424B4 1 f424b41023_primech.htm PROSPECTUS

PROSPECTUS

 

Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(4)
Registration No. 333-264036

Primech Holdings Ltd.
3,050,000
Ordinary Shares

This is the initial public offering of 3,050,000 Ordinary Shares (“Ordinary Shares”) of Primech Holdings Ltd, or IPO. Prior to this IPO, there has been no public market for our ordinary shares (the “Shares”). The initial public offering price is $4.00 per share. Our Ordinary Shares have been approved for listing on the Nasdaq Capital Market, or Nasdaq, under the symbol “PMEC” on or promptly after the date of this prospectus.

Immediately after the IPO, assuming an offering size as set forth above, our Major Shareholder, Sapphire Universe Holdings Limited, will own approximately 88.01% of our outstanding Shares (or 86.89% of our outstanding Shares if the underwriter’s option to purchase additional shares is exercised in full). As a result, we expect to be a “controlled company” within the meaning of the corporate governance standards of Nasdaq. See section titled “Prospectus Summary — Implications of Being a Controlled Company”.

Investing in the shares involves risks. See section titled “Risk Factors” of this prospectus.

We are both an “emerging growth company” and a “foreign private issuer” under applicable U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission rules and will be eligible for reduced public company disclosure requirements. See section titled “Prospectus Summary — Implications of Being an ‘Emerging Growth Company’ and a ‘Foreign Private Issuer’” for additional information.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any other regulatory body has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

PER SHARE

 

TOTAL

Initial public offering price

 

$

4.00

 

$

12,200,000

Underwriting discounts and commissions(1)(2)

 

$

0.28

 

$

854,000

Proceeds, before expenses, to us

 

$

3.72

 

$

11,346,000

____________

(1)      The underwriter will receive compensation in addition to the discounts and commissions. For a description of compensation payable to the underwriter, see “Underwriting” beginning on page 139.

(2)      Does not include a non-accountable expense allowance equal to $100,000, payable to the underwriter, or the reimbursement of certain expenses of the underwriter. For a description of other terms of compensation to be received by the underwriter, see “Underwriting” beginning on page 139.

We expect our total cash expenses for this offering (including cash expenses payable to our underwriter for the out-of-pocket expenses) to be approximately $1,075,171, exclusive of the above discounts and commissions. These payments will further reduce proceeds available to us before expenses. See “Underwriting.”

This offering is being conducted on a firm commitment basis. The underwriter is obligated to take and pay for all of the shares if any such shares are taken. We have granted the underwriter an option for a period of forty-five (45) days after the date of this prospectus to purchase up to 15% of the total number of our Shares to be offered by us pursuant to this offering (excluding shares subject to this option), solely for the purpose of covering over-allotments, at the initial public offering price less the underwriting discounts and commissions. If we complete this offering, net proceeds will be delivered to us on the closing date.

The underwriter expects to deliver the shares to purchasers against payment on October 12, 2023.

Prospectus dated October 11, 2023

 

Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Page

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

 

1

THE OFFERING

 

13

SUMMARY FINANCIAL INFORMATION

 

15

RISK FACTORS

 

16

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

43

USE OF PROCEEDS

 

44

DIVIDEND POLICY

 

45

CAPITALIZATION

 

46

DILUTION

 

47

SELECTED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL AND OPERATING DATA

 

48

MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

49

INDUSTRY OVERVIEW

 

58

QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

 

64

OUR GROUP STRUCTURE

 

65

GENERAL INFORMATION ON OUR GROUP

 

66

PRINCIPAL SHAREHOLDERS

 

105

RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS

 

106

POTENTIAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST

 

109

DESCRIPTION OF SHARE CAPITAL AND CONSTITUTION

 

111

SHARES ELIGIBLE FOR FUTURE SALE

 

128

EXCHANGE CONTROLS AND LIMITATIONS AFFECTING SHAREHOLDERS

 

129

TAXATION

 

131

UNDERWRITING

 

139

EXPENSES OF THE OFFERING

 

146

LEGAL MATTERS

 

147

EXPERTS

 

147

SERVICE OF PROCESS AND ENFORCEMENT OF CIVIL LIABILITIES

 

148

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

 

148

INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

F-1

REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

 

F-2

For investors outside the United States: neither we, the Selling Shareholder nor the underwriter have done anything that would permit the IPO and Resale Offering or possession or distribution of this prospectus in any jurisdiction, other than the United States, where action for that purpose is required. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus must inform themselves about, and observe any restrictions relating to, the IPO and Resale Offering of the shares and the distribution of this prospectus outside the United States.

Neither we nor the underwriter have authorized anyone to provide you with any information or to make any representations other than those contained in this prospectus, any amendment or supplement to this prospectus, or in any free writing prospectus we have prepared, and neither we nor the underwriter take responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information others may give you. Neither we nor the underwriter are making an offer to sell, or seeking offers to buy, these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. The information contained in this prospectus is accurate only as of the date on the cover page of this prospectus, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or the sale of shares. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since the date on the cover page of this prospectus.

Through and including November 6, 2023 (the 25th day after the date of this prospectus), all dealers that buy, sell or trade shares of our Ordinary Share, whether or not participating in this offering, may be required to deliver a prospectus. This delivery requirement is in addition to the obligation of dealers to deliver a prospectus when acting as underwriters and with respect to their unsold allotments or subscriptions.

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

This summary highlights selected information contained elsewhere in this prospectus. This summary does not contain all of the information that you should consider before investing in our Shares. For a more complete understanding of us and the IPO and Resale Offering, you should read and carefully consider the entire prospectus, including the more detailed information set forth under “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our consolidated financial statements and the related notes. Some of the statements in this prospectus are forward-looking statements. See section titled “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”

Our Business

We are an established technology-driven facilities services provider in the public and private sectors operating mainly in Singapore. Our mission is to support businesses by improving lives and strengthening communities through our business practices and ethics. We compete primarily in Singapore, with a small portion of our operations in Malaysia.

Our revenues for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2023 and 2022 were $69,025,754 and $54,439,987, respectively. For the fiscal year ended March 31, 2023 and 2022, we incurred a net loss of $(2,546,933) and $(1,263,161), respectively.

We provide the following services:

        Facilities services.    Our facilities services include general cleaning and maintenance of public and private facilities, such as airports, conservancy areas (i.e., the public areas, refuse disposal areas, parks and carparks of public housing units), common areas of hotels, educational institutions, public roads, residential spaces, commercial buildings, office facilities, industrial areas, retail stores and healthcare facilities; housekeeping services; specialized cleaning services, such as marble polishing services; building façade cleaning services and clean room sanitation services; and waste management and pest control services. We derive the majority of our revenue from the provision of facilities services, which accounted for approximately $55.8 million or 80.8% of our revenue in FY 2023 and approximately $46.1 million or 84.6% of our revenue in FY 2022.

        Stewarding services.    Our stewarding services include the cleaning of kitchen facilities of healthcare facilities, hotels and restaurants and the supply of ad hoc customer service officers and food and beverage (“F&B”) service crew to healthcare facilities, hotels and restaurants. Stewarding services accounted for approximately $7.6 million or 11.0% of our revenue in FY 2023 and approximately $5.1 million or 9.4% of our revenue in FY 2022.

        Cleaning services to offices.    In addition to our core facilities services, we provide cleaning services to offices. The provision of office cleaning services accounted for approximately $4.9 million or 7.1% of our revenue in FY 2023 and approximately $2.5 million or 4.6% of our revenue in FY 2022.

        Cleaning services to homes.    We provide cleaning services to homes of individual customers who engage our services through our “HomeHelpy” application. We did not generate significant revenue (i.e., less than 1.0%) from the provision of these services during FY 2023 and FY 2022.

        Cleaning Supplies.    We also manufacture certain cleaning supplies, both for our own use and for sale to third parties. We did not generate significant revenue (i.e., less than 1.0%) from the sale of cleaning supplies to third parties during FY 2023 and FY 2022.

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Our Industry

        General.    Cleaning and landscaping service providers in Singapore offer a wide spectrum of services. Cleaning services include the provision of various cleaning services to public areas, offices, factories, and households, among others. Landscaping services include landscape planting, care and maintenance service activities in and for parks and gardens, public and private housing, buildings, roads and expressways, among others.

        Growth Drivers and Trends.    Demand derived from office buildings, retail facilities, and residential buildings in Singapore has grown moderately in the past five years. New automated technologies have enhanced and will continue to enhance productivity. These include environmentally friendly robotic solutions for public spaces, waste management, and pest and pollution control. Singapore’s demand for cleaning and landscaping services experienced strong growth from 2014 to 2020, driven by economic sophistication, urbanization, and population growth. The industry market size increased from $1,377.0 million (S$1,836.0 million) in 2014 to $2,102.9 million (S$2,846.1 million) in 2020, a CAGR of 7.6%. Moreover, we believe the productivity of the industry will be enhanced progressively given the technology-driven programs launched by the government. Technological advancements have contributed to the growth of cleaning and landscaping companies, and we believe the industry will continue to benefit from future advancements in automation and technology.

Our Competitive Strengths

We believe our main competitive strengths are as follows:

        We have a long and established track record and have achieved a high level of accreditation in the facilities services sector.    Primech A&P was amalgamated from A&P Maintenance and Primech Services & Engrg, which were operating for approximately 30 years or more, respectively. Maint-Kleen was founded in 2002. Primech A&P and Maint-Kleen thus have been able to secure long-term business relationships with their customers. Primech Services & Engrg and A&P Maintenance were both awarded the Clean Mark Gold Award in 2020. The Clean Mark Gold Award is the highest level of accreditation under the Enhanced Clean Mark Accreditation Scheme granted to cleaning businesses. The scheme recognizes businesses that deliver high cleaning standards through the training of workers, the use of equipment to improve work processes, and fair employment practices. Primech A&P and Maint-Kleen were also awarded the Clean Mark Gold Award in 2022. Primech A&P was awarded the Clean Mark Gold Award in 2023 as well.

        We are able to provide a bundle of services to a wide spectrum of customers.    We provide a broad spectrum of cleaning services both in the public and private sectors to a variety of customers including Singapore Changi Airport, conservancy areas, hotels, common areas, educational institutions, integrated public areas, residential spaces, office facilities, industrial areas, retail stores and healthcare facilities. Our diversified customer mix ensures that we do not rely on any single customer for our revenue and enables us to better manage our business risks.

        We believe that our emphasis on having a trained workforce makes us more competitive in our industry.    We believe that the training and development of our employees enables us to maintain and enhance our quality of solutions and services for the growth of our businesses and operations. In particular, we have been hiring a variety of employees from different sectors apart from the environment services industry such as the technological, finance, human resources and business development sectors in order to build up our key management personnel team.

        We have an experienced and stable management team.    We have an experienced management team led by Mr. Kin Wai Ho, our Chairman. A majority of our senior management team have been employed by our subsidiaries for more than 17 years. We view their collective industry knowledge and extensive project management experience as valuable in establishing stable relationships with our customers as well as facilitating the submission of competitive tenders and believe that this has assisted us in securing numerous tenders over the years. We also believe that our management team’s experience has assisted us in our cost estimation for contracts during the tendering process, which enables us to reduce situations of cost overruns.

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Our Business Strategies and Future Plans

Our business strategies and future plans are as follows:

Automation and Online Expansion.    We will seek to improve efficiency, expand service capacity and reduce our environmental footprint through the use of technology. Our technology initiatives to date include the use of autonomous floor scrubbing robots equipped with real-time monitoring and self-docking capabilities to perform cleaning services. We are also in the exploratory stage of a collaboration for the development of drones designed to perform façade and roof cleaning services. Such initiatives have allowed us to expand our service capacity by leveraging technology instead of increasing our reliance on manpower in a traditionally labor-intensive industry. In addition, we introduced our “HomeHelpy” website and mobile application to allow individual customers to book our cleaning services, which has enabled us to expand into the B2C segment (from our primary B2B business).

Geographic Expansion.    We intend to establish ourselves as a regional player in the environmental services industry. While our operations are currently almost exclusively based in Singapore, we are considering an expansion of our business to other countries in Southeast Asia.

Expansion through organic growth and acquisitions.    We intend to grow our facilities services business organically by expanding our coverage to include segments of the market where we currently do not have a presence or only have a small presence, such as hospitals, industrial centers, data centers and cleanrooms.

We intend to continue to pursue suitable opportunities for acquisitions, joint ventures and strategic alliances to expand our range of facilities services. Such opportunities could include areas that complement our business, such as waste management, gardening and landscaping, and pest management. We believe that building up a comprehensive suite of facilities services will enable us to maintain our competitive edge.

IoT.    We are also seeking to build our own IoT system, software, and robots to improve the efficiency and capacity of our services. Specifically, we are currently at the planning stage to build a team with members of academia with whom we will collaborate to start the development of an integrated IoT platform and workforce automation software system for our facility services. The system will integrate commercial off-the-shelf IoT devices such as cameras and sensors to be deployed in a facility and/or on robots, which will evaluate and respond to various events to perform data driven functions or actions to assist our facility services with lower cost and more efficiency. We also intend to develop our proprietary robots based on the Robot Operating System, an open source robotic platform, which will feature the flexibility to customize our robots to meet unique applications for facility services such as cleaning and disinfection services.

Electric Vehicles.    In 2021, we joined a consortium to submit a tender bid to install electric vehicle (“EV”) charging infrastructure at various public cark parks in Singapore. We believe that eco-solutions will become increasingly important in the future in the face of climate change. Integrating eco-solutions into our portfolio will not only expand our service capabilities, but also transition our business towards a more innovative model, and will ultimately help our business to keep pace with future technological advances.

We plan to replace a portion of our existing fleet of vehicles with electric vehicles and develop “green” chemicals that are more eco-friendly for use in our cleaning services. We believe that by integrating environmental sustainability into our business practices, we will be able to attract more customers and employees, and ultimately reap the benefits of more sustainable growth.

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Summary Risk Factors

Our prospectus should be considered in light of the risks, uncertainties, expenses, and difficulties frequently encountered by similar companies. Below please find a summary of the principal risks we face, organized under relevant headings. These risks are discussed more carefully in the section titled “Risk Factors.

Risks Relating to Our Business

        We incurred a net loss in FY 2022 and FY 2023 and we may incur losses in the future;

        We are subject to risks associated with debt financing;

        We are not in compliance with certain covenants in our bank financing agreements;

        Any adverse material changes to the Singapore market (whether localized or resulting from global economic or other conditions) such as the occurrence of an economic recession, pandemic or widespread outbreak of an infectious disease (such as COVID-19), could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition;

        The Clean Mark Gold Award currently awarded to Primech A&P may be revoked and/or may not be renewed in May 2024;

        Our Group does not have a long operating history as an integrated group;

        There is no assurance that our future expansion and other growth plans will be successful;

        There is no assurance that our existing service contracts for facilities services will be renewed upon expiry or that we will be successful in securing new service contracts;

        Our current strategy to expand into the installation of electric vehicle (EV) charging infrastructure is limited to participation in a pilot program and potential minority investment(s);

        Our service contracts typically contain liquidated damages clauses, and our customers may request for liquidated damages if we fail to comply or observe certain contractual requirements;

        The loss of or reduction of Singapore government grants and/or subsidies, particularly those relating to COVID-19 relief, could reduce our profits;

        We may suffer from cost overruns as our fees are typically agreed upon submission of tender or quotation;

        We are exposed to the credit risks of our customers and we may experience delays or defaults in collecting our receivables, and thus we face liquidity risks;

        Our business involves inherent industrial risks and occupational hazards and the materialization of such risks may affect our business operations and financial results;

        We depend on certain equipment to perform our facilities services and are subject to associated risks of maintenance and obsolescence;

        Our insurance coverage may not cover all our damages and losses;

        We are dependent on our ability to retain existing senior management personnel and to attract new qualified management personnel;

        We are exposed to risks of infringement of our intellectual property rights and the unauthorized use of our trademarks by third parties and we may face litigation suits for intellectual property infringement;

        The value of our intangible assets and costs of investment may become impaired;

        Any inability by us to consummate and effectively incorporate acquisitions into our business operations may adversely affect our results of operations; and

        If we fail to maintain an effective system of disclosure controls and internal control over financial reporting, our ability to produce timely and accurate financial statements or comply with applicable regulations could be impaired.

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Risks Relating to The Industry In Which We Operate

        We may face employee retention and labor shortage issues due to the labor-intensive nature of the facilities services industry and the limited local labor force in Singapore;

        Our supply of foreign labor may be affected by the laws, regulations and policies in the countries from which the foreign labor originates;

        The facilities services industry in Singapore is highly competitive; and

        We are subject to risks in connection with the use and storage of cleaning chemicals. In addition, any perceived use of cleaning supplies and/or chemicals that are not environmentally friendly or safe may adversely affect our brand name and the contracts we can successfully bid for.

Risks Relating to Investments In Singapore Companies

        We are incorporated in Singapore, and our shareholders may have more difficulty in protecting their interests than they would as shareholders of a corporation incorporated in the United States; and

        Singapore take-over laws contain provisions that may vary from those in other jurisdictions.

Risks Relating to An Investment In Our Shares

        Our share price may fluctuate significantly in the future and you may lose all or part of your investment, and litigation may be brought against us;

        Certain recent initial public offerings of companies with public floats comparable to our anticipated public float have experienced extreme volatility that was seemingly unrelated to the underlying performance of the respective company. We may experience similar volatility, which may make it difficult for prospective investors to assess the value of our Ordinary Shares;

        We will be a “controlled company” within the meaning of the Nasdaq Listing Rules and, as a result, may rely on exemptions from certain corporate governance requirements that provide protection to shareholders of other companies;

        Our Shares may trade below $5.00 per share, and thus would be known as “penny stock”. Trading in penny stocks has certain restrictions and these restrictions could negatively affect the price and liquidity of our Shares.

        Investors in our Shares will face immediate and substantial dilution in the net tangible book value per Share and may experience future dilution;

        If we fail to meet applicable listing requirements, Nasdaq may delist our Shares from trading, in which case the liquidity and market price of our Shares could decline;

        We qualify as a foreign private issuer and, as a result, we will not be subject to U.S. proxy rules and will be subject to Exchange Act reporting obligations that permit less detailed and less frequent reporting than that of a U.S. domestic public company;

        We may lose our foreign private issuer status in the future, which could result in significant additional costs and expenses; and

        The IPO price and Resale Offering price could differ; and

        The resale by the Selling Shareholder may cause the market price of our Ordinary Shares to decline.

Our Corporate Structure and History

Our Company was incorporated on December 29, 2020 as a private company limited by shares under the name “Primech Holdings Pte. Ltd.” On May 11, 2023, our Company changed its corporate name to Primech Holdings Ltd., so as to remove the designation “Pte.” which is used only for privately held companies under Singapore law, and adopted a constitution for a public company under Singapore law.

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Our Company is a holding company that owns 100% of Primech A & P Pte. Ltd. (“Primech A&P”), Acteef Cleaning Specialists Pte Ltd (“Acteef Cleaning”), Maint-Kleen Pte. Ltd. (“Maint-Kleen”), HomeHelpy Singapore Pte. Ltd. (“HomeHelpy”) and Princeston International (S) Pte. Ltd. (“Princeston International”). Primech A&P owns 100% of our Malaysian subsidiary My All Services Sdn. Bhd. (“My All Services”). Our Company also owns 80% of CSG Industries Pte Ltd (“CSG”).

In 2018, our Major Shareholder, Sapphire Universe, acquired Primech A&P (formerly known as Primech Services & Engrg Pte Ltd), A&P Maintenance Services Pte Ltd (“A&P Maintenance”), and Acteef Cleaning, in three separate transactions. Each of these companies had, prior to its acquisition, already been operating for approximately 30 years or more. Historically, Primech Services & Engrg Pte Ltd was focused on providing cleaning services to Singapore Changi Airport and to educational institutions, while A&P Maintenance and Acteef Cleaning were focused on providing cleaning services to offices. In 2020, Sapphire Universe also acquired Maint-Kleen which was focused on providing conservancy services. The acquisitions by Sapphire Universe of Primech Services & Engrg, A&P Maintenance, Acteef Cleaning and Maint-Kleen have enabled our Group to provide a wide spectrum of cleaning services.

In the last three years, we have expanded our range of cleaning services to include cleaning of healthcare facilities, and we have also expanded into the provision of customer services. Through our stewarding business, we provide customer service officers and F&B service crew to venues such as healthcare facilities, hotels and restaurants. We also launched our “HomeHelpy” application, an online portal which allows individual customers to book our cleaning services in homes and offices.

In 2020, A&P Maintenance and Primech Services & Engrg Pte Ltd were amalgamated to form Primech A&P, thereby consolidating financial resources and service capacity, and enabling us to tender and quote for larger projects.

On December 29, 2020, Sapphire Universe incorporated our Company to serve as the holding company for our Group.

In April 2021, our Company acquired a 80% stake in CSG, which is in the business of manufacturing chemical supplies, and a 100% stake in Princeston International, which is in the business of wholesale trading of cleaning supplies, ad hoc cleaning services and disinfection. These acquisitions further expanded our business to include the manufacture of certain cleaning supplies, both for our own use and for sale to third parties.

On November 22, 2021, our Company acquired our subsidiaries from Sapphire Universe as part of the Restructuring Exercise.

Corporate Information

Primech Holdings Ltd. is a Singapore corporation. On May 11, 2023, we changed our corporate name from Primech Holdings Pte. Ltd. to Primech Holdings Ltd., so as to remove the designation “Pte.” which is used only for privately held companies under Singapore law, and adopted a constitution for a public company under Singapore law. Our registered office and principal place of business is 23 Ubi Crescent Singapore 408579. The telephone and facsimile numbers of our registered office are +65 6286 1868 and +65 6288 5260, respectively. Our agent for service of process in the United States is Cogency Global Inc., located at 122 East 42nd Street, 18th Floor, New York, NY 10168. Our corporate website is https://primechholdings.com. Information contained on our website does not constitute part of this prospectus.

Implications of Being an “Emerging Growth Company” and a “Foreign Private Issuer”

Emerging Growth Company

We are an “emerging growth company” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 (the “JOBS Act”). As such, we are eligible, for up to five years, to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other publicly traded entities that are not emerging growth companies. These exemptions include:

        the ability to include only two years of audited financial statements and only two years of related Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations disclosure;

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        exemptions from the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as amended (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”), in the assessment of our internal control over financial reporting;

        to the extent that we no longer qualify as a foreign private issuer, (i) reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements and (ii) exemptions from the requirement to hold a non-binding advisory vote on executive compensation, including golden parachute compensation.

We may take advantage of these provisions until the last day of our fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the consummation of the IPO or such earlier time that we are no longer an emerging growth company.

As a result, the information contained in this prospectus may be different from the information you receive from other public companies in which you hold shares. We do not know if some investors will find the Shares less attractive because we may rely on these exemptions. The result may be a less active trading market for the Shares, and the price of the Shares may become more volatile.

We will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest of: (1) the last day of the first fiscal year in which our annual gross revenue exceeds $1.235 billion; (2) the last day of the fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the date of the IPO; (3) the date that we become a “large accelerated filer” as defined in Rule 12b-2 under the Exchange Act, which would occur if the market value of the Shares that is held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of the last business day of our most recently completed second fiscal quarter; or (4) the date on which we have issued more than $1.00 billion in non-convertible debt securities during any three-year period.

Section 107 of the JOBS Act also provides that an emerging growth company can take advantage of the extended transition period provided in Section 13(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), for complying with new or revised accounting standards. Given that we currently report and expect to continue to report under U.S. GAAP, we have irrevocably elected not to avail ourselves of this extended transition period and, as a result, we will adopt new or revised accounting standards on the relevant dates on which adoption of such standards is required by the IASB. Under federal securities laws, our decision to opt out of the extended transition period is irrevocable.

Foreign Private Issuer

Upon consummation of the IPO, we will report under the Exchange Act as a non-U.S. company with foreign private issuer status. Even after we no longer qualify as an emerging growth company, as long as we qualify as a foreign private issuer under the Exchange Act, we will be exempt from certain provisions of the Exchange Act that are applicable to U.S. domestic public companies, including:

        the rules under the Exchange Act requiring domestic filers to issue financial statements prepared under U.S. GAAP;

        the sections of the Exchange Act regulating the solicitation of proxies, consents or authorizations in respect of a security registered under the Exchange Act;

        the sections of the Exchange Act requiring insiders to file public reports of their stock ownership and trading activities and liability for insiders who profit from trades made in a short period of time; and

        the rules under the Exchange Act requiring the filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) of quarterly reports on Form 10-Q containing unaudited financial and other specific information, or current reports on Form 8-K, upon the occurrence of specified significant events.

Notwithstanding these exemptions, we will file with the SEC, within four months after the end of each fiscal year, or such applicable time as required by the SEC, an annual report on Form 20-F containing financial statements audited by an independent registered public accounting firm.

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We may take advantage of these exemptions until such time as we are no longer a foreign private issuer. We would cease to be a foreign private issuer at such time as more than 50% of our outstanding voting securities are held by U.S. residents and any of the following three circumstances applies: (i) the majority of our Executive Officers or members of our Supervisory Board are U.S. citizens or residents, (ii) more than 50% of our assets are located in the United States, or (iii) our business is administered principally in the United States.

Both foreign private issuers and emerging growth companies are also exempt from certain more extensive executive compensation disclosure rules. Thus, even if we no longer qualify as an emerging growth company, but remain a foreign private issuer, we will continue to be exempt from the more extensive compensation disclosures required of companies that are neither an emerging growth company nor a foreign private issuer and will continue to be permitted to follow our home country practice on such matters.

Implications of Being a Controlled Company

Upon the completion of the IPO, we will be a “controlled company” as defined under the Nasdaq Listing Rules because Sapphire Universe will hold 88.01% of our total issued and outstanding Shares and will be able to exercise 88.01% of the total voting power of our issued and outstanding share capital. For so long as we remain a “controlled company,” we are permitted to elect not to comply with certain corporate governance requirements. If we rely on these exemptions, you will not have the same protection afforded to shareholders of companies that are subject to these corporate governance requirements. See section titled “Risk FactorsRisks Relating to an Investment in our Shares.”

Even if we cease to be a controlled company, we may still rely on exemptions available to foreign private issuers.

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Conventions Which Apply to this Prospectus

Throughout this prospectus, we use a number of key terms and provide a number of key performance indicators used by management. Unless the context otherwise requires, the following definitions apply throughout where the context so admits:

Other Companies, Organizations and Agencies

“BCA”

 

:

 

Building & Construction Authority of Singapore

“HSA”

 

:

 

Health Sciences Authority of Singapore

“Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm”

 

:

 

Weinberg & Company P.A.

“ISO”

 

:

 

International Organization for Standardization

“MOM”

 

:

 

Ministry of Manpower of Singapore

“NEA”

 

:

 

National Environment Agency of Singapore

“Sapphire Universe”

 

:

 

Sapphire Universe Holdings Limited, which is a Major Shareholder

“Underwriter”

 

:

 

The underwriter for the IPO, Spartan Capital Securities, LLC.

General

“Audit Committee”

 

:

 

The audit committee of our Board of Directors

“Board” or “Board of Directors”

 

:

 

The board of Directors of our Company

“Companies Act”

 

:

 

The Companies Act 1967 of Singapore, as amended, supplemented or modified from time to time

“Company”

 

:

 

Primech Holdings Ltd. which changed its corporate name from Primech Holdings Pte. Ltd. on May 11, 2023

“Compensation Committee”

 

:

 

The compensation committee of our Board of Directors

“Constitution”

 

:

 

The constitution of our Company, as amended, supplemented or modified from time to time

“COVID-19”

 

:

 

Coronavirus disease 2019

“CRS”

 

:

 

Contractors Registration System of the BCA

“CVPA”

 

:

 

The Control of Vectors and Pesticides Act 1998 of Singapore, as amended, supplemented or modified from time to time

“Directors”

 

:

 

The directors of our Company

“EFMA”

 

:

 

The Employment of Foreign Manpower Act 1990 of Singapore, as amended, supplemented or modified from time to time

“Employment Act”

 

:

 

The Employment Act 1968 of Singapore, as amended, supplemented or modified from time to time

“EPHA”

 

:

 

The Environmental Public Health Act 1987 of Singapore, as amended, supplemented or modified from time to time

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“EPH Regulations”

 

:

 

The Environmental Public Health (General Cleaning Industry) Regulations of Singapore 2014, as amended, supplemented or modified from time to time

“Executive Officers”

 

:

 

The executive officers of our Company. See section titled “General Information On Our GroupOur Business OverviewManagement.”

“FASB”

 

:

 

The Financial Accounting Standards Board

“Fiscal Year” or “FY”

 

:

 

Financial year ended or, as the case may be, ending March 31

“GAAP”

 

:

 

Accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America

“Group”

 

:

 

Our Company and our subsidiaries

“GST”

 

:

 

Goods and Services Tax

“Independent Directors”

 

:

 

The independent non-executive Directors of our Company

“IoT”

 

:

 

Internet-of-Things

“IPO”

 

:

 

The offering of Shares by the Underwriter on behalf of our Company for subscription at the Offer Price, subject to and on the terms and conditions set out in this prospectus

“Lender”

 

:

 

A registered financial institution under the Monetary Authority of Singapore that acts as our Company’s primary bank lender.

“Listing”

 

:

 

The listing and quotation of our Shares on Nasdaq

“Major Shareholder”

 

:

 

A person who has an interest or interests (whether by record or beneficial ownership) in one or more voting shares (excluding treasury shares) in our Company, and the total votes attached to that share, or those shares, is not less than 5.0% of the total votes attached to all the voting shares (excluding treasury shares) in our Company

“Nasdaq”

 

:

 

The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC

“Nasdaq Listing Rules”

 

:

 

The Nasdaq rules governing listed companies

“Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee

 

:

 

The nominating and corporate governance committee of our Board of Directors

“Offer Price”

 

:

 

US$4.00 for each share being offered in this Offering

“QEHS”

 

:

 

Quality, Environmental, Health and Safety

“Restructuring Exercise”

 

:

 

The corporate restructuring exercise undertaken in anticipation of the Listing in which our Company acquired our current subsidiaries from Sapphire Universe

“RM”

 

:

 

Malaysian ringgit or Malaysian dollar

“Resale Offering”

 

:

 

The resale of 712,500 Ordinary Shares by the selling shareholder named in this prospectus

“Selling Shareholder”

 

:

 

The selling shareholder who is listed in the Resale Prospectus

“Share(s)”

 

:

 

Ordinary share(s) in the capital of our Company

“Shareholders”

 

:

 

Registered holders of Shares

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“Singapore Take-Over Code”

 

:

 

The Singapore Take-Over Code on Take-Overs and Mergers, as amended, supplemented or modified from time to time

“Underwriting Agreement”

 

:

 

The Underwriting Agreement dated October 9, 2023 entered into between our Company and Spartan Capital Securities, LLC, pursuant to which the Underwriter has agreed to purchase, and we have agreed to sell to them, 3,050,000 of our Shares at the Offer Price, less the underwriting discounts and commissions, as described in the sections titled “Underwriting” of this prospectus

“WICA”

 

:

 

Work Injury Compensation Act (2019) of Singapore

“WSHA”

 

:

 

Workplace Safety and Health Act 2006 of Singapore

“WSHIR”

 

:

 

Workplace Safety and Health (Incident Reporting) Regulations of Singapore

“YA”

 

:

 

Year of assessment

Currencies, Units and Others

“S$”

 

:

 

Singapore dollars, the lawful currency of the Republic of Singapore

“US$” or “$”

 

:

 

U.S. dollars and cents respectively, the lawful currency of the U.S.

“%” or “per cent.”

 

:

 

Per centum

“sq. m.”

 

:

 

Square meters

The expressions “associated company”, “related corporation” and “subsidiary” shall have the respective meanings ascribed to them in the Companies Act, as the case may be.

Any discrepancies in tables included herein between the total sum of amounts listed and the totals thereof are due to rounding. Accordingly, figures shown as totals in certain tables may not be an arithmetic aggregation of the figures that precede them.

In this prospectus, references to “our Company” or to “the Company” are to Primech Holdings Ltd. and, unless the context otherwise requires, a reference to “we”, “our”, “us” or “our Group” or their other grammatical variations is a reference to our Company and our subsidiaries taken as a whole.

Certain of our customers and suppliers are referred to in this prospectus by their trade names. Our contracts with these customers and suppliers are typically with an entity or entities in the relevant customer or supplier’s group of companies.

Internet site addresses in this prospectus are included for reference only and the information contained in any website, including our website, is not incorporated by reference into, and does not form part of, this prospectus.

Market and Industry Data

We obtained certain industry, market and competitive position data in this prospectus from our own internal estimates, surveys and research and from publicly available information, including industry and general publications and research, surveys and studies conducted by third parties, such as reports by governmental agencies, for example, the Singapore Department of Statistics, the Singapore Ministry of Trade and Industry and the Singapore Urban Redevelopment Authority, among others, and by private entities. None of these governmental agencies and private entities are affiliated with our Company, and the information contained in this report has not been reviewed or endorsed by any of them.

Industry publications, research, surveys, studies and forecasts generally state that the information they contain has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable but that the accuracy and completeness of such information is not guaranteed. Forecasts and other forward-looking information obtained from these sources are subject to the same qualifications and uncertainties as the other forward-looking statements in this prospectus. These forecasts and

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forward-looking information are subject to uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors, including those described under “Risk Factors”. These and other factors could cause results to differ materially from those expressed in the forecasts or estimates from independent third parties and us.

Trademarks, Service Marks and Tradenames

We have proprietary rights to trademarks used in this prospectus that are important to our business, many of which are registered under applicable intellectual property laws. Solely for convenience, the trademarks, service marks, logos and trade names referred to in this prospectus are without the ® and ™ symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights or the rights of the applicable licensors to these trademarks, service marks and trade names.

This prospectus contains additional trademarks, service marks and trade names of others, which are the property of their respective owners. All trademarks, service marks and trade names appearing in this prospectus are, to our knowledge, the property of their respective owners. We do not intend our use or display of other companies’ trademarks, service marks, copyrights or trade names to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, any other companies.

Presentation of Financial and Other Information

Unless otherwise indicated, all financial information contained in this prospectus is prepared and presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP.

All references in this prospectus to “U.S. dollars,” “US$,” “$” and “USD” refer to the currency of the United States of America and all references to “S$,” “Singapore dollar,” or “SGD” refer to the currency of Singapore. Unless otherwise indicated, all references to currency amounts in this prospectus are in USD.

We have made rounding adjustments to some of the figures contained in this prospectus. Accordingly, numerical figures shown as totals in some tables may not be exact arithmetic aggregations of the figures that preceded them.

Impact of COVID-19

The COVID-19 outbreak has adversely affected (and a significant outbreak of other infectious diseases could result in an additional widespread health crisis that could adversely affect) the economies and financial markets worldwide, and the business of the Company could be materially and adversely affected by the COVID-19 outbreak and any such other outbreak. Furthermore, our business may be adversely affected if continued concerns relating to COVID-19 continue to restrict travel, or result in the Company’s personnel, vendors and services providers being unavailable to pursue their business objectives free of COVID-19 related restrictions. The extent to which COVID-19 impacts our business in the future will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted, including for example new information which may emerge concerning the severity of COVID-19 and the actions to contain COVID-19 or treat its impact. If the disruptions posed by COVID-19 or other matters of global concern continue for an extended period of time, our ability to pursue our business objectives may be materially adversely affected. In addition, our ability to raise equity and debt financing which may be adversely impacted by COVID-19 and other events, including as a result of increased market volatility, decreased market liquidity and third-party financing being unavailable on terms acceptable to us or at all.

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THE OFFERING

Shares offered by us:

 

3,050,000 ordinary shares (or 3,507,500 ordinary shares if the Underwriter exercises its option to purchase additional Shares within 45 days of the date of this prospectus from us in full).

Offer Price:

 

The initial public offering price is $4.00 per ordinary share.

Number of Shares outstanding before this IPO:

 

32,500,000 Shares are outstanding as of the date of this prospectus.

Shares to be outstanding immediately after this IPO:

 

35,550,000 Shares (or 36,007,500 Shares if the Underwriter exercises its option to purchase additional Shares within 45 days of the date of this prospectus from us in full).

Over-allotment option to purchase additional Shares:

 

We have granted the Underwriter an option to purchase up to 457,500 additional Shares from us within 45 days of the date of this prospectus.

Use of proceeds:

 

Our net proceeds from this IPO will be approximately US$10.3 million, or approximately US$12.0 million if the underwriter’s option to purchase additional shares is exercised in full, based upon the initial public offering price of $4.00 per ordinary share, and after deducting the underwriting discount and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

   

We plan to use the net proceeds of IPO as follows (assuming no exercise of the over-allotment option):

   

            Approximately $4.1 million for growing our business through expanding our range of services and expanding our operations locally and regionally.

   

            Approximately $2.0 million to establish our team of software developers, programmers, and engineers to build our own IoT system, software, and robots. Specifically, we are currently at the planning stage to assemble a team with members of academia with whom we will collaborate to start the development of an integrated IoT platform and workforce automation software system for our facility services. The system will integrate commercial off-the-shelf IoT devices such as cameras and sensors to be deployed in a facility and/or on robots, which will evaluate and respond to various events to perform data driven functions or actions to assist our facility services with lower cost and more efficiency. We also intend to develop our proprietary robots based on the Robot Operating System, an open source robotic platform, which will feature the flexibility to customize our robots to meet unique applications for facility services such as cleaning and disinfection services.

   

Approximately $1.1 million for marketing and promotional activities.

   

            Approximately $1.1 million for upgrading our motor vehicles and our fleet of ride-on and autonomous cleaning machines for EV charging compatibility.

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            Approximately $0.5 million for minority investments in one or more companies in the EV conversion and charging business. We do not intend to acquire a controlling interest in any target company.

   

Approximately $1.5 million for working capital and other general corporate purposes.

Lock-up:

 

We have agreed with the underwriter that for a period of three (3) months after the date of this prospectus, the Company will not (a) offer, sell or otherwise transfer or dispose of, directly or indirectly, any Shares, or any securities convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for Shares; or (b) file or cause to be filed any registration statement with the SEC relating to the offering of any Shares or any securities convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for Shares. In addition, our Directors, Executive Officers and Major Shareholders have agreed with the underwriter not to sell, transfer or dispose of, directly or indirectly, any of our Shares or securities convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for our Shares for a period of six (6) months after the date of this prospectus. See sections titled “Shares Eligible for Future Sale” and “Underwriting” for more information.

Controlled company

 

After the IPO, Sapphire Universe will own approximately 88.01% of our Shares (or 86.89% of our Shares if the underwriter’s option to purchase additional shares is exercised in full). As a result, we expect to be a controlled company within the meaning of the corporate governance standards of the Nasdaq Capital Market, or Nasdaq. See section titled “Prospectus Summary — Implications of Being a Controlled Company”.

Listing

 

We have received the approval letter to list our Ordinary Shares on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “PMEC”.

Risk factors

 

See section titled “Risk Factors” and other information included in this prospectus for a discussion of factors you should carefully consider before deciding to invest in the Shares.

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SUMMARY FINANCIAL INFORMATION

The following summary presents consolidated balance sheet data as of March 31, 2023 and 2022 and summary consolidated statements of operations data for the years ended March 31, 2023 and 2022 have been derived from our audited financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. Our consolidated financial statements are prepared and presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP. You should read this “Selected Consolidated Financial And Operating Data” section together with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes and the “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” section included elsewhere in this prospectus.

 

As of
March 31,
2023

 

As of
March 31,
2022

   

(Audited)

 

(Audited)

Balance Sheets Data

 

 

   

 

 

Current Assets

 

$

27,436,432

 

$

18,786,990

Non-Current Assets

 

 

15,386,757

 

 

14,410,920

Total assets

 

$

42,823,189

 

$

33,197,910

   

 

   

 

 

Current liabilities

 

$

24,522,412

 

$

12,430,950

Non-Current liabilities

 

 

9,467,839

 

 

9,525,174

Shareholders’ equity

 

 

8,832,938

 

 

11,241,786

Total liabilities and shareholders’ equity

 

$

42,823,189

 

$

33,197,910

 

For the Years Ended March 31,

   

2023

 

2022

Statements of Operations Data

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Revenues

 

$

69,025,754

 

 

$

54,439,987

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operating costs and expenses

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cost of revenue

 

 

(58,410,058

)

 

 

(44,596,576

)

General and administrative expenses

 

 

(12,303,838

)

 

 

(10,671,777

)

Sales and marketing expenses

 

 

(278,419

)

 

 

(394,376

)

Goodwill impairment

 

 

(138,397

)

 

 

— 

 

Loss from operations

 

 

(2,104,958

)

 

 

(1,222,742

)

Other income and expense, net

 

 

271,196

 

 

 

493,068

 

Interest expense

 

 

(723,298

)

 

 

(369,219

)

Loss before income taxes

 

 

(2,557,060

)

 

 

(1,098,893

)

Net loss

 

$

(2,546,933

)

 

$

(1,263,161

)

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RISK FACTORS

Prospective investors should carefully consider and evaluate each of the following considerations and all other information set forth in this prospectus before deciding to invest in our Shares. The following section describes some of the significant risks known to us now that could directly or indirectly affect us and the value or trading price of our Shares and should not be construed as a comprehensive listing of all risk factors. The following section does not state risks unknown to us now but which could occur in the future and risks which we currently believe to be not material but may subsequently turn out to be so. Should these risks occur and/or turn out to be material, they could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. To the best of our Directors’ knowledge and belief, the risk factors that are material to investors in making an informed judgment have been set out below. If any of the following considerations and uncertainties develops into actual events, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially and adversely affected. In such cases, the trading price of our Shares could decline and investors may lose all or part of their investment in our Shares. Prospective investors are advised to apprise themselves of all factors involving the risks of investing in our Shares from their professional advisers before making any decision to invest in our Shares.

This prospectus also contains forward-looking statements having direct and/or indirect implications on our future performance. Our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors, including the risks and uncertainties faced by us described below and elsewhere in this prospectus.

RISKS RELATING TO OUR BUSINESS

We incurred a net loss in FY 2022 and FY 2023 and we may incur losses in the future.

For the years ended March 31, 2023 and 2022, the Company recorded net loss of ($2,546,933) and ($1,263,161), respectively. We anticipate that our operating expenses, together with the increased general administrative expenses of a public company, will increase in the foreseeable future as we seek to maintain and continue to grow our business, attract potential customers and further enhance our service offering. These efforts may prove more expensive than we currently anticipate, and we may not succeed in increasing our revenue sufficiently to offset these higher expenses. As a result of the foregoing and other factors, we may incur net losses in the future and may be unable to achieve or maintain profitability on a quarterly or annual basis for the foreseeable future.

We are subject to risks associated with debt financing.

Due to our working capital requirements in support of our day-to-day operations and business expansion, we may finance all or a substantial portion of our costs through bank loans and credit facilities, in addition to Shareholders’ equity and internally generated funds. Details on our total indebtedness is set forth in the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” of this prospectus.

While we believe that we have sufficient capital from our available cash resources, our cash generated from our business operations and our credit facilities to meet our current working capital and capital expenditure requirements, we may require additional debt financing to operate our business, implement our future business strategies and/or acquire complementary businesses or develop new technologies.

Our ability to obtain debt financing depends on a number of factors including our financial strength, creditworthiness and prospects, as well as other factors beyond our control, including general economic, liquidity and political conditions. There is no assurance that we will be able to secure adequate debt financing on terms acceptable to us, or at all. In the event that we are unable to secure adequate debt financing on terms acceptable to us, we may not be able to implement our business strategies and our business and prospects could be materially and adversely affected as a result.

Any disruptions, volatility or uncertainty of the credit markets could limit our ability to borrow funds or cause our borrowings to become more expensive. As such, we may be forced to pay unattractive interest rates, thereby increasing our interest expense, decreasing our profitability and reducing our financial flexibility if we take on additional debt financing. Any material increase in interest rates would also increase our cost of borrowing and debt financing costs, which may weaken our ability to obtain further future debt financing.

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Further, debt financing may restrict our freedom to operate our business as it may require conditions and/or covenants that:

a.      limit our ability to pay dividends or require us to seek consent for the payment of dividends;

b.      require us to dedicate a portion of our cash flow from operations to repayments of our debt, thereby reducing the availability of our cash flow for capital expenditures, working capital and other general corporate purposes; and

c.      limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and our industry.

We are not in compliance with certain covenants in our bank financing agreements.

Primech A&P, one of our subsidiaries, has been in technical breach of financial covenants prescribed in the financing agreements to which it is a party, namely, a temporary bridging loan, an overdraft, guarantee and corporate credit card facility, a recourse receivables purchase facility, two term loan banking facilities and a business property financing facility. Primech A&P is required to maintain, during the term of the financing agreements relating to each of these facilities, a minimum adjusted tangible net worth of $7.0 million (SGD 10.0 million), and a gearing ratio, defined as to the ratio of total bank debt to tangible net worth (or adjusted tangible net worth, as the case may be), of not more than 1.5.

As of March 31, 2023, Primech A&P was not in compliance with both of these bank covenants. As such, the Lender under the abovementioned financing agreements could exercise its rights to, among others, cancel or withdraw any or all of the aforementioned facilities, or declare that all or any part of thereof (together with accrued interest and other amounts accrued or outstanding) be immediately due and payable or require Primech A&P to repurchase debts which it has assigned to the Lender. In the event that Primech A&P is unable to make repayment, the Lender also has the right to enforce its rights on collateral security, including but not limited to Primech A&P’s leasehold interest on real property. Specifically, the Lender could demand immediate repayment of the aggregate outstanding loan amount of $18,776,000 as of March 31, 2023 and interest of approximately $152,000 accrued from April 1, 2023 to August 18, 2023, plus certain costs of collection as provided in the relevant bank financing agreements.

On July 28, 2023 and August 11, 2023, the Lender issued letters to Primech A&P in respect of each of the aforementioned financing agreements, respectively, advising an exceptional one-off waiver for the breach of the two abovementioned bank covenants. Pursuant to these letters, the issuance of a waiver by the Lender shall not impair any rights or privileges of the Lender under each of the aforementioned financing agreements, and the Lender may still at any time withdraw or cancel the whole or any part of the facilities, and/or demand repayment of all sums owing in respect of any non-compliances with the terms of such facilities (other than the breaches that have been waived).

As of the date of this prospectus, the Lender has not notified us that it will take any of the aforementioned actions in connection with these covenant defaults.

Notwithstanding the above, the Lender may exercise its rights under the relevant financing agreements at any time during which we are in default of our covenants. In such an event, we may be required to repay the aforementioned amounts and could need to seek to replace our existing credit facilities. There can be no assurance that we will be able to obtain refinancing under similar commercial terms, if at all, or that the Lender will not exercise its rights, declare an event of default, accelerate the repayment obligation of our Primech A&P subsidiary or enforce other remedies against it which may result in cross defaults under other facilities that our other subsidiaries have entered, or may enter, into. An acceleration or cancellation, of Primech A&P’s loans could have a material adverse effect on our liquidity, financial position, and prospects.

Any adverse material changes to the Singapore market (whether localized or resulting from global economic or other conditions) such as the occurrence of an economic recession, pandemic or widespread outbreak of an infectious disease (such as COVID-19), could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

During FY 2023 and FY 2022, substantially all of our revenue was derived from our operations in Singapore. Any adverse circumstances affecting the Singapore market, such as an economic recession, epidemic outbreak or natural disaster or other adverse incidents may adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. Any downturn in the industry which we operate in resulting in the postponement, delay or cancellation of contracts and delay in recovery of receivables is likely to have an adverse impact on our business and profitability.

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Uncertain global economic conditions have had and may continue to have an adverse impact on our business in the form of lower net sales due to weakened demand, unfavorable changes in product price/mix, or lower profit margins. For example, global economic downturns have adversely impacted some of our customers, such as Singapore Changi Airport, hotels, restaurants, retail establishments, and other entities that are particularly sensitive to business and consumer spending.

During economic downturns or recessions, there can be a heightened competition for sales and increased pressure to reduce selling prices as our customers may reduce their demand for our services. If we lose significant sales volume or reduce selling prices significantly, then there could be a negative impact on our consolidated financial condition or results of operations, profitability and cash flows.

Reduced availability of credit may also adversely affect the ability of some of our customers and suppliers to obtain funds for operations and capital expenditures. This could negatively impact our ability to obtain necessary supplies as well as our sales of materials and equipment to affected customers. This could additionally result in reduced or delayed collections of outstanding accounts receivable.

An epidemic or outbreak of communicable diseases may also adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. As of the date of this prospectus, there is an ongoing outbreak of COVID-19, which has resulted in a global health crisis, causing disruptions to social and economic activities, business operations and supply chains worldwide, including in Singapore. Measures taken by the Singapore government to tackle the spread of COVID-19 have included, among others, border closures, quarantine measures and lockdown measures. The COVID-19 outbreak and related government measures have adversely affected our business in a number of ways, including:

        temporary scale-back of certain cleaning services rendered at Singapore Changi Airport, Terminal 2;

        termination on short notice of a number of service contracts, especially contracts pertaining to the hospitality industry, as well as our provision of customer services to hotels and other tourism venues; and

        a shortage of labor given that a significant proportion of our employees are foreign workers who were subject to Singapore government imposed travel restrictions including stay-home notices or quarantine orders.

If a substantial number of our employees are infected with and/or are suspected of having COVID-19, and our employees are required to be quarantined and/or hospitalized, this may disrupt our ability to render services which may have a material adverse effect on our business operations and reputation of our Group.

The outbreak of COVID-19 contributed to a decrease in revenue from our stewarding services, from $7.3 million in FY 2020 to $4.8 million in FY 2021 and $5.1 million in FY 2022. Revenue from stewarding services has recovered in FY 2023 to $7.6 million as the national and local authorities in Singapore, where we operate, has removed most of restrictions on travel and other activities since April 2022. Our revenue also decreased temporarily during the scale-back of certain cleaning services rendered at Singapore Changi Airport, including other tenants/companies located in Terminal 2. Our Singapore Changi Airport revenue in total was approximately US$5.2 million for FY 2020. Due to reduced passenger traffic amid the COVID-19 pandemic, operations at Terminal 2 of Singapore Changi Airport were suspended to accelerate the expansion work for Terminal 2, of which we were one of the cleaning services providers, and our revenues have been reduced significantly to US$1.7 million in FY 2021 and US$1.8 million in FY 2022. Revenue from Changi Airport has recovered in FY 2023 to $3.2 million.

Operations at Terminal 2 were temporarily suspended as of May 1, 2020 due to reduced traffic caused by COVID-19. Prior to the suspension of operations of Terminal 2, there were already plans in place to renovate the terminal, and as a partial response to the reduction in activity due to COVID-19, and also to enable the acceleration of the planned expansion works at Terminal 2, Changi Airport Group (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. (“Changi Airport Group”) had decided to consolidate terminal operations in Terminals 1 and 3.

Singapore removed most remaining COVID-19 travel restrictions as of April 26, 2022, and eased its entry requirements for travelers, in response to a decline in new daily infections. Previously, Singapore Changi Airport closed the northern section of departure and arrival areas at Terminal 2. As of the date of this prospectus, Singapore Changi Airport has reopened the northern section of departure and arrival areas at Terminal 2 and the southern section of its Terminal 2 arrival hall and southern section of its Terminal 2 departure hall. Our contract with Changi Airport Group in respect of the relevant reopened areas of Singapore Changi Airport, was renewed effective on November 1, 2022 through October 31, 2023. Our other contract with Changi Airport Group for the airside is effective on March 1, 2023 through October 31, 2023. There can be no assurances as to whether Singapore Changi Airport will have any future

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closure in any parts of its airport terminals with respect to COVID-19; therefore, as long as COVID-19 continues to affect the aviation sector and the travel industry, we believe our airport services may be affected and it may have a material impact on the financial performance of the Group.

COVID-19 has impacted Singapore’s economy resulting in significant economic contraction and high unemployment rates during FY 2020. The general economic downturn may affect the ability of our counterparties to perform their obligations in a timely manner or at all. Singapore government measures to alleviate the economic impact of COVID-19 such as the imposition of relief from actions for inability to perform scheduled contracts, or relief for financially distressed individuals, firms and other businesses could adversely affect our ability to enforce and require our counterparties to perform their obligations under our contracts.

Our revenue and profitability may be materially impacted if COVID-19 (or any health epidemic or virus outbreak) affects or continues to affect the overall economic and market conditions in Singapore for a prolonged period of time. Such an economic slowdown and/or negative business sentiment could potentially have an adverse impact on our business and operations. We are uncertain as to when the outbreak of COVID-19 will be contained, and we also cannot predict if the impact of an outbreak will be short-lived or long-lasting or when the Singapore market will be able to fully recover to pre-COVID-19 levels. If these disruptions are for a prolonged period of time, or if there are further outbreaks of infectious diseases, these may have a material adverse effect on our Group’s business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.

The Clean Mark Gold Award currently awarded to Primech A&P may be revoked and/or may not be renewed in May 2024.

Primech A&P and Maint-Kleen are 2022 recipients of the Clean Mark Gold Award, with Primech A&P also being a 2023 recipient of the Clean Mark Gold Award. The Clean Mark Gold Award is the highest level of accreditation under the Enhanced Clean Mark Accreditation Scheme granted to cleaning businesses. See “General Information on Our Group — Our Business Overview — Awards and Accreditation.”

As further set forth in “Legal Proceedings,” a 2019 workplace accident may result in a court conviction by A&P Maintenance. In 2020, A&P Maintenance and Primech Services & Engrg Pte. Ltd. amalgamated to form Primech A&P. Thus, a conviction (for offences under legislation administered by MOM) would have to be disclosed to NEA in connection with Primech A&P’s Clean Mark Gold Award and subsequent application for a renewal of its Clean Mark Gold Award in May of 2024. We have been advised by the solicitors to A&P Maintenance in connection with the 2019 workplace accident that this technicality will not in and of itself result in Primech A&P’s Clean Mark Gold Award being revoked prior to expiry, or disqualify Primech A&P from obtaining its 2024 renewal of the Clean Mark Gold Award, but we cannot assure you that this unfortunate accident will not cause Primech A&P’s Clean Mark Gold Award to be revoked prior to its expiry, or will not cause Primech A&P to lose its Clean Mark Gold Award when it expires in May 2024. Loss of this award could result in a breach of existing cleaning contracts, and/or disqualify Primech A&P from entering into or tendering for certain future cleaning contracts, which in turn could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations in the future.

Our Group does not have a long operating history as an integrated group.

Our Company was incorporated as a holding company on December 29, 2020; and starting in 2018 our Major Shareholder, Sapphire Universe acquired Primech Services & Engrg, A&P Maintenance, Acteef Cleaning, Maint-Kleen, and we acquired CSG and Princeston International in 2021. While our subsidiaries have been in operation between approximately two and thirty years, we do not have a long history of running an integrated group with standardized policies and procedures and on which our past performance may be judged.

There is no assurance that our future expansion and other growth plans will be successful.

As part of our future plans, we intend to expand our current facilities services into specialized services, or provide additional services such as landscaping and security services. We may expand our range of services organically, or inorganically through franchising, joint ventures, acquisitions and/or strategic alliances.

As such, we may be subject to risks related to the expansion of our Group such as, among others:

        the availability of sufficient funds;

        difficulties arising from operating a significantly larger and more complex organization;

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        difficulties in entering into new businesses for which we may not be as or at all familiar;

        difficulties in integrating the assets and the business operations of the subsidiaries and strategic alliances cohesively;

        failure to realize expected profitability or growth;

        failure to realize expected synergies and cost savings; and

        unforeseen legal, regulatory, contractual, labor or other issues whether in Singapore or elsewhere.

We may also enter into new geographic markets, depending on the demand for our services as well as opportunities for growth. See section titled “General Information on our Group — Our Business Overview — Our Business Strategies and Future Plans” for further details. Overseas expansion involves numerous risks, including but not limited to legal and regulatory risks and financial costs. We cannot assure you that our operations in new geographic markets will be profitable. In addition to the above, geographic expansion will require substantial management dedication and efforts which may require significant additional expenditures. The successful implementation of our growth strategies depends on a variety of factors including our ability to hire and retain key management personnel, negotiate attractive terms for such acquisitions or expansions that may command high valuations, and obtain sufficient financing for our capital expenditures. There is no assurance that we will be able to obtain the required financing or that we will continue to have sufficient cash flow to fund our Group’s expansion. The abovementioned challenges associated with our growth plans may place increased demands on our management and on our operational systems and other resources, and could also increase our exposure to unanticipated risks and liabilities.

As such, there is no assurance that our Group will be successful in implementing our future plans or that we will be able to realize the profits, growth, or synergies expected from our Group’s expansion. In the event that we are unable to effectively or successfully execute our expansion strategies, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may be materially and adversely affected.

There is no assurance that our existing service contracts for facilities services will be renewed upon expiry or that we will be successful in securing new service contracts.

We derive the majority of our revenue from the provision of facilities services, which accounted for 80.8% of our revenue in FY 2023 and 84.6% of our revenue in FY 2022.

To the extent that the demand for our facilities services, particularly in Singapore, is adversely affected for any reasons, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

For facilities services, our service contracts with our customers are typically for a term of two to four years and may provide for an option to renew or extend for an additional term (typically two years). There is no assurance that our existing service contracts will be renewed or extended by our customers on the exact same terms, or at all. In order to secure facilities services contracts, we typically have to participate in a tender process, or provide quotes for our services. This is a competitive process for which our customers take into account, among other things, the prior performance, financial capability, reputation, accreditations and certifications of each potential contractor before deciding which contractor to appoint. Competition for such tenders is typically high. Accordingly, there is no assurance that we will be successful in securing new facilities services contracts. To the extent we are unable to secure new facilities contracts as our existing service contracts expire, our profitability and prospects could be materially and adversely affected.

Depending on customers’ demand for our services, if less of our service is required, our customers may re-negotiate to lower the fees payable to us under their service contracts with us. Further, our facilities services contracts typically permit our customers to terminate our service without cause by providing an agreed upon prior notice. If a substantial number of our service contracts are terminated early for any reason, and we are unable to secure new service contracts in a timely manner, this could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. For example, due to the COVID-19 pandemic leading to a slowdown in the hospitality and aviation industries, most of our service contracts for stewarding services and with Singapore Changi Airport were modified to reduce the scope of our services, which led to a decrease in our revenue by $2.5 million and $3.5 million, respectively, from FY 2020 to FY 2021 and had a material adverse effect on our results of operations.

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Our current strategy to expand into the installation of electric vehicle (EV) charging infrastructure is limited to participation in a pilot program and potential minority investment(s).

One of our business strategies is to expand our portfolio of services to include, among others, eco-solutions. To this end, we joined a consortium with third parties who have extensive experience in the EV charging and energy solutions sectors to submit a tender with the Singapore government to install EV charging infrastructure at various public cark parks in Singapore. The consortium was awarded the pilot tender by the government of Singapore to install EV charging infrastructure in approximately 150 public car parks in the North and North-East regions in Singapore. While we are familiar with submitting tenders to government authorities and executing government projects, we are reliant on our consortium collaborators such as Charge+ Pte. Ltd. (“Charge+”) (an EV charging solution provider in Singapore and Southeast Asia) for their experience in the EV industry. We and the other consortium members entered into agreements with the Singapore government relating to the EV project; these agreements provide that each consortium member, as a service provider, is jointly and severally responsible to the authorities for the due performance of the agreements. We subsequently entered into a Deed of Confirmation and Acknowledgement dated May 24, 2022 (the “Deed of Confirmation”) with our consortium collaborators which provides that (i) Charge+ shall at its own cost and expense, carry out and complete all works in connection with this project, (ii) Charge+ shall pay all concession and other fees payable and due to the Singapore authorities in connection with this project, (iii) we have no financial obligations to Charge+ or the other members of the consortium and (iv) Charge+ shall be entitled to all revenues received in connection with this project. Notwithstanding the Deed of Confirmation, each consortium member (including us) remains jointly and severally responsible to the authorities for the due performance of the agreements. The Singapore government is not a party to the Deed of Confirmation and the Deed of Confirmation does not extinguish the Company’s financial or operational obligations to the Singapore government. Therefore, if Charge+ was to default on its obligations under the agreements with the Singapore government relating to the EV project and Deed of Confirmation with respect to these costs, we estimate that the financial obligations to be borne by the other three consortium collaborators (including us) would not exceed US$3.3 million (SGD 4.4 million) over the next twelve years, comprised of no more than US$1.5 million (SGD 2 million) for the installation of the remaining charging stations and operating costs of no more than US$150,000 (SGD 200,000) per year for the next twelve years. See “Our Business Strategies and Future Plans” for more information.

In addition, we expect to apply a portion of the proceeds from this offering to one or more minority investments in the EV conversion and charging business, but we do not intend to acquire a controlling interest in any target company. We also expect to apply a portion of the proceeds from this offering to upgrade our motor vehicles and our fleet of ride-on and autonomous cleaning machines compatible with EV charging. We do not own or operate an EV charging function.

As we are not in the business of manufacturing or operating EV technology, our participation is limited to efforts of the types described above.

Our service contracts typically contain liquidated damages clauses, and our customers have in the past and may in the future request for liquidated damages if we fail to comply or observe certain contractual requirements.

Our service contracts with our customers typically contain liquidated damages clauses. If we fail to meet the requirements prescribed in the service contracts such as the inability to fulfil the required standard of cleanliness desired by our customers whether from shortage of personnel and/or other operational mishaps such as delays in cleaning schedules or deviations from customer instructions, our customers may require us to pay ascertained monetary damages, and/or they may deduct any such damages from our security deposit with them or any monies due or payable to us. In FY 2023 and FY 2022, we incurred an aggregate cost of approximately $1.1 million and $0.6 million, respectively, in liquidated damages. In the event that substantial liquidated damages are imposed on us, this may have material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

The loss of or reduction of Singapore government grants and/or subsidies, particularly those relating to COVID-19 relief, could reduce our profits.

We from time to time receive certain Singapore government grants and/or subsidies in connection with, among others, the wages of our employees (such as the Special Employment Credit and the Wage Credit Scheme) as well as the purchase of technological equipment. For FY 2023 and FY 2022, our Singapore government grants amounted to $4.6 million and $3.5 million, respectively.

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The provision of such grants and/or subsidies is at the sole discretion of the government depending on, among other things, public interest and political factors, and is not guaranteed. For example, in response to the COVID-19 crisis, the Singapore government in 2020 introduced the Jobs Support Scheme (“JSS”) and the Jobs Growth Incentive (“JGI”), under which the government gave payouts to qualifying employers to offset local employees’ wages (and help protect their jobs) and to encourage employers to expand local hiring. We received JSS and JGI payouts from the Singapore government in FY 2021; these payouts amounted to $7.5 million and were all recognized in our income statement for FY 2021. See section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” for further details.

There is no assurance that the Singapore government will provide such grants and/or benefits in future periods of economic uncertainty.

We have tendered bids and quoted for service contracts based on factors such as the prevailing market conditions and the availability of Singapore government grants and/or subsidies. We expect COVID-19 relief related grants to be reduced if and as the pandemic subsides. Any further reduction in the amount of government grants and/or subsidies received may render certain of our ongoing projects unprofitable and this would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. Our increased use of technological equipment such as cleaning robots is also supported by specific Singapore government grants. We cannot predict whether we or our subsidiaries will continue to benefit from such grants and/or subsidies, and there is no guarantee that we can continue to receive Singapore government grants in the future. In the event that these Singapore government grants and/or subsidies fall away and we are unable to find alternative funding on same or similar favorable terms, our plans to expand our service capacity through capital expenditure on cleaning robots may not be successful and our financial condition and operating results may suffer. Further, it is uncertain whether we will be able to benefit from Singapore government grants, or any other grants or subsidies, in respect of any expansion of our business or any jobs performed by us outside Singapore.

We may suffer from cost overruns as our fees are typically agreed upon submission of tender or quotation.

We typically enter into service contracts whereby the contract value is fixed upon submission of a tender or quotation. A tender is proffered by us in a competitive bidding process, and a quotation is given directly by us to a potential client. We would take into consideration, among other things, the needs and expectations of the customers, the need for procurement of additional resources (such as manpower, equipment or supplies) and other logistical arrangements, the need for engaging sub-contractors, as well as prevailing Singapore government grants and/or subsidies.

The accuracy of our contract proposals is subject to our Group’s experience and expertise in assessing the tender or quotation requirements. However, the tender or quotation process may be carried out approximately one (1) to three (3) months prior to entry into the final service contract and the rendering of our services. During this period, we may face unforeseen circumstances such as changes in the cost of labor, equipment or supplies, regulatory changes, and other unforeseen circumstances which may result in cost overruns. Any increase in costs of labor, equipment or supplies, or the incurrence of additional sub-contractor fees during the term of the service contract, would be borne by us. If we are unable to control costs or manage our costs within our estimates, this may materially and adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

We are exposed to the credit risks of our customers and we may experience delays or defaults in collecting our receivables, and thus we face liquidity risks.

We extend our credit terms of between 30 and 90 days depending on the creditworthiness of our customers. As at March 31, 2023 and 2022, accounts receivable were approximately $15.4 million and $11.9 million, respectively, and our average accounts receivable turnover days were 72 days and 73 days, respectively. Our total amount of reserve for uncollectible amounts of trade and other receivables were approximately $454,000 and $472,000 in FY 2023 and FY 2022, respectively.

We face uncertainties over the timeliness of our customers’ payments and their ability to pay. Our customers’ ability to pay may be affected by events or circumstances that are difficult to foresee or anticipate, such as a decline in their business or an economic downturn. Hence, there can be no assurance that we will be able to collect our trade debts fully or within a reasonable period of time.

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As such, our financial condition and results of operations are dependent, to a certain extent, on the creditworthiness of our customers. If there are any unforeseen circumstances affecting our customers’ ability or willingness to pay us, we may experience payment delays or non-payment. In such events, our Group’s liquidity, cash flows and working capital may be adversely affected.

Our business involves inherent industrial risks and occupational hazards, the materialization of which may adversely affect our business operations and financial results.

Our business involves inherent industrial risks and occupational hazards, which may not be wholly eliminated or preventable through the implementation of safety measures. Our industry is labor-intensive by nature and our workers are required to perform certain tasks that present risks and dangers, such as working at a considerable height above ground, cleaning slippery floors, working in environments which may be dusty or dirty and may contain viruses or bacteria, carrying heavy objects, coming into contact with cleaning chemicals such as bleach and detergents, and operating motor vehicles and cleaning machinery.

In addition, we are liable under the WICA and under Singapore common law to compensate employees (including sub-contractors’ employees) who suffer bodily injuries or death as a result of accidents or who contract occupational diseases arising out of and in the course of their employment with us. We may also face claims from third parties from time to time including those who suffer personal injuries at premises where we provide services. Thus, we may from time to time be involved in material disputes with various parties in the ordinary course of our business. Such complaints, allegations and legal actions, regardless of their merit, may result in public scrutiny and negative publicity, thereby harming the standing and market reputation of our Group. In the event that claims are brought against us, whether with or without merit, the resulting litigation, arbitration, administrative or other legal proceedings could be time consuming and costly.

While we have implemented QEHS procedures, there is no assurance of compliance therewith by our employees at all times or that they will not be exposed to risks or dangers related to their work activities, such as illnesses from diseases or viruses, or physical injuries arising from equipment failure or industrial accidents. In the event that such risks or dangers materialize, we may be subject to inquiries and investigations by the relevant authorities, thus disrupting our business and damaging our reputation, which may also affect the validity of our relevant licenses, permits and/or approvals, business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. Please refer to the section titled “General Information on our Group — Our Business Overview — Legal Proceedings” of this prospectus for further details.

Our operations are also exposed to the risk of equipment failure, failure by our employees to follow procedures and protocols, as well as risks inherent in operating equipment and machinery, resulting in damage to or loss of any relevant machines, equipment or facilities or to personal injury. A major operational failure could result in substantial loss of life and/or serious injury, damage to or loss of machines, equipment or facilities, protracted legal disputes and damage to our reputation. Further, our contracts provide that our customers can suspend or refuse services in the event that their operations are affected by events of force majeure. In the event of operational or equipment failure, we may be forced to cease part of our operations and we may be subject to any penalty or incur extra costs or expenses in any dispute as a result of such operational or equipment failure. As a result, the business, financial condition and results of operations of our Group may be materially and adversely affected.

We depend on certain equipment to perform our facilities services and are subject to associated risks of maintenance and obsolescence.

We utilize cleaning robots in the provision of our facilities services. We purchase these robots from third parties, and they typically come with a manufacturer’s warranty of one year. In the event that any necessary repairs are not covered by the manufacturer’s warranty or such warranty has expired, we would be required to pay for the costs of repair, which could be a significant amount.

Further, our cleaning robots may face obsolescence due to rapid technological developments and the emergence of alternative innovations. To the extent that our equipment faces obsolescence before the end of their expected useful lives, we may be subject to impairment losses. Changes and advancements in technology may require us to replace and upgrade our equipment at an earlier stage than expected. As a result, we may incur significant additional capital expenditure.

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We are exposed to legal or other proceedings or to other disputes or claims.

In the event that our customers do not make payment in a timely manner, we may seek to enforce our contractual rights and seek recourse via litigation or arbitration. These legal procedures are time-consuming and the settlement of a contract dispute may require additional financial and other resources. Failure to secure adequate payments in time or to manage past due receivables effectively could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Further, disputes and claims may arise, from time to time, between our Group and our customers, suppliers or sub-contractors for various reasons such as delays, unsatisfactory service delivery and alleged breaches of service contracts. Due to the nature of our services, we have, from time to time, been the subject of workplace safety and/or negligence claims from employees and/or members of the public. These disputes, if remain unresolved or worsen, may eventually result in legal or other proceedings and therefore cause disruptions and delays to our operations, in addition to the extra costs that may be incurred in their settlement or other resolution. Our resources may also be diverted to defend the claims, thereby adversely affecting our Group’s business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

In the event that we are unable to resolve the aforementioned disputes or claims satisfactorily in a timely manner or at all, our Group’s business, financial condition and results of operation may be materially and adversely affected. Please refer to the section titled “General Information on our Group — Our Business Overview — Legal Proceedings” of this prospectus for further details.

Our insurance coverage may not cover all our damages and losses.

We maintain insurance policies to provide insurance coverage of our business operations. We expect to renew our insurance policies, such as our insurance policy for work injury compensation on an annual basis and there is no assurance that we will be able to renew all of our policies or obtain new policies on similar terms.

The nature of our business operations entails inherent risks such as risk of fire, theft and property loss at the worksites during the course of our service contracts or during the delivery of our services. Also, we do not have key man insurance to cover the loss of key personnel. While our Directors believe that we have sufficient insurance coverage for our business operations in line with industry standards and business practices in Singapore and although we may be able to increase our insurance coverage when required, there is no assurance that our existing or future insurance coverage will be sufficient to indemnify us against all potential losses.

As a public company, we expect the laws, rules and regulations governing U.S. public companies will make it more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance, and we may be required to accept reduced policy limits and coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain the same or similar coverage.

In the event that our existing insurance coverage is insufficient to indemnify us against all or any losses, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may be materially and adversely affected.

We are dependent on our ability to retain existing senior management personnel and to attract new qualified management personnel.

Our continued success is highly dependent on our ability to retain our senior management personnel, who are responsible for key aspects of our business, including but not limited to maintaining customer relationships, developing new business opportunities, finance and project management. Our Executive Officers have an average of 17 years’ experience in the facilities services industry, and their knowledge, skills and extensive experience in our industry, business relationships with our customers, and ability to manage existing and develop new customer relationships have been important to the growth of our Group. If any of our key management personnel cease to be involved with our Group in the future and we are unable to find suitable replacements in a timely manner, this may cause disruptions to our business operations and our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may be adversely affected.

The success and growth of our Group also depends on our ability to identify, hire, train and retain suitable, skilled and qualified key management personnel. If we are unable to hire and retain employees from different sectors apart from the facilities services industry, such as hires with technology, finance, human resources and business development capabilities, our ability to build up our key management personnel team may be limited to a certain extent.

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The appeal of our services is reliant, to some extent, on maintaining and protecting the brand names and trademarks in our business.

Our business is sensitive to customer perception of the quality and safety of our services and products. In the event of any misuse of our brand and/or trademarks (which may include misuse by our sub-contractors, our employees or unrelated third parties), or in the event we fail to detect, deter and prevent trademark, related misconduct, or otherwise fail to effectively protect our brand and/or trademarks, our reputation could be damaged, resulting in our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects being materially and adversely affected.

We are exposed to risks of infringement of our intellectual property rights and the unauthorized use of our trademarks by third parties and we may face litigation suits for intellectual property infringement.

We believe our trademarks are well recognized by our customers and in the industries we are operating in, which reflects our reliable and quality services that have contributed to our success. It is possible that our competitors or other third parties may adopt trademarks similar to ours, which may lead to brand confusion. If we fail to effectively protect our trademarks and other intellectual property, generally or against specific third party infringement, our intellectual property rights could be negatively affected and our customers may have a negative impression of our service quality which in turn may have an adverse impact on our Group’s reputation, prospects, business and financial results.

There is also no assurance that we will not be sued for any potential infringement of any intellectual property rights of third parties in the future. In the event of any claims or litigation involving infringement of the intellectual property rights of third parties, whether with or without merit, we may be required to divert a significant amount of our time and resources to defend or attend to any possible litigation or legal proceedings. As a result, our reputation, business and financial results may be adversely affected.

We could incur substantial costs as a result of data protection concerns or IT systems disruption or failure.

While we have not been the subject of any cyber-attacks or IT system failures that have had a material impact on our Group, our business may be impacted by such attacks or system failures in the future. Cybersecurity attacks, in particular, are evolving and include, but are not limited to, malicious software, attempts to gain unauthorized access to data and other electronic security breaches that could lead to disruptions in systems, unauthorized release of confidential or otherwise protected information and corruption of data. A cyberattack or system failure may result in operational downtimes and/or delays, which may have a detrimental impact on our ability to provide services to our customers. In addition, we utilize cleaning robots in the provision of our facilities services and we have established online booking platforms (web based and mobile applications) for our HomeHelpy business, and any failure of these systems could disrupt our daily operations and lead to delays of our provision of services or loss in our revenues.

We handle the personal data of customers in the ordinary course of providing cleaning services to individual customers. The collection and use of such personal data is governed by personal data protection laws in Singapore, in particular the Personal Data Protection Act 2012 (No. 26 of 2012). While we have implemented measures to protect sensitive information and confidential and personal data and comply with applicable laws, rules and regulations, our facilities and systems may be vulnerable to security breaches and other data loss, including cyber-attacks. In addition, it is not possible to predict the impact on our business of any future loss, alteration or misappropriation of information in our possession related to us, our employees, former employees, customers, suppliers or others. This could lead to negative publicity, legal claims, theft, modification or destruction of proprietary or other key information, damage to or inaccessibility of critical systems, operational downtimes and/or delays and other significant costs, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

The value of our intangible assets and costs of investment may become impaired.

As a result of our past acquisitions carried out pursuant to the Restructuring Exercise in 2021, goodwill and other intangible assets represented a significant portion of our assets. Goodwill and other intangible assets (comprising customer contracts and customer relationships) were approximately $0.8 million and $1.2 million as at March 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively, representing approximately 1.8% and 3.6% of our total assets. During FY 2023, we determined there was an impairment charge of approximately $138,000 related to the recorded goodwill relating to the acquisition of Maint-Kleen. If we make additional acquisitions, it is likely that we will record additional intangible assets such as goodwill on our consolidated statement of financial position.

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Other intangible assets are amortized over their estimated useful lives. In accordance with applicable accounting standards, we periodically evaluate our goodwill and other intangible assets to determine whether all or a portion of their carrying values may no longer be recoverable, in which case a charge to the profit or loss statement may be necessary. Such impairment testing is complex and requires us to make assumptions and judgments regarding the estimated recoverable amount of our cash-generating units to which the goodwill is allocated. If estimated recoverable amounts are less than the carrying values for goodwill in future annual impairment tests, we may be required to record impairment losses in future periods. Any future evaluations requiring an impairment of our goodwill could materially affect our results of operations and shareholders’ equity in the period in which the impairment occurs. A material decrease in shareholders’ equity could, in turn, potentially impact our ability to pay dividends.

Our historical financial and operating results are not a guarantee of our future performance.

Our annual and periodic financial results vary from year-to-year and from period-to-period, in response to a number of factors that we cannot predict, such as general business outlook and sentiment, economic market conditions, employment rates, inflation and interest rates and consumer confidence. As such, we believe that our annual and periodic financial results are not a guarantee of our future economic performance and undue reliance should not be placed on such results for future speculative purposes.

We may be exposed to liabilities under applicable anti-corruption laws and any determination that we violated these laws could have a materially adverse effect on our business.

We are subject to various anti-corruption laws that prohibit companies and their agents from making improper payments or offers of payments for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. We may conduct business in countries and regions that are generally recognized as potentially more corrupt business environments. Activities in these countries create the risk of unauthorized payments or offers of payments by one of our employees or agents that could be in violation of various anti-corruption laws, including the United States Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (the “FCPA”). We have implemented safeguards and policies to discourage these practices by our employees and agents but we cannot provide assurance that our internal controls and compliance systems will always protect us from acts committed by our employees or agents. If our employees or agents violate our policies or we fail to maintain adequate record keeping and internal accounting practices to accurately record our transactions, we may be subject to regulatory sanctions. Violations of the FCPA or other anti-corruption laws, or allegations of any such acts, could damage our reputation and subject us to civil or criminal investigations in the United States and in other jurisdictions. Those and any related shareholder lawsuits could lead to substantial civil and criminal, monetary and non-monetary penalties and cause us to incur significant legal and investigatory fees which could adversely affect our business, consolidated financial condition and results of operations.

Any inability by us to consummate and effectively integrate acquisitions into our business operations may adversely affect our results of operations.

We invest time and resources into carefully assessing opportunities for acquisitions, and we continue to evaluate potential acquisition opportunities to support, strengthen and grow our business, including potentially in the near term. For example, since 2020 we have acquired Maint-Kleen, CSG and Princeston International. Despite diligence and integration planning, acquisitions still present certain risks, including the time and economic costs of integrating an acquisition’s technology, control and financial systems, unforeseen liabilities, and difficulties in bringing together different work cultures and personnel. Although we have previously completed several acquisitions, there can be no assurance that we will be able to locate suitable acquisition candidates, acquire possible acquisition candidates, acquire such candidates on commercially reasonable terms, or integrate acquired businesses successfully in the future. Future acquisitions, including those we may consummate in the near term, may require us to incur additional debt and contingent liabilities, which may adversely affect our business, results of operations and consolidated financial condition. The process of integrating acquired businesses into our existing operations may result in operating, contractual and supply chain difficulties, such as the failure to retain customers or management personnel. Such difficulties may divert significant financial, operational and managerial resources from our existing operations, and make it more difficult to achieve our operating and strategic objectives.

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We may be subject to claims against us relating to any acquisition or business combination.

There may be liabilities assumed in any acquisition or business combination that we did not discover or that we underestimated in the course of performing our due diligence. Although a seller generally will have indemnification obligations in favor of us under an acquisition or merger agreement, these obligations will usually be subject to financial limitations, such as general deductibles and maximum recovery amounts, as well as time limitations. We cannot ensure that our right to indemnification from any sellers will be enforceable, collectible or sufficient in amount, scope or duration to fully offset the amount of any undiscovered or underestimated liabilities that we may incur. Any such liabilities, individually or collectively, could have a material and adverse effect on our prospects, business and financial results.

We will incur significant expenses and devote other significant resources and management time as a result of being a public company, which may negatively impact our financial performance and could cause our results of operations and financial condition to suffer.

We will incur significant legal, accounting, insurance and other expenses as a result of being a public company. Laws, regulations and standards relating to corporate governance and public disclosure for public companies, including the Dodd-Frank Act of 2010, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, regulations related thereto and the rules and regulations of the SEC and Nasdaq, will significantly increase our costs as well as the time that must be devoted to compliance matters. We expect that compliance with these laws, rules, regulations and standards will substantially increase our expenses, including our legal and accounting costs, and make some of our operating activities more time-consuming and costly. These new public company obligations also will require attention from our senior management and could divert their attention away from the day-to-day management of our business. We also expect these laws, rules, regulations and standards to make it more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance, and we may be required to accept reduced policy limits and coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain the same or similar coverage. As a result, it may be more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified persons to serve on our Board of Directors or as officers. As a result of the foregoing, we expect a substantial increase in legal, accounting, insurance and certain other expenses in the future, which will negatively impact our financial performance and could cause our results of operations and financial condition to suffer. Furthermore, if we are unable to satisfy our obligations as a public company, we could be subject to delisting of our Shares, fines, sanctions and other regulatory actions and potential civil litigation.

If we fail to maintain an effective system of disclosure controls and internal controls over financial reporting, our ability to timely produce accurate financial statements or comply with applicable regulations could be impaired.

The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires, among other things, that we maintain effective internal disclosure controls and procedures over our financial reporting. We are continuing to develop and refine our disclosure controls and other procedures that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by us in our reports that we will file with the SEC will be recorded, processed, summarized, and reported within the time periods and as otherwise specified in SEC rules, and that information required to be disclosed in reports under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to our principal Executive Officers and financial officers. We are also continuing to improve our internal controls over financial reporting.

Ensuring that we have effective disclosure controls and procedures and internal controls over financial reporting in place so that we can produce accurate financial statements on a timely basis is a costly and time-consuming effort that will need to be re-evaluated frequently. Our internal controls over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements in accordance with GAAP. Beginning with our second annual report on Form 20-F after we become a company whose securities are publicly listed in the United States, we will be required, pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, to make a formal assessment of the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting, and once we cease to be an emerging growth company, we will be required to include an attestation report on internal controls over financial reporting issued by our Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm. During our evaluation of our internal controls, if we identify one or more material weaknesses in our internal controls over financial reporting, we will be unable to assert that our internal controls over financial reporting are effective. We cannot assure you that there will not be material weaknesses or significant deficiencies in our internal controls over financial reporting in the future. Any failure to maintain internal controls over financial reporting could severely inhibit our ability to accurately report our financial condition, or results of operations.

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We do not expect to be subject to certain Nasdaq corporate governance rules applicable to U.S. listed companies.

As a foreign private issuer, we are entitled to rely on a provision in Nasdaq’s corporate governance rules that allows us to follow Singapore corporate law with regards to certain aspects of corporate governance. This allows us to follow certain corporate governance practices that differ in significant respects from the corporate governance requirements applicable to U.S. companies listed on Nasdaq.

In addition, our Audit Committee is not subject to additional Nasdaq requirements applicable to listed U.S. companies, including an affirmative determination that all members of the audit committee are “independent,” using more stringent criteria than those applicable to the Company under relevant SEC rules. Nasdaq’s corporate governance rules require listed U.S. companies to, among other things, seek shareholder approval for the implementation of certain equity compensation plans and issuances of shares, which the Company is not required to follow as a foreign private issuer. However, following the IPO, we will voluntarily have a majority of independent directors and our audit committee will consist of three independent directors.

Negative publicity relating to our Group or our Directors, Executive Officers or Major Shareholders may materially and adversely affect our reputation and Share price.

Negative publicity or announcements relating to our Group or any of our Directors, Executive Officers or Major Shareholders, whether with or without merit, may materially and adversely affect the reputation and goodwill of our Group in our industry, consequently affecting our relationships with our customers, suppliers and sub-contractors. In addition, such negative publicity may affect market perception of our Group and the performance of our Share price.

Negative publicity or announcements may include, among others, newspaper reports of accidents at our work sites, unsuccessful attempts in joint ventures, acquisitions or take-overs, any involvement we may have in litigation or insolvency proceedings, and unfavorable or negative articles on any of our Directors, Executive Officers or Major Shareholders. Any claims and legal actions brought forward by our customers may also have a negative impact on our brand image. If our customers, suppliers and sub-contractors subsequently lose confidence in us, this could result in the termination of business relationships or fewer referrals or invitations to tender or quote for facilities services or other contracts. To this end, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may be adversely impacted.

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RISKS RELATING TO THE INDUSTRY IN WHICH WE OPERATE

We operate in a highly regulated industry.

We are required to obtain licenses, permits, approvals and/or certifications for our business operations and there is no guarantee that such licenses, permits, approvals and or certifications can be obtained, renewed or will not be revoked in the future.

The facilities services industry in Singapore is highly regulated. In order to conduct our business operations, we are required to hold various valid licenses, permits, approvals and/or certifications. These licenses, permits, approvals and/or certifications are subject to various terms and conditions, and are renewable on a periodic basis. While we are not aware of any circumstances which might prevent us from renewing our licenses, permits, approvals and/or certifications, there is no guarantee that these will be renewed in a timely basis, or at all.

If we fail to adhere to the stipulated regulatory requirements and/or conditions of our licenses, we may be subject to fines and penalties or be required to take remedial measures; our licenses, permits, approvals and/or certificates may be revoked; and/or additional terms and conditions may be imposed on us. In particular, the Director-General of NEA has discretion to revoke, suspend or impose any other directions or restrictions on the licensee’s cleaning business license if the licensee has gone or is likely to go into compulsory or voluntary liquidation other than for the purpose of amalgamation or reconstruction, or the Director-General becomes aware of a circumstance that would have required or permitted the Director-General to refuse to grant or renew the licensee’s cleaning business license. See section titled “General Information on our Group — Government Regulations” for further details on material Singapore government regulations applicable to us. The loss of licenses, permits, approvals and/or certifications could disrupt our business operations thereby adversely affecting our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

In Singapore, there are seven major registration categories, and various “workheads,” administered by the Building & Construction Authority of Singapore, or BCA. The Facilities Management Workheads, also known as “FM,” are the relevant “workheads” applicable to our services. There are several FM sub-categories that affect our Company.

In order to bid for the provision of cleaning services in a public sector project of an unlimited contract size, we would have to continue to maintain a L6 grade registration in respect of the FM02 workhead for “Housekeeping, Cleansing, Desilting and Conservancy” currently held by Primech A&P and Maint-Kleen, and there is no assurance that we will be able to continue to do so. The Singapore government may also introduce new workheads from time to time. For instance, with effect from April 1, 2020, BCA introduced a new FM01 workhead for “Facilities Management” whereby a provider has to provide at least two distinct maintenance services. Such maintenance services include security services, cleaning services, landscaping services and pest control. BCA may also from time to time change the requirements for obtaining the requisite workhead. Any inability to renew or maintain our current workhead grading, or obtain any relevant new workhead grading, may reduce our business opportunities for our Group and have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

The cleaning business in Singapore was only subject to license beginning in 2014, when the EPHA was amended to require the licensing of cleaning businesses. Any changes to the existing rules and regulations which govern our business operations may require us to obtain additional licenses and registrations from the relevant Singapore government authorities. To this end, our financial performance may be adversely affected if additional expenses are incurred as part of complying with license and registration requirements. We also cannot guarantee that such additional licenses and registrations will be granted to us in a timely manner, or at all. In the event that there is a delay in obtaining the relevant licenses, we are unable to obtain or renew the necessary licenses or if the necessary licenses are revoked, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may be adversely affected.

We may face employee retention and labor shortage issues due to the labor-intensive nature of the facilities services industry and limited local labor force in Singapore.

At present, the facilities services industry is highly labor-intensive. Labor costs contributed approximately 84.2% and 83.1% of our direct costs for FY 2023 and FY 2022, respectively. In particular, we are heavily reliant on foreign workers. In FY 2023, approximately 69% of our employees were Singapore citizens and permanent residents, while the remaining 31% employees were foreign workers.

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The MOM prescribes a dependency ratio ceiling which sets out the maximum permitted ratio of foreign workers to the total workforce that a company is allowed to hire. Since January 1, 2020, MOM reduced the dependency ratio ceiling for the services sector from 40% to 35%. In addition, we also have to pay levies and performance bonds in respect of our non-traditional source (“NTS”) employees, resulting in increased expenses for our Group.

Further, a portion of our total costs is attributable to leases taken up in favor of our foreign workers. As a result of travel restrictions imposed as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, our total costs attributable to leases increased by approximately 33.1% from FY 2020 to FY 2021 and further increased by approximately 9.2% from FY 2021 to FY 2022 as we had to bear additional accommodation costs for Malaysian workers who previously commuted into Singapore on a daily basis. In the event that we are required to take up additional leases for our foreign workers on an extended basis or if there is an increase in rental rates, this would result in increased expenses for our Group.

While the employment of Singapore citizens and permanent residents is not subject to the same restrictions, the employment of such workers in the cleaning, security and landscape sectors must comply with the Progressive Wage Model (“PWM”). The PWM requirements for the cleaning sector took effect from September 1, 2014 and were revised with effect from July 1, 2018, and compliance with these PWM requirements is a licensing condition for cleaning companies. The PWM stipulates monthly minimum basic wages for cleaners performing different types of cleaning jobs (the minimum wage varies depending on the job scope of the cleaner) and provides for yearly wage increases from July 1, 2020 to June 30, 2029. In addition, there is a mandatory PWM bonus payable to cleaners who meet certain criteria. See section titled “General Information on our Group — Government Regulations — Progressive Wage Model” for further details. There is no assurance that we will be able to pass on any increase in labor costs onto our customers when determining our tender pricing, failing which, our business, financial condition, results and operations and profitability may be materially and adversely affected.

Further, we may also face retention issues as the facilities services industry in Singapore is fragmented with many industry players, who may be able to offer more competitive wages or benefits than us, and our employees are generally not subject to non-compete restrictions and are able to easily move between different employers in the industry. Various factors including labor laws, travel restrictions and competition from other employers may affect our ability to retain existing employees or hire new employees, or to procure additional manpower from sub-contractors when needed. In the event that we are not able to maintain or increase our workforce as needed, we may face a shortage of labor and our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may be materially and adversely affected.

Our supply of foreign labor may be affected by the laws, regulations and policies in the countries from which the foreign labor originates.

We are dependent on the supply of foreign labor for our business operations, which is predominantly subject to the supply conditions in foreign labor markets. Our foreign workers are mainly from Malaysia, Bangladesh, Myanmar and China. The supply of foreign labor is affected by the laws, regulations and policies of the countries from which the foreign labor originates. Such laws, regulations and policies or changes thereof or the introduction of additional requirements and/or restrictions by the authorities or governments of these countries may affect the supply of foreign labor and may cause disruptions or delays to our operations and/or increase our labor costs.

For example, we source our foreign labor from foreign labor provision agencies and the laws, regulations and policies of the countries from which the foreign labor originates may require the foreign labor provision agencies to be licensed or meet other requirements before they may arrange for the foreign labor to work abroad. Hence, if these foreign labor provision agencies breach the relevant laws, regulations and policies and have their licenses revoked, we will not be able to source foreign labor from them, and we may not be able to find an alternative foreign labor provision agency. In the event that we are not able to find a suitable supply of foreign labor to meet the requirements of our customers as a result of any of the foregoing factors, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may be adversely affected.

A shortage of reliable sub-contractors may disrupt our business operations and increase our costs and we may be liable for the breaches of our sub-contractors.

In order to manage our service capacity and to complement our service offerings, we may sub-contract portions of our facilities services contracts to external service providers from time to time. For example, we outsource external façade cleaning to specialist cleaners and may from time to time outsource residential space cleaning services to sub-contractors with expertise in condominium cleaning. We also outsource pest control services, landscaping and waste management to

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sub-contractors with the relevant expertise. While we have oversight of our sub-contractors, we are not be able to control the day-to-day management and operations of our sub-contractors. Pursuant to the terms of the service contracts entered into with our customers, we may be liable for the negligence, omission, or default arising from our sub-contractors as well.

Notably, our engagements with sub-contractors are not exclusive and our sub-contractors are free to take up work with other companies. Where our sub-contractors decide not to work with us or where we are unable to retain them at costs favorable to us, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may be materially and adversely affected.

Although we are selective in engaging sub-contractors, there is a risk that our sub-contractors may fail to meet the standards required by our customers. In the event that we are required to replace a sub-contractor, we may incur higher costs and there may be disruptions or delays to the services rendered to our customers. Consequently, there may be an adverse impact on our reputation and on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

The facilities services industry in Singapore is highly competitive.

Our success in the facilities services industry will depend on our ability to compete effectively against our competitors on factors such as pricing, quality of services, reliability, reputation and size of operations. We may face more intensive competition in the future from existing competitors and new market entrants, which may be in a better position to expand their market share due to their longer operating histories, larger customer base, ready access to sub-contractors, wider range of services offered, greater financial resources or other factors. See section titled “General Information on our Group — Our Business Overview — Competition” for further details. There is no assurance that the facilities services industry in Singapore will not see an increase in the number of contractors who possess the requisite accreditation to tender for higher-value facilities services contract, or obtain a cleaning business license, or an increase in the number of contractors who have a similar expertise and track record to us.

The facilities services industry in Singapore may be affected by new initiatives introduced by the relevant regulatory agencies. For example, the NEA introduced the Clean Mark Accreditation Scheme in 2010 as an initiative to recognize businesses that deliver high cleaning standards through the training of workers, use of equipment to improve work processes and fair employment practices, and our subsidiaries, Primech A&P and Maint-Kleen subsequently obtained Clean Mark awards. See section titled “General Information on our Group — Government Regulations — Enhanced Clean Mark Accreditation Scheme” for further details. If we are unable to capitalize on Singapore government-backed initiatives and adapt or compete against our competitors in the face of such changes, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may be materially and adversely affected.

In order to expand service capacity, certain of our competitors in the facilities services industry have been exploring the use of new cleaning technology that will improve their business, including novel cleaning technology and product developers with specialized technical skills. If we are unable to adapt to and acquire such advances in technology (such as the use of effective green chemicals), we cannot remain competitive, and this may result in lower profit margins and a loss of market share for our Group. There is no assurance that we will be able to compete against our competitors effectively in the future and this could have a material and adverse effect on the business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects of our Group.

Industry consolidation may give our competitors advantage over us, which could result in a loss of customers and/or a reduction of our revenue.

Some of our competitors have made or may make acquisitions or enter into partnerships or other strategic relationships in order to offer more comprehensive services or achieve greater economies of scale. In addition, new entrants not currently considered competitors may enter our market through acquisitions, partnerships or strategic relationships. Many potential entrants may have competitive advantages over us, such as greater name recognition, longer operating histories, more varied services and larger marketing budgets, as well as greater financial, technical and other resources. Industry consolidation may result in practices that make it more difficult for us to compete effectively, including on the basis of price, sales and marketing programs, technology or services functionality. These pressures could result in a reduction in our revenue.

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We are subject to risks in connection with the use and storage of cleaning chemicals. In addition, any perceived use of cleaning supplies and/or chemicals that are not environmentally friendly or safe may adversely affect our brand name and the contracts we can successfully bid for.

Certain of the cleaning solutions and chemicals we use in our cleaning and pest control operations are considered “hazardous substances” under the Environmental Protection and Management Act 1999 of Singapore (“EPMA”) and are subject to regulatory control. In particular, we are required under the EPMA and the regulations thereunder to hold a permit to store and use such hazardous substances and comply with certain conditions of storage and disposal. Non-compliance with the relevant laws and regulations may result in fines or imprisonment, and could also reduce our chances of successfully tendering for public contracts, in view of the Singapore government’s preference for environmentally friendly cleaning chemicals. Our inability to successfully tender for public contracts could adversely affect our business, financial position, and results of operations and future prospects.

In the event that the public deems our cleaning solutions and chemicals to be not environmentally friendly or safe, or to be harmful to humans or animals, the demand for our services may reduce. This might happen regardless of whether such claims are justified or not. This in turn can damage our branding and have an adverse impact upon our business, financial position, results of operations and prospects.

New and stricter legislation and regulations may affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our business requires compliance with many laws and regulations. Increased legislative and regulatory activity and burden, particularly in the areas of licensing requirements and immigration and employment regulation, and a more stringent manner in which any of them are applied could significantly impact our business. Failure to comply with these laws and regulations could subject us to lawsuits and other proceedings, and could also lead to damage awards, fines and penalties. We may become involved in a number of legal proceedings and audits, including Singapore government and agency investigations, and consumer, employment, tort and other litigation. The outcome of some of these legal proceedings, audits, and other contingencies could require us to take, or refrain from taking, actions that could harm our operations or require us to pay substantial amounts of money, harming our financial condition. Additionally, defending against these lawsuits and proceedings may be necessary, which could result in substantial costs and diversion of our senior management’s attention and resources, harming our financial condition. There can be no assurance that any pending or future legal or regulatory proceedings and audits will not harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Furthermore, the regulatory environment in which we operate is still developing, and the potential exists for future legislation and regulations to be adopted. These developments may adversely affect the customers to whom, and the markets into which, we sell our products, increase our costs, require additional expenditures to ensure continued regulatory compliance and otherwise negatively affect our business, consolidated financial condition or results of operations, including in ways that cannot yet be foreseen.

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RISKS RELATING TO INVESTMENTS IN SINGAPORE COMPANIES

We are incorporated in Singapore, and our Shareholders may have more difficulty in protecting their interests than they would as shareholders of a corporation incorporated in the United States.

Our corporate affairs are governed by our Constitution and by the laws governing companies incorporated in Singapore. The rights of our Shareholders and the responsibilities of the members of our board of directors under Singapore law may be different from those applicable to a corporation incorporated in the United States. Therefore, our public Shareholders may have more difficulty in protecting their interests in connection with actions taken by us, our management, members of our board of directors or our Major Shareholders than they would as shareholders of a corporation incorporated in the United States. For example, controlling shareholders in corporations incorporated in Delaware are subject to fiduciary duties while controlling shareholders in Singapore companies are not subject to such duties.

In addition, only persons who are registered as Shareholders in our register of members are recognized under Singapore law as our Shareholders. Only registered Shareholders have legal standing to institute Shareholder actions against us or otherwise seek to enforce their rights as Shareholders. Investors in our Shares who are not specifically registered as Shareholders in our register of members (for example, where such Shareholders hold Shares indirectly through the Depository Trust Company “DTC”) are required to be registered as Shareholders in our register of members in order to institute or enforce any legal proceedings or claims against us, our directors or our executive officers relating to shareholder rights. The administrative process of becoming a registered Shareholder could result in delays prejudicial to any such legal proceeding or enforcement action. See section titled “Description of Share Capital and Constitution — Comparison of Shareholder Rights” for a discussion of certain differences between Singapore and Delaware corporation law.

It may be difficult for you to enforce any judgment obtained in the United States against us, our Directors, Executive Officers or our affiliates.

All of our Directors and Executive Officers reside outside the United States. In addition, all of our assets are located outside the United States. As a result, it may be difficult to enforce in the United States any judgment obtained in the United States against us or any of these persons, including judgments based upon the civil liability provisions of the U.S. securities laws. In addition, in original actions brought in courts in jurisdictions located outside the United States, it may be difficult for investors to enforce liabilities based upon U.S. securities laws.

There is no treaty between the United States and Singapore providing for the reciprocal recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters and a final judgment for the payment of money rendered by any federal or state court in the United States based on civil liability, whether or not predicated solely upon the federal securities laws, would, therefore, not be automatically enforceable in Singapore. It is not clear whether a Singapore court may impose civil liability on us or our directors and officers who reside in Singapore in an action brought in the Singapore courts against us or such persons with respect to a violation solely of the federal securities laws of the United States.

In addition, holders of book-entry interests in the Shares (for example, where such Shareholders hold Shares indirectly through the DTC) will be required to be registered Shareholders as reflected in our register of members in order to have standing to bring a Shareholder action and, if successful, to enforce a foreign judgment against us, our Directors or our Executive Officers in the Singapore courts. Any such enforcement action would be subject to applicable Singapore laws. The administrative process of becoming a registered Shareholder could result in delays that could be prejudicial to any legal proceeding or enforcement action. In making a determination as to enforceability of a judgment of a state court or a federal court of the United States, the Singapore courts would have regard to, among other factors, whether the judgment was final and conclusive, given by a court of law of competent jurisdiction, expressed to be for a fixed sum of money, whether it was procured by fraud, or in breach of principles of natural justice, or whether the enforcement thereof would be contrary to public policy.

Accordingly, there can be no assurance that the Singapore courts would enforce against us, our Directors or our Executive Officers, judgments obtained in the United States which are predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the federal securities laws of the United States.

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Subject to the general authority to allot and issue new Shares provided by our Shareholders, the Companies Act and our Constitution, our directors may allot and issue new Shares on terms and conditions and for such purposes as may be determined by our Board of Directors in its sole discretion. Any issuance of new Shares would dilute the percentage ownership of existing Shareholders and could adversely impact the market price of our Shares.

Under Singapore law, we may only allot and issue new Shares with the prior approval of our Shareholders at a general meeting. Subject to the general authority to allot and issue new Shares provided by our Shareholders, the provisions of the Companies Act, and our Constitution, we may allot and issue new Shares on such terms and conditions as our Directors may think fit to impose. Such terms and conditions may be adverse to the rights of holders of our Shares.

Because new issuances of Shares are subject to Shareholder approval, if a sufficient number of Shares have not been approved for issuance in any given year, we may be delayed in raising capital through equity offerings or delayed or prevented from consummating an acquisition using our Shares. Assuming Shareholders have approved the issuance of Shares, we may seek to raise capital in the future, including to fund acquisitions, future investments and other growth opportunities. We may, for these and other purposes, issue additional Shares or securities convertible into Shares. Any additional issuances of new Shares could dilute the percentage ownership of our existing Shareholders and may also adversely impact the market price of our Shares.

We are subject to the laws of Singapore, which differ in certain material respects from the laws of the United States.

As a Singapore-incorporated company, we are required to comply with the laws of Singapore, certain of which are capable of extra-territorial application, as well as our Constitution. In particular, we are required to comply with certain provisions of the Securities and Futures Act 2001 of Singapore (the “SFA”), which prohibit certain forms of market conduct and information disclosures, and impose criminal and civil penalties on corporations, directors and officers in respect of any breach of such provisions. In addition, the Singapore Code on Take-Overs and Mergers, or “Singapore Take-over Code”, which specifies, among other things, certain circumstances in which a general offer is to be made upon a change in control of a Singapore-incorporated public company, and further specifies the manner and price at which voluntary and mandatory general offers are to be made.

The laws of Singapore and of the United States differ in certain significant respects. The rights of our Shareholders and the obligations of our Directors and Executive Officers under Singapore law may be different from those applicable to U.S. corporations, including those incorporated in Delaware, in material respects, and our Shareholders may have more difficulty and less clarity in protecting their interests in connection with actions taken by our management, members of our Board of Directors or our Major Shareholders than would otherwise apply to U.S. corporations, including those incorporated in Delaware. See section titled “Description of Share Capital and Constitution” for a discussion of certain differences between Singapore and Delaware corporation law.

In addition, the application of Singapore law, in particular, the Companies Act may, in certain circumstances, impose more restrictions on us, our Shareholders, Directors and officers than would otherwise be applicable to U.S. corporations, including those incorporated in Delaware. For example, the Companies Act requires a director to act with reasonable degree of diligence in the discharge of the duties of his or her office and, in certain circumstances, imposes criminal liability for specified contraventions of particular statutory requirements or prohibitions. In addition, pursuant to the provisions of the Companies Act, shareholders holding 10% or more of the total number of paid-up shares as at the date of the deposit carrying the right of voting at general meetings (disregarding paid-up shares held as treasury shares) may by depositing a requisition, require our Directors to convene an extraordinary general meeting. If our directors do not within 21 days after the date of deposit of the requisition proceed to convene a meeting, the requisitioning shareholders, or any of them representing more than 50% of the total voting rights represented of all of them, may themselves, proceed to convene such meeting, and we will be liable for the reasonable expenses incurred by such requisitioning shareholders. We are also required by the Companies Act to deduct corresponding amounts from fees or other remuneration payable by us to such of the directors as are in default.

Singapore take-over laws contain provisions that may vary from those in other jurisdictions.

The Singapore Take-over Code applies to, among others, corporations with a primary listing of their equity securities in Singapore. While the Singapore Take-over Code is drafted with, among others, listed public companies in mind, unlisted public companies with more than 50 (fifty) shareholders and net tangible assets of approximately

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$3.75 million (S$5.0 million) or more, must also observe the letter and spirit of the general principles and rules of the Singapore Take-Over Code, wherever this is possible and appropriate. Public companies with a primary listing overseas may apply to Securities Industry Council (“SIC”) to waive the application of the Singapore Take-over Code. As at the date of this prospectus, no application has been made to SIC to waive the application of the Singapore Take-over Code in relation to us.

In this regard, the Singapore Take-Over Code contains certain provisions that may possibly delay, deter or prevent a future take-over or change in control of us. Under the Singapore Take-Over Code, except with the consent of SIC, any person acquiring an interest, whether by a series of transactions over a period of time or not, either on his own or together with parties acting in concert with him, in 30% or more of our voting shares is required to extend a take-over offer for all remaining voting shares in accordance with the procedural and other requirements under the Singapore Take-Over Code.

Except with the consent of SIC, such a take-over offer is also required to be made if a person holding between 30% and 50% (both inclusive) of our voting shares, either on his own or together with parties acting in concert with him, acquires additional voting shares representing more than 1% of our voting shares in any six-month period. While the Singapore Take-Over Code seeks to ensure an equality of treatment among shareholders in take-over or merger situations, its provisions could substantially impede the ability of the shareholders to benefit from a change of control and, as a result, may adversely affect the market price of the Shares and the ability to realize any benefit from a potential change of control.

RISKS RELATING TO AN INVESTMENT IN OUR SHARES

An active trading market for our Shares may not develop and could affect the trading price of our Shares.

Prior to the IPO, there has been no public market for our Shares. Although our Shares have been approved for listing on Nasdaq Capital Market, there can be no assurance that there will be an active, liquid public market for our Shares after the IPO. The lack of an active market may impair your ability to sell your Shares at the time you wish to sell them or at a price that you consider reasonable. The lack of an active market may also reduce the fair market value of your shares. An inactive market may also impair our ability to raise capital to continue to fund operations by selling shares and may impair our ability to acquire other companies or technologies by using our shares as consideration. The IPO price was determined by negotiations between us and the underwriter and may not be indicative of the future prices of our Shares.

Our Share price may fluctuate significantly in the future and you may lose all or part of your investment, and litigation may be brought against us.

There is no assurance that the market price for our Shares will not decline below the Offer Price. The Offer Price was determined after consultation between our Company and the underwriter, after taking into consideration, among others, market conditions and estimated market demand for our Shares. The Offer Price may not necessarily be indicative of the market price for our Shares after the completion of the IPO. Investors may not be able to sell their Shares at or above the Offer Price. The prices at which our Shares will trade after the IPO may fluctuate significantly and rapidly as a result of, among others, the following factors, some of which are beyond our control:

        variation in our results of operations;

        perceived prospects and future plans for our business and the general outlook of our industry;

        changes in securities analysts’ estimates of our results of operations and recommendations;

        announcements by us of significant contracts, acquisitions, strategic alliances or joint ventures or capital commitments;

        the valuation of publicly-traded companies that are engaged in business activities similar to ours;

        additions or departures of key personnel;

        fluctuations in stock market prices and volume;

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        involvement in litigation;

        general economic and stock market conditions; and

        discrepancies between our actual operating results and those expected by investors and securities analysts.

There is no guarantee that our Shares will appreciate in value after the IPO or even maintain the price at which you purchased the Shares. You may not realize a return on your investment in our Shares and you may even lose your entire investment in our Shares.

In addition, the stock markets have from time to time experienced significant price and volume fluctuations that have affected the market prices of securities. These fluctuations often have been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of publicly-traded companies. In the past, following periods of volatility in the market price of a particular company’s securities, an investor may lose all or part of his or her investment, and litigation has sometimes been brought against that company. If similar litigation is instituted against us, it could result in substantial costs and divert our senior management’s attention and resources from our core business.

Certain recent initial public offerings of companies with public floats comparable to our anticipated public float have experienced extreme volatility that was seemingly unrelated to the underlying performance of the respective company. We may experience similar volatility, which may make it difficult for prospective investors to assess the value of our Ordinary Shares.

In addition to the risks addressed above in “— Our Share price may fluctuate significantly in the future and you may lose all or part of your investment, and litigation may be brought against us,” our Ordinary Shares may be subject to extreme volatility that is seemingly unrelated to the underlying performance of our business. Recently, companies with comparable public floats and initial public offering sizes have experienced instances of extreme stock price run-ups followed by rapid price declines, and such stock price volatility was seemingly unrelated to the respective company’s underlying performance. Although the specific cause of such volatility is unclear, our anticipated public float may amplify the impact the actions taken by a few shareholders have on the price of our Ordinary Shares, which may cause our share price to deviate, potentially significantly, from a price that better reflects the underlying performance of our business. Should our Ordinary Shares experience run-ups and declines that are seemingly unrelated to our actual or expected operating performance and financial condition or prospects, prospective investors may have difficulty assessing the rapidly changing value of our Ordinary Shares. In addition, investors of our Ordinary Shares may experience losses, which may be material, if the price of our Ordinary Shares declines after this offering or if such investors purchase shares of our Ordinary Shares prior to any price decline.

Holders of our Ordinary Shares may also not be able to readily liquidate their investment or may be forced to sell at depressed prices due to low volume trading. Broad market fluctuations and general economic and political conditions may also adversely affect the market price of our Ordinary Shares. As a result of this volatility, investors may experience losses on their investment in our Ordinary Shares. Furthermore, the potential extreme volatility may confuse the public investors of the value of our stock, distort the market perception of our stock price and our Company’s financial performance and public image and negatively affect the long-term liquidity of our Ordinary Shares, regardless of our actual or expected operating performance. If we encounter such volatility, including any rapid stock price increases and declines seemingly unrelated to our actual or expected operating performance and financial condition or prospects, it will likely make it difficult and confusing for prospective investors to assess the rapidly changing value of our Ordinary Shares and understand the value thereof.

Investors in our Shares will face immediate and substantial dilution in the net tangible book value per Share and may experience future dilution.

If you purchase common stock in the IPO, you will pay more for your shares than the net tangible book value of your shares. As a result, you will incur immediate dilution of $3.48 per share, representing the difference between the assumed public offering price of $4.00 per share and our estimated as adjusted net tangible book value as of March 31, 2023 of $0.52 per share. Accordingly, should we be liquidated at our book value, you would not receive the full amount of your investment. Please refer to the section titled “Dilution” of this prospectus for more information.

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We will be a “controlled company” within the meaning of the Nasdaq Listing Rules and, as a result, may rely on exemptions from certain corporate governance requirements that provide protection to shareholders of other companies.

Upon the completion of the IPO, we will be a “controlled company” as defined under the Nasdaq Listing Rules because Sapphire Universe will own more than 50% of our total voting power. For so long as we remain a controlled company under that definition, we are permitted to elect to rely, and may rely, on certain exemptions from corporate governance rules, including an exemption from the rule that a majority of our Board of Directors must be independent directors or that we have to establish a nominating committee and a compensation committee composed entirely of independent directors. As a result, you will not have the same protection afforded to shareholders of companies that are subject to these corporate governance requirements. However, following the IPO, we will voluntarily have a majority of independent directors and our audit committee will consist of three independent directors.

Our Shares may trade under $5.00 per share and thus would be known as “penny stock”. Trading in penny stocks has certain restrictions and these restrictions could negatively affect the price and liquidity of our Shares.

Our Shares may trade below $5.00 per share. As a result, our Shares would be known as “penny stock”, which is subject to various regulations involving disclosures to be given to you prior to the purchase of any penny stock. The SEC has adopted regulations which generally define a “penny stock” to be any equity security that has a market price of less than $5.00 per share, subject to certain exceptions. Depending on market fluctuations, our Shares could be considered to be “penny stock”. A penny stock is subject to rules that impose additional sales practice requirements on broker/dealers who sell these securities to persons other than accredited investors. For transactions covered by these rules, the broker/dealer must make a special suitability determination for the purchase of these securities. In addition, a broker/dealer must receive the purchaser’s written consent to the transaction prior to the purchase and must also provide certain written disclosures to the purchaser. Consequently, the “penny stock” rules may restrict the ability of broker/dealers to sell our Shares, and may negatively affect the ability of holders of our Shares to resell them. These disclosures require you to acknowledge that you understand the risks associated with buying penny stocks and that you can absorb the loss of your entire investment. Penny stocks generally do not have a very high trading volume. Consequently, the price of the shares is often volatile and you may not be able to buy or sell your shares when you want to.

The trading price of our Shares following this offering may be subject to rapid and substantial price volatility that may be unrelated to our actual or expected operating performance and financial condition or prospects, making it difficult for prospective investors to assess the rapidly changing value of our ordinary shares.

The trading price of our Ordinary Shares following this offering may be subject to rapid and substantial price volatility that may be unrelated to our actual or expected operating performance and financial condition or prospects, making it difficult for prospective investors to assess the rapidly changing value of our Ordinary Shares. Our Ordinary Shares may trade at prices higher or lower than the offering price. There have been recent instances of extreme share price run-ups followed by rapid price declines following initial public offerings, with share price volatility seemingly unrelated to company performance, particularly among companies with relatively smaller public floats, and we expect that such instances may continue and/or increase in the future. Contributing to this risk of volatility are a number of factors. We anticipate our Ordinary Shares will initially be held by a relatively limited number of shareholders and thus, are likely to be more sporadically and thinly traded than those of larger, more established companies. As a consequence of this lack of liquidity, the trading of relatively small quantities of Shares by our shareholders may disproportionately influence the price of those Shares in either direction. The price of our Ordinary Shares could, for example, decline precipitously in the event that a large number of our Shares are sold on the market without commensurate demand as compared to a seasoned issuer that could better absorb those sales without adverse impact on its share price. As a consequence of this enhanced risk, more risk-adverse investors may, under the fear of losing all or most of their investment in the event of negative news or lack of progress, be more inclined to sell their Shares on the market more quickly and at greater discounts than would be the case with the shares of a larger, more established company that has a relatively large public float.

Many of these factors are beyond our control and may decrease the market price of our Ordinary Shares. Such volatility, including any stock run-ups, may be unrelated or disproportionate to our actual or expected operating performance and financial condition or prospects, making it difficult for prospective investors to assess the rapidly changing value of our Ordinary Shares. Accordingly, you could lose all or part of your investment.

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There may be circumstances in which the interests of our Major Shareholder(s) could be in conflict with your interests as a Shareholder.

Sapphire Universe currently owns 96.27% of our Shares and, upon completion of the IPO, will beneficially own 88.01% of our Shares and voting power, or 86.89% of our Shares and voting power, if the underwriter exercises in full its option to purchase additional Shares from us. Mr. Kin Wai Ho, our Chairman, currently beneficially owns 46.69% of our Shares through his equity ownership in Sapphire Universe. Messrs. Jin Ngee Vernon Kwek and Cyrus Jun Ming Wen currently beneficially own 14.92% and 34.66%, of our Shares, respectively, through their equity ownership in Sapphire Universe. As a result of this ownership, Messrs. Ho, Kwek and Wen will have significant control and influence over our affairs and their voting power will constitute a quorum of our Shareholders voting on any matter requiring the approval of our Shareholders. Messrs. Ho, Kwek and Wen will continue to have significant influence over our affairs for the foreseeable future, including with respect to the nomination and election of Directors, the issuance of additional Shares or payment of dividends, the consummation of significant corporate transactions, such as the adoption of amendments to our Constitution and organizational regulations and approval of mergers or sales of substantially all of our assets.

In certain circumstances, the interests of Sapphire Universe as a Major Shareholder, and of each of Messrs. Ho, Kwek and Wen as significant indirect Shareholders, may conflict with the interests of our other Shareholders. Accordingly, this concentration of ownership may harm the market price of our Shares by, among other things:

        delaying, defending, or preventing a change of control, even at a per share price that is in excess of the then current price of our Shares;

        impeding a merger, consolidation, takeover, or other business combination involving us, even at a per share price that is in excess of the then current price of our Shares; or

        discouraging a potential acquirer from making a tender offer or otherwise attempting to obtain control of us, even at a per share price that is in excess of the then current price of our Shares.

Any of Sapphire Universe, Mr. Ho, Mr. Kwek and Mr. Wen may also cause corporate actions to be taken that conflict with the interests of our other Shareholders.

Future issuance of Shares by us and sale of Shares by our existing Shareholders may adversely affect the price of our Shares.

Except as otherwise described in the section titled “Moratorium” of this prospectus, there will be no restriction on the ability of our Shareholders to sell their Shares. In the event we issue, or our Shareholders sell, substantial amounts of our Shares in the public market following the IPO, the price of our Shares may be adversely affected. Any resulting downward pressure on the price of our Shares may also make it difficult for us to issue new Shares and raise the necessary funds in the future at a time and price we deem appropriate. In addition, the price of our Shares may be adversely affected if our Shareholders subject to moratorium sell their Shares upon the expiry of the relevant moratorium periods.

We may require additional funding in the form of equity or debt for our future growth which will cause dilution in Shareholders’ equity interest.

We may pursue opportunities to grow our business through joint ventures, strategic alliance, acquisitions or investment opportunities, following the Offering. However, there can be no assurance that we will be able to obtain additional funding on terms that are acceptable to us or at all. If we are unable to do so, our future plans and growth may be adversely affected.

An issue of Shares or other securities to raise funds will dilute Shareholders’ equity interests and may, in the case of a rights issue, require additional investments by Shareholders. Further, an issue of Shares below the then prevailing market price will also affect the value of Shares then held by investors.

Dilution in Shareholders’ equity interests may occur even if the issue of shares is at a premium to the market price. In addition, any additional debt funding may restrict our freedom to operate our business as it may have conditions that:

        limit our ability to pay dividends or require us to seek consents for the payment of dividends;

        increase our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions;

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        require us to dedicate a portion of our cash flow from operations to repayments of our debt, thereby reducing the availability of our cash flow for capital expenditures, working capital and other general corporate purposes; and

        limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and our industry.

The current disruptions, volatility or uncertainty of the credit markets could limit our ability to borrow funds or cause our borrowings to be more expensive in the future. As such, we may be forced to pay unattractive interest rates, thereby increasing our interest expense, decreasing our profitability and reducing our financial flexibility if we take on additional debt financing.

Investors may not be able to participate in future issues or certain other equity issues of our Shares.

In the event that we issue new Shares, we will be under no obligation to offer those Shares to our existing Shareholders at the time of issue, except where we elect to conduct a rights issue. However, in electing to conduct a rights issue or certain other equity issues, we will have the discretion and may also be subject to certain regulations as to the procedures to be followed in making such rights available to Shareholders or in disposing of such rights for the benefit of such Shareholders and making the net proceeds available to them. In addition, we may not offer such rights to our existing Shareholders having an address in jurisdictions outside of Singapore.

Accordingly, certain Shareholders may be unable to participate in future equity offerings by us and may experience dilution in their shareholdings as a result.

We may not be able to pay dividends in the future.

Subject to the Companies Act and our Constitution, our Board of Directors has complete discretion as to whether to declare and distribute dividends. Our ability to declare dividends to our Shareholders in the future will be contingent on multiple factors, including our future financial performance, distributable reserves of our Company, current and anticipated cash needs, capital requirements, our ability to implement our future plans, contractual, legal and tax restrictions, regulatory, competitive, technical and other factors such as general economic conditions, demand for and selling prices of our products and services, the ability of our subsidiaries to distribute funds to us, and other factors exclusive to the facilities services industry. Our existing and future loan arrangements with any financial institutions may also limit when and how much dividends we can declare and pay out. Any of these factors could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position and results of operations, and hence there is no assurance that we will be able to pay dividends to our Shareholders after the completion of the Offering.

The IPO price and Resale Offering price could differ.

The offering price of our Ordinary Shares in the IPO has been determined by negotiations between the Company and the Underwriter. The offering price in the IPO bears no relationship to our assets, earnings or book value, or any other objective standard of value. The Selling Shareholder may sell the Shares under the Resale Prospectus in one or more transactions that may take place in ordinary brokers’ transactions, privately negotiated transactions or through sales to one or more dealers for resale of such securities as principals as further described in the “Selling Shareholder Plan of Distribution” in the resale prospectus after close of the IPO and listing of the Ordinary Shares on Nasdaq. Therefore, the offering prices of the IPO and the sale under the Resale Prospectus could differ. As a result, the purchasers in the resale offering could pay more or less than the offering price in the IPO.

The Resale by the Selling Shareholder may cause the market price of our Ordinary Shares to decline.

The resale of Ordinary Shares by the Selling Shareholder, as well as the issuance of Ordinary Shares in the IPO, could result in resales of our Ordinary Shares by our current shareholders concerned about the potential dilution of their holdings. In addition, the resale by the Selling Shareholder could have the effect of depressing the market price for our Ordinary Shares.

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If we fail to meet applicable listing requirements, Nasdaq may delist our Shares from trading, in which case the liquidity and market price of our Shares could decline.

Assuming our Shares are listed on Nasdaq, we cannot assure you that we will be able to meet the continued listing standards of Nasdaq in the future. If we fail to comply with the applicable listing standards and Nasdaq delists our Shares, we and our Shareholders could face significant material adverse consequences, including:

        a limited availability of market quotations for our Shares;

        reduced liquidity for our Shares;

        a determination that our Shares are “penny stock”, which would require brokers trading in our Shares to adhere to more stringent rules and possibly result in a reduced level of trading activity in the secondary trading market for our Shares;

        a limited amount of news about us and analyst coverage of us; and

        a decreased ability for us to issue additional equity securities or obtain additional equity or debt financing in the future.

The National Securities Markets Improvement Act of 1996, which is a federal statute, prevents or pre-empts the states from regulating the sale of certain securities, which are referred to as “covered securities.” Because we expect that our Shares will be listed on Nasdaq, such securities will be covered securities. Although the states are pre-empted from regulating the sale of our securities, the federal statute does allow the states to investigate companies if there is a suspicion of fraud, and, if there is a finding of fraudulent activity, then the states can regulate or bar the sale of covered securities in a particular case. Further, if we were no longer listed on Nasdaq, our securities would not be covered securities and we would be subject to regulations in each state in which we offer our securities.

We are an emerging growth company within the meaning of the Securities Act and may take advantage of certain reduced reporting requirements.

We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the JOBS Act, and we may take advantage of certain exemptions from requirements applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies, including, most significantly, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act for so long as we remain an emerging growth company. As a result, if we elect not to comply with such auditor attestation requirements, our investors may not have access to certain information they may deem important.

The JOBS Act also provides that an emerging growth company does not need to comply with any new or revised financial accounting standards until such date that a private company is otherwise required to comply with such new or revised accounting standards. We do not plan to “opt out” of such exemptions afforded to an emerging growth company. As a result of this election, our financial statements may not be comparable to those of companies that comply with public company effective dates.

We qualify as a foreign private issuer and, as a result, we will not be subject to U.S. proxy rules and will be subject to Exchange Act reporting obligations that permit less detailed and less frequent reporting than that of a U.S. domestic public company.

Upon the closing of the IPO, we will report under the Exchange Act as a non-U.S. company with foreign private issuer status. Because we qualify as a foreign private issuer under the Exchange Act, we are exempt from certain provisions of the Exchange Act that are applicable to U.S. domestic public companies, including (i) the sections of the Exchange Act regulating the solicitation of proxies, consents or authorizations in respect of a security registered under the Exchange Act; (ii) the sections of the Exchange Act requiring insiders to file public reports of their stock ownership and trading activities and liability for insiders who profit from trades made in a short period of time; and (iii) the rules under the Exchange Act requiring the filing with the SEC of quarterly reports on Form 10-Q containing unaudited financial and other specified information, or current reports on Form 8-K upon the occurrence of specified significant events. In addition, our officers, Directors and principal Shareholders are exempt from the reporting and “short-swing” profit recovery provisions of Section 16 of the Exchange Act and the rules thereunder. Therefore, our Shareholders may not know on a timely basis when our officers, directors and principal Shareholders purchase or sell our Shares. In addition, foreign private issuers are not required to file their annual report on Form 20-F until one

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hundred twenty (120) days after the end of each fiscal year, while U.S. domestic issuers that are accelerated filers are required to file their annual report on Form 10-K within seventy-five (75) days after the end of each fiscal year. Foreign private issuers also are exempt from Regulation Fair Disclosure, aimed at preventing issuers from making selective disclosures of material information. As a result of the above, you may not have the same protections afforded to shareholders of companies that are not foreign private issuers.

If we lose our status as a foreign private issuer, we would be required to comply with the Exchange Act reporting and other requirements applicable to U.S. domestic issuers, which are more detailed and extensive than the requirements for foreign private issuers. We may also be required to make changes in our corporate governance practices in accordance with various SEC and Nasdaq rules. The regulatory and compliance costs to us under U.S. securities laws if we are required to comply with the reporting requirements applicable to a U.S. domestic issuer may be significantly higher than the cost we would incur as a foreign private issuer. As a result, we expect that a loss of foreign private issuer status would increase our legal and financial compliance costs and would make some activities highly time consuming and costly. We also expect that if we were required to comply with the rules and regulations applicable to U.S. domestic issuers, it would make it more difficult and expensive for us to obtain and maintain directors and officers liability insurance, and we may be required to accept reduced coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain coverage. These rules and regulations could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified members of our Board of Directors.

We may lose our foreign private issuer status in the future, which could result in significant additional costs and expenses.

As discussed above, we are a foreign private issuer, and therefore, we are not required to comply with all of the periodic disclosure and current reporting requirements of the Exchange Act. The determination of foreign private issuer status is made annually on the last business day of an issuer’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter. We would lose our foreign private issuer status if, for example, more than 50% of our Shares are directly or indirectly held by residents of the United States and we fail to meet additional requirements necessary to maintain our foreign private issuer status. If we lose our foreign private issuer status on this date, we will be required to file with the SEC periodic reports and registration statements on U.S. domestic issuer forms, which are more detailed and extensive than the forms available to a foreign private issuer. We will also have to mandatorily comply with U.S. federal proxy requirements, and our officers, Directors and Major Shareholders will become subject to the short-swing profit disclosure and recovery provisions of Section 16 of the Exchange Act. In addition, we will lose our ability to rely upon exemptions from certain corporate governance requirements under the Nasdaq rules. As a U.S. listed public company that is not a foreign private issuer, we will incur significant additional legal, accounting and other expenses that we will not incur as a foreign private issuer, and accounting, reporting and other expenses in order to maintain a listing on a U.S. securities exchange.

There can be no assurance that we will not be a passive foreign investment company, or PFIC, for U.S. federal income tax purposes for any taxable year, which could result in adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences to U.S. holders of our Shares.

A non-U.S. corporation will be a PFIC for any taxable year if either (i) at least 75% of its gross income for such year consists of certain types of “passive” income; or (ii) at least 50% of the value of its assets (based on an average of the quarterly values of the assets) during such year is attributable to assets that produce passive income or are held for the production of passive income, or the asset test. Based on our current and expected income and assets (taking into account the expected cash proceeds and our anticipated market capitalization following the IPO), we do not presently expect to be a PFIC for the current taxable year or the foreseeable future. However, no assurance can be given in this regard because the determination of whether we are or will become a PFIC is a fact-intensive inquiry made on an annual basis that depends, in part, upon the composition of our income and assets. In addition, there can be no assurance that the Internal Revenue Service, or IRS, will agree with our conclusion or that the IRS would not successfully challenge our position. Fluctuations in the market price of our Shares may cause us to become a PFIC for the current or subsequent taxable years because the value of our assets for the purpose of the asset test may be determined by reference to the market price of our Shares. The composition of our income and assets may also be affected by how, and how quickly, we use our liquid assets and the cash raised in the IPO. If we were to be or become a PFIC for any taxable year during which a U.S. Holder holds our Shares, certain adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences could apply to such U.S. Holder. See section titled “Taxation — Certain United States Federal Income Tax Considerations” of this prospectus.

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We will have broad discretion in the use of proceeds of the IPO.

We currently intend to use the net proceeds from the IPO for expanding our range of services and our operations both locally and regionally, for upgrading and digital transformation of our business, for marketing and promotional activities, and for working capital and other general corporate purposes. Our management will have broad discretion over the use and investment of the net proceeds of the IPO within and also potentially among those categories. Accordingly, investors in the IPO have only limited information concerning management’s specific intentions and will need to rely upon the judgment of our management with respect to the use of proceeds.

We have not determined a specific use for a portion of the net proceeds of the IPO now earmarked for working capital and other general corporate purposes, and our management will have considerable discretion in deciding how to apply these proceeds, including for any of the purposes described in the section entitled “Use of Proceeds”. Because of the number and variability of factors that will determine our full use of our net proceeds from the IPO, their ultimate use may vary substantially from their currently intended use. This creates uncertainty for our Shareholders and could adversely affect our Company’s business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations. You will not have the opportunity to assess whether the proceeds are being used appropriately before you make your investment decision. You must rely on the judgment of our management regarding the application of the net proceeds of the IPO. We cannot assure you that the net proceeds will be used in a manner that would improve our results of operations or increase the share price, nor that these net proceeds will be placed only in investments that generate income or appreciate in value.

Securities analysts may not publish favorable research or reports about our business or may publish no information at all, which could cause our stock price or trading volume to decline.

If a trading market for our securities develops, the trading market will be influenced to some extent by the research and reports that industry or financial analysts publish about us and our business. We do not control these analysts. As a newly public company, we may be slow to attract research coverage and the analysts who publish information about our securities will have had relatively little experience with us or our industry, which could affect their ability to accurately forecast our results and could make it more likely that we fail to meet their estimates. In the event we obtain securities or industry analyst coverage, if any of the analysts who cover us provide inaccurate or unfavorable research or issue an adverse opinion regarding our stock price, our stock price could decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of us or fail to publish reports covering us regularly, we could lose visibility in the market, which in turn could cause our stock price or trading volume to decline and result in the loss of all or a part of your investment in us.

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. All statements other than statements of current or historical facts are forward-looking statements. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors, including those listed under “Risk Factors,” that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements.

In some cases, you can identify these forward-looking statements by words or phrases such as “may,” “will,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “aim,” “estimate,” “intend,” “plan,” “believe,” “likely to” or other similar expressions. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy and financial needs. These forward-looking statements include statements about:

        changes in political, social and economic conditions, the regulatory environment, laws and regulations and interpretation thereof in the jurisdictions where we conduct business or expect to conduct business;

        the risk that we may be unable to realize our anticipated growth strategies and expected internal growth;

        changes in the availability and cost of professional staff which we require to operate our business;

        changes in customers’ preferences and needs;

        changes in competitive conditions and our ability to compete under such conditions;

        changes in our future capital needs and the availability of financing and capital to fund such needs;

        changes in currency exchange rates or interest rates;

        projections of revenue, earnings, capital structure and other financial items;

        changes in our plan to enter into certain new business sectors; and

        other factors beyond our control.

You should read this prospectus and the documents that we refer to in this prospectus with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from and worse than what we expect. Other sections of this prospectus include additional factors which could adversely impact our business and financial performance. Moreover, we operate in an evolving environment. New risk factors and uncertainties emerge from time to time and it is not possible for our management to predict all risk factors and uncertainties, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.

You should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. The forward-looking statements made in this prospectus relate only to events or information as of the date on which the statements are made in this prospectus. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. You should read this prospectus and the documents that we refer to in this prospectus and have filed as exhibits to the registration statement, of which this prospectus is a part, completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect.

This prospectus also contains statistical data and estimates that we obtained from industry publications and reports generated by government or third-party providers of market intelligence. Although we have not independently verified the data, we believe that the publications and reports are reliable.

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We will receive net proceeds from the IPO of approximately $10.3 million, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, based upon the initial public offering price of $4.00 per ordinary share.

We plan to use the net proceeds of the IPO in the following order of priority:

        Approximately $4.1 million for growing our business through expanding our range of services and expanding our operations locally and regionally.

        Approximately $2.0 million to establish our team of software developers, programmers, and engineers to build our own IoT system, software, and robots. Specifically, we are currently at the planning stage to assemble a team with members of academia with whom we will collaborate to start the development of an integrated IoT platform and workforce automation software system for our facility services. The system will integrate commercial off-the-shelf IoT devices such as cameras and sensors to be deployed in a facility and/or on robots, which will evaluate and respond to various events to perform data driven functions or actions to assist our facility services with lower cost and more efficiency. We also intend to develop our proprietary robots based on the Robot Operating System, an open source robotic platform, which will feature the flexibility to customize our robots to meet unique applications for facility services such as cleaning and disinfection services.

        Approximately $1.1 million for marketing and promotional activities.

        Approximately $1.1 million for upgrading our motor vehicles and our fleet of ride-on and autonomous cleaning machines for EV charging compatibility.

        Approximately $0.5 million for minority investments in the one or more companies in the EV conversion and charging business. As of the date of this prospectus, we are negotiating to acquire a minority interest in one potential target that we believe will meet our above described objectives. However, as we have not entered into any agreements with this entity, we may invest in other alternative potential targets. We do not intend to acquire a controlling interest in any target company.

        Approximately $1.5 million for working capital and other general corporate purposes.

To the extent that our actual net proceeds is not sufficient to fund all of the proposed purposes, we will decrease our allocation of the net proceeds for the purposes set out above on a pro rata basis. We would anticipate raising additional capital through equity or debt financing sufficient to fund our proposed uses above.

The amounts and timing of any expenditures will vary depending on the amount of cash generated by our operations, and the rate of growth, if any, of our business, and our plans and business conditions. The foregoing represents our current intentions based upon our present plans and business conditions to use and allocate the net proceeds of the IPO. Our management will have significant flexibility in applying and discretion to apply the net proceeds of the IPO. If an unforeseen event occurs or business conditions change, we may use the proceeds of the IPO differently than as described in this prospectus.

Pending deployment of the net proceeds for the uses described above, the funds may be placed in short-term deposits with financial institutions or used to invest in short-term money market instruments.

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DIVIDEND POLICY

We have no formal dividend policy. We currently intend to retain all available funds and any future earnings to fund the development and growth of our business and to repay indebtedness and, therefore, we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Additionally, our ability to pay dividends on our Shares is limited by various factors such as our future financial performance and bank covenants. Any future determination to pay dividends will be at the discretion of our Board of Directors, subject to compliance with covenants in current and future agreements governing our and our subsidiaries’ indebtedness, and will depend on our results of operations, financial condition, capital requirements and other factors that our Board of Directors may deem relevant.

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CAPITALIZATION

The following tables set forth our capitalization as of March 31, 2023:

        on an actual basis; and

        on a pro forma as adjusted basis to reflect the issuance and sale of 3,050,000 shares based upon the initial public offering price of $4.00 per Ordinary Share after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

You should read the tables together with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus and the information under “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”

 

As of March 31, 2023

   

Actual

 

As Adjusted

   

(in US$)

Cash:

 

9,072,223

 

 

19,343,052

 

Notes payable

 

19,019,622

 

 

19,019,622

 

Equity:

   

 

   

 

Ordinary shares, 32,500,000 ordinary shares outstanding on an actual basis; and 35,550,000 ordinary shares outstanding on an as adjusted basis(1)

 

12,719,782

 

 

22,990,611

 

Additional paid-in capital

 

924,100

 

 

924,100

 

Accumulated comprehensive income

 

946,898

 

 

946,898

 

Accumulated deficit

 

(5,809,669

)

 

(5,809,669

)

Total equity

 

8,781,111

 

 

19,051,940

 

Non-controlling interest

 

51,827

 

 

51,827

 

Total shareholders’ equity

 

8,832,938

 

 

19,103,767

 

Total capitalization

 

27,843,560

 

 

38,123,389

 

____________

(1)      Pro forma additional paid in capital reflects the net proceeds we expect to receive, after deducting underwriting fee, underwriter expense allowance and other expenses. We expect to receive net proceeds of approximately $10,271,000 (offering proceeds of $12,200,000, less underwriting discounts of $854,000, non-accountable expense of $100,000 and offering expenses of $975,000). The ordinary shares reflects the net proceeds we expect to receive, after deducting underwriting discounts, Underwriter expense allowance and other expenses.

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DILUTION

If you invest in our Shares, your interest will be diluted to the extent of the difference between the IPO offering price per share and our net tangible book value per share after the IPO. Dilution results from the fact that the IPO offering price per share is substantially in excess of the book value per ordinary share attributable to the existing Shareholders for our presently outstanding shares.

Net tangible book value represents the amount of our total assets, excluding goodwill and other intangible assets, less our total liabilities. Our net tangible book value as of March 31, 2023 was US$8,047,326, or US$0.25 per ordinary share.

After giving effect to the issuance and sale of 3,050,000 Shares in the based upon the initial public offering price of $4.00 per ordinary share, and after deducting underwriting discounts and estimated offering expenses payable by us, our pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value as of March 31, 2023 would have been US$0.52 per outstanding ordinary share. This represents an immediate increase in net tangible book value of US$0.27 per share to existing shareholders and an immediate dilution in net tangible book value of US$3.48 per ordinary share to investors purchasing Shares in the IPO. The following table illustrates such dilution:

 

Per Ordinary Share

Initial public offering price

 

US$           4.00

Net tangible book value as of March 31, 2023

 

US$           0.25

Pro forma net tangible book value after giving effect to the IPO

 

US$           0.52

Amount of dilution in net tangible book value to investors in this Offering

 

US$           3.48

The following table summarizes, on a pro forma as adjusted basis as of March 31, 2023, the total number of Shares purchased from us, the total cash consideration paid to us, and the average price per share paid by existing Shareholders and by investors in the IPO. The table below reflects an initial public offering price of US$4.00 per share, for Shares purchased in the IPO and excludes underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

 

Shares
Purchased

 

Total
Consideration

 

Average Price
per Share

   

Number

 

%

 

US$

 

%

 

US$

Existing Shareholders

 

32,500,000

 

91.4

 

0

 

0.0

 

0.00

Investors in this Offering

 

3,050,000

 

8.6

 

12,200,000

 

100.0

 

4.00

Total

 

35,550,000

 

100.0

 

12,200,000

 

100.0

 

0.34

The dilution information in this section is presented for illustrative purposes only. Our as adjusted net tangible book value following the consummation of the IPO is subject to adjustment based on the actual initial public offering price of our Shares and other terms of the IPO determined at pricing.

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SELECTED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL AND OPERATING DATA

The following selected consolidated balance sheet data as of March 31, 2023 and March 31, 2022 and selected consolidated statements of operations data for the year ended March, 2023 and 2022 have been derived from our financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. Our consolidated financial statements are prepared and presented in accordance with GAAP. You should read this “Selected Consolidated Financial and Operating Data” section together with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes and the “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” section included elsewhere in this prospectus.

 

As of
March 31,
2023

 

As of
March 31,
2022

   

(Audited)

 

(Audited)

Balance Sheet Data

 

 

   

 

 

Current Assets

 

$

27,436,432

 

$

18,786,990

Non-Current Assets

 

 

15,386,757

 

 

14,410,920

Total assets

 

$

42,823,189

 

$

33,197,910

   

 

   

 

 

Current liabilities

 

$

24,522,412

 

$

12,430,950

Non-Current liabilities

 

 

9,467,839

 

 

9,525,174

Shareholders’ equity

 

 

8,832,938

 

 

11,241,786

Total liabilities and shareholders’ equity

 

$

42,823,189

 

$

33,197,910

 

For the Years Ended
March 31,

   

2023

 

2022

Statements of Operations Data

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Revenues

 

$

69,025,754

 

 

$

54,439,987

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operating costs and expenses