000187793912-312023FYfalse0.050.05P3Y0.050.05http://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#DerivativeLiabilitiesCurrenthttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#DerivativeLiabilitiesCurrenthttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#FairValueAdjustmentOfWarrantsP3YP3Y00018779392023-01-012023-12-3100018779392023-06-30iso4217:USD00018779392024-03-15xbrli:shares00018779392023-12-3100018779392022-12-310001877939us-gaap:RelatedPartyMemberctm:GlobalTechnologyManagementResourcesIncMember2022-12-310001877939us-gaap:RelatedPartyMember2023-12-310001877939us-gaap:RelatedPartyMember2022-12-310001877939us-gaap:NonrelatedPartyMember2023-12-310001877939us-gaap:NonrelatedPartyMember2022-12-310001877939us-gaap:SeriesAPreferredStockMember2023-12-31iso4217:USDxbrli:shares0001877939us-gaap:SeriesAPreferredStockMember2022-12-310001877939us-gaap:SeriesCPreferredStockMember2023-12-310001877939us-gaap:SeriesCPreferredStockMember2022-12-3100018779392022-01-012022-12-3100018779392021-01-012021-12-3100018779392021-12-3100018779392020-12-310001877939ctm:PartialConversionOfNotesPayableMember2023-01-012023-12-310001877939ctm:PartialConversionOfNotesPayableMember2022-01-012022-12-310001877939ctm:PartialConversionOfNotesPayableMember2021-01-012021-12-310001877939ctm:GlobalTechnologyManagementResourcesIncMember2023-01-012023-12-310001877939ctm:GlobalTechnologyManagementResourcesIncMember2022-01-012022-12-310001877939ctm:GlobalTechnologyManagementResourcesIncMember2021-01-012021-12-310001877939us-gaap:SeriesAPreferredStockMemberus-gaap:PreferredStockMember2020-12-310001877939us-gaap:SeriesBPreferredStockMemberus-gaap:PreferredStockMember2020-12-310001877939us-gaap:SeriesCPreferredStockMemberus-gaap:PreferredStockMember2020-12-310001877939us-gaap:CommonStockMember2020-12-310001877939us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2020-12-310001877939us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2020-12-310001877939us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2021-01-012021-12-310001877939us-gaap:WarrantMemberus-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2021-01-012021-12-310001877939us-gaap:WarrantMember2021-01-012021-12-310001877939us-gaap:CommonStockMemberctm:MFSIAcquisitionMember2021-01-012021-12-310001877939us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMemberctm:MFSIAcquisitionMember2021-01-012021-12-310001877939ctm:MFSIAcquisitionMember2021-01-012021-12-310001877939ctm:MerrisonAcquistionMemberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2021-01-012021-12-310001877939ctm:MerrisonAcquistionMemberus-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2021-01-012021-12-310001877939ctm:MerrisonAcquistionMember2021-01-012021-12-310001877939ctm:SSIAcquisitionMemberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2021-01-012021-12-310001877939ctm:SSIAcquisitionMemberus-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2021-01-012021-12-310001877939ctm:SSIAcquisitionMember2021-01-012021-12-310001877939ctm:TheAlbersGroupLlcMemberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2021-01-012021-12-310001877939ctm:TheAlbersGroupLlcMemberus-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2021-01-012021-12-310001877939ctm:TheAlbersGroupLlcMember2021-01-012021-12-310001877939us-gaap:CommonStockMember2021-01-012021-12-310001877939ctm:SeriesCPreferredSubscriptionAgreementsMemberus-gaap:SeriesCPreferredStockMemberus-gaap:PreferredStockMember2021-01-012021-12-310001877939ctm:SeriesCPreferredSubscriptionAgreementsMemberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2021-01-012021-12-310001877939ctm:SeriesCPreferredSubscriptionAgreementsMemberus-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2021-01-012021-12-310001877939ctm:SeriesCPreferredSubscriptionAgreementsMember2021-01-012021-12-310001877939us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2021-01-012021-12-310001877939us-gaap:SeriesAPreferredStockMemberus-gaap:PreferredStockMember2021-12-310001877939us-gaap:SeriesBPreferredStockMemberus-gaap:PreferredStockMember2021-12-310001877939us-gaap:SeriesCPreferredStockMemberus-gaap:PreferredStockMember2021-12-310001877939us-gaap:CommonStockMember2021-12-310001877939us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2021-12-310001877939us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2021-12-310001877939us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2022-01-012022-12-310001877939us-gaap:WarrantMemberus-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2022-01-012022-12-310001877939us-gaap:WarrantMember2022-01-012022-12-310001877939us-gaap:CommonStockMember2022-01-012022-12-310001877939ctm:SeriesCPreferredSubscriptionAgreementsMemberus-gaap:SeriesCPreferredStockMemberus-gaap:PreferredStockMember2022-01-012022-12-310001877939ctm:SeriesCPreferredSubscriptionAgreementsMemberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2022-01-012022-12-310001877939ctm:SeriesCPreferredSubscriptionAgreementsMemberus-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2022-01-012022-12-310001877939ctm:SeriesCPreferredSubscriptionAgreementsMember2022-01-012022-12-310001877939ctm:NotesPayableMemberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2022-01-012022-12-310001877939us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMemberctm:NotesPayableMember2022-01-012022-12-310001877939ctm:NotesPayableMember2022-01-012022-12-310001877939us-gaap:SeriesBPreferredStockMemberus-gaap:PreferredStockMember2022-01-012022-12-310001877939us-gaap:SeriesBPreferredStockMemberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2022-01-012022-12-310001877939us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMemberus-gaap:SeriesBPreferredStockMember2022-01-012022-12-310001877939us-gaap:SeriesBPreferredStockMember2022-01-012022-12-310001877939us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2022-01-012022-12-310001877939us-gaap:SeriesAPreferredStockMemberus-gaap:PreferredStockMember2022-12-310001877939us-gaap:SeriesBPreferredStockMemberus-gaap:PreferredStockMember2022-12-310001877939us-gaap:SeriesCPreferredStockMemberus-gaap:PreferredStockMember2022-12-310001877939us-gaap:CommonStockMember2022-12-310001877939us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2022-12-310001877939us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2022-12-310001877939us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2023-01-012023-12-310001877939us-gaap:WarrantMemberus-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2023-01-012023-12-310001877939us-gaap:WarrantMember2023-01-012023-12-310001877939us-gaap:CommonStockMember2023-01-012023-12-310001877939ctm:GlobalTechnologyManagementResourcesIncMemberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2023-01-012023-12-310001877939ctm:GlobalTechnologyManagementResourcesIncMemberus-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2023-01-012023-12-310001877939us-gaap:PrivatePlacementMemberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2023-01-012023-12-310001877939us-gaap:PrivatePlacementMemberus-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2023-01-012023-12-310001877939us-gaap:PrivatePlacementMember2023-01-012023-12-310001877939us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMembersrt:RevisionOfPriorPeriodErrorCorrectionAdjustmentMember2023-01-012023-12-310001877939us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMembersrt:RevisionOfPriorPeriodErrorCorrectionAdjustmentMember2023-01-012023-12-310001877939srt:RevisionOfPriorPeriodErrorCorrectionAdjustmentMember2023-01-012023-12-310001877939us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2023-01-012023-12-310001877939us-gaap:SeriesAPreferredStockMemberus-gaap:PreferredStockMember2023-12-310001877939us-gaap:SeriesBPreferredStockMemberus-gaap:PreferredStockMember2023-12-310001877939us-gaap:SeriesCPreferredStockMemberus-gaap:PreferredStockMember2023-12-310001877939us-gaap:CommonStockMember2023-12-310001877939us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2023-12-310001877939us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2023-12-310001877939ctm:CertificateOfAmendmentMember2021-07-190001877939us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMembersrt:RevisionOfPriorPeriodErrorCorrectionAdjustmentMember2023-04-012023-06-300001877939srt:RevisionOfPriorPeriodErrorCorrectionAdjustmentMember2023-04-012023-06-300001877939us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMembersrt:RevisionOfPriorPeriodErrorCorrectionAdjustmentMember2023-04-012023-06-300001877939exch:CISDus-gaap:IPOMember2022-10-132022-10-13xbrli:pure0001877939ctm:TheAlbersGroupLlcMember2021-11-162021-11-160001877939ctm:TheAlbersGroupLlcMember2021-11-160001877939ctm:PublicOfferingMember2022-10-132022-10-13ctm:segment0001877939srt:MinimumMember2023-12-310001877939srt:MaximumMember2023-12-31ctm:reportingUnit0001877939ctm:TimeAndMaterialMember2023-01-012023-12-310001877939ctm:TimeAndMaterialMember2022-01-012022-12-310001877939ctm:TimeAndMaterialMember2021-01-012021-12-310001877939ctm:FirmFixedPriceMember2023-01-012023-12-310001877939ctm:FirmFixedPriceMember2022-01-012022-12-310001877939ctm:FirmFixedPriceMember2021-01-012021-12-310001877939ctm:CostPlusFixedFeeMember2023-01-012023-12-310001877939ctm:CostPlusFixedFeeMember2022-01-012022-12-310001877939ctm:CostPlusFixedFeeMember2021-01-012021-12-310001877939ctm:OtherMember2023-01-012023-12-310001877939ctm:OtherMember2022-01-012022-12-310001877939ctm:OtherMember2021-01-012021-12-310001877939us-gaap:SalesRevenueProductLineMemberus-gaap:CustomerConcentrationRiskMemberctm:ThreeCustomersMember2023-01-012023-12-310001877939us-gaap:SalesRevenueProductLineMemberus-gaap:CustomerConcentrationRiskMemberctm:ThreeCustomersMember2022-01-012022-12-310001877939us-gaap:SalesRevenueProductLineMemberus-gaap:CustomerConcentrationRiskMemberctm:ThreeCustomersMember2021-01-012021-12-310001877939us-gaap:CustomerConcentrationRiskMemberctm:ThreeCustomersMemberus-gaap:AccountsReceivableMember2023-01-012023-12-310001877939us-gaap:CustomerConcentrationRiskMemberctm:FourCustomersMemberus-gaap:AccountsReceivableMember2022-01-012022-12-310001877939ctm:NotesPayableDueTwoThousandAndTwentyFourMember2023-12-310001877939ctm:GlobalTechnologyManagementResourcesIncMember2023-03-220001877939ctm:GlobalTechnologyManagementResourcesIncMember2023-03-310001877939ctm:GlobalTechnologyManagementResourcesIncMember2023-04-012023-12-310001877939ctm:GlobalTechnologyManagementResourcesIncMember2023-12-310001877939ctm:GlobalTechnologyManagementResourcesIncMemberus-gaap:CustomerRelationshipsMember2023-03-310001877939ctm:GlobalTechnologyManagementResourcesIncMemberus-gaap:CustomerRelationshipsMember2023-04-012023-12-310001877939ctm:GlobalTechnologyManagementResourcesIncMemberus-gaap:CustomerRelationshipsMember2023-12-310001877939ctm:GlobalTechnologyManagementResourcesIncMemberus-gaap:TrademarksAndTradeNamesMember2023-03-310001877939ctm:GlobalTechnologyManagementResourcesIncMemberus-gaap:TrademarksAndTradeNamesMember2023-04-012023-12-310001877939ctm:GlobalTechnologyManagementResourcesIncMemberus-gaap:TrademarksAndTradeNamesMember2023-12-310001877939ctm:GlobalTechnologyManagementResourcesIncMemberctm:BacklogMember2023-03-310001877939ctm:GlobalTechnologyManagementResourcesIncMemberctm:BacklogMember2023-04-012023-12-310001877939ctm:GlobalTechnologyManagementResourcesIncMemberctm:BacklogMember2023-12-310001877939ctm:GlobalTechnologyManagementResourcesIncMember2023-12-312023-12-310001877939ctm:LexingtonSolutionsGroupMember2022-04-152022-04-150001877939ctm:LexingtonSolutionsGroupMember2022-04-150001877939ctm:TrancheOneMemberctm:LexingtonSolutionsGroupMember2022-04-152022-04-150001877939ctm:TrancheTwoMemberctm:LexingtonSolutionsGroupMember2022-04-152022-04-150001877939ctm:TrancheThreeMemberctm:LexingtonSolutionsGroupMember2022-04-152022-04-150001877939ctm:MiscellaneousLicenseMemberctm:LexingtonSolutionsGroupMember2022-04-150001877939us-gaap:CustomerRelationshipsMemberctm:LexingtonSolutionsGroupMember2022-04-150001877939us-gaap:NoncompeteAgreementsMemberctm:LexingtonSolutionsGroupMember2022-04-150001877939ctm:BacklogMemberctm:LexingtonSolutionsGroupMember2022-04-150001877939us-gaap:CommonStockMemberctm:LexingtonSolutionsGroupMember2022-05-042022-05-040001877939ctm:HoldbackSharesMemberctm:LexingtonSolutionsGroupMember2022-04-152022-04-150001877939ctm:EquipmentAndSoftwareMember2023-12-310001877939ctm:EquipmentAndSoftwareMember2022-12-310001877939us-gaap:FurnitureAndFixturesMember2023-12-310001877939us-gaap:FurnitureAndFixturesMember2022-12-310001877939us-gaap:AutomobilesMember2023-12-310001877939us-gaap:AutomobilesMember2022-12-310001877939us-gaap:LeaseholdImprovementsMember2023-12-310001877939us-gaap:LeaseholdImprovementsMember2022-12-310001877939srt:MinimumMemberus-gaap:CustomerRelationshipsMember2023-12-310001877939srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:CustomerRelationshipsMember2023-12-310001877939us-gaap:CustomerRelationshipsMember2023-12-310001877939us-gaap:TradeNamesMember2023-12-310001877939us-gaap:TrademarksMember2023-12-310001877939ctm:BacklogMember2023-12-310001877939srt:MinimumMemberus-gaap:NoncompeteAgreementsMember2023-12-310001877939us-gaap:NoncompeteAgreementsMembersrt:MaximumMember2023-12-310001877939us-gaap:NoncompeteAgreementsMember2023-12-310001877939srt:MinimumMemberus-gaap:CustomerRelationshipsMember2022-12-310001877939srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:CustomerRelationshipsMember2022-12-310001877939us-gaap:CustomerRelationshipsMember2022-12-310001877939us-gaap:TradeNamesMember2022-12-310001877939us-gaap:TrademarksMember2022-12-310001877939ctm:BacklogMember2022-12-310001877939srt:MinimumMemberus-gaap:NoncompeteAgreementsMember2022-12-310001877939us-gaap:NoncompeteAgreementsMembersrt:MaximumMember2022-12-310001877939us-gaap:NoncompeteAgreementsMember2022-12-310001877939ctm:CorvusMember2021-12-310001877939ctm:SSIMember2021-12-310001877939ctm:MFSIMember2021-12-310001877939ctm:MerrisonMember2021-12-310001877939ctm:CorvusMember2022-01-012022-12-310001877939ctm:SSIMember2022-01-012022-12-310001877939ctm:MFSIMember2022-01-012022-12-310001877939ctm:MerrisonMember2022-01-012022-12-310001877939ctm:CorvusMember2022-12-310001877939ctm:SSIMember2022-12-310001877939ctm:MFSIMember2022-12-310001877939ctm:MerrisonMember2022-12-310001877939ctm:CorvusMember2023-01-012023-12-310001877939ctm:SSIMember2023-01-012023-12-310001877939ctm:MFSIMember2023-01-012023-12-310001877939ctm:MerrisonMember2023-01-012023-12-310001877939ctm:CorvusMember2023-12-310001877939ctm:SSIMember2023-12-310001877939ctm:MFSIMember2023-12-310001877939ctm:MerrisonMember2023-12-310001877939ctm:ConvertibleNotePayableToRelatedPartyMember2022-12-310001877939ctm:ConvertibleNotePayableToRelatedPartyMember2023-12-310001877939ctm:BuckhoutCharitableRemainderTrustMemberctm:ConvertibleNoteRelatedPartyPayableWithATrustDeedToOneOfTheCompaniesDirectorsConversionPriceOfZeroPointZeroOneThreePerShareMemberctm:ConvertibleNotePayableToRelatedPartyMember2021-02-010001877939ctm:BuckhoutCharitableRemainderTrustMemberctm:ConvertibleNotesPayableRelatedPartyMemberctm:ConvertibleNotePayableToRelatedPartyMember2022-04-042022-04-040001877939ctm:BuckhoutCharitableRemainderTrustMemberctm:ConvertibleNotesPayableRelatedPartyMemberctm:ConvertibleNotePayableToRelatedPartyMember2022-12-310001877939ctm:BuckhoutCharitableRemainderTrustMemberctm:ConvertibleDebtPursuantToDebtAmendmentRelatedPartyPayableWithATrustDeedToOneOfTheCompaniesDirectorsConversionPriceOfZeroPointTwoSixPerShareMemberctm:ConvertibleNotePayableToRelatedPartyMember2022-04-040001877939ctm:CromMember2023-01-012023-12-310001877939ctm:BuckhoutCharitableRemainderTrustMemberctm:ConvertibleDebtPursuantToDebtAmendmentRelatedPartyPayableWithATrustDeedToOneOfTheCompaniesDirectorsConversionPriceOfZeroPointTwoSixPerShareMemberctm:ConvertibleNotePayableToRelatedPartyMember2022-12-310001877939ctm:BuckhoutCharitableRemainderTrustMemberctm:ConvertibleNotesPayableRelatedPartyMemberctm:ConvertibleNotePayableToRelatedPartyMember2022-10-012022-10-310001877939ctm:ConvertibleNotePayableToRelatedPartyMemberctm:BuckhoutCharitableRemainderTrustMember2022-10-310001877939us-gaap:NotesPayableOtherPayablesMemberctm:NotePayableMaturingSeptember302024Member2023-12-310001877939us-gaap:NotesPayableOtherPayablesMemberctm:NotePayableMaturingSeptember302024Member2022-12-310001877939ctm:PromissoryNoteMember2023-12-310001877939ctm:NotePayableMaturingTheEarlierOfSeptember302024OrCompletionOfEquityOfferingMemberctm:PromissoryNoteMember2023-12-310001877939ctm:NotePayableMaturingTheEarlierOfSeptember302024OrCompletionOfEquityOfferingMemberctm:PromissoryNoteMember2022-12-310001877939ctm:NotePayableMaturingTheEarlierOfSeptember302024OrAccelerationOfObligationsMemberctm:PromissoryNoteMember2023-12-310001877939ctm:NotePayableMaturingTheEarlierOfSeptember302024OrAccelerationOfObligationsMemberctm:PromissoryNoteMember2022-12-310001877939us-gaap:ConvertibleNotesPayableMemberctm:ConvertiblesMaturingApril42023Member2023-12-310001877939us-gaap:ConvertibleNotesPayableMemberctm:ConvertiblesMaturingApril42023Member2022-12-310001877939us-gaap:ConvertibleNotesPayableMemberctm:ConvertiblesMaturingFebruary132024Member2023-12-310001877939us-gaap:ConvertibleNotesPayableMemberctm:ConvertiblesMaturingFebruary132024Member2022-12-310001877939ctm:TermNotePayableMember2023-01-012023-12-310001877939ctm:TermNotePayableMember2023-12-310001877939ctm:TermNotePayableMember2022-12-310001877939ctm:PromissoryNoteMember2022-02-280001877939ctm:PromissoryNoteDatedApril62023Member2023-04-060001877939ctm:PromissoryNoteMember2023-04-060001877939us-gaap:ConvertibleNotesPayableMember2022-04-040001877939us-gaap:ConvertibleNotesPayableMember2023-02-132023-02-130001877939us-gaap:ConvertibleNotesPayableMember2023-02-130001877939us-gaap:ConvertibleNotesPayableMemberctm:ConvbertiblesMaturingFebruary132024Memberctm:CromMember2023-02-130001877939ctm:ConvertibleNotesWarrantsMember2023-02-130001877939us-gaap:ConvertibleNotesPayableMemberctm:CromMember2023-02-132023-02-130001877939us-gaap:RevolvingCreditFacilityMember2022-04-040001877939us-gaap:RevolvingCreditFacilityMemberus-gaap:PrimeRateMember2022-04-042022-04-040001877939us-gaap:RevolvingCreditFacilityMember2023-12-310001877939us-gaap:RevolvingCreditFacilityMember2022-12-310001877939ctm:NotesPayableAndConvertibleNotesPayableMember2023-12-310001877939us-gaap:RelatedPartyMemberctm:SSIMember2022-12-310001877939us-gaap:RelatedPartyMemberctm:SSIMember2023-12-310001877939ctm:SSIMember2022-12-310001877939us-gaap:RelatedPartyMember2023-01-012023-12-310001877939us-gaap:RelatedPartyMember2022-01-012022-12-310001877939us-gaap:RelatedPartyMember2021-01-012021-12-310001877939us-gaap:RelatedPartyMemberctm:GlobalTechnologyManagementResourcesIncMember2023-01-012023-12-310001877939ctm:GlobalTechnologyManagementResourcesIncMember2023-03-222023-03-220001877939ctm:GlobalTechnologyManagementResourcesIncMember2023-06-302023-06-300001877939ctm:TrancheOneTwoAndThreeMemberctm:LexingtonSolutionsGroupMember2022-04-152022-04-150001877939ctm:TrancheTwoMemberctm:LexingtonSolutionsGroupMember2022-01-012022-12-310001877939ctm:TrancheTwoMemberctm:LexingtonSolutionsGroupMember2023-01-232023-01-230001877939us-gaap:SeriesBPreferredStockMember2023-12-310001877939us-gaap:SeriesAPreferredStockMember2022-04-072022-04-070001877939us-gaap:SeriesAPreferredStockMember2022-04-070001877939us-gaap:SeriesAPreferredStockMembersrt:ScenarioPreviouslyReportedMember2022-04-070001877939ctm:LetterAgreementMemberus-gaap:SeriesAPreferredStockMemberctm:CromMember2022-04-040001877939ctm:FormerOfficerMemberus-gaap:SeriesAPreferredStockMember2023-12-310001877939us-gaap:SeriesAPreferredStockMember2023-01-012023-12-310001877939ctm:PublicOfferingMemberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2022-10-172022-10-170001877939us-gaap:SeriesBPreferredStockMember2022-12-310001877939us-gaap:SeriesBPreferredStockMemberus-gaap:PreferredStockMember2019-06-012019-06-300001877939ctm:PreferredStockAlongWithCommonStockMemberus-gaap:SeriesCPreferredStockMember2022-01-012022-12-310001877939us-gaap:SeriesCPreferredStockMemberus-gaap:PreferredStockMember2022-01-012022-12-310001877939ctm:PreferredStockAlongWithCommonStockMemberus-gaap:SeriesCPreferredStockMember2021-01-012021-12-310001877939us-gaap:SeriesCPreferredStockMemberus-gaap:PreferredStockMember2021-01-012021-12-310001877939us-gaap:CommonStockMemberus-gaap:SeriesCPreferredStockMember2021-01-012021-12-310001877939us-gaap:SeriesCPreferredStockMember2023-01-012023-12-310001877939us-gaap:CommonStockMemberctm:SeriesCPreferredStockSubscriptionAgreementsMember2023-12-310001877939us-gaap:CommonStockMemberus-gaap:SeriesCPreferredStockMember2023-01-012023-12-310001877939us-gaap:SeriesCPreferredStockMemberus-gaap:PreferredStockMember2023-01-012023-12-310001877939ctm:PreferredStockAlongWithCommonStockMemberus-gaap:SeriesCPreferredStockMemberctm:A2021SeriesCPreferredSharesObligationMember2022-12-310001877939us-gaap:SeriesCPreferredStockMemberus-gaap:PreferredStockMemberctm:A2021SeriesCPreferredSharesObligationMember2022-01-012022-12-310001877939us-gaap:CommonStockMemberus-gaap:SeriesCPreferredStockMemberctm:A2021SeriesCPreferredSharesObligationMember2022-01-012022-12-310001877939us-gaap:IPOMember2022-10-172022-10-170001877939us-gaap:IPOMemberctm:CompanyMember2022-10-172022-10-170001877939us-gaap:IPOMemberctm:StockholdersMember2022-10-172022-10-170001877939us-gaap:IPOMember2022-10-170001877939us-gaap:CommonStockMember2022-10-172022-10-170001877939us-gaap:WarrantMember2022-12-310001877939us-gaap:WarrantMember2021-12-310001877939us-gaap:WarrantMember2023-01-012023-12-310001877939us-gaap:WarrantMember2022-01-012022-12-310001877939us-gaap:WarrantMember2023-12-310001877939ctm:StockIncentivePlanMember2023-12-310001877939ctm:StockIncentivePlanMember2021-11-090001877939us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2021-12-310001877939us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2021-01-012021-12-310001877939us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2022-01-012022-12-310001877939us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2022-12-310001877939us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2023-01-012023-12-310001877939us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2023-12-310001877939ctm:ServiceBasedGrantsMember2023-01-012023-12-310001877939ctm:ServiceBasedGrantsMember2022-01-012022-12-310001877939ctm:PerformanceShareMember2023-01-012023-12-310001877939ctm:PerformanceShareMember2022-01-012022-12-310001877939us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member2023-12-310001877939us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Member2023-12-310001877939us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Member2023-12-310001877939us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member2022-12-310001877939us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Member2022-12-310001877939us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Member2022-12-310001877939ctm:ConvertibleNoteMemberctm:PriorCromConvertibleNoteMember2023-12-310001877939ctm:ConvertibleNoteMemberctm:PriorCromConvertibleNoteMember2022-12-310001877939ctm:ConvertibleNoteMemberctm:PriorCromConvertibleNoteMember2022-04-040001877939ctm:WarrantsMember2022-04-042022-04-040001877939ctm:ConvertiblesMaturingApril42023Memberctm:WarrantsMember2023-12-310001877939ctm:ConvertiblesMaturingApril42023Memberctm:WarrantsMember2022-12-310001877939ctm:ConvertiblesMaturingApril42023Memberctm:WarrantsMember2022-04-040001877939ctm:ConvertibleNoteMemberctm:CromCortanaFundLLCMember2023-12-310001877939ctm:ConvertibleNoteMemberctm:CromCortanaFundLLCMember2022-12-310001877939ctm:ConvertibleNoteMemberctm:CromCortanaFundLLCMember2022-04-040001877939ctm:ConvertiblesMaturingFebruary132024Memberctm:WarrantsMember2023-02-130001877939ctm:ConvertiblesMaturingFebruary132024Memberctm:WarrantsMember2023-12-310001877939ctm:ConvertiblesMaturingFebruary132024Memberctm:WarrantsMember2022-12-310001877939ctm:ConvertiblesMaturingFebruary132024Memberctm:WarrantsMember2022-04-0400018779392022-04-040001877939us-gaap:MeasurementInputSharePriceMember2023-12-310001877939us-gaap:MeasurementInputSharePriceMember2022-04-040001877939ctm:MeasurementInputConversionOptionPriceMember2023-12-310001877939ctm:MeasurementInputConversionOptionPriceMember2022-04-040001877939srt:MinimumMemberctm:MeasurementInputWarrantStrikePriceMember2023-12-310001877939ctm:MeasurementInputWarrantStrikePriceMembersrt:MaximumMember2023-12-310001877939ctm:MeasurementInputWarrantStrikePriceMember2022-04-040001877939srt:MinimumMember2023-01-012023-12-310001877939srt:MaximumMember2023-01-012023-12-310001877939srt:MinimumMember2022-04-042022-12-310001877939srt:MaximumMember2022-04-042022-12-310001877939srt:MinimumMemberctm:MeasurementInputVolatilityMember2023-12-310001877939ctm:MeasurementInputVolatilityMembersrt:MaximumMember2023-12-310001877939srt:MinimumMemberctm:MeasurementInputVolatilityMember2022-04-040001877939ctm:MeasurementInputVolatilityMembersrt:MaximumMember2022-04-040001877939ctm:MeasurementInputMarketYieldConversionOptionMember2023-12-310001877939ctm:MeasurementInputMarketYieldConversionOptionMember2022-04-040001877939srt:MinimumMemberus-gaap:MeasurementInputRiskFreeInterestRateMember2023-12-31utr:Rate0001877939us-gaap:MeasurementInputRiskFreeInterestRateMembersrt:MaximumMember2023-12-310001877939srt:MinimumMemberus-gaap:MeasurementInputRiskFreeInterestRateMember2022-12-310001877939us-gaap:MeasurementInputRiskFreeInterestRateMembersrt:MaximumMember2022-12-310001877939srt:DirectorMember2022-01-012022-12-310001877939us-gaap:SeriesCPreferredStockMemberctm:ChiefGrowthOfficerMember2021-06-012021-06-300001877939us-gaap:CommonStockMemberctm:ChiefGrowthOfficerMember2021-06-012021-06-3000018779392022-04-012022-04-30ctm:officer00018779392021-01-012021-01-3100018779392021-08-012021-08-3100018779392021-11-012021-11-300001877939ctm:EmploymentAgreementMemberctm:MarkFullerAndJayWrightMember2020-04-012020-04-010001877939ctm:EmploymentAgreementMemberctm:MarkFullerMember2020-04-010001877939ctm:EmploymentAgreementMemberctm:JayWrightMember2020-04-010001877939ctm:EmploymentAgreementMemberctm:UponReachingAnAnnualizedRevenueRunRateOf25000000OrGreaterMemberctm:JayWrightMember2020-04-010001877939ctm:EmploymentAgreementMemberctm:UponReachingAnAnnualizedRevenueRunRateOf25000000OrGreaterMemberctm:MarkFullerMember2020-04-010001877939ctm:EmploymentAgreementMemberctm:UponReachingAnAnnualizedRevenueRunRateOf25000000OrGreaterMember2020-04-010001877939ctm:EmploymentAgreementMemberctm:MarkFullerMemberctm:UponReachingAnAnnualizedRevenueOf50000000OrGreaterMember2020-04-010001877939ctm:EmploymentAgreementMemberctm:JayWrightMemberctm:UponReachingAnAnnualizedRevenueOf50000000OrGreaterMember2020-04-010001877939ctm:EmploymentAgreementMemberctm:UponReachingAnAnnualizedRevenueOf50000000OrGreaterMember2020-04-010001877939ctm:EmploymentAgreementMemberctm:MarkFullerMemberctm:UponAchievingAnAnnualizedRevenueRunRateOf75000000OrGreaterMember2020-04-010001877939ctm:EmploymentAgreementMemberctm:UponAchievingAnAnnualizedRevenueRunRateOf75000000OrGreaterMemberctm:JayWrightMember2020-04-010001877939ctm:EmploymentAgreementMemberctm:UponAchievingAnAnnualizedRevenueRunRateOf75000000OrGreaterMember2020-04-010001877939ctm:EmploymentAgreementMemberctm:MarkFullerMember2020-04-012020-04-010001877939ctm:EmploymentAgreementMemberctm:JayWrightMember2020-04-012020-04-010001877939ctm:EmploymentAgreementMemberctm:MarkFullerAndJayWrightMember2020-04-010001877939ctm:EmploymentAgreementMemberctm:CommencingTradingOnTierOfNasdaqOrNyseMemberus-gaap:DeferredBonusMember2020-04-010001877939ctm:EmploymentAgreementMemberctm:CommencingTradingOnTierOfNasdaqOrNyseMemberus-gaap:WarrantMember2020-04-010001877939ctm:EmploymentAgreementMemberctm:AfterJoiningRussel3000AndRussel2000StockIndicesMemberus-gaap:DeferredBonusMember2020-04-010001877939ctm:EmploymentAgreementMemberctm:AfterJoiningRussel3000AndRussel2000StockIndicesMemberus-gaap:WarrantMember2020-04-010001877939ctm:EmploymentAgreementMemberctm:ChiefGrowthOfficerMember2021-07-012021-07-010001877939ctm:EmploymentAgreementMemberctm:ChiefGrowthOfficerMember2021-07-010001877939ctm:EmploymentAgreementMemberctm:ChiefGrowthOfficerMemberctm:NavyDivisionReachingAnAnnualizedRevenueRunRateOf25000000OrGreaterMember2021-07-010001877939ctm:EmploymentAgreementMemberctm:ChiefGrowthOfficerMemberctm:NavyDivisionReachingAnAnnualizedRevenueRunRateOf60000000OrGreaterMember2021-07-010001877939ctm:EmploymentAgreementMemberctm:ChiefGrowthOfficerMemberctm:NavyDivisionReachingAnAnnualizedRevenueRunRateOf100000000OrGreaterMember2021-07-010001877939ctm:EmploymentAgreementMemberus-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMemberctm:ChiefGrowthOfficerMember2021-07-012021-07-010001877939ctm:EmploymentAgreementMemberctm:TimeBasedOptionsMemberctm:ChiefGrowthOfficerMember2021-07-012021-07-010001877939ctm:EmploymentAgreementMemberctm:PerformanceBasedOptionsMemberctm:ChiefGrowthOfficerMember2021-07-012021-07-010001877939ctm:EmploymentAgreementMemberctm:FormerExecutiveOfMerrisonMember2021-08-052021-08-050001877939ctm:EmploymentAgreementMemberctm:FormerExecutiveOfMerrisonMember2021-08-050001877939ctm:EmploymentAgreementMemberctm:TwoExecutivesOfSsiAsWellAsThreeManagementPersonnelMemberctm:ManagementPersonnelThreeMember2021-08-122021-08-120001877939ctm:EmploymentAgreementMemberctm:ManagementPersonnelThreeMember2021-08-122021-08-120001877939ctm:EmploymentAgreementMemberctm:ManagementPersonnelTwoMember2021-08-122021-08-120001877939ctm:EmploymentAgreementMemberctm:ManagementPersonnelOneMember2021-08-122021-08-120001877939ctm:EmploymentAgreementMemberctm:DavidBellchiefFinancialOfficerMember2022-04-252022-04-250001877939ctm:EmploymentAgreementMemberctm:DavidBellchiefFinancialOfficerMember2022-04-250001877939ctm:EmploymentAgreementMemberctm:DavidBellchiefFinancialOfficerMemberctm:UponAchievingAnAnnualizedRevenueRunRateOf50000000OrGreaterMember2022-04-250001877939ctm:EmploymentAgreementMemberctm:DavidBellchiefFinancialOfficerMemberctm:UponAchievingAnAnnualizedRevenueRunRateOf75000000OrGreaterMember2022-04-250001877939ctm:EmploymentAgreementMemberctm:DavidBellchiefFinancialOfficerMemberctm:UponReachingAnAnnualizedRevenueRunRateOf150000000OrGreaterAndEbitdaMarginOfNoLessThan7Member2022-04-250001877939ctm:EmploymentAgreementMemberctm:DavidBellchiefFinancialOfficerMemberctm:UponReachingAnAnnualizedRevenueRunRateOf300000000OrGreaterAndAdjustedEbitdaMarginOfNoLessThan8Member2022-04-250001877939ctm:DavidBellchiefFinancialOfficerMemberctm:BellPerformanceBonusMemberctm:LessThan35000PerMonthMember2023-01-012023-12-310001877939ctm:DavidBellchiefFinancialOfficerMemberctm:LessThan35000PerMonthMember2023-12-310001877939ctm:For35000ToLessThan40000PerMonthMemberctm:DavidBellchiefFinancialOfficerMemberctm:BellPerformanceBonusMember2023-01-012023-12-310001877939srt:MinimumMemberctm:For35000ToLessThan40000PerMonthMemberctm:DavidBellchiefFinancialOfficerMember2023-12-310001877939ctm:For35000ToLessThan40000PerMonthMemberctm:DavidBellchiefFinancialOfficerMembersrt:MaximumMember2023-12-310001877939ctm:DavidBellchiefFinancialOfficerMemberctm:BellPerformanceBonusMemberctm:For40000OrMorePerMonthMember2023-01-012023-12-310001877939ctm:DavidBellchiefFinancialOfficerMemberctm:For40000OrMorePerMonthMember2023-12-310001877939us-gaap:DeferredBonusMemberctm:DavidBellchiefFinancialOfficerMember2023-12-310001877939ctm:DavidBellchiefFinancialOfficerMemberus-gaap:WarrantMember2023-12-310001877939us-gaap:DeferredBonusMemberctm:DavidBellchiefFinancialOfficerMemberctm:UponTheCompanyJoiningTheRussell3000AndorRussell2000StockIndexIcesMember2023-12-310001877939ctm:DavidBellchiefFinancialOfficerMemberus-gaap:WarrantMemberctm:UponTheCompanyJoiningTheRussell3000AndorRussell2000StockIndexIcesMember2023-12-310001877939ctm:EmploymentAgreementMemberctm:DavidBellchiefFinancialOfficerMember2023-01-012023-12-310001877939ctm:EmploymentAgreementMembersrt:ChiefExecutiveOfficerMember2023-03-222023-03-220001877939ctm:EmploymentAgreementMembersrt:ChiefExecutiveOfficerMember2023-03-220001877939us-gaap:SubsequentEventMemberctm:SPAAgreementMember2024-01-252024-01-250001877939us-gaap:SubsequentEventMember2024-01-250001877939us-gaap:ConvertibleNotesPayableMemberus-gaap:SubsequentEventMember2024-01-252024-01-250001877939us-gaap:SubsequentEventMemberus-gaap:ConvertibleNotesPayableMember2024-01-250001877939us-gaap:PrivatePlacementMemberus-gaap:SubsequentEventMemberus-gaap:ConvertibleNotesPayableMember2024-01-250001877939us-gaap:SubsequentEventMember2024-01-252024-01-250001877939us-gaap:PrivatePlacementMemberus-gaap:SubsequentEventMember2024-01-252024-01-250001877939us-gaap:ConvertibleNotesPayableMemberus-gaap:SubsequentEventMember2024-02-132024-02-130001877939ctm:NotePayableMember2021-08-120001877939us-gaap:SubsequentEventMemberctm:NotePayableMember2024-02-162024-02-160001877939us-gaap:SubsequentEventMember2024-02-152024-02-150001877939us-gaap:RevolvingCreditFacilityMemberus-gaap:SubsequentEventMember2024-02-220001877939us-gaap:RevolvingCreditFacilityMemberus-gaap:SubsequentEventMemberus-gaap:PrimeRateMember2024-02-222024-02-220001877939us-gaap:SubsequentEventMemberctm:NotePayableMember2024-02-222024-02-220001877939us-gaap:NotesPayableOtherPayablesMemberus-gaap:SubsequentEventMemberctm:NotePayableMaturingSeptember302024Member2024-02-220001877939ctm:NotePayableMaturingTheEarlierOfSeptember302024OrCompletionOfEquityOfferingMemberus-gaap:SubsequentEventMemberctm:PromissoryNoteMember2024-02-220001877939ctm:EisimingerNoteMember2023-12-310001877939us-gaap:SubsequentEventMemberctm:EisimingerNoteMember2024-02-220001877939us-gaap:SubsequentEventMemberctm:EisimingerNoteMember2024-02-222024-02-220001877939ctm:BuckhoutCharitableRemainderTrustMemberus-gaap:SubsequentEventMember2024-02-222024-02-220001877939ctm:ConvertibleNotePayableToRelatedPartyMember2023-12-310001877939ctm:NotesPayableDueTwoThousandAndTwentySixMember2023-12-310001877939us-gaap:SubsequentEventMemberctm:NotesPayableDueTwoThousandAndTwentySixMember2025-01-010001877939us-gaap:SubsequentEventMemberctm:NotesPayableDueTwoThousandAndTwentySixMember2026-01-010001877939us-gaap:SubsequentEventMemberctm:NotesPayableDueTwoThousandAndTwentySixMember2026-08-310001877939us-gaap:SubsequentEventMemberctm:NotesPayableDueTwoThousandAndTwentySixMember2024-02-222024-02-220001877939us-gaap:SubsequentEventMember2024-03-122024-03-1200018779392023-10-012023-12-31
Table of Contents
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
________________________________________
FORM 10-K
________________________________________
(Mark One)
xANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
OR
oTRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from to
Commission file number 001-04321
________________________________________
CASTELLUM, INC.
________________________________________
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Nevada
27-4079982
(State or other jurisdiction
of incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
3 Bethesda Metro Center, Suite 700
Bethesda, MD
20814
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)
(Zip Code)
(301) 961-4895
Registrant's telephone number, including area code
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per shareCTMNYSE American LLC

Securities registered pursuant to section 12(g) of the Act: None.

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes o No x
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes o No x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports); and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  x    No  o 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).   Yes  x   No  o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
o
Accelerated filer
o
Non-accelerated filer
x
Smaller reporting company
x
Emerging growth company
x
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. x

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of
the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. o

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements. o

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).     Yes o   No  x

As of June 30, 2023, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, the aggregate market value of the shares of voting common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was approximately $13,942,989 based upon the closing price of the Company’s common stock on the NYSE American LLC.

The registrant had outstanding 53,029,915 shares of common stock, par value $0.0001, as of March 15, 2024.

Documents Incorporated by Reference
The information required by Part III (Items 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14) of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, to the extent not set forth herein, is incorporated herein by reference from the registrant's definitive proxy statement relating to the Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held in 2024, which definitive proxy statement shall be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after the end of the fiscal year to which this Annual Report on Form 10-K relates.


Table of Contents
Castellum Inc.
Table of Contents
Annual Report on Form 10-K
December 31, 2023

Legal Proceedings
Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
Item 15.
2

Table of Contents
Explanatory Note Regarding Reverse Stock Split
On October 13, 2022, Castellum, Inc. (the “Company,” “our Company,” “we,” “our,” “us,” or “Castellum”) effected a 1-for-20 reverse split of our authorized and outstanding shares of common stock (the “Reverse Stock Split,” “Offering,” “Uplisting”) by way of the filing on October 5, 2022 of an amendment to the Company’s amended and restated articles of incorporation to effect the Reverse Stock Split which was approved by Financial Industry Regulatory Authority on October 12, 2022 in connection with the closing of an underwritten public offering of our common stock and the commencement of the trading of our common stock on the New York Stock Exchange American LLC (“NYSE American”). As a result of the Reverse Stock Split, all authorized and outstanding common stock and per share amounts in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including but not limited to, the consolidated financial statements and footnotes included herein, have been adjusted to reflect the Reverse Stock Split for all periods presented.
Explanatory Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
Certain information included or incorporated by reference in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, may not address historical facts and, therefore, could be interpreted to be “forward-looking statements” as that term is defined in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 and other federal securities laws. All statements other than statements of historical fact are statements that could be deemed forward-looking statements, including projections of financial performance; statements of plans, strategies, and objectives of management for future operations; any statement concerning developments, performance, or industry rankings relating to products or services; any statements regarding future economic conditions or performance; any statements of assumptions underlying any of the foregoing; and any other statements that address activities, events, or developments that the Company intends, expects, projects, believes, or anticipates will or may occur in the future. Forward-looking statements may be characterized by terminology such as “believe,” “anticipate,” “expect,” “should,” “intend,” “plan,” “will,” “estimates,” “view,” and similar expressions. These statements are based on assumptions and assessments made by the Company’s management in light of its experience and its perception of historical trends, current conditions, expected future developments, and other factors it believes to be appropriate. These forward-looking statements are subject to a number of risks and uncertainties that include but are not limited to the factors set forth under Item 1A, Risk Factors, in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Any such forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance, and actual results, developments, and business decisions may differ materially from those envisaged by such forward-looking statements. The forward-looking statements included herein speak only as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The Company disclaims any duty to update such forward-looking statements, all of which are expressly qualified by the foregoing.
Important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from the results and events anticipated or implied by such forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to:
our limited operating history, ongoing net income losses, and growth trajectory;
our ability to retain and attract senior management and other employees with suitable experience leading a public company;
our ability to raise additional capital on acceptable terms and to service our ongoing debt obligations;
changes in political, economic, or regulatory conditions generally and in the markets in which we operate;
our ongoing relationships with government entities, agencies, and teaming partners;
overall levels of government spending on defense spending and spending on IT services, including potential imposition of sequestration in the absence of an approved budget or continuing resolution;
our ability to win new contracts amidst increased levels of competition in contract bidding process;
delays due to the appropriation process, change in the procurement process, and audits or cost adjustments to our contracts;
our inability to receive full amounts authorized, or ongoing lack of funding, for contracts in our backlog;
potential systems failures, security breaches, or the inability of Company employees to obtain required clearances;
our ability successfully to execute additional acquisitions and integrate those operations into our ongoing businesses;
the effect of ongoing financing efforts and volatility of our common stock share price; and other risks, including those described in “Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors” discussion of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
2

Table of Contents
In this Annual Report on Form 10-K, unless the context otherwise requires, all references to the “Company”, “our Company,” “we,” “our,” “us,” and “Castellum,” refer to Castellum, Inc., a Nevada corporation, and its wholly owned subsidiaries.
Part I
Item 1. Business
Overview
Castellum is focused on building a large, successful technology company in the areas of cybersecurity, IT, electronic warfare, information warfare, and information operations with businesses in the defense, federal, civilian, and commercial markets. Services include intelligence analysis, software development, software engineering, program management, strategic and mission planning, information assurance, cybersecurity and policy support, data analytics, and model based systems engineering (“MBSE”). These services are applicable to customers in the United States government (“USG”), financial services, healthcare, and other users of large data applications. They can be delivered to on-premises enclaves or customers who rely upon cloud-based infrastructures. The Company has worked with multiple business brokers and contacts within their business network to identify potential acquisitions. Due to our success in completing seven acquisitions over the previous four years and given our executive officers’ and key managers’ networks of contacts in the IT, telecom, cybersecurity, and defense sectors, we believe that we are well positioned to continue to execute our business strategy given a pipeline of identified and acquisition targets. Because of our executive officers’ and key managers’ prior experience growing businesses organically, we believe that we are well positioned to grow our existing business via internal growth as well. The Company has developed a qualified business opportunity (the “Opportunity Pipeline”). Although there can be no assurance that the Opportunity Pipeline can be converted to revenues, the Company believes that the total value of the Opportunity Pipeline to be approximately $527 million as of December 31, 2023. The Opportunity Pipeline represents the revenue opportunity for the Company from potential future contracts obtained through organic growth from qualified customers based on the expected base year contract value plus the value of all option periods.
Our primary customers are currently agencies and departments of the USG. Our expertise and technology support national security missions and government modernization for intelligence, defense, and federal civilian customers. The demand for our expertise and technology, in large measure, is created by the increasingly complex network, systems, and information environments in which governments and businesses operate, and by the need to stay current with emerging technology while increasing productivity, enhancing security, and ultimately, improving performance.
We provide expertise and technology to enterprise and mission customers in support of national security missions and government modernization/transformation. Due to the nature of the work being executed for the USG the budgets are expected to continue to grow in support of bipartisan national security imperatives. The majority of contracted work is operational in nature and is funded on an on-going basis.

As a government contractor, Castellum both cooperates (as a teaming partner) and competes with many different companies. Sometimes, Castellum both teams with (on one contract) and competes against (on a different contract) the same company. Among others, Castellum competes with (and sometimes also teams with) Northrup Grumman, CACI, Peraton, and Booz-Allen Hamilton.
Our Markets
We provide our expertise and technology to our domestic and international customers in the following market areas:
Digital Solutions – Castellum transforms how government does business. We modernize enterprise and agency-unique applications, enterprise infrastructure, and business processes to enhance productivity and increase user satisfaction. We use data analytics and visualization to provide insights and outcomes that optimize our customer’s operations.
C4ISR, Cyber & Space – Castellum helps ensure information superiority by delivering multi-domain C4 technology and networks. Our software-defined, full-spectrum cyber, electronic warfare, and C-UAS solutions provide electromagnetic spectrum advantage and deliver precision effects against national security threats. We are at the forefront of developing technologies that meet the challenges of 5G wireless communications both on and off the battlefield, millimeter wave, and the use of lasers for free space optical communications and long-range sensing.
3

Table of Contents
Engineering Services – Castellum provides platform integration, modernization, and sustainment; system engineering; naval architecture; training and simulation services; and logistics engineering to help our customers achieve a decisive tactical edge. We enhance platforms to improve situational awareness, mobility, interoperability, lethality, and survivability. We conduct software vulnerability analysis and harden technology to protect against malicious actors. Our platform-agnostic, mission-first approach ensures optimal performance, so our nation’s forces can overmatch our adversaries.
Enterprise IT – Castellum amplifies efficiency with unmatched expertise and next-generation technology. We design, implement, protect, and manage secure enterprise IT solutions for the United States (“U.S.”) federal, state, and local agencies to optimize efficiency, enhance performance, and ensure end-user satisfaction.
Mission support –Castellum specializes in planning and intelligence support for information warfare and information operations (“IW/IO”). The Company develops IW/IO plans, exercises, doctrine, and training for the Military Services and the Combatant Commands in domestic and deployed overseas locations. Our intelligence support ensures continuous advances in collection, analysis, and dissemination to optimize decision-making. Castellum also has linguists and cultural advisors who provide clients with insights into the history, media consumption, and cultural nuances of target audiences to maximize the effectiveness of communications plans and ensure mission success.
Strengths and Strategy
Extensive Sector Knowledge and Advanced Technology. We primarily offer our expertise and technology to defense, intelligence, and civilian agencies of the U.S. federal, state, and local governments. Our work for USG agencies may combine a wide range of skills drawn from our expertise and technology. For example, Castellum performs software development and virtualization of infrastructure services for the U.S. Navy. We are subject matter experts in electronic and electromagnetic warfare. We perform advanced data analytics on litigation data in support of the Department of Justice. Lastly, through the Company’s IW/IO operations, Castellum provides key services to governments of other nations.
International Presence. We currently support and have previously supported international clients in Australia and other foreign countries and believe that future opportunities for providing our services internationally is growing given current record nominal levels of global spending on defense and the continued rising threat from cybersecurity breaches.
Deep-Seated Government Relationships. To effectively perform on our existing customer contracts and secure new customer contracts with the U.S. federal, state, and local governments, we must maintain expert knowledge of agency policies, operations, and challenges. We combine this comprehensive knowledge with expertise and technology for our enterprise and mission customers. Our capabilities provide us with opportunities either to compete directly for, or to support other bidders in competition for multi-million dollar and multi-year award contracts from the U.S. federal, state, and local governments.
Complementary Product and Service Offerings. We have strategic business relationships with several companies associated with the IT industry which have business objectives compatible with ours and offer complementary products and services. We intend to continue development of these kinds of relationships wherever they support our growth objectives. Some of these business relationships have ultimately led to Castellum acquiring the teaming partner firm.
Our marketing and new business development is conducted by many of our officers and managers including the Chief Executive Officer (“CEO”), Chief Operating Officer (“COO”), Chief Strategy Officer and other executive officers, and other key managers. We employ business development, capture and proposal writer professionals who identify and qualify major contract opportunities, primarily in the USG market and submit bids for those opportunities.
Much of our business is won through submission of formal competitive bids. Government and commercial customers typically base their decisions regarding contract awards on their assessment of the quality of past performance, compliance with proposal requirements, price, and other factors. The terms, conditions, and form of government contract bids, however, are in most cases specified by the customer. In situations in which the customer-imposed contract type and/or terms appear to expose us to inappropriate risk or do not offer us a sufficient financial return, we may seek alternative arrangements or opt not to bid for the work. Essentially all contracts with the USG, and many contracts with other government entities, permit the government customer to terminate the contract at any time for the convenience of the government or for default by the contractor. None of Castellum’s subsidiaries have had contract work terminated for non-performance. Although we operate under the risk of such terminations with the potential to have a material impact on operations, they are not common. Additionally, as with other government contractors, our business is subject to government customer funding decisions and actions that are beyond our control.
4

Table of Contents
Our contracts and subcontracts are composed of a wide range of contract types, including firm fixed price (“FFP”), cost plus fixed fee (“CPFF”), time and materials (“T&M”), indefinite delivery/indefinite quantity (“IDIQ”), and government wide acquisition contracts (“GWACS”) such as U.S. General Services Administration (“GSA”) schedule contracts, substantially all of which are annual contracts, with options to renew. Because most government contracts renew annually, the Company does not have a material number of multi-year contracts. Typically, the prime contract will dictate the terms of the subcontracts including, among other things, the workshare percentages, mechanics of payment terms, and the process for operational management. We generated $25,631,786 (57%), $25,302,224 (61%), and $15,381,979 (78%) of our total revenues from T&M contracts in the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022, and 2021, respectively.

In the year ending December 31, 2023, the top three revenue-producing contracts, some of which consist of multiple task orders, accounted for fifty-two percent (52%) of our revenue, or $23,639,493. Each of those contracts are associated with the Company’s areas of core expertise, as follows: (i) an annual contract with NAVAIR that contains multiple renewal options is a CPFF contract covering systems engineering, design/software engineering, and development expertise where the Company has developed software that manages the aircraft launch and recovery operations on aircraft carriers, (ii) an annual contract with Peraton with multiple renewal option periods is a T&M contract which supports the cyber and EW work done at the Army Staff Level, and (iii) an annual contract with NAVSEA that contains multiple renewal options is a CPFF contract covering engineering and technical services for the analysis, design, prototyping, test and evaluation, integration, project management, implementation, and documentation of various Command, Control, Communications, and Computer Intelligence Surveillance Reconnaissance (“C4ISR”) sensor systems and subsystems for Department of Defense.
Some of our key initiatives include the following:
Continue our unwavering commitment to our customers while supporting the communities in which we work and live;
Grow organic revenue across our large, addressable market;
Recruit and hire a world class workforce to execute on our growing backlog; and
Differentiate ourselves through our investment, including our strategic mergers and acquisitions which allow us to enhance our current capabilities and create new customer access points.
Budgetary Environment

On December 29, 2022, President Joe Biden signed the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2023 which was a $1.7 trillion omnibus spending bill. Since that time, there have been a series of continuing resolutions (“CR or CRs”) in the absence of a budget.

While we cannot predict the passage of a budget, the CRs have had bipartisan support for the areas in which we support National Security interests. Over 99% of our work is considered mission critical and has not been identified for employee furlough when faced with the risk of a government shutdown. Depending on their scope, duration, and other factors, CRs can negatively impact our business due to delays in new program starts, delays in contract award decisions, and other factors. The Company’s most recent experience with CRs is that organic growth is impacted, but the cybersecurity related operations remain core to what has become a bipartisan National Security focus. However, there is the risk that when a CR expires, unless appropriations bills have been passed by Congress and signed by the then President, or a new CR is passed and signed into law, the government must cease operations, or shutdown, except in certain emergency situations or when the law authorizes continued activity. During Covid our work was deemed a key component of National Security and continued unabated which would suggest that lacking a CR we are likely to continue to operate largely unaffected but such an assumption may prove to be incorrect. We continuously review our operations in an attempt to identify programs potentially at risk from CRs so that we can consider appropriate contingency plans. We believe that less than 5% of our employees would be at risk due to a CR.


Acquisition Strategy
Castellum seeks acquisitions which fit one or more of the following criteria: (1) expands Castellum's capability in existing areas of expertise such as cybersecurity and electronic warfare; (2) broadens the scope of clients which Castellum serves such as adding a new service branch or new government agency; (3) increases the scale of Castellum's business in existing areas in order to generate better operating profit margins and reduce the Company's wrap rate; (4) increases the geographic footprint of Castellum in order to offer more capability to existing or new clients; (5) adds management talent to Castellum; (6) adds technological capability in new areas which Castellum believes are high growth potential; and (7) fills a need
5

Table of Contents
within Castellum to be able to serve current customers such as adding a prime contract vehicle or the capability to win new prime contract vehicles. In all cases, Castellum seeks acquisitions which are immediately accretive on a revenue, EBITDA (earnings before interest, depreciation, and amortization), and net income per share basis, as well as positive from a net present value perspective and which fit the culture of Castellum.
Customers
We provide expertise and technology to defense, intelligence, and civilian agencies of the U.S. federal, state, and local governments. Our clients call us to work on their hardest problems by providing innovative, intelligent, and agile cloud-ready capabilities across the DoD Information Network Operations, Electromagnetic Warfare, Cyberspace Operations, Intelligence, and Information Dominance community. We specialize in intelligence analysis, software development, software engineering, turnkey system development, program management, strategic and mission planning, information assurance, cybersecurity, and policy along with analysis support.
Our government clients include cabinet-level departments of the USG, U.S. Army, U.S. Navy, U.S. Marine Corp, Special Operations, as well as other federal and civilian agencies. We also serve state and local agencies and commercial clients, working to solve their hardest and most sophisticated cyber challenges, and currently support one international client.
Contract Backlog
We define backlog to include the following three components:
Funded Backlog. Funded backlog represents the revenue value of orders for services under existing contracts for which funding is appropriated or otherwise authorized less revenue previously recognized on these contracts.
Unfunded Backlog. Unfunded backlog represents the revenue value of orders (including optional orders) for services under existing contracts for which funding has not been appropriated or otherwise authorized.
Priced Options. Priced contract options represent 100% of the revenue value of all future contract option periods under existing contracts that may be exercised at our clients’ option and for which funding has not been appropriated or otherwise authorized.
Our backlog does not include contracts that have been awarded but are currently under protest and also does not include any task orders under IDIQ contracts, except to the extent that task orders have been awarded to us under those contracts.
We cannot predict with any certainty the portion of our backlog that we expect to recognize as revenue in any future period and we cannot guarantee that we will recognize any revenue from our backlog. The primary risks that could affect our ability to recognize such revenue on a timely basis or at all are: program schedule changes, contract modifications, and our ability to assimilate and deploy new consulting staff against funded backlog; cost-cutting initiatives and other efforts to reduce USG spending, which could reduce or delay funding for orders for services; and delayed funding of our contracts due to delays in the completion of the USG's budgeting process and the use of a CR by the USG to fund its operations. The amount of our funded backlog is also subject to change, due to, among other factors: changes in congressional appropriations that reflect changes in USG policies or priorities resulting from various military, political, economic, or international developments; changes in the use of USG contracting vehicles, and the provisions therein used to procure our services and adjustments to the scope of services, or cancellation of contracts, by the USG at any time. In our recent experience, none of the following additional risks have had a material negative effect on our ability to realize revenue from our funded backlog: the unilateral right of the USG to cancel multi-year contracts and related orders or to terminate existing contracts for convenience or default; in the case of unfunded backlog, the potential that funding will not be made available; and, in the case of priced options, the risk that our clients will not exercise their options.
In addition, contract backlog excludes orders under contracts for which the period of performance has expired, and we may not recognize revenue on the funded backlog that includes such orders due to, among other reasons, the tardy submission of invoices by our subcontractors and the expiration of the relevant appropriated funding in accordance with a predetermined expiration date such as the end of the USG's fiscal year.
We expect to recognize revenue from a substantial portion of funded backlog within the next 24 months. However, given the uncertainties discussed above, as well as the risks described in Budget Environment, we can give no assurance that we will be able to convert our backlog into revenue in any particular period, if at all.
6

Table of Contents
Competition
We operate in a highly competitive industry that includes many entities, some of which are larger in size and have greater financial resources than we have. We know of no single competitor that is dominant in our fields of technology. We have a relatively small share of the addressable market for our solutions and services and intend to achieve growth and increase market share both organically and through strategic acquisitions.
Research and Development
The Company from time to time engages in research and development relative to its service offerings; however, the amounts expended for such efforts are not material to the Company’s financial statements.
Intellectual Property
The Company currently has no patents or trademarks that it believes to be material to the business. The Company does have significant intellectual property in the form of our highly educated and trained workforce which provides us with technical expertise and an enhanced ability to win ‘re-compete” business.
Regulation
As a contractor to the USG, as well as state and local governments, we are heavily regulated in most fields in which we operate. We deal with numerous USG agencies and entities, and when working with these and other entities, we must comply with and are affected by unique laws and regulations relating to the formation, administration, and performance of government contracts. Some significant law and regulations that affect us include the following:
the Federal Acquisition Regulation (“FAR”) and agency regulations supplemental to FAR, which regulate the formation, administration, and performance of USG contracts;
the False Claims Act, which imposes civil and criminal liability for violations, including substantial monetary penalties for, among other things, presenting false or fraudulent claims for payments or approval;
the False Statements Act, which imposes civil and criminal liability for making false statements to the USG;
the Truthful Cost or Pricing Data Statute (formerly known as the “Truth in Negotiations Act”), which requires certification and disclosure of cost and pricing data in connection with the negotiation of certain contracts, modifications, or task orders;
the Procurement Integrity Act, which regulates access to competitor bid and proposal information and certain internal government procurement sensitive information, and our ability to provide compensation to certain former government procurement officials;
laws and regulations restricting the ability of a contractor to provide gifts or gratuities to employees of the USG;
post-government employment laws and regulations, which restrict the ability of a contractor to recruit and hire current employees of the USG and deploy former employees of the USG;
laws, regulations, and executive orders restricting the handling, use, and dissemination of information classified for national security purposes or determined to be “controlled unclassified information” or “for official use only,” and the export of certain products, services, and technical data, including requirements regarding any applicable licensing of our employees involved in such work;
laws, regulations, and executive orders regulating the handling, use, and dissemination of personally identifiable information in the course of performing a USG contract;
international trade compliance laws, regulations, and executive orders that prohibit business with certain sanctioned entities and require authorization for certain exports or imports in order to protect national security and global stability;
laws, regulations, and executive orders governing organizational conflicts of interest that may restrict our ability to compete for certain USG contracts because of the work that we currently perform for the USG or
7

Table of Contents
may require that we take measures such as firewalling off certain employees or restricting their future work activities due to the current work that they perform under a USG contract;
laws, regulations, and executive orders that impose requirements on us to ensure compliance with requirements and protect the government from risks related to our supply chain, including compliance with Cybersecurity Maturity Model Certification (“CMMC”);
laws, regulations, and mandatory contract provisions providing protections to employees or subcontractors seeking to report alleged fraud, waste, and abuse related to a government contract;
the National Industrial Security Operating Manual and other laws and regulations concerning the maintenance of a facility security clearance and the safeguarding of classified materials;
the Contractor Business Systems rule, with authorizes Department of Defense agencies to withhold a portion of our payments if we are determined to have a significant deficiency in our accounting, cost estimating, purchasing, earned value management, material management and accounting, and/or property management system; and
the Cost Accounting Standards and Cost Principles, which impose accounting and allowability requirements that govern our right to reimbursement under certain cost-based USG contracts and require consistency of accounting practices over time.
Given the magnitude of our revenue derived from contracts with the DoD, the Defense Contract Audit Agency (“DCAA”) is our relevant government audit agency. The DCAA audits the adequacy of our internal control systems and policies including, among other areas, compensation. The Defense Contract Management Agency (“DCMA”) as our relevant government contract management agency, may determine that a portion of our employee compensation is unallowable based on the findings and recommendations in the DCAA’s audits. In addition, the DCMA directly reviews the adequacy of certain other business systems, such as our purchasing system. We are also subject to audit by Inspectors General of other USG agencies.
The USG may revise its procurement practices or adopt new contract rules and regulations at any time. Internationally, we are subject to special USG laws and regulations (such as The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977 (the “FCPA”), local government regulations and procurement policies and practices, including regulations relating to import-export control, investments, exchange controls, and repatriation of earnings, as well as varying currency, political, and economic risks. To ensure CMMC compliance, the Company has a senior executive on its management team whose responsibility includes preparing the Company for CMMC certification.
USG contracts are, by their terms, subject to termination by the USG either for convenience or default by the contractor. In addition, USG contracts are conditioned upon the continuing availability of Congressional appropriations. Congress usually appropriates funds for a given program on a September 30 fiscal year basis, even though contract performance could take many years. As is common in the industry, our Company is subject to business risk, including changes in governmental appropriations, national defense polices, service modernization plans, and availability of funds. Any of these factors could materially adversely affect our Company's business with the USG in the future.
The USG has a broad range of actions it can utilize to enforce its procurement law and policies. These include proposing a contractor, certain of its operations, or individual employees for debarment; or, suspending or debarring a contractor, certain of its operations or individual employees from future government business. In addition to criminal, civil, and administrative actions by the USG, under the False Claims act, an individual alleging fraud related to payments under a USG contract or program may file a qui tam lawsuit on behalf of the government against us; if successful in obtaining a judgment or settlement, the individual filing the suit may receive up to thirty percent (30%) of the amount recovered by the government.
See Part I Item 1A Risk Factors: We generate substantially all of our revenue from contracts with the U.S. federal, state, and local governments which are subject to a number of challenges and risks that may adversely impact our business, prospects, financial condition, and operating results.
Human Capital Resources
Our employees are our most valuable resource. We are in continuing competition for highly skilled professionals in virtually all of our market areas. The success and growth of our business are significantly correlated with our ability to
8

Table of Contents
recruit, train, promote, and retain high quality people at all levels of the organization. As of December 31, 2023, we employed 260 full and part-time employees with sixty-five percent (65%) of our employees holding degrees in science, technology, engineering, or mathematics fields, twenty-two percent (22%) holding advanced degrees, and eighty-four percent (84%) of our employees holding security clearances. We also retain 11 independent contractors. We have never had a work stoppage, and none of our employees is represented by a labor organization or under any collective bargaining arrangements. We consider our employee relations to be good. All employees are subject to contractual agreements that specify requirements on confidentiality and restrictions on working for competitors, as well as other standard matters.
Benefits are viewed as a critical tool for employee recruitment and retention. To that end, Castellum has migrated all of its employees from their legacy benefits programs to the ADP Professional Employer Organization (“PEO”), prior to the acquisition of Global Technology and Management Resources, Inc. (“GTMR”) in March of 2023. The implementation of the ADP PEO has allowed for the extension of benefits not previously offered to include a broad suite of additional services at reduced cost to the employees (such as financial planning, legal services, additional life insurance, and long-term care). At the time of the GTMR acquisition, the GTMR employees were subject to a legacy benefit program. Through the open-enrollment process which will occur during the second quarter of 2024, the Company expects its employees, including the employees of GTMR, to migrate to the same benefit plan.
Available Information

The Company was incorporated in Nevada on September 30, 2010 under the name Passionate Pet, Inc. and in January 2013, the Company changed its name to Firstin Wireless Technology, Inc. In March 2015, the Company changed its name to BioNovelus, Inc. On June 12, 2019, the Company acquired Bayberry Acquisition Corporation, a Nevada corporation (“Bayberry” and, as context requires, the “Bayberry Acquisition”). On February 23, 2021, Bayberry was dissolved with the Nevada Secretary of State as it was non-operational after the merger with the Company. On November 21, 2019, we acquired Corvus Consulting, LLC, (“Corvus”), a Delaware limited liability company. On December 26, 2019, following our acquisition of Corvus, we changed our name from BioNovelus, Inc. to Castellum, Inc.

Our principal executive offices are located at 3 Bethesda Metro Center, Suite 700, Bethesda, Maryland 20814. Our telephone number is (301) 961-4895 and our website address is www.castellumus.com.

We make our website content available for information purposes only. It should not be relied upon for investment purposes, nor is it incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 10-K (“Form 10-K”).

Throughout this Form 10-K, we incorporate by reference information from parts of other documents filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). The SEC allows us to disclose important information by referring to it in this manner.

Our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, proxy statements for our annual stockholders’ meetings and amendments to those reports are available free of charge on our website www.castellumus.com/investor-relations.html, as soon as reasonably practical after we electronically file the material with, or furnish it to, the SEC. In addition, copies of our annual report will be made available, free of charge, upon written request. The SEC also maintains a website at www.sec.gov that contains reports, proxy statements, and other information regarding SEC registrants, including Castellum, Inc.


Item 1A. Risk Factors
A description of some of the most important risks and uncertainties associated with our business is set forth below. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below, together with all of the other information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including our audited consolidated financial statements and related notes included in Part II, Item 8, and the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included in Part II, Item 7. The occurrence of any of the events or developments described below could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and growth prospects. In such an event, the market price of our common stock could decline, and you may lose all or part of your investment. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently believe are not material may also impair our business, financial condition, results of operations, and growth prospects.
9

Table of Contents
Risks Related to our Business, Industry and Operations
We lack a long-term operating history on which to evaluate our consolidated business and determine if we will be able to execute our business plan, and we can give no assurance that our operations will result in sustained profitability.
We are focused on building a large, successful technology company in the areas of information technology (“IT”), electronic warfare, information warfare, and cybersecurity with businesses in the governmental and commercial markets. Since November 2019, we have executed our business plan and completed seven acquisitions. As a result, we have a limited operating history on a consolidated basis to evaluate our business and prospects. Our business operations are subject to numerous risks, uncertainties, expenses, and difficulties associated with early-stage enterprises. You should consider an investment in our Company in light of these risks, uncertainties, expenses, and difficulties. Such risks include:
limited operating history at our current scale;
our ability to raise capital to develop our business and fund our operations;
our ability to anticipate and adapt to developing markets;
acceptance by our customers;
limited marketing experience;
competition from competitors with substantially greater financial resources and assets; and
the ability to identify, attract, and retain qualified personnel.
Because we are subject to these risks, and the other risks outlined below, you may have a difficult time evaluating our business and your investment in our Company.
We have historically suffered net losses, and we may not be able to sustain profitability.
We had an accumulated deficit of $43,982,900 as of December 31, 2023, and we expect to continue to generate a net loss in the year ending December 31, 2024. As a result, we are incurring net losses, and it is possible that we may not be able to achieve the revenue levels necessary to achieve and sustain net profitability. If we fail to generate sufficient revenues to operate profitably on a consistent basis, or if we are unable to fund our continuing losses, you could lose all or part of your investment.
We rely upon a few, select key employees who are instrumental to our ability to conduct and grow our business. In the event any of those key employees would no longer be affiliated with the Company, and we did not replace them with equally capable replacements, it may have a material detrimental impact on our ability to successfully operate our business.
Our future success will depend in large part on our ability to attract, retain, and motivate high-quality management, operations, and other personnel who are in high demand, are often subject to competing employment offers, and are attractive recruiting targets for our competitors. The loss of qualified executives and key employees, or our inability to attract, retain, and motivate high-quality executives and employees required for the planned expansion of our business, may harm our operating results and impair our ability to grow.
We depend on the continued services of our key personnel, including Mark C. Fuller, our CEO, David T. Bell, our CFO, Glen R. Ives, our Chief Operating Officer (“COO”), and Jay O. Wright, our Chief Strategy Officer and General Counsel. Our work with each of these key personnel is subject to changes and/or termination, and our inability to effectively retain the services of our key management personnel, could materially and adversely affect our operating results and future prospects.
Certain key members of our management team lack significant public company experience in their positions and our executive management team has limited time working together.
The members of our team do not all have significant prior experience working in their roles for a public company, including our CEO, COO, and CFO. The management team also has limited experience working together as a team. The inability of any member of our management team to operate effectively in their position, or for the management team to effectively work together, could materially and adversely affect our operating results and future prospects.
10

Table of Contents
We may have difficulty raising additional capital, which could deprive us of necessary resources.
We expect to continue to devote significant capital resources to fund our acquisition strategy. In order to support the initiatives envisioned in our business plan, we will need to raise additional funds through the sale of public or private debt or equity financing or other arrangements. Our ability to raise additional financing depends on many factors beyond our control, including the state of capital markets and the market price of our common stock. Sufficient additional financing may not be available to us or may be available only on terms that would result in further dilution to the current owners of our common stock. If we are unable to raise additional capital to implement our business plan it could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, business prospects and operations, and the value of an investment in our Company.
You may experience dilution, subordination of stockholder rights, preferences, and privileges, and decrease in market price of our common stock as a result of our financing efforts.
Any future equity financing may involve substantial dilution to our then existing stockholders. Any future debt financing could involve restrictive covenants relating to our capital raising activities and other financial and operational matters, which may make it more difficult for us to obtain additional capital and to pursue business opportunities. There can be no assurance that such additional capital will be available, on a timely basis, or on terms acceptable to us. If we are unsuccessful in raising additional capital or the terms of raising such capital are unacceptable, then we may have to modify our business plan and/or curtail our planned activities and other operations.
Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market could adversely affect the market price of our common stock. We may issue substantial amounts of common stock in the future, which would dilute the percentage ownership held by the investors who purchase shares of our common stock in any such offering. Additionally, we have certain potential dilutive instruments, of which the conversion of these instruments could result in dilution to stockholders: As of March 15, 2024 the maximum potential dilution is 28,274,400 shares and includes Series A preferred stock convertible into approximately 587,500 shares of common stock, Series C preferred stock convertible into 481,250 shares of common stock, options granted convertible into 8,243,437 shares of common stock, and warrants granted convertible into 18,962,212 shares of common stock.
Failure to effectively manage any future any future growth could place strains on our managerial, operational, and financial resources and could adversely affect our business and operating results.
Our expected growth could place a strain on our managerial, operational, and financial resources. Further, if our subsidiaries’ businesses grow, then we will be required to manage multiple relationships. Any further growth by us or our subsidiaries, or any increase in the number of our strategic relationships, will increase the strain on our managerial, operational, and financial resources. This strain may inhibit our ability to achieve the rapid execution necessary to implement our business plan and could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, business prospects and operations, and the value of an investment in our Company.
We generate substantially all of our revenue from contracts with the United States federal, state, and local governments which are subject to a number of challenges and risks that may adversely impact our business, prospects, financial condition, and operating results.
Sales to U.S federal, state, and local governmental agencies have in the past accounted for, and may in the future account for, substantially all of our revenue. Sales to such government entities are subject to the following risks:
selling to governmental agencies can be highly competitive, expensive, and time consuming, often requiring significant upfront time and expense without any assurance that such efforts will generate a sale. Our existing contracts typically expire after some period of time and must be “re-competed.” There is no guarantee that we will win such re-compete efforts;
government certification requirements applicable to our products may change and in doing so restrict our ability to sell into the U.S. federal government sector until we have attained the revised certification;
government demand and payment for our products and services may be impacted by public sector budgetary cycles and funding authorizations, with funding reductions or delays adversely affecting public sector demand for our products and services;
governments can generally terminate our contracts “for convenience”, meaning we could lose part or all of our revenue on short notice;
11

Table of Contents
governments routinely investigate and audit government contractors’ administrative processes, and any unfavorable audit could result in the government refusing to continue buying our services, which would adversely impact our revenue and results of operations, or institute fines or civil or criminal liability if the audit uncovers improper or illegal activities; and
when we are a subcontractor, we have less control over the execution and success of the contract with the government.
If we were suspended or debarred from contracting with the USG, if our reputation or relationship with government agencies was impaired, or if the government otherwise ceased doing business with us or significantly decreased the amount of business it does with us, our business, prospects, financial condition, and operating results would be materially and adversely affected.
We operate in an industry that is highly regulated and unexpected changes in laws could have a significant adverse impact on our business.
As a contractor to the USG, as well as state and local governments, we are heavily regulated in most fields in which we operate. We deal with numerous USG agencies and entities, and when working with these and other entities, we must comply with and are affected by unique laws and regulations relating to the formation, administration, and performance of government contracts. Some significant law and regulations that affect us include the following:
the FAR, and agency regulations supplemental to FAR, which regulate the formation, administration, and performance of USG contracts;
the False Statements Act, which imposes civil and criminal liability for making false statements to the USG;
the Truthful Cost or Pricing Data Statute (formerly known as the “Truth in Negotiations Act”), which requires certification and disclosure of cost and pricing data in connection with the negotiation of certain contracts, modifications, or task orders;
the Procurement Integrity Act, which regulates access to competitor bid and proposal information and certain internal government procurement sensitive information, and our ability to provide compensation to certain former government procurement officials;
laws and regulations restricting the ability of a contractor to provide gifts or gratuities to employees of the USG, including the FCPA which prohibits U.S. citizens and entities from bribing foreign government officials to benefit their business interests;
post-government employment laws and regulations, which restrict the ability of a contractor to recruit and hire current employees of the USG and deploy former employees of the USG;
laws, regulations, and executive orders restricting the handling, use, and dissemination of information classified for national security purposes or determined to be “controlled unclassified information” or “for official use only,” and the export of certain products, services, and technical data, including requirements regarding any applicable licensing of our employees involved in such work;
laws, regulations, and executive orders regulating the handling, use, and dissemination of personally identifiable information in the course of performing a USG contract;
international trade compliance laws, regulations, and executive orders that prohibit business with certain sanctioned entities and require authorization for certain exports or imports in order to protect national security and global stability, including The International Traffic in Arms Regulations that controls the manufacture, sale, and distribution of defense and space-related articles and services as defined in the United States Munitions List);
laws, regulations, and executive orders governing organizational conflicts of interest that may restrict our ability to compete for certain USG contracts because of the work that we currently perform for the USG or may require that we take measures such as firewalling off certain employees or restricting their future work activities due to the current work that they perform under a USG contract;
laws, regulations, and executive orders that impose requirements on us to ensure compliance with requirements and protect the USG from risks related to our supply chain such as compliance with CMMC;
laws, regulations, and mandatory contract provisions providing protections to employees or subcontractors seeking to report alleged fraud, waste, and abuse related to a USG contract;
the Contractor Business Systems rule, which authorizes DoD agencies to withhold a portion of our payments if we are determined to have a significant deficiency in our accounting, cost estimating, purchasing, earned value management, material management and accounting, and/or property management system; and
12

Table of Contents
the Cost Accounting Standards and Cost Principles, which impose accounting and allowability requirements that govern our right to reimbursement under certain cost-based USG contracts and require consistency of accounting practices over time.
Given the magnitude of our revenue derived from contracts with the DoD, the DCAA is our relevant government audit agency. The DCAA audits the adequacy of our internal control systems and policies including, among other areas, compensation. The DCMA, as our relevant government contract management agency, may determine that a portion of our employee compensation is unallowable based on the findings and recommendations in the DCAA’s audits. In addition, the DCMA directly reviews the adequacy of certain other business systems, such as our purchasing system. We are also subject to audit by Inspectors General of other USG agencies.
The USG may revise its procurement practices or adopt new contract rules and regulations at any time. When operating outside the U.S., we are subject to special USG laws and regulations (such as the FCPA), local government regulations and procurement policies and practices, including regulations relating to import-export control, investments, exchange controls, and repatriation of earnings, as well as varying currency, political, and economic risks.
USG contracts are, by the terms, subject to termination by the USG either for convenience or default by the contractor. In addition, USG contracts are conditioned upon the continuing availability of Congressional appropriations. The U.S. Congress usually appropriates funds for a given program on a September 30 fiscal year basis, even though contract performance could take many years. As is common in the industry, our Company is subject to business risk, including changes in governmental appropriations, national defense policies, service modernizations plans, military base reductions and closures, and availability of funds. Any of these factors could materially adversely affect our Company's business with the USG in the future.
The USG has a broad range of actions it can instigate to enforce its procurement law and policies. These include proposing a contractor, certain of its operations or individual employees for debarment or suspending or debarring a contractor, certain of its operations or individual employees from future government business. In addition to criminal, civil, and administrative actions by the USG, under The False Claims Act, an individual alleging fraud related to payments under a USG contract or program may file a qui tam lawsuit on behalf of the government against us; if successful in obtaining a judgment or settlement, the individual filing the suit may receive up to 30% of the amount recovered by the government. If we are subject to an enforcement action by the USG, it could materially and adversely affect our results of operations.
USG contracts contain numerous provisions that are unfavorable to us.
USG contracts contain provisions and are subject to laws and regulations that give the government rights and remedies, some of which are not typically found in commercial contracts, including allowing the government to:
cancel multi-year contracts and related orders if funds for contract performance for any subsequent year become unavailable;
claim rights in systems and software developed by us;
suspend or debar us from doing business with the USG or with a governmental agency;
impose fines and penalties and subject us to criminal prosecution; and
control or prohibit the export of our data technology or proprietary service solutions.
If the government terminates a contract for convenience, we may recover only our incurred or committed costs, settlement expenses, and profit on work completed prior to the termination. If the government terminates a contract for default, we may be unable to recover even those amounts and instead may be liable for excess costs incurred by the government in procuring undelivered items and services from another source. Depending on the value of a contract, such termination could cause our actual results to differ materially and adversely from those anticipated. Certain contracts also contain organizational conflicts of interest (“OCI”) clauses that limit our ability to compete for or perform certain other contracts. OCIs arise any time we engage in activities that (i) make us unable or potentially unable to render impartial assistance or advice to the government; (ii) impair or might impair our objectivity in performing contract work; or (iii) provide us with an unfair competitive advantage. Depending upon the value of the matters affected, an OCI issue that precludes our participation in or performance of a program or contract could cause our actual results to differ materially and adversely from those anticipated.
13

Table of Contents
If we are unable to maintain successful relationships with our teaming partners, our ability to market, sell, and distribute our services will be limited, and our business, financial position, and results of operations will be harmed.
We expect that sales through teaming partners will continue to be a significant percentage of our revenue. Our agreements with our teaming partners are generally non-exclusive, meaning our teaming partners may offer customers services from several different companies, including services that compete with ours. The loss of a substantial number of our teaming partners, our possible inability to replace them, or the failure to recruit additional teaming partners could materially and adversely affect our results of operations.
We are exposed to the credit risk of some of our teaming partners, which could result in material losses.
Most of our sales for work performed for the USG are through our teaming partners and are on an open credit basis. We cannot assure an investor these programs will be effective in reducing our credit risks. If we are unable to adequately control these risks, our business, results of operations, and financial condition could be harmed.
Our business could be adversely affected by changes in spending levels or budgetary priorities of the federal, state, and local governments or by the imposition by the USG of sequestration in the absence of an approved budget or continuing resolution.
Because we derive substantially all of our revenue from contracts with the federal, state, and local governments, we believe that the success and development of our business will continue to depend on our successful participation in federal, state, and local contract programs. Since the majority of our revenue comes from the USG, changes in USG budgetary priorities, such as for homeland security or to address Social Security or Medicare reform, or actions taken to address government budget deficits, the national debt, and/or prevailing economic conditions, could directly affect our financial performance. If the USG imposes sequestration in the absence of an approved budget or CR our participation in USG contract programs could be impaired. A significant decline in USG expenditures, a shift of expenditures away from programs that we support or a change in USG contracting policies could cause USG agencies to reduce their purchases under contracts, to exercise their right to terminate contracts at any time without penalty or not to exercise options to renew contracts.
At times, we may continue to work without funding, and use our own internal funds to meet our customer’s desired delivery dates for products or services. It is uncertain at this time which of our programs’ funding could be reduced in future years or whether new legislation will be passed by Congress in the next fiscal year that could result in additional or alternative funding cuts.
If we fail to establish and maintain important relationships with government entities and agencies, our ability to successfully bid for new business may be adversely affected.
To facilitate our ability to prepare bids for new business, we rely in part on establishing and maintaining relationships with officials of various government entities and agencies. These relationships enable us to provide informal input and advice to government entities and agencies prior to the development of a formal bid. We may be unable to successfully maintain our relationships with government entities and agencies, and any failure to do so may adversely affect our ability to bid successfully for new business and could cause our actual results to differ materially and adversely from those anticipated.
We derive significant revenue from contracts and task orders awarded through a competitive bidding process. If we are unable to consistently win new awards over any extended period, our business and prospects will be adversely affected.
Our contracts and task orders with the USG are typically awarded through a competitive bidding process. We expect that much of that business we will seek in the foreseeable future will continue to be awarded through competitive bidding. Budgetary pressures and changes in the procurement process have caused many government customers to increasingly purchase goods and services through IDIQ contracts, GSA schedule contracts and other GWACs. These contracts, some of which are awarded to multiple contractors, have increased competition and pricing pressure, requiring that we make sustained post-award efforts to realize revenue under each such contract.
This competitive bidding process presents a number of risks, including the following:
we bid on programs before the completion of their design, which may result in unforeseen technological difficulties and cost overruns;
14

Table of Contents
we expend substantial cost and managerial time and efforts to prepare bids and proposals for contracts that we may not win;
we may be unable to estimate accurately the resources and cost structure that will be required to service any contract we win; and
we may encounter expense and delay if our competitors protest or challenge awards or contracts to us in competitive bidding, and any such protest or challenge could result in the resubmission of bids on modified specifications, or in termination, reduction, or modification of the awarded contract.
If we are unable to win particular contracts we may be prevented from providing services to customers that are purchased under those contracts for a number of years. If we are unable to consistently win new contract awards over any extended period, our business and prospects will be adversely affected and that could cause our actual results to differ materially and adversely from those anticipated. If we are unable to win prime contracts, or acquire companies with prime contract vehicles, our business and prospects will be adversely affected. In addition, upon the expiration of a contract, if the customer requires further services of the type provided by the contract, there is frequently a competitive rebidding process. There can be no assurance that we will win any particular bid, or that we will be able to replace business lost upon expiration or completion of a contract and the termination or non-renewal of any of our significant contracts could cause our actual results to differ materially and adversely from those anticipated.
Our business may suffer if we or our employees are unable to obtain the security clearances or other qualifications needed to perform services for our customers.
Many of our USG contracts require us to have security clearances and employ personnel with specified levels of education, work experience, and security clearances. Depending on the level of clearance, security clearances can be difficult and time-consuming to obtain. If we or our employees lose or are unable to obtain necessary security clearances, we may not be able to win new business and our existing customers could terminate their contracts with us or decide not to renew them. To the extent we cannot obtain or maintain the required security clearances for our employees working on a particular contract, we may not generate the revenue anticipated from the contract which could cause our results to differ materially and adversely from those anticipated.
If our prime contractors fail to maintain their relationships with the applicable governmental agency and fulfill their contractual obligations, our performance as a subcontractor and our ability to obtain future business could be materially and adversely impacted and our actual results could differ materially and adversely from those anticipated.
Our performance as a subcontractor on a government contract is dependent on our prime contractor’s ability to satisfactorily maintain its relationship with the applicable government agency and fulfill its obligations under their contract. A failure by our prime contractor to fulfill its obligations under their contract could result in the termination of the prime contract, thereby resulting in the termination of our subcontract. If any significant subcontract is terminated in this manner, it could cause our actual results to differ materially and adversely from those anticipated.
The USG’s appropriation process and other factors may delay the collection of our receivables, and our business may be adversely affected if we cannot collect our receivables in a timely manner.
We depend on the timely collections of our receivables to generate cash flow, provide working capital, pay debt, and continue our business operations. If the USG or any of our other customers or any prime contractors for which we are a subcontractor fail to pay or delays the payment of their outstanding invoices for any reason, our business and financial condition may be materially and adversely affected. The USG may fail to pay outstanding invoices for a number of reasons, including lack of appropriated funds, administrative error, or lack of an approved budget. If we experience difficulties collecting receivables, it could cause our actual results to differ materially and adversely from those anticipated.
The USG may change its procurement or other practices in a manner adverse to us.
The USG may change its procurement practices or adopt new contracting rules and regulations, such as those related to cost accounting standards. It could also adopt new contracting methods relating to GSA contracts or other government-wide contracts, adopt new socio-economic requirements, or change the basis upon which it reimburses our compensation and other expenses or otherwise limit such reimbursements. In all such cases, there is uncertainty surrounding the changes and what actual impacts they may have on contractors. These changes could impair our ability to obtain new contracts or win re-competed contracts or adversely affect our future profit margin. Any new contracting methods could be costly or
15

Table of Contents
administratively difficult for us to satisfy and, as a result, could cause actual results to differ materially and adversely from those anticipated.
Our contracts and administrative processes and systems are subject to audits and cost adjustments by the USG, which could reduce our revenue, disrupt our business, or otherwise adversely affect our operating results.
USG agencies routinely audit and investigate government contracts and government contractors’ administrative processes and systems. These agencies review our performance on contracts, pricing practices, cost structure, and compliance with applicable laws, regulations, and standards. They also evaluate the adequacy of internal controls over our business systems, including our purchasing, accounting, estimating, earned value management, and government property systems. Any costs found to be improperly allocated or assigned to contracts will not be reimbursed, and any such costs already reimbursed must be refunded and certain penalties may be imposed. Moreover, if any of the administrative processes and systems are found not to comply with requirements, we may be subjected to increased government scrutiny and approval that could delay or otherwise adversely affect our ability to compete for or perform contracts or collect our revenue in a timely manner. Therefore, an unfavorable outcome of an audit by the DCAA or another government agency could cause actual results to differ materially and adversely from those anticipated. If a government investigation uncovers improper or illegal activities, we may be subject to civil and criminal penalties and administrative sanctions, including termination of contracts, forfeitures of profits, suspension of payments, fines, and suspension or debarment from doing business with the USG. In addition, we could suffer serious reputational harm if allegations of impropriety were made against us. Each of these results could cause actual results to differ materially and adversely from those anticipated.
We may not receive the full amounts authorized under the contracts included in our backlog, which could reduce our revenue in future periods below the levels anticipated.
Our total backlog consists of funded and unfunded amounts. Funded backlog represents contract value from funds appropriated by the U.S. Congress (“Congress”) and obligated by the customer which is expected to be recognized as revenue. Unfunded backlog represents the sum of the unappropriated contract value on executed contracts and unexercised option years that is expected to be recognized as revenue. The primary risks that could affect our ability to recognize revenue from backlog on a timely basis or at all are: program schedule changes, contract modifications, and our ability to assimilate and deploy new consulting staff against funded backlog; cost-cutting initiatives and other efforts to reduce USG spending, which could reduce or delay funding for orders for services; and delayed funding of our contracts due to delays in the completion of the USG's budgeting process and the use of CRs by the USG to fund its operations. The amount of our funded backlog is also subject to change, due to, among other factors: changes in congressional appropriations that reflect changes in USG policies or priorities resulting from various military, political, economic, or international developments; changes in the use of USG contracting vehicles, and the provisions therein used to procure our services and adjustments to the scope of services, or cancellation of contracts, by the USG at any time. In addition, contract backlog includes orders under contracts for which the period of performance has expired, and we may not recognize revenue on the funded backlog that includes such orders due to, among other reasons, the tardy submission of invoices by our subcontractors and the expiration of the relevant appropriated funding in accordance with a predetermined expiration date such as the end of the USG's fiscal year. Our backlog may not result in actual revenue in any particular period, or at all, which could cause our actual results to differ materially and adversely from those anticipated.
Without additional Congressional appropriations, some of the contracts included in our backlog will remain unfunded, which could materially and adversely affect our future operating results.
Many of our USG contracts include multi-year performance periods in which Congress appropriates funds on an annual basis. A majority of our contracts are only partially funded at any point during their full performance period and unfunded contract work is subject to future appropriations by Congress. As a result of a lack of appropriated funds or efforts to reduce USG spending, our backlog may not result in revenue or may be delayed. If our backlog estimate is inaccurate and we fail to realize those amounts as revenue, our future operating results could be materially and adversely affected.
Employee misconduct, including security breaches, could result in the loss of customers and our suspension or debarment from contracting with the USG.
We may be unable to prevent our employees from engaging in misconduct, fraud, or other improper activities that could adversely affect our business and reputation. Misconduct could include the failure to comply with USG procurement regulations, regulations regarding the protection of classified information, and legislation regarding the pricing of labor and other costs in government contracts. Many of the systems we work on involve managing and protecting information involved in national security and other sensitive government functions. A security breach in one of these systems could
16

Table of Contents
prevent us from having access to such critically sensitive systems. Other examples of employee misconduct could include timecard fraud and violations of the Anti-Kickback Act of 1986. The precautions we take to prevent and detect this activity may not be effective, and we could face unknown risks or losses. As a result of employee misconduct, we could face fines and penalties, loss of security clearance and suspension or debarment from contracting with the USG, which could cause our actual results to differ materially and adversely from those anticipated.
We face intense competition and could fail to gain market share from our competitors, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

We obtain much of our business on the basis of proposals submitted in response to requests from potential and current customers, who may also receive proposals from other firms. The market for our products and services is intensely competitive and characterized by rapid changes in technology, customer requirements, industry standards, and frequent new product introductions and improvements. We anticipate continued challenges from current competitors, which in many cases are more established and enjoy greater resources than us, as well as by new entrants into the industry. Non-traditional players have entered the market and have established positions related to such areas as cloud computing, cyber, satellite operations, and business systems. We also face indirect competition from certain government agencies that perform services for themselves similar to those marketed by us. If we are unable to anticipate or effectively react to these competitive challenges, our competitive position could weaken, and we could experience a decline in our growth rate or revenue that could adversely affect our business and results of operations.
In addition, some of our larger competitors have substantially broader product and service offerings and may be able to leverage their relationships with distribution partners and customers based on other products or services, or incorporate functionality into existing products to gain business in a manner that discourages users from purchasing our products, subscriptions and services, including by selling at zero or negative margins, product bundling, or offering closed technology platforms. Potential customers may also prefer to purchase from their existing suppliers rather than a new supplier regardless of product performance or features. As a result, even if the features of our platform or the quality of our services are superior, customers may not purchase our products or services. In addition, new innovative start-up companies, and larger companies that are making significant investments in research and development, may invent similar or superior products and technologies that compete with our platform. Our current and potential competitors may also establish cooperative relationships among themselves or with third parties that may further enhance their resources. If we are unable to compete successfully, or if competing successfully requires us to take costly actions in response to the actions of our competitors, our business, financial condition, and results of operations could be adversely affected.
Systems failures may disrupt our business and have an adverse effect on our operating results.

Any systems failures, including network, software, or hardware failures, whether caused by us, a third-party service provider, unauthorized intruders and hackers, computer viruses, natural disasters, power shortages or terrorist attacks, could cause loss of data or interruptions or delays in our business or that of our customers. Like other companies, we have experienced cyber security threats to our data and systems, our Company sensitive information, and our IT infrastructure, including attempted malware and computer virus attacks, unauthorized access, systems failures, and temporary disruptions. Prior attempted cyber-attacks directed at us have not had a material adverse impact on our business and financial results.

Many of the systems that we develop, integrate, maintain, otherwise support or use involve managing and protecting intelligence, national security, and other sensitive government information. A security breach or system failure in a system that we develop, integrate, maintain or otherwise support could result in a loss of revenue, remediation costs, claims for damages or contract termination and our errors and omissions liability insurance may be inadequate to compensate us from all the damages that we might incur. Any such event could also cause serious damage to our reputation and prevent us from having access to or being eligible further work on such sensitive systems for government customers.

In addition, to provide services to our customers, we often depend upon or use customer systems that are supported by the customer or third parties. Any security breach or system failure in such systems could result in an interruption of our customer’s operations, significant delays under a contract, loss of revenue, claims for damages, contract termination, and have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.

Our insurance, including for errors and omissions liability and property and business interruption, may be inadequate to compensate us for all losses that may occur as a result of any system or operational failure or disruption and, as a result, our actual results could differ materially and adversely from those anticipated.
17

Table of Contents
Our failure to adequately protect our confidential information and proprietary rights may harm our competitive position.
Our success depends, in part, upon our ability to protect our proprietary information. Although our employees are subject to confidentiality obligations, this protection may be inadequate to deter misappropriation of our proprietary information. In addition, we may be unable to detect unauthorized use of our proprietary information in order to take appropriate steps to enforce our rights. If we are unable to prevent third parties from infringing or misappropriating our proprietary information, our competitive position could be harmed, and our actual results could differ materially and adversely from those anticipated.
Our annual revenue and operating results could be volatile due to the unpredictability of the USG’s budgeting process and policy priorities.
Our annual revenue and operating results may fluctuate significantly and unpredictably in the future. If the USG does not adopt, or delays adoption of, a budget for each fiscal year beginning on October 1, or fails to pass a CR, federal agencies may be forced to suspend our contracts and delay the award of new and follow-on contracts and orders due to a lack of funding. Further, the rate at which the USG procures technology may be negatively affected following changes in presidential administrations and senior government officials or by “divided government” where one political party controls the White House and another party controls Congress. Therefore, period-to-period comparisons of our operating results may not be a good indication of our future performance. Our annual operating results may not meet the expectations of securities analysts or investors, which in turn may have an adverse effect on the market price of our common stock.
We may lose money or generate less than anticipated profits if we do not accurately estimate the cost of an engagement which is conducted on a fixed-price basis.
We generated 7% of our total revenue in the year ended December 31, 2023, 8% of our total revenue in the year ended December 31, 2022, and 19% of our total revenue in the year ended December 31, 2021, from FFP contracts. FFP contracts require us to price our contracts by predicting our expenditures in advance. In addition, some of our engagements obligate us to provide ongoing maintenance and other supporting or ancillary services on a fixed-price basis or with limitations on our ability to increase prices. Many of our engagements are also on a T&M basis. To the extent that our actual labor costs are higher than the contract rates, our actual results could differ materially and adversely from those anticipated.
When making proposals for engagements on a FFP basis, we rely on our estimates of costs and timing for completing the projects. These estimates reflect our best judgment regarding our capability to complete the task efficiently. Any increased or unexpected costs or unanticipated delays in connection with the performance of FFP contracts, including delays caused by factors outside of our control, could make these contracts less profitable or unprofitable. If we encounter such problems in the future, our actual results could differ materially and adversely from those anticipated.
Our earnings and margins may vary based on the mix of our contracts and programs.
At December 31, 2023, our backlog included cost reimbursable, T&M, and FFP contracts. Cost reimbursable and T&M contracts generally have lower profit margins than FFP contracts. Our earnings and margins may therefore vary materially and adversely depending on the relative mix of contract types, the costs incurred in their performance, the achievement of other performance objectives and the state of performance at which the right to receive fees, particularly under incentive and award fee contracts, is finally determined.
Inflation may cause the Fed to increase interest rates thereby increasing our interest expense.
Sustained inflation can cause the Federal Reserve Board and its Open Market Committee (“Fed”) to raise the target for the federal funds rate or keep it at a high level which normally translates into an increase in most banks’ “prime” rate. Because our notes with Live Oak Banking Company are both variable interest rate instruments tied to the prime rate, actions by the Fed to increase the federal funds rate or keep it high may increase our cost of debt and our interest expense thereby reducing our pre-tax income and net income. Our borrowing costs have recently increased and would increase with future Fed interest rate increases, although the impacts have been and are expected to continue to be immaterial. Our contracts with U.S. federal, state, and local government customers do not permit us to pass along our increased financing costs. The increases to our borrowing costs have not impacted (and are not expected to impact) our ability to make timely payments.
18

Table of Contents
Risks Related to our Acquisitions
We may have difficulty identifying and executing acquisitions on favorable terms and therefore may grow more slowly than we historically have grown.
As part of our business strategy, we may acquire or make investments in complementary companies’ services, products, or technologies. Through acquisitions, we have expanded our base of U.S. federal, state, and local governments customers, increased the range of solutions we offer to our customers and deepened our penetration of existing markets and customers. We may encounter difficulty identifying new acquisitions and executing suitable acquisitions due to lack of financing. To the extent that management is involved in identifying acquisition opportunities or integrating new acquisitions into our business, our management may be diverted from operating our core business. Without acquisitions, we may not grow as rapidly as we historically have grown, which could cause our actual results to differ materially and adversely from those anticipated. We may encounter other risks in executing our acquisition strategy, including:
increased competition for acquisitions may increase the costs for our acquisitions;
unreasonable expectations of companies related to their perceived versus actual value;
our failure to discover material liabilities during the due diligence process, including the failure of prior owners of any acquired businesses or their employees to comply with applicable laws or regulations, such as the FAR and health, safety, and environmental laws, or their failure to fulfill their contractual obligations to the USG or other customers;
our acquisitions may not ultimately strengthen our competitive position or allow us to achieve our goals, and any acquisitions we complete could be viewed negatively by our customers, analysts, and investors;
acquisition financing may not be available on reasonable terms or at all;
failure to properly integrate our acquisitions with our existing business thereby preventing the realization of potential synergies with the acquired business; and
debt incurred in making acquisitions may reduce our financial flexibility to pursue other opportunities or invest in internal growth.
Each of these types of risks could cause our actual results to differ materially and adversely from those anticipated.
We may have difficulty integrating the operations of any companies we acquire, which could cause actual results to differ materially and adversely from what we anticipated.
The success of our acquisition strategy will depend on our ability to continue to successfully integrate any businesses we may acquire in the future. The integration of these businesses into our operations may result in unforeseen operating difficulties, absorb significant management attention, and require significant financial resources that would otherwise be available for the ongoing development of our business. These integration difficulties include the integration of personnel with disparate business backgrounds, the transition of new information systems, coordination of geographically dispersed organizations, loss of key employees of acquired companies, and reconciliation of different corporate cultures. For these or other reasons, we may be unable to retain key customers of acquired companies. Moreover, any acquired business may fail to generate the revenue or net income we expected or produce the efficiencies or cost-savings we anticipated. Any of these outcomes could cause our actual results to differ materially and adversely from those anticipated.
We have substantial investments in recorded goodwill as a result of prior acquisitions and a change in future business conditions could cause these investments to become impaired, requiring substantial write-downs that would reduce our operating income.
Goodwill accounts for $10,716,907 of our recorded total assets as of December 31, 2023. We evaluate the recoverability of recorded goodwill amounts annually or when evidence of potential impairment exists. The annual impairment test is based on several factors requiring judgment. Principally, a decrease in expected reporting unit cash flows or changes in market conditions may indicate potential impairment of recorded goodwill. If there is an impairment, we would be required to write down the recorded amount of goodwill, which would be reflected as a charge against operating income and would reduce the value of our total assets and our total equity on our balance sheet. During the third quarter of 2023, due to decline in stock price, Management determined that a triggering event occurred representing an indicator of goodwill impairment, resulting in a non-cash charge of $6,919,094.
19

Table of Contents
Risks Related to our Indebtedness
Servicing our debt requires a significant amount of cash, and we may not have sufficient cash flow from our business to pay our substantial debt.
We have substantial indebtedness. We have $12,456,407 of debt as of December 31, 2023, the majority of which originally matured in calendar year 2024 and the terms of which have subsequently been amended to extend the maturity date to calendar year 2026. See subsequent events under Note 16 Part II Item 8. Financial Statements on this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Should our business fail to generate cash flow from operations sufficient to service our debt and make necessary capital expenditures we may be required to adopt one or more alternatives, such as selling assets, restructuring debt, or obtaining equity capital on terms that may be onerous or highly dilutive. Such a “fire sale” would materially and adversely affect the value of our common stock.
Risks Related to our Common Stock and Preferred Stock
Future sales or potential sales of our common stock in the public market could cause our share price to decline.
If the existing holders of our common stock, particularly our directors, officers, and other 5% stockholders, sell a large number of shares, they could adversely affect the market price for our common stock. Sales of substantial amounts of our common stock in the public market, or the perception that these sales could occur, could cause the market price of our common stock to decline.
Because we will not pay dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future, holders of common stock will only benefit from owning common stock if it appreciates.
We have never paid cash dividends on our common stock, and we do not intend to do so in the foreseeable future. We intend to retain any future earnings to finance our growth. However, the holders of our Series A preferred stock and Series C preferred stock receive cash dividends and have seniority in liquidation preference to the holders of our common stock. Accordingly, any potential investor who anticipates the need for current dividends from his investment should not purchase our common stock.
Low Trading Price of Common Stock on the NYSE American

Our common stock was approved for listing on the NYSE American and began trading there on October 13, 2022. The closing price of our common stock has been below $1.00 for more than thirty (30) consecutive trading days. In the case of a company whose common stock sells for a low price per share for a substantial period of time, the NYSE American continued listing rules permit the exchange to de-list a listed company in the event it fails to effect a reverse split of such shares within a reasonable time after being notified that the exchange deems such action to be appropriate under the circumstances. We have not received any such notification from the NYSE American but could receive it in the future. In the event we received such a notice from the NYSE American and failed to comply within a reasonable time after receiving such notice with its request to effect a reverse stock split of our common shares, our shares of common stock could be delisted from the NYSE American.
Our failure to meet the continued listing requirements of the NYSE American could result in a delisting of our common stock and subject us to the penny stock rules.
Our common stock was approved for listing on the NYSE American and began trading there on October 13, 2022; however, if we subsequently fail to meet any of NYSE American’s continued listing requirements, our common stock may be delisted. In addition, our Board may determine that the cost of maintaining our listing on a national securities exchange outweighs the benefits of such listing. A delisting of our common stock from the NYSE American may materially impair our stockholders’ ability to buy and sell our common stock and could have an adverse effect on the market price of, and the efficiency of the trading market for, our common stock. The delisting of our common stock could significantly impair our ability to raise capital and the value of your investment. The delisting of our common stock would also subject us to the rules adopted by the SEC that regulate broker-dealer practices in connection with transactions in penny stocks. Penny stocks are generally equity securities with a price of less than $5.00, other than securities registered on certain national securities exchanges or authorized for quotation on certain automated quotation systems, provided that current price and volume information with respect to transactions in such securities is provided by the exchange or system. The penny stock rules require a broker-dealer, before a transaction in a penny stock not otherwise exempt from those rules, to deliver a
20

Table of Contents
standardized risk disclosure document containing specified information. In addition, the penny stock rules require that before effecting any transaction in a penny stock not otherwise exempt from those rules, a broker-dealer must make a special written determination that the penny stock is a suitable investment for the purchaser and receive (i) the purchaser’s written acknowledgment of the receipt of a risk disclosure statement; (ii) a written agreement to transactions involving penny stocks; and (iii) a signed and dated copy of a written suitability statement. These disclosure requirements may have the effect of reducing the trading activity in the secondary market for our common stock, and as a result, stockholders may have difficulty selling their shares.
We are an “emerging growth company” and will be able to avail ourselves of reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies, which could make our common stock less attractive to investors.
We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the JOBS Act and we intend to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not “emerging growth companies” including not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements, and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. We cannot predict if investors will find our common stock less attractive because we may rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our common stock less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our common stock and our stock price may be more volatile.
We may take advantage of these reporting exemptions until we are no longer an “Emerging Growth Company.” We will remain an “Emerging Growth Company” until the earliest of  (i) the last day of the fiscal year in which we have total annual gross revenues of  $1,235,000,000 or more; (ii) the last day of our fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the date of the completion of the public offering; (iii) the date on which we have issued more than $1,000,000,000 in nonconvertible debt during the previous three years; or (iv) the date on which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer under the rules of the SEC.
Unanticipated changes in our tax provisions or exposure to additional income tax liabilities could affect our financial condition and profitability and we may take tax positions that the Internal Revenue Service or other tax authorities may contest.
We are subject to income taxes in the U.S. Significant judgments and estimates are required to be made in determining our provision for income taxes. Changes in estimates of projected future operating results, loss of deductibility of items, recapture of prior deductions, limitations on our ability to utilize tax net operating losses in the future, or changes in assumptions regarding our ability to generate future taxable income could result in significant increases to our tax expense and liabilities that could adversely affect our financial condition and profitability.
We have in the past and may in the future take tax positions that the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) or other tax authorities may contest. We are required by an IRS regulation to disclose particular tax positions to the IRS as part of our tax returns for that year and future years. If the IRS or other tax authority successfully contests a tax position that we take, we may be required to pay additional taxes, interest, or fines that may adversely affect our results of operations and financial position.
Anti-takeover provisions in our charter documents and Nevada law could discourage, delay, or prevent a change in control of our Company and may affect the trading price of our common stock.
We are a Nevada corporation and the anti-takeover provisions of the Nevada Revised Statutes may discourage, delay, or prevent a change in control by prohibiting us from engaging in a business combination with an interested stockholder for a period of three years after the person becomes an interested stockholder, even if a change in control would be beneficial to our existing stockholders. An interested stockholder is a person who, together with the affiliates and associates, beneficially owns (or within the prior two years, did beneficially own) 10 percent or more of the Company’s capital stock entitled to vote. In addition, our amended and restated articles of incorporation, as amended (the “Amended and Restated Articles of Incorporation”) and amended and restated bylaws (the “Amended and Restated Bylaws”) may discourage, delay, or prevent a change in our management or control over us that stockholders may consider favorable. Our Amended and Restated Articles of Incorporation and our Amended and Restated Bylaws (i) authorize the issuance of “blank check” preferred stock that could be issued by our Board to thwart a takeover attempt; (ii) provide that vacancies on our Board, including newly created directorships, may be filled by a majority vote of directors then in office, (iii) provide that the Board shall
21

Table of Contents
have the sole power to adopt, amend, or repeal the Amended and Restated Bylaws, and (iv) requires a stockholder to provide advance written notice of a stockholder proposal.
Our Amended and Restated Articles of Incorporation and Amended and Restated Bylaws contain an exclusive forum provision, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers, employees, or agents.
Our Amended and Restated Articles of Incorporation and our Amended and Restated Bylaws provide that, to the fullest extent permitted by law, and unless the Company consents in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Eighth Judicial District Court of Clark County, Nevada, shall, to the fullest extent permitted by law, be the sole and exclusive forum for state law claims with respect to: (a) any derivative action or proceeding brought in the name or right of the Company or on its behalf, (b) any action asserting a claim for breach of any fiduciary duty owed by any director, officer, employee, or agent of the Company to the Company or the Company’s stockholders, (c) any action arising or asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of Nevada Revised Statutes Chapters 78 or 92A or any provision of the Amended and Restated Articles of Incorporation or the Amended and Restated Bylaws, or (d) any action asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine, including, without limitation, any action to interpret, apply, enforce, or determine the validity of the Amended and Restated Articles of Incorporation or the Amended and Restated Bylaws. Pursuant to Article IX of the Amended and Restated Articles of Incorporation and pursuant to Article XIII of the Amended and Restated Bylaws, and for the avoidance of doubt, this exclusive forum provision shall not be applicable to any action brought under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”) and that unless the Company consents in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the federal district courts of the United States of America shall be the exclusive forum for the resolution of any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act. Section 27 of the Exchange Act creates exclusive federal jurisdiction over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or the rules and regulations thereunder, and Section 22 of the Securities Act creates concurrent jurisdiction for federal and state courts over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Securities Act or the rules and regulations thereunder. Investors cannot waive compliance with the federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder. Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in shares of capital stock of the Company shall be deemed to have notice of and consented to the provisions of Article IX of our Amended and Restated Articles of Incorporation and Article XIII of our Amended and Restated Bylaws. There exists uncertainty, however, as to whether such forum selection provisions of our Amended and Restated Articles of Incorporation and our Amended and Restated Bylaws would be enforced by a court.
The choice of forum provision in our Amended and Restated Articles of Incorporation and Amended and Restated Bylaws may limit our stockholders’ ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that they find favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers, employees, or agents, which may discourage such lawsuits against us and our directors, officers, employees, and agents even though an action, if successful, might benefit our stockholders. The applicable courts may also reach different judgments or results than would other courts, including courts where a stockholder considering an action may be located or would otherwise choose to bring the action, and such judgments or results may be more favorable to us than to our stockholders. With respect to the provision making the Eighth Judicial District Court of Clark County, Nevada the sole and exclusive forum for certain types of actions, stockholders who do bring a claim in the Eighth Judicial District Court of Clark County, Nevada could face additional litigation costs in pursuing any such claim, particularly if they do not reside in or near Nevada. Finally, if a court were to find this provision of our Amended and Restated Articles of Incorporation inapplicable to, or unenforceable in respect of, one or more of the specified types of actions or proceedings, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such matters in other jurisdictions, which could have a material adverse effect on us.
Our management collectively owns a substantial amount of our common stock.
Collectively, our officers and directors own or exercise voting and investment control of approximately 44.4% of our outstanding common stock and control 43.8% of the voting power of the Company. As a result, unless required by a stock exchange rule, investors may be prevented from affecting matters involving our Company, including:
the composition of our Board of Directors (the “Board”) and, through it, any determination with respect to our business direction and policies, including the appointment and removal of officers;
any determination with respect to mergers or other business combinations;
our acquisition or disposition of assets; and
our corporate financing activities.
22

Table of Contents
Furthermore, this concentration of voting power could have the effect of delaying, deterring, or preventing a change of control or other business combination that might otherwise be beneficial to our stockholders. This significant concentration of share ownership may also adversely affect the trading price of our common stock because investors may perceive disadvantages in owning stock in a Company that is controlled by a small number of stockholders.
Although our Company does not intend to utilize the controlled company exemptions to the NYSE American corporate governance listing standards, if we are eligible to utilize the controlled company exemptions in the future, we may choose to do so. In such instance we would be exempted from, among other things, the requirements to have a board with a majority of independent members and the requirement that we have a nominating and governance committee and compensation committee that are composed entirely of independent directors and have written charters addressing the respective committee’s purpose and responsibilities. Our Company’s reliance on such exemption would likely result in a reduction in transparency to shareholders on various governance matters which could negatively impact their investment decisions.
If we fail to establish and maintain an effective system of internal control or disclosure controls and procedures are not effective, we may not be able to report our financial results accurately and timely or to prevent fraud. Any inability to report and file our financial results accurately and timely could harm our reputation and adversely impact the trading price of our common stock.
Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (“Section 404”), requires that we maintain internal control over financial reporting that meets applicable standards. We may err in the design or operation of our controls, and all internal control systems, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable assurance that the objectives of the control system are met. Because there are inherent limitations in all control systems, there can be no assurance that all control issues have been or will be detected. If we are unable, or are perceived as unable, to produce reliable financial reports due to internal control deficiencies, investors could lose confidence in our reported financial information and operating results, which could result in a negative market reaction and a decrease in our stock price.
There can be no assurances that weakness in our internal controls will not occur in the future. If we identify new material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, if we are unable to comply with the requirements of Section 404 in a timely manner, if we are unable to assert that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, or if our independent registered public accounting firm is unable to express an opinion as to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting (if and when required), we may be late with the filing of our periodic reports, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports and the market price of our common stock could be negatively affected. As a result of such failures, we could also become subject to investigations by the NYSE American, the SEC, or other regulatory authorities, and become subject to litigation from investors and stockholders, which could harm our reputation, financial condition, or divert financial and management resources from our core business and would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

None.
Item 1C. Cybersecurity

Risk management and strategy

The Company recognizes the critical importance of developing, implementing, and maintaining robust cybersecurity measures to safeguard our information systems and protect the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of our data.

Managing Material Risks & Integrated Overall Risk Management

Castellum strategically integrated cybersecurity risk management into our broader risk management framework to promote a company-wide culture of cybersecurity risk management. This integration ensures that cybersecurity considerations are an integral part of our decision-making processes at every level. Our IT department continuously evaluates and addresses cybersecurity risks in alignment with our business objectives and operational needs.

Engage Third-parties on Risk Management

23

Table of Contents
Recognizing the complexity and evolving nature of cybersecurity threats, the Company engages with a range of external experts, including cybersecurity assessors, consultants, and auditors in evaluating and testing our critical systems. These partnerships enable us to leverage specialized knowledge and insights, ensuring our cybersecurity strategies and processes remain at the forefront of industry best practices. Our collaboration with these third parties includes periodic audits, threat assessments, and consultation on security enhancements.

Oversee Third-party Risk

Because we are aware of the risks associated with third-party service providers, the Company implements stringent processes to oversee and manage these risks. We conduct thorough security assessments of all third-party providers before engagement and maintain ongoing monitoring to ensure compliance with our cybersecurity standards. The monitoring includes quarterly assessments by our Vice President of Technology and Deployment (the “VP of Technology”) and on an ongoing basis by our security engineers. This approach is designed to mitigate risks related to data breaches or other security incidents originating from third parties.

Risks from Cybersecurity Threats

We have not encountered cybersecurity challenges that have materially impaired our operations or financial standing.

Governance

The Board is acutely aware of the critical nature of managing risks associated with cybersecurity threats. The Board has established oversight mechanisms to ensure effective governance in managing risks associated with cybersecurity threats because we recognize the significance of these threats to our operational integrity and stakeholder confidence. The Board is briefed on a periodic basis as to the nature of actions taken to mitigate risks from cyberattacks.

Board of Directors Oversight

The Audit Committee is central to the Board’s oversight of cybersecurity risks and bears the primary responsibility for this domain. The Audit Committee is composed of board members with diverse expertise including, risk management, technology, and finance, equipping them to oversee cybersecurity risks effectively.

Management’s Role Managing Risk

The VP of Technology and Deployment and the CEO play a pivotal role in informing the Audit Committee on cybersecurity risks. They provide comprehensive briefings to the Audit Committee on a semi-annual basis, with a minimum frequency of once per year. These briefings encompass a broad range of topics, including:

Current cybersecurity landscape and emerging threats;
Status of ongoing cybersecurity initiatives and strategies;
Incident reports and learnings from any cybersecurity events; and
Compliance with regulatory requirements and industry standards.

Item 2. Properties
Our principal executive offices are located at 3 Bethesda Metro Center, Suite 700 Bethesda, Maryland 20814 in a shared office space leased from Regus. As of December 31, 2023, our subsidiaries lease property at the following locations:

Augusta, Georgia
Vienna, Virginia
Toms River, New Jersey
Hollywood, Maryland

We believe our existing facilities are adequate to meet our current requirements. We do not own any real property.
24

Table of Contents
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
As a commercial enterprise and employer, the Company and our subsidiaries are subject to threatened litigation and other legal actions in the ordinary course of business, including employee-related matters, inquiries, and administrative proceedings regarding our employment practices or other matters. Neither our Company nor any of our subsidiaries is a party to any legal proceeding that, individually or in the aggregate, we believe to be uncovered by insurance or otherwise material to our Company as a whole.
Item 4 Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.
25

Table of Contents
Part II
Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Market Price of Our Common Stock

Until October 13, 2022, our common stock was quoted on the OTC Pink Marketplace operated by OTC Markets Group Inc. under the trading symbol “ONOV”. Since October 13, 2022, our common stock has been listed for trading on the NYSE American under the symbol “CTM”.

Holders of Record

As of March 15, 2024, there were 53,029,915 shares of common stock outstanding held by approximately 214 holders of record (not including an indeterminate number of beneficial holders of stock held in street name), and the last reported sale price of our common stock on the NYSE American on March 15, 2024 was $0.27.

Dividend Policy

To date, we have not paid any dividends on our common stock and do not anticipate paying any dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future. We have paid cash dividends to holders of our Series A preferred stock and Series C preferred stock and currently expect that comparable cash dividends will continue to be paid in the future. The declaration and payment of dividends on our common stock is at the discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend on, among other things, our operating results, financial condition, capital requirements, contractual restrictions, or such other factors as our Board of Directors may deem relevant.

Securities Authorized for Issuance under Equity Compensation Plans

See the section titled “Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters” for information regarding securities authorized for issuance.

Unregistered Sales of Securities

Unless specifically noted otherwise, the issuances described in this subsection were made in reliance on the private placement exemption pursuant to Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act because the issuances did not involve a public offering.

2023 Issuances

On November 20, 2023, we issued an aggregate of 30,000 shares of common stock to four advisory board members in consideration of services rendered, which we valued at approximately $28,560.


2022 Issuances

Common Stock

In the three months ended March 31, 2022, we issued (a) 15,000 shares of common stock in accordance with the Series C Preferred Stock subscription agreements, (b) 15,000 shares of common stock in the exercise of stock options, for which we received $12,000, and (c) 7,500 shares of common stock that vest over twelve months to an advisory board member, which we valued at approximately $30,000.

In April, 2022, we also issued (a) 7,500 shares of common stock in consideration of professional services rendered, which we valued at approximately $30,000, and (b) 125,000 shares of common stock to Robert Eisiminger as a commitment fee to enter into a promissory note valued at $500,000.

On April 4, 2022, we entered into a Securities Purchase Agreement (“SPA”) with Crom Cortana Fund LLC (“Crom”). Among other things, the SPA includes (a) the issuance of 656,250 warrants that mature April 4, 2027, with an exercise price of $1.84 per share; and (b) the issuance of 1,250,000 common shares at $0.40 per share. As further inducement to enter into the SPA, Crom was issued 125,000 common shares.

26

Table of Contents
As consideration for our acquisition of the assets of Lexington Solutions Group, LLC (“LSG”) on May 4, 2022, the Company issued 600,000 shares of common stock, which we valued at approximately $3,000,000, set forth in the Amendment No. 1 to the LSG Business Acquisition Agreement.

In May, 2022, 535,000 shares of Series B preferred stock were converted into 2,675,000 shares of common stock, and 7,500 shares of common stock were issued in consideration for professional services rendered, which we valued at approximately $34,000.

In October, 2022, the two remaining holders of the Series B Preferred Stock converted all of the remaining shares of Series B Preferred Stock outstanding into 15,375,000 shares of common stock.

In connection with the Company’s Reverse Stock Split, on October 27, 2022, we issued 1,231 shares of common stock to existing shareholder accounts with fractional shares representing “round up” shares.

On November 7, 2022, we issued 25,000 shares of common stock in connection with our acquisition of the assets of LSG pursuant to the post-closing adjustment set forth in Amendment No. 1 to the LSG Business Acquisition Agreement, which we valued at approximately $30,000.

On November 16, 2022, we issued a total of 60,000 shares of common stock to three subcontractors for professional services rendered, which we valued at approximately $50,000.

We issued 100,000 shares of common stock on December 15, 2022, in connection with the conversion of $160,000 of principal of the Crom Note Payable.

Stock Options

On January 1, 2022, we granted stock options to employees, directors, and officers to purchase a total of 725,000 shares of common stock at an exercise price ranging from $3.30 to $3.40.

On April 1, 2022, we granted stock options to a consultant to purchase 10,000 shares of our common stock at an exercise price of $3.40.

On April 25, 2022, we granted stock options to an officer to purchase 1,800,000 shares of our common stock at an exercise price of $3.80.

On November 11, 2022, we granted stock options to an employee to purchase 50,000 shares of our common stock at an exercise price of $2.00.

Warrants

On April 4, 2022, we issued warrants to Crom in accordance with the SPA to purchase 656,250 shares of common stock at an exercise price of $1.84 per share which expire on April 4, 2027.

On May 2, 2022, we issued warrants to two executive officers pursuant to the terms of their employment agreements to purchase an aggregate of 361,017 shares of common stock at an exercise price of $3.80 per share.

On October 17, 2022, we issued warrants to three executive officers pursuant to the terms of their employment agreements to purchase an aggregate of 1,500,000 shares of common stock at an exercise price of $2.00 per share.

Line of Credit

On March 28, 2022, we entered into a $950,000 revolving line of credit promissory note with Live Oak Banking Company that has a maturity date of March 28, 2029. The note has a per annum interest rate equal to the prime rate as quoted in the Wall Street Journal, plus 2.75%.

Convertible Note Payable

In connection with the SPA with Crom, we entered into a convertible promissory note dated April 4, 2022 in the amount of $1,050,000 at 7% interest per annum which matures on April 4, 2023 and is convertible at a price of $1.60 per share. On February 13, 2023, the Company entered into a series of transactions with Crom to pay off the total amount currently owed under the terms of the convertible promissory note.

2021 Issuances
27

Table of Contents

Preferred Stock

On September 16, 2021, September 23, 2021, October 20, 2021, November 18, 2021, November 23, 2021, and December 9, 2021, we issued a total of 620,000 shares of Series C Preferred Stock, for proceeds of $620,000, to various outside investors to finance the Company’s operations, acquisitions, and development.

Common Stock

On April 29, 2021 and June 15, 2021, we issued 1,114,023 shares of common stock in connection with the acquisition of Mainnerve Federal Services, Inc., valued at approximately $1,800,000.

On August 6, 2021, we issued 500,000 shares of common stock in connection with the acquisition of Merrison Technologies, LLC, valued at approximately $1,700,000.

On August 25, 2021, we issued 2,600,000 shares of common stock in connection with the acquisition of Specialty Systems, Inc. (“SSI”), valued at approximately $5,200,000.

On September 16, 2021, September 23, 2021, October 20, 2021, November 18, 2021, November 23, 2021, and December 9, 2021, we issued a total of 62,000 shares of common stock to the holders of the Series C Preferred Stock in accordance with the subscription agreements.

On October 26, 2021, we issued 32,095 shares of common stock in connection with the acquisition of SSI, valued at approximately $64,000.

Stock Options

On January 1, 2021, we granted options to five advisory board members and one employee to purchase 150,000 shares of common stock at an exercise price of $1.60 per share.

On February 21, 2021, we granted options to an employee to purchase 50,000 shares of common stock at an exercise price of $1.00 per share.

On March 12, 2021, we granted options to an advisory board member to purchase 50,000 shares of common stock at an exercise price of $1.80 per share for services rendered.

On April 1, 2021, we granted options to and employee to purchase 100,000 shares of common stock at an exercise price of $1.80 per share.

On July 1, 2021, we granted options pursuant to the terms of an employment agreement to an officer of the Company to purchase 750,000 shares of common stock at an exercise price of $1.60 per share.

On August 6, 2021, we granted options to three employees to purchase a total of 600,000 shares of common stock at an exercise price of $3.40 per share.

On August 12, 2021, we granted options to three employees to purchase a total of 750,000 shares of common stock at an exercise price of $3.40 per share.

On August 31, 2021, we granted options to an employee to purchase 12,500 shares of common stock at an exercise price of $4.00 per share.

Warrants

On January 20, 2021, we issued warrants to two executive officers pursuant to the terms of their employment agreements to purchase an aggregate of 130,000 shares of common stock at an exercise price of $1.60 per share.

On August 5, 2021, we issued warrants to two executive officers pursuant to the terms of their employment agreements to purchase an aggregate of 320,000 shares of common stock at an exercise price of $3.40 per share.
28

Table of Contents

On August 12, 2021, we issued warrants to two executive officers pursuant to the terms of their employment agreements to purchase an aggregate of 1,450,851 shares of common stock at an exercise price of $2.00 per share.

On November 16, 2021, we issued warrants to two executive officers pursuant to the terms of their employment agreements to purchase an aggregate of 170,000 shares of common stock at an exercise price of $4.00 per share.

Secured Note Payable

On August 11, 2021, we entered into a term loan promissory note with Live Oak Banking Company in the principal amount of $4,000,000, that has a maturity date of August 11, 2024. The note is secured by all of the assets of the Company and has a per annum interest rate equal to the prime rate as quoted in the Wall Street Journal, plus three percentage points (3%).

Unsecured Note Payable

On August 12, 2021, we issued a note to Emil Kaunitz in the principal amount of $400,000 that has a maturity date of December 31, 2024 and bears interest at a rate of five percent (5%). The maturity date and other terms of this note were subsequently amended. See subsequent events under Note 16 Part II Item 8. Financial Statements on this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Convertible Note Payable

On February 1, 2021, the First Buckhout Charitable Remainder Trust (“BCR”) Trust Note and the Second BCR Trust Note, which were issued in connection with acquisition of Corvus Consulting, LLC were combined into one new note in the principal amount of $4,279,617 referred to as the Third BCR Trust Note, that has a maturity date of February 1, 2024. The interest rate remains at five percent (5%) per annum and required monthly principal payments of $10,000. The Third BCR Trust Note is convertible into common stock of the Company at $0.26 per share. The maturity date and other terms of this note were subsequently amended. See subsequent events under Note 16 Part II Item 8. Financial Statements on this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Use of Proceeds
On October 12, 2022, the registration statement on Form S-1 (File No. 333-267249) for our initial public offering (“Public Offering”) of our common stock was declared effective by the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). On October 17, 2022, we closed our Public Offering and 1,500,000 shares of our common stock were issued and sold at a public offering price of $2.00 per share. The shares of common stock sold consisted of 1,350,000 shares offered by us and 150,000 shares offered by an existing stockholder, for an aggregate proceeds of $3,000,000. We received $2,700,000 in offering proceeds before deducting underwriting discounts and offering expenses. We did not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares of our common stock by the selling stockholder.
The underwriters of our Public Offering were EF Hutton, division of Benchmark Investments, LLC and Joseph Gunnar & Co. LLC. We paid the underwriters of our Public Offering underwriting discounts and commissions and incurred offering costs totaling approximately $700,000. Thus, our net offering proceeds, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and offering expenses, were approximately $2,000,000. Other than the proceeds payable directly to the selling stockholder, no payments were made to our directors or officers or their associates, holders of 10% or more of any class of our equity securities, or any affiliates, other than payments in the ordinary course of business to officers for payments made in connection with their employment agreements.

There has been no material change in the planned use of proceeds from our Public Offering as described in our final prospectus dated October 12, 2022 and filed with the SEC on October 14, 2022 pursuant to Rule 424(b)(4) of the Securities Act. As planned, we paid $500,000 to satisfy, in part, principal remaining under the amended and restated convertible promissory note payable to the Buckhout Charitable Remainder Trust, funded, in part, the acquisition of GTMR, and have used remaining funds for working capital and general corporate purposes.

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

We did not repurchase any equity securities during the year ended December 31, 2023.


29

Table of Contents
Item 6. [ Reserved ]
Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the historical financial statements and the related notes thereto included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The following discussion contains, in addition to historical information, forward-looking statements that include risks and uncertainties. Our actual results may differ materially from those expressed or contemplated in those forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors, including those set forth under the headings “Forward-Looking Statements” and “Risk Factors” elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Business Overview

We are a technology company focused on leveraging the power of information technology to help solve our nation’s most pressing national security challenges. We provide clients in the United States government (“USG”), financial services, healthcare, and other users of large data applications with services which include intelligence analysis, software development, software engineering, program management, strategic and mission planning, information assurance, cybersecurity and policy support, data analytics, and MBSE. In addition to constantly innovating and enhancing our organic capabilities, Castellum is executing strategic acquisitions of technology companies in the areas of cybersecurity, information technology (“IT”), electronic warfare, information warfare, and information operations with businesses in the defense, federal, civilian, and commercial markets that share our passionate commitment to U.S. national security and have a history of bringing exceptional value to their clients.

Recent Developments

On October 17, 2022, the Company closed its public offering of 1,500,000 shares of common stock consisting of 1,350,000 shares sold by the Company and 150,000 shares sold by certain selling stockholders, at a public offering price of $2.00 per share. The Company’s registration statement on Form S-1, as amended (File No. 333-267249) relating to the offering was declared effective by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission on October 12, 2022.

On December 1, 2023, the Company filed a universal shelf registration statement on Form S-3 (File No. 333-275840) which was declared effective by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission on December 12, 2023.

Key Components of Our Results of Operations
Revenues
Our revenues are primarily derived from services provided to the U.S. federal, state and local governments. We currently generate our revenue from three different types of contractual arrangements: Cost Plus Fixed Fee (“CPFF”), Fixed Firm Price (“FFP”) and Time and Materials (“T&M”) contracts. For CPFF contracts, we use input progress measures to derive revenue based on hours worked on contract performance as follows: direct costs plus Defense Contract Audit Agency (“DCAA”)-approved provisional burdens plus fee. The provisional indirect rates are adjusted and billed at actual at year end. Revenue from FFP contracts is generally recognized ratably over the contract term, using a time-based measure of progress, even if billing is based on other metrics or milestones, including specific deliverables. For T&M contracts, we use input progress measures to estimate revenue earned based on hours worked on contract performance at negotiated billing rates, plus direct costs and indirect cost burdens associated with materials and the direct expenses incurred in performance of the contract.
Cost of Revenues
Cost of Revenues include direct costs incurred to provide goods and services related to contracts, specifically labor, contracted labor, materials, and other direct costs, which includes rent, insurance, and software licenses. Cost of Revenues related to contracts is recognized as expense when incurred or at the time a performance obligation is satisfied.
Gross Profit and Gross Profit Margin
Our gross profit comprises our revenues less our cost of revenues. Gross profit margin is our gross profit divided by our revenues.
30

Table of Contents
Operating Expenses
Our operating expenses include indirect costs, overhead, and general and administrative expenses.
Indirect costs consist of expenses generally associated with bonuses and fringe benefits, including employee health and medical insurance, 401k matching contributions, and payroll taxes.
Overhead consists of expenses associated with the support of operations or production, including labor for management of contracts, operations, training, supplies, and certain facilities to perform customer work.
General and administrative expenses consist primarily of corporate and administrative labor expenses, administrative bonuses, legal expenses, IT expenses, and insurance expenses.
Interest Expense, Net of Interest Income
Interest expense consists of interest paid to service our convertible promissory notes which include the Amended BCR Trust Note, the Term Loan Promissory Note payable and revolving line of credit to Live Oak Banking Company, two promissory notes payable to Robert Eisiminger, the note payable to Emil Kaunitz, and the note payable to Crom Cortana Fund LLC net of interest earned from investments.

Income Tax (Provision) Benefit
Income taxes are accounted for under the asset and liability method. The current charge for income tax expense is calculated in accordance with the relevant tax regulations applicable to the entity. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases and for operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date. Differences between statutory tax rates and effective tax rates relate to permanent tax differences.

We follow ASC 740-10 Accounting for Uncertainty in Income Taxes. This requires recognition and measurement of uncertain income tax positions using a “more-likely-than-not” approach. Management evaluates their tax positions on a quarterly basis.

Deferred income taxes reflect the impact of temporary differences between assets and liabilities recognized for financial reporting purposes and the amounts recognized for income tax reporting purposes, net operating loss carryforwards, and other tax credits measured by applying currently enacted tax laws. When necessary, a valuation allowance is provided to reduce deferred tax assets to an amount that is more likely than not to be realized.

We file income tax returns in the U.S. federal tax jurisdiction and various state tax jurisdictions. The federal and state income tax returns of the Company are subject to examination by the IRS and state taxing authorities, generally for three years after they were filed. We have filed our 2021 and 2022 federal and state tax returns.
Results of Operations
The year to year comparisons of our results of operations have been prepared using the historical periods included in our audited consolidated financial statements. The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this document.

Year Ended December 31, 2023 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2022
31

Table of Contents
Year Ended December 31,Amount of Increase (Decrease)% Change
20232022
Revenues$45,243,812 $42,190,643 $3,053,169 7.2 %
Cost of revenues26,568,485 24,593,326 1,975,159 8.0 %
Gross profit18,675,327 17,597,317 1,078,010 6.1 %
Operating expenses:
Indirect costs8,935,113 11,859,401 (2,924,288)(24.7)%
Overhead1,884,059 1,560,252 323,807 20.8 %
General and administrative expenses17,697,886 13,586,600 4,111,286 30.3 %
Goodwill impairment loss6,919,094 — 6,919,094 100.0 %
(Gain) Loss from change in fair value of contingent earnout(92,000)555,000 (647,000)(116.6)%
Total operating expenses35,344,152 27,561,253 7,782,899 28.2 %
Loss from operations(16,668,825)(9,963,936)(6,704,889)67.3 %
Other income (expense)(2,388,470)(4,124,506)1,736,036 (42.1)%
Loss before income taxes and preferred stock dividends(19,057,295)(14,088,442)(4,968,853)35.3 %
Income tax benefit (expense)1,257,117 (819,596)2,076,713 (253.4)%
Net loss(17,800,178)(14,908,038)(2,892,140)19.4 %
Preferred stock dividend118,152 100,516 17,636 17.5 %
Net loss to common shareholders$(17,918,330)$(15,008,554)$(2,909,776)19.4 %
Revenue

Total revenues increased by $3,053,169 or 7.2% to $45,243,812 for the year ended December 31, 2023 from $42,190,643 for the year ended December 31, 2022. This increase in revenue was due to the acquisition of GTMR (“GTMR Acquisition”), partially offset by lost positions on ongoing contracts principally at SSI and Corvus reducing revenue.

Cost of revenues

Total cost of revenues increased by $1,975,159 or 8.0% to $26,568,485 for the year ended December 31, 2023 from $24,593,326 for the year ended December 31, 2022. This increase was driven primarily by the net increased level of effort on contracts proportionate to the changes in revenue noted above.

Gross Profit

Total gross profit increased by $1,078,010 or 6.1% to $18,675,327 for the year ended December 31, 2023 from $17,597,317 for the year ended December 31, 2022. This increase was driven by changes in revenue noted above.

Operating expenses

Total operating expenses increased by $7,782,899 or 28.2% to $35,344,152 for the year ended December 31, 2023 from $27,561,253 for the year ended December 31, 2022. The decrease in indirect cost of $(2,924,288) was driven primarily by a reduction in acquisition based bonuses to certain executives from 2022, as well as cost savings implemented in 2023. The increase in overhead costs of $323,807 is related to increases in lease expense due to the GTMR Acquisition. The increase in general and administrative costs of $4,111,286 consist of increases in non cash stock based compensation granted to certain employees, as well as increases in general and administrative salary expense as we in-sourced certain functions such as accounting and business development. The recognition of goodwill impairment resulted from a loss recorded during the
32

Table of Contents
third quarter of 2023. The decrease in the loss from change in fair value of contingent earnout is due to adjustments as we finalized the amount after the earnout period ended in late 2023.

Other income (expense)

Other income (expense) decreased by $1,736,036 or (42.1)% to $(2,388,470) for the year ended December 31, 2023 from $(4,124,506) for the year ended December 31, 2022. This decrease was primarily driven by decreases in the fair value of the derivative liability offset by an increase in interest expense due to rate increases during 2023 on our variable rate debt under our agreement with Live Oak Bank.

Income tax benefit (expense)

Income tax benefit (expense) increased by $2,076,713 or (253.4)% to $1,257,117 for the year ended December 31, 2023 from $(819,596) for the year ended December 31, 2022. This increase was primarily driven by the increase in deferred tax liabilities from the acquisition of GTMR and subsequent release of valuation allowance.
Year Ended December 31, 2022 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2021
Year Ended December 31,Amount of Increase (Decrease)% Change
20222021
Revenues$42,190,643 $25,067,450 $17,123,193 68.3 %
Cost of revenues24,593,326 13,992,898 10,600,428 75.8 %
Gross profit17,597,317 11,074,552 6,522,765 58.9 %
Operating expenses:
Indirect costs11,859,401 3,409,649 8,449,752 247.8 %
Overhead1,560,252 850,999 709,253 83.3 %
General and administrative expenses13,586,600 14,539,053 (952,453)(6.6)%
Loss from change in fair value of contingent earnout555,000 — 555,000 100.0 %
Total operating expenses27,561,253 18,799,701 8,761,552 46.6 %
Loss from operations(9,963,936)(7,725,149)(2,238,787)29.0 %
Other income (expense)(4,124,506)(2,477,924)(1,646,582)66.5 %
Loss before income taxes and preferred stock dividends(14,088,442)(10,203,073)(3,885,369)38.1 %
Income tax benefit (expense)(819,596)2,656,643 (3,476,239)(130.9)%
Net loss(14,908,038)(7,546,430)(7,361,608)97.6 %
Preferred stock dividend100,516 12,290 88,226 717.9 %
Net loss to common shareholders$(15,008,554)$(7,558,720)$(7,449,834)98.6 %
Revenues

Total revenues increased by $17,123,193 or 68.3% to $42,190,643 for the year ended December 31, 2022 from $25,067,450 for the year ended December 31, 2021. This increase was driven largely by the contributions from the acquisitions of SSI and Merrison during the third quarter of 2021 as well as the contributions from LSG acquired during the second quarter of 2022.

Cost of revenues

33

Table of Contents
Total cost of revenues increased by $10,600,428 or 75.8% to $24,593,326 for the year ended December 31, 2022 from $13,992,898 for the year ended December 31, 2021. This increase was driven primarily by the increased level of effort on contracts proportionate to the growth of revenues due to the acquisition activity noted above.

Gross Profit

Total gross profit increased by $6,522,765 or 58.9% to $17,597,317 for the year ended December 31, 2022 from $11,074,552 for the year ended December 31, 2021. This increase was driven primarily by the growth in revenues due to contributions from SSI, Merrison and LSG, offset by costs of revenues as noted above.

Operating expenses

Total operating expenses increased by $8,761,552 or 46.6% to $27,561,253 for the year ended December 31, 2022 from $18,799,701 for the year ended December 31, 2021. This fluctuation was primarily driven by an increase of $8,449,752 in indirect costs during the year ended December 31, 2022, largely attributable to the increase in benefits expense related to the Company’s growth in headcount year over year. In addition, this increase was also driven by increases in non-cash stock based compensation related to executive bonuses. This increase was offset by a decrease in general and administrative expenses of $952,453, or 6.6%, which was primarily due to a decrease in acquisition fees from the prior year as well as less acquisition-based stock based compensation in 2022 paid to executives due to less acquisition activity in 2022. The increase of $709,253 in overhead was primarily driven by an increase in overhead salaries related to our growth in headcount compared to 2021.

Other income (expense)

Other income (expense) increased by $(1,646,582) or 66.5% to $(4,124,506) for the year ended December 31, 2022 from $(2,477,924) for the year ended December 31, 2021. This increase was primarily driven by the increase in the amount of debt outstanding during 2022 as well as rate increases during 2022 on its variable rate debt under its agreement with Live Oak Bank.

Income tax (expense) benefit

Income tax (expense) benefit increased by $(3,476,239) or (130.9)% to $(819,596) for the year ended December 31, 2022 from $2,656,643 for the year ended December 31, 2021. This increase was primarily due to the Company establishing a full valuation allowance against its deferred tax assets.
34

Table of Contents
Contract Backlog
We define backlog to include the following three components:
Funded Backlog. Funded backlog represents the revenue value of orders for services under existing contracts for which funding is appropriated or otherwise authorized less revenue previously recognized on these contracts.
Unfunded Backlog. Unfunded backlog represents the revenue value of orders (including optional orders) for services under existing contracts for which funding has not been appropriated or otherwise authorized.
Priced Options. Priced contract options represent 100% of the potential revenue value of all scheduled and unscheduled future contract option periods or orders under existing contracts that may be exercised at our clients’ option and for which funding has not been appropriated or otherwise authorized.
Our backlog does not include contracts that have been awarded but are currently under protest and also does not include any task orders under IDIQ contracts, except to the extent that task orders have been awarded to us under those contracts.
The following table summarizes the value of our contract backlog as of December 31, 2023:

Backlog
Funded$17,423,419 
Unfunded$15,558,445 
Priced Options$75,032,776 
Total Backlog$108,014,640 

Our total backlog consists of remaining performance obligations, certain orders under contracts for which the original period of performance has expired, unexercised option periods and other unexercised or unscheduled optional orders. Excluding unscheduled options orders, as of December 31, 2023, the Company had $108,014,640 of funded, unfunded and scheduled priced options. We expect to recognize approximately 34% of the remaining performance obligations over the next 12 months, and approximately 57% over the next 24 months. Including priced options that have been awarded but not yet scheduled of $46,431,225, our grand total backlog is $154,445,865. The remainder is expected to be recognized thereafter. As with all government contracts there is no guarantee the customer will have future funding or exercise their contract option in the out-years. Other budget risks are discussed in the Budget Environment. Our backlog includes orders under contracts that in some cases extend for several years. Congress generally appropriates funds for our clients on a yearly basis, even though their contracts with us may call for performance that is expected to take a number of years to complete. As a result, contracts typically are only partially funded at any point during their term and all or some of the work to be performed under the contracts may remain unfunded unless and until the U.S. Congress makes subsequent appropriations and the procuring agency allocates funding to the contract.
Liquidity and Capital Resources

Sources

We have historically sourced our liquidity requirements with cash flows from operations, borrowings under our current credit facilities, and in October 2022, with an equity issuance through the listing of our common stock on the NYSE American. As of December 31, 2023, we had $1,830,841 of cash and cash equivalents on hand and unused borrowing capacity of $324,975 from our revolving line of credit. In January and February of 2024, we undertook the following significant equity and debt transactions that enhance our liquidity and sources of funds:

In January 2024, after filing a universal shelf registration statement on Form S-3 with the SEC in December of 2023 allowing us to issue additional equity (“Security Offering”), we raised net proceeds of approximately $2,200,000.
In February 2024, we used the proceeds from the Security Offering to pay the outstanding principal and accrued interest owed on a Note Payable to Crom in the amount of $847,000.
In February 2024, we agreed with Emil Kaunitz to extend the maturity date of a $400,000 note payable from December 31, 2024, to August 1, 2025, after which we will make monthly principal payments of $50,000 per month for eight months.
In February 2024, we entered into a new $4,000,000 revolving credit facility with Live Oak Banking Company which matures on February 22, 2025 (the “New Live Oak Revolver”). The New Live Oak Revolver replaces the $950,000 revolving credit facility noted above (“Old Live Oak Revolver”), and we rolled over the $625,025 outstanding principal balance outstanding on the Old Live Oak Revolver. We also made payments of $1,209,617
35

Table of Contents
to the holders of two notes payable noted below. We have unused borrowing capacity of approximately $2,165,383 under the New Live Oak Revolver.
In February 2024, we agreed with Robert Eisiminger to extend the maturity dates of two notes payable totaling $6,000,000 from September 30, 2024, to August 31, 2026. We also accessed the New Live Oak Revolver to pay off a third note totaling $400,000.
In February 2024, we agreed with the Buckhout Charitable Remainder Trust to pay down and amend a convertible promissory note payable totaling $3,209,617. We accessed the New Live Oak Revolver to pay down principal of $809,617. We simultaneously agreed to enter into a new note payable in the principal amount of $2,400,000 which matures on August 31, 2026, and may not be converted into common stock. Commencing in September 2024, we will monthly principal payments of $100,000 for 24 months.

For more information related to these transactions, refer to Note 16 under Part II, Item 8, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

We believe our existing cash and cash equivalents provided by our ongoing operations, together with funds available through the transactions noted above, will be sufficient to meet our working capital, capital expenditures, and cash needs for the next 12 months and beyond.

Uses

Our material cash requirements from known contractual and other obligations primarily relate to payments on our credit facilities. For information related to these cash requirements, refer to Note 6, Note 7, Note 8, Note 9, and Note 16 under Part II, Item 8, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Information about our cash flows is presented in our statements of cash flows and is summarized in the following table:

Twelve Months Ended December 31,
202320222021
Net cash (used in) provided by:
Operating activities
$(2,264,447)$990,163 $(1,350,136)
Investing activities
(440,985)(339,282)808,834 
Financing activities
$(104,623)$1,972,100 $146,835 


Comparison of the Years Ended December 31, 2023 and 2022

Operating activities

We used $(2,264,447) in operating activities for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to $990,163 provided by operating activities for the year ended December 31, 2022. This decrease in net cash from operating activities was primarily driven by an increase in net loss, increases in accounts receivables (due to timing of collections), as well as noncash adjustments related to changes in the fair value of derivative liabilities and contingent earnout during the year ended December 31, 2023.

Investing activities

Net cash used in investing activities increased to $(440,985), for the year ended December 31, 2023, from $(339,282), for the year ended December 31, 2022. The increase in net cash used in investing activities was primarily due to the cash paid in the acquisition of GTMR during 2023.

Financing activities

During the year ended December 31, 2023, we used $(104,623) in financing activities, primarily due to reduction in proceeds from issuance of preferred and common stock, the reduction in proceeds from notes payable, and an increase in payments on notes payable, compared to net cash provided by financing activities of $1,972,100, for the year ended December 31, 2022.


36

Table of Contents
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
The following is not intended to be a comprehensive list of our accounting policies or estimates. Our significant accounting policies are more fully described in Note 2 — Summary of Significant Accounting Policies to our annual audited consolidated financial statements, included elsewhere in the document. In preparing our financial statements and accounting for the underlying transactions and balances, we apply our accounting policies and estimates as disclosed in the Notes. We consider the policies and estimates discussed below as critical to an understanding of our financial statements because their application places the most significant demands on our judgment, with financial reporting results dependent on estimates about the effect of matters that are inherently uncertain and may change in subsequent periods. Specific risks for these critical accounting estimates are described in the following paragraphs. Preparation of our financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amount of assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of our financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results may differ from those estimates.
Besides estimates that meet the “critical” accounting estimate criteria, we make many other accounting estimates in preparing our financial statements and related disclosures. All estimates, whether or not deemed critical, affect reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue, and expenses as well as disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities. Estimates are based on experience and other information available prior to the issuance of the financial statements. Materially different results can occur as circumstances change and additional information becomes known, including for estimates that we do not deem “critical.”
Revenue Recognition
The Company accounts for revenue in accordance with ASC Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. (Topic 606). Topic 606 requires entities to recognize revenues when control of the promised goods or services is transferred to customers at an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The principles in the standard are applied in five steps: (1) identify the contract(s) with a customer; (2) identify the performance obligations in the contract; (3) determine the transaction price; (4) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (5) recognize revenue when (or as) the entity satisfies a performance obligation.
Our revenue recognition policies are consistent with this five-step framework. Understanding the complex terms of agreements and determining the appropriate time, amount, and method to recognize revenue for each transaction requires judgment. These significant judgments include: (1) determining what point in time or what measure of progress depicts the transfer of control to the customer; (2) estimating contract revenue and costs and assumptions for schedule and technical issues; (3) selecting the appropriate method to measure progress; and (4) estimating how and when contingencies, or other forms of variable consideration, will impact the timing and amount of recognition of revenue. The timing and revenue recognition in a period could vary if different judgments were made.
Goodwill and Intangible Assets
We account for goodwill and intangible assets in accordance with ASC 350, Intangibles-Goodwill and Other (ASC 350). ASC 350 requires that goodwill and other intangibles with indefinite lives be tested for impairment annually or on an interim basis if events or circumstances indicate that the fair value of an asset has decreased below its carrying value. Significant management judgment is required in determining whether an indicator of impairment exists and in projecting cash flows.
Our acquisitions require the application of purchase accounting, which results in tangible and identifiable intangible assets and liabilities of the acquired entity being recorded at fair value. The difference between the purchase price and the fair value of net assets acquired is recorded as goodwill. We are responsible for determining the valuation of assets and liabilities and for the allocation of purchase price to assets acquired and liabilities assumed.
Assumptions must be made in determining fair values, particularly where observable market values do not exist. Assumptions may include discount rates, growth rates, cost of capital, tax rates, and remaining useful lives. These assumptions can have a significant impact on the value of identifiable assets and accordingly can impact the value of goodwill recorded. Different assumptions could result in different values being attributed to assets and liabilities. Since these values impact the amount of annual depreciation and amortization expense, different assumptions could also impact our statement of operations and could impact the results of future asset impairment reviews. Due to the many variables inherent in the estimation of a business’s fair value and the relative size of our goodwill, if different assumptions and estimates were used, it could have an adverse effect on our impairment analysis.
37

Table of Contents

During the third quarter of 2023, due to decline in stock price, Management determined that a triggering event occurred representing an indicator of goodwill impairment, resulting in a non-cash charge of $6,919,094.
Income Taxes and Uncertain Tax Positions
Income taxes and uncertain tax positions are accounted for in accordance with ASC 740, Income Taxes (ASC 740). Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases and for operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date. Differences between statutory tax rates and effective tax rates relate to permanent tax differences.
Management determines recognition and measurement of uncertain income tax positions using a “more-likely-than-not” approach. This approach to estimate the potential outcome of any uncertain tax issue is subject to its assessment of relevant risks, facts, and circumstances existing at that time. Deferred income taxes reflect the impact of temporary differences between assets and liabilities recognized for financial reporting purposes and the amounts recognized for income tax reporting purposes, net operating loss carryforwards, and other tax credits measured by applying currently enacted tax laws. When necessary, a valuation allowance is provided to reduce deferred tax assets to an amount that is more likely than not to be realized.
Share-Based Compensation
We account for share-based compensation in accordance with ASC 718 Compensation – Stock Compensation. We calculate compensation expense for all awards granted, but not yet vested, based on the grant-date fair values. The Company recognizes these compensation costs, on a pro rata basis over the requisite service period of each vesting tranche of each award for service-based grants, and as the criteria is achieved for performance-based grants.
In determining the grant date fair value of share-based awards, we must estimate the expected volatility, forfeitures, and performance attributes. Since share-based compensation expense can be material to our financial condition, different assumptions and estimates could have a material adverse effect on our financial statements.

Principles of Consolidation

Refer to Note 1 of the notes to our audited consolidated financial statements included in Part II, Item 8 within this Annual Report on Form 10-K for a discussion of principles of consolidation.
Recently Issued Accounting Standards

Refer to Note 1 of the notes to our audited consolidated financial statements included in Part II, Item 8 within this Annual Report on Form 10-K for our assessment of recently issued and adopted accounting standards.
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

We are exposed to market risks in the ordinary course of our business. Market risk represents the risk of loss that may impact our financial position due to adverse changes in financial market prices and rates. These risks include the following:

Interest Rate Risk

The Company maintains a revolving promissory note and a term loan note with Live Oak Bank, referred to as the “Live Oak Revolving Note” and the “Live Oak Term Loan Note”, respectively. The Live Oak Revolving Note is a variable rate instrument with a per annum interest rate equal to the prime rate as quoted in the Wall Street Journal (the “Prime Rate”), plus two percentage points (2.00%). Additionally, the Live Oak Term Loan Note has a per annum interest rate equal to the Prime Rate, plus three percentage points (3%). Rising interest rates would increase our interest expense in the future. Such additional cost would need to be funded out of existing cash or additional financing. Future increase in interest rates are not
38

Table of Contents
expected to materially impact our Company’s liquidity. The Company has no other debt obligations tied to the Prime Rate, Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”), or London Interbank Offered Rate (“ LIBOR”).




39

Table of Contents
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data


Index to Consolidated Financial Statements






































40

Table of Contents
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

To the Shareholders and the Board of Directors of Castellum, Inc.


Opinion on the Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Castellum, Inc. and its subsidiaries (the Company) as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, the related consolidated statements of operations, changes in stockholders’ equity (deficit) and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2023, and the related notes to the consolidated financial statements (collectively, the financial statements). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2023, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

Basis for Opinion
These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. The Company is not required to have, nor were we engaged to perform, an audit of its internal control over financial reporting. As part of our audits we are required to obtain an understanding of internal control over financial reporting but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion.

Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.


/s/ RSM US LLP

We have served as the Company's auditor since 2020.

McLean, Virginia
March 21, 2024
41

Table of Contents
Castellum, Inc. and Subsidiaries
Consolidated Balance Sheets

For the Year Ended December 31,
20232022
Assets
Current assets:
Cash$1,830,841 $4,640,896 
Accounts receivable6,883,566 5,193,562 
Contract assets160,649 257,434 
Prepaid income taxes216,909 351,116 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets404,228 222,995 
Total current assets9,496,193 10,666,003 
Fixed assets, net310,170 173,350 
Noncurrent assets:
Right of use asset – operating lease613,143 35,524 
Intangible assets, net8,970,864 6,634,167 
Goodwill10,716,907 15,533,964 
Total noncurrent assets20,611,084 22,377,005 
Total assets$30,107,277 $33,043,008 
Liabilities and Stockholders' Equity
Current liabilities:
Accounts payable and accrued expenses$784,965 $1,617,596 
Accrued payroll and payroll related expenses2,925,312 1,869,517 
Current portion of lease liability – operating lease185,263 22,054 
Due to seller350,000 280,000 
Obligation to issue common and preferred stock255,940  
Contingent earnout380,000 812,000 
Derivative liability157,600 824,000 
Revolving credit facility625,025 300,025 
Current portion of convertible promissory notes – related parties, net of discount238,212  
Current portion of notes payable, net of discount2,074,775 2,033,348 
Total current liabilities7,977,092 7,758,540 
Noncurrent liabilities:
Deferred tax liability6,292  
Lease liability – operating lease, net of current portion435,204 12,632 
Contingent earnout, net of current portion340,000  
Convertible promissory notes – related parties, net of current portion2,000,000 999,430 
Notes payable, net of current portion6,000,000 6,340,490 
Note payable – related party, net of current portion400,000 400,000 
Total noncurrent liabilities9,181,496 7,752,552 
Total liabilities17,158,588 15,511,092 
Stockholders' Equity
Preferred stock, 50,000,000 shares authorized
42

Table of Contents
Series A Preferred stock, par value $0.0001; 10,000,000 shares authorized; 5,875,000 issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2023 and 2022
588 588 
Series C Preferred stock, par value $0.0001; 10,000,000 shares authorized; 770,000 and 770,000 issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively
77 77 
Common stock, par value $0.0001; 3,000,000,000 shares authorized, 47,672,427 and 41,699,363 shares issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively
4,767 4,170 
Additional paid in capital56,926,157 43,621,651 
Accumulated deficit(43,982,900)(26,094,570)
Total stockholders’ equity12,948,689 17,531,916 
Total liabilities and stockholders' equity$30,107,277 $33,043,008 
See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.
43

Table of Contents
Castellum, Inc. and Subsidiaries
Consolidated Statements of Operations
For the Year Ended December 31,
202320222021
Revenues$45,243,812 $42,190,643 $25,067,450 
Cost of revenues26,568,485 24,593,326 13,992,898 
Gross profit18,675,327 17,597,317 11,074,552 
Operating expenses:
Indirect costs8,935,113 11,859,401 3,409,649 
Overhead1,884,059 1,560,252 850,999 
General and administrative17,697,886 13,586,600 14,539,053 
Goodwill impairment loss6,919,094   
(Gain) loss from change in fair value of contingent earnout(92,000)555,000  
Total operating expenses35,344,152 27,561,253 18,799,701 
Loss from operations before other income (expense)(16,668,825)(9,963,936)(7,725,149)
Other income (expense):
Loss on induced conversion(300,000)  
Gain (loss) from change in fair value of derivative liability1,054,025 (132,000) 
Other income, net106,419 303 38,851 
Interest expense, net of interest income(3,248,914)(3,992,809)(2,516,775)
Total other (expense)(2,388,470)(4,124,506)(2,477,924)
Loss from operations before (expense) benefit for income taxes(19,057,295)(14,088,442)(10,203,073)
Income tax benefit (expense) 1,257,117 (819,596)2,656,643 
Net loss(17,800,178)(14,908,038)(7,546,430)
Less: preferred stock dividends118,152 100,516 12,290 
Net loss to common shareholders$(17,918,330)$(15,008,554)$(7,558,720)
Net loss per share
Basic and diluted$(0.38)$(0.55)$(0.41)
Shares used in calculation of net loss per share
Basic and diluted47,177,95027,468,22618,259,283
See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.
44

Table of Contents
Castellum, Inc. and Subsidiaries
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
For the Year Ended December 31,
202320222021
Cash flows from operating activities:
Net loss$(17,800,178)$(14,908,038)$(7,546,430)
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash (used in) provided by operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization2,528,815 2,032,459 1,886,228 
Amortization of discounts, premiums and deferred cost2,265,061 2,553,317 1,806,848 
Stock-based compensation7,495,759 8,796,641 6,919,524 
Deferred tax provision(1,480,166)610,033 (2,895,571)
Gain on sale of fixed assets (303) 
Financing fee and bank charges for note payable and advances on revolving credit line 3,775  
Realized gain on investment  (38,851)
Goodwill impairment loss6,919,094   
Lease cost218,314 1,139 754 
Legal fees paid out of proceeds from note payable 30,000  
Change in fair value of contingent earnout(92,000)555,000  
Change in fair value of derivative liabilities(1,054,025)132,000  
Gain from timing difference on issuance of shares(107,491)  
Changes in assets and liabilities
Accounts receivable(1,187,118)634,448 (1,217,326)
Proceeds from factoring accounts receivable850,141   
Prepaid expenses and other current assets75,614 (321,593)8,119 
Contract asset (liability)96,785 333,621 (817,646)
Payment of transaction costs in acquisition of business  (50,500)
Lease liability(185,261)  
Accounts payable and accrued expenses(807,791)537,664 594,715 
Net cash (used in) provided by operating activities(2,264,447)990,163 (1,350,136)
Cash flows from investing activities:
Acquisition of business, cash paid to seller(485,739)(250,000) 
Cash paid to seller from factoring(411,975)  
Acquisition of business, cash received from seller475,000  453,480 
Sale of investment  365,572 
Purchases of fixed assets(18,271)(89,282)(10,218)
Net cash (used in) provided by investing activities(440,985)(339,282)808,834 
Cash flows from financing activities:
Proceeds from revolving credit line325,000 300,000  
Payment of debt issuance costs(15,000)  
Proceeds from issuance of preferred and common stock126,000 625,000 645,000 
Proceeds from note payable1,200,000 1,470,000  
Proceeds from exercise of stock options 12,000 8,000 
Proceeds from stock offering related to uplisting 2,000,756  
Preferred stock dividend(118,152)(100,516)(12,290)
Repayment of convertible note payable – related party (500,000)(70,000)
Repayment of line of credit, net  (12,249)
Loss on induced conversion300,000   
Repayment of amounts due to seller(280,000)(471,003) 
Repayment of notes payable(1,642,471)(1,364,137)(411,626)
Net cash (used in) provided by financing activities(104,623)1,972,100 146,835 
Net (decrease) increase in cash(2,810,055)2,622,981 (394,467)
Cash - beginning of period4,640,896 2,017,915 2,412,382 
45

Table of Contents
Cash - end of period$1,830,841 $4,640,896 $2,017,915 
Supplemental disclosures:
Cash paid for interest$994,449 $912,965 $688,930 
Cash paid for income taxes$72,484 $467,910 $168,100 
Summary of noncash activities:
Extinguishment of debt discount - derivative liabilities$171,128 $ $ 
Extinguishment of debt discount - debt issuance costs$8,034 $ $ 
Debt discount on note payable$28,000 $500,000 $ 
Partial conversion of note payable$ $160,000 $ 
Common shares issued for obligation to issue shares $ $533,750 $ 
Derivative liabilities incurred for note payable$421,000 $692,000 $ 
Extinguishment of derivative liability$33,375 $ $ 
Acquisition of business, common stock issued to seller$5,304,561 $ $ 
Gain on extinguishment of convertible note payable - related party$ $2,667,903 $ 
Adjustment to contingent consideration and customer relationships$ $275,000 $ 
Fair value adjustment recognized on issuance of common stock in Securities Purchase Agreement $ $93,000 $ 
Deferred issuance costs recognized for note payable$ $59,300 $ 
Conversion of Series B preferred shares to common stock $ $1,805 $ 
Cancellation of shares offsetting acquisition of business$ $ $400,000 

See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.
46

Table of Contents
Castellum, Inc. and Subsidiaries
Consolidated Statement of Changes in Stockholders’ Equity (Deficit)
Series A PreferredSeries B PreferredSeries C
Preferred
CommonAdditional
Paid-In Capital
Accumulated
Deficit
Total
SharesAmountSharesAmountSharesAmount
Balances at December 31, 20205,875,000$588 3,610,000$361 $ 15,411,264$1,541 $6,133,332 $(3,527,296)$2,608,526 
Stock-based compensation – options— — — — 3,113,261 — 3,113,261 
Stock-based compensation - warrants— — — — 3,806,263 — 3,806,263 
Shares issued in acquisition of MFSI— — — 1,114,023111 1,782,326 — 1,782,437 
Cancellation of shares in acquisition of MFSI— — — (250,000)(25)(399,975)— (400,000)
Shares issued in acquisition of Merrison— — — 500,00050 1,594,950 — 1,595,000 
Shares issued in acquisition of SSI, net of transaction costs— — — 2,632,095263 7,822,087 — 7,822,350 
Shares issued in asset acquisition of The Albers group, LLC— — — 481,25049 1,924,951 — 1,925,000 
Shares issued in exercise of stock options— — — 10,0001 7,999 — 8,000 
Shares issued for cash in Series C Preferred Subscription Agreements— — 620,00062 62,0006 619,932 — 620,000 
Net loss for the year— — — — — (7,558,720)(7,558,720)
Balances at December 31, 20215,875,000$588 3,610,000$361 620,000$62 19,960,632$1,996 $26,405,126 $(11,086,016)$15,322,117 
Stock-based compensation - options— — — 0— 4,985,233 — 4,985,233 
Stock-based compensation - warrants— — — 0— 3,496,912 — 3,496,912 
Stock-based compensation - shares issued for services and Restricted stock— — — 75,0008 379,491 — 379,499 
Shares issued for uplisting, net of offering costs of approximately $$700,000
— — — 1,351,231135 2,000,621 — 2,000,756 
Shares issued for exercise of stock options— — — 15,0002 11,998 — 12,000 
Shares issued for cash including fair value adjustment— — — 1,250,000