritten liabilities. We have in-force liabilities of $41.6 billion at December 31, 2022, with a liability duration of 5 years, well matched to our assets. For the year ended December 31, 2022, Net earnings attributable to common shareholders was $481 million, we produced adjusted net earnings (“ANE”) of $345 million, and we had an adjusted return on assets (“ROA”) of 86 basis points. We are focused on growing our in-force liabilities and AUM, driven by sales of attractively priced liabilities, including fixed indexed annuities, fixed rate annuities, indexed universal life, funding agreements, and pension risk transfer.
As of December 31, 2022, we had $1.8 billion of total F&G equity and $4.6 billion of total F&G shareholders’ equity excluding accumulated other comprehensive earnings (“AOCI”). FGL Insurance’s estimated U.S. RBC ratio was approximately 440% as of December 31, 2022, as compared to 451% and 415% as of December 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively. FGL Insurance expects to maintain its U.S. RBC ratio at or above our target of 400%. Going forward, we intend to fund our continued growth through strong and growing statutory earnings, reinsurance programs, and unused debt capacity.
F&G Dividend Distribution (the “separation and distribution”)
On March 16, 2022, FNF announced its intention to partially spin off F&G through a dividend to FNF shareholders.
On December 1, 2022, FNF distributed, on a pro rata basis, approximately 15% of the common stock of F&G. The purpose of the separation and distribution was to enhance and more fully recognize the overall market value of each company. FNF retained control of F&G through ownership of approximately 85% of F&G common stock.
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For additional information about risks to F&G related to the separation and distribution, please see “Risk Factors - Risks Related to the Separation and Distribution and our Status as a subsidiary of FNF.”
Our Strategy
Through a diversification growth strategy, F&G has demonstrated profitable, compound annual growth rates (“CAGRs”) in gross sales of 42% and AUM of 18% for the three-year period 2019 to 2022 and, more recently, annual increases in gross sales of 17% and AUM of 19% for the year ended December 31, 2022 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2021. We have expanded our business in our traditional channels, and entered new markets. With this strategy, we will continue to deliver stable ROA, excluding short-term mark-to-market effects, driven by asset growth and increasing margins from scale as well as expansion into higher-margin, less capital-intensive products. We are positioned to accomplish our goals through the following areas of strategic focus:
Targeting large and growing markets. The opportunity for our core annuity products remains significant, as policyholders seek to add safety and certainty to their retirement plans. Our investments in life insurance products allows us to penetrate the underserved middle market, which addresses the needs of many of our cultural communities. And as corporations continue to de-risk their pension funds, our buyout solutions can guarantee pension-holders the lifetime benefits they need and want. Finally, we continue to attract strong institutional annuity buyers with funding agreements. F&G is a national leader in the markets we play in, and demographic trends provide tailwinds and significant room to continue growing.
Superior ecosystem. Our business model gives us a sustainable competitive advantage. We have strong and long-standing relationships with a diverse network of distributors, a durable investment edge through our Blackstone partnership, a scalable administrative platform, and a track record of attracting and retaining top talent.
Consistent track record of success. F&G’s deep and experienced management team has successfully diversified products and channels in recent years and demonstrated our ability to deliver consistent top line growth, increase assets under management and generate steady spreads and ROA, excluding short-term mark-to-market effects, across varying market cycles.
Our Competitive Advantages
Our business model is strong and positions us to capitalize on the growth prospects in our addressable markets.
Trusted by distributors. We have long-standing relationships with a broad range of distributors representing more than 82,000 independent agents and financial advisors, and built on our reputation for transparency and a consistently competitive product portfolio. We offer fixed annuities and life insurance products through a network of approximately 20 leading banks and broker dealers and approximately 271 Independent Marketing Organizations (“IMOs”) that provide back-office support for thousands of independent insurance agents.
Winning in high-growth markets. The U.S. retirement and middle markets are growing, and we are both well-established and well-positioned for continued growth. Our strategic alignment with our distribution partners allows us to reach a diverse, growing and underserved middle market demographic in both our retail and institutional channels.
Durable investment management edge. FGL Insurance and certain other subsidiaries of F&G (other than FGL NY Insurance) are party to investment management agreements (“IMAs”) with Blackstone ISG-I Advisors LLC (“BIS”) pursuant to which BIS is appointed as investment manager of substantially all assets in the general and separate accounts of those entities (the “F&G Accounts”). MVB Management, LLC, (“MVB Management”), an entity that is 50% owned by affiliates of William Foley, the Chairman of FNF and a director of F&G, receives a participation fee from BIS in connection with assets of F&G and its subsidiaries that are managed by BIS. BIS also receives services from MVB Management. BIS pays MVB Management a fee of approximately 15% of certain fees paid to BIS and its affiliates pursuant to the investment management agreements with BIS. BIS, in accordance with our IMAs, has delegated certain
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investment services to its affiliates, including Blackstone’s Credit, Real Estate Debt and Asset-Based Finance businesses, in each case, pursuant to separate sub-management agreements executed between BIS and each such affiliate. Our strategic partnership with Blackstone provides a sustained competitive advantage for our business. Blackstone and BIS partner with our strategic investment office to deeply understand our liability profile when making asset allocation decisions and then originates unique investment opportunities not traditionally available to insurers. These investments allow us to enter higher-margin lines and create the potential to intermediate investment banks in credit origination.
Clean and profitable in-force book. As a life insurer, we generate spread earnings based on our assets under management and over the lifetime of the liabilities in place. Our disciplined new business underwriting process provides us with stable liabilities, primarily in products that reset annually, which has allowed us to achieve consistently attractive lifetime returns. Approximately 91% of our $30.4 billion fixed indexed and fixed rate annuities account value are surrender-charge protected and our asset and liability cash flows are well matched.
Track record of attracting top talent. F&G’s management team and nearly 872 employees have a record of long-term success and have delivered impressive results in the last few years. Our commitment to our cultural values is the cornerstone of our success, whereby F&G is a company of individuals who believe in the power of partnerships, encourage innovation and creativity, and are transparent about decisions while delivering on their commitments. This is borne out by consistently being recognized as an employer of choice as well as an involuntary turnover rate that is well below that of other financial services companies. We believe our flexible, employee-centric work approach positions us as an employer of choice.
Clear governance structure. We have a disciplined approach for considering new lines of business to enter, the appropriate product/channel mix for achieving our targeted new business profitability, and the management of our capital and in-force liabilities. Further, we target and pursue opportunities that leverage our strengths.
We Play in Large and Growing Markets
We are in the midst of an age wave, with 10,000 Baby Boomers retiring each day through 2029. Today’s retirees face unique challenges: guaranteed income traditionally provided by pensions is going away, requiring many retirees to rely solely on their personal assets; for many, Social Security income is not enough and the value of Certificates of Deposit (“CDs”), once a reliable source of income, has eroded; finally, today’s retirees must plan for a retirement that could last 30 or 40 years, weathering the ups and downs of the markets along the way. Insurance solutions can simplify retirement planning through features that generate more accumulation than traditional fixed income vehicles and generate more (and guaranteed) retirement income than traditional strategies.
The U.S. retirement market opportunity is vast and comprised of the $2.3 trillion U.S. consumer savings market, the $600 billion CD market and the $354 billion retail life and annuities market. While insured products are designed to effectively serve the needs of retirees, annuities and life insurance solutions continue to be underutilized. We believe middle market consumers, in particular, lack the guidance they need and want and can benefit greatly from insurance solutions.
Until recently, F&G distributed our flagship annuity and life insurance products solely through our longstanding IMO relationships. In mid-2020, we expanded into the bank and broker dealer channels to broaden our reach and capture share of the personal savings and CDs markets. Our entry into these channels was successful, resulting in $1 billion in new business within the first ten months. Annuity sales through the bank and broker dealer channels were $3.6 billion and $1.7 billion for the full year ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. The approximate 20 banks and broker dealers we work with account for 44% of all annuity sales. In these retail markets F&G ranks: (i) 4th and 9th in FIA sales in the IMO and bank channels and 7th in FIA industry sales; (ii) 4th and 6th in MYGA sales in the broker dealer and bank channels and 8th in MYGA industry sales; and (iii) 7th in IUL sales in the IMO channel, 3rd in the number of IUL policies sold and 8th in IUL industry sales, in each case, for the third quarter of 2022, as sourced from Wink’s Sales and Market Report.
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We successfully expanded into new retail channels and diversified our annuity distribution, yet not at the expense of our traditional IMO channel. Over the same period, we grew our IMO channel sales by 16% in the full year 2021, above and beyond the industry’s 14%, and by 11% for the full year ended December 31, 2022, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2021.
We continue to invest in our life insurance business, focusing our approach to meet the needs of the underserved middle market which we reach largely through Network Marketing Groups (“NMGs”). The middle market segment was the largest in 2019, at 37% of households. NMGs are unique and growing, recruiting members of diverse communities for careers in insurance and penetrating cultural segments. NMGs have proven to be one of our most cost-efficient distribution channels, in large part because they tend to work with a smaller number of strategic product providers. This has allowed us to build deep and lasting relationships with both the NMGs and the agents. Since 2018, largely due to our NMG strategy, F&G’s IUL sales growth has far outpaced the industry, with a three-year combined annual growth rate of 46% compared to the industry’s 3.4%. This makes F&G the fastest growing IUL company of the top 20 IUL sellers in the market. Untapped opportunities remain in this channel, particularly among younger and more diverse demographics. The life insurance protection gap has widened to $23.4 trillion, which is equivalent to over 60% of the current in-force individual life insurance. Hispanics, the second largest ethnic group behind Caucasians, have the largest uninsured population among adults at 40%, representing significant opportunity for us to serve this market. We purchased a 30% minority ownership stake in Freedom Equity Group (“FEG”) in October 2021. FEG is a nearly 4,000 agent strong NMG that focuses on cultural markets including Mexican-American, Hmong, Laotian, Filipino, Burmese, Congolese-American, Samoan, African-American, Thai and Vietnamese. We also purchased a 49% minority ownership stake in Syncis Holdings, LLC, an NMG, in January 2023. Syncis is an approximately 1,200 agent NMG that focuses on cultural markets including Korean, African-American, and Persian.
In 2021, F&G entered two institutional business lines to further diversify our sources of revenue. Our competitive asset management advantage through Blackstone allows us to have very competitive offerings in our spread lending products as well as in the PRT market, while still meeting our internal pricing targets.
In addition to our funding agreement business with the Federal Home Loan Bank of Atlanta, (“FHLB”), we now offer the proven ability to originate Funding Agreement Backed Notes (“FABN”), a $140 billion market. Our FABN Program (the “FABN Program”) offers funding agreements to institutional clients by means of capital markets transactions through investment banks. Together, this business line has generated $2.3 billion in sales for F&G in 2021, its year of inception of FABN, and $1.4 billion in sales for the year ended December 31, 2022.
We also offer PRT solutions to a $40 billion (of $2 trillion total defined benefit plan assets) market. We launched our PRT business by building an experienced team with access to brokers and institutional consultants for distribution. We expect our opportunity to continue to grow as employers shift away from traditional defined benefit pension plans and seek to de-risk frozen pension plans. This line of business generated $1.1 billion in sales for F&G in 2021, its year of inception, and $1.4 billion in sales for the year ended December 31, 2022.
We Have Meaningfully Diversified Our Business
With the addition of the retail bank and broker dealer channels and our success in entering the PRT and funding agreement institutional markets, F&G has diversified our product and distribution capabilities from one primary channel to now five, and from one primary product to now five. We completed this expansion over a three-year period and, combined with organic growth in our core IMO channel, increased gross sales by 190%, from $3.9 billion in 2019 to $11.3 billion in 2022.
We have reinforced our earnings engine in addition to driving top-line growth. We have acquired and retained customers through the COVID years, growing AUM from $26.5 billion at the time of FNF’s acquisition to $44 billion as of December 31, 2022. Profitable growth in AUM is the most important driver of F&G’s earnings and our ability to return capital to shareholders.
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An Inflection Point: Numerous opportunities to create value for our shareholders
Through a diversified growth strategy, F&G seeks to deliver shareholder value by increasing ANE driven by asset growth. The successful execution of this strategy has provided a clear line of sight to both AUM and ANE growth. We are able to optimize sales growth by products and channels based on market and competitive conditions. We are also able to adjust capital usage by, for example, moving to higher margin or less capital-intensive products. This leads to increasing margins and higher returns on capital. In addition, as we scale, we expect our expense ratios to decline due to our significant investments in technology and other operating platforms over the last three years. Finally, we have reached an inflection point with our first dividend and expect to increase dividends over time.
Our Financial Goals
Our competitive advantages – product and channel diversification, as well as our strategic partnership with Blackstone – enable us to address a greater share of the markets in which we play. Further, the strength of our distribution partner relationships has allowed the Company to achieve double digit profitable sales growth, increase AUM and retain the higher margin business such as FIA and middle market cultural life insurance while diversifying sources of margin. We will continue using retained sales as a lever for capital efficient diversified margins as we earn additional fee income through reinsurance. We will also strategically use reinsurance to further diversify our sources of earnings into less capital-intensive adjacent products and services. We began our reinsurance program in 2021 by ceding 50% of our MYGA premiums, which amounted to approximately $869 million in 2021 and $2,246 million through December 31, 2022. During September 2022, we amended this reinsurance program to provide for the cession of 75% of our MYGA premiums dating from and following September 1, 2022, capped at $350 million cession per month. The reinsurer pays the Company an up-front fee on the premium as well as an ongoing annual fee for generating the business. The reinsurance enhances our overall return of the business issued and diversifies a portion of earnings to fee income. We continue to strategically review and determine if the Company could benefit from other opportunities to leverage our core core competency of new business generation by potentially earning fees from third parties through reinsurance partnerships or from additional products and services.

The Products We Offer
F&G’s expertise in annuities, life insurance, pension risk transfer solutions and funding agreements will allow us to continue to introduce innovative products and solutions designed to meet customers’ changing needs. We work hand-in-hand with our distributors and institutional advisors to devise the most suitable solutions for the ever-changing market. Our retail annuities serve as a retirement and savings tool on which our customers rely for principal protection and predictable income streams. In addition, our life insurance products provide our customers with a complementary product that allows them to build on their savings and provide a payment to their designated beneficiaries upon the policyholder’s death. Our most popular products are FIAs that tie contractual returns to specific market indices, such as the S&P 500 Index. Our customers value our FIAs, which provide a portion of the gains of an underlying market index, while also providing principal protection. We believe this principal protection fills the need for middle-income Americans who must save for retirement but who want to limit the risk of decline in their savings.
For the year ended December 31, 2022, FIAs generated approximately 40% of our gross sales. The remaining 60% of sales were primarily generated from fixed rate annuities (33%), funding agreements (13%), PRT sales (13%) and IUL (1%). We invest the proceeds primarily in fixed income securities. We also use options and futures that hedge the index credit of our FIA and IUL liabilities by replicating the market index returns to our policyholders. We invest predominantly in options on the S&P 500 Index. The majority of our products allow for active management to achieve targeted lifetime returns. In addition, our annuity contracts generally either cannot be surrendered or include surrender charges that discourage early redemptions.
Annuities. Through F&G’s insurance subsidiaries, we issue a broad portfolio of deferred annuities (FIA and fixed rate annuities), immediate annuities, and PRT solutions. A deferred annuity is a type of contract that accumulates value on a tax deferred basis and typically begins making specified periodic or lump sum payments a certain number of years after the contract has been issued. An immediate annuity is a type of contract that begins
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making specified payments within one annuity period (e.g., one month or one year) and typically pays principal and earnings in equal payments over some period of time.
Deferred Annuities FIAs. Our FIAs allow contract owners the possibility of earning returns linked to the performance of a specified market index, predominantly the S&P 500 Index, while providing principal protection. The contract owners typically make a single deposit into our deferred annuities. The contracts include a provision for a minimum guaranteed surrender value calculated in accordance with applicable law. A market index tracks the performance of a specific group of stocks representing a particular segment of the market, or in some cases an entire market. For example, the S&P 500 Composite Stock Price Index is an index of 500 stocks intended to be representative of a broad segment of the market. All FIA products allow policyholders to allocate funds once a year among several different crediting strategies, including one or more index-based strategies and a traditional fixed rate strategy. High surrender charges apply for early withdrawal, typically for seven to fourteen years after purchase.
We purchase derivatives consisting predominantly of over-the-counter options and, to a lesser degree, futures contracts (specifically for FIA contracts) on the equity indices underlying the applicable policy such as the S&P 500. These derivatives are used to fund the index credits due to policyholders under the FIA and IUL contracts based upon policyholders’ contract elections. The down-side risk to F&G is limited to the cost of the options because if the value of the options decreases there is no index credit. The cost of the hedge is included in the pricing of the product and can be reset on an annual basis for each policy based on market conditions. The majority of all such call options are one-year options purchased to match the funding requirements underlying the FIA/IUL contracts. On the anniversary dates of the FIA/IUL contracts, the market index used to compute the annual index credit under the contracts is reset. At such time, we purchase new call options to fund the next index credit. We manage the cost of these purchases through the terms of our FIA/IUL contracts, which permit us to change caps or participation rates, subject to certain guaranteed minimums on each contract’s anniversary date. The change in the fair value of the options and futures contracts is generally designed to offset the equity market related change in the fair value of the FIA/IUL contract’s related reserve liability. The options and futures contracts are marked to fair value with the change in fair value included as a component of “Recognized gains and losses, net” in our Consolidated Statements of Earnings. The change in fair value of the options and futures contracts includes the gains and losses recognized at the expiration of the instrument’s term or upon early termination and the changes in fair value of open positions. GAAP accounting of the reserve liability for products with embedded derivatives such as FIA creates additional volatility beyond the accounting for the options and the futures.
The contract holder account value of a FIA contract is equal to the sum of deposits paid, premium bonuses, if any, (described below), and index credits based on the change in the relevant market index (subject to a cap, spread and/or a participation rate) less any fees for riders and any withdrawals taken to-date. Caps (a maximum rate that may be credited) generally range from 1% to 5% when measured annually and 1% to 3% when measured monthly, spreads (a credited rate determined by deducting a specific rate from the index return) generally range from —% to 3% when measured annually, and participation rates (a credited rate equal to a percentage of index return) generally range from 100% to 180% of the performance of the applicable market index. The cap, spread and participation rate can typically be reset annually and in some instances every two to five years. Certain riders provide a variety of benefits, such as the ability to increase their cap, lifetime income or additional liquidity for a set fee. As this fee is fixed, the contract holder may lose principal if the index credits received do not exceed the amount of such fee.
Approximately 30% of the FIA sales for the year ended December 31, 2022, involved “premium bonuses” or vesting bonuses. Premium bonuses increase the initial annuity deposit by a specified rate of 2%. The vesting bonuses, which range from 1% to 15%, increase the initial annuity deposit liability but are subject to adjustment for unvested amounts in the event of surrender by the policyholder prior to the end of the vesting period. We made compensating adjustments in the commission paid to the agent or the surrender charges on the policy to offset the premium bonus.
Approximately 37% of our FIA contracts were issued with a guaranteed minimum withdrawal benefit (“GMWB”) rider for the year ended December 31, 2022. With this rider, a contract owner can elect to receive guaranteed payments for life from the FIA contract without requiring the owner to annuitize the FIA contract value. The amount of the income benefit available is determined by the growth in the policy’s benefit base value as defined in the FIA contract rider. Typically, this accumulates for 10 years based on a guaranteed rate of 3% to 8%.
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Guaranteed withdrawal payments may be stopped and restarted at the election of the contract owner. Some of the FIA contract riders that we offer include an additional death benefit or an increase in benefit amounts under chronic health conditions. Rider fees range from 0% to 1%. Unlike a variable annuity, policyholder values do not decline with market movements.
Deferred AnnuitiesFixed Rate Annuities. Fixed rate annuities are typically single deposit contracts and include annual reset and multi-year rate guaranteed policies. Fixed rate annual reset annuities issued by us have an annual interest rate (the “crediting rate”) that is guaranteed for the first policy year. After the first policy year, we have the discretionary ability to change the crediting rate once annually to any rate at or above a guaranteed minimum rate. MYGAs are similar to fixed rate annual reset annuities except that the initial crediting rate is guaranteed for a specified number of years before it may be changed at our discretion. As of December 31, 2022, crediting rates on outstanding (i) single-year guaranteed annuities generally ranged from 2% to 6% and (ii) MYGA ranged from 1% to 6%. The average crediting rate on all outstanding fixed rate annuities at December 31, 2022 was 3%.
Withdrawal Options for Deferred Annuities. After the first year following the issuance of a deferred annuity policy, holders of deferred annuities are typically permitted penalty-free withdrawals up to a contractually specified amount. The penalty-free withdrawal amount is typically 10% of the prior year account value for FIAs, and is typically up to accumulated interest for fixed rate annuities, subject to certain restrictions. Withdrawals in excess of allowable penalty-free amounts are assessed a surrender charge if such withdrawals are made during the penalty period of the deferred annuity policy. The penalty period typically ranges from seven to fourteen years for FIAs and three to ten years for fixed rate annuities. This surrender charge initially ranges from 8% to 15% of the contract value for FIAs and is 9% of the contract value for fixed rate annuities and generally decreases by approximately one to two percentage points per year during the penalty period. The average surrender charge was 7% for our FIAs and 7% for our fixed rate annuities as of December 31, 2022. A market value adjustment (“MVA”) will also apply in most states to any withdrawal that incurs a surrender charge, subject to certain exceptions. The MVA is based on a formula that accounts for changes in interest rates since contract issuance. Generally, if interest rates have risen, the MVA will decrease surrender value, whereas if rates have fallen, it will increase surrender value. At December 31, 2022, approximately 72% of our business included an MVA feature.
The following table summarizes our deferred annuity account values and surrender charge protection as of December 31, 2022 (dollars in millions):
SURRENDER CHARGE EXPIRATION BY YEARFixed Rate and Fixed Indexed Annuities Account ValuePercent of TotalWeighted Average Surrender Charge
Out of surrender charge$2,626 %— %
20231,463 %%
2024 - 20266,830 22 %%
2027 - 20285,017 17 %%
2029 - 20305,977 20 %%
Thereafter8,490 27 %11 %
Total$30,403 100 %37 %
Subsequent to the penalty period, the policyholder may elect to take the proceeds of the surrender either in a single payment or in a series of payments over the life of the policyholder or for a fixed number of years (or a combination of these payment options). In addition to the foregoing withdrawal rights, policyholders may also elect to have additional withdrawal benefits by purchasing a GMWB.
Single Premium Immediate Annuities. We have previously sold single premium immediate annuities (or “SPIAs”), which provide a series of periodic payments for a fixed period of time or for the life of the policyholder, according to the policyholder’s choice at the time of issue. The amounts, frequency and length of time of the payments are fixed at the outset of the annuity contract. SPIAs are often purchased by persons at or near retirement age who desire a steady stream of payments over a future period of years. Existing policyholders may elect to surrender their contract and use the proceeds to purchase a supplementary contract which functions as a SPIA.
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Life Insurance. We currently offer IUL insurance policies and have previously sold universal life, term and whole life insurance products. Holders of universal life insurance policies may make periodic payments over the life of the contract and earn returns on their policies, which are credited to the policyholder’s cash value account. The insurer periodically deducts its expenses and the cost of life insurance protection from the cash value account. The balance of the cash value account is credited interest at a fixed rate or returns based on the performance of a market index, or both, at the option of the policyholder, using a method similar to that described above for FIAs.
Almost all of the life insurance policies in force, except for the return of premium benefits on term life insurance products and universal life contracts issued after March 1, 2010, are subject to a reinsurance arrangement with Wilton Re. See “Wilton RE Transaction.
Funding Agreements. As defined by the IID, a funding agreement is an agreement for an insurer to accept and accumulate funds and to make one or more payments at future dates in amounts that are not based on mortality or morbidity contingencies of the person to whom the funding agreement is issued. In essence, funding agreement providers are agreeing to a defined stream of future payments in exchange for a single upfront premium. This type of business is sometimes referred to as spread lending, as funding agreement providers invest upfront premiums with the intent to earn an investment spread on the funds prior to making agreed upon maturity and interest payments. The structure of the payments can take several forms, but are commonly a fixed or variable interest payment with a single maturity principal re-payment.
F&G currently utilizes two forms of funding agreement offerings. The first is through the issuance of collateralized funding agreements with the FHLB. This enables spread-based income without longevity or mortality exposure given the certainty in liability profile. Funding agreements through the FHLB are flexible in their format and the ability to issue during broad windows, as long as sufficient eligible collateral has been deposited with the bank.
In June 2021, we established a FABN Program, which is a medium term note program under which funding agreements are issued to a special-purpose trust that issues marketable notes. The notes are underwritten and marketed by major investment banks’ broker-dealer operations and are sold to institutional investors. These FABN offerings are more limited regarding timing of issuance, but do not require collateralization as with the FHLB. The maximum aggregate principal amount permitted to be outstanding at any one time under the FABN Program is currently $5.0 billion. As of December 31, 2022, we had approximately $2.6 billion outstanding under the FABN Program.
Pension Risk Transfer. In July 2021, we entered the PRT market. A PRT occurs when a defined-benefit pension provider seeks to remove some or all of its obligation to pay guaranteed retirement income or post-retirement benefits to plan participants. There are four major types of PRT strategies: longevity reinsurance, buy-in, buy-out, and paying in lump sums. We are currently active in plan buy-outs, where we have a direct, irrevocable commitment to each covered participant to make the specified annuity payments based upon the terms of the pension plan. Plan buy-out transactions fully and permanently transfer all investment, mortality, and administrative risk, associated with covered benefits, from the pension plan sponsor to the insurance provider.
Our PRT products are comparable to income annuities, as we generally receive a single, upfront premium in exchange for paying a guaranteed stream of future income payments which are typically fixed in nature, but may vary in duration based on participant mortality experience. These products primarily create earnings through spread income. In each transaction FGL Insurance and/or FGL NY Insurance issues a group annuity contract to discharge pension plan liabilities from a pension plan sponsor, either through a separate account or through a general account guarantee. Certificate holders covered under a group annuity contract have a guaranteed benefit from the insurance company.
We entered the PRT solutions business by building a team of experienced professionals, then working with brokers and institutional consultants for distribution. As of December 31, 2022, we had completed PRT transactions that represented pension obligations of $2.5 billion.
Reinsurance philosophy/arrangements. Our insurance subsidiaries cede insurance to other insurance companies. We use reinsurance to diversify risks and earnings, to manage loss exposures, to enhance our capital position, and to
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manage new business volume. The effects of certain reinsurance agreements are not accounted for as reinsurance as they do not reinsure insurance contracts or they do not transfer the risks of the reinsured policies.
In instances where we are the ceding company, we pay a premium to a reinsurer in exchange for the reinsurer assuming a portion of our liabilities under the policies we issued and collect expense allowances in return for our administration of the ceded policies. Use of reinsurance does not discharge our liability as the ceding company because we remain directly liable to our policyholders and are required to pay the full amount of our policy obligations in the event that our reinsurers fail to satisfy their obligations. We collect reimbursement from our reinsurers when we pay claims on policies that are reinsured.
We monitor the credit risk related to the ability of our reinsurers to honor their obligations under various agreements. To minimize the risk of credit loss on such contracts, we generally diversify our exposures among many reinsurers and limit the amount of exposure to each based on financial strength ratings, which are reviewed annually. We are able to further manage risk via funds withheld arrangements.
Please refer to the section titled “Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosure about Market Risk” in this Annual Report for further discussion on credit risk and counterparty risk.
Please refer to “Risk Factors” for additional details regarding credit risk related to reinsurance agreements. A description of significant ceded reinsurance transactions appears below.
Wilton Reinsurance Transaction. Pursuant to the agreed upon terms, Wilton Reassurance Company (“Wilton Re”) purchased through a 100% quota share reinsurance agreement certain FGL Insurance life insurance policies that are subject to redundant reserves, reported on a statutory basis, under Regulation XXX and Guideline AXXX, as well as another block of FGL Insurance’s in-force traditional, universal life and IUL insurance policies. The effects of this agreement are accounted for as reinsurance as the ceded policies qualify as insurance products and because the agreement satisfies the risk transfer requirements for GAAP.
Hannover Reinsurance Transaction. FGL Insurance has a reinsurance agreement with Hannover Life Reassurance Company of America (Bermuda) Ltd. (“Hannover Re”), an unaffiliated reinsurer, to reinsure an in-force block of FGL Insurance’s FIA and fixed deferred annuity contracts with GMWB and Guaranteed Minimum Death Benefit (“GMDB”) guarantees. In accordance with the terms of this agreement, we cede 70% net retention of secondary guarantee payments in excess of account value for GMWB and GMDB guarantees. The effects of this agreement are not accounted for as reinsurance as it does not satisfy the risk transfer requirements for GAAP; therefore, deposit accounting is applied.
Canada Life Reinsurance Transaction. Effective May 1, 2020, FGL Insurance entered into an indemnity reinsurance agreement with Canada Life Assurance Company United States Branch (“Canada Life”), a third-party reinsurer, to reinsure FIA policies with GMWB. In accordance with the terms of this agreement, FGL Insurance cedes a quota share percentage of the net retention of guarantee payments in excess of account value for GMWB. Effective October 1, 2022, FGL Insurance and Canada Life Amended and restated this agreement to, among other changes, also reinsure additional FIA business policies. The effects of this agreement are not accounted for as reinsurance as it does not satisfy the risk transfer requirements for GAAP; therefore, deposit accounting is applied.
Kubera & Somerset Reinsurance Transactions. FGL Insurance entered into a reinsurance agreement with Kubera Insurance (SAC) Ltd. (“Kubera”), an unaffiliated reinsurer, effective December 31, 2018, to cede certain MYGA and deferred annuity reserves on a coinsurance funds withheld basis, net of applicable existing reinsurance. Effective October 31, 2021, this agreement was novated from Kubera to Somerset Reinsurance Ltd. (“Somerset”), a certified third-party reinsurer. As the policies ceded to Somerset are investment contracts, there is no significant insurance risk present and therefore the reinsurance agreement is accounted for as a separate investment contract. The presentation of this agreement is similar to other reinsurance agreements that apply reinsurance accounting as discussed in further detail within Note J Reinsurance to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report.
Aspida Reinsurance Transaction. FGL Insurance has a reinsurance agreement with ASPIDA Life Re Ltd. (“Aspida Re”), an unaffiliated reinsurer, to cede certain MYGA business, on a funds withheld coinsurance basis, net
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of applicable existing reinsurance. As the policies ceded to Aspida Re are investment contracts, there is no significant insurance risk present and therefore the reinsurance agreement is accounted for as a separate investment contract. The presentation of this agreement is similar to other reinsurance agreements that apply reinsurance accounting as discussed in further detail within Note J Reinsurance to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report.
New Reinsurance Transaction. Effective December 31, 2022, FGL Insurance entered into an indemnity reinsurance agreement with New Reinsurance Company Ltd. (“New Re”), a third-party reinsurer and wholly owned subsidiary of Münchener Rückversicherungs-Gesellschaft Aktiengesellschaft in München (d/b/a Munich Re), to cede certain fixed index annuity policies.
The CARVM Facility. Life insurance companies operating in the United States must calculate required reserves for life and annuity policies based on statutory principles. The insurance divisions have adopted the methodology contained in the NAIC Valuation Manual (“VM”) as the prescribed methodology for the insurance industry. The industry has reduced or eliminated redundancies thereby increasing capital using a variety of techniques including reserve facilities.
FGL Insurance has a reinsurance treaty with Raven Reinsurance Company (“Raven Re”), its wholly owned captive reinsurance company, to cede the Commissioners Annuity Reserve Valuation Method (“CARVM”) liability for annuity benefits where surrender charges are waived. In connection with the CARVM reinsurance agreement (the “CARVM Treaty”), FGL Insurance and Raven Re entered into an agreement with Nomura Bank International plc (“NBI”) to upsize and extend its reserve financing facility in the form of a letter of credit issued by NBI. The financing facility has $200 million available to draw on as of December 31, 2022. The facility may terminate earlier than the current termination date of October 1, 2027, in accordance with the terms of the reimbursement agreement. Under the terms of the reimbursement agreement, in the event the letter of credit is drawn upon, Raven Re is required to repay the amounts utilized, and Fidelity & Guaranty Life Holdings, Inc. (“FGLH”) is obligated to repay the amounts utilized if Raven Re fails to make the required reimbursement. FGLH also is required to make capital contributions to Raven Re in the event that Raven Re’s statutory capital and surplus falls below certain defined levels. As of December 31, 2022, December 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, Raven Re’s statutory capital and surplus was $11 million, $62 million and $29 million, respectively, in excess of the minimum level required under the reimbursement agreement. As this letter of credit is provided by an unaffiliated financial institution, Raven Re is permitted to carry the letter of credit as an admitted asset on the Raven Re statutory balance sheet.
Effective December 31, 2022, FGL Insurance entered into a Coinsurance Agreement with its affiliate F&G Life Re Ltd. (“F&G Life Re”), a Bermuda reinsurer, to reinsure a quota share of certain pension risk transfer group annuity contracts on a funds withheld coinsurance and modified coinsurance basis. The cession is on an 80% quota share basis, net of applicable incurring reinsurance, with the liabilities payable out of FGL Insurance’s separate account ceded on a modified coinsurance basis and general accounts liabilities ceded on a funds withheld basis.
Our Retail Distribution Channels
We distribute our annuity and life insurance products through three main retail channels of distribution: independent agents, banks, and broker dealers.
In our independent agent channel, the sale of our products typically occurs as part of a four party, three stage sales process between FGL Insurance, an IMO, the agent and the customer. FGL Insurance designs, manufactures, issues, and services the product. The IMOs will typically sign contracts with multiple insurance carriers to provide their agents with a broad and competitive product portfolio. The IMO provides training and discusses product options with agents in preparation for meetings with clients. The IMO staff also provide assistance to the agent during the selling and application process. The agent may get customer leads from the IMOs. The agent conducts a fact finding and presents suitable product choices to the customers. We monitor the business issued by each distribution partner for pricing metrics, mortality, persistency, as well as market conduct and suitability.
We offer our products through a network of approximately 271 IMOs, representing approximately 73,000 agents. We believe that our relationships with these IMOs are strong. The average tenure of the Power Partners is approximately 19 years. We identify Power Partners as those who have demonstrated the ability to generate
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significant production for our business. We currently have 41 Power Partners, comprised of 19 annuity IMOs and 22 life insurance IMOs.
We took a similar approach in launching products as a new entrant into the bank and broker dealer channels by partnering with one of the largest broker dealers in the industry. In 2020, F&G launched a set of fixed rate annuity and FIA products to banks and broker dealers, and gained selling agreements with some of the largest banks and broker dealers in the United States. We offer our products through a network of approximately 20 banks and broker dealers, representing approximately 9,000 financial advisers. The financial advisers at our bank and broker dealer partners are able to offer their clients guaranteed rates of return, protected growth, and income for life through our Secure series of annuity products. We employ a hybrid distribution model in this channel, whereby some financial institutions partner directly with F&G and our sales team, and others work with an intermediary. As such, we partner with a select number of financial institution intermediaries who have expertise in the channel and maintain the appropriate field wholesaling forces to be successful in this channel. In 2022, the top 5 firms represented 87% of channel sales. Bank and broker dealers represented 44% of annuity sales for the year ended December 31, 2022.
The top five states for the distribution of F&G’s retail products in the year ended December 31, 2022 were Florida, California, Texas, Pennsylvania and New Jersey, which together accounted for 37% of F&G’s retail sales.
Our Investment Management Governance and Approach
We embrace a long-term conservative investment philosophy, investing nearly all the insurance premiums we receive in a wide range of high-quality debt securities. Our investment strategy is designed to (i) preserve capital, (ii) provide consistent yield and investment income, and (iii) achieve attractive absolute returns. We base all of our decisions on fundamental, bottom-up research, coupled with a top-down view that respects the cyclicality of certain asset classes. The types of assets in which we may invest are influenced by various state laws, which prescribe qualified investment assets applicable to insurance companies.
FGL Insurance and certain other subsidiaries of F&G (other than FGL NY Insurance) are party to IMAs with BIS pursuant to which BIS is appointed as investment manager of the F&G Accounts. There are no specified minimum amounts of assets that we have agreed that BIS will manage; however, BIS has the right to manage (and receive fees based on) all assets in the F&G Accounts with limited exceptions. For certain asset classes, we continue to utilize specialized third-party investment managers. As of December 31, 2022, approximately 91% of our $41 billion investment portfolio was managed by BIS, with 8% managed by other third parties, and the remaining 1% internally managed. BIS, in accordance with our IMAs, has delegated certain investment services to its affiliates, including Blackstone’s Credit, Real Estate Debt and Asset-Based Finance businesses, in each case, pursuant to separate sub-management agreements executed between BIS and each such affiliate.
The management fees payable to BIS under the IMAs are calculated based on the aggregate assets under management in the F&G Accounts, such that that BIS’s per annum management fee is based upon:
for aggregate assets under management in the F&G Accounts up to $25 billion, 0.26% of such aggregate assets under management;
for aggregate assets under management in the F&G Accounts above $25 billion and up to $34 billion, a rate equal to (x) the sum of $25 billion multiplied by 0.26% and the excess over $25 billion multiplied by 0.24% divided by (y) total aggregate assets under management; and
for aggregate assets under management in the F&G Accounts above $34 billion, a rate equal to (x) the sum of $25 billion multiplied by 0.26%, $9 billion multiplied by 0.24%, 80% of the aggregate assets under management above $34 billion multiplied by 0.12% and 20% of the aggregate assets under management above $34 billion multiplied by 0.24% divided by (y) total aggregate assets under management; provided, that in the event BIS and MVB Management amend their participation fee agreement in the future to reduce the fee payable for assets under management in the F&G Accounts over $34 billion by 50%, BIS’s per annum management fee for assets under management in the F&G Accounts over $34 billion will be reduced such that all aggregate assets under management above $34 billion will be multiplied by 0.12%.
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Aggregate fees paid to BIS were $155 million and $132 million for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively, $62 million for the seven month period between June 1, 2020 and ended December 31, 2020 and $39 million for the five months ended May 31, 2020 (or $101 million for the year ended December 31, 2020). In the third quarter of 2021, we negotiated a reduction in the fee rates charged by BIS for AUM in the F&G Accounts in excess of $34 billion (which prior to such amendment would have been charged at a fee rate of 0.22% or 0.20%).
F&G has a robust governance process and framework to manage the investment portfolio. While BIS is primarily responsible for security selection, F&G makes all investment strategy decisions and sets risk parameters. All major decisions need to be reviewed and approved by the F&G Investment Committee, and new investment asset classes go through an internal risk assessment process ‘RAP’ at F&G to ensure the investments are suitable for an insurance company balance sheet. We define risk tolerance across a wide range of factors, including credit risk, liquidity risk, concentration (issuer and sector) risk, and caps on specific asset classes, which in turn establish conservative risk thresholds.
F&G and BIS undertook a substantial investment portfolio reposition to improve the credit quality and asset-liability duration match of the portfolio, as well as to add diversification, by reducing exposure to BBB rated corporates and adding higher quality structured credit, specialty finance assets, commercial & residential mortgage loans, and alternative investments. This was completed in 2018, and the result was a meaningful yield pick-up along with improved credit quality which was accomplished by taking advantage of illiquidity and structural complexity premiums, and not by increasing credit risk in the portfolio. Since then several de-risking programs have been undertaken to take advantage of the extended credit cycle and favorable market conditions or to undertake prudent risk management in anticipation of an unfavorable economic environment. We have also added several new asset classes to the investment portfolio to further enhance diversification.
Each of our subsidiaries that is party to an investment management agreement with BIS may terminate such agreement upon 30 days’ notice. BIS may also terminate any investment management agreement upon 30 days’ notice. However, F&G and FNF are party to an omnibus termination side letter under which they are required to cause our insurance subsidiaries to engage BIS as an investment manager and to generally not engage any other person as an investment manager. See also “Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Business—We rely on our investment management or advisory agreements with BIS and other investment managers and sub-managers for the management of portions of certain of our life insurance companies’ investment portfolios.”
The initial term of the side letter expires in 2027 and will automatically renew for successive one-year terms unless F&G terminates the side letter. Prior to June 1, 2027, we and FNF may only terminate the side letter for cause. Cause is generally limited to circumstances where BIS is legally unable to manage our assets, if BIS fails to offer us “most favored nations” rights with respect to certain products it may issue to third parties, or where BIS has acted with gross negligence, willful misconduct or reckless disregard of its obligations under the investment management agreements. In addition, at the expiration of the initial term of the side letter in 2027, or at the end of any renewal term, we may with prior notice terminate the side letter for (i) unsatisfactory long term performance by BIS that is materially detrimental to one of our subsidiaries or (ii) unfair and excessive fees charged by BIS compared to those that would be charged by a comparable asset manager (taking into account the experience, education and qualification of BIS’s personnel, the scale and scope of the services being provided by BIS, and the composition of the managed investment portfolio and comparable investment guidelines). If we provide any such notice, the termination would not become effective for two years from the date of termination given in the notice, during which time BIS may seek to cure the events giving arise to the termination notice.
Because our subsidiaries can terminate an investment management agreement at any time upon 30 days' notice, it is possible that such a termination by one of our subsidiaries could cause us to be in breach of our obligations under the side letter. BIS’s contractual remedies under the side letter include specific performance and the right to seek damages including, in the event of a non-permitted termination of an investment management agreement by one of our subsidiaries, as compensation for the costs incurred in performing services under, and the failure to receive the benefits reasonably anticipated by, an IMA, the full amount of damages available at law in the same manner and to the same extent as if such IMA had been terminated by us our at our direction in violation of the terms of the side letter.
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Our investment portfolio consists of high-quality fixed maturities, including publicly issued and privately issued corporate bonds, municipal and other government bonds, ABS, residential mortgage-backed securities (“RMBS”), commercial mortgage-backed securities (“CMBS”), commercial mortgage loans (“CMLs”), residential mortgage loans (“RMLs”), limited partnership investments, and other investments. We also maintain holdings in floating rate, and less rate-sensitive investments, including senior tranches of CLOs, non-agency RMBS, and various types of ABS. It is our expectation that our investment portfolio will broaden in scope and diversity to include other asset classes held by life and annuity insurance writers. We also have a small amount of equity holdings required as part of our funding arrangements with the FHLB.
The portfolio also has exposure to U.S. dollar denominated emerging market bonds, highly rated preferred stocks and hybrids, and structured securities including ABS. We currently maintain:
a well-matched asset/liability profile (asset duration, including cash and cash equivalents, of 4.9 years vs. liability duration of 5.1 years); and
an exposure to less rate-sensitive assets of 30% of invested assets as of December 31, 2022.
Please refer to Note C Investments in the Consolidated Financial Statements and the Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations Investment Portfolio” in this Annual Report for additional information about our investment portfolio.
Mature Risk Management Framework and Governance
Risk management is a critical part of our business to manage our financial strength and meet or exceed regulatory requirements. We seek to assess risk to our business through a comprehensive, formal process involving:
a.identifying short-term and long-term strategic and operational objectives;
b.development of risk appetite statements that establish what the Company is willing to accept in terms of risks to achieving its goals and objectives;
c.identifying the levers that control the risk appetite of the Company;
d.establishing the overall limits of risk acceptable for a given risk driver;
e.establishing operational risk limits that are aligned with the tolerances;
f.assigning risk limit quantification and mitigation responsibilities to individual team members within functional groups;
g.analyzing the potential qualitative and quantitative impact of individual risks, including but not limited to stress and scenario testing covering over eight economic and insurance related risks;
h.mitigating risks by appropriate actions; and
i.identifying, documenting and communicating key business risks in a timely fashion.
Our most significant risks are governed through holding company governance committees and overall by the enterprise risk management committee. Our most significant risks such as credit risk, liquidity risk, and policyholder behavior associated with interest rate risk have established risk limits associated with our risk appetite statements. These include investment limits by asset class, ratings and issuer. Liquidity risk is managed through frequent forecasting of sources and uses of cash and managed to our Liquidity Policy. Asset liability management procedures and limits protect the Company, within limits, against significant changes in interest rates. In addition, the risks are stressed as part of our scenario testing process to identify areas requiring mitigation plans based on the macroeconomic environment. Risk limits, risk appetite and scenario testing results of the stresses are discussed with stakeholders such as the F&G ERM Committee, the Board of Directors and Audit Committee of F&G, regulators and rating agencies.
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The responsibility for monitoring, evaluating and responding to risk embedded across the organization: first assigned to our management and employees, second to those occupying specialist functions, such as legal compliance and risk teams, and third to those occupying supervisory functions, such as internal audit and the board of directors.
Operations/Outsourcing
We believe we have designed an efficient corporate platform which enables us to be highly scalable with volume over time, and allows us to onboard incremental business with low incremental fixed operating cost. As a result, we believe we should be able to convert a significant portion of incremental net investment income from additional invested assets and liabilities into operating income.
We outsource the following functions to third-party service providers:
new business administration (data entry and policy issue only);
service of existing policies;
underwriting administration of life insurance applications;
life reinsurance administration;
call centers;
information technology development and maintenance;
investment accounting and custody; and
co-located data centers and hosting of financial systems.
We closely manage our outsourcing partners and integrate their services into our operations. We believe that outsourcing such functions allows us to focus capital and our employees on our core business operations and perform differentiating functions, such as finance, actuarial, product development and risk management functions. In addition, we believe an outsourcing model provides predictable pricing, service levels and volume capabilities and allows us to benefit from technological developments that enhance our customer self-service and sales processes. We believe that we have a good relationship with our principal outsource service providers.
Our Financial Strength/Ratings
Our access to funding and our related cost of borrowing, the attractiveness of certain of our products to customers and requirements for derivatives collateral posting are affected by our credit ratings and insurance financial strength ratings, which are periodically reviewed by the rating agencies. Financial strength ratings and credit ratings are important factors affecting public confidence in an insurer and its competitive position in marketing products.
As of the date of this Annual Report, A.M. Best, Fitch, Moody’s, and S&P had issued credit ratings, financial strength ratings and/or outlook statements regarding us, as listed below. Credit ratings represent the opinions of rating agencies regarding an entity’s ability to repay its indebtedness. Financial strength ratings represent the opinions of rating agencies regarding the ability of an insurance company to meet its financial obligations under an insurance policy and generally involve quantitative and qualitative evaluations by rating agencies of a company’s financial condition and operating performance. Generally, rating agencies base their financial strength ratings upon information furnished to them by the insurer and upon their own investigations, studies and assumptions. Financial strength ratings are based upon factors of concern to policyholders, agents and intermediaries and are not directed toward the protection of investors. Credit and financial strength ratings are not recommendations to buy, sell or hold securities and they may be revised or revoked at any time at the sole discretion of the rating organization.
In addition to the financial strength ratings, rating agencies use an “outlook statement” to indicate a medium- or long-term trend that, if continued, may lead to a rating change. A positive outlook indicates a rating may be raised
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and a negative outlook indicates a rating may be lowered. A stable outlook is assigned when ratings are not likely to be changed. A developing outlook is assigned when a rating may be raised, lowered, or affirmed. Outlooks should not be confused with expected stability of the issuer’s financial or economic performance. A rating may have a “stable” outlook to indicate that the rating is not expected to change, but a “stable” outlook does not preclude a rating agency from changing a rating at any time without notice.
The rating organizations may take various actions, positive or negative. Such actions are beyond our control and we cannot predict what these actions may be and the timing thereof.
A.M. BestS&PFitchMoody’s
Holding Company & Security Ratings
F&G Annuities & Life, Inc.
Issuer Credit / Default RatingNot RatedBBB-BBBBa2
OutlookStableStablePositive
Senior Unsecured Notes (2028 maturity) (a)
Not RatedBBB-BBB-Not Rated
CF Bermuda Holdings Limited
Issuer Credit / Default RatingNot RatedBBB-BBBBa1
OutlookStableStablePositive
Fidelity & Guaranty Life Holdings, Inc.
Issuer Credit / Default RatingBBB-BBB-BBBNot Rated
OutlookPositiveStableStable
Senior Unsecured Notes (2025 maturity) (b)
BBB-BBBBBBBaa2
OutlookPositiveStable
Operating Subsidiary Ratings
Fidelity & Guaranty Life Insurance Company
Financial Strength RatingA-A-A-Baa1
OutlookPositiveStableStablePositive
Fidelity & Guaranty Life Insurance Company of New York
Financial Strength RatingA-A- A-Not Rated
OutlookPositiveStableStable
F&G Life Re Ltd
Financial Strength RatingNot RatedA-A-Baa1
OutlookStableStablePositive
F&G Cayman Re Ltd
Financial Strength RatingNot RatedNot RatedA-Not Rated
OutlookStable
(a) Issuance by F&G Annuities & Life, Inc. on January 13, 2023
(b) Explicitly guaranteed by parent Fidelity National Financial, Inc. upon acquisition of F&G on June 1, 2020
A.M. Best, S&P, Fitch and Moody’s review their ratings of insurance companies from time to time. There can be no assurance that any particular rating will continue for any given period of time or that it will not be changed or withdrawn entirely if, in their judgment, circumstances so warrant. While the degree to which ratings adjustments will affect sales and persistency is unknown, we believe if our ratings were to be negatively adjusted for any reason, we could experience a material decline in the sales of our products and the persistency of our existing business. See “Risk Factors” in this Annual Report.
Potential Impact of a Ratings Downgrade. We are required to maintain minimum ratings as a matter of routine practice as part of our over-the-counter derivatives agreements on ISDA forms. Under some ISDA agreements, we have agreed to maintain certain financial strength ratings. Please refer to Note D Derivative Financial Instruments to the Consolidated Financial Statements for disclosure around our requirement to maintain minimum ratings.
If the insurance subsidiaries held net short positions against a counterparty, and the subsidiaries’ financial strength ratings were below the levels required in the ISDA agreement with the counterparty, the counterparty would
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demand immediate further collateralization, which could negatively impact overall liquidity. Based on the fair value of our derivatives as of December 31, 2022, we hold no net short positions against a counterparty; therefore, there is currently no potential exposure for us to post collateral.
A downgrade of the financial strength rating of one of our principal insurance subsidiaries could affect our competitive position in the insurance industry and make it more difficult for us to market our products, as potential customers may select companies with higher financial strength ratings. A downgrade of the financial strength rating could also impact our borrowing costs.
Regulation of F&G
U.S. Regulatory Overview
FGL Insurance, FGL NY Insurance and Raven Re are subject to comprehensive regulation and supervision in their domiciles, Iowa, New York and Vermont, respectively, and in each state in which they do business. FGL Insurance does business throughout the United States and Puerto Rico, except for New York. FGL NY Insurance only does business in New York. Raven Re is a special purpose captive reinsurance company that only provides reinsurance to FGL Insurance under the CARVM Treaty. FGL Insurance’s principal insurance regulatory authority is the IID; however, state insurance departments throughout the United States also monitor FGL Insurance’s insurance operations as a licensed insurer. The New York State Department of Financial Services (“NYDFS”) regulates the operations of FGL NY Insurance. The purpose of these regulations is primarily to protect insurers’ policyholders and beneficiaries and not their general creditors and shareholders of those insurers or of their holding companies. Many of the laws and regulations to which FGL Insurance and FGL NY Insurance are subject are regularly re-examined and existing or future laws and regulations may become more restrictive or otherwise adversely affect their operations.
Generally, insurance products underwritten by, and rates used by, FGL Insurance and FGL NY Insurance must be approved by the insurance regulators in each state or territory in which they are sold. In addition, insurance products may also be subject to ERISA.
State insurance authorities have broad administrative powers over FGL Insurance and FGL NY Insurance with respect to all aspects of the insurance business, including:
licensing to transact business;
licensing agents;
prescribing which assets and liabilities are to be considered in determining statutory surplus;
regulating premium rates for certain insurance products;
approving policy forms and certain related materials;
requiring insurers and agents to act in the best interests of consumers when making recommendations to purchase annuities, or to determine whether a reasonable basis exists as to the suitability of such investments for consumers;
regulating unfair trade and claims practices;
establishing reserve requirements and solvency standards;
regulating the amount of dividends that may be paid in any year by insurance companies;
regulating the availability of reinsurance or other substitute financing solutions, the terms thereof and the ability of an insurer to take credit on its financial statements for insurance ceded to reinsurers or other substitute financing solutions;
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fixing maximum interest rates on life insurance policy loans and minimum accumulation or surrender values; and
regulating the type, amounts, and valuations of investments permitted, transactions with affiliates and other matters.
Financial Regulation
State insurance laws and regulations require FGL Insurance, FGL NY Insurance and Raven Re to file reports, including financial statements, with state insurance departments in each state in which they do business, and their operations and accounts are subject to examination by those departments at any time. FGL Insurance, FGL NY Insurance and Raven Re prepare statutory financial statements in accordance with accounting practices and procedures prescribed or permitted by these departments.
The NAIC has approved a series of statutory accounting principles and various model regulations that have been adopted, in some cases with certain modifications, by all state insurance departments. These statutory principles are subject to ongoing change and modification. Moreover, compliance with any particular regulator’s interpretation of a legal or accounting issue may not result in compliance with another regulator’s interpretation of the same issue, particularly when compliance is judged in hindsight. Any particular regulator’s interpretation of a legal or accounting issue may change over time to FGL Insurance’s, FGL NY Insurance’s and Raven Re’s detriment, or changes to the overall legal or market environment, even absent any change of interpretation by a particular regulator, may cause FGL Insurance, FGL NY Insurance and Raven Re to change their views regarding the actions they need to take from a legal risk management perspective, which could necessitate changes to FGL Insurance’s, FGL NY Insurance’s or and Raven Re’s practices that may, in some cases, limit their ability to grow and improve profitability.
State insurance departments conduct periodic examinations of the books and records, financial reporting, policy and rate filings, market conduct and business practices of insurance companies domiciled in their states, generally once every three to five years. Examinations are generally carried out in cooperation with the insurance departments of other states under guidelines promulgated by the NAIC. State insurance departments also have the authority to conduct examinations of non-domiciliary insurers that are licensed in their states.
Dividend and Other Distribution Payment Limitations
The insurance laws of Iowa and New York regulate the amount of dividends that may be paid in any year by FGL Insurance and FGL NY Insurance, respectively.
Pursuant to Iowa insurance law, ordinary dividends are payments, together with all other such payments within the preceding twelve months, that do not exceed the greater of (i) 10% of FGL Insurance’s statutory surplus as regards policyholders as of December 31 of the preceding year; or (ii) the net gain from operations of FGL Insurance (excluding realized capital gains) for the 12-month period ending December 31 of the preceding year.
Dividends in excess of FGL Insurance’s ordinary dividend capacity are referred to as extraordinary and require prior approval of the Iowa Insurance Commissioner. In deciding whether to approve a request to pay an extraordinary dividend, Iowa insurance law requires the Iowa Insurance Commissioner to consider the effect of the dividend payment on FGL Insurance’s surplus and financial condition generally and whether the payment of the dividend will cause FGL Insurance to fail to meet its required U.S. RBC ratio. FGL Insurance may only pay dividends out of statutory earned surplus.
In 2022, FGL Insurance did not pay extraordinary dividends to FGLH. FGL Insurance’s maximum ordinary dividend capacity for 2023 is $0.
Any payment of dividends by FGL Insurance is subject to the regulatory restrictions described above and the approval of such payment by the board of directors of FGL Insurance, which must consider various factors, including general economic and business conditions, tax considerations, FGL Insurance’s strategic plans, financial results and condition, FGL Insurance’s expansion plans, any contractual, legal or regulatory restrictions on the
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payment of dividends and its effect on RBC and such other factors the board of directors of FGL Insurance considers relevant. For example, payments of dividends could reduce FGL Insurance’s RBC and financial condition and lead to a reduction in FGL Insurance’s financial strength rating. See "Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Business—A financial strength ratings downgrade, potential downgrade, or any other negative action by a rating agency could increase our cost of capital, making it challenging to grow our business, and could hinder our ability to participate in certain market segments, thereby adversely affecting our results of operations and our financial condition” in this Information Statement.
Each year, FGL NY Insurance may pay a certain limited amount of ordinary dividends or other distributions as calculated under New York insurance laws without being required to obtain the prior consent of the NYDFS. However, to pay any dividends or distributions (including the payment of any dividends or distributions for which prior consent is not required), FGL NY Insurance must provide advance written notice to the NYDFS.
FGL NY Insurance has historically not paid dividends.
Surplus and Capital
FGL Insurance and FGL NY Insurance are subject to the supervision of the regulators in states where they are licensed to transact business. Regulators have discretionary authority in connection with the continued licensing of these entities to limit or prohibit sales to policyholders if, in their judgment, the regulators determine that such entities have not maintained the minimum surplus or capital or that the further transaction of business would be hazardous to policyholders.
Risk-Based Capital
In order to enhance the regulation of insurers’ solvency, the NAIC adopted a model law to implement RBC requirements for life, health and property and casualty insurance companies. All states have adopted the NAIC’s model law or a substantially similar law. RBC is used to evaluate the adequacy of capital and surplus maintained by an insurance company in relation to risks associated with: (i) asset risk, (ii) insurance risk, (iii) interest rate risk, and (iv) business risk. In general, RBC is calculated by applying factors to various asset, premium and reserve items, taking into account the risk characteristics of the insurer. Within a given risk category, these factors are higher for those items with greater underlying risk and lower for items with lower underlying risk. The RBC formula is used as an early warning regulatory tool to identify possible inadequately capitalized insurers for purposes of initiating regulatory action, and not as a means to rank insurers generally. Insurers that have less statutory capital than the RBC calculation requires are considered to have inadequate capital and are subject to varying degrees of regulatory action depending upon the level of capital inadequacy. As of the most recent annual statutory financial statements filed with insurance regulators, the RBC ratios for FGL Insurance and FGL NY Insurance each exceeded the minimum RBC requirements.
It is desirable to maintain an RBC ratio in excess of the minimum requirements in order to maintain or improve financial strength ratings. FGL Insurance’s estimated U.S. RBC ratio was approximately 440% as of December 31, 2022. See “Risk Factors — Risks Relating to Our Business — A financial strength ratings downgrade, potential downgrade, or any other negative action by a rating agency could increase our cost of capital, making it challenging to grow our business, and could hinder our ability to participate in certain market segments, thereby adversely affecting our results of operations and our financial condition” in this Information Statement.
See “—Bermuda Regulatory Overview — ECR and Bermuda Solvency Capital Requirements” for a discussion of Bermuda regulatory requirements that impact F&G Life Re.
Insurance Regulatory Information System Tests
The NAIC has developed a set of financial relationships or tests known as the Insurance Regulatory Information System ("IRIS") to assist state regulators in monitoring the financial condition of U.S. insurance companies and identifying companies that require special attention or action by insurance regulatory authorities. A ratio falling outside the prescribed “usual range” is not considered a failing result. Rather, unusual values are viewed as part of the regulatory early monitoring system. In many cases, it is not unusual for financially sound companies to have one
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or more ratios that fall outside the usual range. Insurance companies generally submit data annually to the NAIC, which in turn analyzes the data using prescribed financial data ratios, each with defined “usual ranges”. Generally, regulators will begin to investigate or monitor an insurance company if its ratios fall outside the usual ranges for four or more of the ratios. IRIS consists of a statistical phase and an analytical phase whereby financial examiners review insurers’ annual statements and financial ratios. The statistical phase consists of 12 key financial ratios based on year-end data that are generated from the NAIC database annually; each ratio has a “usual range” of results.
As of December 31, 2022, FGL Insurance, FGL NY Insurance and Raven Re had three, four and three ratios outside the usual range, respectively. The IRIS ratios for net income to total income (including realized capital gains and losses), change in premium and change in product mix for FGL Insurance were outside the usual range. The IRIS ratios for net change in capital and surplus, gross change in capital and surplus, net income to total income (including realized capital gains and losses) and change in reserving ratio for FGL NY Insurance were outside the usual range. The IRIS ratios for net income to total income (including realized capital gains and losses), adequacy of investment income and change in premium for Raven Re were outside the usual range.
In all instances in prior years, regulators have been satisfied upon follow-up that no regulatory action was required. FGL Insurance, FGL NY Insurance and Raven Re are not currently subject to regulatory restrictions based on these ratios.
Group Capital Calculation
The NAIC developed a group capital calculation tool using an RBC methodology for all entities within the insurance holding company system, including non-U.S. entities. In December 2020, the NAIC adopted the Group Capital Calculation Template and Instructions, as well as amendments to the Model Holding Company Act and Regulation. The amendments implement the annual filing requirement for the group capital calculation but will not become effective until adopted by state legislatures or regulatory agencies. Legislation was introduced in New York in May 2022 that would require a group capital calculation. The Company’s lead regulator has not yet adopted a requirement for Group Capital.
Insurance Reserves
State insurance laws require insurers to analyze the adequacy of reserves. Following the implementation of principle-based reserving for life insurance products, the NAIC is now developing a principle-based reserving framework for fixed annuity products. The respective appointed actuaries for FGL Insurance, FGL NY Insurance and Raven Re must each submit an opinion on an annual basis that their respective reserves, when considered in light of the respective assets FGL Insurance, FGL NY Insurance and Raven Re hold with respect to those reserves, make adequate provision for the contractual obligations and related expenses of FGL Insurance, FGL NY Insurance and Raven Re. FGL Insurance, FGL NY Insurance and Raven Re have filed all of the required opinions with the insurance departments in the states in which they do business.
Credit for Reinsurance Regulation
States regulate the extent to which insurers are permitted to take credit on their financial statements for the financial obligations that the insurers cede to reinsurers. Where an insurer cedes obligations to a reinsurer that is neither licensed nor accredited by the state insurance department, the ceding insurer is not permitted to take such financial statement credit unless the unlicensed or unaccredited reinsurer secures the liabilities it will owe under the reinsurance contract.
Under the laws regulating credit for reinsurance issued by such unlicensed or unaccredited reinsurers, the permissible means of securing such liabilities are (i) the establishment of a trust account by the reinsurer to hold certain qualifying assets in a qualified U.S. financial institution, such as a member of the Federal Reserve, with the ceding insurer as the exclusive beneficiary of such trust account with the unconditional right to demand, without notice to the reinsurer, that the trustee pay over to it the assets in the trust account equal to the liabilities owed by the reinsurer; (ii) the posting of an unconditional and irrevocable letter of credit by a qualified U.S. financial institution in favor of the ceding company allowing the ceding company to draw upon the letter of credit up to the amount of the unpaid liabilities of the reinsurer and (iii) a “funds withheld” arrangement by which the ceding company
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withholds transfer to the reinsurer of the assets, which support the liabilities to be owed by the reinsurer, with the ceding insurer retaining title to and exclusive control over such assets.
In addition, all U.S. states, including Iowa and New York, permit an insurer to take credit for reinsurance ceded to a non-U.S. reinsurer that posts collateral in amounts less than 100% of the reinsurer’s obligations if the reinsurer has been designated as a “certified reinsurer” and is domiciled in a country recognized by the state and the NAIC as a “Qualified Jurisdiction.” The reduced percentage of full collateral applied to a certified reinsurer is based upon an assessment of the reinsurer and its financial ratings. Iowa and New York both also recognize certain qualified non-U.S. insurers as reciprocal jurisdiction reinsurers such that ceding domestic insurers may receive credit for reinsurance ceded to such unauthorized reinsurers without the requirement for the reinsurer to provide collateral.
FGL Insurance and FGL NY Insurance are subject to the credit for reinsurance rules described above in Iowa and New York, respectively, insofar as they enter into any reinsurance contracts with reinsurers that are neither licensed, accredited nor certified in Iowa and New York, respectively, or recognized as a reciprocal reinsurer in such jurisdictions.
Insurance Holding Company Regulation
F&G, as the indirect parent company of FGL Insurance and FGL NY Insurance, is subject to the insurance holding company laws in Iowa and New York. These laws generally require each insurance company directly or indirectly owned by the holding company to register with the insurance department in the insurance company’s state of domicile and to furnish annually financial and other information about the operations of companies within the holding company system. Generally, all transactions between insurers and affiliates within the holding company system are subject to regulation and must be fair and reasonable, and may require prior notice and approval or non-disapproval by its domiciliary insurance regulator.
Most states, including Iowa and New York, have insurance laws that require regulatory approval of a direct or indirect change of control of an insurer or an insurer’s holding company. Such laws prevent any person from acquiring control, directly or indirectly, of F&G, FGL US Holdings Inc. (“FGL US Holdings”), CF Bermuda Holdings Limited (“CF Bermuda”), FGLH, FGL Insurance or FGL NY Insurance or certain of their affiliates unless that person has filed a statement with specified information with the insurance regulators and has obtained their prior approval. In addition, investors deemed to have a direct or indirect controlling interest are required to make regulatory filings and respond to regulatory inquiries. Under most states’ statutes, including those of Iowa and New York, acquiring 10% or more of the voting stock of an insurance company or its parent company is presumptively considered a change of control, although such presumption may be rebutted. In addition, the insurance laws of Iowa and New York permit a determination of control in circumstances where the thresholds for the presumption of control have not been crossed. Similar laws apply to a direct or indirect change of ownership of Raven Re. Any person who is deemed to acquire control over F&G, FNF, FGL US Holdings, CF Bermuda, FGLH, FGL Insurance, FGL NY Insurance, Raven Re or certain of their affiliates including any person who acquires 10% or more of our or FNF’s voting securities of FGL Insurance, FGL NY Insurance or certain of their affiliates, without the prior approval of the insurance regulators of Iowa and New York, will be in violation of those states’ laws and may be subject to injunctive action requiring the disposition or seizure of those securities by the relevant insurance regulator or prohibiting the voting of those securities and to other actions determined by the relevant insurance regulator.
Insurance Guaranty Association Assessments
Each state has insurance guaranty association laws under which insurers doing business in the state may be assessed by state insurance guaranty associations for certain obligations of insolvent insurance companies to policyholders and claimants. Typically, states assess each member insurer in an amount related to the member insurer’s proportionate share of the business written by all member insurers in the state. Although no prediction can be made as to the amount and timing of any future assessments under these laws, FGL Insurance and FGL NY Insurance have established reserves that they believe are adequate for assessments relating to insurance companies that are currently subject to insolvency proceedings.
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Market Conduct Regulation
State insurance laws and regulations include numerous provisions governing the marketplace activities of insurers, including provisions governing the form and content of disclosure to consumers, illustrations, advertising, sales and complaint process practices. State regulatory authorities generally enforce these provisions through periodic market conduct examinations. In addition, FGL Insurance and FGL NY Insurance must file, and in many jurisdictions and for some lines of business obtain regulatory approval for, rates and forms relating to the insurance written in the jurisdictions in which they operate. FGL Insurance is currently the subject of four ongoing market conduct examinations in various states. Market conduct examinations can result in monetary fines or remediation and generally require FGL Insurance to devote significant resources to the management of such examinations. FGL Insurance does not believe that any of the current market conduct examinations it is subject to will result in any fines or remediation orders that will be material to its business.
Regulation of Investments
FGL Insurance, FGL NY Insurance and Raven Re are subject to state laws and regulations that require diversification of their investment portfolios and limit the amount of investments in certain asset categories, such as below investment grade fixed income securities, equity, real estate, other equity investments and derivatives. Failure to comply with these laws and regulations would cause investments exceeding regulatory limitations to be treated as either non-admitted assets for purposes of measuring surplus or as not qualified as an asset held for reserve purposes and, in some instances, would require divestiture or replacement of such non-qualifying investments. We believe that the investment portfolios of FGL Insurance, FGL NY Insurance, and Raven Re as of December 31, 2022, complied in all material respects with such regulations.
Privacy Regulation
Our operations are subject to certain federal and state laws and regulations that require financial institutions and other businesses to protect the security and confidentiality of personal information, including health-related and customer information, and to notify customers and other individuals about their policies and practices relating to their collection and disclosure of health-related and customer information and their practices relating to protecting the security and confidentiality of such information. These laws and regulations require notice to affected individuals, law enforcement agencies, regulators and others if there is a breach of the security of certain personal information, including social security numbers, and require holders of certain personal information to protect the security of the data. Our operations are also subject to certain federal regulations that require financial institutions and creditors to implement effective programs to detect, prevent and mitigate identity theft. In addition, our ability to make telemarketing calls and to send unsolicited email or fax messages to consumers and customers and our uses of certain personal information, including consumer report information, are regulated. Federal and state governments and regulatory bodies may be expected to consider additional or more detailed regulation regarding these subjects and the privacy and security of personal information.
The Dodd-Frank Act
The Dodd-Frank Act made sweeping changes to the regulation of financial services entities, products and markets. Certain provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act are applicable to us, our competitors or those entities with which we do business. These provisions may impact us in many ways, including, but not limited to, having an effect on the overall business climate, requiring the allocation of certain resources to government affairs, and increasing our legal and compliance related activities and the costs associated therewith.
Under the Dodd-Frank Act, annuities that meet specific requirements, including requirements relating to certain state suitability rules, are specifically exempted from being treated as securities by the SEC. We believe that the types of FIAs that FGL Insurance and FGL NY Insurance sell will meet these requirements and, therefore, are exempt from being treated as securities by the SEC and state securities regulators. However, there can be no assurance that federal or state securities laws or state insurance laws and regulations will not be amended or interpreted to impose further requirements on FIAs. If FIAs were to be treated as securities, federal and state securities laws would require additional registration and licensing of these products and the agents selling them, and FGL Insurance and FGL NY Insurance would be required to seek additional marketing relationships for these
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products, any of which could impose significant restrictions on its ability to conduct operations as currently operated.
ERISA and Fiduciary Standards
We may offer certain insurance and annuity products to employee benefit plans governed by ERISA and/or the Code, including group annuity contracts designated to fund tax-qualified retirement plans. ERISA and the Code provide (among other requirements) standards of conduct for employee benefit plan fiduciaries, including investment managers and investment advisers with respect to the assets of such plans, and hold fiduciaries liable if they fail to satisfy fiduciary standards of conduct.
State and federal regulators have been adopting stronger consumer protection regulations that may materially impact our company, business, distribution, and products. The NAIC adopted an amended Suitability in Annuity Transactions Model Regulation in February 2020 incorporating a requirement that agents act in the best interest of consumers without putting their own financial interests or insurer’s interests ahead of consumer interests. The best interest requirement is satisfied by complying with four regulatory obligations relating to care, disclosure, conflict of interest, and documentation. The amended model regulation also requires agents to provide certain disclosures to consumers, obligates insurers to supervise agent compliance with the new requirements, and prohibits sales contests or other incentives based on sales of specific annuities within a limited period of time.
Several states have adopted the revised NAIC model regulation, including FGL Insurance’s domiciliary state of Iowa. Management has instituted business procedures to comply with these revised requirements where required. FGL NY Insurance separately instituted new business procedures in response to the NYDFS best interest rule adopted in August 2019 which survived a legal challenge and deviates from the NAIC model regulation and is considered more onerous in certain respects including its broader application to life insurance sales.
In December 2020, the DOL issued its final version of an investment advice rule replacing the previous “Fiduciary Rule” that had been challenged by industry participants and vacated in March 2018 by the United States Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals. The new investment advice rule reinstates the five-part test for determining whether a person is considered a fiduciary for purposes of ERISA and the Code and sets forth a new PTE referred to as PTE 2020-02. The rule’s preamble also contains the DOL’s reinterpretation of elements of the five-part test that appears to encompass more insurance agents selling individual retirement account (“IRA”) products and withdraws the agency’s longstanding position that rollover recommendations out of employer plans are not subject to ERISA. The new rule took effect on February 16, 2021.
The DOL investment advice rule leaves in place PTE 84-24, which is a longstanding class exemption providing prohibited transaction relief for insurance agents selling annuity products, provided certain disclosures are made to the plan fiduciary, which is the policyholder in the case of an IRA, and certain other conditions are met. Among other things, these disclosures include the agent’s relationship to the insurer and commissions received in connection with the annuity sale. FGL Insurance along with FGL NY Insurance, designed and launched a compliance program in January 2022 requiring all agents selling IRA products to submit an acknowledgment with each IRA application indicating the agent has satisfied PTE 84-24 requirements on a precautionary basis in case the agent acted or is found to have acted as a fiduciary. Meanwhile, the DOL has publicly announced its intention to consider future rulemaking that may revoke or modify PTE 84-24.
Management believes these current and emerging developments relating to market conduct standards for the financial services industry may over time materially affect the way in which our agents do business, the role of IMOs, sale of IRA products including IRA-to-IRA and employer plan rollovers, how the company supervises its distribution force, compensation practices, and liability exposure and costs. In addition to implementing the compliance procedures described above, management is monitoring further developments closely and will be working with IMOs and distributors to adapt to evolving regulatory requirements and risks.
Structured Securities
On December 7, 2021, the NAIC assigned to its Macroprudential Working Group, the evaluation of a list of “Regulatory Considerations Applicable (But Not Exclusive) to Private Equity (PE) Owned Insurers.” Included
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within this list is the consideration of material increases in privately structured securities (both by affiliated and non-affiliated asset managers), which the NAIC says introduces other sources of risk or increases traditional credit risk, such as complexity risk and illiquidity risk. The NAIC is considering proposals to increase disclosure requirements for these risks, as well as additional disclosure regarding private securities.
In addition, the NAIC continues to refine its application of RBC factors for certain investments and is considering changes related to the risk assessment of structured securities.
The SECURE 2.0 Act
New and recently passed legislation may also impact the industry in which F&G competes. For example, the SECURE 2.0 Act of 2022, which went into effect as early as January 1, 2023, in certain respects, creates an opportunity for F&G and its competitors to pursue sales to employer retirement plan sponsors as well as its traditional customers. In addition, F&G and its competitors may implement operational changes to adapt to the effect of the new legislation. See “Risk Factors—Legal, Regulatory and Tax Risks—The SECURE 2.0 Act of 2022 may impact our business and the markets in which we compete.”
Climate Risk
On November 15, 2021, NYDFS issued final Guidance for New York Domestic Insurers on Managing the Financial Risks from Climate Change, detailing NYDFS’s expectations related to domestic insurers' management of the financial risks from climate change. These guidelines are applicable to FGL NY Insurance and are effective in 2022. Under the guidelines, climate change risk must be specifically included in an insurance group's enterprise risk management function.
Diversity and Corporate Governance
The NAIC and certain state insurance regulators are focused on the issue of diversity within the insurance industry, such as the diversity of an insurer’s board of directors and management. The NAIC is developing a framework for approaching issues related to race and insurance. On March 16, 2021, the NYDFS issued a circular letter that states that the NYDFS expects the insurers it regulates to make diversity of their leadership a business priority and key element of their corporate governance. This guidance is applicable to FGL NY Insurance. NYDFS intends to include questions relating to diversity and inclusion efforts in its examination process starting in 2022.
Bermuda Regulatory Overview
F&G Life Re is a Bermuda exempted company incorporated under the Companies Act 1981, as amended (the “Companies Act”) and registered as a Class E insurer under the Insurance Act. F&G Life Re is regulated by the Bermuda Monetary Authority (“BMA”).
The Insurance Act provides that no person may carry on an insurance business in or from within Bermuda unless registered as an insurer under the Insurance Act by the BMA. In deciding whether to grant registration, the BMA has broad discretion to act as it thinks fit in the public interest. The BMA is required by the Insurance Act to determine whether the applicant is a fit and proper body to be engaged in the insurance business and, in particular, whether it has, or has available to it, adequate knowledge and expertise. The registration of an applicant as an insurer is subject to the insurer complying with the terms of its registration and such other conditions as the BMA may impose at any time. In addition, the Insurance Act requires BMA approval of increases in control or dispositions of control of an insurance company.
Bermuda has been awarded full equivalence for commercial insurers under Europe’s Solvency II regime applicable to insurance companies, which regime came into effect on January 1, 2016.
All insurers are required to implement corporate governance policies and processes as the BMA considers appropriate given the nature, size, complexity and risk profile of the insurer and all insurers, on an annual basis, are required to deliver a declaration to the BMA confirming whether or not they meet the minimum criteria for registration under the Insurance Act.
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All insurers are required to comply with the Bermuda Insurance Code of Conduct, which is a codification of best practices for insurers provided by the BMA, and to submit annually to the BMA with its statutory financial return a declaration of compliance confirming it complies with the Bermuda Insurance Code of Conduct.
The BMA utilizes a risk-based approach when it comes to licensing and supervising insurance and reinsurance companies. As part of the BMA’s risk-based system, an assessment of the inherent risks within each particular class of insurer or reinsurer is used to determine the limitations and specific requirements that may be imposed. Thereafter the BMA keeps its analysis of relative risk within individual institutions under review on an ongoing basis, including through the scrutiny of audited financial statements, and, as appropriate, meeting with senior management during onsite visits.
The Insurance Act imposes on Bermuda insurance companies solvency and liquidity standards, as well as auditing and reporting requirements. Certain significant aspects of the Bermuda insurance regulatory framework are set forth below.
Minimum Solvency Margin. The Insurance Act provides that the value of the assets of an insurer must exceed the value of its liabilities by an amount greater than its prescribed minimum solvency margin.
The minimum solvency margin that must be maintained by a Class E insurer is the greater of: (i) $8,000,000; (ii) 2% of first $500,000,000 of assets plus 1.5% of assets above $500,000,000; and (iii) 25% of that insurer’s enhanced capital requirement (“ECR”). An insurer may file an application under the Insurance Act to waive the aforementioned requirements.
ECR and Bermuda Solvency Capital Requirements (“BSCR”). Class E insurers are required to maintain available capital and surplus at a level equal to or in excess of the applicable ECR, which is established by reference to either the applicable BSCR model or an approved internal capital model. Furthermore, to enable the BMA to better assess the quality of the insurer’s capital resources, a Class E insurer is required to disclose the makeup of its capital in accordance with its 3-tiered capital system. An insurer may file an application under the Insurance Act to have the aforementioned ECR requirements waived.
Restrictions on Dividends and Distributions. In addition to the requirements under the Companies Act (as discussed below), the Insurance Act limits the maximum amount of annual dividends and distributions that may be paid or distributed by F&G Life Re without prior regulatory approval.
F&G Life Re is prohibited from declaring or paying a dividend if it fails to meet its minimum solvency margin, or ECR, or if the declaration or payment of such dividend would cause such breach. If F&G Life Re were to fail to meet its minimum solvency margin on the last day of any financial year, it would be prohibited from declaring or paying any dividends during the next financial year without the approval of the BMA.
In addition, as a Class E insurer, F&G Life Re must not declare or pay a dividend to any person other than a policyholder unless the value of the assets of such insurer, as certified by the insurer’s approved actuary, exceeds its liabilities (as so certified) by the greater of its margin of solvency or ECR. In the event a dividend complies with the above, F&G Life Re must ensure the amount of any such dividend does not exceed that excess.
Furthermore, as a Class E insurer, F&G Life Re must not declare or pay a dividend in any financial year which would exceed 25% of its total capital and statutory surplus, as set out in its previous year’s financial statements, unless at least seven days before payment of such dividend F&G Life Re files with the BMA an affidavit signed by at least two directors of F&G Life Re and its principal representative under the Insurance Act stating that, in the opinion of those signing, declaration of such dividend has not caused the insurer to fail to meet its relevant margins.
The Companies Act also limits F&G Life Re’s ability to pay dividends and make distributions to its shareholders. F&G Life Re is not permitted to declare or pay a dividend, or make a distribution out of its contributed surplus, if it is, or would after the payment be, unable to pay its liabilities as they become due or if the realizable value of its assets would be less than its liabilities.
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Reduction of Capital. F&G Life Re may not reduce its total statutory capital by 15% or more, as set out in its previous year’s financial statements, unless it has received the prior approval of the BMA. Total statutory capital consists of the insurer’s paid in share capital, its contributed surplus (sometimes called additional paid in capital) and any other fixed capital designated by the BMA as statutory capital.
Cayman Islands Regulatory Overview
F&G Cayman Re Ltd. (“F&G Cayman Re”) is licensed as a class D insurer in the Cayman Islands by CIMA. As a regulated insurance company, F&G Cayman Re is subject to the supervision of CIMA and CIMA may at any time direct F&G Cayman Re, in relation to a policy, a line of business or the entire business, to cease or refrain from committing an act or pursing a course of conduct and to perform such acts as in the opinion of CIMA are necessary to remedy or ameliorate the situation.
The laws and regulations of the Cayman Islands require that, among other things, F&G Cayman Re maintain minimum levels of statutory capital, surplus and liquidity, meet solvency standards, submit to periodic examinations of its financial condition and restrict payments of dividends and reductions of capital. Statutes, regulations and policies that F&G Cayman Re is subject to may also restrict the ability of F&G Cayman Re to write insurance and reinsurance policies, make certain investments and distribute funds. Any failure to meet the applicable requirements or minimum statutory capital requirements could subject it to further examination or corrective action by CIMA, including restrictions on dividend payments, limitations on our writing of additional business or engaging in finance activities, supervision or liquidation.
Our Approach to Environmental, Social, and Governance (“ESG”)
F&G’s solutions inherently provide a social good, and that sentiment of service also provides the foundation for F&G’s culture and guides business operations as well as interactions within our communities. Our Company and our Board of Directors seek to address ESG issues to better serve our employees, business partners, and the communities impacted by our business. To honor that goal, our management team leads our ESG efforts with oversight from the Audit Committee, who reports our ESG progress and efforts to the Board of Directors.
Being Environmentally Conscious: F&G works to integrate environmental management practices into our operations, including our facilities. As part of our commitment to preserve the environment, we understand that we not only have a duty to protect the local environments where we operate, but that environmental change also poses risks and opportunities to our business. In 2022, we formed a Climate Risk Working Group to conduct our first climate risk assessment to understand climate-related risks that may impact our business and to manage these risks through our enterprise risk management systems.
F&G aims to reduce the Company’s environmental footprint through a variety of sustainable and environmentally sound programs throughout its new headquarters building in Des Moines, Iowa. This includes:
Sensors on restroom equipment to limit excess water flow
Recycling bins at each workspace
Installation of motion sensors to reduce electricity use
Flexible work from home arrangements which reduce commute time and paper usage
Being the Best Place to Work: F&G is committed to providing employees with the opportunities and flexibility they need to succeed, as well as ensuring a culture of belonging and inclusion by:
Providing competitive benefits offerings to meet diverse employee needs including more flexible PTO, an Employee Assistance Program and a wellness reimbursement
Supporting employee growth through learning programs, tuition reimbursement, and manager and leadership training
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Increasing the percentage of women and people of color in leadership roles; F&G’s executive team is now comprised of 40% female leadership
Driving diversity and inclusion in the workplace and beyond through partnerships including:
The International Association of Black Actuaries and The Organization of Latino Actuaries where F&G employees are members and serve as a network for potential new hires
Women Lead Change, an organization dedicated to the development, advancement and promotion of women, their organizations, and impact to the economy and future workforce
Capitol City Pride, brings together members of Iowa’s LGBTQ+ community, allies and businesses and honored F&G as the 2021 Corporate Partner of the Year
Enabling our employee-led Employee Resource Groups work in creating awareness and support around important topics such as mental health awareness with guidance from a Diversity, Equity and Inclusion (“DEI”) Advisory Council
Ranking as a Top Workplaces company for 5 consecutive years according to the Des Moines Register Top Workplace Survey
Being a Responsible & Award-Winning Community Partner: F&G believes people are not in a position to turn their aspirations into reality if their most essential needs are not satisfied. Therefore, F&G focuses its community engagement and charitable giving to support essential needs such as food insecurity and housing. In 2021 and 2020, F&G won awards from the United Way for its corporate support and employee involvement. Other community investments include:
Serving as founding partner of the American Council of Life Insurers’ Impact Investments Initiative to make housing affordable and sustainable in underserved communities
Fostering partnerships in the Des Moines community with the Iowa Food Bank and Polk County Housing Trust
Offering company-wide volunteer events for employees to make an impact locally with organizations such as Rebuilding Together
Providing employees with 16 hours of paid time off per year for corporate volunteering and 16 hours for personal volunteering
Supporting dozens of other community organizations identified by F&G employees in support of essential needs within the community where they live and work
Available Information
Our web address is www.fglife.com. Our electronic filings with the SEC (including all Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and if applicable, amendments to those reports) will be available free of charge on the website as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. The information posted on our website is not incorporated into this document.
The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy statements and other information about issuers, like us, that file electronically with the SEC. The address of that site is www.sec.gov.

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Item 1A. Risk Factors
You should carefully consider the following risks and other information in this Annual Report in evaluating F&G and our common stock. The occurrence of any of the following risks could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, prospects, results of operations and cash flows. In such case, the trading price of F&G’s common stock could decline and you could lose all or part of your investment.
The risk factors generally have been separated into the following 6 groups: risks related to our business; risks related to economic conditions and market conditions; risks related to legal, regulatory and tax; risks relating to our indebtedness and financing; risks related to the separation and distribution and our status as a subsidiary of FNF; and risks related to our common stock. However, these risks are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also materially affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Risks Related to Our Business
Our debt instruments may restrict our current and future operations, particularly our ability to respond to changes or to take certain actions.
At December 31, 2022, we had outstanding (i) $550 million of borrowings under an unsecured revolving credit agreement with Bank of America, N.A., as administrative agent, the lenders (“the Lenders”) and guarantors party thereto and the other parties thereto (the “Credit Agreement”) and (ii) $550 million aggregate principal amount of 5.50% senior notes due 2025 (the “5.50% F&G Notes”). A net partial revolver paydown of $35 million was made on January 6, 2023 and, on February 21, 2023, we entered into an amendment with the Lenders to increase the available aggregate principal amount of the Credit Agreement by $115 million to $665 million. On January 13, 2023, we completed the issuance and sale of $500 million aggregate principal amount of our 7.40% Senior Notes due 2028 (the "7.40% F&G Notes").
The Credit Agreement imposes significant operating and financial restrictions, including financial covenants, and the Credit Agreement and the indenture governing the 5.50% F&G Notes limit, among other things, our and our subsidiaries’ ability to:
incur or assume additional indebtedness, including guarantees;
incur or assume liens;
engage in mergers or consolidations;
convey, transfer, lease or dispose of assets;
make certain investments;
enter into transactions with affiliates;
declare or make any dividend payments or distributions or repurchase capital stock or other equity interests;
change the nature of our business materially,
make changes in accounting treatment or reporting practices that affect the calculation of financial covenants, or change our fiscal year; and
enter into certain agreements that would restrict the ability of subsidiaries to make payments to us.
Upon the occurrence of a “change of control triggering event” as defined in the indentures governing the 5.50% F&G Notes and 7.40% F&G Notes, respectively, the holders of the notes will have the right to require us to repurchase all or any part of their notes at a price equal to 101% of the principal amount plus any accrued but unpaid
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interest to the repurchase date. In addition, under the indenture governing the 7.40% F&G Notes, the interest rate payable on the 7.40% F&G Notes may be subject to adjustment if either S&P or Fitch (or a substitute rating agency therefor) downgrades (or downgrades and subsequently upgrades) the credit ratings assigned to such notes.
As a result of these covenants and restrictions, we are, and will be, limited in how we conduct our business, and we may be unable to raise additional debt or equity financing to compete effectively or to take advantage of new business opportunities. The terms of any future indebtedness we may incur could include additional or different restrictive covenants. If we fail to comply with these covenants in the future, we would be required to obtain waivers or amend the covenants, which we may not be successful in obtaining.
Our failure to comply with the restrictive covenants in existing or future debt instruments could result in an event of default, which, if not cured or waived, could result in our being required to repay outstanding indebtedness before their due date. If we are forced to refinance indebtedness on less favorable terms or are unable to refinance at all, our results of operations and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.
Our ability to grow depends in large part upon the continued availability of capital.
Our long-term strategic capital requirements will depend on many factors, including our accumulated statutory earnings and the relationship between our statutory capital and surplus and various elements of required capital. To support long-term capital requirements, we may need to increase or maintain statutory capital and surplus of our insurance subsidiaries through financings which could include debt, equity, financing arrangements or other surplus relief transactions. On June 24, 2022, FNF capitalized $400 million of intercompany indebtedness into common stock of F&G. FNF is not obligated to, may choose not to, or may not be able to provide financing or make capital contributions to us now or in the future. Consequently, financings, if available at all, may be available only on terms that are not favorable to us. Under a note purchase agreement with Kubera Insurance (SAC) Ltd. (“Kubera”), in which we are a noteholder, and capital keep-well agreements with our reinsurance subsidiary F&G Cayman Re Ltd. (“F&G Cayman Re”), there is an obligation to provide financing to the extent of a funding shortfall on a reserve note facility. Adverse market conditions have affected and continue to affect the availability and cost of capital from external sources. If we cannot maintain adequate capital for our insurance subsidiaries, or if we are obligated to provide capital contributions in the event of funding shortfalls, we may be required to limit growth in sales of new policies, and such action could materially adversely affect our business, operations and financial condition.
A financial strength ratings downgrade, potential downgrade, or any other negative action by a rating agency could increase our cost of capital, making it challenging to grow our business, and could hinder our ability to participate in certain market segments, thereby adversely affecting our results of operations and our financial condition.
Various nationally recognized rating agencies review the financial performance and condition of insurers, including our insurance subsidiaries, and publish their financial strength ratings as indicators of an insurer’s ability to meet policyholder and contract holder obligations. These ratings are important to maintaining public confidence in our products, our ability to market our products and our competitive position. Downgrades, unfavorable changes in rating methodology or other negative action by a rating agency could have a material adverse effect on us in many ways, including the following:
adversely affecting relationships with distributors, independent marketing organizations (“IMOs”) and sales agents, which could result in reduction of sales;
increasing the number or amount of policy lapses or surrenders and withdrawals of funds;
requiring a reduction in prices for our subsidiaries’ insurance products and services in order to remain competitive;
excluding us from participating in the PRT business or FABN issuances;
adversely affecting our ability to obtain reinsurance at a reasonable price, on reasonable terms or at all;
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requiring us to collateralize reserves, balances or obligations under certain reinsurance agreements. In the event of a withdrawal or downgrade of our S&P issuer credit rating to BB or lower, we are required to fund a note issued by a reinsurance counterparty up to $300 million. As of December 31, 2022, the amount funded under the note agreement was insignificant; and
requiring us to collateralize balances or obligations under derivatives agreements. As of December 31, 2022, we had no derivatives contracts that required us to post collateral.
We may face losses if our actual experience differs significantly from our reserving assumptions.
Our profitability depends significantly upon the extent to which our actual experience is consistent with the assumptions used in setting rates for our products and establishing liabilities for future life insurance, annuity and PRT policy benefits and claims. However, due to the nature of the underlying risks and the high degree of uncertainty associated with the determination of the liabilities for unpaid policy benefits and claims, we cannot precisely determine the amounts we will ultimately pay to settle these liabilities. As a result, we may experience volatility in our reserves and, therefore, our profitability from period to period. To the extent that actual experience is less favorable than our underlying assumptions, we could be required to increase our reserves which may reduce our profitability and impact our financial strength.
We have been issuing guaranteed minimum withdrawal benefit (“GMWB”) products since 2008. In our reserve calculations, we make assumptions for policyholder behavior as it relates to GMWB utilization. If emerging experience deviates from our assumptions on GMWB utilization, it could have a significant effect on our reserve levels and related results of operations. Based on experience of GMWB utilization, which continues to emerge, we updated our GMWB utilization assumption during 2022, with a favorable impact on reserves. We will continue to monitor the GMWB utilization assumption and update our best estimate as applicable.
Our valuation of investments and the determinations of the amounts of allowances and impairments taken on our investments may include methodologies, estimates and assumptions which are subject to differing interpretations and, if changed, could materially adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
Fixed maturities, equity securities and derivatives represent the majority of total cash and invested assets reported at fair value on our balance sheet. Fair value is defined as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date (an exit price). Fair value estimates are made based on available market information and judgments about the financial instrument at a specific point in time. Expectations that our investments will continue to perform in accordance with their contractual terms are based on evidence gathered through our normal credit surveillance process and on assumptions a market participant would use in determining the current fair value.
The determination of current expected credit loss varies by investment type and is based upon our periodic evaluation and assessment of known and inherent risks associated with the respective asset class. Our management considers a wide range of factors about the instrument issuer (e.g., operations of the issuer and future earnings potential) and uses their best judgment in evaluating the cause of the decline in the estimated fair value of the instrument and in assessing the prospects for recovery. In addition, we conduct various quantitative credit screens on the investment portfolio to create a credit watchlist. The credit watchlist investments are then further analyzed by our portfolio manager for likelihood of loss of contractual principal and interest. Our portfolio managers also maintain a credit spotlight for investments that do not meet the quantitative screens. These investments have been identified as requiring a higher level of review and monitoring due to idiosyncratic risk. Such evaluations and assessments require significant judgment and are revised as conditions change and new information becomes available. Additional impairments may need to be taken in the future, and the ultimate loss may exceed management’s current estimate of impairment amounts.
The value and performance of certain of our assets are dependent upon the performance of collateral underlying these investments. It is possible the collateral will not meet performance expectations leading to adverse changes in the cash flows on our holdings of these types of securities.
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See Note C Investments to the consolidated financial statements including the notes thereto, (the “Consolidated Financial Statements”) included elsewhere in this Annual Report for additional information about our investment portfolio.
The pattern of amortizing our VOBA, DAC and DSI balances relies on assumptions and estimates made by management. Changes in these assumptions and estimates could impact our results of operations and financial condition.
Amortization of our value of business acquired ("VOBA"), deferred acquisition costs ("DAC"), and deferred sales inducements ("DSI") balances depends on the actual and expected profits generated by the respective lines of business that incurred the expenses. Expected profits are dependent on assumptions regarding a number of factors including investment returns, benefit payments, expenses, mortality, and policy lapse. Due to the uncertainty associated with establishing these assumptions, we cannot, with precision, determine the exact pattern of profit emergence. As a result, amortization of these balances will vary from period to period. Any difference in actual experience versus expected results could require us to, among other things, accelerate the amortization of VOBA, DAC and DSI which would reduce profitability for such lines of business in the current period.
Please refer to “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates” for additional details on the amortization of VOBA, DAC and DSI balances. Also, please refer to Note Q Recent Accounting Pronouncements, regarding the upcoming implementation of ASU 2018-12, Financial Services-Insurance (Topic 944), Targeted Improvements to the Accounting for Long-Duration Contracts, as clarified and amended by ASU 2019-09, Financial Services-Insurance: Effective Date and ASU 2020-11, Financial Services-Insurance: Effective Date and Early Application, effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022 including interim periods within those fiscal years. Amongst other requirements, this update provides that deferred acquisition costs are no longer required to be amortized in proportion to premiums, gross profits, or gross margins; instead, those balances must be amortized on a constant level basis over the expected term of the related contracts and deferred acquisition costs must be written off for unexpected contract terminations;
Change in our evaluation of the recoverability of our deferred tax assets could materially adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases using enacted tax rates expected to be in effect during the years in which the basis differences reverse. Deferred tax assets, in essence, represent future savings of taxes that would otherwise be paid in cash. We are required to evaluate the recoverability of our deferred tax assets each quarter and establish a valuation allowance, if necessary, to reduce our deferred tax assets to an amount that is more-likely-than-not to be realizable. In determining the need for a valuation allowance, we consider many factors, including future reversals of existing taxable temporary differences, future taxable income exclusive of reversing temporary differences and carryforwards, taxable income in prior carryback years and implementation of any feasible and prudent tax planning strategies management would employ to realize the tax benefit.
Based on our current assessment of future taxable income, including available tax planning opportunities, we anticipate it is more-likely-than-not that we will generate sufficient taxable income to realize all of our deferred tax assets as to which we do not have a valuation allowance. If future events differ from our current assumptions, the valuation allowance may need to be increased, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
We have recorded goodwill as a result of past acquisitions, and adverse events affecting the value of our reporting unit could cause the balance to become impaired, requiring write-downs that would reduce our operating income.
Current accounting rules require that goodwill be assessed for impairment annually or more frequently if changes in events or circumstances indicate that the fair value of our reporting unit may be less than its carrying value. Factors that may be considered a change in circumstance indicating the carrying value of goodwill may not be recoverable include, but are not limited to, significant underperformance relative to historical or projected future operating results, divestitures, and negative industry or economic trends. Evaluating this asset’s recoverability
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requires us to make estimates and assumptions to estimate the fair value of our reporting unit. For the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, the period from June 1, 2020 to December 31, 2020 and FGL Holdings and its subsidiaries as predecessor (“Predecessor”) period from January 1, 2020 to May 31, 2020 (prior to the FNF Acquisition), no goodwill impairment charge was recorded. However, if there is an adverse event affecting the value of our reporting unit in the future, the carrying amount of our goodwill may no longer be recoverable, and we may be required to record an impairment charge, which would have a negative impact on our results of operations and financial condition. We will continue to monitor our operating results and the impact of the economy to determine if there is an impairment of goodwill in future periods.
If we are unable to attract and retain national marketing organizations and independent agents, sales of our products may be reduced.
We must attract and retain our network of IMOs and independent agents to sell our products. Insurance companies compete vigorously for productive agents. We compete with other life insurance companies for marketers and agents primarily on the basis of our financial position, support services, compensation and product features. Such marketers and agents may promote products offered by other life insurance companies that offer a larger variety of products than we do. If we are unable to attract and retain a sufficient number of marketers and agents to sell our products, our ability to compete and our revenues would suffer.
We operate in a highly competitive industry, which could limit our ability to gain or maintain our position in the industry and could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We operate in a highly competitive industry. We encounter significant competition in all of our product lines from other insurance companies, many of which have greater financial resources and higher financial strength ratings than us and which may have a greater market share, offer a broader range of products, services or features, assume a greater level of risk, have lower operating or financing costs, or have different profitability expectations than we do. Competition could result in, among other things, lower sales or higher lapses of existing products.
Our annuity products compete with FIAs, fixed rate annuities and variable annuities sold by other insurance companies and also with mutual fund products, traditional bank investments and other retirement funding alternatives offered by asset managers, banks and broker-dealers. The ability of banks and broker dealers to increase their securities-related business or to affiliate with insurance companies may materially and adversely affect sales of all of our products by substantially increasing the number and financial strength of potential competitors. Our insurance products compete with those of other insurance companies, financial intermediaries and other institutions based on a number of factors, including premium rates, policy terms and conditions, service provided to distribution channels and policyholders, ratings by rating agencies, reputation and commission structures.
Our ability to compete is dependent upon, among other things, our ability to develop competitive and profitable products, our ability to maintain low unit costs, our maintenance of adequate financial strength ratings from rating agencies and our ability to attract and retain distribution channels to market our products, the competition for which is vigorous.
Concentration in certain states for the distribution of our products may subject us to losses attributable to economic downturns or catastrophes in those states.
For the year ended December 31, 2022 our top five states for the distribution of our products were Florida, California, Texas, Pennsylvania and New Jersey, which together accounted for 37% of our premiums. Any adverse economic developments or catastrophes in these states could have an adverse impact on our business.
Concentration in one or more of our products (for example, FIAs) may subject us to greater volatility of sales if such products experienced a significant decrease in sales.
We may experience greater volatility in our sales performance from period to period to the extent we have a high concentration of sales in one or more of our products and those products suffer a material decline (for whatever reason) in a particular period. For example, for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020, FIAs generated approximately 40%, 45% and 77% of our gross sales, respectively. We may not be able to increase the sales of other
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products at the same pace, or at all, to the extent there is a decrease in sales of our products that made up the majority of our sales in historical periods. As a result, decreased sales in high concentration products could adversely affect our financial condition, liquidity and results of operations.
We are subject to the credit risk of our counterparties, including companies with whom we have reinsurance agreements or from whom we have purchased options.
We cede material amounts of insurance and transfers related assets and certain liabilities to other insurance companies through reinsurance. Accordingly, we bear credit risk with respect to our reinsurers. The failure, insolvency, inability or unwillingness of any reinsurer to pay under the terms of reinsurance agreements with us could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, liquidity and results of operations. We regularly monitor the credit rating and performance of our reinsurance parties. ASPIDA Life Re Ltd. (“Aspida Re”), Wilton Reassurance Company (“Wilton Re”), and Somerset Reinsurance Ltd. (“Somerset”) represent our largest third-party reinsurance counterparty exposure. As of December 31, 2022, the net amount recoverable from Aspida Re, Wilton Re, and Somerset were $3,121 million, $1,231 million and $570 million, respectively. We also have funds withheld reinsurance counterparty risk. Under funds withheld reinsurance arrangements, we retain possession and legal title to assets backing the ceded liabilities.
We are also exposed to credit loss in the event of non-performance by our counterparties on options. We seek to reduce the risk associated with such agreements by purchasing such options from large, well-established financial institutions, and by holding collateral. There can be no assurance we will not suffer losses in the event of counterparty non-performance. Several of our derivative counterparty International Swap and Derivative Association (“ISDA”) agreements contain additional termination event triggers based on a downgrade of FGL Insurance. These triggers would give these counterparties the option to terminate our options, which could lead to losses if occurring at an inopportune time.
Please refer to “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” for additional details on credit risk and counterparty risk.
Our business could be interrupted or compromised if we experience difficulties arising from outsourcing relationships.
If we do not maintain an effective outsourcing strategy or third-party providers do not perform as contracted, we may experience operational difficulties, increased costs and a loss of business that could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations. If there is a delay in our third-party providers’ introduction of our new products or if our third-party providers are unable to service our customers appropriately, we may experience a loss of business that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition, our reliance on third-party service providers that we do not control does not relieve us of our responsibilities and contractual, legal and other requirements. Any failure or negligence by such third-party service providers in carrying out their contractual duties may result in us becoming subjected to liability to parties who are harmed and ensuing litigation. Any litigation relating to such matters could be costly, expensive and time-consuming, and the outcome of any such litigation may be uncertain. Moreover, any adverse publicity arising from such litigation, even if the litigation is not successful, could adversely affect our reputation and sales of our products.
The loss of key personnel could negatively affect our financial results and impair our ability to implement our business strategy.
Our success depends in large part on our ability to attract and retain qualified employees. Intense competition exists for key employees with demonstrated ability, and we may be unable to hire or retain such employees. Our key employees include senior management, sales and distribution professionals, actuarial and finance professionals and information technology professionals. We do not believe the departure of any particular individual would cause a material adverse effect on our operations; however, the unexpected loss of several key employees could have a material adverse effect on our operations due to the loss of their skills, knowledge of our business, and their years of industry experience as well as the potential difficulty of promptly finding qualified replacement employees.
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Our risk management policies and procedures may not capture unidentified or unanticipated risk, which could negatively affect our business or result in losses.
We believe we have developed risk management policies and procedures designed to manage material risks within established risk appetites and risk tolerances. Nonetheless, our policies and procedures may not effectively mitigate the internal and external risks identified or predict future exposures, which could be different or significantly greater than expected and which could result in unexpected monetary losses or cause damage to our reputation or additional costs, or which could impair our ability to conduct business effectively. Many of our methods of managing risk and exposures are based upon observed historical data, current market behavior, and certain assumptions made by management. This information may not always be accurate, complete, up-to-date, or properly evaluated. As a result, additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us, or that we currently deem to be immaterial, may materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Interruption or other operational failures in telecommunication, information technology and other operational systems, or a failure to maintain the security, integrity, confidentiality or privacy of sensitive data residing on such systems, including as a result of human error, could result in a loss or disclosure of confidential information, damage to our reputation, monetary losses, additional costs and impairment of our ability to conduct business effectively.
We are highly dependent on automated and information technology systems to record and process our internal transactions and transactions involving our customers, as well as to calculate reserves, value invested assets and complete certain other components of our financial statements. The integrity of our computer systems and the protection of the information, including policy holder information, that resides on such systems are important to our successful operation. If we fail to maintain an adequate security infrastructure, adapt to emerging security threats or follow our internal business processes with respect to security, the information or assets we hold could be compromised. Further, even if we, or third parties to which we outsource certain information technology services, maintain a reasonable, industry-standard information security infrastructure to mitigate these risks, the inherent risk that unauthorized access to information or assets remains. This risk is increased by transmittal of information over the internet and the increased threat and sophistication of cyber criminals. While, to date, we believe that we have not experienced a material breach of our computer systems, the occurrence or scope of such events is not always apparent.
In addition, some laws and certain of our contracts require notification of various parties, including regulators, consumers or customers, in the event that confidential or personal information has or may have been taken or accessed by unauthorized parties. Such notifications can potentially result in, among other things, adverse publicity, diversion of management and other resources, the attention of regulatory authorities, the imposition of fines, and disruptions in business operations, the effects of which may be material. Any inability to prevent security or privacy breaches, or the perception that such breaches may occur, could inhibit our ability to retain or attract new clients and/or result in financial losses, litigation, increased costs, negative publicity, or other adverse consequences to our business.
Further, our financial institution clients have obligations to safeguard their information technology systems and the confidentiality of customer information. In certain of our businesses, we are bound contractually and/or by regulation to comply with the same requirements. If we fail to comply with these regulations and requirements, we could be exposed to suits for breach of contract, governmental proceedings or the imposition of fines. In addition, future adoption of more restrictive privacy laws, rules or industry security requirements by federal or state regulatory bodies or by a specific industry in which we do business could have an adverse impact on us through increased costs or restrictions on business processes.
We rely on our investment management or advisory agreements with BIS and other investment managers and sub-managers for the management of portions of certain of our life insurance companies’ investment portfolios.
Our insurance company subsidiaries are parties to IMAs with BIS and other investment managers and sub-managers. These entities depend in large part on their ability to attract and retain key people, including senior executives, finance professionals and information technology professionals. Intense competition exists for key
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employees with demonstrated ability, and our investment managers may be unable to hire or retain such employees. The unexpected loss by any of our investment managers, including BIS, of key employees could have a material adverse effect on their ability to manage our investment portfolio and have an adverse impact on our investment portfolio and results of operations.
We have a long-term contractual relationship with BIS that limits our ability to terminate this relationship or retain another investment manager without BIS’s consent.
Under an omnibus termination side letter among us, FNF and BIS, we have agreed with BIS not to allow other investment managers to be appointed or retained to provide investment management or advisory services to our annuity and life insurance subsidiaries without BIS’s consent. Although BIS has consented to the engagement of other investment managers in the past, BIS has no obligation to do so in the future.
Each of our subsidiaries that is party to an IMA with BIS may terminate such agreement upon 30 days’ notice. BIS may also terminate any IMA upon 30 days’ notice. However, we and FNF have agreed in the omnibus termination side letter to cause our insurance company subsidiaries to engage BIS as an investment manager. The initial term of this side letter expires on June 1, 2027 and contains an automatic renewal provision which provides for successive one year terms thereafter. Prior to June 1, 2027, we and FNF may only terminate the side letter for cause. Cause is generally limited to circumstances where BIS is legally unable to manage our assets, if BIS fails to offer us “most favored nations” rights with respect to certain products it may issue to third parties, or where BIS has acted with gross negligence, willful misconduct or reckless disregard of its obligations. In addition, at the expiration of the initial term of the side letter in 2027, or at the end of any renewal term, we may, with prior notice, terminate the side letter for (i) unsatisfactory long-term performance by BIS that is materially detrimental to one of our subsidiaries or (ii) unfair and excessive fees charged by BIS compared to those that would be charged by a comparable asset manager (taking into account the experience, education and qualification of BIS’s personnel, the scale and scope of the services being provided by BIS, and the composition of the managed investment portfolio and comparable investment guidelines). If we provide any such notice, the termination would not become effective for two years, during which time BIS may seek to cure the events giving arise to our termination right. If one of our subsidiaries were to terminate an IMA or take other actions that we have agreed will not be taken under the omnibus termination side letter, we and FNF may be in breach of our respective obligations to BIS under such side letter.
The historical performance of BIS, or any other asset manager we engage, should not be considered as indicative of the future results of our investment portfolio, our future results or any returns expected on our common stock.
Our investment portfolio’s returns have benefited historically from investment opportunities and general market conditions that may not continue or currently exist, or may not be repeated, and there can be no assurance that BIS will be able to avail itself of profitable investment opportunities in the future. In addition, because BIS is compensated based solely on our assets which it manages, rather than by investment return targets, BIS is not directly incentivized to maximize investment return targets. Accordingly, there can be no guarantee that BIS will be able to achieve, or seek to achieve, any particular returns for our investment portfolio in the future.
Increased regulation or scrutiny of alternative investment advisers, arrangements with such investment advisers and investment activities may affect BIS’s or, if engaged, any other asset manager’s ability to manage our investment portfolio or impact the reputation of our business.
The regulatory environment for investment managers is evolving, and changes in the regulation of investment managers may adversely affect the ability of BIS to effect transactions that utilize leverage or pursue their strategies in managing our investment portfolio. In addition, the securities and futures markets are subject to comprehensive statutes, regulations and margin requirements. The SEC, other regulators and self-regulatory organizations and exchanges are authorized to take extraordinary actions in the event of market emergencies. Due to our reliance on these relationships in particular to manage a significant portion of our investment portfolio, any regulatory action or enforcement against BIS could have an adverse effect on our financial condition.
In addition, the NAIC continues to consider the nature of the relationships between insurance companies and their investment advisors and investment managers, and more broadly the impact of private equity within the
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insurance industry. We are continuing to monitor the development of any proposals that could have a material impact on the contractual relationships between us and BIS.
Risks Related to Economic Conditions and Market Conditions
Conditions in the economy generally could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Our results of operations are materially affected by conditions in the U.S. economy. Adverse economic conditions may result in a decline in revenues and/or erosion of our profit margins. In addition, in the event of extreme prolonged market events and economic downturns, we could incur significant losses. Even in the absence of a market downturn we are exposed to substantial risk of loss due to market volatility.
Factors such as consumer spending, business investment, government spending, the volatility and strength of the capital markets, investor and consumer confidence, foreign currency exchange rates and inflation levels all affect the business and economic environment and, ultimately, the amount and profitability of our business. In an economic downturn characterized by higher unemployment, lower family income, negative investor sentiment and lower consumer spending, the demand for our insurance products could be adversely affected. Under such conditions, we may also experience an elevated incidence of policy lapses, policy loans, withdrawals and surrenders. In addition, our investments could be adversely affected as a result of deteriorating financial and business conditions affecting the issuers of the securities in our investment portfolio.
As of December 31, 2022 current economic conditions, including high inflation rates, have not adversely affected our business, results of operations and financial condition. However, we cannot predict if it will impact our business, results of operations and financial condition in the future for the forgoing reasons. See also “—Risks Relating to Economic Conditions and Market Conditions — Interest rate fluctuations could adversely affect our business, financial condition, liquidity and results of operations” in this Annual Report.
Please refer to “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Business Trends and Conditions” for additional details on risk factors relating to economic conditions and market conditions. See also “—The COVID-19 pandemic could have a material adverse effect on our liquidity, financial condition and results of operations.
Our investments are subject to geopolitical risk. The on-going conflict in Russia and Ukraine could heighten and expand to peripheral countries in the region.
We have no exposure to investments in Russia or Ukraine and de minimis investments in peripheral countries in the region. If the conflict and it’s inflationary impact on energy costs and other goods leads to a wider recession in Europe, our investments in those countries could suffer losses, which could have a negative impact on our financial results.
The current invasion of Ukraine by Russia has escalated tensions among the United States, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (“NATO”) and Russia. The United States and other NATO member states, as well as non-member states, have announced new sanctions against Russia and certain Russian banks, enterprises and individuals. These and any future additional sanctions and any resulting conflict between Russia, the United States and NATO countries could have an adverse impact on our current operations because they could cause declining conditions in worldwide credit and capital markets and the economy in general. Further, such invasion, ongoing military conflict, resulting sanctions and related countermeasures by NATO states, the United States and other countries are likely to lead to market disruptions, including significant volatility in the credit and capital markets, which could have an adverse impact on our operations and financial performance.    
Our investments are subject to market risks that could be heightened during periods of extreme volatility or disruption in financial and credit markets.
Our invested assets and derivative financial instruments are subject to risks of credit defaults and changes in market values. Periods of extreme volatility or disruption in the financial and credit markets could increase these
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risks. Changes in interest rates and credit spreads could cause market price and cash flow variability in the fixed income instruments in our investment portfolio. Significant volatility and lack of liquidity in the credit markets could cause the market value of the fixed-income securities we own to decline. Further, if our investment manager, BIS, fails to react appropriately to difficult market or economic conditions, our investment portfolio could incur material losses.
Our investments are subject to credit risks of the underlying issuer, borrower, or physical collateral which can change over time with the credit cycle.
A worsening business climate, recession, or changing trends could cause issuers of the fixed-income securities that we own to default on either principal or interest payments. Additionally, market price valuations may not accurately reflect the underlying expected cash flows of securities within our investment portfolio.
The value of our mortgage-backed securities and our commercial and residential mortgage loan investments depends in part on the financial condition of the borrowers and tenants for the properties underlying those investments, as well as general and specific economic trends affecting the overall default rate. We are also subject to the risk that cash flows resulting from the payments on pools of mortgages that serve as collateral underlying the mortgage-backed securities we own may differ from our expectations in timing or size. Any event reducing the estimated fair value of these securities, other than on a temporary basis, could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, liquidity and financial condition.
We also maintain holdings in floating rate, and less rate-sensitive investments, including senior tranches of collateralized loan obligations (“CLOs”) and directly originated senior secured loans. If realized collateral loss and recoveries differ materially from our assumptions, returns on these assets could be lower than our expectation.
We invest in asset-backed securities (“ABS”) (traditional and specialty finance) and asset-backed and consumer whole loans. Consumer balance sheets are healthy and underwriting standards have become more conservative following the Global Funding Crisis. However, high inflation rates are a headwind for consumers, and efforts by the Federal Reserve to stem inflation could induce a recession which would have an adverse impact on consumers and potentially increase delinquencies to a higher level than what is assumed in our underwriting.
In addition, the discontinuation of London Inter-Bank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) could adversely affect the value of our investment portfolio, derivatives transactions and issued funding agreements bearing interest at LIBOR. There can be no assurance that the alternative rates and fallbacks utilized by the various markets will be effective at preventing or mitigating disruption as a result of the discontinuation of LIBOR. Should such disruption occur, it may adversely affect, among other things, the trading market for LIBOR-based securities, including those held in our investment portfolio, the market for derivative instruments, including those that we use to achieve our hedging objectives, and our ability to issue funding agreements bearing a floating rate of interest.
Interest rate fluctuations could adversely affect our business, financial condition, liquidity and results of operations.
Interest rate risk is a significant market risk for us, as our business involves issuing interest rate sensitive obligations backed primarily by investments in fixed income assets. As of December 31, 2022, we also maintained approximately 18% of the assets in our investment portfolio in floating rate instruments and had executed a variable interest rate Credit Agreement, which are both subject to an element of market risk from changes in interest rates.
Prior to 2022, interest rates had been at or near historical low levels over the the preceding several years. A prolonged period of low rates exposes us to the risk of not achieving returns sufficient to meet our earnings targets and/or our contractual obligations. Furthermore, low or declining interest rates may reduce the rate of policyholder surrenders and withdrawals on our life insurance and annuity products, thus increasing the duration of the liabilities, creating asset and liability duration mismatches and increasing the risk of having to reinvest assets at yields below the amounts required to support our obligations. Lower interest rates may also result in decreased sales of certain insurance products, negatively impacting our profitability from new business.
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During periods of increasing interest rates, we may offer higher crediting rates on interest-sensitive products, such as universal life insurance and fixed annuities, and we may increase crediting rates on in-force products to keep these products competitive. We may be required to accept lower spread income (the difference between the returns we earn on our investments and the amounts we credit to contract holders), thus reducing our profitability, as returns on our portfolio of invested assets may not increase as quickly as current interest rates. Rapidly rising interest rates may also expose us to the risk of financial disintermediation, which is an increase in policy surrenders, withdrawals and requests for policy loans as customers seek to achieve higher returns elsewhere, requiring us to liquidate assets in an unrealized loss position. If we experience unexpected withdrawal activity, we could exhaust our liquid assets and be forced to liquidate other less liquid assets such as limited partnership investments. We may have difficulty selling these investments in a timely manner and/or be forced to sell them for less than we otherwise would have been able to realize, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or operating results. We have developed and maintain asset liability management (“ALM”) programs and procedures that are, we believe, designed to mitigate interest rate risk by matching asset cash flows to expected liability cash flows. In addition, we assess surrender charges on withdrawals in excess of allowable penalty-free amounts that occur during the surrender charge period. There can be no assurance that actual withdrawals, contract benefits, and maturities will match our estimates. Despite our efforts to reduce the impact of rising interest rates, we may be required to sell assets to raise the cash necessary to respond to an increase in surrenders, withdrawals and loans, thereby realizing capital losses on the assets sold.
We may experience spread income compression, and a loss of anticipated earnings, if credited interest rates are increased on renewing contracts in an effort to decrease or manage withdrawal activity. Our expectation for future spread income is an important component in amortization of VOBA, DAC and DSI under GAAP. Significant reductions in spread income may cause us to accelerate VOBA, DAC and DSI amortization. In addition, certain statutory capital and reserve requirements are based on formulas or models that consider interest rates and a prolonged period of low interest rates may increase the statutory capital we are required to hold as well as the amount of assets we must maintain to support statutory reserves.
As of December 31, 2022, current economic conditions, including higher interest rates, have not adversely affected our business, results of operations and financial condition. However, we cannot predict if it will impact our business, results of operations and financial condition in the future for the forgoing reasons. Higher interest rates have decreased the fair value of our investment security portfolio as of December 31, 2022, primarily our fixed maturity securities, resulting in our AOCI being a loss of $2.8 billion compared to income of $0.7 billion as of December 31, 2021. See “Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosure about Market Risk” in this Annual Report for a more detailed discussion of interest rate risk.
Equity market volatility could negatively impact our business.
The estimated cost of providing GMWB riders associated with our annuity products incorporates various assumptions about the overall performance of equity markets over certain time periods. Periods of significant and sustained downturns in equity markets or increased equity volatility could result in an increase in the valuation of the future policy benefit or policyholder account balance liabilities associated with such products, resulting in a reduction in our revenues and net income.
We are exposed to liquidity risk as a result of our other risks.
We are exposed to liquidity risk, which is the risk that we are unable to meet near-term obligations as they come due.
Liquidity risk is a manifestation of events that are driven by other risk types, including market, insurance, investment or operational risks. A liquidity shortfall may arise in the event of insufficient funding sources or an immediate and significant need for cash or collateral. In addition, it is possible that expected liquidity sources, such as our minimum cash buffers, funding agreements through the FHLB or other credit facilities, may be unavailable or inadequate to satisfy the liquidity demands described below.
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We have the following sources of liquidity exposure and associated drivers that trigger material liquidity demand. Those sources are:
Derivative collateral market exposure: abrupt changes to interest rate, equity, and/or currency markets may increase collateral requirements to counterparties and create liquidity risk for us.
Asset liability mismatch: there are liquidity risks associated with liabilities coming due prior to the matching asset cash flows.
Insurance cash flows: we face potential liquidity risks from unexpected cash demands due to severe mortality calamity, customer withdrawals, policy loans or lapse events. If such events were to occur, we may face unexpectedly high levels of claim payments to policyholders.
FHLB collateral: we issue funding agreements to the FHLB for which eligible securities collateral is posted. If the value of the eligible securities declines significantly, and there is no available eligible security collateral in the portfolio, we may need to supplement the collateral account with cash.
Our business could be materially and adversely affected by the occurrence of a catastrophe, including natural or man-made disasters.
Any catastrophic event, such as pandemic diseases, terrorist attacks, floods, severe storms or hurricanes or computer cyber-terrorism, could have a material and adverse effect on our business in several respects:
any such event could have a material adverse effect on our liquidity, financial condition and the operating results of our insurance business due to its impact on the economy and financial markets;
our workforce being unable to be physically located at one of our facilities could result in lengthy interruptions in our ability to perform or deliver our services;
we could experience long-term interruptions in the services provided by our significant vendors due to the effects of catastrophic events, including but not limited to government mandates to self-quarantine, work remotely and prolonged travel restrictions;
some of our operational systems are not fully redundant, and our disaster recovery and business continuity planning cannot account for all eventualities. Additionally, unanticipated problems with our disaster recovery systems could further impede our ability to conduct business, particularly if those problems affect our computer-based data processing, transmission, storage and retrieval systems and destroy valuable data;
how we manage our financial exposure for losses with third-party reinsurance and catastrophic events could adversely affect the cost and availability of that reinsurance; and
the value of our investment portfolio may decrease if the securities in which we invest are negatively impacted by climate change (both transition risk and physical risk), pandemic diseases, severe weather conditions and other catastrophic events.
Natural and man-made catastrophes, pandemics (including COVID-19) and malicious and terrorist acts present risks that could materially adversely affect our results of operations or the mortality or morbidity experience of our business. Claims arising from such events could have a material adverse effect on our business, operations and financial condition, either directly or as a result of their effect on our reinsurers or other counterparties. Such events could also have an adverse effect on the rate and amount of lapses and surrenders of existing policies, as well as sales of new policies.
While we believe we have taken steps to identify and mitigate these types of risks, such risks cannot be reliably predicted, nor fully protected against even if anticipated. In addition, such events could result in overall macroeconomic volatility or specifically a decrease or halt in economic activity in large geographic areas, adversely affecting the marketing or administration of our business within such geographic areas or the general economic
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climate, which in turn could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. The possible macroeconomic effects of such events could also adversely affect our asset portfolio.
The COVID-19 pandemic could have a material adverse effect on our liquidity, financial condition and results of operations.
The health, economic and business conditions precipitated by the worldwide COVID-19 pandemic that emerged in 2020 increased our mortality experience in 2021 and 2020 in both our single premium immediate annuity (“SPIA”) and IUL business which largely offset each other. In addition, savings and investment behavior of our policyholders may have been changed as a result of financial stress due to the pandemic.
A significant number of our employees continue to work from home and we believe this will continue into 2023 and future years. The remote work environment puts greater demands on our technological systems, puts us at greater risk of cybersecurity incidents and adds complexity to our programs that are designed to protect private data.
In addition, the changing nature of the work environment post-COVID with more remote employment opportunities has reduced the friction in changing jobs which has increased the mobility of our workforce and provided more opportunities for our employees to transition into jobs at other companies. COVID-related changes to how employees work has introduced increased risk to our ability to retain key personnel. By embracing flexibility, we continue to experience lower than industry attrition.
The severe restriction in economic activity caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and initial increased level of unemployment in the United States have contributed to increased volatility and uncertainty regarding expectations for the economy and markets going forward. Although states have eased restrictions and the capital and labor markets have generally recovered, we are now experiencing a period of higher inflation and it is unclear when the economy will experience lower inflation. For example, in response to the economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Federal Reserve cut interest rates to near zero in March 2020. The Federal Reserve has increased interest rates in 2022 and signaled that interest rates will increase potentially in 2023.
See “Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosure about Market Risk” in this Annual Report for a more detailed discussion of interest rate risk. See also “— Interest rate fluctuations could adversely affect our business, financial condition, liquidity and results of operations.”
Legal, Regulatory and Tax Risks
Our business is highly regulated and subject to numerous legal restrictions and regulations.
Our insurance businesses are subject to extensive regulation by state insurance authorities in each state in which they operate. Most states also regulate insurance holding companies like us with respect to acquisitions, changes of control and the terms of transactions with our affiliates. In addition, we may incur significant costs in the course of complying with regulatory requirements.
State insurance regulators, the NAIC and federal regulators continually reexamine existing laws and regulations and may impose changes in the future. New interpretations of existing laws and the passage of new legislation may harm our ability to sell new policies, increase our claim exposure on policies we issued previously and adversely affect our profitability and financial strength. We are also subject to the risk that compliance with any particular regulator’s interpretation of a legal or accounting issue may not result in compliance with another regulator’s interpretation of the same issue, particularly when compliance is judged in hindsight. Regulators and other authorities have the power to bring administrative or judicial proceedings against us, which could result in, among other things, suspension or revocation of our licenses, cease and desist orders, fines, civil penalties, criminal penalties or other disciplinary action, which could materially harm our results of operations and financial condition.
We cannot predict what form any future changes in these or other areas of regulation affecting the insurance industry might take or what effect, if any, such proposals might have on us if enacted into law. In addition, because our activities are relatively concentrated in a small number of lines of business, any change in law or regulation
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affecting one of those lines of business could have a disproportionate impact on us as compared to other more diversified insurance companies.
Please refer to “Business-Regulation of F&G” included in this Annual Report for additional details on the impact of regulations on our business.
Our business is subject to government regulation in each of the jurisdictions in which we conduct business and regulators have broad administrative and discretionary authority over our business and business practices.
Our business is subject to government regulation in each of the states in which we conduct business, along with the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico, and is concerned primarily with the protection of policyholders and other customers. Such regulation is vested in state agencies having broad administrative and discretionary authority, which may include, among other things, premium rates and increases thereto, underwriting practices, reserve requirements, marketing practices, advertising, privacy, policy forms, reinsurance reserve requirements, acquisitions, mergers and capital adequacy. At any given time, we and our insurance subsidiaries may be the subject of a number of ongoing financial or market conduct, audits or inquiries. From time to time, regulators raise issues during such examinations or audits that could have a material impact on our business.
Under insurance guaranty fund laws in most states, insurance companies doing business therein can be assessed up to prescribed limits for policyholder losses incurred by insolvent companies. We cannot predict the amount or timing of any such future assessments and therefore the liability we have established for these potential assessments may not be adequate. In addition, regulators may change their interpretation or application of existing laws and regulations, including, for example, broadening the scope of carriers that must contribute towards long-term care insolvencies.
Our regulation in the United States is influenced by the NAIC, which continues to consider reforms including relating to cybersecurity regulations, best interest standards, RBC and life insurance reserves.
Although our business is subject to regulation in each state in which we conduct business, along with the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico, in many instances the state regulatory models emanate from the NAIC. Some of the NAIC pronouncements, particularly as they affect accounting issues, take effect automatically in the various states without affirmative action by the states. Statutes, regulations and interpretations may be applied with retroactive impact, particularly in areas such as accounting and reserve requirements. The NAIC continues to work to reform state regulation in various areas, including comprehensive reforms relating to cybersecurity regulations, best interest standards, RBC and life insurance reserves.
We and our insurance subsidiaries are subject to minimum capitalization requirements based on RBC formulas for life insurance companies that establish capital requirements relating to insurance, business, asset, interest rate and certain other risks. Changes to statutory reserve or RBC requirements may increase the amount of reserves or capital we and ou