S-1/A 1 d157488ds1a.htm AMENDMENT NO. 2 TO FORM S-1 Amendment No. 2 to Form S-1
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As filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission on November 1, 2021.

Registration No. 333-259992

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

 

 

AMENDMENT NO. 2 TO

FORM S-1

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

Rivian Automotive, Inc.

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)

 

 

 

Delaware   3711   47-3544981
(State or Other Jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization)
  (Primary Standard Industrial
Classification Code Number)
  (I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)

14600 Myford Road

Irvine, California 92606

(888) 748-4261

(Address, Including Zip Code, and Telephone Number, Including

Area Code, of Registrant’s Principal Executive Offices)

 

 

Robert J. Scaringe

Chief Executive Officer

Rivian Automotive, Inc.

14600 Myford Road

Irvine, California 92606

(888) 748-4261

(Name, Address, Including Zip Code, and Telephone Number, Including

Area Code, of Agent for Service)

 

 

Copies to:

 

Marc D. Jaffe, Esq.

Tad J. Freese, Esq.

Alison A. Haggerty, Esq.

Latham & Watkins LLP

1271 Avenue of the Americas

New York, New York 10020

(212) 906-1200

 

Neil M. Sitron, Esq.
General Counsel
Rivian Automotive, Inc.
14600 Myford Road

Irvine, California 92606
(888) 748-4261

 

David J. Goldschmidt, Esq.

Ryan J. Dzierniejko, Esq.

Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom LLP

One Manhattan West

New York, New York 10001

(212) 735-3000

 

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public:

As soon as practicable after this registration statement becomes effective.

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act, check the following box:  

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

 

  

Accelerated filer

 

Non-accelerated filer

 

  

Smaller reporting company

 

    

Emerging growth company

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.  

 

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

 

Title of Each Class of

Securities To Be Registered

  Shares to be
Registered(1) 
 

Proposed

maximum

aggregate

offering price

per share(2)

 

Proposed

Maximum

Aggregate
Offering Price(1)(2)

  Amount of
Registration Fee(3)

Class A common stock, $0.001 par value per share

  155,250,000   $62.00   $9,625,500,000   $892,284

 

 

(1)

Includes 20,250,000 shares of Class A common stock that may be sold if the option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock granted by the Registrant to the underwriters is exercised. See “Underwriting.”

(2)

Estimated solely for the purpose of calculating the registration fee pursuant to Rule 457(a) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

(3)

The Registrant previously paid $9,270 of this amount in connection with a prior filing of the registration statement.

 

 

The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or until the registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 

 


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The information in this preliminary prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and we are not soliciting offers to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

Subject to Completion, dated November 1, 2021

 

 

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Class A Common Stock

  135,000,000 Shares

 

 

This is an initial public offering of shares of Class A common stock of Rivian Automotive, Inc. We are offering 135,000,000 shares of our Class A common stock.

Prior to this offering, there has been no public market for our Class A common stock. It is currently estimated that the initial public offering price will be between $57.00 and $62.00 per share. We have applied to list our Class A common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market (“Nasdaq”) under the symbol “RIVN.”

We have two classes of common stock, Class A and Class B common stock (collectively, our “common stock”). The rights of holders of Class A and Class B common stock are identical, except voting and conversion rights. Each share of Class A common stock is entitled to one vote. Each share of Class B common stock is entitled to ten votes and is convertible at any time into one share of Class A common stock. See the section titled “Description of Capital Stock” for more information. Immediately following the completion of this offering, an affiliate of our Founder and Chief Executive Officer, Robert J. Scaringe will hold all outstanding shares of our Class B common stock. Immediately following the completion of this offering, affiliates of Dr. Scaringe will hold shares of common stock representing approximately 8.9% of the voting power of our outstanding capital stock.

We will be treated as an “emerging growth company” as that term is used in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 for certain purposes until we complete this offering and, as such, may elect to comply with certain reduced public company reporting requirements for this registration statement.

Investing in our Class A common stock involves a high degree of risk. See the section titled “Risk Factors” beginning on page 22 to read about factors you should consider before buying shares of our Class A common stock.

 

       Per Share        Total  

Initial public offering price

       $                      $              

Underwriting discounts and commissions(1)

       $                      $              

Proceeds to us, before expenses

       $                      $              
(1)  

See the section titled “Underwriting” for a description of the compensation payable to the underwriters.

At our request, the underwriters have reserved up to 7.0% of the shares offered by us in this offering, for sale at the initial public offering price through a directed share program to eligible U.S. customers who had standing preorders as of September 30, 2021, and prior to this offering either (i) have an active eligible preorder or (ii) have accepted delivery of their preordered vehicle, and to persons who are directors, officers or employees, or who are otherwise associated with us and identified by our directors and officers. Any shares sold under the directed share program will not be subject to the terms of any lock-up agreement, except in the case of shares purchased by our officers or directors. See “Underwriting—Directed Share Program.”

We have granted to the underwriters the option for a period of up to 30 days to purchase up to an additional 20,250,000 shares of Class A common stock from us at the initial public offering price, less the underwriting discounts and commissions.

One or more entities affiliated with Amazon.com, Inc. (“Amazon”), certain funds and accounts advised by T. Rowe Price Associates, Inc., one or more entities managed by Coatue Management, L.L.C., certain entities affiliated with Franklin Templeton, one or more entities managed by Capital Research Global Investors, one or more entities affiliated with D1 Capital Partners LP and certain investment partnerships and/or accounts managed or advised by affiliates of D1 Capital Partners LP, one or more entities managed by Third Point LLC, certain funds affiliated with Blackstone Alternative Asset Management, one or more entities affiliated with Dragoneer Investment Group, LLC, and certain entities affiliated with Soros Fund Management LLC (collectively, the “cornerstone investors”) have indicated an interest in purchasing up to an aggregate of $5.0 billion of shares of our Class A common stock in this offering at the initial public offering price (including $200.0 million of shares of Class A common stock which Amazon has indicated an interest in purchasing). These indications of interest have been made severally and not jointly. The shares of Class A common stock to be purchased by the cornerstone investors will not be subject to a lock-up agreement with the underwriters for this offering. Because these indications of interest are not binding agreements or commitments to purchase, the cornerstone investors may determine to purchase more, fewer, or no shares in this offering, or the underwriters may determine to sell more, less or no shares to the cornerstone investors. The underwriters will receive the same discount on any of our shares of Class A common stock purchased by the cornerstone investors as they will from any other shares of Class A common stock sold to the public in this offering.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved these securities, or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

The underwriters expect to deliver the shares of Class A common stock to purchasers on                    , 2021.

 

Morgan Stanley   Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC      J.P. Morgan
Barclays   Deutsche Bank Securities    Allen & Company LLC
BofA Securities   Mizuho Securities    Wells Fargo Securities

Nomura

  Piper Sandler    RBC Capital Markets
Baird      Wedbush Securities
Academy Securities   Blaylock Van, LLC   Cabrera Capital Markets LLC    C.L. King & Associates
Loop Capital Markets   Ramirez & Co., Inc.   Siebert Williams Shank   

Tigress Financial Partners

Prospectus dated                    , 2021.


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Letter from Robert J. Scaringe

Founder and Chief Executive Officer

Dear Prospective Investors and Rivian Owners,

For as long as I can remember, I’ve been obsessed with cars. I grew up restoring them in my neighbor’s garage. I had hoods under my bed, windshields in my closet, and engine parts on my desk. As I got older, I realized that these things which I was deeply in love with were simultaneously the source of many of society’s biggest environmental challenges—from air quality to reduced biodiversity to climate change. As someone who also loves the outdoors, I was conflicted. Ultimately, I decided to focus my life on helping to drive our transportation system toward a future state that was sustainable and carbon neutral.

Rivian was started from a clean sheet—there was no money, no team, no technology, no suppliers, no brand, and no production infrastructure. The lack of constraints was intoxicating for the imagination. It was beautiful, it was flexible, and it also brought a sharp learning curve.

After assembling a small team, we immediately dove right into designing products and building prototypes. As we progressed, it started to become increasingly clear that our strategy of building an efficient sports car wasn’t right—the singular reason I had started the company was to have impact and our initial strategy simply wasn’t going to deliver the level of change we felt we had the potential to drive. By early 2012 we decided to fully move away from the original product plan and began the process of navigating the path that eventually resulted in the brand, product, technology, and organizational strategy that we have today.

I now look back on those early years with deep appreciation for the struggle. It provided us with the time to learn, to make mistakes, to mature our strategy, and to prioritize our focus.

As we redefined our strategy, we focused on how to maximize impact. We began thinking about the truck, SUV, and crossover segments as they presented a massive opportunity for us to demonstrate how a clean sheet, technology-focused vehicle could eliminate long accepted compromises. We wanted to establish our brand by delivering a combination of efficiency, on-road performance, off-road capability, functional utility, and product refinement that simply didn’t exist in the market. Our first vehicles would need to establish Rivian as the brand for active lifestyles and ensure the brand could transcend segments, form factors, use cases, culture, and geographies.

While thinking through our consumer brand, we realized the need to also focus on building core skillsets and organizational muscles around fleet-based mobility. With the vast majority of the world’s passenger miles today being provided in personally owned vehicles, we felt it was important that we build the skills necessary to help shift some of the world’s mobility needs to non-personally owned fleets. Initially we thought about this in the context of passenger miles, but we eventually realized that the much bigger immediate need was redefining the logistics and last mile commercial vehicle space. We were fortunate to eventually establish a relationship with Amazon to develop a range of commercial delivery vans and an end-to-end fleet management platform that advances the operations and economics for running centrally managed fleets.

Just as R1T and R1S were conceived to serve as the flagship for our consumer business, the Amazon program serves as our flagship application for the commercial space and positions us to pursue a range of other sizes, use cases, and markets.

Every week I sit down for a Q&A with the newest members of our team, and nearly every week I’m asked how I stay inspired. While I love the outdoors and spending time with our products, what really inspires me most is our people—how our team members interact and make thousands and thousands of decisions every day, how we show up for hard discussions, and how we react to seemingly unsolvable and complex problems. Given the scale we are working towards, I deeply believe our culture is actually


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Rivian’s most valuable product. Our ability to continue working collaboratively to harvest diverse perspectives and drive creative and innovative thinking into everything we do will ultimately drive our continued growth.

Rivian exists to create products and services that help our planet transition to carbon neutral energy and transportation. Our society today will have a profound impact on the planet and the world our kids, and their kids, will inherit. We can spend a lot time debating the specifics of climate change, but the indisputable truth is that we, as humans, are rapidly changing the composition of our atmosphere. This is what inspired me to start Rivian, and it’s what drives every decision we make as an organization. The challenge is as big as it comes but we’re fortunate to get to help solve it with such passionate team members and partners.

I hope you’ll join us in our journey to help drive the future of transportation.

Best,

 

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Keep the world adventurous forever.


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Our generation will have a profound impact on the well-being of our planet going forward. Rivian is an electric vehicle maker focused on building the kind of future our kids and our kids’ kids deserve. RIVIAN


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

Prospectus Summary

   1

Risk Factors

   22

Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

   74

Market and Industry Data

   76

Use of Proceeds

   77

Dividend Policy

   78

Capitalization

   79

Dilution

   81

Selected Consolidated Financial and Other Data

   84

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

   87

Business

   108

Management

   156

Executive Compensation

   167

Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions

   182

Principal Stockholders

   190

Description of Capital Stock

   193

Description of Certain Indebtedness

   201

Shares Eligible for Future Sale

   206

Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Consequences to Non-U.S. Holders

   208

Underwriting

   212

Legal Matters

   224

Experts

   224

Change in Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

   225

Where You Can Find Additional Information

   226

Index to Consolidated Financial Statements

   F-1

 

 

You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus or contained in any free writing prospectus filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). Neither we nor any of the underwriters have authorized anyone to provide any information or make any representations other than those contained in this prospectus or in any free writing prospectus we have prepared. Neither we nor the underwriters take responsibility for, and can provide assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. This prospectus is an offer to sell only the shares of Class A common stock offered by this prospectus, but only under circumstances and in jurisdictions where it is lawful to do so. The information contained in this prospectus is accurate only as of the date of this prospectus, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or of any sale of the Class A common stock. Our business, results of operations, financial condition, and prospects may have changed since such date.

We have proprietary rights to trademarks, trade names, and service marks appearing in this prospectus that are important to our business. Solely for convenience, the trademarks, trade names, and service marks may appear in this prospectus without the ®, TM and SM symbols, but any such references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we forgo or will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights or the rights of the applicable licensors to these trademarks, trade names, and service marks. All trademarks, trade names, and service marks appearing in this prospectus are the property of their respective owners. Specifically, Amazon, Prime, and all related logos are trademarks of Amazon.com, Inc. or its affiliates.

For investors outside of the United States: Neither we nor any of the underwriters have done anything that would permit this offering or possession or distribution of this prospectus or any free writing prospectus we may provide to you in connection with this offering in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required, other than in the United States. Persons outside of the United States


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who come into possession of this prospectus and any free writing prospectus must inform themselves about and observe any restrictions relating to this offering and the distribution of this prospectus outside of the United States.

Through and including                , 2021 (the 25th day after the date of this prospectus), all dealers effecting transactions in these securities, whether or not participating in this offering, may be required to deliver a prospectus. This delivery requirement is in addition to the dealers’ obligation to deliver a prospectus when acting as underwriters and with respect to their unsold allotments or subscriptions.


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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

This summary highlights selected information that is presented in greater detail elsewhere in this prospectus. This summary does not contain all of the information you should consider before investing in our Class A common stock. You should read this entire prospectus carefully, including the sections titled “Risk Factors,” “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements,” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus, before making an investment decision. Unless the context otherwise requires, the terms “Rivian,” the “Company,” “we,” “us,” and “our” in this prospectus refer to Rivian Automotive, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries.

RIVIAN AUTOMOTIVE, INC.

Our Purpose

Today, our planet is operating off hundreds of millions of years of accumulated plant- and animal-based carbon. On our current path, this stored energy will be fully exhausted in only a few generations and, in the process, carbonize our atmosphere to such a degree that life as we know it will not be possible. If our planet is to continue to sustain life and enchant future generations, we must change.

To build the kind of future our kids and our kids’ kids deserve, extraordinary steps must be taken to stop the carbonization of our atmosphere. This requires individuals and entire industries to come together in ways we never have before. This is where Rivian’s potential lies - in creating solutions that shift consumer mindsets and inspire other companies to fundamentally change the way they operate.

As staggering as this may sound, and as complex as our objective is, we already have everything we need to create change. It starts with harnessing the very thing every human being is born with - an adventurous spirit. There is a reason why we are hardwired with curiosity and a capacity to invent better ways of doing things. The part of us that seeks to explore the world is also the secret to making sure it remains a world worth exploring. Forever.

Our Business

We design, develop, and manufacture category-defining electric vehicles (“EVs”) and accessories. We sell them directly to customers in the consumer and commercial markets. Our vehicles are complemented by a full suite of proprietary, value-added services that address the entire vehicle lifecycle and deepen our customer relationships. Starting with a clean sheet, we built a vertically integrated ecosystem comprised of our vehicle technology platform, cloud architecture, product development and operations, products, and services. Interconnected by our data and analytics backbone, our ecosystem is designed to deliver fast-paced innovation cycles, structural cost advantages, and exceptional customer experiences, all of which combine to create a self-reinforcing growth dynamic while serving our mission to Keep The World Adventurous Forever.

In the consumer market, we launched the R1 platform with our first-generation consumer vehicle, the R1T, a two-row five-passenger pickup truck, and began making customer deliveries in September 2021. As of September 30, 2021, we produced 12 R1Ts and delivered 11 R1Ts, and as of October 31, 2021, we produced 180 R1Ts and delivered 156 R1Ts. Nearly all of these vehicles were delivered to Rivian employees, and we expect to ramp deliveries to third-party customers as we increase our production rate. We plan to launch and commence customer deliveries for the R1S, a three-row seven-passenger sports utility vehicle (“SUV”) in December 2021 following the completion of ongoing vehicle validation and all required testing. By the end of 2021, we intend to produce approximately 1,200 R1Ts and 25 R1Ss and deliver approximately 1,000 R1Ts and 15 R1Ss.

 


 

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Engineered for all of life’s adventures, our Electric Adventure Vehicles combine performance, utility, and efficiency. They are equally capable of rock crawling or carving turns on a mountain road and can leave most sports cars in the rearview mirror. The R1T and R1S are equipped with a proprietary set of advanced technology systems, including vehicle electronics, battery, electric drive, chassis, Driver+, our advanced driver assistance system (“ADAS”), and digital user experience management. These technologies can continuously improve and expand functionality through cloud-enabled over-the-air (“OTA”) updates.

Our vehicles occupy an attractive whitespace, addressing large, fast-growing, and high-margin market segments, and are designed to accelerate the large-scale adoption of sustainable transportation. The R1T and R1S introduce our brand to the world and will serve as our flagship vehicles as we continue to expand our offerings. To accompany our vehicles, we have developed a comprehensive portfolio of vehicle accessories that will further sharpen our brand’s focus on adventure and active lifestyles.

Complementing our consumer vehicles, our suite of value-added services includes digitally enabled financing, telematics-based insurance, proactive vehicle service (maintenance and repair), flexible membership and software services, comprehensive charging solutions, and a data-driven vehicle resale program. We expect these services to generate long-term brand loyalty while also creating a recurring revenue stream for each vehicle across its lifecycle.

In the commercial market, we will launch the Rivian Commercial Vehicle (“RCV”) platform with our first vehicle, the Electric Delivery Van (“EDV”), designed and engineered by Rivian in collaboration with Amazon, our first commercial customer. Amazon has ordered, subject to modification as described in the section titled “Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions,” an initial volume of 100,000 vehicles globally, representing the largest order of EVs ever. By the end of 2021, we intend to produce and deliver approximately 10 EDVs. Developed to be safe, comfortable, and easy to operate for drivers, these vans will offer a step change in driver experience relative to vehicles available in the market today. They are also designed to achieve lower total cost of ownership (“TCO”) for Amazon while supporting a path to carbon neutral deliveries. We expect to gain rich experiences from what we believe will become the largest centrally managed EV fleet in the world. Through our work with Amazon, we believe we will be well-positioned to leverage our learnings to build capabilities that will accelerate our progress towards a leadership position in the commercial vehicle market and our deployment of new business models.

Alongside our commercial vehicles, we offer FleetOS, our proprietary, end-to-end centralized fleet management subscription platform. It encompasses vehicle distribution, service, telematics, software services, charging, connectivity management, Driver+, and lifecycle management. Building upon this foundation, FleetOS will continually add more features over time, including leasing, financing, insurance, driver safety and coaching, smart charging and routing, remote diagnostics, 360° collision reports, and vehicle resale. This cloud-based platform integrates and analyzes vehicle, infrastructure, and operations data, driving us toward industry-leading TCO, safety, and fleet utilization. We have designed FleetOS so it can be customized for a commercial customer’s operational needs. In addition to managing fleets of Rivian vehicles, FleetOS will be able to address mixed fleets comprised of Rivian and non-Rivian commercial vehicles, allowing us to serve a greater number of commercial customers at scale.

Our direct-to-customer model allows us to manage all sales, deliveries, service operations, and resale in-house without reliance on a franchise dealership network or other third parties. We employ an integrated, digital-first strategy that is not only convenient and transparent for our customers, but also efficient and scalable to support our continued growth. Our website and mobile app facilitate brand engagement, product discovery, demonstration (“demo”) drives, purchase transactions, vehicle deliveries, vehicle service, account management, and resale. We believe this strategy will allow us to deliver uncompromised experiences well beyond what is available through the standard franchise dealership model.


 

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We enable our diverse offering of highly differentiated products and services as well as our digital-first, direct-to-customer journey entirely through our vertically integrated ecosystem. The Rivian ecosystem consists of the following components:

 

   

Vehicle Technology. A secure, reliable, scalable combination of hardware and software, connecting our proprietary in-vehicle systems, including vehicle electronics, battery, electric drive, chassis, Driver+, and experience management.

 

   

Rivian Cloud. Our architecture of interconnected software applications designed to deliver seamless, end-to-end digital commerce solutions and experiences across web, mobile, and app. Rivian Cloud enables FleetOS, remote diagnostics, OTA software updates, and remote vehicle controls, including vehicle access.

 

   

Product Development and Operations. Our vertically integrated product development and operations functions include design, development, manufacturing, sales, delivery, service, and charging. These distributed functions serve the unique needs of our consumer and commercial customers. As of September 30, 2021, we operated six service centers in four states (California, Illinois, Washington, and New York), 11 mobile service vehicles, a 24/7 service support center in Michigan, and have secured 24 Rivian Adventure Network (“RAN”) Direct Current (“DC”) fast charging (“DCFCs”) sites in seven states, 145 Rivian Waypoints charging sites in 30 states, and 20 service center locations for further expansion.

 

   

Products and Accessories. Our consumer launch portfolio is comprised of category-defining vehicles that reimagine the pickup truck and SUV segments. We will enter the commercial market with long-range electric step-in vans developed for mass production. The EDV is designed to lower TCO, improve uptime, and facilitate Amazon progressing in its commitment to net zero carbon operations. We expect our products and accessories to provide access to new markets and bring new customers into our ecosystem.

 

   

Services. We will offer highly tailored and differentiated services that enable seamless and intuitive experiences throughout the entire customer lifecycle. We expect this holistic approach to drive higher customer satisfaction, create strong brand loyalty, and increase operational efficiency while simultaneously allowing us to capture a greater share of the full lifecycle value of every Rivian vehicle produced.

 

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Data and Analytics. Our ecosystem is interconnected by our proprietary data and analytics backbone housed in Rivian Cloud. It is comprised of a centralized data lake and analytics tools, providing valuable insights that can be applied to continuously improve ecosystem-wide performance, functionality, and uptime to drive increased customer satisfaction.

 

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Data & Analytics Vehicle Technology Vehicle Electronics Battery Electric Drive Chassis Driver+ Experience Management Rivian Cloud Digital Commerce Operations Management Fleet Management Energy Management Product Development and Operations Design & Engineering Manufacturing Delivery Service Network Experience Spaces Charging Network Customer Service Products Consumer Commercial Accessories Services Financing Insurance Vehicle Service Membership & Software Charging FleetOS Vehicle Customization Resale Program Data & Analytics

Our ecosystem is designed to be highly scalable, flexible, integrated, and interconnected to power an immersive customer journey. This will enable us to maximize our impact by addressing both the consumer and commercial markets simultaneously. We can deploy our offerings at scale using a shared, vertically integrated technology platform, comprised of vehicle technology and Rivian Cloud, with network effects that will build data insights to improve our ecosystem. By utilizing our common technology platform, we generate synergies and scale efficiencies, enabling us to increase our pace of

 

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innovation and create offerings that serve the unique needs of our customers. Our direct-to-customer relationships and connected vehicle technologies allow us to gather customer and product insights over the full lifecycle of our vehicles. We will utilize these insights to continuously improve our offerings by adding new capabilities and functionality. Enhanced offerings will attract more customers, deepen existing customer relationships, and expand our data repository and insights, which will further benefit our customers and Rivian.

 

 

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Vehicles Services End-to-End, Full Vehicle Lifecycle Consumer Vertically Integrated Technology Infrastructure Data Scale & Efficiency Customer Benefits Experience & Engagement Vehicles Commercial Services FleetOS Customer Benefits TCO & UptimeVehicles Services End-to-End, Full Vehicle Lifecycle Consumer Vertically Integrated Technology Infrastructure Data Scale & Efficiency Customer Benefits Experience & Engagement Vehicles Commercial Services FleetOS Customer Benefits TCO & Safety

Beyond the benefits of our ecosystem, we believe that our most durable competitive advantage is our culture. Our strength comes from a diversity of backgrounds, perspectives, talents, and approaches, and we work hard to cultivate a culture of collaboration. Diversity drives dialogue and exploration in the development process that we believe yields category-defining products and services. Across Rivian, we champion a first-principles mindset to solving problems. This drives innovation and learning to propel continued growth and our mission to Keep The World Adventurous Forever.

Our diverse product portfolio and focus on inspiring people to get out and explore the world positions us to build an enduring brand while addressing a wide range of future mobility and sustainability solutions. Through our base of preorders, we observe strong affinity for our brand which we expect to intensify as brand awareness grows and we welcome new customers to the Rivian community. As of October 31, 2021, we had approximately 55,400 R1T and R1S preorders in the United States and Canada from customers who each paid a cancellable and fully refundable deposit of $1,000. Based on our current production forecast, we expect to fill our preorder backlog of approximately 55,400 by the end of 2023. We believe the combination of our deep focus on addressing climate change, building compelling products, and delivering a superior customer experience will enable Rivian to drive adoption and customer loyalty, powering our continued growth.

We have made decisions and investments with the objective of maintaining a long-term growth orientation that creates value for all stakeholders, including our employees, customers, partners, communities, shareholders, and the environment. In the near-term, we are targeting the pickup truck, SUV, and commercial van market segments in the United States, Canada, and Western Europe. We plan to achieve long-term growth by expanding in our existing markets, constructing a broad portfolio of vehicles and digital services with global appeal, entering major global automotive markets, strategically investing in our ecosystem, and expanding into adjacent verticals. In keeping with our long-term mindset,


 

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we are designing technology and infrastructure to support and benefit from the future transition to increased autonomy, new ownership models, and renewable energy solutions.

Key Industry Tailwinds

We believe the convergence of key trends, including shifting consumer preferences and targeted regulatory support, is contributing to the robust demand for Rivian products and services.

 

   

EV Adoption is at the Tipping Point. With cost of EV ownership no longer a significant barrier to purchase, we believe the EV revolution has begun as approximately 90 million light vehicles sold globally each year transition to EVs.

 

   

Regulatory Requirements and Incentives Promote EV Adoption. Local, regional, and national governments are incentivizing or mandating the sale of EVs and eliminating the sale and usage of internal combustion engine (“ICE”) vehicles through targeted policies.

 

   

Trucks and SUVs are the Fastest Growing and Most Profitable Automotive Segments. Trucks and SUVs comprise over 70% of new vehicle sales in the United States and account for most of the profits generated by incumbent automobile manufacturers.

 

   

E-commerce Growth is Creating Demand for Delivery Vehicles. As consumer demand for e-commerce continues to accelerate, we expect demand for commercial delivery vehicles to increase at a similar pace. EVs are well-positioned for this use case due to short, predictable routes, criticality of efficient operations, and their ability to offer lower TCO relative to ICE vehicles.

 

   

Sustainability is Driving Purchasing Decisions. Consumers are increasingly emphasizing sustainability in their purchasing decisions in an effort to positively impact their communities and the environment.

 

   

Shift Towards Active Lifestyles. Consumers are shifting their lifestyles to include more wellness and outdoor-related products and activities, and are changing their buying preferences to reflect this trend.

Our Market Opportunity

We address a massive opportunity in building the future of mobility. We believe our vertically integrated ecosystem enables us to offer holistic solutions compared to traditional automakers and deliver more value to our customers, allowing us to capture revenues across the full vehicle lifecycle. We define our market opportunity in terms of our total addressable market (“TAM”), which we believe we can address over the long-term, and our serviceable addressable market (“SAM”), which we believe we can address within the next three years. We calculate our SAM and TAM based upon the market for new vehicle sales across consumer and commercial vehicles in addition to the lifetime revenue (“LTR”) potential of services, which includes the resale of these vehicles. We estimate our TAM to be $9 trillion and our SAM to be $1 trillion. For more detailed calculations behind the methodologies for vehicle sales and LTR, see the section titled “Business—Our Market Opportunity.”

The consumer and commercial markets we are pursuing are large and rapidly evolving, creating an ideal opportunity for us to leverage a common set of leading technologies and capabilities that can be utilized across both markets. Based on the strength and positioning of our brand, products, and services

 

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which address the shifting needs of individual consumers and commercial fleets, we see an opportunity to be a leader in this large TAM.

 

LOGO

Consumer Global R1 platform, additional vehicle platforms, and associated lifetime revenue TAM $8,332 B United States, Canada, and Western Europe R1 platform variants and associated lifetime revenue SAM $954 B Commercial Global RCV platform, additional vehicle platforms, and associated lifetime revenue TAM $649 B United States, Canada, and Western Europe RCV platform variants, including EDV, and associated lifetime revenue SAM $209 B

The Rivian Advantage

We designed all aspects of our ecosystem, business model, offerings, and organization to enable a scalable, customer-centric, and efficient approach resulting in key competitive advantages.

 

   

Vertically Integrated Ecosystem. We have developed an ecosystem with a strong technology foundation, robust product development and operations infrastructure, and deep vertical integration. It is highly scalable and flexible, and lowers structural costs across our business, achieving operational efficiencies and enabling rapid growth.

 

   

Diversified Business Model. We have deliberately structured our business to serve consumer and commercial customers with holistic solutions that are tailored to meet their unique needs. Addressing two distinct market segments should help limit the impact of cyclicality and is expected to drive critical scale and cost efficiencies through shared technologies and product development and operations infrastructure.

 

   

Direct Customer Relationships. Our direct relationships with customers allow us to gather insights, design solutions that best serve their needs, drive strong engagement, remove structural inefficiencies, create transparency, and increase customer satisfaction and referrals. By controlling every customer touchpoint from awareness through ownership, we replace a patchwork of third parties with Rivian’s end-to-end, integrated solutions.

 

   

Scalable, Multi-Program Development Capabilities. We have designed our organization to run and launch multiple unique vehicle programs concurrently. By leveraging our shared and scalable technology platform, we believe that we will grow and refine our product portfolio to rapidly build scale in advanced vehicle technologies.

 

   

Extensible Suite of Services. Our portfolio of complementary services is designed to deliver an intuitive and seamless customer experience across the full lifecycle of our consumer and commercial vehicles. Our suite of services provides an opportunity to generate predictable, high-margin recurring revenues and increase the lifetime revenue potential of each vehicle.

 

   

Our Culture. We are incredibly intentional about the culture we are creating, which is our most durable competitive advantage. Everything from the way we recruit and onboard, to our equity-

 

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for-all philosophy, to our transparent way of communicating, is in service of making Rivian the company passionate professionals join to learn, grow, and do the most meaningful work of their careers.

Long-Term Growth Strategy

We have made decisions and investments with long-term objectives in mind. We believe maintaining a long-term growth orientation is key to maximizing Rivian’s impact and generating value for all stakeholders. We plan to achieve this by constructing a diverse portfolio of offerings with global appeal and strategically investing in our technology and infrastructure.

Key levers of our growth strategy include:

 

   

Increase Share in Existing Markets. We plan to offer additional vehicle variants across a broader set of price points supported by scale-driven supply chain efficiencies, further vertical integration, and technology advancements.

 

   

Develop and Launch Next-Generation Vehicles. Over the next several years, we intend to launch multiple vehicles within the consumer and commercial segments. These vehicles will serve a variety of form factors, price points, use cases, and geographies.

 

   

Pursue International Expansion. Our launch is focused on the U.S. and Canadian markets. We intend to enter Western European markets in the near-term, followed by entry into major Asian-Pacific markets. To serve our global demand, we plan to localize production and supply chains in these regions.

 

   

Extend Depth and Breadth of Our Digital Services. We plan to launch additional subscription services, enable the purchase of more features through OTA software updates, including higher levels of autonomy, expand our financing and insurance offerings, and play a central role in the used Rivian marketplace.

 

   

Invest in Our Ecosystem. We plan to continue investing in our product development and operations infrastructure to enable our growth, product innovation, and customer experience.

 

   

Expand Energy Solutions Portfolio. We have developed core capabilities in power conversion and energy storage. We see tremendous opportunity to build on these capabilities and leverage our customer base to offer integrated hardware (charging, generation, and storage) and software-based energy management solutions in the residential, industrial, and commercial markets.

 

   

Unlock New Business Models. Our capabilities as a direct-to-customer, integrated technology and manufacturing company position us to drive the adoption of future business models. This includes our expertise in managing what we believe will become the largest centrally managed EV fleet, allowing us to unlock future service offerings, including autonomous mobility-as-a-service for the movement of people and goods.

Financial Performance and Indebtedness

For the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2020, we incurred net losses of $426 million and $1.0 billion, respectively, as we invested in product development and prepared for the initial launch of our vehicles in September 2021. As of June 30, 2021, our total amount of outstanding indebtedness was $3.0 million. In July 2021, we issued $2.5 billion aggregate principal amount of unsecured senior

 

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convertible promissory notes (the “2021 Convertible Notes”), which we expect will be converted into Class A common stock in connection with this offering in accordance with their terms, and, in October 2021, we issued $1.25 billion aggregate principal amount of senior secured floating rate notes due 2026 (the “2026 Notes”), which will remain outstanding following this offering. As of September 30, 2021, we had no borrowings under our senior secured asset based revolving credit facility (the “ABL Facility”). Our ability to execute the foregoing growth strategies depends on our ability to maintain sufficient cash flows while continuing to service our outstanding indebtedness.

 

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Recent Developments

Estimated Preliminary Results for the Three Months Ended September 30, 2021

Set forth below are certain preliminary and unaudited estimates of selected financial and other information for the three months ended September 30, 2021 and actual unaudited financial and other information for the three months ended September 30, 2020. The unaudited selected financial and other information for the three months ended September 30, 2021 reflects our preliminary estimates with respect to such results based on currently available information and is subject to completion of our financial closing procedures. Our financial closing procedures for the three months ended September 30, 2021 are not yet complete and, as a result, our actual results may vary from the estimated preliminary results presented here and will not be finalized until after the completion of this offering.

These estimates should not be viewed as a substitute for our full interim or annual financial statements prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting practices (“U.S. GAAP”). Further, our preliminary estimated results are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for any future period as a result of various factors, including, but not limited to, those discussed in the sections titled “Risk Factors” and “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.” This information should be read in conjunction with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” for prior periods included elsewhere in this prospectus.

The preliminary estimates presented below have been prepared by, and are the responsibility of, management. KPMG LLP, our independent registered public accounting firm, has not audited, reviewed, compiled, or performed any procedures with respect to the preliminary financial information. Accordingly, KPMG LLP does not express an opinion or any other form of assurance with respect thereto.

 

     For The
Three Months Ended

September 30, 2020
     For The Three Months Ended
September 30, 2021
 
     Actual      Low (estimated)      High (estimated)  
     (in millions)  

Revenue

   $ —       $ —       $ 1    

Gross profit

     —         (80)        (70)  

Loss from operations

     (288)        (775)        (725)  

Net loss

     (288)        (1,275)        (1,175)  

Other Financial Data

  

 

 

 

  

 

 

 

  

 

 

 

Capital expenditures—property, plant, and equipment

   $ 204       $ 450       $ 500   

We began deliveries of the R1T, our first production vehicle, to customers and generated revenue for the three months ended September 30, 2021.

We generated negative gross profit for the three months ended September 30, 2021, as we began manufacturing the R1T. The negative gross profit relates primarily to significant labor and overhead costs for our manufacturing facility in Normal, Illinois, reflecting our factory’s large-scale capabilities; however, as we just started to ramp vehicle production at the site, the facility produced limited quantities of vehicles in the period. We also expect to record a lower of cost or net realizable value adjustment to write-down the value of certain inventory to the amount we anticipate receiving upon vehicle sale (after considering future costs necessary to ready the inventory for sale).

We expect loss from operations for the three months ended September 30, 2021, to increase as compared to the three months ended September 30, 2020, due to increased efforts related to our R1T

 

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and R1S vehicle programs, our EDV program, and other advanced product development activities, as well as our efforts to further scale our sales operations, commercial office locations, customer facing facilities, and corporate functions to properly support our future business growth and complexity.

We expect an increase in net loss for the three months ended September 30, 2021, as compared to the three months ended September 30, 2020, primarily due to the higher operating losses discussed above, and net loss of $450 million to $500 million on issued unsecured senior convertible promissory notes. The net loss on these notes relate to the difference between the estimated fair value as of September 30, 2021 and the net proceeds at issuance.

We expect an increase in capital expenditures for the three months ended September 30, 2021 as compared to the three months ended September 30, 2020, primarily due to our continued strategic investments in infrastructure, including additional manufacturing capacity, service operations, corporate facilities, and experience spaces.

The following table provides our preliminary estimates of cash and cash equivalents as of September 30, 2021, compared to June 30, 2021:

 

     As of June 30, 2021      As of September 30, 2021  
     Actual      Low (estimated)      High (estimated)  
     (in millions)  

Cash and cash equivalents(1)

   $ 3,658      $ 5,125      $ 5,150  

 

(1)

This cash and cash equivalents balance does not reflect the $1.25 billion aggregate principial of the 2026 Notes issued on October 8, 2021.

We expect cash and cash equivalents to increase as of September 30, 2021 as compared to June 30, 2021, primarily due to the issuance of $2.5 billion of unsecured senior convertible promissory notes (due July 23, 2026), partially offset by net cash used in operating activities and capital expenditures during the period.

The following table provides our vehicle production and delivery volumes for the three month periods ended September 30, 2021 and September 30, 2020:

 

     For the
Three Months Ended
September 30, 2020
     For the
Three Months Ended
September 30, 2021
 
     Actual      Actual  

Vehicles Produced

            12  

Vehicles Delivered

            11  

We began production and making deliveries of our first production vehicle (the R1T) in September 2021. During September 2021, we produced 12 and delivered 11 R1T vehicles.

Risk Factors Summary

Our business is subject to a number of risks and uncertainties of which you should be aware before making a decision to invest in our Class A common stock. These risks are more fully described in the section titled “Risk Factors” immediately following this prospectus summary. These risks include, among others, the following:

 

   

We are a growth stage company with a history of losses and expect to incur significant expenses and continuing losses for the foreseeable future.

 

   

Our limited operating history makes it difficult for us to evaluate our future business prospects.


 

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Our ability to develop and manufacture vehicles of sufficient quality and appeal to customers on schedule and on a large scale is unproven.

 

   

We expect that a significant portion of our initial revenue will be from one customer that is an affiliate of one of our principal stockholders. If we are unable to maintain this relationship, or if this customer purchases significantly fewer vehicles than we currently anticipate or none at all, our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could be materially and adversely affected.

 

   

The success of our business depends on attracting and retaining a large number of customers. If we are unable to do so, we will not be able to achieve profitability.

 

   

We face significant challenges as a new entrant into the automotive industry.

 

   

The automotive market is highly competitive, and we may not be successful in competing in this industry.

 

   

We may be unable to adequately control the capital expenditures and costs associated with our business and operations.

 

   

We depend upon third parties to manufacture and to supply key semiconductor chip components necessary for our vehicles. We do not have long-term agreements with all of our semiconductor chip manufacturers and suppliers, and if these manufacturers or suppliers become unwilling or unable to provide an adequate supply of semiconductor chips, with respect to which there is a global shortage, we may not be able to find alternative sources in a timely manner and our business would be adversely impacted.

 

   

We could experience cost increases or disruptions in supply of raw materials or other components used in our vehicles.

 

   

We may experience significant delays in the design, manufacture, financing, regulatory approval, launch and delivery of our vehicles, which could harm our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

 

   

We are highly dependent on the services and reputation of Robert J. Scaringe, our Founder and Chief Executive Officer.

 

   

We are dependent on our existing suppliers, a significant number of which are single or limited source suppliers, and are also dependent on our ability to source suppliers, for our critical components, and to complete the building out of our supply chain, while effectively managing the risks due to such relationships.

 

   

Breaches in data security, failure of information security systems and privacy concerns could adversely impact our financial condition, subject us to penalties, damage our reputation and brand, and harm our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

 

   

We are, and may in the future become, subject to patent, trademark and/or other intellectual property infringement claims, which may be time-consuming, cause us to incur significant liability and increase our costs of doing business.

 

   

Our vehicles are subject to motor vehicle safety standards and the failure to satisfy such mandated safety standards would have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

 

   

As a manufacturer engaged in sales directly to consumers, we may face regulatory limitations on our ability to sell and service vehicles directly, which could materially and adversely affect our ability to sell our vehicles.

 

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We may be exposed to delays, limitations and risks related to the environmental permits and other permits and approvals required to operate or expand operations at an existing or future manufacturing facility.

Corporate Information

We were incorporated on March 26, 2015 as Rivian Automotive, Inc., a Delaware corporation. Our principal executive offices are located at 14600 Myford Road, Irvine, CA 92606, and our telephone number is (888) 748-4261. Our website address is www.rivian.com. Information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website does not constitute part of this prospectus, and the inclusion of our website address in this prospectus is an inactive textual reference only. Investors should not rely on any such information in deciding whether to purchase our Class A common stock.

Implications of Being Treated As an Emerging Growth Company

We ceased to be an “emerging growth company” as defined in Section 2(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), as modified by the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 (the “JOBS Act”), as of October 8, 2021 due to our issuance, in a three-year period, of more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt securities. However, because we ceased to be an “emerging growth company” after we confidentially submitted to the SEC our registration statement related to this offering, we will be treated as an “emerging growth company” for certain purposes until the earlier of the date we complete this offering and October 8, 2022. As a result, we may take advantage of specified reduced disclosure and other requirements that are otherwise applicable, in general, to public companies that are not emerging growth companies. These provisions include, but are not limited to, being permitted to have only two years of audited financial statements and only two years of related selected financial data and management’ discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations disclosures, and reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation.

 

Emerging growth companies can also delay adopting new or revised accounting standards until such time as those standards apply to private companies. We have elected to take advantage of this extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards and, as a result, our results of operations and financial statements may not be comparable to the results of operations and financial statements of public companies who have adopted the new or revised accounting standards.

Accordingly, the information contained herein may be different than the information you receive from other public companies in which you hold stock.

 

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THE OFFERING

 

Class A common stock offered by us

  

135,000,000 shares.

Option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock

  


20,250,000 shares.

Class A common stock to be outstanding after this offering

  


854,170,652 shares (or 874,420,652 shares if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock in full).

Class B common stock to be outstanding after this offering

  


7,825,000 shares.

Total Class A and Class B common stock to be outstanding after this offering

  


861,995,652 shares (or 882,245,652 shares if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock in full).

Indication of interest

   Prior to the date hereof, the cornerstone investors have indicated an interest in purchasing up to an aggregate of $5.0 billion of shares of our Class A common stock in this offering at the initial public offering price (including $200.0 million of shares of Class A common stock which Amazon has indicated an interest in purchasing). These indications of interest have been made severally and not jointly. The shares of Class A common stock to be purchased by the cornerstone investors will not be subject to a lock-up agreement with the underwriters for this offering. Because these indications of interest are not binding agreements or commitments to purchase, the cornerstone investors may determine to purchase more, fewer, or no shares in this offering, or the underwriters may determine to sell more, less or no shares to the cornerstone investors. The underwriters will receive the same discount on any of our shares of Class A common stock purchased by the cornerstone investors as they will from any other shares of Class A common stock sold to the public in this offering.

Voting rights

   We have two classes of common stock, Class A and Class B common stock. The rights of holders of Class A and Class B common stock are identical, except voting and conversion rights. Each share of Class A common stock is entitled to one vote. Each share of Class B common stock is entitled to ten votes.

 

   Holders of our Class A common stock and Class B common stock will generally vote together as a single class, unless otherwise required by law or our amended and restated certificate of incorporation. Following the completion of this offering, each share of our Class B common stock will be convertible into one share of

 

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   Class A common stock at any time and will convert automatically upon certain transfers and in certain other circumstances as described in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation. See “Description of Capital Stock.”

 

   Immediately following the completion of this offering, all outstanding shares of our Class B common stock will be held by an affiliate of Robert J. Scaringe and represent approximately 8.4% of the voting power of our outstanding capital stock following this offering, assuming no exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares. See the section titled “Description of Capital Stock” for additional information.

Use of proceeds

  

We estimate that we will receive net proceeds from this offering of approximately $7,922 million (or $9,112 million if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock in full), based upon an assumed initial public offering price of $59.50 per share (which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus) and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

 

We currently intend to use the net proceeds from this offering for working capital, to fund growth and for other general corporate purposes. We will have broad discretion in the way that we use the net proceeds of this offering. See the section titled “Use of Proceeds” for additional information.

 

Directed Share Program

  

At our request, the underwriters have reserved up to 7.0% of the shares offered by us in this offering, for sale at the initial public offering price through a directed share program to:

 

•   eligible U.S. customers who had a standing preorder for an R1T or R1S as of September 30, 2021, and prior to this offering either (i) have an active eligible preorder or (ii) have accepted delivery of their preordered vehicle; and

 

•   persons who are directors, officers or employees, or who are otherwise associated with us and identified by our officers and directors.

 

If demand for the program exceeds capacity, we will allocate shares on a pro-rata basis among all eligible participants in the directed share program. Eligible participants who meet more than one criteria, or have placed a preorder for more than one Rivian vehicle, will


 

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not be entitled to a greater participation in the program as a result. Any shares sold under the directed share program will not be subject to the terms of any lock-up agreement, except in the case of shares purchased by our officers or directors.

 

The number of shares of Class A common stock available for sale to the general public will be reduced to the extent that such persons purchase such reserved shares. Any reserved shares not so purchased will be offered by the underwriters to the general public on the same basis as the other shares offered by this prospectus.

Risk factors

   See the section titled “Risk Factors” and the other information included in this prospectus for a discussion of factors you should carefully consider before deciding to invest in shares of our Class A common stock.

Proposed Nasdaq symbol

   “RIVN”

The number of shares of our common stock to be outstanding after this offering is based on 719,170,652 shares of Class A common stock and 7,825,000 shares of Class B common stock outstanding as of June 30, 2021, after giving effect to the Transactions (as defined below), and excludes:

 

   

66,754,294 shares of Class A common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options outstanding under the 2015 Long-Term Incentive Plan (the “2015 Plan”) as of June 30, 2021, with a weighted-average exercise price of $11.68 per share;

 

   

465,000 shares of Class A common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options outstanding under the 2015 Plan granted subsequent to June 30, 2021, with a weighted-average exercise price of $39.5803 per share;

 

   

22,534,308 shares of Class A common stock issuable upon the vesting and settlement of restricted stock units (“RSUs”) outstanding under the 2015 Plan as of June 30, 2021;

 

   

12,038,797 shares of Class A common stock issuable upon the vesting and settlement of RSUs granted under the 2015 Plan subsequent to June 30, 2021;

 

   

8,321,072 shares of Class A common stock issued to Forever by Rivian, Inc., a 501(c)(4) social welfare organization, to fund and support our social impact initiative in connection with the completion of this offering (see “Business—Forever” for additional information) based upon an initial public offering price of $59.50 (which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus). Each $1.00 increase or decrease in the assumed initial public offering price per share of $59.50 (which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus) would increase or decrease, as applicable, the Class A common stock issued to Forever by Rivian, Inc. by approximately 6,000 shares;

 

   

7,519,482 shares of Class A common stock issuable upon the exercise of warrants outstanding as of June 30, 2021, with an exercise price of $5.72 per share (the “Global Oryx Warrants”);

 

   

3,723,050 shares of Class A common stock issuable upon the exercise of a warrant outstanding as of June 30, 2021, with an exercise price of $9.09 per share, which warrant is exercisable to purchase shares of our Series C preferred stock (the “Series C Warrant”) and will automatically convert to a warrant to purchase an equivalent number of shares of our Class A common stock upon the completion of this offering (the “Preferred Warrant Conversion”);


 

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98,242,632 additional shares of our Class A common stock reserved for future issuance under the 2021 Incentive Award Plan (the “2021 Plan”), which will become effective in connection with this offering, as well as any automatic increases in the number of shares of our Class A common stock reserved for future issuance under the 2021 Plan; and

 

   

22,057,535 shares of our Class A common stock that will become available for future issuance under the 2021 Employee Stock Purchase Plan (the “2021 ESPP”), which will become effective in connection with this offering, and shares of our Class A common stock that become available pursuant to provisions in the 2021 ESPP that automatically increase the share reserve under the 2021 ESPP.

On the date immediately prior to the date of this prospectus, any remaining shares available for issuance under the 2015 Plan will be added to the shares of our Class A common stock reserved for issuance under the 2021 Plan, and we will cease granting awards under the 2015 Plan. The 2021 Plan and 2021 ESPP also provide for automatic annual increases in the number of shares reserved thereunder. See the section titled “Executive Compensation—Incentive Compensation Plans” for additional information.

Unless otherwise indicated, this prospectus reflects and assumes the following:

 

   

a 50-for-1 forward stock split of our common stock and contingently redeemable convertible preferred stock, effected on December 20, 2019;

 

   

the reclassification of all outstanding shares of common stock into an equal number of shares of our Class A common stock, which will occur immediately prior to the completion of this offering, and the subsequent exchange of an aggregate of 7,825,000 shares of Class A common stock held by an affiliate of Robert J. Scaringe, our Founder and Chief Executive Officer, into an equivalent number of shares of Class B common stock in connection with the completion of this offering pursuant to the terms of an exchange agreement to be entered into with us, which transactions we collectively refer to as the “Common Stock Reclassification and Exchange”;

 

   

the automatic conversion of all outstanding shares of our contingently redeemable convertible preferred stock into an aggregate of 575,864,510 shares of our Class A common stock, which will occur immediately prior to the completion of this offering (the “Preferred Conversion”);

 

   

the Preferred Warrant Conversion;

 

   

the net exercise of outstanding warrants to purchase 250,000 shares of our Class A common stock with a weighted average exercise price of $5.66 per share (the “Common Warrants”) into 226,230 shares of our Class A common stock, each of which will terminate if not exercised prior to the completion of this offering;

 

   

the automatic conversion of $2.5 billion in aggregate principal amount of our 2021 Convertible Notes, plus accrued interest (if any), into an aggregate of 49,431,537 shares of our Class A common stock immediately prior to the completion of this offering (the “Convertible Notes Conversion”), assuming an initial public offering price of $59.50 per share (which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus). Each $1.00 increase in the assumed initial public offering price per share of $59.50 (which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus) would decrease the Class A common stock issued in the Convertible Notes Conversion by 817,050 shares, and each $1.00 decrease in the assumed initial public offering price per share of $59.50 (which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus) would increase the Class A common stock issued in the Convertible Notes Conversion by 844,983 shares;


 

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no exercise of outstanding options, the Global Oryx Warrants or the Series C Warrant referred to above or vesting and settlement of outstanding RSUs referred to above after June 30, 2021;

 

   

no exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase up to 20,250,000 additional shares of our Class A common stock; and

 

   

the filing and effectiveness of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and the effectiveness of our amended and restated bylaws, each of which will occur immediately prior to the completion of this offering.

Unless otherwise specified or context otherwise requires, we refer to the Common Stock Reclassification and Exchange, the Preferred Conversion, the Preferred Warrant Conversion, the Convertible Notes Conversion and the net exercise of the Common Warrants collectively as the “Transactions.” See the section titled “Description of Capital Stock” for additional information regarding the Transactions.


 

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SUMMARY CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL AND OTHER DATA

The following tables summarize our consolidated financial and other data. The summary consolidated statements of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2020 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. The summary consolidated statements of operations data for the six months ended June 30, 2020 and 2021 and the consolidated balance sheet data as of June 30, 2021 have been derived from our unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. These interim condensed consolidated financial statements are unaudited and, in the opinion of management, reflect all normal recurring adjustments necessary to fairly present the financial position, results of operations, and cash flows for the periods presented. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected in the future. You should read the following summary consolidated financial and other data in conjunction with the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus.

 

                                                                                   
     For The Years Ended
December 31,
     For The Six Months Ended
June 30,
 
         2019              2020              2020              2021      
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
    

(in millions, except per share data)

 

Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:

  

 

 

 

  

 

 

 

  

 

 

 

  

 

 

 

Operating expenses:

  

 

 

 

  

 

 

 

  

 

 

 

  

 

 

 

Research and development

   $ 301       $ 766       $ 292       $ 683   

Selling, general, and administrative

     108         255         89         307   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total operating expenses

     409         1,021         381         990   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Loss from operations

     (409)        (1,021)        (381)        (990)  

Other (expense) income, net

  

 

 

 

  

 

 

 

  

 

 

 

  

 

 

 

Interest income

     18         10                 

Interest expense

     (34)        (8)        (4)        (6)  

Other (expense) income, net

     (1)               —          
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Loss before provision for income taxes

     (426)        (1,018)        (377)        (994)  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Provision for income taxes

     —         —         —         —   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Net loss

   $ (426)      $ (1,018)      $ (377)      $ (994)  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Per share data:

  

 

 

 

  

 

 

 

  

 

 

 

  

 

 

 

Net loss attributable to common stockholders, basic and diluted

   $ (426)      $ (1,019)      $ (377)      $ (994)  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Net loss per share attributable to common stockholders, basic and diluted(1)

   $ (4.35)      $ (10.09)      $ (3.77)      $ (9.84)  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Weighted-average common shares outstanding, basic and diluted(1)

     98         101         100         101   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Pro forma net loss per share attributable to common stockholders, basic and diluted (unaudited)(1,2)

  

 

 

 

   $ (3.56)     

 

 

 

   $ (1.47)  
     

 

 

       

 

 

 

Pro forma weighted average common shares outstanding, basic and diluted (unaudited)(1,2)

  

 

 

 

     529      

 

 

 

     678   
     

 

 

       

 

 

 

 

(1)

See Note 13 “Net Loss Per Share” to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus for an explanation of the method used to calculate the historical basic and diluted net loss per share and the weighted average number of shares used in the computation of the per share amounts.

(2)

Pro forma basic and diluted net loss per share attributable to common shareholders for the year ended December 31, 2020 and for the six months ended June 30, 2021 has been computed to give effect to:

  (i)

the filing and effectiveness of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, which will occur immediately prior to the completion of this offering;


 

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  (ii)

the automatic conversion of all outstanding shares of our contingently redeemable convertible preferred stock into an aggregate of 575,864,510 shares of our Class A common stock, which will occur immediately prior to the completion of this offering;

  (iii)

the net exercise of 250,000 outstanding warrants into 226,230 shares of our Class A common stock immediately prior to the completion of this offering, assuming an initial public offering price of $59.50 per share (which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus);

  (iv)

$370 million of stock-based compensation expense to be recognized for the cumulative effect of RSUs and options outstanding as of the date of this prospectus that will have satisfied the service-based and performance-based vesting conditions in connection with this offering; and

  (v)

the issuance of 8,321,072 shares of our Class A common stock to Forever by Rivian, Inc. to fund and support our social impact initiative in connection with the completion of this offering and an associated non-cash charge of approximately $495 million, estimated based on an assumed initial public offering price of $59.50 per share (which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus).

The following table sets forth the computation of the pro forma basic and diluted net loss per share assuming the offering is completed as of January 1, 2020:

 

     Year Ended
December 31,
2020 
     Six Months Ended
June 30, 2021 
 
     (in millions, except per share data)  

Numerator

  

 

 

 

  

 

 

 

Net loss attributable to Rivian

   $ (1,018)      $ (994)

Less: Premium on repurchase of contingently redeemable convertible preferred stock

     (1)        —   
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Net loss attributable to common shareholders

   $ (1,019)      $ (994)  
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Pro forma adjustment to add back premium on repurchase of contingently redeemable convertible preferred stock

            —   

Pro forma stock-based compensation expense attributable to RSU and option awards

     (370)        —   

Pro forma adjustment to reflect non-cash expense related to the donation of Class A common stock to fund Forever by Rivian, Inc.

     (495)        —   
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Pro forma net loss attributable to common shareholders, basic and diluted

   $ (1,883)      $ (994)  
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Denominator

  

 

 

 

  

 

 

 

Weighted average common shares outstanding - basic and diluted

     101         101   

Pro forma adjustment to reflect the conversion of contingently redeemable convertible preferred stock

     420         569   

Pro forma adjustment to reflect the net exercise of Common Stock Warrants prior to IPO

     —         —   

Pro forma adjustment to reflect the donation of Class A common stock to fund Forever by Rivian, Inc.

             
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Pro forma weighted average shares used in computing pro forma net loss per share attributable to common shareholders, basic and diluted

     529         678   
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Pro forma net loss per share attributable to common shareholders, basic and diluted

   $ (3.56)      $ (1.47)  
  

 

 

    

 

 

 
                                                                                
     As of June 30, 2021  
     Actual      Pro Forma(1)      Pro Forma
as Adjusted(2)(3)
 
     (in millions)  

Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:

  

 

 

 

  

 

 

 

  

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents(4)

   $     3,658       $ 7,383     $ 15,305 

Working capital(5)

     3,040       6,765         14,687   

Total assets

     6,491       10,216         18,138   

Total liabilities

     972       2,197         2,197   

Contingently redeemable convertible preferred stock

     7,894       —         —   

Additional paid-in capital

     305       11,068         19,485   

Accumulated deficit

     (2,680)        (3,050)        (3,545)  

Total stockholders’ deficit

     (2,375)        8,019         15,941   

 

(1)

The pro forma balance sheet column in the table above has been computed to give effect to:

  (i)

the filing and effectiveness of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, which will occur immediately prior to the completion of this offering;

  (ii)

the reclassification of 101,473,375 outstanding shares of common stock into an equal number of shares of our Class A common stock, which will occur immediately prior to the completion of this offering, and the subsequent exchange of an aggregate of 7,825,000 shares of Class A common stock held by an affiliate of Robert J. Scaringe, our Founder and Chief Executive Officer, into an equivalent number of shares of Class B common stock in connection with the completion of this offering;


 

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  (iii)

the automatic conversion of all outstanding shares of our contingently redeemable convertible preferred stock into an aggregate of 575,864,510 shares of our Class A common stock, which will occur immediately prior to the completion of this offering;

  (iv)

the automatic conversion of $2.5 billion in aggregate principal amount of our 2021 Convertible Notes into an aggregate of 49,431,537 shares of our Class A common stock immediately prior to the completion of this offering, after applying the applicable discount of 15% to the assumed initial public offering price of $59.50 per share (which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus);

  (v)

the net exercise of 250,000 outstanding warrants into 226,230 shares of our Class A common stock immediately prior to the completion of this offering, assuming an initial public offering price of $59.50 per share (which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus);

  (vi)

the issuance of $1.25 billion aggregate principal amount of senior secured floating rate notes due 2026, net of a $25 million original issue discount; and

  (vii)

$370 million of stock-based compensation expense to be recognized for the cumulative effect of RSUs and options outstanding as of the date of this prospectus that will have satisfied the service-based and performance-based vesting conditions in connection with this offering.

(2)

The pro forma as adjusted column reflects: (i) the pro forma adjustments set forth in footnote (1) above, (ii) the issuance of 8,321,072 shares of our Class A common stock to Forever by Rivian, Inc. in connection with the completion of this offering and an associated non-cash charge of approximately $495 million, estimated based on the initial public offering price of $59.50 per share, and (iii) the sale of 135,000,000 shares of our Class A common stock in this offering at an assumed initial public offering price of $59.50 per share (which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus), after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

(3)

The pro forma as adjusted information discussed above is illustrative only and will depend on the actual initial public offering price and other terms of this offering determined at pricing. Each $1.00 increase or decrease in the assumed initial public offering price per share of $59.50 (which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus) would increase or decrease, as applicable, the pro forma as adjusted amount of each of cash and cash equivalents, total assets, and total stockholders’ deficit by approximately $133 million, assuming that the number of shares of Class A common stock offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus remains the same and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. Similarly, each 1,000,000 share increase or decrease in the number of shares of Class A common stock offered in this offering would increase or decrease, as applicable, the pro forma as adjusted amount of each of cash and cash equivalents, total assets, additional paid-in capital and total stockholders’ deficit by $59 million, assuming that the initial public offering price per share remains at $59.50 (which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus), and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

(4)

See “—Recent Developments—Estimated Preliminary Results for the Three Months Ended September 30, 2021” for the preliminary estimate of cash and cash equivalents as of September 30, 2021.

(5)

We define working capital as current assets less current liabilities. See our unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus for further details regarding our current assets and current liabilities.


 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in our Class A common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below, together with all of the other information in this prospectus, before making a decision to invest in our Class A common stock. If any of the risks actually occur, our business, results of operations, financial condition, and prospects could be harmed. In that event, the trading price of our Class A common stock could decline, and you could lose part or all of your investment. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial also may impair our business operations.

Risks Related to Our Business

We are a growth stage company with a history of losses and expect to incur significant expenses and continuing losses for the foreseeable future.

We have incurred net losses since our inception, including net losses of $426 million and $1.0 billion for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2020, respectively. We believe that we will continue to incur operating and net losses in the future while we grow, including following our initial generation of revenues from the sale of our vehicles, which began with the R1T in September 2021, to be followed by the R1S and EDV planned for December 2021, but which may occur later than we expect or not at all. We do not expect to be profitable for the foreseeable future as we invest in our business, build capacity and ramp up operations, and we cannot assure you that we will ever achieve or be able to maintain profitability in the future. Even if we are able to successfully develop our vehicles and attract customers, there can be no assurance that we will be financially successful. For example, as we expand our product portfolio, including the introduction of lower-priced vehicles, and expand internationally, we will need to manage costs effectively to sell those products at our expected margins. Failure to become profitable would materially and adversely affect the value of your investment. If we are ever to achieve profitability, it will be dependent upon the successful development and commercial introduction and acceptance of our consumer vehicles, such as the R1T and R1S, our commercial fleet vehicles, such as the EDV, and our services, which may not occur.

Our limited operating history makes it difficult for us to evaluate our future business prospects.

We are a company with an extremely limited operating history and have not generated material revenue from sales of our vehicles or other products and services to date. As we attempt to transition from research and development activities to production and sales, it is difficult, if not impossible, to forecast our future results, and we have limited insight into trends that may emerge and affect our business. The estimated costs and timelines that we have developed to reach full scale commercial production are subject to inherent risks and uncertainties involved in the transition from a start-up company focused on research and development activities to the large-scale manufacture and sale of vehicles. There can be no assurance that our estimates related to the costs and timing necessary to complete the design and engineering of the R1S, EDV, and our other commercial products, will prove accurate. These are complex processes that may be subject to delays, cost overruns and other unforeseen issues. In addition, we have engaged in limited marketing activities to date, so even if we are able to bring the R1S or other commercial products to market, on time and on budget, there can be no assurance that customers will embrace our products in significant numbers. Market conditions, many of which are outside of our control and subject to change, including general economic conditions, the availability and terms of financing, the impacts and ongoing uncertainties created by the COVID-19 pandemic, fuel and energy prices, regulatory requirements and incentives, competition and the pace and extent of vehicle electrification generally, will impact demand for the R1T, R1S, EDV, and our other commercial products, and ultimately our success.

 

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Our ability to develop and manufacture vehicles of sufficient quality and appeal to customers on schedule and on a large scale is unproven.

Our business depends in large part on our ability to develop, manufacture, market and sell our vehicles. Our initial deliveries for the R1T and R1S were and are, respectively, delayed, and our production ramp is taking longer than originally expected due to a number of reasons. The cascading impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic have impacted our business and operations from facility construction to equipment installation to vehicle component supply.

We released our first consumer vehicle, the R1T, in September 2021 and plan to launch the R1S in December 2021 following the completion of ongoing vehicle validation and all required testing, and, in conjunction with the launch of future commercial products, may need to manufacture our vehicles in increasingly higher volumes than our present production capabilities at our manufacturing facility in Normal, Illinois (the “Normal Factory”). We have no experience as an organization in high volume manufacturing of EVs. The continued development of and the ability to manufacture our vehicles at scale, including the R1T, R1S, and commercial fleet vehicles, such as the EDV, and other commercial products are and will be subject to risks, including with respect to:

 

   

our ability to secure necessary funding;

 

   

our ability to negotiate and execute definitive agreements, and maintain arrangements on reasonable terms, with our various suppliers for hardware, software, or services necessary to engineer or manufacture parts or components of our vehicles;

 

   

securing necessary components, services, or licenses on acceptable terms and in a timely manner;

 

   

delays by us in delivering final component designs to our suppliers;

 

   

our ability to accurately manufacture vehicles within specified design tolerances;

 

   

quality controls, including within our manufacturing operations, that prove to be ineffective or inefficient;

 

   

defects in design and/or manufacture that cause our vehicles not to perform as expected or that require repair, field actions, including product recalls, and design changes;

 

   

delays, disruptions or increased costs in our supply chain, including raw material supplies;

 

   

other delays, backlog in manufacturing and research and development of new models, and cost overruns;

 

   

obtaining required regulatory approvals and certifications;

 

   

compliance with environmental, safety, and similar regulations; and

 

   

our ability to attract, recruit, hire, retain and train skilled employees.

We do not expect to make initial deliveries of the R1S and EDV until December 2021. Our ability to develop, manufacture and obtain required regulatory approvals for vehicles of sufficient quality and appeal to customers on schedule and on a large scale is unproven. Our vehicles may not meet customer expectations and may not be commercially viable.

Historically, automobile customers have expected car manufacturers to periodically introduce new and improved vehicle models. In order to meet these expectations, we may be required to introduce new vehicle models and enhanced versions of existing models. To date, we have limited experience, as a company, designing, testing, manufacturing, marketing, and selling our vehicles and therefore cannot assure you that we will be able to meet customer expectations.

 

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Any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

We expect that a significant portion of our initial revenue will be from one customer that is an affiliate of one of our principal stockholders. If we are unable to maintain this relationship, or if this customer purchases significantly fewer vehicles than we currently anticipate or none at all, our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could be materially and adversely affected.

To date, we have generated minimal revenue from the initial sales of our R1T vehicles and have not generated any revenue from the sales of our other vehicles. Our future success depends on us commencing commercial sales and attracting a large number of customers for our vehicles. In the near-term, however, we expect that a significant portion of our revenue will be from Amazon Logistics, Inc. (“Logistics”). Amazon is the parent company of both Logistics and Amazon.com NV Investment Holdings LLC (“NV Holdings”), which holds shares of our capital stock representing 19.8% of our voting power as of September 30, 2021, after giving effect to the Transactions but prior to the issuance of Class A common stock in this offering.

In February 2019, we entered into a commercial letter agreement with Amazon, and in September 2019, we entered into a related framework agreement with Logistics. We refer to these agreements, together with any work orders, purchase orders, related agreements and amendments thereunder or thereto, collectively, as the “EDV Agreement.” Under the EDV Agreement, we and Logistics have agreed to collaborate to design, develop, manufacture, and supply EDVs and/or certain component parts and related services for use in Amazon’s last mile delivery operations. We also have agreed under the EDV Agreement that until the fourth anniversary of when Logistics first receives EDVs (the “Initial Delivery Date”), whether or not Logistics purchases any EDVs from us, we will exclusively provide last mile delivery vehicles to Amazon, and from the fourth anniversary to the sixth anniversary of the Initial Delivery Date, Amazon will have a right of first refusal to purchase last mile delivery vehicles that we produce. Under the EDV Agreement, Logistics has the right to decide how many EDVs to purchase, which may be fewer than expected, or delay the delivery of such purchases. Certain factors outside of our control may influence Logistics’ decision as to the number of EDVs to purchase from us and the timing of delivery, including Logistics’ ability to deploy a charging infrastructure across their delivery stations.

While the EDV Agreement provides that we will be reimbursed for certain development costs, it does not include any minimum purchase requirements or otherwise restrict Logistics from developing vehicles or collaborating with, or purchasing similar vehicles from, third parties. The EDV Agreement may be terminated by either party with or without cause, subject to compliance with certain termination provisions. If we fail to adequately perform under the EDV Agreement, if fewer EDVs are purchased than we anticipate, or if either party terminates the EDV Agreement for any reason, our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows could be materially and adversely affected.

The success of our business depends on attracting and retaining a large number of customers. If we are unable to do so, we will not be able to achieve profitability.

Our success depends on attracting a large number of potential customers to purchase our vehicles and the associated services we will provide to our customers. As of October 31, 2021, we had accepted preorders for approximately 55,400 R1Ts and R1Ss in the United States and Canada. Preorders are not commitments to purchase our R1T or R1S and are subject to cancelation by customers. If our existing preorder and prospective customers do not perceive our vehicles and services to be of sufficiently high value and quality, cost competitive and appealing in aesthetics or performance, or if the final production version of the R1S is not sufficiently similar to the drivable design prototypes, we may not be able to retain our current preorder customers or attract new customers, and our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows would suffer as a result. In addition, we may incur

 

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significantly higher and more sustained advertising and promotional expenditures than we have previously incurred to attract customers. Further, our future success will also depend in part on securing additional commercial agreements with businesses and/or fleet operators for our commercial vehicles. To date, we have limited experience selling our EVs and we may not be successful in attracting and retaining a large number of consumer and commercial customers. If, for any of these reasons, we are not able to attract and maintain consumer and commercial customers, our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows would be materially harmed.

We face significant challenges as a new entrant into the automotive industry.

We have a short operating history in the automobile industry, which is continuously evolving. We have no experience as an organization in high volume manufacturing of EVs. We cannot assure you that we will be able to develop efficient, automated, cost-efficient manufacturing capability and processes, and reliable sources of component supplies that will enable us to meet the quality, price, engineering, design and production standards, as well as the production volumes, required to successfully mass produce the R1T, R1S, EDV, and future vehicles.

We also believe that our service offerings, including consumer confidence in our ability to provide and expand our charging solutions, as well as our ability to honor our obligations under our services packages and consumer and commercial subscriptions will be key factors in marketing our vehicles. As a result, consumers will be less likely to purchase our vehicles now if they are not convinced that our business will succeed or that our operations will continue for many years. Similarly, suppliers and other third parties will be less likely to invest time and resources in developing business relationships with us if they are not convinced that our business will succeed.

You should consider our business and prospects in light of the risks and significant challenges we face as a new entrant into our industry. If we fail to adequately address any or all of these risks and challenges, our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows may be materially and adversely affected.

The automotive market is highly competitive, and we may not be successful in competing in this industry.

Both the automobile industry generally, and the EV segment in particular, are highly competitive, and we will be competing for sales with both EV manufacturers and traditional automotive companies. Many of our current and potential competitors may have significantly greater financial, technical, manufacturing, marketing, or other resources than we do and may be able to devote greater resources to the design, development, manufacturing, distribution, promotion, sale and support of their products than we may devote to our products. We expect competition for EVs to intensify due to increased demand and a regulatory push for alternative fuel vehicles, continuing globalization, and consolidation in the worldwide automotive industry. In addition, as fleet operators begin transitioning to EVs on a mass scale, we expect that more competitors will enter the commercial fleet EV market. Under the EDV Agreement, we have granted Amazon certain exclusivity and first refusal rights which will initially restrict our ability to contract with other commercial customers. See “—We expect that a significant portion of our initial revenue will be from one customer that is an affiliate of one of our principal stockholders. If we are unable to maintain this relationship, or if this customer purchases significantly fewer vehicles than we currently anticipate or none at all, our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows could be materially and adversely affected.” In addition, the existence of our commercial relationship with Amazon, coupled with its significant holdings of our securities, may deter Amazon’s competitors or other third parties from contracting with us. Further, as a result of new entrants in the commercial fleet EV market, we may experience increased competition for components and other parts of our vehicles, which may have limited or single-source supply.

 

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Factors affecting competition include product performance and quality, technological innovation, customer experience, brand differentiation, product design, pricing and TCO, and manufacturing scale and efficiency. Increased competition may lead to lower vehicle unit sales and increased inventory, which may result in downward price pressure and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

We may be unable to adequately control the capital expenditures and costs associated with our business and operations.

We have required significant capital to develop and grow our business, including developing our first vehicles to be manufactured at volume, the R1T and R1S, as well as building our brand. We expect to make additional capital expenditures and incur substantial costs as we prepare to commercially launch sales of our vehicles and grow our business, including research and development expenses, raw material procurement costs, sales and distribution expenses as we build our brand and market our vehicles, costs in connection with expanding our charging networks, and general and administrative expenses as we scale our operations, identify and commit resources to investigate new areas of demand and incur costs as a public company. Our ability to become profitable in the future will not only depend on our ability to complete the design and development of our vehicles but also to control our capital expenditures and costs. As we expand our product portfolio, including the introduction of lower-priced vehicles, we will need to manage costs effectively to sell those products at our expected margins. If we are unable to cost efficiently design, manufacture, market, sell and distribute and service our vehicles and provide our services, our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows would be materially and adversely affected.

We could experience cost increases or disruptions in supply of raw materials or other components used in our vehicles.

We incur significant costs related to procuring raw materials required to manufacture and assemble our vehicles. The prices for these raw materials fluctuate depending on factors beyond our control including market conditions and global demand for these materials and could adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows. Further, any delays or disruptions in our supply chain could harm our business. For example, COVID-19, including associated variants, has caused disruptions to and delays in our operations, including shortages and delays in the supply of certain parts, including semiconductors, materials and equipment necessary for the production of our vehicles, and the various internal designs and processes we have adopted in an effort to remedy or mitigate impacts of such disruptions and delays have resulted in higher costs. In addition, our business also depends on the continued supply of battery cells for our vehicles. We are exposed to multiple risks relating to availability and pricing of quality battery cells. These risks include:

 

   

the inability or unwillingness of battery cell manufacturers to build or operate battery cell manufacturing plants to supply the numbers of battery cells (including the applicable chemistries) required to support the growth of the electric or plug-in hybrid vehicle industry as demand for such cells increases;

 

   

disruption in the supply of battery cells due to quality issues or recalls by the battery cell manufacturers; and

 

   

an increase in the cost, or decrease in the available supply of raw materials used in battery cells, such as lithium, nickel, and cobalt.

Furthermore, currency fluctuations, tariffs or shortages in petroleum and other economic or political conditions may result in significant increases in freight charges and raw material costs. Substantial increases in the prices for our raw materials or components would increase our operating costs and

 

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could reduce our margins. In addition, a growth in popularity of EVs without a significant expansion in battery cell production capacity could result in shortages which would result in increased materials costs to us, and would impact our projected manufacturing and delivery timelines, and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

We depend upon third parties to manufacture and to supply key semiconductor chip components necessary for our vehicles. We do not have long-term agreements with all of our semiconductor chip manufacturers and suppliers, and if these manufacturers or suppliers become unwilling or unable to provide an adequate supply of semiconductor chips, with respect to which there is a global shortage, we would not be able to find alternative sources in a timely manner and our business would be adversely impacted.

Semiconductor chips are a vital input component to the electrical architecture of our consumer and commercial vehicles, controlling wide aspects of the vehicles’ operations. Many of the key semiconductor chips used in our vehicles come from limited or single sources of supply, and therefore a disruption with any one manufacturer or supplier in our supply chain would have an adverse effect on our ability to effectively manufacture and timely deliver our vehicles. Due to our reliance on these semiconductor chips, we are subject to the risk of shortages and long lead times in their supply. We are still in the process of identifying alternative manufacturers for semiconductor chips. We have in the past experienced, and may in the future experience, semiconductor chip shortages, and the availability and cost of these components would be difficult to predict. For example, our manufacturers may experience temporary or permanent disruptions in their manufacturing operations due to equipment breakdowns, labor strikes or shortages, natural disasters, component or material shortages, cost increases, acquisitions, insolvency, changes in legal or regulatory requirements, or other similar problems.

In particular, increased demand for semiconductor chips in 2020, due in part to the COVID-19 pandemic and increased demand for consumer electronics that use these chips, has resulted in a severe global shortage of chips in 2021. As a result, our ability to source semiconductor chips used in our vehicles has been adversely affected. This shortage may result in increased chip delivery lead times, delays in the production of our vehicles, and increased costs to source available semiconductor chips. To the extent this semiconductor chip shortage continues, and we are unable to mitigate the effects of this shortage, our ability to deliver sufficient quantities of our vehicles to fulfill our preorders and to support our growth through sales to new customers would be adversely affected. In addition, we may be required to incur additional costs and expenses in managing ongoing chip shortages, including additional research and development expenses, engineering design and development costs in the event that new suppliers must be onboarded on an expedited basis. Further, ongoing delays in production and shipment of vehicles due to a continuing shortage of semiconductor chips may harm our reputation and discourage additional preorders and vehicle sales, and otherwise materially and adversely affect our business and operations.

We may experience significant delays in the design, manufacture, financing, regulatory approval, launch and delivery of our vehicles, which could harm our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

Our future business depends in large part on our ability to execute on our plans to develop, manufacture, market and sell our vehicles. Our initial deliveries for the R1T and R1S were and are, respectively, delayed, and our production ramp is taking longer than originally expected due to a number of reasons. Although we have not experienced any material increase in cancellations of customer pre-orders to date, any further delay in the financing, design, manufacture, regulatory approval, launch or delivery of our vehicles could materially damage our brand, business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows, and could cause liquidity constraints. Vehicle manufacturers often experience delays in the design, manufacture, and commercial release of new products. To the extent we

 

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delay the launch of our vehicles, our growth prospects could be adversely affected as we may fail to establish or grow our market share. Furthermore, we rely on third-party suppliers for the provision and development of the key components and materials used in our vehicles. To the extent our suppliers experience any delays in providing us with or developing necessary components we could experience delays in delivering on our timelines. See “—We could experience cost increases or disruptions in supply of raw materials or other components used in our vehicles.”

We have no experience to date in high volume manufacturing of our vehicles. Even if we are successful in developing our high-volume manufacturing capability and processes and in reliably sourcing our component supply, we cannot assure that we will be able to do so in a manner that avoids significant delays and cost overruns, including as a result of factors beyond our control such as problems with suppliers and vendors, or in time to meet our vehicle commercialization schedules or in satisfaction of the requirements of customers.

Furthermore, prior to mass production of the R1T, R1S, and our commercial products, we will need the vehicles to be fully designed and engineered and be approved for sale according to differing requirements, including but not limited to regulatory requirements, in the different geographies we intend to launch our vehicles. If we encounter delays in any of these matters, we may consequently delay our deliveries of our vehicles and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

We are highly dependent on the services and reputation of Robert J. Scaringe, our Founder and Chief Executive Officer.

We are highly dependent on the services and reputation of Robert J. Scaringe, our Founder and Chief Executive Officer. Dr. Scaringe is a significant influence on and driver of our business plan. If Dr. Scaringe were to discontinue his service due to death, disability or any other reason, or if his reputation is adversely impacted by personal actions or omissions or other events within or outside his control, we would be significantly disadvantaged.

In addition, we expect that Dr. Scaringe will serve on the board of directors of Forever by Rivian, Inc., a 501(c)(4) social welfare organization, and the Rivian Foundation, a 501(c)(3) non-operating private foundation. See “Business—Forever” for additional information. His position as a director of the Rivian Foundation and Forever by Rivian, Inc. may give rise to fiduciary or other duties in conflict with the duties he owes to us. Furthermore, Dr. Scaringe may have significant duties, and may devote a substantial amount of time serving, as a member of the board of directors of the Rivian Foundation and Forever by Rivian, Inc., which may compete with his ability to devote a sufficient amount of attention toward his obligations to us, or to day-to-day activities of our business.

We are dependent on our existing suppliers, a significant number of which are single or limited source suppliers, and are also dependent on our ability to source suppliers, for our critical components, and to complete the building out of our supply chain, while effectively managing the risks due to such relationships.

Our success will be dependent upon our ability to enter into supplier agreements and maintain our relationships with existing suppliers who are critical and necessary to the output and production of our vehicles. The supply agreements we have, and may enter into with suppliers in the future, may have provisions where such agreements can be terminated in various circumstances, including potentially without cause. If our suppliers become unable to provide, or experience delays in providing, components, or if the supply agreements we have in place are terminated, it may be difficult to find replacement components. Additionally, our products contain thousands of parts that we purchase from

 

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hundreds of mostly single- or limited-source suppliers, for which no immediate or readily available alternative supplier exists. While we believe that we would be able to establish alternate supply relationships and can obtain or engineer replacement components for our single source components, we may be unable to do so in the short term (or at all) at prices or quality levels that are acceptable to us. Further, any such alternative suppliers may be located a long distance from our single manufacturing facility in Normal, Illinois, which may lead to increased costs or delays. In addition, as we evaluate opportunities and take steps to insource certain components and parts, supply arrangements with current or future suppliers (with respect to other components and parts offered by such suppliers) may be available on less favorable terms or not at all. Changes in business or macroeconomic conditions, governmental regulations and other factors beyond our control or that we do not presently anticipate could affect our ability to receive components from our suppliers. The unavailability of any component or supplier could result in production delays, idle manufacturing facilities, product design changes and loss of access to important technology and tools for producing and supporting our products and services.

In addition, if our suppliers experience substantial financial difficulties, cease operations, or otherwise face business disruptions, we would be required to take measures to ensure components and materials remain available. Any disruption could affect our ability to deliver vehicles and could increase our costs and negatively affect our liquidity and financial performance.

Also, if a supplied vehicle component becomes the subject of a field action, including a product recall, we would be required to find an alternative component, which could increase our costs and cause vehicle production delays. Additionally, we may become subject to costly litigation surrounding the component.

If we do not enter into long-term supply agreements with guaranteed pricing for our parts or components, we may be exposed to fluctuations in prices of components, materials and equipment. Agreements for the purchase of battery cells contain or are likely to contain pricing provisions that are subject to adjustments based on changes in market prices of key commodities. Substantial increases in the prices for such components, materials and equipment would increase our operating costs and could reduce our margins if we cannot recoup the increased costs. Any attempts to increase the announced or expected prices of our vehicles in response to increased costs could be viewed negatively by our potential customers and could adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

Our long-term results depend upon our ability to successfully introduce and market new products and services, which may expose us to new and increased challenges and risks.

Our growth strategy depends, in part, on our ability to successfully introduce and market new products and services, such as financing, insurance, vehicle services, charging solutions, vehicle resale, as well as membership and software services for consumer customers and fleet management for commercial customers (see “Business—Services”). If we experience significant future growth, we may be required not only to make additional investments in our ecosystem and workforce, but also to expand our distribution infrastructure and customer support or expand our relationships with various partners and other third parties with whom we do business.

As we introduce new products and services or refine, improve or upgrade versions of existing products and services, we cannot predict the level of market acceptance or the amount of market share these products or services will achieve, if any. We cannot assure you that we will not experience material delays in the introduction of new products and services in the future. Consistent with our strategy of offering new products and product refinements, we expect to continue to use a substantial amount of capital for product refinement, research and development, and sales and marketing. We will need

 

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additional capital for product development and refinement, and this capital may not be available on terms favorable to us, if at all, which could adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

To date, we have no sustained experience servicing or repairing our vehicles in the field or providing financing or insurance services for our vehicles. Such lack of sustained experience as well as our lack of significant, relevant user data relating to these new offerings may make it more difficult for us to anticipate user demand and preferences. We may misjudge user demand and the potential profitability of a new product or service.

If we are unable to successfully introduce, integrate, and market new products and services, our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows may be materially and adversely affected.

If we fail to scale our business operations or otherwise manage our future growth effectively as we attempt to rapidly grow our company, we may not be able to produce, market, service and sell (or lease) our vehicles successfully.

We intend to expand our operations significantly, which will require hiring, retaining and training new personnel, controlling expenses, establishing facilities and experience centers, and implementing administrative infrastructure, systems, and processes. For example, we currently plan to expand our manufacturing and supply chain operations into international markets. Our future operating results depend to a large extent on our ability to manage this expansion and growth successfully. Risks that we face in undertaking this expansion include, among others:

 

   

attracting and hiring skilled and qualified personnel to support our expanded operations at existing facilities or operations at any facilities we may construct or acquire in the future;

 

   

managing a larger organization with a great number of employees in different divisions and geographies;

 

   

training and integrating new employees into our operations to meet the growing demands of our business;

 

   

controlling expenses and investments in anticipation of expanded operations;

 

   

establishing or expanding design, manufacturing, sales, charging and service facilities;

 

   

managing regulatory requirements and permits, labor issues and controlling costs in connection with the construction of additional facilities or the expansion of existing facilities;

 

   

implementing and enhancing administrative infrastructure, systems and processes; and

 

   

addressing any new markets and potentially unforeseen challenges as they arise.

Furthermore, we have no experience to date in high volume manufacturing of our vehicles and we cannot assure that we will be able to develop efficient, automated, low-cost manufacturing capabilities and processes, and reliable sources of component supply, that will enable us to meet the quality, price, engineering, design and production standards, as well as the production volumes, required to successfully market our vehicles as our operations expand. Any failure to effectively manage our growth could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

 

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We may not succeed in establishing, maintaining and strengthening our brand, which would materially and adversely affect customer acceptance of our vehicles and components and our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

Our business and prospects heavily depend on our ability to develop, maintain, and strengthen the Rivian brand. If we are not able to establish, maintain and strengthen our brand, we may lose the opportunity to build a critical mass of customers. Our ability to develop, maintain and strengthen the Rivian brand will depend heavily on our ability to provide high quality EVs and engage with our customers as intended, as well as the success of our customer development and marketing efforts. The automobile industry is intensely competitive, and we may not be successful in building, maintaining, and strengthening our brand. Many of our current and potential competitors, particularly automobile manufacturers headquartered in the United States, Japan, the European Union (“EU”) and China, have greater name recognition, broader customer relationships and substantially greater marketing resources than we do. If we do not develop and maintain a strong brand, our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows could be materially and adversely impacted.

In addition, if incidents occur or are perceived to have occurred, whether or not such incidents are our fault, we could be subject to adverse publicity. In particular, given the popularity of social media, any negative publicity, whether true or not, could quickly proliferate and harm consumer perceptions and confidence in the Rivian brand. Furthermore, there is the risk of potential adverse publicity related to our manufacturing or other partners whether or not such publicity related to their collaboration with us. Our ability to successfully position our brand could also be adversely affected by perceptions about the quality of our competitors’ vehicles.

In addition, from time to time, our vehicles may be evaluated and reviewed by third parties. Any negative reviews or reviews which compare us unfavorably to competitors could adversely affect consumer perception about our vehicles.

Our passion and focus on delivering a high-quality and engaging Rivian experience may not maximize short-term financial results, which may yield results that conflict with the market’s expectations and could result in our stock price being negatively affected.

We are passionate about continually enhancing the Rivian experience with a focus on driving long-term customer engagement through innovative, technologically advanced vehicles and services, which may not necessarily maximize short-term financial results. We frequently make business decisions that may reduce our short-term financial results if we believe that the decisions are consistent with our goals to improve the Rivian experience, which we believe will improve our financial results over the long-term. In the near-term, we will focus significant resources on research and development and sales and marketing to deliver the Rivian experience to our customers, which could impact our short-term financial results. These decisions may not be consistent with the short-term expectations of our stockholders and may not produce the long-term benefits that we expect, in which case our customer growth, and our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows could be harmed.

Our distribution model is different from the predominant current distribution model for automobile manufacturers, which subjects us to substantial risk and makes evaluating our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows difficult.

We plan to sell, finance, and lease our vehicles directly to customers rather than through franchised dealerships, primarily through Rivian customer experience and services centers, subject to obtaining applicable dealer licenses and equivalent permits in such jurisdictions, and digital customer experiences via our online platform. This model of vehicle distribution is relatively new, different from the predominant current distribution model for automobile manufacturers and, with limited exceptions,

 

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unproven, which subjects us to substantial risk. We have no experience in selling or leasing vehicles and therefore this model may require significant expenditures and provide for slower expansion than the traditional dealer franchise system. For example, we will not be able to utilize long established sales channels developed through a franchise system to increase sales volume. Moreover, we will be competing with companies with well established distribution channels. Our success will depend in large part on our ability to effectively develop our own sales channels and marketing strategies.

Implementing our direct sales and leasing model is subject to numerous significant challenges, including obtaining permits and approvals from government authorities, and we may not be successful in addressing these challenges. Further, there are substantial automotive franchise laws in place in many geographies around the world and we might be exposed to significant franchise dealer litigation risks.

If our direct sales and leasing model does not develop as expected or develops more slowly than expected, we may be required to modify or abandon our sales and leasing model, which could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

We rely on complex machinery for our operations, and production involves a significant degree of risk and uncertainty in terms of operational performance, safety, security, and costs.

We rely heavily on complex machinery for our operations and our production will involve a significant degree of uncertainty and risk in terms of operational performance, safety, security, and costs. Our manufacturing plant consists of large-scale machinery combining many components. The manufacturing plant components are likely to suffer unexpected malfunctions from time to time and will depend on repairs and spare parts to resume operations, which may not be available when needed. Unexpected malfunctions of the manufacturing plant components may significantly affect operational efficiency. Operational performance and costs can be difficult to predict and are often influenced by factors outside of our control, such as, but not limited to, scarcity of natural resources, environmental hazards and remediation, costs associated with decommissioning of machines, labor disputes and strikes, difficulty or delays in obtaining governmental permits, damages or defects in electronic systems, industrial accidents, pandemics, fire, seismic activity, and natural disasters. For example, in October 2021 we experienced a small fire in connection with a thermal runaway event in our battery module line at the Normal Factory. The event was quickly contained, resulted in no injuries or equipment damage, and did not result in production delays as the battery module line was back in service the following morning. We cannot guarantee that similar events will not occur in the future, or that we will be able to contain such events without damage or delay. Should operational risks materialize, it may result in the personal injury to or death of workers, the loss of production equipment, damage to manufacturing facilities, products, supplies, tools and materials, monetary losses, delays and unanticipated fluctuations in production, environmental damage, administrative fines, increased insurance costs, and potential legal liabilities, all which could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows. Although we generally carry insurance to cover such operational risks, we cannot be certain that our insurance coverage will be sufficient to cover potential costs and liabilities arising therefrom. A loss that is uninsured or exceeds policy limits may require us to pay substantial amounts, which could adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

Our vehicles rely on software and hardware that is highly technical, and if these systems contain errors, bugs, vulnerabilities, or design defects, or if we are unsuccessful in addressing or mitigating technical limitations in our systems, our business could be adversely affected.

Our vehicles rely on software and hardware that is highly technical and complex and may require modification and updates over the life of the vehicles. In addition, our vehicles depend on the ability of such software and hardware to store, retrieve, process and manage immense amounts of data. Our

 

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software and hardware may contain errors, bugs, vulnerabilities or design defects, and our systems are subject to certain technical limitations that may compromise our ability to meet our objectives. Some errors, bugs, vulnerabilities, or design defects inherently may be difficult to detect and may only be discovered after the code has been released for external or internal use. Although we will attempt to remedy any issues we observe in our vehicles effectively and rapidly, such efforts may not be timely, may hamper production or may not be to the satisfaction of our customers.

Additionally, if we deploy updates to the software (whether to address issues, deliver new features or make desired modifications) and our over-the-air update procedures fail to properly update the software or otherwise have unintended consequences to the software, the software within our customers’ vehicles will be subject to vulnerabilities or unintended consequences resulting from such failure of the over-the-air update until properly addressed.

If we are unable to prevent or effectively remedy errors, bugs, vulnerabilities or defects in our software and hardware, or fail to deploy updates to our software properly, we would suffer damage to our reputation, loss of customers, loss of revenue or liability for damages, any of which could adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

There are complex software and technology systems that need to be developed by us and in coordination with vendors and suppliers to reach production for our vehicles, and there can be no assurance such systems will be successfully developed or integrated.

Our vehicles and operations will use a substantial amount of complex third-party and in-house software and hardware. The development and integration of such advanced technologies are inherently complex, and we will need to coordinate with our vendors and suppliers to reach production for our vehicles. Defects and errors may be revealed over time and our control over the performance of third-party services and systems may be limited. Thus, our potential inability to develop and integrate the necessary software and technology systems may harm our competitive position.

We rely on third-party suppliers to develop a number of emerging technologies for use in our products, including battery technology and the use of different battery cell chemistries. Certain of these technologies and chemistries are not today, and may not ever be, commercially viable. There can be no assurances that our suppliers will be able to meet the technological requirements, production timing, and volume requirements to support our business plan. Furthermore, if we experience delays by our third-party suppliers, we could experience delays in delivering on our timelines. In addition, the technology may not comply with the cost, performance useful life and warranty characteristics we anticipate in our business plan. As a result, our business plan could be significantly impacted and we may incur significant liabilities under warranty claims which could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

We may not realize the benefits of our charging networks, including Rivian Adventure Network Direct Current fast charging sites and Rivian Waypoints.

We continue to deploy our RAN DC fast charging sites (“DCFCs”) and Rivian Waypoints, which are networks of charging stations in the United States designed to provide charging capability to owners of our vehicles. We have initially focused our efforts on strategically deploying our charging stations in those regions with the highest concentration of customer preorders, major interstates as well as targeted destination areas. We intend to expand the charging networks throughout the United States and eventually in other countries, but we may be unable to do so due to a number of factors, including the inability to secure, or delays in securing, suitable locations and permits, problems negotiating leases with landowners, difficulties in interfacing with the infrastructures of various utility companies and greater than expected costs and difficulties of installing, maintaining, and operating the networks. Although the

 

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RAN DCFCs and Rivian Waypoints are intended to address customer concerns regarding long distance travel, as well as enable our customers’ adventures through the strategic placement of charging stations in destination areas, these networks may not result in increased preorders or sales of our vehicles. If we do not realize the benefits of our charging networks, our brand and business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows could be materially and adversely affected.

If there is inadequate access to charging stations, our business will be materially and adversely affected.

Demand for our vehicles will depend in part upon the availability of a charging infrastructure. We market our ability to provide our customers with comprehensive charging solutions, including our networks of charging stations, the RAN DCFCs and Rivian Waypoints, as well as the installation of home chargers for users where practicable, and provide other solutions including charging through publicly accessible charging infrastructure. We have very limited experience in the actual provision of our charging solutions to customers and providing these services is subject to challenges, which include:

 

   

the logistics, including any delays or disruptions, of rolling out and supporting our RAN DCFCs and Rivian Waypoints and teams in appropriate areas;

 

   

successful integration with existing third-party charging networks;

 

   

inadequate capacity or over capacity in certain areas, security risks or risk of damage to vehicles, charging equipment or real or personal property;

 

   

access to sufficient charging infrastructure;

 

   

obtaining any required permits, land use rights and filings;

 

   

the potential for lack of customer acceptance of our charging solutions; and

 

   

the risk that government support for EV and alternative fuel solutions and infrastructure may not continue.

While the prevalence of charging stations generally has been increasing, charging station locations are significantly less widespread than gas stations. Some potential customers may choose not to purchase our vehicles because of the lack of a more widespread charging infrastructure. Although we intend to expand our charging networks throughout the United States and eventually in other countries to address customer concerns, we may also be unable to expand RAN DCFCs and/or Rivian Waypoints as fast as we intend or as the public expects, or to place the charging stations in places our customers believe to be optimal. Further, to provide our customers with access to sufficient charging infrastructure, we will rely on the availability of, and successful integration of our vehicles with, third-party charging networks. Any failure of third-party charging networks to meet customer expectations or needs, including quality of experience, could impact the demand for EVs, including ours. For example, where charging bays exist, the number of vehicles could oversaturate the available charging bays, leading to increased wait times and dissatisfaction for customers. In addition, given our limited experience in providing charging solutions, there could be unanticipated challenges, which may hinder our ability to provide our solutions or make the provision of our solutions costlier than anticipated. To the extent we are unable to meet user expectations or experience difficulties in providing our charging solutions, our reputation and business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows may be materially and adversely affected.

Our vehicles will make use of lithium-ion battery cells, which, if not appropriately managed and controlled, have been observed to catch fire or vent smoke and flame.

The battery packs within our vehicles will make use of lithium-ion cells. If not properly managed or subject to environmental stresses, lithium-ion cells can rapidly release the energy they contain by venting

 

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smoke and flames in a manner that can ignite nearby materials as well as other lithium-ion cells. While the battery pack is designed to contain any single cell’s release of energy without spreading to neighboring cells, a field or testing failure of battery packs in our vehicles could occur, which could result in bodily injury or death and could subject us to lawsuits, field actions (including product recalls), or redesign efforts, all of which would be time consuming and expensive and could harm our brand image. Also, negative public perceptions regarding the suitability of lithium-ion cells for automotive applications, the social and environmental impacts of mineral mining or procurement associated with the constituents of lithium-ion cells, or any future incident involving lithium-ion cells, such as a vehicle or other fire, could materially and adversely affect our reputation and business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

We may not be able to accurately estimate the supply and demand for our vehicles, which could result in a variety of inefficiencies in our business and hinder our ability to generate revenue and profits. If we fail to accurately predict our manufacturing requirements, we could incur additional costs or experience delays.

It is difficult to predict our future revenues and appropriately budget for our expenses, and we may have limited insight into trends that may emerge and affect our business. We will be required to provide forecasts of our demand to our suppliers several months prior to the scheduled delivery of products to our prospective customers. Currently, there is no historical basis for making judgments on the demand for our vehicles or our ability to develop, manufacture, and deliver vehicles, or our results of operations in the future. If we overestimate our requirements, our suppliers may have excess inventory, which indirectly would increase our costs. If we underestimate our requirements, our suppliers may have inadequate inventory, which could interrupt manufacturing of our products and result in delays in shipments and revenues. In addition, lead times for materials and components that our suppliers order may vary significantly and depend on factors such as the specific supplier, contract terms and demand for each component at a given time. If we fail to order sufficient quantities of product components in a timely manner, the delivery of vehicles to our customers could be delayed, which would harm our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

As the scale of our vehicle production increases, we will also need to accurately forecast, purchase, warehouse, and transport components at high volumes to our manufacturing facility. If we are unable to accurately match the timing and quantities of component purchases to our actual needs or successfully implement automation, inventory management and other systems to accommodate the increased complexity in our supply chain and parts management, we may incur unexpected production disruption, storage, transportation, and write-off costs, which may harm our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

We have minimal experience servicing and repairing our vehicles. If we or our partners are unable to adequately service our vehicles, our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows may be materially and adversely affected.

We have minimal experience servicing and repairing our vehicles. Servicing EVs is different than servicing vehicles with internal combustion engines and requires specialized skills, including high voltage training and servicing techniques. Although we are planning to internalize most aspects of vehicle service over time, initially we plan to partner with third parties to enable nationwide coverage for roadside and off-road assistance and collision repair needs. There can be no assurance that we will be able to enter into an acceptable arrangement with any such third-party providers. Although such servicing partners may have experience in servicing other vehicles, they will initially have limited experience in servicing our vehicles. There can be no assurance that our service arrangements will adequately address the service requirements of our customers to their satisfaction, or that we and our servicing partners will have sufficient resources, experience, or inventory to meet these service requirements in a timely manner as the volume of EVs we deliver increases.

 

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In addition, a number of states currently impose limitations on the ability of manufacturers to directly service vehicles. The application of these state laws to our operations would hinder or impede our ability to provide services for our vehicles from a location in every state. As a result, if we are unable to roll out and establish a widespread service network that complies with applicable laws, customer satisfaction could be adversely affected, which in turn could materially and adversely affect our reputation and thus our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

As we continue to grow, additional pressure may be placed on our customer support team or partners, and we may be unable to respond quickly enough to accommodate short-term increases in customer demand for technical support. Customer behavior and usage may result in higher than expected maintenance and repair costs, which may negatively affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows. We also may be unable to modify the future scope and delivery of our technical support to compete with changes in the technical support provided by our competitors. Increased customer demand for support, without corresponding revenue, could increase costs and negatively affect our results of operations. If we are unable to successfully address the service requirements of our customers or establish a market perception that we do not maintain high-quality support, we may be subject to claims from our customers, including loss of revenue or damages, and our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows may be materially and adversely affected.

Preorders for our vehicles are cancellable and fully refundable.

Deliveries of the R1T began in September of 2021 and deliveries of the R1S are not expected to begin until December 2021, and may occur later or not at all. As a result, we offer waitlist preorders for consumers with a cancellable and fully refundable deposit of $1,000. Deposits paid to preorder the R1T and R1S are cancellable by the customer until the customer enters into a lease or purchase agreement. Because all of our preorders are cancellable, it is possible that a significant number of customers who submitted preorders for our vehicles may not purchase vehicles.

The potentially long wait from the time a preorder is made until the time the vehicle is delivered, and any delays beyond expected wait times, could also impact consumer decisions on whether to ultimately make a purchase. Any cancellations could harm our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

The automotive industry and its technology are rapidly evolving and may be subject to unforeseen changes which could adversely affect the demand for our vehicles or increase our operating costs.

We may be unable to keep up with changes in EV technology or alternatives to electricity as a fuel source and, as a result, our competitiveness may suffer. Developments in alternative technologies, such as advanced diesel, hydrogen, ethanol, fuel cells, or compressed natural gas, or improvements in the fuel economy of the ICE or the cost of gasoline, may materially and adversely affect our business and prospects in ways we do not currently anticipate. Existing and other battery cell technologies, fuels or sources of energy may emerge as customers’ preferred alternative to our vehicles. Any failure by us to develop new or enhanced technologies or processes, or to react to changes in existing technologies, could materially delay our development and introduction of new and enhanced alternative fuel and EVs, which could result in the loss of competitiveness of our vehicles, decreased revenue and a loss of market share to competitors. Our research and development efforts may not be sufficient to adapt to changes in alternative fuel and electric vehicle technology. As technologies change, we plan to upgrade or adapt our vehicles with the latest technology. However, our vehicles may not compete effectively with alternative systems if we are not able to source and integrate the latest technology into our vehicles. Additionally, the introduction and integration of new technologies into our vehicles may increase our costs and capital expenditures required for the production and manufacture of our vehicles and, if we are unable to cost

 

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efficiently implement such technologies or adjust our manufacturing operations, our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows would be materially and adversely affected.

We will be subject to risks associated with autonomous driving technology.

Our vehicles are being designed with connectivity for an autonomous hardware suite and will offer some autonomous functionality. Autonomous driving technologies are subject to risks and there have been accidents and fatalities associated with such technologies. The safety of such technologies depends in part on driver interactions, and drivers may not be accustomed to using or adapting to such technologies. To the extent accidents associated with our autonomous driving systems occur, we could be subject to liability, negative publicity, government scrutiny, and further regulation. Moreover, any incidents related to autonomous driving systems of our competitors could adversely affect the perceived safety and adoption of our vehicles and autonomous driving technology more broadly. Any of the foregoing could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

Autonomous driving technology is also subject to considerable regulatory uncertainty as the law evolves to catch up with the rapidly evolving nature of the technology itself, all of which are beyond our control. Our vehicles also may not achieve the requisite level of autonomy required for certification and rollout to consumers or satisfy changing regulatory requirements which would require us to redesign, modify or update our autonomous hardware and related software systems.

Our future growth is dependent on the demand for, and upon consumers’ willingness to adopt, EVs.

Our future growth is dependent on the demand for, and upon consumers’ willingness to adopt EVs, and even if EVs become more mainstream, consumers choosing us over other electric vehicle manufacturers. Demand for EVs may be affected by factors directly impacting automobile prices or the cost of purchasing and operating automobiles such as sales and financing incentives, prices of raw materials and parts and components, cost of fuel and governmental regulations, including tariffs, import regulation and other taxes. Volatility in demand may lead to lower vehicle unit sales, which may result in downward price pressure and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

In addition, the demand for our vehicles and services will highly depend upon the adoption by consumers of new energy vehicles in general and EVs in particular. The market for new energy vehicles is still rapidly evolving, characterized by rapidly changing technologies, competitive pricing and competitive factors, evolving government regulation and industry standards, and changing consumer demands and behaviors.

Other factors that may influence the adoption of alternative fuel vehicles, and specifically EVs, include:

 

   

perceptions about electric vehicle quality, safety, design, performance and cost, especially if adverse events or accidents occur that are linked to the quality or safety of EVs, whether or not such vehicles are produced by us or other manufacturers;

 

   

perceptions about vehicle safety in general, in particular safety issues that may be attributed to the use of advanced technology, including electric vehicle systems;

 

   

range anxiety, including the decline of an electric vehicle’s range resulting from deterioration over time in the battery’s ability to hold a charge;

 

   

the availability of new energy vehicles;

 

   

the availability of service and charging stations for EVs;

 

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the costs and challenges of installing home charging equipment, including for multi-family, rental, and densely populated urban housing;

 

   

the environmental consciousness of consumers, and their adoption of EVs;

 

   

the occurrence of negative incidents, or perception that negative incidents have occurred, with respect to our or our competitors’ EVs resulting in adverse publicity and harm to consumer perceptions in EVs generally;

 

   

the higher initial upfront purchase price of EVs, despite lower cost of ongoing operating and maintenance costs, compared to internal combustion engines vehicles;

 

   

perceptions about and the actual cost of alternative fuel;

 

   

regulatory, legislative and political changes; and

 

   

macroeconomic factors.

We will also depend upon the adoption of EVs by operators of commercial vehicle fleets for future growth, and on our ability to produce, sell and service vehicles that meet their needs. The entry of commercial EVs is a relatively new development, particularly in the United States, and is characterized by rapidly changing technologies and evolving government regulation, industry standards and customer views of the merits of using EVs in their businesses. This process has been slow to date. As part of our sales efforts, we must educate fleet managers as to the economical savings during the life of the vehicle and the lower “total cost of ownership” of our vehicles. As such, we believe that operators of commercial vehicle fleets will consider many factors when deciding whether to purchase our commercial EVs (or commercial EVs generally), including the factors set forth above, as well as:

 

   

corporate sustainability initiatives;

 

   

the availability of tax and other governmental incentives to purchase and operate EVs and future regulations requiring increased use of nonpolluting vehicles;

 

   

government regulations and economic incentives promoting fuel efficiency and alternate forms of energy; and

 

   

the quality and availability of service for the vehicle, including the availability of replacement parts.

The demand for EVs depends, in part, on the continuation of current trends resulting from dependence on fossil fuels. Extended periods of low gasoline or other petroleum-based fuel prices could adversely affect demand for our vehicles, which would materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

We believe that much of the present and projected demand for EVs results from concerns about volatility in the cost of gasoline and other petroleum-based fuel, the dependency of the United States on oil from unstable or hostile countries, government regulations and economic incentives promoting fuel efficiency and alternative forms of energy, as well as the belief that climate change results in part from the burning of fossil fuels. If the cost of gasoline and other petroleum-based fuel decreased significantly, the outlook for the long-term supply of oil to the United States improved, the government eliminated or modified our regulations or economic incentives related to fuel efficiency and alternative forms of energy, or if there is a change in the perception that the burning of fossil fuels negatively impacts the environment, the demand for EVs could be reduced, and our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows may be harmed.

Gasoline and other petroleum-based fuel prices have been extremely volatile, and we believe this continuing volatility will persist. Lower gasoline or other petroleum-based fuel prices over extended

 

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periods of time may lower the perception in government and the private sector that cheaper, more readily available energy alternatives should be developed and produced. If gasoline or other petroleum-based fuel prices remain at deflated levels for extended periods of time, the demand for EVs may decrease, which would materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

The unavailability, reduction or elimination of government and economic incentives could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

Any reduction, elimination, or discriminatory application of government subsidies and economic incentives because of policy changes, or the reduced need for such subsidies and incentives due to the perceived success of the electric vehicle or other reasons, may result in the diminished competitiveness of the alternative fuel and electric vehicle industry generally or our vehicles in particular. Additionally, federal, state and local laws may impose additional barriers to electric vehicle adoption, including additional costs. For example, many states have enacted laws imposing additional registration fees for certain hybrid and EVs to support transportation infrastructure, such as highway repairs and improvements, which have traditionally been funded through federal and state gasoline taxes. Any of the foregoing could materially and adversely affect the growth of the alternative fuel automobile markets and our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

While certain tax credits and other incentives for alternative energy production, alternative fuel, and EVs have been available in the past, there is no guarantee these programs will be available in the future. If current tax incentives are not available in the future, our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows could be harmed.

We may not be able to obtain or agree on acceptable terms and conditions for all or a significant portion of the government grants, loans and other incentives, including regulatory credits, for which we may apply or on which we may rely. As a result, our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows may be materially and adversely affected.

We may apply for federal and state grants, loans and tax incentives under government programs designed to stimulate the economy and support the production of alternative fuel, and EVs and related technologies. We anticipate that in the future there will be new opportunities for us to apply for grants, loans and other incentives from the United States, state and foreign governments. Our ability to obtain funds or incentives from government sources is subject to the availability of funds under applicable government programs and approval of our applications to participate in such programs. The application process for these funds and other incentives will likely be highly competitive. We cannot assure you that we will be successful in obtaining any of these additional grants, loans and other incentives. If we are not successful in obtaining any of these additional incentives and we are unable to find alternative sources of funding to meet our planned capital needs, our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows could be materially and adversely affected.

In addition, we earn tradable credits in the operation of our business under various regulations related to zero-emission vehicles (“ZEVs”), greenhouse gas (“GHG”), fuel economy, renewable energy and clean fuel. For example, the federal Corporate Average Fuel Economy (“CAFE”), GHG emissions standards and the state-level ZEV mandates create a credit-trading program to reduce compliance costs for vehicle manufacturers and to allow flexibility for meeting such requirements. These programs allow automakers the flexibility to earn CAFE and ZEV credits by exceeding the standard in a given model year, which credits can either be applied to shortfalls in future years or traded to other automakers. We intend to sell these credits to other regulated entities who can use the credits to comply with emission standards, renewable energy procurement standards and other regulatory requirements. Such regulatory credits

 

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may become more difficult to obtain or decrease in value over time. The future of such programs is uncertain at this time. In 2020, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (“NHTSA”) enacted the Safer Affordable Fuel-Efficient (“SAFE”) Vehicles rule that, among other things, established less stringent fuel economy and GHG standards for model years 2021 through 2026, and sought to strip California of the ability to set its own fuel economy and vehicle emissions standards, which other states could then follow. With the change in Administration, changes to the SAFE Vehicles rule have been proposed, including more stringent standards than under the SAFE Vehicles rule and reinstatement of California’s ability to establish its own standards with other states able to follow California. Final changes are expected by the end of 2021. Delay in the effective reinstatement date of California and state authority, or a failure to increase the stringency of the fuel economy and GHG standards, could eliminate or reduce the value of certain regulatory credits. As a result, uncertainty remains about the future of the federal standards and the value of credits earned under them. In addition, it is possible other states may not adopt California’s existing emission and ZEV requirements, or do so in a way that devalues such credits, and new entrants to the electric vehicle and last-mile-delivery market could drive down relevant compliance credit valuations. While we cannot predict such outcomes at this time, any of the above developments could impede our ability to earn and/or sell such credits and may have a negative impact on our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows in the future.

Vehicle retail sales depend heavily on affordable interest rates and availability of credit for vehicle financing and a substantial increase in interest rates could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

In certain regions, including North America and Europe, financing for new vehicle sales has been available at relatively low interest rates for several years due to, among other things, expansive government monetary policies. If interest rates rise, market rates for new vehicle financing will generally be expected to rise as well, which may make our vehicles less affordable to customers or steer customers to less expensive vehicles that would be less profitable for us, adversely affecting our financial condition and results of operations. Additionally, if consumer interest rates increase substantially or if financial service providers tighten lending standards or restrict their lending to certain classes of credit, customers may not desire or be able to obtain financing to purchase or lease our vehicles. As a result, a substantial increase in customer interest rates or tightening of lending standards could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

We will be subject to risks associated with exchange rate fluctuations, interest rate changes and credit risk.

We intend to operate in numerous markets worldwide and as such will be exposed to risks stemming from fluctuations in currency and interest rates. The exposure to currency risk will be mainly linked to differences in the geographic distribution of our manufacturing and commercial activities, resulting in cash flows from sales being denominated in currencies different from those of purchases or production activities.

We may use various forms of financing to cover future funding requirements for our activities and changes in interest rates can affect our net revenues, finance costs and margins.

In addition, although we may manage risks associated with fluctuations in currency and interest rates through financial hedging instruments, fluctuations in currency or interest rates could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

 

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Insufficient warranty reserves to cover future warranty claims could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

As our vehicles enter production, we will need to maintain warranty reserves to cover warranty-related claims. If our warranty reserves are inadequate to cover future warranty claims on our vehicles, our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows could be materially and adversely affected. We expect to record and adjust warranty reserves based on changes in estimated costs and actual warranty costs. However, as we have only recently begun production of the R1T, we have limited operating experience with our vehicles, and therefore no experience with warranty claims for these vehicles or with estimating warranty reserves. In the future, we may become subject to significant and unexpected warranty expenses. There can be no assurances that then-existing warranty reserves will be sufficient to cover all claims.

Future field actions, including product recalls, could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

Any field action, including a product recall, in the future, whether initiated by us or a supplier, and whether the field action involves our or a competitor’s product, may result in adverse publicity, damage our reputation, and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows. In the future, we or one of our suppliers may, voluntarily or involuntarily, initiate a recall if any of our vehicles or components (including our battery cells) prove to be defective or noncompliant with applicable federal motor vehicle safety standards. Such recalls, whether caused by systems or components engineered or manufactured by us or our suppliers, would involve significant expense, the possibility of lawsuits, and diversion of management’s attention and other resources, which could adversely affect our brand image in our target market and our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

We will become subject to product liability claims, which could harm our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows if we are not able to successfully defend or insure against such claims.

We will become subject to product liability claims, which could harm our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows. The automobile industry experiences an abundance of product liability claims. We face the risk of significant monetary exposure to claims in the event our vehicles do not perform as expected or contain design, manufacturing, or warning defects, and to claims without merit, or in connection with malfunctions resulting in personal injury or death. Our risks in this area are particularly pronounced given the limited field experience of our vehicles and because we are a new entrant into the market. A successful product liability claim against us could require us to pay a substantial monetary award. Moreover, a product liability claim could generate substantial negative publicity about our vehicles and business and inhibit or prevent commercialization of other future vehicle candidates, which would have material adverse effect on our brand, business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows. Any insurance coverage might not be sufficient to cover all potential product liability claims. Any lawsuit seeking significant monetary damages either in excess of our coverage, or outside of our coverage, may have a material adverse effect on our reputation and business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows. We may not be able to secure additional product liability insurance coverage on commercially acceptable terms or at reasonable costs when needed, particularly if we face liability for our products and are forced to make a claim under our policies.

Initially, and for the foreseeable future, we will depend on revenue generated from a limited number of models.

We began making initial deliveries of our first consumer vehicle, the R1T, in September of 2021 and plan to launch the R1S and EDV in December 2021 following the completion of ongoing vehicle validation

 

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and all required testing. As a result, initially, and for the foreseeable future, we will depend on revenue generated from a limited number of models. Historically, automobile customers have come to expect a variety of vehicle models offered in a manufacturer’s fleet and new and improved vehicle models to be introduced frequently. Given that for the foreseeable future our business will depend on a limited number of models, to the extent a particular model is not well-received by the market, our sales volume, business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows could be materially and adversely affected.

We will face risks associated with potential international operations, including unfavorable regulatory, political, currency, tax, and labor conditions, which could harm our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

Our business plan includes operations in international markets, including initial manufacturing and supply activities, and sales, in select markets in Europe, and eventual expansion into other international markets. We will face risks associated with any potential international operations, including possible unfavorable regulatory, political, tax and labor conditions, which could harm our business. We anticipate having international operations and subsidiaries that are subject to the legal, political, regulatory and social requirements and economic conditions in these jurisdictions. Furthermore, conducting and launching operations on an international scale requires close coordination of activities across multiple jurisdictions and time zones and consumes significant management resources. We have no experience to date selling or leasing and servicing our vehicles internationally and such expansion would require us to make significant expenditures, including the hiring of local employees and establishing facilities, in advance of generating any revenue. We will be subject to a number of risks associated with international business activities that may increase our costs, impact our ability to sell or lease our vehicles and require significant management attention. These risks include:

 

   

conforming our vehicles to various international regulatory requirements where our vehicles are sold and serviced, which requirements may change over time;

 

   

expenditures related to foreign lawsuits and liability;

 

   

difficulty in staffing and managing foreign operations;

 

   

difficulties establishing relationships with, or disruption in the supply chain from, international suppliers;

 

   

difficulties attracting customers in new jurisdictions;

 

   

foreign government taxes, regulations and permit requirements, including foreign taxes that we may not be able to offset against taxes imposed upon us in the United States, and foreign tax and other laws limiting our ability to repatriate funds to the United States;

 

   

fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates and interest rates, including risks related to any foreign currency swap or other hedging activities we undertake;

 

   

United States and foreign government trade restrictions, tariffs and price or exchange controls;

 

   

foreign labor laws, regulations and restrictions;

 

   

changes in diplomatic and trade relationships;

 

   

laws and business practices favoring local companies;

 

   

difficulties protecting or procuring intellectual property rights;

 

   

political instability, natural disasters, war or events of terrorism and health epidemics, such as the COVID-19 pandemic; and

 

   

the strength of international economies.

 

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If we fail to successfully address these risks, our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows could be materially harmed.

Our business depends substantially on the efforts of our key employees and qualified personnel, and if they are unable to devote a sufficient amount of time and resources to our business, or if we are unable to attract and retain key employees and hire qualified management, technical, electric vehicle and software engineering personnel, our ability to compete could be harmed.

Our success depends substantially on the continued efforts of our executive officers, key employees, and qualified personnel. We believe the depth and quality of the experience of our management team in the automotive and technology industries generally, and EVs in particular, is key to our ability to be successful. The loss of any of these individuals could have a material adverse effect on our business operations. As we build our brand and becomes more well known, the risk that competitors or other companies may poach our talent increases. The failure to motivate and retain these personnel could seriously harm our business and prospects.

In addition, we expect that certain of our executive officers and directors will serve on the board of directors of, and may be responsible for leading certain operations of, Forever by Rivian, Inc., a 501(c)(4) social welfare organization, and the Rivian Foundation, a 501(c)(3) non-operating private foundation. See “Business—Forever” for additional information. The positions held by these directors and executive officers may give rise to fiduciary or other duties in conflict with the duties they owe to us. Furthermore, such directors and officers may have significant duties to, and may devote a substantial amount of time serving, Forever by Rivian and the Rivian Foundation, and accordingly may limit their ability to devote a sufficient amount of attention toward their obligations to us, or to day-to-day activities of our business.

Our success also depends, in part, on our continuing ability to identify, hire, attract, train and develop other highly qualified personnel. Experienced and highly skilled employees are in high demand and competition for these employees can be intense, and our ability to hire, attract and retain them depends on our ability to provide competitive compensation and benefits. We may not be able to attract, assimilate, develop or retain qualified personnel in the future, and our failure to do so could adversely affect our business, including the execution of our business strategy.

If we cannot maintain our culture as we grow, we could lose the innovation, teamwork, and passion that we believe contribute to our success and our business may be harmed.

We have invested substantial time and resources into building our culture, and we believe it serves as a critical component of our success. As we continue to grow, including geographical expansion, and developing the infrastructure associated with being a public company, we will need to maintain our culture among a larger number of employees, dispersed across various geographic regions. Any failure to preserve our culture could negatively affect our future success, including our ability to retain and recruit personnel and to effectively focus on and pursue our corporate objectives.

Our business may be adversely affected by labor and union activities.

Although none of our employees are currently represented by a labor union, it is common throughout the automobile industry generally for employees to belong to a union, which can result in higher employee costs, operational restrictions and increased risk of disruption to operations. We may also directly and indirectly depend upon other companies with unionized work forces, such as parts suppliers and trucking and freight companies, and work stoppages or strikes organized by such unions could have a material adverse impact on our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

 

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Our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows may be materially and adversely affected by the risks related to health epidemics, including the recent COVID-19 pandemic.

We face various risks related to public health issues, including epidemics, pandemics, and other outbreaks, including the recent pandemic of respiratory illness caused by a novel coronavirus known as COVID-19 and associated variants. The impact of COVID-19 and associated variants, including changes in consumer and business behavior, pandemic fears, market downturns, and restrictions on business and individual activities, has created significant volatility in the global economy and led to reduced economic activity. The spread of COVID-19 and associated variants (some of which may be more transmissible, such as the Delta variant) has also created a disruption in the manufacturing, delivery and overall supply chain of vehicle manufacturers and suppliers, and has led to a global decrease in vehicle sales in markets around the world.

The pandemic has resulted in government authorities implementing numerous measures to try to contain the virus, such as travel bans and restrictions, quarantines, stay-at-home or shelter-in-place orders, and business shutdowns. These measures may adversely impact our employees and operations and the operations of our customers, suppliers, vendors and business partners, and may negatively impact our manufacturing plans, sales and marketing activities, business and results of operations. In addition, various aspects of our business cannot be conducted remotely. These measures by government authorities may remain in place for a significant period of time and they are likely to continue to adversely affect our manufacturing plans and sales and marketing activities, and our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

Due to operational shutdowns of certain of our direct and indirect suppliers as a result of COVID-19 and associated variants, we experienced delays and shortages of certain parts and materials necessary for the production of our vehicles. In some cases, suppliers were delayed in providing the required parts and/or materials, whereas in other cases, suppliers were able only to fulfill our orders on a partial basis or not at all. As a result of such delays and shortages, we are continuing to adapt our internal designs and processes in an effort to remedy or mitigate impacts on our production timeline, including the release of our first consumer vehicles, the R1T and R1S. Despite such efforts, we cannot be certain these will sufficiently alleviate or mitigate delays or interruptions we may experience in the future, and, to the extent our production timeline is delayed, our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows may be materially and adversely affected.

Additionally, the spread of COVID-19 and associated variants has caused us to modify our business practices (including employee travel, recommending that all non-essential personnel work from home and cancellation or reduction of physical participation in sales activities, meetings, events and conferences), and we may take further actions as may be required by government authorities or that we determine is in the best interests of our employees, customers, suppliers, vendors and business partners. There is no certainty that such actions will be sufficient to mitigate the risks posed by the virus or otherwise be satisfactory to government authorities. If significant portions of our workforce are unable to work effectively, including due to illness, quarantines, social distancing, government actions or other restrictions in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic, our operations will be adversely impacted.

The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic impacts our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted, including the duration and spread of the pandemic, its severity, the existence and severity of COVID-19 variants, the actions to contain the virus or treat its impact (including the availability of vaccines and the speed and extent of vaccine distribution and acceptance), how quickly and to what extent normal economic and operating activities can resume, and whether and to what extent COVID-19 or variants thereof, including the Delta variant which has become widespread in the United States,

 

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re-emerge, spread and impact us and our suppliers after normal activities resume. Even after the COVID-19 pandemic has subsided, we may continue to experience an adverse impact to its business as a result of its global economic impact, including any recession that has occurred or may occur in the future.

Specifically, difficult macroeconomic conditions, such as decreases in per capita income and level of disposable income, increased and prolonged unemployment, or a decline in consumer confidence as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic could have a material adverse effect on the demand for our vehicles. Under difficult economic conditions, potential customers may seek to reduce spending by forgoing our vehicles for other traditional options, increase use of public and mass transportation options or may choose to keep their existing vehicles, and cancel preorders.

There are no comparable recent events that may provide guidance as to the effect of the spread and duration of COVID-19 (and associated variants) and pandemics in general, and, as a result, the ultimate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic or other pandemics is highly uncertain.

Our financial results may vary significantly from period to period due to fluctuations in our product demand, operating costs, working capital, capital expenditures and other factors.

We expect our period-to-period financial results to vary based on our product demand and operating costs, which we anticipate will fluctuate as we continue to design, develop and manufacture new EVs, increase production capacity and establish or expand design, research and development, production, sales and service facilities. Additionally, our revenue from period to period may fluctuate as we identify and investigate areas of demand, adjust volumes and add new product derivatives based on market demand and margin opportunities, develop and introduce new EVs or introduce existing EVs to new markets for the first time. Additionally, our revenue from period to period may fluctuate due to seasonality. As a result of these factors, we believe that quarter-to-quarter comparisons of our financial results, especially in the short term, are not necessarily meaningful and that these comparisons cannot be relied upon as indicators of future performance. Moreover, our financial results may not meet expectations of equity research analysts, ratings agencies or investors, who may be focused only on quarterly financial results. If any of this occurs, the trading price of our Class A common stock could fall substantially, either suddenly or over time.

Our business plans require a significant amount of capital. in addition, our future capital needs will require us to sell additional equity or debt securities that will dilute our stockholders or introduce covenants that may restrict our operations or our ability to pay dividends.

Our capital expenditures will continue to be significant in the foreseeable future as we expand our business, and our level of capital expenditures will be significantly affected by consumer demand for our products and services. The fact that we have a limited operating history means we have limited historical data on the demand for our products and services. As a result, our future capital requirements are uncertain and actual capital requirements may be different from those we currently anticipate. We expect that we will need to seek equity or debt financing in both the near- and long-term to finance a portion of our capital expenditures. Such financing might not be available to us in a timely manner or on terms that are acceptable, or at all.

Our ability to obtain the necessary financing to carry out our business plan is subject to a number of factors, including general market conditions and investor acceptance of our business model. These factors may make the timing, amount, terms and conditions of such financing unattractive or unavailable to us. If we are unable to raise sufficient funds, we will have to significantly reduce our spending, delay or cancel our planned activities or substantially change our corporate structure. We might not be able to obtain any funding, and we might not have sufficient resources to conduct our business as projected, both of which could mean that we would be forced to curtail or discontinue our operations.

 

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In addition, our future capital needs and other business reasons will require us to sell additional equity or debt securities. The sale of additional equity or equity-linked securities would dilute our stockholders. The incurrence of indebtedness would result in increased debt service obligations and covenants that potentially restrict our operations.

If we cannot raise additional funds when we need or want them, our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows will be materially and adversely affected.

We have incurred a significant amount of debt and may in the future incur additional indebtedness. Our payment obligations under such indebtedness may limit the funds available to us, and the terms of our current or future debt agreements, including the ABL Facility and the indenture governing the 2026 Notes, contain or will contain restrictive covenants that may limit our operating flexibility.

As of June 30, 2021, our total principal amount of outstanding indebtedness was $3.0 million. Subsequent to June 30, 2021, we issued (i) $2.5 billion aggregate principal amount of our 2021 Convertible Notes in July 2021, which we expect will be converted into Class A common stock in connection with this offering in accordance with their terms, and (ii) $1.25 billion aggregate principal amount of our 2026 Notes in October 2021, which will remain outstanding following this offering. As of September 30, 2021, we had no borrowings under the ABL Facility. Subject to the limitations in the terms of our existing and future indebtedness, we and our subsidiaries may incur additional debt in the near-and long-term, secure existing or future debt, or refinance our debt.

We will be required to use a portion of our future cash flows from operations to pay interest and principal on our indebtedness. Such payments will reduce the funds available to use for working capital, capital expenditures and other corporate purposes, and limit our ability to obtain additional financing for working capital, capital expenditures, expansions plans and other investments, which may in turn limit our ability to implement our business strategy, heighten our vulnerability to downturns in our business, the industry, or in the general economy, and prevent us from taking advantage of business opportunities as they arise.

In addition, the credit agreement governing the ABL Facility contains, and future debt agreements may contain, restrictive covenants, that, among other things, limit our ability to transfer or dispose of assets, merge with other companies or consummate certain changes of control, acquire other companies, incur additional indebtedness and liens and enter into new businesses. We therefore may not be able to engage in any of the foregoing transactions unless we obtain the consent of the lenders or terminate the credit agreement governing the ABL Facility or future debt agreements, which may limit our operating flexibility. In addition, the ABL Facility is secured by all of our assets (however if the Fixed Asset Release Date (as defined in the section titled “Description of Certain Indebtedness”) occurs, the ABL Facility will be secured only by certain assets until we incur certain other indebtedness that would require the grant of certain security interests) and requires us to satisfy certain financial covenants. There is no guarantee that we will be able to generate sufficient cash flow or sales to meet these financial covenants or pay the principal and interest when due under our facility. Furthermore, there is no guarantee that future working capital, borrowings or equity financing will be available to repay or refinance any such debt. Any inability to comply with the terms of our credit agreement governing the ABL Facility or any future debt agreement, including failing to make scheduled payments or to meet the financial covenants, would adversely affect our business. See the section titled “Description of Certain Indebtedness” for additional information regarding the terms of our existing credit agreement.

 

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Certain of our existing indebtedness is, and indebtedness we incur in the future may be, variable rate, subjecting us to interest rate risk, which could cause our indebtedness service obligations to increase.

Borrowings under the ABL Facility accrue interest at variable rates. As a result, interest rates on the ABL Facility or other variable rate debt obligations could be higher or lower than current levels. If interest rates increase, our debt service obligations on our existing or any future variable rate indebtedness would increase even though the amount borrowed would remain the same, and our net income and cash flows, including cash available for servicing our indebtedness, would correspondingly decrease.

London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) and other interest rates that are indices deemed to be “benchmarks” are the subject of recent and ongoing national, international and other regulatory guidance and proposals for reform. Some of these reforms are already effective, while others are still to be implemented. These reforms may cause such benchmarks to perform differently than in the past, or to disappear entirely, or have other consequences that cannot be predicted. Any such consequence could have a material adverse effect on our existing facilities or our future debt linked to such a “benchmark” and our ability to service debt that bears interest at floating rates of interest. See “Description of Certain Indebtedness—ABL Facility.”

If our vehicle owners customize our vehicles with aftermarket products, or attempt to modify our vehicles’ charging systems, the vehicles may not operate properly, which may create negative publicity and could harm our brand and business.

Automobile enthusiasts may seek to alter our vehicles to modify their performance which could compromise vehicle safety and security systems. Also, customers may customize their vehicles with aftermarket parts that can compromise driver safety. We do not test, nor do we endorse, such changes or products. In addition, customers may attempt to modify our vehicles’ charging systems or use improper external cabling or unsafe charging outlets that can compromise the vehicle systems or expose our customers to injury from high voltage electricity. Such unauthorized modifications could reduce the safety and security of our vehicles and any injuries resulting from such modifications could result in adverse publicity, which would negatively affect our brand and thus harm our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

We rely on third-party vendors for certain product and service offerings, which exposes us to increased risks.

We contract with third parties to provide certain products and services to our customers, including vehicle financing and insurance. Although we carefully select our third-party vendors, we cannot control their actions. If our vendors fail to perform as we expect, our operations and reputation could suffer if the failure harms the vendors’ ability to serve us and our customers. One or more of these third-party vendors may experience financial distress, staffing shortages or liquidity challenges, file for bankruptcy protection, go out of business, or suffer disruptions in their business. The use of third-party vendors represents an inherent risk to us that could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

Certain of our principal stockholders or their affiliates are or may in the future engage in, and certain of our directors are affiliated with entities that may in the future engage in, business activities similar to those conducted by us which may compete directly or indirectly with us, causing such stockholders or persons to have conflicts of interest.

Certain of our principal stockholders and their affiliates are engaged in similar business activities to those conducted by us, and/or currently or in the future may invest in or otherwise hold securities of

 

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businesses that compete directly or indirectly with us. For example, Ford Motor Company (“Ford”), one of our principal stockholders, is a multinational vehicle manufacturer. We are also currently, and may in the future be, a party to commercial agreements with certain of our principal stockholders, such as our EDV Agreement with Amazon. These relationships may give rise to certain conflicts of interest. Accordingly, such stockholders may have different business interests than us or our other stockholders, and may take action or vote their shares in a manner which could adversely impact us or our other stockholders.

Further, following this offering, employees of certain of our principal stockholders and their affiliates will continue to serve on our board of directors and retain their positions with our principal stockholders or their affiliates. Given such relationships, and despite the rules applied by our board of directors to handle conflicts of interest, these individuals’ positions may create, or create the appearance of, conflicts of interest when they are asked to make decisions that could have different implications for such principal stockholders or their affiliates than the decisions have for us or other stockholders.

Risks Related to Information Technology, Intellectual Property, Data Security, and Privacy

Breaches in data security, failure of information security systems and privacy concerns could adversely impact our financial condition, subject us to penalties, damage our reputation and brand, and harm our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

We expect to face significant challenges with respect to information security and privacy, including in relation to the collection, storage, transmission and sharing of information. We collect, transmit and store confidential and personal and sensitive information of our employees and customers, including names, accounts, user IDs and passwords, vehicle information, and payment or transaction related information. We are also subject to certain laws and regulations, such as “Right to Repair” laws, that require us to provide third-party access to our network and/or vehicle systems.

Increasingly, companies are subject to a wide variety of attacks on their networks and information technology infrastructure on an ongoing basis. Traditional computer “hackers,” malicious code (such as viruses and worms), phishing attempts, employee theft or misuse, denial of service attacks, ransomware attacks and sophisticated nation-state and nation-state supported actors engage in intrusions and attacks that create risks for our (and our suppliers’) internal networks, vehicles, infrastructure, and cloud deployed products and the information they store and process. Although we have implemented security measures to prevent such attacks, our networks and systems may be breached due to the actions of outside parties, employee error, malfeasance, a combination of these, or otherwise, and as a result, an unauthorized party may obtain access to our systems, networks, or data. We and our suppliers have in the past been subject to ransomware and phishing attacks. Though we do not believe we experienced any material losses or any sensitive or material information was compromised, we were unable to determine conclusively that this was the case. We have implemented remedial measures in response to such incidents. We cannot guarantee that such measures will prevent all incidents in the future.

We may face difficulties or delays in identifying or otherwise responding to any attacks or actual or potential security breaches or threats. A breach in our data security could create system disruptions or slowdowns and provide malicious parties with access to information stored on our networks, resulting in data being publicly disclosed, altered, lost, or stolen, which could subject us to liability and adversely impact our financial condition. Further, any breach in our data security could allow malicious parties to access sensitive systems, such as our product lines and the vehicles themselves. Such access could adversely impact the safety of our employees and customers.

Any actual, alleged or perceived failure to prevent a security breach or to comply with our privacy policies or privacy-related legal obligations, failure in our systems or networks, or any other actual, alleged or perceived data security incident we or our suppliers suffer, could result in damage to our

 

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reputation, negative publicity, loss of customers and sales, loss of competitive advantages over our competitors, increased costs to remedy any problems and provide any required notifications, including to regulators and/or individuals, and otherwise respond to any incident, regulatory investigations and enforcement actions, costly litigation, and other liabilities. We would also be exposed to a risk of loss or litigation and potential liability under laws, regulations and contracts that protect the privacy and security of personal information. For example, the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018 (the “CCPA”) imposes a private right of action for certain security breaches that could lead to regulatory scrutiny, fines, private right of action settlements, and other consequences. Where a security incident involves a breach of security leading to the accidental or unlawful destruction, loss, alteration, unauthorized disclosure of, or access to, personal data in respect of which we are a controller or processor under the General Data Protection Regulation (EU) 2016/679 (the “GDPR”) or U.K. GDPR (as defined below), this could result in fines up to 20 million or 4% of annual global turnover (whichever is higher) under the GDPR or £17.5 million or 4% of total annual global turnover in the case of the U.K. GDPR. We may also be required to notify such breaches to regulators and/or individuals which may result in us incurring additional costs. In addition to the foregoing, a breach of the GDPR or U.K. GDPR could result in regulatory investigations, reputational damage, orders to cease/ change our processing of our data, enforcement notices, and/or assessment notices (for a compulsory audit). We may also face civil claims including representative actions and other class action type litigation (where individuals have suffered harm), potentially amounting to significant compensation or damages liabilities, as well as associated costs, diversion of internal resources, and reputational harm.

In addition, we may incur significant financial and operational costs to investigate, remediate and implement additional tools, devices and systems designed to prevent actual or perceived security breaches and other security incidents, as well as costs to comply with any notification obligations resulting from any security incidents. Any of these negative outcomes could adversely impact the market perception of our products and customer and investor confidence in our company, and would materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

We collect and process significant information about our customers and their vehicles and are subject to various privacy and consumer protection laws.

In addition to the information we collect from our customers to complete a sale or transaction, we use our vehicles’ onboard electronic systems to capture information about each vehicle’s use, such as location, charge time, battery usage, mileage and driving behavior, among other things, to aid us in providing services including vehicle diagnostics, repair, maintenance, insurance, roadside assistance and vehicle emergency services. We also obtain data through the external cameras and sensors incorporated into the vehicle. Further we can, via data collection and analysis, customize and optimize the driving and riding experiences of our vehicles. Our users may in the future choose not to provide this data, which may harm our business and our ability to properly maintain the vehicle. Possession and use of our customers’ driving behavior and other personal data may subject us to legislative and regulatory burdens and risks in the United States and other jurisdictions. We will be required to comply with increasingly complex and rigorous regulatory standards enacted to protect business and personal data in the United States, Europe and elsewhere.

A wide variety of state, national, and international laws as well as regulations and industry standards apply to the collection, use, retention, protection, disclosure, transfer and other processing of personal information and other information. Evolving and changing definitions of personal data and personal information within the EU, the United Kingdom, the United States and elsewhere, may limit or inhibit our ability to operate or expand our business. Also, some jurisdictions require that certain types of data be retained on servers within these jurisdictions. Additionally, laws, regulations, and standards covering marketing and advertising activities conducted by telephone, email, mobile devices, and the internet, may be applicable to our business, such as the Telephone Consumer Protection Act (as implemented by

 

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the Telemarketing Sales Rule), the Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography and Marketing Act, and similar state and foreign consumer protection laws. Our failure to comply with applicable laws, directives, and regulations may result in private claims or enforcement actions against us, including liabilities, fines and damage to our reputation, any of which may have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

Data protection and privacy-related laws and regulations are evolving and may result in ever increasing regulatory and public scrutiny and escalating levels of enforcement and sanctions. For example, the EU adopted the GDPR, and the State of California adopted the CCPA. Both the GDPR and the CCPA impose additional regulatory obligations regarding the handling of personal data and further provide certain individual privacy rights to persons whose data is processed.

In the United States, the CCPA became operative on January 1, 2020 and became enforceable by the California Attorney General on July 1, 2020, along with related regulations which came into force on August 14, 2020. Additionally, although not effective until January 1, 2023, the California Privacy Rights Act (the “CPRA”), which expands upon the CCPA, was passed on November 3, 2020. The CCPA requires (and the CPRA will require) covered companies to, among other things, provide new disclosures to California consumers, and affords such consumers new privacy rights such as the ability to opt-out of certain sales of personal information and expanded rights to access and require deletion of their personal information, opt out of certain personal information sharing, and receive detailed information about how their personal information is collected, used and shared. The CCPA provides for civil penalties for violations, as well as a private right of action for certain security breaches that may increase security breach litigation. Further, Virginia enacted the Virginia Consumer Data Protection Act (the “VCDPA”), another comprehensive state privacy law, that will also be effective January 1, 2023. Also in 2021, Colorado enacted the Colorado Privacy Act (the “CPA”), which goes into effect July 1, 2023. The CCPA, CPRA, VCDPA and CPA may increase our compliance costs and potential liability, particularly in the event of a data breach, and could have a material adverse effect on our business, including how we use personal information, our financial condition, the results of our operations or prospects. A number of other proposals exist for new federal and state privacy legislation that, if passed, could increase our potential liability, increase our compliance costs and materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

By expanding into Europe and the United Kingdom, we will also be subject to the GDPR and the United Kingdom data protection regime consisting primarily of the UK General Data Protection Regulation and the UK Data Protection Act 2018 (together referred to as the “U.K. GDPR”). The GDPR, and the national implementing legislation in EU member states, and the U.K. GDPR impose stringent data protection requirements and, where we are acting as a controller, includes requirements to provide detailed disclosures about how personal data is collected and processed (in a concise, intelligible and easily accessible form); demonstrating that an appropriate legal basis is in place or otherwise exists to justify data processing activities; granting new rights for data subjects in regard to their personal data (including the right to be “forgotten” and the right to data portability), as well as enhancing data subject rights (e.g., data subject access requests); introducing the obligation to notify data protection regulators or supervisory authorities (and in certain cases, affected individuals) of significant data breaches; defining for the first time pseudonymized (i.e., key-coded) data; imposing limitations on retention of personal data; maintaining a record of data processing; and complying with the principal of accountability and the obligation to demonstrate compliance through policies, procedures, training and audit.

The GDPR/U.K. GDPR requires, among other things, that personal information only be transferred outside of the EU/United Kingdom to jurisdictions which have not received an adequacy decision from the European Commission (or equivalent U.K. authority), including the United States, if steps are taken to legitimize and safeguard those data transfers. Furthermore, in July 2020, the Court of Justice of the EU (the “CJEU”) invalidated the E.U.-U.S. Privacy Shield Framework (the “Privacy Shield”), which provided a

 

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mechanism for the transfer of data from the European Economic Area (“EEA”)/United Kingdom to the United States, on the grounds that the E.U.-U.S. Privacy Shield failed to offer adequate protections to EEA/United Kingdom personal information transferred to the United States. Further, while the CJEU upheld the adequacy of the standard contractual clauses (a standard form of contract approved by the European Commission as an adequate personal data transfer mechanism, and potential alternative to the Privacy Shield), it made it clear that reliance alone on the Standard Contractual Clauses may not necessarily be sufficient to protect data transferred in all circumstances. Use of the standard contractual clauses must now be assessed on a case-by-case basis taking into account the legal regime applicable in the destination country, in particular applicable surveillance laws and rights of individuals and additional measures and/or contractual provisions may need to be put in place, however, the nature of these additional measures is currently uncertain. The CJEU went on to state that if a competent supervisory authority believes that the standard contractual clauses cannot be complied with in the destination country and the required level of protection cannot be secured by other means, such supervisory authority is under an obligation to suspend or prohibit that transfer. On June 4, 2021 the European Commission published a new set of modular Standard Contractual Clauses providing for an 18 month implementation period. The new Standard Contractual Clauses apply only to the transfer of data outside of the EEA and not the United Kingdom, though the U.K.’s Information Commissioner’s Officer confirmed in May 2021 that it is working on its own set of U.K.-specific Standard Contractual Clauses and launched a public consultation period on its draft international data transfer agreement in August 2021. We are monitoring these developments, but we may, in addition to other impacts, experience additional costs associated with increased compliance burdens and be required to engage in new contract negotiations with third parties that aid in processing data on our behalf or localize certain data.

Although the European Commission adopted an adequacy decision on June 28, 2021, allowing the continued flow of personal data from Europe to the United Kingdom, this decision will expire in June 2025 unless the European Commission re-assesses and renews/ extends that decision and is subject to regular review and may be revoked if the United Kingdom diverges from its current adequate data protection laws following Brexit. As supervisory authorities continue to issue further guidance on personal information, we could suffer additional costs, complaints, or regulatory investigations or fines, and if we are otherwise unable to transfer personal data between and among countries and regions in which we operate, it could affect the manner in which we provide our services, the geographical location or segregation of our relevant systems and operations, and could adversely affect our financial results. Loss, retention or misuse of certain information and alleged violations of laws and regulations relating to privacy and data security, and any relevant claims, may expose us to potential liability and may require us to expend significant resources on data security and in responding to and defending such allegations and claims.

By expanding into Europe and the United Kingdom, we would also be subject to evolving EU and U.K. privacy laws on cookies and e-marketing. In the EU and the United Kingdom, regulators are increasingly focusing on compliance with requirements in the online behavioral advertising ecosystem, and current national laws that implement the ePrivacy Directive are highly likely to be replaced by an EU regulation known as the ePrivacy Regulation which will significantly increase fines for non-compliance. In the EU and the United Kingdom, informed consent is required for the placement of most cookies or similar technologies on a user’s device and for direct electronic marketing. The GDPR also imposes conditions on obtaining valid consent, such as a prohibition on pre-checked consents and a requirement to ensure separate consents are sought for each type of cookie or similar technology. While the text of the ePrivacy Regulation is still under development, a recent European court decision, regulators’ recent guidance and recent campaigns by a not-for-profit organization are driving increased attention to cookies and tracking technologies. If regulators start to enforce the strict approach in recent guidance, this could lead to substantial costs, require significant systems changes, limit the effectiveness of our marketing activities, divert the attention of our technology personnel, adversely affect our margins, increase costs and subject us to additional liabilities. Regulation of cookies and similar technologies, and any decline of cookies or similar online tracking technologies as a means to identify and potentially target

 

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users, may lead to broader restrictions and impairments on our marketing and personalization activities and may negatively impact our efforts to understand users.

Additionally, other countries outside of Europe and the United States, including countries we either operate or may in the future operate within, are considering enacting similar cross-border data transfer restrictions and laws requiring local data residency, which could increase the cost and complexity of delivering our services and operating our business. For example, Brazil enacted the General Data Protection Law, New Zealand enacted the New Zealand Privacy Act, China enacted its Personal Information Protection Law, and Canada introduced the Digital Charter Implementation Act.

Compliance with additional laws and regulations could be expensive, and may place restrictions on the conduct of our business and the manner in which we interact with our customers. Failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations could result in regulatory enforcement actions against us. For example, our misuse of or failure to secure personal information could result in violation of data privacy laws and regulations, proceedings against us by governmental entities or others, and/or result in significant liability and damage to our reputation and credibility. These possibilities, if borne out, could have a negative impact on revenues and profits. If a third party alleges that we have violated applicable data privacy laws, we could face legal claims and damages as well as reputational harm among consumers, investors, and strategic partners.

Although we make reasonable efforts to comply with all applicable data protection laws and regulations, our interpretations and efforts may have been or may prove to be insufficient or incorrect. We also generally seek to comply with industry standards and are subject to the terms of our privacy policies and privacy-related obligations to third parties. We strive to comply with applicable laws, policies, legal obligations and industry codes of conduct relating to privacy and data protection to the extent possible. However, it is possible that these obligations may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent from one jurisdiction to another and may conflict with other rules or our practices. Any failure or perceived failure by us to comply with applicable privacy and data security laws and regulations, our privacy policies, or our privacy-related obligations to users or other third parties, or any compromise of security that results in the unauthorized access to or transfer of personal information or other customer data, may result in governmental enforcement actions, litigation, or public statements against us by consumer advocacy groups or others and could cause our users to lose trust in us, which would have an adverse effect on our reputation and business. We may also incur significant expenses to comply with privacy, consumer protection and security standards and controls imposed by laws, regulations, industry standards or contractual obligations.

Any significant change to applicable laws, regulations or industry practices regarding the use or disclosure of our users’ data, or regarding the manner in which the express or implied consent of users for the use and disclosure of such data is obtained - or in how these applicable laws, regulations or industry practices are interpreted and enforced by state, federal and international privacy regulators - could require us to modify our services and features, possibly in a material and costly manner, may subject us to legal claims, regulatory enforcement actions and fines, and may limit our ability to develop new services and features that make use of the data that our users voluntarily share with us.

Any unauthorized control or manipulation of our vehicles’ systems could result in a loss of confidence in us and our vehicles and harm our business.

Our vehicles contain complex technology systems. For example, our vehicles are outfitted with built-in data connectivity to install periodic remote updates to improve or update the functionality of our vehicles. We have implemented cryptographic technologies to deliver updates securely from Rivian including a hardware security module to verify the integrity of vehicle software by using cryptographic hashes. We have designed, implemented, and tested security measures intended to prevent

 

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cybersecurity breaches or unauthorized access to our information technology networks, our vehicles and their systems, and intend to implement additional security measures as necessary. However, hackers and other malicious actors may attempt in the future to gain unauthorized access to modify, alter, and use networks, vehicle software and our systems to gain control of, or to change, our vehicles’ software or to gain access to data stored in or generated by the vehicle. Errors and vulnerabilities, including zero days, in our information technology systems will be probed by third parties and could be identified and exploited in the future, and our remediation efforts may not be timely or successful. Any unauthorized access to or control of our vehicles or their systems or any unauthorized access to or loss of data could result in risks to our customers, unsafe driving conditions, or failure of our systems, any of which could result in interruptions in our business, legal claims or proceedings which may or may not result in our favor and could subject us to significant liability. In addition, regardless of their veracity, reports of unauthorized access to our vehicles, their systems or data, as well as other factors that may result in the perception that our vehicles, their systems or data are capable of being “hacked” and lack appropriate safety controls, could negatively affect our brand and harm our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

We utilize third-party service providers to support our service and business operations and any disruption or delays in service from these third-party providers could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

Our brand, reputation and ability to attract customers depends on the reliable performance of our vehicles and the supporting systems, technology, and infrastructure. For example, we outfit our vehicles with in-vehicle services and functionality that use data connectivity to monitor performance and capture opportunities for cost-saving preventative maintenance. The availability and effectiveness of these services depend on the continued operation of information technology and communication systems. We primarily rely on Amazon Web Services in the United States to host our cloud computing and storage needs. We do not own, control, or operate our cloud computing physical infrastructure or their data center providers. Our systems and operations are vulnerable to damage or interruption from, among others, fire, flood, power loss, natural disasters, telecommunications failure, terrorist attacks, acts of war, electronic and physical break-ins, system vulnerabilities, earthquakes and other events at the sites of such providers. Ransomware within our information systems could target our manufacturing and/or business capabilities limiting the availability and uptime of these systems or eliciting payment from us. The occurrence of any of the foregoing events could result in damage to systems and hardware or could cause them to fail completely, and our insurance may not cover such events or may be insufficient to compensate us for losses that may occur.

Problems faced by our third-party cloud service providers with their telecommunications network providers with which they contract or with the systems by which they allocate capacity among their customers, including us, could adversely affect the experience of our customers. Our third-party cloud service providers could decide to close their facilities without adequate notice resulting in loss of service and negative effects in our systems. Any financial difficulties, such as bankruptcy reorganization, faced by our third-party providers or any of the service providers with whom they contract may have negative effects on our business, the nature and extent of which are difficult to predict.

We may not carry business interruption insurance sufficient to compensate us for the potentially significant losses, including the potential harm to the future growth of our business, which may result from interruptions in our service as a result of system failures. Any errors, defects, disruptions or other performance problems with our services could harm our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

 

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We are, and may in the future become, subject to patent, trademark and/or other intellectual property infringement claims, which may be time-consuming, cause us to incur significant liability and increase our costs of doing business.

We are involved in, and may in the future become party to additional, intellectual property infringement proceedings. Companies, organizations, or individuals, including our competitors, may hold or obtain patents, trademarks or other proprietary or intellectual property rights that would prevent, limit or interfere with our ability to make, use, develop, sell, lease or market our vehicles or components, which could make it more difficult for us to operate our business. From time to time, we may receive communications from holders of patents, trademarks, trade secrets or other intellectual property or proprietary rights alleging that we are infringing, misappropriating, diluting or otherwise violating such rights. Such parties have brought and may in the future bring suits against us alleging infringement or other violation of such rights, or otherwise assert their rights and urge us to take licenses to their intellectual property. In one example, our applications for and uses of trademarks relating to our products, services, or designs, could be found to infringe upon existing trademark rights owned by third parties. As another example, we may not be aware of existing patents or patent applications that could be pertinent to our business as many patent applications are filed confidentially in the United States and are not published until 18 months following the applicable filing date. In the event that a claim relating to intellectual property is asserted against us, our suppliers or our third-party licensors, or if third parties not affiliated with us hold pending or issued patents that relate to our products or technology, we may need to seek licenses to such intellectual property or seek to challenge those patents. Even if we are able to obtain a license, it could be non-exclusive, thereby giving our competitors and other third parties access to the same technologies licensed to us. In addition, we may be unable to obtain these licenses on commercially reasonable terms, if at all, and our challenge of third-party patents may be unsuccessful. Litigation or other legal proceedings relating to intellectual property claims, regardless of merit, may cause us to incur significant expenses and could distract our technical and management personnel from their normal responsibilities. Further, if we are determined to have infringed upon a third party’s intellectual property rights, we may be required to do one or more of the following:

 

   

cease selling or leasing, incorporating certain components into, or using vehicles or offering goods or services that incorporate or use the intellectual property that we allegedly infringe, misappropriate, dilute or otherwise violate;

 

   

pay substantial royalty or license fees or other damages;

 

   

seek a license from the holder of the infringed intellectual property right, which license may not be available on reasonable terms, or at all;

 

   

redesign or reengineer our vehicles or other technology, goods or services, which may be costly, time-consuming or impossible; or

 

   

establish and maintain alternative branding for our products and services.

In the event of a successful claim of infringement against us and our failure or inability to obtain a license to the infringed technology or other intellectual property right, our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows could be materially and adversely affected. In addition, any litigation or claims, whether or not valid, could result in substantial costs, negative publicity and diversion of resources and management attention.

We may not be able to prevent others from unauthorized use of our intellectual property, which could harm our business and competitive position.

We may not be able to prevent others from unauthorized use of our intellectual property, which could harm our business and competitive position. We rely on a combination of patent, trade secret (including those in our know-how), and other intellectual property laws, as well as employee and third-

 

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party nondisclosure agreements, intellectual property licenses, and other contractual rights to establish and protect our rights in our technology and intellectual property. Our patent or trademark applications may not be granted, any patents or trademark registrations that may be issued to us may not sufficiently protect our intellectual property and any of our issued patents, trademark registrations or other intellectual property rights may be challenged by third parties. Any of these scenarios may result in limitations in the scope of our intellectual property or restrictions on our use of our intellectual property or may adversely affect the conduct of our business. Despite our efforts to protect our intellectual property rights, third parties may attempt to copy or otherwise obtain and use our intellectual property or seek court declarations that they do not infringe upon our intellectual property rights. Monitoring unauthorized use of our intellectual property is difficult and costly, and the steps we have taken or will take to prevent misappropriation may not be successful. From time to time, we may have to resort to litigation to enforce our intellectual property rights, which could result in substantial costs and diversion of our resources.

Patent, trademark, and trade secret laws vary significantly throughout the world. A number of foreign countries do not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as do the laws of the United States. Therefore, our intellectual property rights may not be as strong or as easily enforced outside of the United States. Failure to adequately protect our intellectual property rights could result in our competitors offering similar products, potentially resulting in the loss of some of our competitive advantage and a decrease in our revenue which would adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

Our patent applications may not issue as patents, which may have a material adverse effect on our ability to prevent others from commercially exploiting products similar to ours.

We cannot be certain that we are the first inventor of the subject matter to which we have filed a particular patent application, or that we are the first party to file such a patent application. If another party has filed a patent application for the same subject matter as we have, we may not be entitled to the protection sought by the patent application. Further, the scope of protection of issued patent claims is often difficult to determine. As a result, we cannot be certain that the patent applications that we file will issue, or that our issued patents will afford protection against competitors with similar technology. In addition, our competitors may design around our issued patents, which may adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

If our patents expire or are not maintained, our patent applications are not granted or our patent rights are contested, circumvented, invalidated or limited in scope, we may not be able to prevent others from selling, developing or exploiting competing technologies or products, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

We cannot assure you that our pending applications will issue as patents. Even if our patent applications issue into patents, these patents may be contested, circumvented or invalidated in the future. In addition, the rights granted under any issued patents may not provide us with adequate protection or competitive advantages. The claims under any patents that issue from our patent applications may not be broad enough to prevent others from developing technologies that are similar or that achieve results similar to ours. The intellectual property rights of others could also bar us from licensing and exploiting any patents that issue from our pending applications. Numerous patents and pending patent applications owned by others exist in the fields in which we have developed and are developing our technology. Many of these existing patents and patent applications might have priority over our patent applications and could subject our patents to invalidation or our patent applications to rejection. Finally, in addition to patents and patent applications that were filed before our patents and patent applications, any of our existing or future patents may also be challenged by others on the basis that they are invalid or unenforceable.

 

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We are, and may in the future become, subject to claims that we or our employees have wrongfully used or disclosed alleged trade secrets of our employees’ former employers.

Many of our employees were previously employed by other automotive companies, by suppliers to automotive companies or companies with similar or related technology, products or services. We are, and may in the future become, subject to claims that we or these employees have inadvertently or otherwise used or disclosed trade secrets or other proprietary information of former employers. Litigation may be necessary to defend against these claims. If we fail in defending such claims, we may be forced to pay monetary damages or be enjoined from using certain technology, products, services or knowledge. Even if we are successful in defending against these claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and demand on management resources. See “—We are, and may in the future become, subject to patent, trademark and/or other intellectual property infringement claims, which may be time-consuming, cause us to incur significant liability and increase our costs of doing business.”

Our use of open source software in our applications could subject our proprietary software to general release, adversely affect our ability to sell our services and subject us to possible litigation, claims or proceedings.

We use open source software in connection with the development and deployment of our products and services, and we expect to continue to use open source software in the future. Companies that use open source software in connection with their products have, from time to time, faced claims challenging the use of open source software and/or compliance with open source license terms. As a result, we could be subject to suits by parties claiming ownership of what we believe to be open source software or claiming noncompliance with open source licensing terms. Some open source software licenses may require users who distribute proprietary software containing or linked to open source software to publicly disclose all or part of the source code to such proprietary software and/or make available any derivative works of the open source code under the same open source license, which could include proprietary source code. In such cases, the open source software license may also restrict us from charging fees to licensees for their use of our software. While we monitor the use of open source software and try to ensure that open source software is not used in a manner that would subject our proprietary source code to these requirements and restrictions, such use could inadvertently occur, in part because open source license terms are often ambiguous and have generally not been interpreted by U.S. or foreign courts.

Further, in addition to risks related to license requirements, use of certain open source software carries greater technical and legal risks than does the use of third-party commercial software. For example, open source software is generally provided as-is without any support or warranties or other contractual protections regarding infringement or the quality of the code, including the existence of security vulnerabilities. To the extent that our platform depends upon the successful operation of open source software, any undetected errors or defects in open source software that we use could prevent the deployment or impair the functionality of our systems and injure our reputation. In addition, the public availability of such software may make it easier for attackers to target and compromise our platform through cyber-attacks. Any of the foregoing risks could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

Risks Related to Other Legal, Regulatory, and Tax Matters

Our vehicles are subject to motor vehicle safety standards and the failure to satisfy such mandated safety standards would have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

All vehicles sold must comply with international, federal, and state motor vehicle safety standards. In the United States, vehicles that meet or exceed all federally mandated safety standards are certified

 

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under the federal regulations. Rigorous testing and the use of approved materials and equipment are among the requirements for achieving federal certification. Failure by us to have the R1T, R1S, EDV, or any future EV model satisfy motor vehicle safety standards in the United States, Canada, the EU or other jurisdictions would have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

As a manufacturer engaged in sales directly to consumers, we may face regulatory limitations on our ability to sell and service vehicles directly, which could materially and adversely affect our ability to sell our vehicles.

Our business plan includes the direct sale of vehicles to individual customers. Many states have laws that may be interpreted to impose limitations on this direct-to-consumer sales model for manufacturers. The application of these state laws to our operations may be difficult to predict. Laws in some states may limit our ability to obtain dealer licenses from state motor vehicle regulators or to own or operate our own service centers. As a result, we may not be able to sell, finance or lease directly to customers in each state in the United States or provide service from a location in every state.

In addition, decisions by regulators permitting us to sell vehicles may be challenged by dealer associations and others as to whether such decisions comply with applicable state motor vehicle industry laws. In some states, there have also been regulatory and legislative efforts by dealer associations to interpret laws or propose laws that, if enacted, would prevent us from obtaining dealer licenses in their states given our direct sales model. Dealer associations have also resorted to lawsuits in state courts to challenge our ability to obtain dealer licenses and operate directly even in states that have laws that would otherwise allow us to own and operate retail locations. We expect dealer associations to continue to mount challenges to our business model.

For customers residing in states in which we will not be allowed to sell, lease or deliver vehicles, we must generally conduct the sale out of the state over the internet or telephonically and may have to arrange alternate methods of delivery of vehicles. This could include delivering vehicles to adjacent or nearby states in which we are allowed to directly sell or lease and ship vehicles, and arranging for the customer to transport the vehicles to their home states. These workarounds could add significant complexity, and as a result, costs, to our business. States may also restrict our ability to service vehicles once sold and delivered to customers. Some states, for example, have laws that prohibit manufacturers from providing warranty service in state or restrict the ability for manufacturers to own or operate service operations. A few states have passed legislation that clarifies our ability to operate, but at the same time limits the number of dealer licenses we can obtain or dealerships that we can operate.

The foregoing examples of state laws governing the sale and servicing of motor vehicles are just some of the legal hurdles we face as we sell and service our vehicles. In many states, the application of motor vehicle laws to our sales model is limited in experience, particularly with respect to the sale of new vehicles over the internet. To determine how the laws would apply to our business would require fact-specific analysis of numerous factors of business in the state, including whether we have a physical presence or employees, whether we advertise or conduct other marketing activities, how sale transactions are structured, the volume of sales into the state, and whether the state prohibits manufacturers from acting as dealers.

Internationally, there may be laws in jurisdictions that may restrict our sales or other business practices. While we have analyzed the principal laws in the United States, EU, China, Japan, United Kingdom, and Australia relating to our distribution model and believe we comply with such laws, the laws in this area can be complex, difficult to interpret and may change over time, and thus require ongoing review. Further, we have not performed a complete analysis of all jurisdictions in which we may sell vehicles.

 

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Continued regulatory limitations and other obstacles interfering with our ability to sell vehicles directly to consumers could have a negative and material impact on our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

We may be exposed to delays, limitations, and risks related to the environmental permits and other permits and approvals required to operate or expand operations at an existing or future manufacturing facility.

Operation of an automobile manufacturing facility requires land use and environmental permits and other operating permits from federal, state and local government entities. We currently have all permits necessary to carry out and perform our current plans and operations at our facility. In addition, expansion of operations at our facility, and the construction or operation of any future facility, may require additional land use, environmental and operating permits. Delays, denials or restrictions on any of the applications for or assignment of the permits to operate our facility or any future facility we may acquire or construct could adversely affect our ability to execute on our business plans and objectives.

We are subject to various environmental and safety laws and regulations that could impose substantial costs upon us and cause delays in building our manufacturing facilities.

As an automobile manufacturer, we and our operations, both in the United States and abroad, are subject to national, state, provincial and/or local environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, including laws relating to the use, handling, storage, and disposal of, and human exposure to, hazardous materials. Environmental, health and safety laws and regulations can be complex, and we expect that our business and operations will be affected by future amendments to such laws or other new environmental, health and safety laws which may require us to change our operations, potentially resulting in a material adverse effect on our business. These laws can give rise to liability for administrative oversight costs, cleanup costs, property damage, bodily injury and fines and penalties. Capital and operating expenses needed to comply with environmental, health and safety laws and regulations can be significant, and violations may result in substantial fines and penalties, third-party damages, suspension of production or a cessation of our operations.

Contamination at properties currently or formerly owned or operated by us, as well as at properties we will own and operate, and properties to which hazardous substances were sent by us, may result in liability for us under environmental laws and regulations, including, but not limited to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (“CERCLA”), which can impose liability for the full amount of remediation-related costs without regard to fault, for the investigation and cleanup of contaminated soil and ground water, for building contamination and impacts to human health and for damages to natural resources. The costs of complying with environmental laws, including the CERCLA, and regulations and any claims concerning noncompliance, or liability with respect to contamination in the future, could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

We are subject to substantial and evolving regulation and unfavorable changes to, or our failure to comply with, these regulations could substantially harm our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

Our vehicles, and the sale of motor vehicles in general, are subject to substantial regulation under international, federal, state, and local laws. We expect to incur significant costs in complying with these regulations. Regulations related to the electric vehicle industry and alternative energy are currently evolving and we face risks associated with changes to these regulations, such as:

 

   

the imposition of a carbon tax or the introduction of a cap-and-trade system on electric utilities, either of which could increase the cost of electricity and thereby the cost of operating an electric vehicle;

 

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new state regulations of electric vehicle fees could discourage consumer demand for EVs;

 

   

the increase of subsidies for alternative fuels such corn and ethanol could reduce the operating cost of vehicles that use such alternative fuels and gasoline, and thereby reduce the appeal of EVs;

 

   

changes to the regulations governing the assembly and transportation of battery cells could increase the cost of battery cells or make such commodities more difficult to obtain;

 

   

changes in regulation, for example relating to the noise required to be emitted by EVs, may impact the design or function of EVs, and thereby lead to decreased consumer appeal;

 

   

changes in regulations governing the range and miles per gallon of gasoline-equivalent calculations could lower our vehicles’ ratings, making EVs less appealing to consumers; and

 

   

the amendment or rescission of the CAFE standards could reduce new business opportunities for our business.

To the extent the laws change, our vehicles may not comply with applicable international, federal, state or local laws, which would have an adverse effect on our business. Compliance with changing regulations could be burdensome, time consuming, and expensive. To the extent compliance with new regulations is cost prohibitive, our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows would be materially and adversely affected.

Internationally, there may be laws in jurisdictions we have not yet entered or laws we are unaware of in jurisdictions we have entered that may restrict our sales or other business practices. Even for those jurisdictions we have analyzed, the laws in this area can be complex, difficult to interpret and may change over time. Continued regulatory limitations and other obstacles interfering with our ability to sell or lease vehicles directly to consumers could have a negative and material impact on our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

Our business could be adversely affected by trade tariffs or other trade barriers.

Our business will be subject to the imposition of tariffs and other trade barriers, which may make it more costly for us to export our vehicles to the imposing country. If we experience cost increases as a result of existing or future tariffs, and are unable to pass on such additional costs to our customers, or otherwise mitigate the costs, or if demand for our exported vehicles decreases due to the higher cost, our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows may be materially and adversely affected.

For example, in recent years the U.S. government has attempted to renegotiate or terminate certain existing bilateral or multi-lateral trade agreements. It has also imposed tariffs on certain foreign goods which resulted in increased costs for goods imported into the United States. In response to these tariffs, a number of U.S. trading partners have imposed retaliatory tariffs on a wide range of U.S. products, making it more costly for companies to export products to those countries. China and the United States have each imposed tariffs, indicating the potential for further trade barriers which may escalate a nascent trade war between China and the United States. In addition, additional trade restrictions or barriers could be implemented on a broader range of products or raw materials.

We are or will be subject to export control laws, and non-compliance with such laws can subject us to administrative, civil and criminal penalties, collateral consequences, remedial measures and legal expenses, all of which could adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

We are or will be subject to export control laws, including the Export Administration Regulations administered by the U.S. Department of Commerce. U.S. export controls apply to (1) items that are

 

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produced in the United States, wherever they are geographically located; (2) all items located in the United States, even if only moving in transit through the United States; and (3) certain foreign-produced items, including those that incorporate more than de minimis levels of controlled U.S.-origin content. A violation of export control laws or regulations could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and reputation. A violation could subject us to whistleblower complaints, adverse media coverage, investigations, and severe administrative, civil and criminal penalties, collateral consequences, remedial measures and legal expenses, all of which could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

We are or will be subject to anti-corruption, anti-bribery, anti-money laundering, financial and economic sanctions and similar laws, and non-compliance with such laws can subject us to administrative, civil and criminal fines and penalties, collateral consequences, remedial measures and legal expenses, all of which could adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

We are or will be subject to anti-corruption, anti-bribery, anti-money laundering, financial and economic sanctions and similar laws and regulations in various jurisdictions in which we conduct or in the future may conduct activities, including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”), the U.K. Bribery Act 2010, and other anti-corruption laws and regulations. The FCPA and the U.K. Bribery Act 2010 prohibit us and our officers, directors, employees and business partners acting on our behalf, including agents, from corruptly offering, promising, authorizing or providing anything of value to a “foreign official” for the purposes of influencing official decisions or obtaining or retaining business or otherwise obtaining favorable treatment. The FCPA also requires companies to make and keep books, records and accounts that accurately reflect transactions and dispositions of assets and to maintain a system of adequate internal accounting controls. The U.K. Bribery Act also prohibits non-governmental “commercial” bribery and soliciting or accepting bribes. A violation of these laws or regulations could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and reputation. Our policies and procedures designed to ensure compliance with these regulations may not be sufficient and our directors, officers, employees, representatives, consultants, agents, and business partners could engage in improper conduct for which we may be held responsible.

Non-compliance with anti-corruption, anti-bribery, anti-money laundering or financial and economic sanctions laws could subject us to whistleblower complaints, adverse media coverage, investigations, and severe administrative, civil and criminal sanctions, collateral consequences, remedial measures and legal expenses, all of which could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows. In addition, changes in economic sanctions laws in the future could adversely impact our business and investments in our Class A common stock.

We are or may be subject to risks associated with strategic alliances or acquisitions.

We may from time to time consider entering into strategic alliances, including joint ventures, minority equity investments or other transactions, with various third parties to further our business purpose. These alliances could subject us to a number of risks, including risks associated with sharing proprietary information, with non-performance by the third party and with increased expenses in establishing new strategic alliances, any of which may materially and adversely affect our business. We may have limited ability to monitor or control the actions of these third parties and, to the extent any of these strategic third parties suffers negative publicity or harm to their reputation from events relating to their business, we may also suffer negative publicity or harm to our reputation by virtue of our association with any such third party.

When appropriate opportunities arise, we may acquire additional assets, products, technologies or businesses that are complementary to our existing business. In addition to possible stockholder approval,

 

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we may need approvals and licenses from relevant government authorities for the acquisitions and to comply with any applicable laws and regulations, which could result in increased delay and costs, and may disrupt our business strategy if we fail to do so. Furthermore, acquisitions and the subsequent integration of new assets and businesses into our own require significant attention from our management and could result in a diversion of resources from our existing business, which in turn could have an adverse effect on our operations. Acquired assets or businesses may not generate the financial results we expect. Acquisitions could result in the use of substantial amounts of cash, potentially dilutive issuances of equity securities, the occurrence of significant goodwill impairment charges, amortization expenses for other intangible assets and exposure to potential unknown liabilities of the acquired business. Moreover, the costs of identifying and consummating acquisitions may be significant.

We are, and may in the future be, subject to legal proceedings in the ordinary course of our business. if the outcomes of these proceedings are adverse to us, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

We are subject to various litigation matters from time to time, the outcome of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Claims arising out of actual or alleged violations of law could be asserted against us by individuals, either individually or through class actions, by governmental entities in civil or criminal investigations and proceedings or by other entities. These claims could be asserted under a variety of laws, including but not limited to consumer finance laws, consumer protection laws, tort laws, environmental laws, intellectual property laws, privacy laws, labor and employment laws, securities laws, and employee benefit laws. Claims may also arise out of actual or alleged breaches of contract or other actual or alleged acts or omissions by or on behalf of us. These actions could expose us to adverse publicity and to substantial monetary damages and legal defense costs, injunctive relief and criminal and civil fines and penalties, including but not limited to suspension or revocation of licenses to conduct business. Even if we are successful in defending against legal claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and demand on management resources. See “Business—Legal Proceedings.”

Changes in tax laws may materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

New income, sales, use or other tax laws, statutes, rules, regulation or ordinances could be enacted at any time, or interpreted, changed, modified or applied adversely to us, any of which could adversely affect our business operations and financial performance. In particular, the recent presidential, congressional, state and local elections in the United States could result in significant changes in, and uncertainty with respect to, tax legislation, regulation and government policy directly affecting our business or indirectly affecting us because of impacts on our customers, suppliers and manufacturers. For example, the United States government may enact significant changes to the taxation of business entities including, among others, an increase in the corporate income tax rate and the imposition of minimum taxes or surtaxes on certain types of income. No specific U.S. tax legislation has been proposed at this time and the likelihood of these changes being enacted or implemented is unclear. We are currently unable to predict whether such changes will occur and, if so, the ultimate impact on our business. To the extent that such changes have a negative impact on us, our suppliers, manufacturers or our customers, including as a result of related uncertainty, these changes may materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

Our ability to use net operating loss carryforwards and other tax attributes is limited due to certain provisions of the Internal Revenue Code.

We have incurred substantial losses during our history and do not expect to become profitable in the foreseeable future, and we may never achieve profitability. Under the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, federal

 

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net operating loss carryforwards (“NOLs”) we generated in tax years through December 31, 2017 may be carried forward for 20 years and may fully offset taxable income in the year utilized, and federal NOLs we generated in tax years beginning after December 31, 2017 may be carried forward indefinitely but may only be used to offset 80% of our taxable income annually. Under Sections 382 and 383 of the Internal Revenue Code (the “Code”), if a corporation undergoes an “ownership change,” the corporation’s ability to use its pre-change federal NOLs and other tax attributes (such as research and development tax credits) to offset its post-change income and taxes may be limited. In general, an “ownership change” occurs if there is a greater than 50 percentage point change (by value) in a corporation’s equity ownership by certain stockholders over a rolling three-year period. We have experienced ownership changes in the past and may experience ownership changes in the future as a result of subsequent shifts in our stock ownership (some of which shifts are outside our control). As a result, our ability to use our pre-change federal NOLs and other tax attributes to offset future taxable income and taxes could be subject to limitations. Similar provisions of state tax law may also apply. For these reasons, even if we achieve profitability, we may be unable to use a material portion of our NOLs and other tax attributes, which could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

Risks Related to the Ownership of Our Class A Common Stock and this Offering

There has been no prior public market for our Class A common stock. an active market may not develop or be sustainable, and you may not be able to resell your shares at or above the initial public offering price.

There has been no public market for our Class A common stock prior to this offering. The initial public offering price for our Class A common stock was determined through negotiations between us and the underwriters and may vary from the market price of our Class A common stock following the completion of this offering. An active or liquid market in our Class A common stock may not develop upon completion of this offering or, if it does develop, it may not be sustainable. In the absence of an active trading market for our Class A common stock, you may not be able to resell any shares you hold at or above the initial public offering price or at all. We cannot predict the prices at which our Class A common stock will trade.

In addition, we currently anticipate that up to 0.5% of the shares of Class A common stock offered hereby will, at our request, be offered to retail investors through SoFi Securities LLC (“SoFi”) via its online brokerage platform. SoFi will be a selling group member. There may be risks associated with the use of such platform that we cannot foresee, including risks related to the technology and operation of such platform, and the publicity and the use of social media by users of such platform that we cannot control.

Our stock price may be volatile or may decline regardless of our operating performance, resulting in substantial losses for investors purchasing shares in this offering.

The market price of our Class A common stock may fluctuate significantly in response to numerous factors, many of which are beyond our control, including:

 

   

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our financial condition and results of operations;

 

   

the projections we may provide to the public, any changes in these projections or our failure to meet these projections;

 

   

failure of securities analysts to initiate or maintain coverage of the Company, changes in financial estimates or ratings by any securities analysts who follow the Company or our failure to meet these estimates or the expectations of investors;

 

   

announcements by us or our competitors of significant technical innovations, acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures, results of operations or capital commitments;

 

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changes in stock market valuations and operating performance of other electric vehicle companies generally, or those in our industry in particular;

 

   

price and volume fluctuations in the overall stock market, including as a result of trends in the economy as a whole;

 

   

changes in our board of directors or management;

 

   

sales of large blocks of our common stock, including sales by our founder or our executive officers and directors;

 

   

lawsuits threatened or filed against us;

 

   

anticipated or actual changes in laws, regulations or government policies applicable to our business;

 

   

changes in our capital structure, such as future issuances of debt or equity securities;

 

   

short sales, hedging and other derivative transactions involving our capital stock;

 

   

general economic conditions in the United States;

 

   

other events or factors, including those resulting from war, pandemics (including COVID-19 and associated variants), incidents of terrorism or responses to these events; and

 

   

the other factors described in the sections of this prospectus titled “Risk Factors” and “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”

The stock market has recently experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations. The market prices of securities of companies have experienced fluctuations that often have been unrelated or disproportionate to their results of operations. Market fluctuations could result in extreme volatility in the price of shares of our Class A common stock, which could cause a decline in the value of your investment. Price volatility may be greater if the public float and trading volume of shares of our Class A common stock is low. Furthermore, in the past, stockholders have sometimes instituted securities class action litigation against companies following periods of volatility in the market price of their securities. Any similar litigation against us could result in substantial costs, divert management’s attention and resources, and harm our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

In addition, the cornerstone investors have indicated an interest in purchasing up to an aggregate of $5.0 billion in shares of our Class A common stock in this offering at the initial public offering price. Because these indications of interest are not binding agreements or commitments to purchase, the cornerstone investors may determine to purchase more, fewer or no shares in this offering, or the underwriters may determine to sell more, less or no shares to the cornerstone investors. The shares of Class A common stock to be purchased by the cornerstone investors will not be subject to a lock-up agreement with the underwriters for this offering. The underwriters will receive the same discount on any of our shares of Class A common stock purchased by the cornerstone investors as they will from any other shares of Class A common stock sold to the public in this offering. If one or more of the cornerstone investors are allocated all or a portion (or more) of the shares of Class A common stock in which they have indicated an interest in purchasing in this offering, and purchase any such shares, such purchase could reduce the available public float for our Class A common stock if the cornerstone investors hold such shares of Class A common stock long term.

After this offering, our executive officers, directors, and principal stockholders, if they choose to act together, will continue to retain significant voting power.

Upon the closing of this offering, our executive officers, directors, and stockholders who owned more than 5% of our outstanding common stock before this offering and their respective affiliates will, in

 

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the aggregate, hold shares representing approximately 80.5% of the voting power of our outstanding capital stock. As a result, these stockholders will be able to significantly influence all matters submitted to our stockholders for approval, as well as our management and affairs, particularly if they were to choose to act together. For example, these persons, if they choose to act together, would control or significantly influence the election of directors and approval of any merger, consolidation, or sale of substantially all of our assets. This concentration of ownership control may:

 

   

delay or prevent a change in control;

 

   

entrench our management and our board of directors; or

 

   

impede a merger, consolidation, takeover, or other business combination involving us that other stockholders may desire.

In addition, each share of our Class B common stock is entitled to ten votes, while each share of our Class A common stock entitles its holder to one vote. Immediately following the completion of this offering, an affiliate of our Founder and Chief Executive Officer, Robert J. Scaringe, will hold all outstanding shares of our Class B common stock. Due to our dual class structure, affiliates of Dr. Scaringe, following the completion of this offering, will hold shares of our common stock representing, in the aggregate, approximately 8.9% of the voting power of our outstanding capital stock but 1.4% of the total shares of common stock outstanding.

In addition, while we do not expect to issue any additional shares of Class B common stock following this offering, any future issuances of Class B common stock would be dilutive to holders of Class A common stock.

We cannot predict the impact our dual class structure may have on the market price of our Class A common stock.

We cannot predict whether our dual class structure will result in a lower or more volatile market

price of our Class A common stock, in adverse publicity, or in other adverse consequences. Certain index providers have announced restrictions on including companies with multiple class share structures in certain of their indices. For example, S&P Dow Jones has stated that companies with multiple share classes will not be eligible for inclusion in the S&P Composite 1500 (composed of the S&P 500, S&P MidCap 400, and S&P SmallCap 600), and under the announced policies, our dual class capital structure would make us ineligible for inclusion in any of these indices. Given the sustained flow of investment funds into passive strategies that seek to track certain indices, exclusion from stock indices would likely preclude investment by many of these funds and could make our Class A common stock less attractive to other investors. As a result, the market price of our Class A common stock could be materially adversely affected.

Sales, directly or indirectly, of a substantial amount of our Class A common stock in the public markets by our existing security holders may cause the price of our Class A common stock to decline.

Sales of a substantial number of shares of our Class A common stock into the public market, particularly sales by our directors, executive officers and principal stockholders, or the perception that these sales might occur, could cause the market price of our Class A common stock to decline. Many of our existing security holders have substantial unrecognized gains on the value of the equity they hold, and may take steps to sell their shares or otherwise secure or limit their risk exposure to the value of their unrecognized gains on those shares. We are unable to predict the timing or effect of such sales on the market price of our Class A common stock.

All of the shares of Class A common stock sold in this offering will be freely tradable without restrictions or further registration under the Securities Act, except that any shares held by our affiliates,

 

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as defined in Rule 144 under the Securities Act, would only be able to be sold in compliance with Rule 144 and any applicable lock-up agreements described below.

We and all of our directors and executive officers and certain other record holders that together represent approximately 99.6% of our outstanding Class A common stock and securities directly or indirectly convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for our Class A common stock (“Other Securities”) are subject to lock-up agreements and/or market standoff agreements that restrict our and their ability to sell or transfer shares of our capital stock for a period of 180 days from the date of this prospectus, subject to certain exceptions. Holders of approximately 3.6 million shares of Other Securities, issued under our equity incentive plans, are not subject to a market standoff agreement. In addition, Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC, Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC and J.P. Morgan Securities LLC (the “representatives”) may release certain stockholders from the lock-up agreements prior to the end of the lock-up period. If not otherwise early released, when the applicable market standoff agreements or lock-up periods expire, we and our security holders subject to a lock-up agreement or such market standoff agreements will be able to sell our shares freely in the public market, except that any shares held by our affiliates, as defined in Rule 144 under the Securities Act, would only be able to be sold in compliance with Rule 144. Sales of a substantial number of such shares upon expiration of the lock-up agreements and market standoff agreements, or the perception that such sales may occur, or early release of these agreements, could cause our market price to fall or make it more difficult for you to sell your Class A common stock at a time and price that you deem appropriate. See the section titled “Shares Eligible for Future Sale” for additional information regarding shares of our Class A common stock that will be eligible for resale after this offering.

In addition, as of June 30, 2021, and after giving effect to the Transactions, we had stock options and RSUs outstanding that, if fully exercised, vested, or settled, would result in the issuance of 89,288,602 shares of Class A common stock. All of the shares of Class A common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options, and the shares reserved for future issuance under our equity incentive plans, will be registered for public resale under the Securities Act. Accordingly, these shares will be able to be freely sold in the public market upon issuance subject to existing lock-up or market standoff agreements and applicable vesting requirements.

Further, based on shares outstanding as of June 30, 2021, holders of 584,587,152 shares of our common stock will have rights after the completion of this offering, subject to certain conditions, to require us to file registration statements for the public resale of shares of our Class A common stock or to include such shares in registration statements that we may file for us or other stockholders.

Although we ceased to be an “emerging growth company,” we can continue to take advantage of certain reduced disclosure requirements in this registration statement, which may make our Class A common stock less attractive to investors.

We ceased to be an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the JOBS Act, on October 8, 2021 due to our issuance, in a three-year period, of more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt securities. However, because we ceased to be an “emerging growth company” after we confidentially submitted our registration statement related to this offering to the SEC, we will be treated as an “emerging growth company” for certain purposes until the earlier of the date on which we complete this offering and October 8, 2022. As such, we have elected to take advantage of certain exemptions and relief from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies. These provisions include, but are not limited to, being permitted to have only two years of audited financial statements and only two years of related selected financial data and management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations disclosures, and reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation.

 

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We cannot predict if investors will find our Class A common stock less attractive because we have relied on these exemptions. If some investors find our Class A common stock less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our Class A common stock and our stock price may decline or become more volatile.

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research, or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research, about our business, the price of our Class A common stock and trading volume could decline.

The trading market for our Class A common stock will depend in part on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business, our market and our competitors. We do not have any control over these analysts. If few securities analysts commence coverage of us, or if industry analysts cease coverage of us, the trading price for our Class A common stock would be negatively affected. If one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrade our Class A common stock or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, our Class A common stock price would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of us or fail to publish reports on us regularly, demand for our Class A common stock could decrease, which might cause our Class A common stock price and trading volume to decline.

Purchasers in this offering will experience immediate and substantial dilution in the book value of their investment.

The assumed initial public offering price of our Class A common stock of $59.50 per share (which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus) is substantially higher than the pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share of our outstanding Class A common stock immediately after this offering. Therefore, if you purchase our Class A common stock in this offering, you will incur immediate dilution of $41.19 in the pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share from the price you paid assuming that stock price. In addition, following this offering, purchasers who bought shares from us in the offering will have contributed 42.9% of the total consideration paid to us by our stockholders to purchase 135,000,000 shares of Class A common stock to be sold by us in this offering, in exchange for acquiring approximately 15.7% of our total outstanding shares as of June 30, 2021, after giving effect to this offering. If the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares, if we issue any additional stock options or warrants or any outstanding stock options or warrants are exercised, if RSUs are settled, or if we issue any other securities or convertible debt in the future, investors will experience further dilution.

We will have broad discretion in the use of the net proceeds we receive in this offering and may not use them in ways that prove to be effective.

We will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds we receive in this offering, including for any of the purposes described in the section titled “Use of Proceeds,” and you will not have the opportunity as part of your investment decision to assess whether the net proceeds are being used appropriately. Because of the number and variability of factors that will determine our use of the net proceeds from this offering, their ultimate use may vary substantially from their currently intended use and it is possible that a substantial portion of the net proceeds will be invested in a way that does not yield a favorable, or any, return for us. If we do not use the net proceeds that we receive in this offering effectively, our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows could be harmed, and the market price for our Class A common stock could decline.

 

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We do not intend to pay dividends for the foreseeable future. Consequently, any gains from an investment in our common stock will likely depend on whether the price of our Class A common stock increases.

We currently intend to retain any future earnings to finance the operation and expansion of our business and we do not expect to declare or pay any dividends in the foreseeable future. Moreover, the terms of our ABL Facility and the indenture governing the 2026 Notes restrict the ability of certain of our subsidiaries to pay dividends to us, and any additional debt we may incur in the future may restrict our ability to declare or pay cash dividends or make distributions. In addition, Delaware law may impose requirements that may restrict our ability to pay dividends to holders of our Class A common stock. As a result, stockholders must rely on sales of their Class A common stock after price appreciation, which may never occur, as the only way to realize any future gains on their investment.

Anti-takeover provisions contained in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws, as well as provisions of Delaware law, could impair a takeover attempt.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws, which will become effective immediately prior to the completion of this offering, and Delaware law contain provisions which could have the effect of rendering more difficult, delaying, or preventing an acquisition. Our corporate governance documents provide for:

 

   

a dual class structure;

 

   

a classified board of directors with three-year staggered terms, who can only be removed for cause, which may delay the ability of stockholders to change the membership of a majority of our board of directors;

 

   

no cumulative voting in the election of directors, which limits the ability of minority stockholders to elect director candidates;

 

   

the exclusive right of our board of directors to set the size of the board of directors and to elect a director to fill a vacancy, however occurring, including by an expansion of the board of directors, which prevents stockholders from being able to fill vacancies on our board of directors;

 

   

the ability of our board of directors to authorize the issuance of shares of preferred stock and to determine the price and other terms of those shares, including voting or other rights or preferences, without stockholder approval, which could be used to significantly dilute the ownership of a hostile acquiror;

 

   

the ability of our board of directors to alter our amended and restated bylaws without obtaining stockholder approval;

 

   

in addition to our board of director’s ability to adopt, amend, or repeal our amended and restated bylaws, our stockholders may adopt, amend, or repeal our amended and restated bylaws only with the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 66 2/3% of the voting power of all our then outstanding shares of capital stock;

 

   

the required approval of (i) at least 66 2/3% of the voting power of the outstanding shares of capital stock entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, voting together as a single class, to adopt, amend, or repeal certain provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and (ii) for so long as any shares of Class B common stock are outstanding, the holders of at least 80% of the shares of Class B common stock outstanding at the time of such vote, voting as a separate series, to adopt, amend, or repeal certain provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation;

 

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the requirement that a special meeting of stockholders may be called only by an officer of our company pursuant to a resolution adopted by a majority of our board of directors then in office or the chairperson of our board of directors; and

 

   

advance notice procedures that stockholders must comply with in order to nominate candidates to our board of directors or to propose matters to be acted upon at a stockholders’ meeting, which may discourage or deter a potential acquiror from conducting a solicitation of proxies to elect the acquiror’s own slate of directors or otherwise attempting to obtain control of us.

These provisions, alone or together, could delay or prevent hostile takeovers and changes in

control or changes in our management.

As a Delaware corporation, we are also subject to provisions of Delaware law, including Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law (the “DGCL”), which prevents some stockholders holding more than 15% of our outstanding common stock from engaging in certain business combinations without approval of the holders of substantially all of our outstanding common stock.

Any provision of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, amended and restated bylaws or Delaware law that has the effect of delaying or deterring a change in control could limit the opportunity for our stockholders to receive a premium for their shares of our common stock, and could also affect the price that some investors are willing to pay for our Class A common stock.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation will provide that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the sole and exclusive forum for certain stockholder litigation matters and the federal district courts of the United States shall be the exclusive forum for the resolution of any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the securities act, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers, employees or stockholders.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation will provide that, unless we otherwise consent in writing, (1) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, (2) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any current or former director, officer, other employee or stockholder of ours to us or our stockholders, (3) any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the DGCL, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or our amended and restated bylaws (as either may be amended or restated) or as to which the DGCL confers exclusive jurisdiction on the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware or (4) any action asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine of the law of the State of Delaware shall, to the fullest extent permitted by law, be exclusively brought in the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware or, if such court does not have subject matter jurisdiction thereof, the federal district court of the State of Delaware; and (B) the federal district courts of the United States shall be the exclusive forum for the resolution of any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act; however, there is uncertainty as to whether a court would enforce such provision, and investors cannot waive compliance with federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder. For example, Section 22 of the Securities Act creates concurrent jurisdiction for federal and state courts over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Securities Act or the rules and regulations thereunder. Accordingly, there is uncertainty as to whether a court would enforce such a forum selection provision as written in connection with claims arising under the Securities Act.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, the exclusive forum provision shall not apply to claims seeking to enforce any liability or duty created by the Exchange Act.

The choice of forum provision may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other employees, which may discourage

 

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such lawsuits against us and our directors, officers, and other employees, although our stockholders will not be deemed to have waived our compliance with federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder. Alternatively, if a court were to find the choice of forum provision contained in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with litigating such action in another jurisdiction, which could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations. Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring or holding any interest in shares of our capital stock shall be deemed to have notice of and consented to the forum provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation.

General Risk Factors

The estimates of market opportunity and forecasts of market growth included in this prospectus may prove to be inaccurate, and even if the markets in which we compete achieve the forecasted growth, our business could fail to grow at similar rates, or at all.

The estimates of market opportunity and forecasts of market growth included in this prospectus may prove to be inaccurate. Market opportunity estimates and growth forecasts are subject to significant uncertainty and are based on assumptions and estimates that may not prove to be accurate, including as a result of any of the risks described in this prospectus.

The variables that go into the calculation of our market opportunity are subject to change over time, and there is no guarantee that any particular number or percentage of addressable customers covered by our market opportunity estimates will purchase our products at all or generate any particular level of revenues for us. Even if the markets in which we compete meet the size estimates and growth forecasted in this prospectus, our business could fail to grow at similar rates, or at all. Our growth is subject to many factors, including our success in implementing our business strategy, which is subject to many risks and uncertainties. Accordingly, the forecasts of market growth included in this prospectus should not be taken as indicative of our future growth.

Our business is subject to the risk of earthquakes, fire, power outages, floods, other natural disasters, the physical effects of climate change and other catastrophic events, and to interruption by manmade events such as terrorism.

Our business is vulnerable to damage or interruption from power losses, telecommunications failures, terrorist attacks, acts of war, human errors, break-ins, natural disasters and the physical effects of climate change, which may include more frequent or severe storms, hurricanes, droughts and wildfires, and other similar events. The third-party systems and operations and suppliers and service providers we rely on are subject to similar risks. For example, a significant natural disaster, such as an earthquake, fire, or flood, could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results, and our insurance coverage may be insufficient to compensate us for losses that may occur. Acts of terrorism, which may be targeted at metropolitan areas that have higher population density than rural areas, could also cause disruptions in our or our suppliers’ and service providers’ businesses or the economy as a whole. We may not have sufficient protection or recovery plans in some circumstances, such as natural disasters affecting locations that store significant inventory of our products. We plan to initially engineer, manufacture and assemble our vehicles at a single facility in Normal, Illinois. Further, in many cases, we rely on a single-source supplier for vehicle parts. Any prolonged disruption of operations at our manufacturing facility or our suppliers’ facilities, whether due to technical, information systems, communication networks, strikes, accidents, weather conditions or other natural disasters, the COVID-19 pandemic or otherwise, whether short- or long-term, would materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

 

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Our insurance strategy may not be adequate to protect us from all business risks.

In the ordinary course of business, we may be subject to losses resulting from product liability, consumer actions, accidents, acts of God, and other claims against us, for which we may have no insurance coverage. While we currently carry commercial general liability, commercial automobile liability, product liability, excess liability, workers’ compensation, employment practices liability, cyber security and directors’ and officers’ insurance policies, we may not maintain as much insurance coverage as other vehicle manufacturers do, and in some cases, we may not maintain any at all. Additionally, the policies that we do have may include significant deductibles, and we cannot be certain that our insurance coverage will be sufficient to cover all future claims against us. A loss that is uninsured or exceeds policy limits may require us to pay substantial amounts, which could adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

General business and economic conditions could reduce our orders and sales, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

Our business and results of operations may be subject to global economic conditions and their impact on customer discretionary spending. Some factors that may negatively influence customer spending include high levels of unemployment, higher customer debt levels, declines in asset values and related market uncertainty, fluctuating interest rates and credit availability, fluctuating fuel and other energy costs, and national and global geo-political and economic uncertainty, including in connection with tariffs or trade laws. Economic conditions in certain regions may also be affected by natural disasters, such as earthquakes, hurricanes, tropical storms and wildfires, public health crises, political crises, such as terrorist attacks, war or other political instability or other unexpected events, and such events could also disrupt our operations, internet or mobile networks or the operations of one or more of our third-party suppliers or providers. Customer purchases of discretionary items, including our EVs or other products or services, may decline during periods of economic uncertainty, when disposable income is reduced or when there is a reduction in consumer confidence.

Our management has limited experience in operating a public company.

Our executive officers have limited experience in the management of a publicly traded company. Our management team may not successfully or effectively manage our transition to a public company that will be subject to significant regulatory oversight and reporting obligations under federal securities laws. Their limited experience in dealing with the increasingly complex laws pertaining to public companies could be a significant disadvantage in that it is likely that an increasing amount of their time may be devoted to these activities which will result in less time being devoted to the management and growth of the Company. We may not have adequate personnel with the appropriate level of knowledge, experience, and training in the accounting policies, practices or internal controls over financial reporting required of public companies in the United States. The development and implementation of the standards and controls necessary for the combined company to achieve the level of accounting standards required of a public company in the United States may require costs greater than expected. It is possible that we will be required to expand our employee base and hire additional employees to support our operations as a public company, which will increase our operating costs in future periods.

We will incur significant additional costs as a result of being a public company, and our management will be required to devote substantial time to compliance with our public company responsibilities and corporate governance practices.

Upon completion of this offering, we expect to incur increased costs associated with corporate governance requirements that will become applicable to us as a public company, including rules and

 

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regulations of the SEC, under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Customer Protection Act of 2010, and the Exchange Act, as well as the rules of Nasdaq. These rules and regulations are expected to significantly increase our accounting, legal and financial compliance costs and make some activities more time consuming, including due to increased training of our current employees, additional hiring of new employees, and increased assistance from consultants. We expect such expenses to further increase after we are no longer treated as an “emerging growth company” following this offering. We also expect these rules and regulations to make it more expensive for us to maintain directors’ and officers’ liability insurance. As a result, it may be more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified persons to serve on our board of directors or as executive officers. Furthermore, these rules and regulations will increase our legal and financial compliance costs and will make some activities more time-consuming and costly. We cannot predict or estimate the amount of additional costs we will incur as a public company or the timing of such costs. In addition, our management team will need to devote substantial attention to transitioning to interacting with public company analysts and investors, and complying with the increasingly complex laws pertaining to public companies, which may divert attention away from the day-to-day management of our business, including operational, research and development and sales and marketing activities. Increases in costs incurred or diversion of management’s attention as a result of becoming a publicly traded company may adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

If our estimates or judgments relating to our critical accounting policies are based on assumptions that change or prove to be incorrect, our results of operations could fall below the expectations of our investors and securities analysts, resulting in a decline in the trading price of our Class A common stock.

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in our consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, as discussed in the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included elsewhere in this prospectus, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets, liabilities, equity and expenses that are not readily apparent from other sources. Our results of operations may be adversely affected if our assumptions change or if actual circumstances differ from those in our assumptions, which could cause our results of operations to fall below our publicly announced guidance or the expectations of securities analysts and investors, resulting in a decline in the market price of our Class A common stock.

Our reported financial results may be negatively impacted by changes in U.S. GAAP and financial reporting requirements.

U.S. GAAP and related financial reporting requirements are complex, continually evolving and may be subject to varied interpretation by the relevant authoritative bodies, including the Financial Accounting Standards Board (the “FASB”), the SEC and various bodies formed to promulgate and interpret appropriate accounting principles. FASB has in the past issued new or revised accounting standards that superseded existing guidance and significantly impacted the reporting of financial results. Any future change in U.S. GAAP principles and financial reporting requirements or interpretations could also have a significant effect on our reported financial results, and may even affect the reporting of transactions completed before the announcement or effectiveness of a change. It is difficult to predict the impact of future changes to accounting principles or our accounting policies, any of which could negatively affect our reported results of operations.

We have identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting. If our remediation of such material weaknesses is not effective, or if we experience additional material

 

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weaknesses in the future or otherwise fail to develop and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting, our ability to produce timely and accurate financial statements or comply with applicable laws and regulations could be impaired.

As a public company, we will be required to maintain internal control over financial reporting and to evaluate and determine the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. Beginning with our second annual report following this offering, we will be required to provide a management report on internal control over financial reporting, as well as an attestation of our independent registered public accounting firm. Thus, in accordance with the provisions of the JOBS Act, we and our independent registered public accounting firm were not required to, and did not, perform an evaluation of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020, nor any period subsequent in accordance with the provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.

However, while preparing the financial statements that are included in this prospectus, we identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting. A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis.

The material weaknesses identified pertained to controls to address segregation of duties across financially relevant functions and information technology general controls over tools and applications used in financial reporting. We have concluded that these material weaknesses existed because, as a private company, we did not have the necessary business processes, systems, personnel and related internal controls necessary to satisfy the accounting and financial reporting requirements of a public company. The deficiencies identified did not result in a misstatement to our financial statements.

We have taken and will continue to take action to remediate these material weaknesses, including:

 

   

implementation of processes and controls to better identify and manage segregation of duties risks;

 

   

implementation of IT general controls to manage access and program changes within our IT environment; and

 

   

continued hiring of additional accounting and finance resources with public company experience and to better allow for segregation of conflicting duties.

We will not be able to fully remediate these material weaknesses until these steps have been completed and have been operating effectively for a sufficient period of time. Additionally, as stated above, we have not performed an evaluation of our internal control over financial reporting as permitted under the JOBS Act; accordingly, we cannot assure you that we have identified all, or that we will not in the future have additional, material weaknesses. Material weaknesses may still exist when we report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as required under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, beginning with our second annual report after the completion of this offering.

The process of designing and implementing internal control over financial reporting required to comply with the disclosure and attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act will be time consuming and costly. If during the evaluation and testing process we identify additional material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting or determine that existing material weaknesses have not been remediated, our management will be unable to assert that our internal control over financial reporting is effective. Even if our management concludes that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, our independent registered public accounting firm may conclude that there are material weaknesses with respect to our internal control over financial reporting. If we are unable to assert that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, or when required in the future, if our

 

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independent registered public accounting firm is unable to express an unqualified opinion as to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports, the market price of our Class A common stock could be adversely affected and we could become subject to litigation or investigations by the stock exchange on which our securities are listed, the SEC, or other regulatory authorities, which could require additional financial and management resources.

 

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus contains forward-looking statements about us and our industry that involve substantial risks and uncertainties. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this prospectus, including statements regarding our strategy, future financial condition, future operations, projected costs, prospects, plans, objectives of management, and expected market growth, are forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements because they contain words such as “may,” “will,” “shall,” “should,” “expects,” “plans,” “anticipates,” “could,” “intends,” “target,” “projects,” “contemplates,” “believes,” “estimates,” “predicts,” “potential,” “goal,” “objective,” “seeks,” or “continue” or the negative of these words or other similar terms or expressions that concern our expectations, strategy, plans, or intentions. Forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus include, but are not limited to, statements about:

 

   

our history of losses and expectation to incur significant expenses and continuing losses for the foreseeable future;

 

   

our ability to execute our business model, including market acceptance of our planned vehicles and products;

 

   

risks related to our limited operating history, the rollout of our business and the timing of expected business milestones, including our ability to develop and manufacture vehicles of sufficient quality and appeal to customers on schedule and on a large scale;

 

   

risks related to a significant portion of our initial revenue being derived from a single customer;

 

   

our financial and business performance, including financial projections and business metrics and any underlying assumptions thereunder;

 

   

changes in our strategy, future operations, financial position, estimated revenues and losses, projected costs, prospects and plans;

 

   

our ability to attract and retain a large number of customers;

 

   

the certainty and volume of our preorders, including our ability to identify potential new customers and preorders, our ability to convert preorders into binding orders and the ability of our customers to cancel or delay their preorders;

 

   

our future capital requirements and sources and uses of cash;

 

   

our ability to obtain funding for our operations and manage costs;

 

   

risks related to challenges we face as a new entrant into the highly-competitive and rapidly-evolving automotive industry;

 

   

risks related to potential delays in the design, manufacture, financing, regulatory approval, launch and delivery of our vehicles;

 

   

risks related to building out our supply chain, including our dependency on our existing suppliers and our ability to source suppliers, in each case many of which are single or limited source suppliers, for our critical components such as semiconductor chips;

 

   

our ability to realize the expected benefits of our charging networks;

 

   

our ability to attract and retain key personnel;

 

   

our business, expansion plans and opportunities, including our ability to scale our operations and manage our future growth effectively;

 

   

the effects on our future business of competition, the pace and depth of electric vehicle adoption generally and our ability to achieve planned competitive advantages with respect to our vehicles and products, including with respect to reliability, safety and efficiency;

 

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our expectations regarding our ability to obtain and maintain intellectual property protection and not infringe on the rights of others;

 

   

potential harm caused by misappropriation of our data and compromises in cybersecurity;

 

   

changes in laws, regulatory requirements, governmental incentives and fuel and energy prices;

 

   

the impact of health epidemics, including the COVID-19 pandemic, on our business, the other risks we face and the actions we may take in response thereto;

 

   

litigation, regulatory proceedings, complaints, product liability claims and/or adverse publicity;

 

   

the possibility that we may be adversely affected by other economic, business and/or competitive factors; and

 

   

other risks and uncertainties described in this prospectus, including those under the section entitled “Risk Factors.”

We caution you that the foregoing list does not contain all of the forward-looking statements made in this prospectus.

You should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. We have based the forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus primarily on our current expectations, estimates, forecasts and projections about future events and trends that we believe may affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects. Although we believe that we have a reasonable basis for each forward-looking statement contained in this prospectus, we cannot guarantee that the future results, levels of activity, performance or events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements will be achieved or occur at all. The outcome of the events described in these forward-looking statements is subject to risks, uncertainties and other factors described in the section titled “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this prospectus. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risks and uncertainties emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict all risks and uncertainties that could have an impact on the forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus. The results, events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements may not be achieved or occur, and actual results, events or circumstances could differ materially from those described in the forward-looking statements.

The forward-looking statements made in this prospectus relate only to events as of the date on which the statements are made. We undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements made in this prospectus to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this prospectus or to reflect new information or the occurrence of unanticipated events, except as required by law. We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements, and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures or investments we may make.

In addition, statements that “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based upon information available to us as of the date of this prospectus, and while we believe such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain and you are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements.

You should read this prospectus and the documents that we reference in this prospectus and have filed as exhibits to the registration statement, of which this prospectus is a part, completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. We qualify all of the forward-looking statements in this prospectus by these cautionary statements.

 

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MARKET AND INDUSTRY DATA

This prospectus contains estimates, projections and other information concerning our industry and our business, as well as data regarding market research, estimates and forecasts prepared by our management. Information that is based on estimates, forecasts, projections, market research or similar methodologies is inherently subject to uncertainties, and actual events or circumstances may differ materially from events and circumstances that are assumed in this information. The industry in which we operate is subject to a high degree of uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors, including those described in the section titled “Risk Factors.” Unless otherwise expressly stated, we obtained this industry, business, market and other data from reports, research surveys, studies and similar data prepared by market research firms and other third parties, industry and general publications, government data and similar sources. In some cases, we do not expressly refer to the sources from which this data is derived. In that regard, when we refer to one or more sources of this type of data in any paragraph, you should assume that other data of this type appearing in the same paragraph is derived from the same sources, unless otherwise expressly stated or the context otherwise requires. While we have compiled, extracted and reproduced industry data from these sources, we have not independently verified the data. Forecasts and other forward-looking information with respect to industry, business, market and other data are subject to the same qualifications and additional uncertainties regarding the other forward-looking statements in this prospectus. See “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We estimate that we will receive net proceeds from this offering of approximately $7,922 million (or $9,112 million if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock in full), based upon an assumed initial public offering price of $59.50 per share (which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus) and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

Each $1.00 increase or decrease in the assumed initial public offering price per share of $59.50 (which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus) would increase or decrease the net proceeds to us from this offering by approximately $133 million, assuming the number of shares of Class A common stock offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. Similarly, each 1,000,000 share increase or decrease in the number of shares of Class A common stock offered in this offering would increase or decrease the net proceeds to us from this offering by approximately $59 million, assuming that the initial public offering price per share remains at $59.50 (which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus), and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

The principal purposes of this offering are to increase our capitalization and financial flexibility, create a public market for our Class A common stock, and enable access to the public equity markets for us and our stockholders. We intend to use the net proceeds we receive from this offering for working capital to fund growth and other general corporate purposes, which may include research and development, sales and general administrative matters and capital expenditures. We may also use a portion of the net proceeds to acquire or make investments in businesses, products, offerings, and technologies, although we do not have agreements or commitments for any material acquisitions or investments at this time.

The expected use of net proceeds from this offering represents our intentions based upon our present plans and business conditions. We cannot predict with certainty all of the particular uses for the proceeds of this offering or the amounts that we will actually spend on the uses set forth above. Accordingly, our management will have broad discretion in applying the net proceeds of this offering. The timing and amount of our actual expenditures will be based on many factors, including cash flows from operations and the anticipated growth of our business. Pending their use, we intend to invest the net proceeds of this offering in one or more capital-preservation investments, which may include short- and intermediate-term investments, interest-bearing investments, investment-grade securities, government securities and money market funds.

 

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DIVIDEND POLICY

We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our capital stock. We currently intend to retain all available funds and future earnings, if any, for the operation and expansion of our business and do not anticipate declaring or paying any dividends in the foreseeable future. Our operations are generally conducted through our subsidiaries, and accordingly, our ability to pay dividends to our stockholders will be dependent on the earnings and distributions of funds from these subsidiaries. Covenants in the ABL Facility and the indenture governing the 2026 Notes restrict the ability of certain of our subsidiaries to pay dividends to us, and we may enter into credit agreements or other borrowing arrangements in the future that restrict our ability to declare or pay cash dividends or make distributions in the future. Any future determination related to our dividend policy will be made at the discretion of our board of directors after considering our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, contractual requirements, business prospects and other factors the board of directors deems relevant, and subject to the restrictions contained in any future financing instruments and applicable law.

 

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CAPITALIZATION

The following table sets forth cash and cash equivalents and capitalization as of June 30, 2021, as follows:

 

   

on an actual basis;

 

   

on a pro forma basis, giving effect to:

 

  (i)

the filing and effectiveness of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, which will occur immediately prior to the completion of this offering;

 

  (ii)

the reclassification of 101,473,375 outstanding shares of common stock into an equal number of shares of our Class A common stock, which will occur immediately prior to the completion of this offering, and the subsequent exchange of an aggregate of 7,825,000 shares of Class A common stock held by an affiliate of Robert J. Scaringe, our Founder and Chief Executive Officer, into an equivalent number of shares of Class B common stock in connection with the completion of this offering;

 

  (iii)

the automatic conversion of all outstanding shares of our contingently redeemable convertible preferred stock into an aggregate of 575,864,510 shares of our Class A common stock, which will occur immediately prior to the completion of this offering;

 

  (iv)

the automatic conversion of $2.5 billion in aggregate principal amount of our 2021 Convertible Notes into an aggregate of 49,431,537 shares of our Class A common stock immediately prior to the completion of this offering, after applying the applicable discount of 15% to the assumed initial public offering price of $59.50 per share (which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus);

 

  (v)

the net exercise of 250,000 outstanding warrants into 226,230 shares of our Class A common stock immediately prior to the completion of this offering, assuming an initial public offering price of $59.50 per share (which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus);

 

  (vi)

the issuance of $1.25 billion aggregate principal amount of senior secured floating rate notes due 2026, net of a $25 million original issue discount; and

 

  (vii)

$370 million of stock-based compensation expense to be recognized for the cumulative effect of RSUs and options outstanding as of the date of this prospectus that will have satisfied the service-based and performance-based vesting conditions in connection with this offering.

 

   

on a pro forma as adjusted basis, giving effect to (i) the pro forma adjustments set forth above, (ii) the issuance of 8,321,072 shares of our Class A common stock to Forever by Rivian, Inc. in connection with the completion of this offering and an associated non-cash charge of approximately $495 million, estimated based on the initial public offering price of $59.50 per share (which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus), and (iii) the sale and issuance of 135,000,000 shares of our Class A common stock in this offering at an assumed initial public offering price of $59.50 per share (which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus), after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

The information below is illustrative only. Our capitalization following the closing of this offering will be adjusted based on the actual initial public offering price and other terms of this offering determined at pricing. You should read this table together with our consolidated financial statements and related notes, and the sections titled “Selected Consolidated Financial and Other Data” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” that are included elsewhere in this prospectus.

 

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    As of June 30, 2021  
          Actual               Pro Forma         Pro Forma As
Adjusted(1)
 
   

(in millions, except share amounts

and par values)

 

Cash and cash equivalents(2)

  $ 3,658     $ 7,383     $ 15,305  

Long-term debt:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ABL Facility

    —         —         —    

2021 Convertible Notes

    —         —         —    

2026 Notes

    —         1,225       1,225  

Contingently redeemable convertible preferred stock, $0.001 par value: 579,587,560 shares authorized, shares issued and outstanding, actual; no shares authorized, issued and outstanding, pro forma and pro forma as adjusted

    7,894       —         —    

Stockholders’ deficit:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share; no shares authorized, issued and outstanding, actual; 10,000,000 shares authorized and no shares issued or outstanding, pro forma and pro forma as adjusted

    —         —         —    

Common stock, par value $0.001 per share; 816,465,244 shares authorized, 101,473,375 shares issued and outstanding, actual; no shares authorized, issued or outstanding, pro forma and pro forma as adjusted

    —         —         —    

Class A common stock, par value $0.001 per share; no shares authorized, issued and outstanding, actual; 3,500,000,000 shares authorized, 719,170,652 shares issued and outstanding, pro forma; 3,500,000,000 shares authorized, 862,491,723 shares issued and outstanding, pro forma as adjusted

    —         1       1  

Class B common stock, par value $0.001 per share; no shares authorized, issued and outstanding, actual; 7,825,000 shares authorized, 7,825,000 shares issued and outstanding, pro forma; 7,825,000 shares authorized, 7,825,000 shares issued and outstanding, pro forma as adjusted

    —         —         —    

Additional paid-in capital

    305       11,068       19,485  

Accumulated deficit

    (2,680     (3,050     (3,545
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total stockholders’ deficit

    (2,375     8,019       15,941  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total capitalization

  $ 5,519     $ 9,244     $ 17,166  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

(1)

Each $1.00 increase or decrease in the assumed initial public offering price per share of $59.50 (which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus) would increase or decrease, as applicable, the pro forma as adjusted amount of each of cash and cash equivalents and total stockholders’ deficit by approximately $133 million, assuming that the number of shares of Class A common stock offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. Similarly, each 1,000,000 share increase or decrease in the number of shares of Class A common stock offered in this offering would increase or decrease, as applicable, the pro forma as adjusted amount of each of cash and cash equivalents, additional paid-in capital and total stockholders’ deficit by $59 million, assuming that the initial public offering price per share remains at $59.50 (which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus), and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

(2)

See “Prospectus Summary—Recent Developments—Estimated Preliminary Results for the Three Months Ended September 30, 2021” for the preliminary estimate of cash and cash equivalents as of September 30, 2021.

 

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DILUTION

If you invest in our Class A common stock in this offering, your interest will be diluted to the extent of the difference between the initial public offering price per share of Class A common stock and the pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share of Class A common stock immediately after this offering.

Our historical net tangible book value (deficit) as of June 30, 2021 was $(2,382) million, or $(23.47) per share. Our historical net tangible book value (deficit) per share represents total tangible assets less total liabilities and contingently redeemable convertible preferred stock, which is not included within our stockholders’ deficit, divided by the number of shares of our common stock outstanding as of June 30, 2021.

Our pro forma net tangible book value (deficit) as of June 30, 2021 was $8,012 million, or $11.02 per share. Pro forma net tangible book value (deficit) per share represents the amount of our total tangible assets less our total liabilities, divided by the number of shares of our Class A and Class B common stock outstanding as of June 30, 2021, after giving effect to:

 

  (i)

the filing and effectiveness of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, which will occur immediately prior to the completion of this offering;

 

  (ii)

the reclassification of 101,473,375 outstanding shares of common stock into an equal number of shares of our Class A common stock, which will occur immediately prior to the completion of this offering, and the subsequent exchange of an aggregate of 7,825,000 shares of Class A common stock held by an affiliate of Robert J. Scaringe, our Founder and Chief Executive Officer, into an equivalent number of shares of Class B common stock in connection with the completion of this offering;

 

  (iii)

the automatic conversion of all outstanding shares of our contingently redeemable convertible preferred stock into an aggregate of 575,864,510 shares of our Class A common stock, which will occur immediately prior to the completion of this offering;

 

  (iv)

the automatic conversion of $2.5 billion in aggregate principal amount of our 2021 Convertible Notes into an aggregate of 49,431,537 shares of our Class A common stock immediately prior to the completion of this offering, after applying the applicable discount of 15% to the assumed initial public offering price of $59.50 per share (which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus);

 

  (v)

the net exercise of 250,000 outstanding warrants into 226,230 shares of our Class A common stock immediately prior to the completion of this offering, assuming an initial public offering price of $59.50 per share (which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus);

 

  (vi)

the issuance of $1.25 billion aggregate principal amount of senior secured floating rate notes due 2026, net of a $25 million original issue discount; and

 

  (vii)

$370 million of stock-based compensation expense to be recognized for the cumulative effect of RSUs and options outstanding as of the date of this prospectus that will have satisfied the service-based and performance-based vesting conditions in connection with this offering.

After giving further effect to receipt of the net proceeds from our issuance and sale of 135,000,000 shares of Class A common stock in this offering at an assumed initial public offering price per share of $59.50 (which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus), the issuance of 8,321,072 shares of our Class A common stock to Forever by Rivian, Inc. in connection with the completion of this offering and an associated non-cash charge of approximately $495 million, estimated

 

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based on the initial public offering price of $59.50 per share (which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus), and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses, our pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value (deficit) as of June 30, 2021 would have been approximately $15,934 million, or $18.31 per share. This amount represents an immediate increase in pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value (deficit) of $7.29 per share to our existing stockholders and an immediate dilution of approximately $41.19 per share to new investors purchasing Class A common stock in this offering.

We determine dilution by subtracting the pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering from the initial public offering price per share paid by new investors for a share of Class A common stock. The following table illustrates this dilution on a per share basis:

 

Assumed initial public offering price per share of Class A common stock

  

 

 

 

  $ 59.50  

Historical net tangible book value (deficit) per share as of June 30, 2021

   $ (23.47  

 

 

 

Increase per share attributable to the pro forma adjustments described above

     34.49    

 

 

 

  

 

 

   

Pro forma net tangible book value per share as of June 30, 2021

     11.02    

 

 

 

Increase in pro forma net tangible book value (deficit) per share attributable to new investors purchasing Class A common stock in this offering

     7.47    

 

 

 

Decrease in pro forma net tangible book value (deficit) per share attributable to the 8,321,072 shares of our Class A common stock with which we plan to initially fund Forever by Rivian, Inc.

     (0.18  

 

 

 

  

 

 

   

Pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value (deficit) per share immediately after this offering

  

 

 

 

  $ 18.31  
    

 

 

 

Dilution in pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value (deficit) per share to new investors in this offering

  

 

 

 

  $ 41.19  
    

 

 

 

The dilution information discussed above is illustrative only and may change based on the actual initial public offering price and other terms of this offering. Each $1.00 increase or decrease in the assumed initial public offering price per share of $59.50 (which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus) would increase or decrease, as applicable, our pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering by $0.15 per share and the dilution per share to new investors participating in this offering by $0.85 per share, assuming that the number of shares of Class A common stock offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. Similarly, a 1,000,000 share increase in the number of shares of Class A common stock offered by us would increase the pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value after this offering by $0.05 per share and decrease the dilution per share to new investors participating in this offering by $0.05 per share, and a 1,000,000 share decrease in the number of shares of Class A common stock offered by us would decrease the pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value by $0.05 per share, and increase the dilution per share to new investors in this offering by $0.05 per share, assuming that the assumed initial public offering price per share of $59.50 (which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus) remains the same and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

If the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock from us, the pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share after giving effect to this offering would be $19.23 per share, and the dilution to investors participating in this offering would be $40.27 per share.

The following table summarizes on the pro forma as adjusted basis described above (but not including the 8,321,072 shares of our Class A common stock with which we plan to initially fund Forever by Rivian, Inc. described above), the differences between the number of shares purchased from us, the total consideration paid and the average price per share paid to us by existing stockholders and by investors purchasing shares in this offering at the assumed initial public offering price per share of $59.50 (which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page on this prospectus), before

 

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deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us:

 

                                                                                                                            
     Shares Purchased      Total Consideration      Average Price
Per Share
 
     Number
(in millions)
       Percent        Amount
(in millions)
       Percent    

Existing stockholders

     727        84.3%      $ 10,700        57.1%      $ 14.72  

New investors

     135        15.7        8,033        42.9        59.50  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

     862        100%      $ 18,733        100%      $ 21.73  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

A $1.00 increase or decrease in the assumed initial public offering price per share of $59.50 (which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus) would increase or decrease, as applicable, the total consideration paid by new investors by $135 million and, in the case of an increase, would increase the percentage of total consideration paid by new investors to 43.3% and, in the case of a decrease, would decrease the percentage of total consideration paid by new investors to 42.5%, assuming that the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same. Similarly, a 1,000,000 share increase or decrease in the number of shares offered by us would increase or decrease, as applicable, the total consideration paid by new investors by $60 million and, in the case of an increase, would increase the percentage of total consideration paid by new investors to 43.1% and, in the case of a decrease, would decrease the percentage of total consideration paid by new investors to 42.7%, assuming that the assumed initial public offering price per share of $59.50 share (which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus) remains the same.

If the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock in full, our existing stockholders would own 82.4% and our new investors would own 17.6% of the total number of shares of our common stock outstanding upon the completion of this offering.

 

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SELECTED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL AND OTHER DATA

You should read the following selected consolidated financial data together with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes appearing at the end of this prospectus and the “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” section of this prospectus. We have derived the consolidated statement of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2020 and the consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2019 and 2020 from our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. The following selected consolidated statements of operations data for the six months ended June 30, 2020 and 2021 and the consolidated balance sheet data as of June 30, 2021 have been derived from our unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. These interim condensed consolidated financial statements are unaudited and, in the opinion of management, reflect all normal recurring adjustments necessary to fairly present the financial position, results of operations, and cash flows for the periods presented. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of results that may be expected in any future period, and our results for any interim period are not necessarily indicative of results that may be expected for any future period.

 

                                                                                           
     For The Years Ended
December 31,
    For The
Six Months Ended
June 30,
 
     2019     2020     2020     2021  
    

(in millions, except per share data)

 

Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operating expenses:

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research and development

   $ 301     $ 766     $ 292     $ 683  

Selling, general, and administrative

     108       255       89       307  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total operating expenses

     409       1,021       381       990  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Loss from operations

     (409     (1,021     (381     (990)  

Other (expense) income, net

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interest income

     18       10       8       1  

Interest expense

     (34     (8     (4     (6)  

Other (expense) income, net

     (1     1             1  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Loss before provision for income taxes

     (426     (1,018     (377     (994)  

Provision for income taxes

                        
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net loss

   $ (426   $ (1,018   $ (377   $ (994)  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net loss attributable to common stockholders, basic and diluted (Note 13)

   $ (426   $ (1,019   $ (377   $ (994)  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net loss per share attributable to common stockholders, basic and diluted

   $ (4.35   $ (10.09   $ (3.77   $ (9.84)  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Weighted-average common shares outstanding, basic and diluted

     98       101       100       101  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Pro forma net loss per share attributable to common stockholders, basic and diluted (unaudited)(1,2)

  

 

 

 

  $ (3.56  

 

 

 

  $ (1.47)  
    

 

 

     

 

 

 

Pro forma weighted average common shares outstanding, basic and diluted
(unaudited)(1,2)

  

 

 

 

    529    

 

 

 

    678  
    

 

 

     

 

 

 

 

(1)

See Note 13 “Net Loss Per Share” to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus for an explanation of the method used to calculate the historical basic and diluted net loss per share and the weighted average number of shares used in the computation of the per share amounts.

 

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(2)

Pro forma basic and diluted net loss per share attributable to common, shareholders for the year ended December 31, 2020 and for the six months ended June 30, 2021 has been computed to give effect to:

  (i)

the filing and effectiveness of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, which will occur immediately prior to the completion of this offering;

  (ii)

the automatic conversion of all outstanding shares of our contingently redeemable convertible preferred stock into an aggregate of 575,864,510 shares of our Class A common stock, which will occur immediately prior to the completion of this offering;

  (iii)

the net exercise of 250,000 outstanding warrants into 226,230 shares of our Class A common stock immediately prior to the completion of this offering, assuming an initial public offering price of $59.50 per share (which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus);

  (iv)

$370 million of stock-based compensation expense to be recognized for the cumulative effect of RSUs and options outstanding as of the date of this prospectus that will have satisfied the service-based and performance-based vesting conditions in connection with this offering; and

  (v)

the issuance of 8,321,072 shares of our Class A common stock to Forever by Rivian, Inc. to fund and support our social impact initiative in connection with the completion of this offering and an associated non-cash charge of approximately $495 million, estimated based on an assumed initial public offering price of $59.50 per share (which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus).

The following table sets forth the computation of the pro forma basic and diluted net loss per share assuming the offering is completed as of January 1, 2020:

 

     Year Ended
December 31,
    Six Months Ended
June 30,
 
     2020     2021  
     (in millions, except per share data)  

Numerator

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss attributable to Rivian

   $ (1,018   $ (994)

Less: Premium on repurchase of contingently redeemable convertible preferred stock

     (1      

Net loss attributable to common shareholders

   $ (1,019   $ (994)  

Pro forma adjustment to add back premium on repurchase of contingently redeemable convertible preferred stock

     1        

Pro forma stock-based compensation expense attributable to RSU and Option awards

     (370      

Pro forma adjustment to reflect non-cash expense related to the donation of Class A common stock to fund Forever by Rivian, Inc.

     (495      
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Pro forma net loss attributable to common shareholders, basic and diluted

   $ (1,883   $ (994)  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Denominator

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Weighted average common shares outstanding - basic and diluted

     101       101  

Pro forma adjustment to reflect the conversion of contingently redeemable convertible preferred stock

     420       569  

Pro forma adjustment to reflect the net exercise of Common Stock Warrants prior to IPO

            

Pro forma adjustment to reflect the donation of Class A common stock to fund Forever by Rivian, Inc.

     8       8  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Pro forma weighted average shares used in computing pro forma net loss per share attributable to common shareholders, basic and diluted

     529       678  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Pro forma net loss per share attributable to common shareholders, basic and diluted(1)

   $ (3.56   $ (1.47)  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

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     As of  
     December 31, 2019     December 31, 2020     June 30, 2021  
     (in millions)  

Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

   $ 2,264     $ 2,979     $ 3,658  

Working capital(1)

     2,108       2,405       3,040  

Total assets

     2,633       4,602       6,491  

Total liabilities

     258       742       972  

Contingently redeemable convertible preferred stock

     2,750       5,244       7,894  

Accumulated deficit

     (668     (1,686     (2,680

Total stockholders’ deficit

     (375     (1,384     (2,375

 

(1)

We define working capital as current assets less current liabilities. See our consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus for further details regarding our current assets and current liabilities.

 

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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations together with the “Selected Consolidated Financial and Other Data” and our consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus. This discussion contains forward-looking statements based upon current expectations that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including those set forth under the section titled “Risk Factors” or in other parts of this prospectus. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for any period in the future. Except as otherwise noted, all references to 2020 refer to the year ended December 31, 2020 and all references to 2019 refer to the year ended December 31, 2019.

Overview of Our Business

We design, develop, and manufacture category-defining EVs and accessories. We sell them directly to customers in the consumer and commercial markets. Our vehicles are complemented by a full suite of proprietary, value-added services that address the entire vehicle lifecycle.

Our business model is built around our vertically integrated ecosystem, which is comprised of our vehicle technology platform, Rivian Cloud, product development and operations, products, and services. We use a common vertically integrated technology platform and operations infrastructure to simultaneously address both the consumer and commercial markets. This enables us to deploy our offerings at scale and benefit from network effects that build data insights to improve our ecosystem. Our direct-to-customer relationships and connected vehicle technology allow us to gather customer and product insights over the full lifecycle of our vehicles. We will utilize these insights to continuously improve our offerings by adding new capabilities and functionality. Our ecosystem is designed to deliver fast-paced innovation cycles, structural cost advantages, and exceptional customer experiences, all of which combine to create a self-reinforcing growth dynamic while serving our mission to Keep The World Adventurous Forever.

In the consumer market, we launched the R1 platform with our first generation of consumer vehicle, initially with the R1T, a two-row five-passenger pickup truck, and then plan to launch the R1S, a three-row seven-passenger SUV, in December 2021. As of September 30, 2021, we produced 12 R1Ts and delivered 11 R1Ts, and as of October 31, 2021, we produced 180 R1Ts and delivered 156 R1Ts. Engineered for all of life’s adventures, our Electric Adventure Vehicles combine performance, utility, and efficiency. The R1T and R1S are equipped with a proprietary set of advanced technology systems, including vehicle electronics, battery, electric drive, chassis, Driver+, and digital user experience management. These technologies can continuously improve and expand functionality through cloud-enabled OTA updates. To accompany our vehicles, we have also developed a comprehensive portfolio of vehicle accessories that will further sharpen our brand’s focus on adventure and active lifestyles. Complementing our consumer vehicles, our suite of value-added services includes digitally enabled financing, telematics-based insurance, proactive vehicle service (maintenance and repair), flexible membership and software services, comprehensive charging solutions, and a data-driven vehicle resale program. We expect these services to generate long-term brand loyalty while also creating a recurring revenue stream for each vehicle across its lifecycle.

We sell our vehicles directly to customers through a digital-first strategy that is not only convenient and transparent for our customers, but also efficient and scalable for our continued growth. Our operating model takes roles traditionally fulfilled by dealerships and performs them online; our website and mobile app facilitate brand engagement, product discovery, demo drives, purchase transactions, vehicle deliveries, vehicle service, account management, and resale.

In the commercial market, we will launch the RCV platform with our first vehicle, the EDV. Alongside our commercial vehicles, we offer advanced vehicle customization services and FleetOS, our proprietary,

 

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end-to-end centralized fleet management subscription platform. FleetOS encompasses fleet distribution, service, telematics, software services, charging management, connectivity management, Driver+, and lifecycle management. Building upon this foundation, FleetOS will continually add more features over time, including leasing, financing, insurance, driver safety and coaching, smart charging and routing, remote diagnostics, 360° collision reports, and vehicle resale.

We believe our partnership with Amazon and its initial order of 100,000 EDVs, subject to modification as described below under “Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions,” together with our growing base of preorders for R1T and R1S, will provide accelerated scale and demand predictability. In addition, we expect the experiences we will gain with Amazon as we deliver their fleet of EDVs will enable us to improve our product offerings and build capabilities to support future fleet solutions.

In the near-term, we are targeting the pickup truck, SUV and commercial van market segments in the United States, Canada and Western Europe. We plan to achieve long-term growth by expanding in our existing markets, constructing a broad portfolio of vehicles and services with global appeal, entering major global automotive markets, strategically investing in our ecosystem, and expanding into adjacent verticals. In keeping with our long-term mindset, we are designing technology and infrastructure to support and benefit from the future transition to increased autonomy, new ownership models, and renewable energy solutions.

As a public company, we expect our operating expenses to increase. For example, in connection with this offering, we expect to recognize a stock-based compensation expense of $370 million for the cumulative effect of RSUs and options outstanding as of the date of this prospectus that will have satisfied the service-based and performance-based vesting conditions in connection with this offering. Based on the stock-based awards outstanding as of October 31, 2021, we expect to recognize approximately $185 million and $730 million of stock-based compensation expense for the remainder of the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021 and the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022, respectively. We have not recognized any stock-based compensation expense to date as the related performance-based vesting conditions are not deemed probable until they occur (i.e. a Change in Control or an Initial Public Offering). We anticipate that stock-based compensation will continue to be an important part of our overall compensation structure and we expect to recognize recurring non-cash charges in the future. See “—Operating Expenses” below.

In addition, in connection with the funding of Forever by Rivian, Inc., a 501(c)(4) social welfare organization, with shares of our Class A common stock in connection with the completion of this offering, we expect to recognize a one-time, non-cash expense of approximately $495 million, based on an assumed initial public offering price of $59.50 per share (which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus). Each $1.00 increase or decrease in the assumed initial public offering price per share of $59.50 (which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus) would increase or decrease, as applicable, the one-time, non-cash expense by approximately $8 million. See “Business—Our Climate Commitment—Forever.”

Our Business Model

We expect to generate the majority of our revenue in the near-term from the sales of consumer and commercial vehicles, accessories, and regulatory credits. Over time, we expect our revenue to also reflect value-added services that span the entire vehicle lifecycle and deepen our customer relationships. We have designed a customer journey that extends across the full vehicle lifecycle, including awareness, engagement, conversion, delivery, and ownership. We anticipate that our customer relationships will be enriched and prolonged by our broad offering of software and services, which we believe will enable us to better serve our customers while providing Rivian with recurring revenue streams beyond the initial vehicle sale.

 

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Our business model will rely on the following tenets to drive revenue, capture value over the full vehicle lifecycle, and expand both gross and operating margins.

 

   

Expansion of Capacity and Ramp of Production. Our Normal Factory currently has an estimated production capacity of 150,000 units annually. We began commercial production of the R1T in September 2021 and expect to start commercial production of the R1S and EDV in December 2021. Following the commencement of initial production, we expect to ramp vehicle production for our launch products at our Normal Factory and plan to expand our manufacturing footprint in Normal, Illinois as well as build additional domestic and international factories to support future growth.

 

   

Growth in Automotive Sales. We expect to generate revenue from the sale of new consumer and commercial vehicles, vehicle accessories, regulatory credits, used and trade-in vehicles, and Rivian merchandise. As of October 31, 2021, we had approximately 55,400 R1T and R1S preorders in the United States and Canada from customers who each paid a cancellable and fully refundable deposit of $1,000. Our commercial vehicles will initially consist of EDVs, and we plan to deliver 100,000 EDVs to Amazon by 2025. We expect vehicle demand to outpace our production volumes in the near-term as we work to fulfill customer preorders and continue to add to our backlog of preorders.

 

   

Expansion of our Services to Drive Customer Experience. We intend for each vehicle sale to be the start of a lifelong relationship with our customer. Our initial service offerings include financing, insurance, vehicle service, and FleetOS. We anticipate expanding our service offerings to provide greater coverage and convenience, and we plan to continue to invest in these offerings with a focus on becoming a highly valued partner for our customers over the full lifecycle. We expect our services revenue opportunity to grow considerably over time as we expand our membership and software programs, Driver+ features, and other offerings. To support our growing customer base, we plan to expand our interconnected network of Rivian destinations including our experience spaces and RAN DCFC locations, grow our network of Rivian Waypoints chargers, and increase our vehicle services footprint.

 

   

Increase in Services Adoption. As customers become engaged in the Rivian ecosystem, we expect them to increase their services adoption over time as we deliver a differentiated customer experience and offer higher-value subscription opportunities. For consumers, we anticipate recognizing revenue from a range of services, including membership and software services, financing and insurance, charging, vehicle services (maintenance and repair), as well as our resale program. For commercial customers, we expect that service revenue will be generated from solutions offered via FleetOS.

 

   

Improvement in Margin and Capture of Lifetime Revenue. As we grow our business, we expect to drive economies of scale through our ecosystem and generate revenue and margin from the sale of our products and services. Our decision to deeply vertically integrate our ecosystem has required substantial upfront investments in capabilities, technologies, and services that are often outsourced by other manufacturers. For example, we are making investments in vehicle technology, manufacturing capacity, and charging infrastructure, and these expenses will appear in our cost of revenue. We expect to operate at a negative gross profit per vehicle for the near term as our fixed costs from investments in vehicle technology, manufacturing capacity, and charging infrastructure are spread across a smaller product base until we launch additional vehicles and ramp production. This dynamic will cause our gross profit losses to increase on a dollar basis even as our revenue increases from ramping production volumes over the short to medium term. Additionally, U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“U.S. GAAP”) requires that we evaluate and carry inventory on our balance sheet at the lower of cost or net realizable value (“LCNRV”). To the extent that net realizable value (when considering future costs necessary to ready the inventory for sale) is

 

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lower than cost, we must immediately recognize the corresponding expense in cost of goods sold. As we are in the early stages of ramping vehicle production, much of our current inventory has a lower net realizable value than its cost. Additionally, as we continue to ramp production and inventory levels increase, we expect in the near term that we will continue to have significant LCNRV-related charges until such time as we have reached more significant production levels. Over the long term, we believe that we will be able to increase our gross margin in the long term and generate positive gross profit as production utilization increases and we leverage our investments. We believe our integrated ecosystem is highly scalable, allowing us to ramp vehicle volumes quickly, create new vehicle models that leverage our historical investments, and offer vehicles that address a wider range of use cases and price points. We intend for our portfolio of comprehensive services to amplify customer engagement and satisfaction, increase customer retention rates, and drive incremental lifetime revenue.

Factors Affecting Our Performance

The growth and future success of our business depends on many factors. While these factors present significant opportunities for our business, they also pose risks and challenges, including those discussed below and in the section of this prospectus titled “Risk Factors,” that we must successfully address to achieve growth, improve our results of operations, and generate profits.

 

   

Ability to Develop and Launch New Offerings. Based on initial preorders, our initial launch products, the R1T, R1S, and EDV, appear to resonate with customers and, we believe, have established the Rivian brand in the most attractive consumer and commercial vehicle market segments. However, our ability to grow revenue and expand margins will depend on our ability to develop and launch new vehicle platforms and programs. Our future financial performance will also depend on our ability to offer services that deliver an intuitive and seamless customer experience.

 

   

Ability to Attract New Customers. Our growth will depend in large part on our ability to attract new consumer and commercial customers. We have invested heavily in developing our ecosystem and plan to continue to do so. We are in the very early stages of growth in our existing markets, and we expect to substantially raise brand awareness by connecting directly with our community through engaging content, rich digital experiences, and immersive events. We anticipate that these activities will lead to additional preorders and deliveries, and, as a result, increase our base of Rivian customers. An inability to attract new customers would substantially impact our ability to grow revenue or improve our financial results.

 

   

Ability to Scale our Ecosystem and Brand Experience. Our go-to-market strategy requires us to scale our ecosystem quickly and effectively, including our technology platform and product development and operational infrastructure, to deliver a seamless customer experience. Our future success will also depend on our ability to further develop and leverage our proprietary technology platform. Our ability to enhance our product design, engineering, and manufacturing capabilities and expand our delivery and service operations, RAN, charging network, and customer service will be critical for supporting growth. We believe our long-term ability to achieve our financial targets will depend on our ability to cost effectively scale these elements, while also delivering a unified customer and brand experience consistent with our adventurous brand commitment.

 

   

Ability to Convert our Customers to Subscribers of our Services. Services are a key part of our growth strategy, driven by initial attach rate, member retention, and the subsequent adoption of future service offerings. We intend to offer a variety of services, including financing and insurance, vehicle maintenance and repair, membership, software, charging solutions, and FleetOS solutions that we believe will grow our revenue outside of vehicle sales. As we increase our base of Rivian customers and expand our services portfolio, we expect our customers to

 

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expand their usage of our service offerings over the full lifecycle of their vehicle ownership. We believe the services portion of our business will have the benefit of creating a higher margin, recurring revenue stream for each vehicle, therefore improving our margin profile. Our ability to grow revenue and our long-term financial performance will depend in part on our ability to drive adoption of these offerings.

 

   

Ability to Invest in our Production and Capabilities. We believe that customer acquisition and retention is contingent on our ability to produce innovative offerings, including vehicles that deliver the broadest combination of performance, utility, and capability, as well as services that enhance the ownership journey through new features, functions, and a best-in-class customer experience. To this end, we intend to continue to make investments to drive growth as we scale vehicle production and deliveries, expand our offerings, and strengthen our core capabilities. As we invest in our business for long-term growth, leading to increases in operating expenses as well as capital expenditures, we expect to experience additional losses, which could delay our ability to achieve profitability and positive operating cash flow. Furthermore, we anticipate that these future investments will require significant external debt and/or equity financing.

 

   

Ability to Develop and Manage a Resilient Supply Chain. Our ability to manufacture vehicles and develop future solutions is dependent on the continued supply of input materials, including metals, battery cells, and semiconductors. Fluctuations in the cost of materials, supply interruptions, or material shortages could materially impact our business. For example, the recent global semiconductor supply shortage is having wide-ranging effects across the automotive industry, and has impacted our operations and financial performance, along with those of many automotive suppliers and manufacturers that incorporate semiconductors into their products. We have experienced and may continue to experience cost fluctuations or disruptions in supply of input materials that could impact our financial performance.

 

   

Ability to Grow in New Geographies. We plan to invest in international operations and grow our business outside of our existing operations in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the EU. We believe we are well-positioned for international expansion in light of a healthy global demand for EVs and for the vehicle segments in which we currently, and expect to, operate. Other factors that we believe will aid our successful international growth include: the highly flexible, modular nature of our platforms, which we anticipate will provide us the ability to introduce new vehicle programs and configurations; our digital-first approach, which we anticipate will allow us to expand quickly and without a significant physical retail footprint; and our product development expertise, which we anticipate will enable us to offer significant customization for diverse international markets and demographics.

Our international expansion has significant associated investment requirements, such as capital spending related to infrastructure, including additional manufacturing capacity, delivery, and service operations, charging networks, and personnel. International expansion is also subject to a variety of risks, including local competition, multilingual customer support and servicing, delivery logistics, and compliance with foreign laws and regulations related to vehicle sales, data privacy, financing, taxes, labor and employment, and foreign exchange.

 

   

Ability to Maintain Our Culture, Attract and Retain Talent, and Scale Our Team. We believe our culture has been a key contributor to our success to date and our mission promotes a sense of greater purpose and fulfillment in our employees. We have invested in building a strong culture and believe it is one of our most important and sustainable sources of competitive advantage. Any failure to preserve our culture could negatively affect our ability to retain and recruit personnel, which is critical to our growth, and to effectively pursue our objectives. If we are unable to retain or hire key personnel, our business and competitive position may be harmed resulting in an adverse impact to our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

 

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Seasonality. Historically, the automotive industry has experienced higher revenue in the spring and summer months. We do not expect such seasonality in demand to significantly impact our operations in the near-term as we scale our business due to our backlog of preorders; however, we may experience seasonal variations in our business in the long-term.

 

   

Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Beginning in 2020, public health and governmental authorities have taken extraordinary steps to contain and combat the outbreak and spread of COVID-19, including associated variants, throughout the world. Consistent with these actions, in combination with recommendations by public health officials, since late March 2020 a significant percentage of Rivian personnel have been working remotely; however, in recent months a number of employees have been able to work on-site at our facilities, including our Normal Factory, subject to operating restrictions intended to protect public health and the health and safety of our employees.

Additionally, COVID-19, including associated variants, has caused disruptions to and delays in our operations, including shortages and delays in the supply of certain parts, including semiconductors, materials, and equipment necessary to produce our vehicles. In response, we have adapted various internal designs and processes to remedy or mitigate impacts of such disruptions and delays on our production timeline, which has resulted in higher costs.

The full extent of the future impact from the pandemic on our operational and financial performance is currently uncertain and will depend on future developments outside of our control, including the duration, extent and intensity of the pandemic, the effectiveness and availability of vaccines, and actions taken by public health organizations and governmental authorities. We will continue to monitor these conditions and remain flexible, evolving our business and processes as appropriate.

Components of Our Operating Results

We expect to incur significant operating costs and expenses that will impact our future profitability, including research and development expenses as we develop and introduce new vehicles and services and improve our existing vehicles and services, capital expenditures in the expansion of our manufacturing footprint and operations, additional operating costs and expenses for production ramp-up, raw material procurement costs, general and administrative expenses as we scale our operations, and selling and distribution expenses as we market our vehicles and services. In addition, we may incur significant costs in connection with our services once we deliver our vehicles, including servicing and warranty costs. Our ability to become profitable in the future will not only depend on our ability to successfully market and sell our vehicles and services, but also to appropriately control costs and realize economies of scale.

Revenue and Costs of Revenue

We are a development stage company and have not generated material revenue to date. Vehicle production and deliveries began in September 2021. As we expand production and commercialization of vehicles, we expect the majority of our revenue will be initially derived from sales of consumer and commercial vehicles, accessories, and regulatory credits.

Operating Expenses

Research and Development

Our research and development (“R&D”) expenses consist primarily of expenses incurred for the development of our vehicles and related technologies. These expenses include:

 

   

personnel expenses for teams in engineering and research;

 

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prototyping expenses;

 

   

consulting and contractor expenses;

 

   

amortized equipment expenses; and

 

   

allocation of indirect expenses.

We expense R&D as incurred. We expect our R&D expenses to increase in the foreseeable future as we continue to develop vehicle platforms, next generation EVs, and other technologies. Additionally, upon the closing of this offering we expect to recognize a significant non-cash stock-based compensation charge and to recognize recurring non-cash stock-based compensation charges thereafter. We have not recognized any stock-based compensation expense to-date as the related performance-based vesting conditions are not deemed probable until they occur (i.e., a Change in Control or an Initial Public Offering).

Selling, General, and Administrative

Selling, general, and administrative (“SG&A”) expenses consist primarily of personnel related expenses for employees in our sales, service, corporate, executive, finance, and other administrative functions as well as outside professional services, including legal, accounting and audit services. Personnel related expenses consist of salaries and wages, benefits, and employment taxes. SG&A expenses also include allocated facilities expenses such as rent and depreciation, and other general corporate expenses such as travel and recruiting expenses.

We expect our SG&A expenses to increase for the foreseeable future as we continue to scale as a company, build out our service and sales operations, and produce our planned future vehicle platforms and programs. We also expect to incur additional expenses as a result of operating as a public company, including expenses related to compliance with rules and regulations of the SEC and of applicable national securities exchanges as well as legal, audit, investor relations, insurance, and other administrative and professional services expenses. Additionally, similar to R&D expenses, upon the closing of this offering we expect to recognize a significant non-cash stock-based compensation charge and to recognize recurring non-cash stock-based compensation charges thereafter.

Following the completion of this offering, we will fund our social welfare organization, Forever by Rivian, Inc., in part, with 8,321,072 shares of our Class A common stock, representing 1% of our outstanding capital stock on a fully diluted basis immediately prior to the completion of this offering. As a result of this donation, we will recognize a one-time, non-cash expense, the amount of which is dependent upon the initial public offering price per share of Class A common stock in this offering. Assuming an initial public offering price of $59.50 per share of Class A common stock (which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus) we would recognize a one-time, non-cash expense of approximately $495 million in connection with the donation. See “Business—Forever” for additional information regarding Forever by Rivian, Inc. and Note 14 to our consolidated financial statements for the six months ended June 30, 2021 included elsewhere in this prospectus.

Other (Expense) Income, Net

Other (expense) income, net consists primarily of interest expense associated with our debt financing arrangements, amortization of debt discounts and issuance costs, and interest income earned on investments.

 

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Provision for Income Taxes

Our provision for income taxes consists primarily of income taxes related to foreign jurisdictions in which we do business. We maintain a full valuation allowance on our U.S. federal and state deferred tax assets as we have concluded that it is more likely than not that the deferred assets will not be utilized.

Results of Operations

The following tables set forth our consolidated results of operations in dollars for the periods presented. The period-to-period comparisons of our historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected in the future.

 

     For The Years Ended December 31,     For The Six Months Ended June 30,  
               2019                          2020                          2020                          2021          
    

(in millions)

 
           (unaudited)  

Operating expenses:

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research and development

   $ 301        $766      $ 292      $ 683   

Selling, general, and administrative

     108        255        89      307 
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total operating expenses

     409        1,021        381      990 
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Loss from operations

     (409)       (1,021)       (381)       (990)  

Other (expense) income, net

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interest income

     18      10             

Interest expense

     (34     (8     (4     (6

Other (expense) income, net

     (1         —         
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Loss before provision for income taxes

     (426)       (1,018)       (377)       (994)  

Provision for income taxes

     —        —        —        —   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net loss

   $ (426)     $ (1,018)     $ (377)     $ (994)  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Comparison of the Six Months Ended June 30, 2020 and 2021

Research and Development

 

     For The Six Months Ended June 30,       
         2020              2021         

% Change

     (in millions)       
     (unaudited)       

Research and development

   $  292       $  683       134%

R&D expenses increased by $391 million, or 134%, for the six months ended June 30, 2021, compared to the six months ended June 30, 2020. This increase was primarily due to a $204 million increase in engineering, design, and development, a $118 million increase in payroll and related expenses, and a $69 million increase in other expenses, including information technology expenses.

The primary drivers for these higher expenses were our increased efforts related to our R1T and R1S vehicle programs, our EDV program, and other advanced product development activities.

 

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Selling, General, and Administrative

 

     For The Six Months Ended June 30,       
         2020              2021         

% Change

     (in millions)       
     (unaudited)       

Selling, general, and administrative

   $ 89       $ 307       245%

SG&A expenses increased by $218 million, or 245%, for the six months ended June 30, 2021, compared to the six months ended June 30, 2020. This increase was primarily due to a $97 million increase in payroll and related expenses, a $32 million increase in facilities and other occupancy costs driven by office location expansions, and an $89 million increase in other operating expenses comprised primarily of information technology and other administrative expenses.

The primary drivers for these higher expenses were our efforts to further scale our sales operations, commercial office locations and customer facing facilities, as well as other corporate functions to properly support our future business growth and complexity.

Other (Expense) Income, Net

 

     For The Six Months Ended June 30,         
         2020              2021          % Change  
 

 

   (in millions)       

 

 
 

 

   (unaudited)       

 

 

Interest income

   $      $        (88)%  

Interest expense

     (4)        (6)        50%  

Other (expense) income, net

     —                NM     

Interest income decreased by $7 million, or 88%, for the six months ended June 30, 2021, compared to the six months ended June 30, 2020. This decrease was primarily due to lower market rates partially offset by a higher average cash and cash equivalents balance.

Interest expense increased by $2 million, or 50%, for the six months ended June 30, 2021, compared to the six months ended June 30, 2020. This increase was primarily due to the amortization of the remaining debt issuance costs and discounts associated with the Term Facility Agreement.

Provision for Income Taxes

 

     For The Six Months Ended June 30,         
         2020              2021          % Change  
     (in millions)         
     (unaudited)         

Provision for income taxes

   $ —     $ —       NM     

As of June 30, 2020 and 2021, the majority of our deferred tax assets were comprised of net operating losses generated primarily in the United States and tax credit carryforwards, and for both periods, these assets were fully offset by a valuation allowance.

 

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Comparison of the Years Ended December 31, 2019 and 2020

Research and Development

 

     For The Years Ended December 31,       
         2019              2020         

% Change

     (in millions)       

Research and development

   $  301       $  766       154%

R&D expenses increased by $465 million, or 154%, for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to the year ended December 31, 2019. This increase was primarily due to a $212 million increase in engineering, design, and development, a $182 million increase in payroll and related subcontracting expenses, and a $71 million increase in other expenses, including information technology expenses.

The primary drivers for these higher expenses were our increased efforts related to our R1T and R1S vehicle programs, our EDV program, and other advanced product development activities. During this period, we started our pre-production vehicle builds, which require significant investment to manufacture and test vehicles, and had higher payroll to support these activities.

Selling, General, and Administrative

 

     For The Years Ended December 31,         
         2019              2020          % Change  
     (in milllions)         

Selling, general, and administrative

   $  108       $  255         136%  

SG&A expenses increased by $147 million, or 136%, for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to the year ended December 31, 2019. This increase was primarily due to an $89 million increase in payroll and related expenses, a $25 million increase in facilities and other occupancy costs driven by office location expansions, and a $33 million increase in other operating expenses comprised primarily of information technology and other administrative expenses.

The primary drivers for these higher expenses were our efforts to further scale our sales operations, commercial office locations and customer facing facilities, as well as other corporate functions to properly support our future business growth and complexity.

Other (Expense) Income, Net

 

     For The Years Ended December 31,      
         2019             2020        

% Change

     (in millions)      

Interest income

   $ 18    $ 10    (44)%

Interest expense

     (34     (8   (76)%

Other (expense) income, net

     (1       NM   

Interest income decreased by $8 million, or 44%, for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to the year ended December 31, 2019. This decrease was primarily due to lower market rates partially offset by a higher average cash and cash equivalents balance.

Interest expense decreased by $26 million, or 76%, for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to the year ended December 31, 2019. This decrease was primarily due to the amortization of debt

 

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discount on the conversion of convertible debt during 2019, as well as lower market interest rates in 2020 associated with the Term Facility Agreement (as defined in “Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions—Transactions with Global Oryx Company Limited and its Affiliates”).

Provision for Income Taxes

 

     For The Years Ended December 31,       
         2019              2020         

% Change

     (in millions)       

Provision for income taxes

   $ —     $ —     NM   

As of December 31, 2019 and 2020, the majority of our deferred tax assets were comprised of net operating losses generated primarily in the United States and tax credit carryforwards, and for both periods, these assets were fully offset by a valuation allowance.

Quarterly Results of Operations and Key Metrics

The following table sets forth our unaudited quarterly consolidated statements of operations data for each of the eight quarters in the period ended June 30, 2021. The information for each of these quarters has been prepared on a basis consistent with our audited annual consolidated financial statements appearing elsewhere in this prospectus and, in our opinion, includes all normal recurring adjustments necessary for the fair statement of the financial information contained in those statements. The following unaudited quarterly consolidated financial data should be read in conjunction with our annual consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus. These individual quarterly historical results are not necessarily indicative of operating results for a full year or for any future period.

 

    For The Three Months Ended(1)  
    Sep. 30,
    2019    
    Dec. 31,
    2019    
    Mar. 31,
    2020    
    Jun. 30,
    2020    
    Sep. 30,
    2020    
    Dec. 31,
    2020    
    Mar. 31,
    2021    
    Jun. 30,
    2021    
 
   

(in millions)

(unaudited)

 

Operating expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research and development

  $ 74      $ 103      $ 141      $ 151      $ 220      $ 255      $ 289      $ 394   

Selling, general, and administrative

    36        35        41        48        68        98        121        186   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total operating expenses

    110        138        182        199        288        353        410        580   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Loss from operations

    (110)       (138)       (182)       (199)       (288)       (353)       (410)       (580)  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Other income (expense), net

                      (1)       —        —        (4)       —   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Loss before provision for income taxes

    (108)       (135)       (177)       (200)       (288)       (353)       (414)       (580)  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Provision for income taxes

    —        —        —        —        —        —        —        —   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net loss

  $  (108)     $  (135)     $  (177)     $  (200)     $  (288)     $  (353)     $  (414)     $  (580)  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

(1)

The sum of quarterly amounts may not equal amounts reported for year-to-date periods. This is due to the effects of rounding.

Supplemental Quarterly Business Metrics

 

    Sept. 30,
    2019    
    Dec. 31,
    2019    
    Mar. 31,
    2020    
    Jun. 30,
    2020    
    Sept. 30,
    2020    
    Dec. 31,
    2020    
    Mar. 31,
    2021    
    Jun. 30,
    2021    
 

Total Employee Count

    951       1,277       1,861       2,185       2,687       3,178       4,269       6,274  

 

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Quarterly Trends

Operating Expenses

The steady increase in operating expenses over the last eight quarters reflects the continued advances in development of our R1T, R1S, and EDV vehicle programs, including the construction of prototype vehicles and testing, go-to-market strategy, service offerings, and early development of planned future products. Sales, general and administrative costs generally increased for all periods presented, primarily due to increases in personnel-related expenses, facilities costs, and professional service fees as we grow our business and prepare for the launch of our products and services.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

Our operations have been financed primarily through net proceeds from the sale of securities and from borrowings. As of December 31, 2020 and June 30, 2021, we had cash and cash equivalents of $3.0 billion and $3.7 billion, respectively.

In January 2021, we entered into a Series F Preferred Stock Purchase Agreement pursuant to which we issued 71,913,170 shares of Series F contingently redeemable convertible preferred stock to a group of investors at a price of $36.85 per share for total gross proceeds of $2.7 billion.

In February 2021, we paid all outstanding amounts under the Term Facility Agreement.

In May 2021, Rivian Holdings, LLC, Rivian, LLC, and Rivian Automotive, LLC (collectively, the “Borrower”) entered into the ABL Facility with J.P. Morgan Chase Bank, N.A., as administrative agent and collateral agent, and the lenders party thereto. The ABL Facility will mature on May 20, 2025. As of June 30, 2021, we had $694 million of unused committed amounts under the ABL Facility. The ABL Facility contains certain affirmative and negative covenants and conditions to borrowing or taking other actions that restrict certain of our subsidiaries’ ability to, among other things, incur debt, grant liens, make investments, enter into certain transactions with affiliates, pay dividends, and prepay junior or unsecured indebtedness, subject to certain exceptions. As of June 30, 2021, the Borrower was in compliance with the ABL Facility. See “Description of Certain Indebtedness” for more information regarding the ABL Facility.

In October 2021, Rivian Holdings, LLC, Rivian, LLC, and Rivian Automotive, LLC (collectively, the “2026 Note Issuers”) issued $1.25 billion aggregate principal amount of 2026 Notes pursuant to an indenture (the “2026 Notes Indenture”) between the 2026 Note Issuers, Rivian Insurance Services, LLC and Rivian Michigan, LLC as initial guarantors (together with such guarantors from time to time party thereto, the “Guarantors”), and Wilmington Trust, National Association, as trustee (“Trustee”) and collateral agent (“Collateral Agent”). The 2026 Notes have a maturity of five years from the date of their original issuance. The 2026 Notes Indenture requires that the 2026 Note Issuers and their restricted subsidiaries, including the Guarantors, comply with a number of customary covenants (including restrictions on incurrence of indebtedness, liens, the making of restricted payments, and dispositions), in each case substantially similar to the corresponding covenants under the ABL Facility as described above. In addition, the 2026 Notes Indenture contains a minimum liquidity covenant (but no other financial covenants) requiring the 2026 Note Issuers to maintain no less than $1.0 billion of liquidity, which liquidity covenant will fall away upon meeting a fixed charge coverage ratio of greater than 1.0 to 1.0 for two consecutive fiscal quarters. See “Description of Certain Indebtedness” for more information regarding the 2026 Notes.

In July 2021, we entered into an unsecured senior convertible promissory note purchase agreement pursuant to which we issued $2.5 billion of unsecured senior convertible promissory notes. The 2021 Convertible Notes mature on July 23, 2026 and accrue interest quarterly at a rate of (i) zero percent (0%)

 

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from the date of issuance to, and including, June 30, 2022 and (ii) five percent (5%) after June 30, 2022. Upon the closing of this offering, the 2021 Convertible Notes will automatically convert into shares of our Class A common stock at a conversion price equal to the lesser of: (i) $71.03 (subject to appropriate adjustment in the event of any stock dividend, stock split, stock combination, recapitalization or any other similar transaction) and (ii) the product of (x) the initial public offering price per share multiplied by (y) the applicable discount rate determined by reference to the time of conversion (0.85 until December 31, 2021).

We have generated significant losses from our operations as reflected in our accumulated deficit of $1.7 billion and $2.7 billion as of December 31, 2020 and June 30, 2021, respectively. Additionally, we have generated significant negative cash flows from operations and investing activities as we continue to support the growth of our business. We anticipate our cumulative spending on capital expenditures to be approximately $8 billion through the end of 2023 to support our continued commercialization and growth objectives as we strategically invest in infrastructure, including additional manufacturing capacity, battery cell production, service operations, charging networks, experience spaces, and software development.

As of December 31, 2020 and June 30, 2021, our non-cancellable commitments, as disclosed below in “—Contractual Obligations and Other Commitments,” do not include any commitments related to these capital expenditures as we do not have any material commitments related to these capital expenditures that we cannot cancel without a significant penalty. In addition to our capital expenditures, we expect our operating expenses to increase for both infrastructure and workforce-related costs as we ramp vehicle production and continue to invest in research and development activities.

We believe our existing cash and cash equivalent balances and amounts available for borrowing under the ABL Facility, together with the proceeds from this offering, will be sufficient to meet our operating expenses, working capital, and capital expenditure needs for at least the next 12 months.

Our future operating losses and capital requirements may vary materially from those currently planned and will depend on many factors, including our rate of revenue growth, the timing and extent of spending on R&D efforts and other growth initiatives, the expansion of manufacturing activities, the timing of new products and services introductions, market acceptance of our offerings, and overall economic conditions. Furthermore, we anticipate that these future investments will require significant external debt and/or equity financing. The sale of additional equity would result in dilution to our stockholders. The incurrence of debt financing would result in debt service obligations, and the instruments governing such debt could provide for operating and financing covenants that restrict our operations. There can be no assurances that we will be able to raise additional capital on favorable terms or at all. The inability to raise capital would adversely affect our ability to achieve our business objectives.

Cash Flows

 

     For The Years Ended December 31,      For The Six Months Ended June 30,  
         2019              2020              2020              2021      
    

(in millions)

 
            (unaudited)  

Net cash used in operating activities

   $ (353)      $ (848)      $ (352)      $ (851)  

Net cash used in investing activities

     (199)