0001868778-24-000006.txt : 20240222 0001868778-24-000006.hdr.sgml : 20240222 20240222160759 ACCESSION NUMBER: 0001868778-24-000006 CONFORMED SUBMISSION TYPE: 10-K PUBLIC DOCUMENT COUNT: 119 CONFORMED PERIOD OF REPORT: 20231231 FILED AS OF DATE: 20240222 DATE AS OF CHANGE: 20240222 FILER: COMPANY DATA: COMPANY CONFORMED NAME: Informatica Inc. CENTRAL INDEX KEY: 0001868778 STANDARD INDUSTRIAL CLASSIFICATION: SERVICES-PREPACKAGED SOFTWARE [7372] ORGANIZATION NAME: 06 Technology IRS NUMBER: 611999534 FISCAL YEAR END: 1231 FILING VALUES: FORM TYPE: 10-K SEC ACT: 1934 Act SEC FILE NUMBER: 001-40936 FILM NUMBER: 24664749 BUSINESS ADDRESS: STREET 1: 2100 SEAPORT BLVD. CITY: REDWOOD CITY STATE: CA ZIP: 94063 BUSINESS PHONE: 650-385-5000 MAIL ADDRESS: STREET 1: 2100 SEAPORT BLVD. CITY: REDWOOD CITY STATE: CA ZIP: 94063 10-K 1 infa-20231231.htm 10-K infa-20231231
00018687782023FYFALSEhttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#OtherNonoperatingIncomeExpensehttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#OtherNonoperatingIncomeExpensehttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#OtherNonoperatingIncomeExpenseP1YP1YP1YP1YP1Y0.5http://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#OtherNonoperatingIncomeExpensehttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#OtherNonoperatingIncomeExpensehttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#OtherNonoperatingIncomeExpenseP2Y39042100018687782023-01-012023-12-3100018687782023-06-30iso4217:USD0001868778us-gaap:CommonClassAMember2024-02-14xbrli:shares0001868778infa:CommonStockClassB1Member2024-02-1400018687782023-12-3100018687782022-12-310001868778us-gaap:CustomerRelationshipsMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:CustomerRelationshipsMember2022-12-310001868778infa:TrademarksAndTradeNamesAndDevelopedTechnologyRightsMember2023-12-310001868778infa:TrademarksAndTradeNamesAndDevelopedTechnologyRightsMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:CommonClassAMember2022-12-31iso4217:USDxbrli:shares0001868778us-gaap:CommonClassAMember2023-12-310001868778infa:CommonStockClassB1Member2023-12-310001868778infa:CommonStockClassB1Member2022-12-310001868778infa:CommonStockClassB2Member2023-12-310001868778infa:CommonStockClassB2Member2022-12-310001868778infa:SubscriptionRevenueMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778infa:SubscriptionRevenueMember2022-01-012022-12-310001868778infa:SubscriptionRevenueMember2021-01-012021-12-310001868778infa:PerpetualLicenseMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778infa:PerpetualLicenseMember2022-01-012022-12-310001868778infa:PerpetualLicenseMember2021-01-012021-12-310001868778us-gaap:LicenseAndServiceMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778us-gaap:LicenseAndServiceMember2022-01-012022-12-310001868778us-gaap:LicenseAndServiceMember2021-01-012021-12-310001868778infa:MaintenanceAndProfessionalServicesMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778infa:MaintenanceAndProfessionalServicesMember2022-01-012022-12-310001868778infa:MaintenanceAndProfessionalServicesMember2021-01-012021-12-3100018687782022-01-012022-12-3100018687782021-01-012021-12-310001868778us-gaap:CommonClassAMemberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2020-12-310001868778infa:CommonStockClassB1Memberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2020-12-310001868778infa:CommonStockClassB2Memberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2020-12-310001868778us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2020-12-310001868778us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2020-12-310001868778us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2020-12-3100018687782020-12-310001868778us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2021-01-012021-12-310001868778us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2021-01-012021-12-310001868778us-gaap:CommonClassAMemberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2021-01-012021-12-310001868778us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2021-01-012021-12-310001868778us-gaap:CommonClassAMemberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2021-12-310001868778infa:CommonStockClassB1Memberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2021-12-310001868778infa:CommonStockClassB2Memberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2021-12-310001868778us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2021-12-310001868778us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2021-12-310001868778us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2021-12-3100018687782021-12-310001868778us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2022-01-012022-12-310001868778us-gaap:CommonClassAMemberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2022-01-012022-12-310001868778us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2022-01-012022-12-310001868778us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2022-01-012022-12-310001868778us-gaap:CommonClassAMemberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2022-12-310001868778infa:CommonStockClassB1Memberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2022-12-310001868778infa:CommonStockClassB2Memberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778us-gaap:CommonClassAMemberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778us-gaap:CommonClassAMemberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2023-12-310001868778infa:CommonStockClassB1Memberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2023-12-310001868778infa:CommonStockClassB2Memberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2023-12-3100018687782021-09-302021-09-300001868778us-gaap:CommonClassAMember2021-09-302021-09-300001868778infa:CommonStockClassB1Member2021-09-302021-09-300001868778infa:CommonStockClassB2Member2021-09-302021-09-300001868778us-gaap:CommonClassAMemberus-gaap:IPOMember2021-10-292021-10-290001868778us-gaap:CommonClassAMemberus-gaap:IPOMember2021-10-290001868778us-gaap:CommonClassAMemberus-gaap:OverAllotmentOptionMember2021-11-102021-11-100001868778us-gaap:IPOMember2021-11-102021-11-10infa:segment0001868778country:US2023-12-310001868778country:US2022-12-310001868778country:IN2023-12-310001868778country:IN2022-12-310001868778country:IE2023-12-310001868778country:IE2022-12-310001868778infa:OtherMember2023-12-310001868778infa:OtherMember2022-12-310001868778infa:CloudAndSubscriptionSupportMembersrt:MinimumMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778srt:MaximumMemberinfa:CloudAndSubscriptionSupportMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778infa:SelfManagedSubscriptionLicenseMembersrt:MinimumMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778infa:SelfManagedSubscriptionLicenseMembersrt:MaximumMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778srt:MinimumMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778srt:MaximumMember2023-01-012023-12-3100018687782024-01-012023-12-31xbrli:pureiso4217:CAD0001868778us-gaap:BuildingMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:BuildingImprovementsMembersrt:MinimumMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:BuildingImprovementsMembersrt:MaximumMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:LandImprovementsMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:LeaseholdImprovementsMembersrt:MinimumMember2023-12-310001868778srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:LeaseholdImprovementsMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:ComputerEquipmentMembersrt:MinimumMember2023-12-310001868778srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:FurnitureAndFixturesMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:ComputerEquipmentMembersrt:MaximumMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:BankTimeDepositsMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:BankTimeDepositsMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:CommercialPaperMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:CommercialPaperMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:USGovernmentCorporationsAndAgenciesSecuritiesMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:USGovernmentCorporationsAndAgenciesSecuritiesMember2022-12-310001868778infa:ForeignGovernmentCorporationsAndAgenciesSecuritiesMember2023-12-310001868778infa:ForeignGovernmentCorporationsAndAgenciesSecuritiesMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:USGovernmentDebtSecuritiesMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:USGovernmentAgenciesDebtSecuritiesMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:CommercialPaperMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:USGovernmentAgenciesDebtSecuritiesMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:ForeignGovernmentDebtSecuritiesMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:CommercialPaperMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:BankTimeDepositsMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:BankTimeDepositsMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:BankTimeDepositsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:BankTimeDepositsMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:MoneyMarketFundsMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:MoneyMarketFundsMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:MoneyMarketFundsMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:MoneyMarketFundsMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:CommercialPaperMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:CommercialPaperMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:CommercialPaperMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:CommercialPaperMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:USGovernmentAgenciesDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:USGovernmentAgenciesDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:USGovernmentAgenciesDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:USGovernmentAgenciesDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778us-gaap:BankTimeDepositsMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:BankTimeDepositsMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:BankTimeDepositsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:BankTimeDepositsMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:MoneyMarketFundsMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:MoneyMarketFundsMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:MoneyMarketFundsMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:MoneyMarketFundsMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:CommercialPaperMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:CommercialPaperMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:CommercialPaperMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:CommercialPaperMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:USGovernmentAgenciesDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:USGovernmentAgenciesDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:USGovernmentAgenciesDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:USGovernmentAgenciesDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:ForeignGovernmentDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:ForeignGovernmentDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:ForeignGovernmentDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:ForeignGovernmentDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2022-01-012022-12-310001868778us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2022-01-012022-12-310001868778us-gaap:LandMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:LandMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:BuildingMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:LandImprovementsMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:BuildingImprovementsMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:BuildingImprovementsMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:LandBuildingsAndImprovementsMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:LandBuildingsAndImprovementsMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:ComputerEquipmentMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:ComputerEquipmentMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:FurnitureAndFixturesMembersrt:MinimumMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:FurnitureAndFixturesMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:FurnitureAndFixturesMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:LeaseholdImprovementsMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:LeaseholdImprovementsMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:DevelopedTechnologyRightsMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:DevelopedTechnologyRightsMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:TrademarksAndTradeNamesMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:TrademarksAndTradeNamesMember2022-12-310001868778infa:CustomerRelationshipsAndTrademarksAndTradeNamesMember2023-12-310001868778infa:CustomerRelationshipsAndTrademarksAndTradeNamesMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:CostOfSalesMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778us-gaap:CostOfSalesMember2022-01-012022-12-310001868778us-gaap:CostOfSalesMember2021-01-012021-12-310001868778us-gaap:OperatingExpenseMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778us-gaap:OperatingExpenseMember2022-01-012022-12-310001868778us-gaap:OperatingExpenseMember2021-01-012021-12-310001868778us-gaap:CustomerRelatedIntangibleAssetsMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:OtherIntangibleAssetsMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:MediumTermNotesMemberinfa:DollarTermLoanMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:MediumTermNotesMemberinfa:DollarTermLoanMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:MediumTermNotesMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:MediumTermNotesMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:LineOfCreditMemberus-gaap:RevolvingCreditFacilityMember2023-12-310001868778infa:SecuredOvernightFinancingRateSOFRMemberus-gaap:RevolvingCreditFacilityMembersrt:MinimumMember2023-07-012023-07-010001868778srt:MaximumMemberinfa:SecuredOvernightFinancingRateSOFRMemberus-gaap:RevolvingCreditFacilityMember2023-07-012023-07-010001868778us-gaap:MediumTermNotesMemberinfa:SecuredOvernightFinancingRateSOFRMemberinfa:DollarTermLoanMember2023-07-012023-07-010001868778us-gaap:BaseRateMemberus-gaap:MediumTermNotesMember2023-07-012023-07-010001868778us-gaap:MediumTermNotesMemberinfa:SecuredOvernightFinancingRateSOFRMember2023-07-012023-07-010001868778us-gaap:BaseRateMemberus-gaap:MediumTermNotesMembersrt:MinimumMember2023-07-012023-07-010001868778us-gaap:MediumTermNotesMemberinfa:SecuredOvernightFinancingRateSOFRMembersrt:MinimumMember2023-07-012023-07-010001868778us-gaap:MediumTermNotesMember2023-07-010001868778srt:MaximumMemberinfa:SecuredOvernightFinancingRateSOFRMemberus-gaap:RevolvingCreditFacilityMemberus-gaap:LineOfCreditMember2023-07-012023-07-010001868778infa:SecuredOvernightFinancingRateSOFRMemberus-gaap:RevolvingCreditFacilityMemberus-gaap:LineOfCreditMembersrt:MinimumMember2023-07-012023-07-010001868778us-gaap:BaseRateMembersrt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:RevolvingCreditFacilityMemberus-gaap:LineOfCreditMember2023-07-012023-07-010001868778us-gaap:BaseRateMemberus-gaap:RevolvingCreditFacilityMemberus-gaap:LineOfCreditMembersrt:MinimumMember2023-07-012023-07-010001868778us-gaap:LineOfCreditMemberus-gaap:RevolvingCreditFacilityMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:LetterOfCreditMemberus-gaap:LineOfCreditMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:LetterOfCreditMemberus-gaap:LineOfCreditMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:BridgeLoanMemberus-gaap:LineOfCreditMember2023-12-310001868778srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:RevolvingCreditFacilityMemberus-gaap:LineOfCreditMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778us-gaap:RevolvingCreditFacilityMemberus-gaap:LineOfCreditMembersrt:MinimumMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778us-gaap:LineOfCreditMemberus-gaap:RevolvingCreditFacilityMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778us-gaap:FederalFundsEffectiveSwapRateMember2023-07-012023-07-010001868778infa:CloudSubscriptionMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778infa:CloudSubscriptionMember2022-01-012022-12-310001868778infa:CloudSubscriptionMember2021-01-012021-12-310001868778infa:SelfManagedSubscriptionLicenseMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778infa:SelfManagedSubscriptionLicenseMember2022-01-012022-12-310001868778infa:SelfManagedSubscriptionLicenseMember2021-01-012021-12-310001868778infa:SelfManagedSubscriptionSupportAndOtherMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778infa:SelfManagedSubscriptionSupportAndOtherMember2022-01-012022-12-310001868778infa:SelfManagedSubscriptionSupportAndOtherMember2021-01-012021-12-310001868778us-gaap:MaintenanceMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778us-gaap:MaintenanceMember2022-01-012022-12-310001868778us-gaap:MaintenanceMember2021-01-012021-12-310001868778infa:ProfessionalServicesMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778infa:ProfessionalServicesMember2022-01-012022-12-310001868778infa:ProfessionalServicesMember2021-01-012021-12-310001868778srt:NorthAmericaMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778srt:NorthAmericaMember2022-01-012022-12-310001868778srt:NorthAmericaMember2021-01-012021-12-310001868778us-gaap:EMEAMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778us-gaap:EMEAMember2022-01-012022-12-310001868778us-gaap:EMEAMember2021-01-012021-12-310001868778srt:AsiaPacificMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778srt:AsiaPacificMember2022-01-012022-12-310001868778srt:AsiaPacificMember2021-01-012021-12-310001868778srt:LatinAmericaMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778srt:LatinAmericaMember2022-01-012022-12-310001868778srt:LatinAmericaMember2021-01-012021-12-310001868778country:US2023-01-012023-12-310001868778country:US2022-01-012022-12-310001868778country:US2021-01-012021-12-310001868778us-gaap:NonUsMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778us-gaap:NonUsMember2022-01-012022-12-310001868778us-gaap:NonUsMember2021-01-012021-12-310001868778srt:MaximumMember2023-12-3100018687782023-01-102023-01-10infa:employee00018687782023-11-012023-11-010001868778us-gaap:EmployeeSeveranceMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:EmployeeSeveranceMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778us-gaap:EmployeeSeveranceMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:ForeignExchangeForwardMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:ForeignExchangeForwardMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:InterestRateSwapMember2022-12-31infa:derivative_instrument0001868778us-gaap:LongMemberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:LongMemberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:ForeignExchangeForwardMemberus-gaap:DesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentMemberus-gaap:PrepaidExpensesAndOtherCurrentAssetsMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:ForeignExchangeForwardMemberus-gaap:DesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentMemberinfa:AccruedLiabilitiesAndOtherLiabilitiesMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:ForeignExchangeForwardMemberus-gaap:DesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentMemberus-gaap:PrepaidExpensesAndOtherCurrentAssetsMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:ForeignExchangeForwardMemberus-gaap:DesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentMemberinfa:AccruedLiabilitiesAndOtherLiabilitiesMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:NondesignatedMemberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeForwardMemberus-gaap:PrepaidExpensesAndOtherCurrentAssetsMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:NondesignatedMemberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeForwardMemberinfa:AccruedLiabilitiesAndOtherLiabilitiesMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:NondesignatedMemberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeForwardMemberus-gaap:PrepaidExpensesAndOtherCurrentAssetsMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:NondesignatedMemberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeForwardMemberinfa:AccruedLiabilitiesAndOtherLiabilitiesMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:PrepaidExpensesAndOtherCurrentAssetsMember2023-12-310001868778infa:AccruedLiabilitiesAndOtherLiabilitiesMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:PrepaidExpensesAndOtherCurrentAssetsMember2022-12-310001868778infa:AccruedLiabilitiesAndOtherLiabilitiesMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:DesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778us-gaap:DesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentMember2022-01-012022-12-310001868778us-gaap:DesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentMember2021-01-012021-12-310001868778us-gaap:DesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentMemberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeForwardMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778us-gaap:DesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentMemberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeForwardMember2022-01-012022-12-310001868778us-gaap:DesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentMemberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeForwardMember2021-01-012021-12-310001868778us-gaap:DesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentMemberus-gaap:InterestRateSwapMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778us-gaap:DesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentMemberus-gaap:InterestRateSwapMember2022-01-012022-12-310001868778us-gaap:DesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentMemberus-gaap:InterestRateSwapMember2021-01-012021-12-310001868778us-gaap:ForeignExchangeForwardMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778us-gaap:ForeignExchangeForwardMember2022-01-012022-12-310001868778us-gaap:ForeignExchangeForwardMember2021-01-012021-12-310001868778us-gaap:InterestRateSwapMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778us-gaap:InterestRateSwapMember2022-01-012022-12-310001868778us-gaap:InterestRateSwapMember2021-01-012021-12-310001868778us-gaap:OtherNonoperatingIncomeExpenseMemberus-gaap:NondesignatedMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778us-gaap:OtherNonoperatingIncomeExpenseMemberus-gaap:NondesignatedMember2022-01-012022-12-310001868778us-gaap:OtherNonoperatingIncomeExpenseMemberus-gaap:NondesignatedMember2021-01-012021-12-310001868778us-gaap:CommonClassAMember2021-10-310001868778infa:CommonStockClassB1Member2021-10-310001868778infa:CommonStockClassB2Member2021-10-310001868778us-gaap:PreferredStockMember2021-10-310001868778infa:A2015StockPlanMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778infa:A2021StockPlanMember2023-12-310001868778infa:A2021StockPlanMember2021-10-310001868778infa:PerformanceBasedShareOptionsMultipleOnInvestedCapitalMember2021-10-012021-10-310001868778infa:ServiceBasedAwardOptionsMember2021-12-310001868778infa:PerformanceBasedShareOptionsMember2021-12-310001868778infa:ServiceBasedAwardOptionsMember2022-01-012022-12-310001868778infa:PerformanceBasedShareOptionsMember2022-01-012022-12-310001868778infa:ServiceBasedAwardOptionsMember2022-12-310001868778infa:PerformanceBasedShareOptionsMember2022-12-310001868778infa:ServiceBasedAwardOptionsMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778infa:PerformanceBasedShareOptionsMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778infa:ServiceBasedAwardOptionsMember2023-12-310001868778infa:PerformanceBasedShareOptionsMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMembersrt:MinimumMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778us-gaap:PerformanceSharesMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778infa:RestrictedStockUnitsAndPerformanceStockUnitsMember2023-12-310001868778infa:RestrictedStockUnitsAndPerformanceStockUnitsMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778us-gaap:EmployeeStockMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:EmployeeStockMember2021-10-012021-10-310001868778us-gaap:EmployeeStockMembersrt:MinimumMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778us-gaap:EmployeeStockMembersrt:MaximumMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778us-gaap:EmployeeStockMembersrt:MinimumMember2022-01-012022-12-310001868778us-gaap:EmployeeStockMembersrt:MaximumMember2022-01-012022-12-310001868778us-gaap:EmployeeStockMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778us-gaap:EmployeeStockMember2022-01-012022-12-310001868778us-gaap:EmployeeStockMembersrt:MinimumMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:EmployeeStockMembersrt:MaximumMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:EmployeeStockMembersrt:MinimumMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:EmployeeStockMember2022-12-310001868778infa:A2015StockPlanMember2022-01-012022-12-310001868778infa:A2015StockPlanMember2021-01-012021-12-310001868778us-gaap:ResearchAndDevelopmentExpenseMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778us-gaap:ResearchAndDevelopmentExpenseMember2022-01-012022-12-310001868778us-gaap:ResearchAndDevelopmentExpenseMember2021-01-012021-12-310001868778us-gaap:SellingAndMarketingExpenseMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778us-gaap:SellingAndMarketingExpenseMember2022-01-012022-12-310001868778us-gaap:SellingAndMarketingExpenseMember2021-01-012021-12-310001868778us-gaap:GeneralAndAdministrativeExpenseMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778us-gaap:GeneralAndAdministrativeExpenseMember2022-01-012022-12-310001868778us-gaap:GeneralAndAdministrativeExpenseMember2021-01-012021-12-310001868778us-gaap:AccumulatedTranslationAdjustmentMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:AccumulatedNetUnrealizedInvestmentGainLossMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:AccumulatedTranslationAdjustmentMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:AccumulatedTranslationAdjustmentMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778us-gaap:AccumulatedNetUnrealizedInvestmentGainLossMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778us-gaap:AccumulatedTranslationAdjustmentMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778us-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778us-gaap:AccumulatedTranslationAdjustmentMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:AccumulatedNetUnrealizedInvestmentGainLossMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:AccumulatedTranslationAdjustmentMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:AccumulatedTranslationAdjustmentMemberus-gaap:CostOfSalesMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778us-gaap:AccumulatedTranslationAdjustmentMemberus-gaap:ResearchAndDevelopmentExpenseMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778us-gaap:AccumulatedTranslationAdjustmentMember2021-12-310001868778us-gaap:AccumulatedNetUnrealizedInvestmentGainLossMember2021-12-310001868778us-gaap:AccumulatedTranslationAdjustmentMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMember2021-12-310001868778us-gaap:InterestRateSwapMemberus-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMember2021-12-310001868778us-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMember2021-12-310001868778us-gaap:AccumulatedTranslationAdjustmentMember2022-01-012022-12-310001868778us-gaap:AccumulatedNetUnrealizedInvestmentGainLossMember2022-01-012022-12-310001868778us-gaap:AccumulatedTranslationAdjustmentMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMember2022-01-012022-12-310001868778us-gaap:InterestRateSwapMemberus-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMember2022-01-012022-12-310001868778us-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMember2022-01-012022-12-310001868778us-gaap:InterestRateSwapMemberus-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMember2022-12-310001868778us-gaap:AccumulatedTranslationAdjustmentMemberus-gaap:CostOfSalesMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMember2022-01-012022-12-310001868778us-gaap:AccumulatedTranslationAdjustmentMemberus-gaap:ResearchAndDevelopmentExpenseMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMember2022-01-012022-12-310001868778us-gaap:AccumulatedTranslationAdjustmentMember2020-12-310001868778us-gaap:AccumulatedTranslationAdjustmentMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMember2020-12-310001868778us-gaap:InterestRateSwapMemberus-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMember2020-12-310001868778us-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMember2020-12-310001868778us-gaap:AccumulatedTranslationAdjustmentMember2021-01-012021-12-310001868778us-gaap:AccumulatedTranslationAdjustmentMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMember2021-01-012021-12-310001868778us-gaap:InterestRateSwapMemberus-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMember2021-01-012021-12-310001868778us-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMember2021-01-012021-12-310001868778us-gaap:AccumulatedTranslationAdjustmentMemberus-gaap:CostOfSalesMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMember2021-01-012021-12-310001868778us-gaap:AccumulatedTranslationAdjustmentMemberus-gaap:ResearchAndDevelopmentExpenseMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMember2021-01-012021-12-310001868778us-gaap:DomesticCountryMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:StateAndLocalJurisdictionMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:ResearchMember2023-12-310001868778srt:SubsidiariesMemberus-gaap:NonUsMember2023-12-310001868778us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2022-01-012022-12-310001868778us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2021-01-012021-12-310001868778us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2022-01-012022-12-310001868778us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2021-01-012021-12-310001868778us-gaap:PerformanceSharesMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778us-gaap:PerformanceSharesMember2022-01-012022-12-310001868778us-gaap:PerformanceSharesMember2021-01-012021-12-310001868778us-gaap:EmployeeStockMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778us-gaap:EmployeeStockMember2022-01-012022-12-310001868778us-gaap:EmployeeStockMember2021-01-012021-12-310001868778infa:JohnSchweitzerMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778infa:JohnSchweitzerMember2023-10-012023-12-310001868778infa:JohnSchweitzerMember2023-12-310001868778infa:MarkPellowskiMember2023-01-012023-12-310001868778infa:MarkPellowskiMember2023-10-012023-12-310001868778infa:MarkPellowskiMember2023-12-3100018687782023-10-012023-12-31
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For transition period from         to
Commission File Number 001-40936
Informatica Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware61-1999534
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
2100 Seaport Boulevard
Redwood City, California 94063
(650) 385-5000
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading SymbolName of each exchange on which registered
Class A Common Stock, $0.01 par value per shareINFAThe New York Stock Exchange
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes No ☐
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the “Exchange Act”). Yes ☐ No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No ☐
- 1 -

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15. U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act): Yes ☐ No
The aggregate market value of the registrant’s common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant on June 30, 2023 (the last business day of the registrant's fiscal second quarter), based on the closing price of a share of the registrant’s common stock on June 30, 2023 as reported by the New York Stock Exchange, was approximately $0.8 billion. Shares of the registrant’s common stock held by each executive officer, director and holder of 5% or more of the outstanding common stock have been excluded in that such persons may be deemed to be affiliates. This calculation does not reflect a determination that certain persons are affiliates of the registrant for any other purpose.
As of February 14, 2024, there were approximately 251,030,617 shares of the registrant's Class A common stock and 44,049,523 shares of the registrant's Class B-1 common stock outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Information required in response to Part III of Form 10-K (Items 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14) is hereby incorporated by reference from portions of the registrant’s Definitive Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held in 2024. The Definitive Proxy Statement will be filed by the registrant with the Securities and Exchange Commission no later than 120 days after the end of the registrant’s fiscal year ended December 31, 2023.

- 2 -

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
Item 6. Reserved

- 3 -

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Annual Report on Form 10-K (this “Report” or “report”) contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended ("Securities Act"), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended ("Exchange Act"), which statements involve substantial risks and uncertainties. Forward-looking statements generally relate to future events or our future financial or operating performance. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements because they contain words such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “expects,” “plans,” “anticipates,” “could,” “intends,” “target,” “projects,” “contemplates,” “believes,” “estimates,” “predicts,” “potential” or “continue” or the negative of these words or other similar terms or expressions that concern our expectations, strategy, plans or intentions. Forward-looking statements contained in this Report include, but are not limited to, statements about:
our ability to attract and retain customers;
the possible harm caused by adverse economic, industry and market conditions in the United States and globally, including due to inflationary pressures, volatility and uncertainty in the financial services industry, shifting foreign exchange rates, geopolitical disruptions, the effect of global health crises, and their impact on our business and operations;
the possible harm caused by a security breach or incident, significant disruption of service, or loss of unauthorized access to users’ data;
our expectations and management of future growth;
the possible harm caused by customers terminating or failing to renew their subscription or maintenance contracts;
our future financial performance, including trends in revenue, costs of revenue, gross profit or gross margin, and operating expenses;
our ability to transition our customers to subscription- and cloud-based offerings;
the effect of legal and regulatory changes, including those related to data localization and transfer;
our ability to attract and retain key personnel and highly qualified personnel;
the impact of our restructurings and related charges on our business, results of operations and financial condition;
our ability to effectively train and incentivize our sales force;
our ability to respond to technological changes and evolving industry standards;
our ability to maintain, protect, and enhance our intellectual property;
our ability to successfully identify, acquire, and integrate companies and assets;
our ability to upsell and cross-sell within our existing customer base;
our ability to prevent serious errors or defects in our products and services;
the demand for our platform, cloud-based solutions or data management solutions in general;
our ability to compete successfully in competitive markets;
our ability to protect our brand;
our ability to successfully execute our go-to-market strategy;
our ability to manage our international operations;
our ability to build and maintain relationships with strategy partners;
our ability to achieve or maintain profitability;
our expectations regarding cost savings and expenses;
our ability to manage our outstanding indebtedness;
our ability to offer high-quality customer support;
plans regarding our stock repurchase authorization;
- 4 -

the impact of interest rate or foreign currency exchange rates upon our financial performance, operations, and cash flows;
our expectations regarding new product launch dates;
the distribution of Class A common stock by certain of our stockholders; and
the increased requirements associated with being a public company, including reporting, governance and internal controls, and related expenses.
We caution you that the foregoing list may not contain all of the forward-looking statements made in this Report.
You should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. We have based the forward-looking statements contained in this Report primarily on our current expectations and projections about future events and trends that we believe may affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. The outcome of the events described in these forward-looking statements is subject to risks, uncertainties and other factors described in the section titled “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Report. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risks and uncertainties emerge from time to time and it is not possible for us to predict all risks and uncertainties that could have an impact on the forward-looking statements contained in this Report. We cannot assure you that the results, events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements will be achieved or occur, and actual results, events or circumstances could differ materially from those described in the forward-looking statements.
The forward-looking statements made in this Report relate only to events as of the date on which the statements are made. We undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements made in this Report to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this Report or to reflect new information or the occurrence of unanticipated events, except as required by law. We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures or investments we may make.
In addition, statements that “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based upon information available to us as of the date of this Report, and while we believe such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements.
- 5 -

PART I
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
Overview
We deliver innovation-led products powered by the industry's only artificial intelligence ("AI") powered data management cloud platform in a multi-vendor, multi-cloud, hybrid approach. Data is foundational to how digital enterprises run their businesses and make strategic decisions, including creating new offerings, serving their customers and driving operational efficiency. We have pioneered a new category of software, the Intelligent Data Management Cloud, or IDMC. Our IDMC platform, powered by our AI engine CLAIRE, delivers best-of-breed solutions that enable enterprises to connect virtually all types of enterprise data, govern and protect critical and sensitive data, and deliver data ready for AI and other strategic data-driven initiatives. It also enables our customers to pursue holistic data-driven digital strategies by accelerating workload migrations to the cloud; enabling the advantages of cloud analytics and AI across enterprise-wide business processes like supply chain management, financial planning and operations. We announced CLAIRE GPT, a generative AI-powered capability that will deliver a natural language-based interface to Informatica’s IDMC, simplifying and accelerating how enterprises consume, process, manage, and analyze data. CLAIRE GPT is expected to be generally available in 2024. With CLAIRE GPT, our IDMC platform has AI copilot capabilities to automate and scale thousands of data management tasks and processes and provide greater observability across data.

Graph 1.jpg
Historically, enterprise data was generated and stored in highly structured, static and monolithic self-managed systems that were only accessed by a few, highly trained individuals and used primarily for analysis and reporting of historical enterprise metrics. Over the course of the last two decades, enterprises have expanded their IT strategies to embrace a wide range of SaaS applications, cloud infrastructure platforms, and more recently cloud data platforms to transform into data-driven digital enterprises.
As enterprises embrace data to modernize their business, data fragmentation has proliferated across a myriad of systems, including cloud and self-managed data warehouses, data lakes, databases and applications. These different data repositories store data in unique formats, both structured and unstructured, with specific characteristics. This data is often consumed and ingested in real time, making it increasingly challenging to aggregate data in a normalized, consistent, and high-quality format. Despite these challenges, as data has become one of the most valuable assets for enterprises, it has become embedded in highly complex operational use cases and is at the heart of new data-driven digital strategies.
To address these challenges, we have pioneered a new way for businesses to accurately track where their data resides, understand what relationships exist across their different data repositories, and understand who is accessing the data and how it is being used—all at enterprise scale. Our AI-powered data management cloud
- 6 -

platform leverages metadata-aware connections and active metadata in the cloud that continuously scan our customers’ data. The metadata-aware connections allow our customers to leverage pre-built connectors configured to the data structure of their cloud applications. This allows our AI engine, CLAIRE, to help customers access better data faster, make contextual recommendations about data relationships, uncover novel insights about their business and automate previously manual tasks. As more customers adopt our AI-powered data management cloud platform, CLAIRE is designed to automatically and continuously analyzes new transactions, configurations, rules, and decisions and uses this increased intelligence to drive further automation and deliver better insights. We believe these features will continue to accelerate the adoption of our platform.
Our AI-powered data management cloud platform also consists of a wide range of interoperable data management products, including data catalog, data integration and engineering, API and application integration, data quality and observability, master data management, customer and business 360 applications, governance and privacy, and data marketplace. These products leverage our neutral AI-powered data management cloud platform’s shared services and can be consumed from our SaaS-based cloud offerings across all major cloud ecosystems such as Amazon Web Services ("AWS"), Microsoft Azure, Oracle Cloud and Google Cloud. Our products can also be deployed as a self-managed solution in our customers’ multi-cloud or hybrid environments. The growth of our AI-powered data management cloud platform has increased the number of cloud transactions processed on our platform, from 0.2 trillion per month in 2015, to 86.0 trillion per month as of December 31, 2023. Our cloud annual recurring revenue ("ARR") as of December 31, 2023 was $616.8 million, compared to $451.2 million as of December 31, 2022, representing year-over-year growth of 37%.
Our AI-powered data management cloud platform has been adopted by organizations of all sizes across a wide variety of industries. We believe data management is an area in which companies are continuing to invest for successful AI deployments and better business outcomes, and we are seeing continued success with our enterprise-focused sales motion. As of December 31, 2023, we had approximately 5,400 active customers in approximately 100 countries and territories worldwide, including 9 of the Fortune 10, 86 of the Fortune 100 and 893 of the Global 2000. As our customers generate more data, they typically increase their usage of our AI-powered data management cloud platform by adding new use cases, adopting more products, or adding more users. We are a strategic partner to our customers in their modernization and digital transformation initiatives. Customers spending more than $100,000 in subscription ARR increased by 4% year-over-year to 1,988 customers and customers spending more than $1 million in subscription ARR increased by 17% year-over-year to 240 customers.
We market and sell our solutions through a combination of our global direct sales team and a network of strategic partners. Our strategic partners, including cloud hyperscalers, cloud data platforms, global system integrators, and value-added resellers, help extend our sales presence and accelerate the adoption of our AI-powered data management cloud platform globally. We collaborate with cloud hyperscalers and cloud data platforms to help our shared customers accelerate their migration to the cloud and modernize their data and analytics strategies.
For the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, revenue was $1,595.2 million, $1,505.1 million and $1,444.1 million, respectively, representing year-over-year growth of 6% and 4%, respectively. Total ARR, which consists of Subscription Annual Recurring Revenue ("Subscription ARR") plus maintenance ARR, was $1,626.2 million, $1,517.1 million and $1,360.2 million, at December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively, representing year-over-year growth of 7% and 12%, respectively. Subscription ARR was $1,132.7 million, $994.2 million and $802.3 million, as of December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively, representing year-over-year growth of 14% and 24%, respectively. For the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, net loss was $125.3 million, $53.7 million and $99.9 million, respectively, and Adjusted EBITDA was $479.4 million, $371.6 million and $377.4 million, respectively. See the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Non-GAAP Financial Measure” for a description of Adjusted EBITDA and a reconciliation of Adjusted EBITDA to net income (loss), the most directly comparable financial measure calculated in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States ("GAAP").
The Intelligent Data Management Cloud
Our data management cloud allows our customers to connect, manage, unify, govern, and secure data across multi-vendor, multi-cloud, hybrid environments. During 2023, the Company acquired Privitar Limited to strengthen and extend IDMC’s data governance and privacy offerings, create new use cases and workloads for enterprise customers through data democratization and sharing.
- 7 -

Our data management cloud is deployed across the enterprise data landscape to create a unified system of record of metadata, which is highly rich and contextualized information about enterprise data. Customers can access this unified metadata about their enterprise data through our cloud control plane. AI-powered algorithms help customers reduce their data classification time, uncover data relationships, and enhance data discovery.
Our data management cloud is cloud native, built on a modern microservices-based API-powered architecture. It is both elastic and serverless, and allows customers to integrate, synchronize, and relate all of their data, applications, and processes in any part of a multi-cloud, hybrid or self-managed environments. Our cloud-native approach helps organizations design, build, modernize and operationalize their data and benefit from the agility, scalability, and low cost of the cloud. We offer a series of shared services combined with a wide range of interoperable data management products designed to be extensible to avoid vendor and technology lock-in.

IDMC image 2023 10K.jpg


 Our AI-powered data management cloud leverages over 50,000 metadata-aware connections and 40 petabytes of active metadata in the cloud that scan our customers’ data to create rich and highly contextualized metadata to create and manage a unified metadata system of record that can act as a single source of truth about their data.
Our data management cloud offers a low code / no code user interface that leverages the metadata system of record to create an abstraction layer of data processes and services that is designed to make it quick and easy for users to design data pipelines, build integrations, deploy data quality checks and quickly bring disparate data sources together to build an enterprise wide data management system. Our low code / no code user experience can enable non-technical users and technical users, including data scientists and data architects, to go directly from ideation to implementation with minimal IT support, accelerating the time-to-market of data-driven initiatives.
Our data management cloud also includes a comprehensive, holistic and integrated Operational Insights monitoring service that, when combined with our extensive data connector libraries, allows for comprehensive monitoring of all data management workloads operated on our AI-powered data management cloud platform. Data users and business leaders have an in-depth view of their data pipelines and data management operations across the enterprise, and a single pane view of the health of their data processes. Key features of our Operational Insights service include:
predictive analytics to analyze resource consumption and automated forecasting to help organizations operate, scale and reallocate resources;
- 8 -

auto-scaling of computing resources to efficiently manage capacity and rapidly meet dynamic consumption needs;
 
AI-based recommendations to identify potential user errors and exceptions;
rule-based notifications and automated alerts to administrators of certain potential issues or actions that require attention; and
comprehensive multi-cloud, hybrid architecture support with the ability to monitor both cloud-native multi-tenant services and self-managed data management products.
IDMC Architecture
Our AI-powered data management cloud platform is based on a multi-tenant, multi-cloud, microservices-based architecture hosted on AWS, Microsoft Azure, Oracle and Google Cloud. It leverages intelligence resource management, auto-scaling, and partitioning logic to manage our compute and storage footprint, thereby driving resiliency, performance and efficiency. Our AI-powered data management cloud platform runs globally across multiple regions and within each region our microservices are distributed to avoid single points of failure in order to ensure fault tolerance even in the case of full physical data center outage. Our AI-powered data management cloud platform architecture consists of four critical components:
 

1. High performance connectors for cloud and on-premises data sources and targets:    Connecting and accessing data is an essential capability across all data management services. Our AI-powered data management cloud platform’s high-performance connectivity enables accessing data for multiple integration patterns including real-time, change data capture, batch, streaming or API. Through our AI-powered data management cloud platform, customers are able to access applications, databases, business intelligence tools, data modeling tools, data lakes, data warehouses, mainframes, messaging systems, file systems, IoT devices and other critical enterprise data repositories.
2. Optimized data processing engines:    Our AI-powered data management cloud platform offers multiple data processing options optimized for data volumes, types, latency and data management operations. We support unstructured data, complex hierarchical data and relational data types, deployed within our elastic and serverless compute environment. Our AI-powered data management cloud platform also offers flexibility of deploying these data management operations on third party compute platforms leveraging advanced pushdown optimization to AWS Redshift, Microsoft Azure Synapse, Google Cloud Big Query, Snowflake, Oracle and Databricks. Depending on the size of data, data locality, pattern of integration and ecosystem, our AI-powered data management cloud platform will select the best processing method.
 
3. Metadata and data intelligence:    Leveraging our portfolio of AI and machine learning algorithms applied to various metadata types (e.g., technical, business, operational, usage, social), our AI-powered data management cloud platform provides intelligence and automation across all data management services. By scanning and managing metadata from a wide variety of sources including databases, applications, files, cloud platforms, mainframes, big data stores, BI tools, ETL tools, modeling tools, hand code and scripts, context is captured through a metadata graph database to deliver a metadata system of record and automation recommendations for enterprise data management operations. Our AI-powered data management cloud platform manages a total of 40 petabytes of active metadata to automate tasks and processes, delivering thousands of hours of time and cost savings for our users.
4. Distributed multi-cloud control plane:    Our AI-powered data management cloud platform’s distributed multi-cloud control plane consists of a series of highly available, modular, scalable microservices deployed on AWS, Microsoft Azure, Google Cloud and Oracle Cloud that implement core capabilities such as design and development experiences, policy definitions, access control, security, and operational management. The control plane orchestrates interactions across the high performance connectors, optimized data processing engines, and metadata intelligence and data management services to deliver a unified experience supporting an agile data management development lifecycle across a wide variety of users and skill sets, including business users, technical users and administrators.
- 9 -

Our Products
Our AI-powered data management cloud platform includes a wide range of interoperable and integrated data management products that leverage the underlying shared platform services to deliver analytics, business 360, data democratization and modernization solutions to our customers at scale.

Data Catalog:    Our AI-powered Data Catalog enables organizations to discover, classify and organize data assets to provide a comprehensive inventory of data assets across the enterprise. Data consumers of all experience levels are enabled to use our Cloud Data Governance and Catalog ("CDGC") product to quickly find, access, and understand enterprise data using a simple Google-like search experience. CDGC allows organizations to spend less time finding data thereby accelerating analytics and modernization projects and enables them to implement end-to-end data governance programs. Cutting across departmental data silos, CLAIRE automatically discovers, tags, and classifies data and identifies data relationships and data provenance. CLAIRE-based recommendations are designed to guide users to the most trusted and relevant data, improving business outcomes and driving greater data consumption.
Data Integration and Engineering:    Data engineers, Extract-Transform-Load ("ETL") developers, and citizen integrators have the ability to use our products to ingest, transform and integrate data spanning departmental to enterprise scale workloads. These workloads include diverse and distributed data sources in multi-cloud, hybrid environments. The breadth and depth of our Data Integration capabilities accelerate the aggregation and processing of data to ready it for analytics, data science and enterprise reporting initiatives. Leveraging a simple graphical design experience, users can develop workloads across ETL, Extract-Load-Transform ("ELT"), reverse ETL, real-time and streaming data integration patterns. The primary difference between the traditional ETL and the modern ELT workflow is when data transformation and loading take place. In ETL workflows, data extracted from data sources is transformed prior to being loaded into target data platforms. Newer ELT workflows have data being transformed after being loaded into the data platform of choice.
Our products are designed to integrate structured and unstructured data across self-managed and cloud-native applications, databases, business intelligence tools, data modeling tools, data lakes, data warehouses, mainframes, messaging systems, file systems and IoT devices. CLAIRE AI enables greater data integration productivity by automating the design and development of business logic to process data.
API & Application Integration:    Citizen developers, application developers and architects can use our API & Application Integration products to create and manage APIs, application integration and process automation to modernize and accelerate their digital transformation programs. Informatica’s API and application integration capabilities span multi-cloud, hybrid environments and include application-to-application synchronization, business process orchestration, B2B partner management, composite application development, and API management. These capabilities integrate enterprise business processes, manage communication of data between partners via industry specific protocols, and expose APIs for business agility and application modernization through a low code/no-code development experience. Our API and Application Integration products also leverage CLAIRE AI to optimize application resource utilization, and secure APIs to reduce implementation complexity and increase user productivity.
Data Quality and Observability:    Data stewards and business analysts can use our Data Quality ("DQ") products to profile, cleanse, standardize, observe and monitor data using an extensive set of prebuilt data quality rules to deliver accurate, complete, and consistent data. Data Quality products are designed to produce clean and trusted data supporting governance, regulatory compliance, analytics, and other enterprise reporting initiatives. Our CLAIRE AI engine automatically generates data quality rules from plain text functional specifications for business users. CLAIRE leverages data profiling to continuously monitor and identify quality issues and then can automatically deploy fixes to promote high data quality. Our Data Quality products contain over 1,300 pre-built data quality rules for data domains, geographies and industries.
Master Data Management:    Our Master Data Management ("MDM") products allow data stewards and business analysts to create an authoritative single-source view of all business-critical data from internal and external sources across multiple data domains, including customers, locations, assets, employees and many other domain types. CLAIRE automates the matching, linking and merging of master data from several disparate, duplicate, and conflicting data sources scaling from millions to billions of data records. This information is de-duplicated, reconciled and enriched, thereby enabling it to become a consistent, reliable source. Once created, this master data can serve as a trusted view of business-critical data that can be managed and shared across the enterprise to promote
- 10 -

accurate reporting, reduce data errors, remove redundancy, and help workers make better-informed business decisions.
Customer and Business 360 Applications:    Our Customer 360 and other 360 Application products allow business analysts to create comprehensive 360-degree views of critical business data domains like customer, product, supplier, reference, and finance with simplified business user experiences. Our Customer 360 and other 360 applications help customers drive customer experience and engagement programs, ecommerce transformations, supply chain management, and other digital transformation initiatives. CLAIRE matches data, identifies relationships and infers data insights across structured and unstructured data sources enabling users to easily browse, search and access data.
Governance and Privacy:    Data professionals can use our Data Governance and Data Privacy ("DG&P") products to define policies, govern data access and use, help ensure compliance with industry and corporate policies, manage data as an asset and reduce the risk of a data breach. These products enable organizations to deliver and consume trusted and protected data across the enterprise, increasing the value of data while reducing risk associated with compliance. Users define governance and privacy policies through an intuitive interface while CLAIRE automatically links these policies to actual enterprise data to ensure data governance rules are not only documented but also implemented and tracked consistently across the enterprise. In 2023, we acquired Privitar Limited, which allowed us to bolster our offerings for data access governance to enable organizations to democratize the ethical and safe use of data across enterprises.
Data Marketplace: Our Cloud Data Marketplace ("CDMP") delivers an Amazon-like cloud “shopping” experience for data consumers that enables data and analytics leaders to easily democratize and share data and AI models across the organization to facilitate data-driven decision making. A cloud storefront along with order management and automated, governed data delivery capabilities enable organizations to break down data silos and allow data consumers of all skill levels to find, understand, trust and access relevant data for their business priorities. Cloud Data Marketplace fosters data literacy, supports a data-driven culture, and enables collaboration among data owners and consumers to turn governed, trusted data into data driven insights for the business.
Our AI engine: CLAIRE
CLAIRE is our AI engine that powers intelligence and automation across our AI-powered data management cloud platform and portfolio of products. CLAIRE is designed to manage petabytes of active metadata and deploys a broad spectrum of AI algorithms to automate tasks and data processes to deliver thousands of hours of time and cost savings for our customers. Key features of CLAIRE include:
a search engine to rapidly discover data assets;
contextual recommendations to match data to business needs;
automation of data management operations spanning integration, quality, governance, protection, and matching;
natural language processing to auto generate business rules for assessing and auto deploying data quality assessments and reporting measurements; and
intelligent and automated matching and merging of related datasets designed to build a single source of truth at the petabyte scale.
CLAIRE’s insights and automation reduces the potential business impact from bad data and the need to manually review individual data points in massive data sets; saving significant amounts of time. As CLAIRE analyzes more data and business rules, its recommendation engine becomes more accurate and the sophistication of its automation increases.
During 2023, we also announced CLAIRE GPT, our generative AI-powered Data Management tool that is expected to be released in 2024. We expect that key features of CLAIRE GPT will include the ability to:

learn from feedback from users and continuously adapt to generate more accurate and relevant responses;
use natural language to find trusted datasets, explore relevance and understand business context; and
generate pipelines, recipes, rules, connections, glossaries, policies, and datasets from simple text.
- 11 -


Key Benefits to Our Customers
Our data management cloud enables our customers to:
Provide high quality trusted data to enable generative AI. Our AI-powered data management cloud platform provides holistic, governed, democratized data to enable successful generative AI deployments.
Embrace the full benefits of the public cloud. We help customers accelerate the migration of their self-managed workloads to the cloud. Our data management cloud modernizes our customers’ applications and data management capabilities, allowing them to embrace innovation, create digital-first business models, reduce operating costs, and generate new revenue streams.
Deliver rich 360-degree business experiences. By enabling our customers to aggregate, consolidate and normalize their data to build a single source of truth, we empower them to deliver highly engaging and personalized customer experiences. This allows our customers to embrace a digital-first business strategy, build better connections and relationships with their end users, and modernize their supply chains by intelligently matching supply with demand patterns.
Democratize secure, governed data across the organization. Our data management cloud helps our customers provide their data consumers with governed, secure, and high-quality data for their business analytics or other use cases.
 
Transition from reactive and tactical to proactive and strategic data management. Our approach to data management allows our customers to shift from deploying reactive tactical solutions for discrete, siloed use cases to developing a broader, more proactive data management strategy across the enterprise. Not only does this approach allow them to consolidate point solutions, it also enables them to scale their data management to meet the increasing demands of modern data-driven digital enterprises.
Faster time to market and lower total cost of ownership. Our full suite of data management capabilities combined with CLAIRE’s AI automation capabilities allows organizations to standardize their enterprise data management needs on a single extensible platform with a unified metadata view.
Consumption-driven pricing model. We offer a consumption-based pricing model to provide customers greater flexibility regarding use and consumption of a broad array of our cloud subscription offerings. The consumption-based pricing model is based on Informatica Processing Units ("IPUs"), which is an innovative way to measure the consumption of our cloud-based services.
Scale on a neutral platform. We increase our customers' access to their data by integrating with and interoperating on their existing systems whether they are on multi-cloud or hybrid environments. We offer a neutral AI-powered data management cloud platform that can scale across all major cloud ecosystems.
Our Growth Strategies
We are pursuing our large market opportunity with growth strategies that include:
Enable AI capabilities. We believe that generative AI requires data velocity, volume, variety and veracity for our customers to have access to correct, unbiased insights. Our CLAIRE GenAI capabilities will help drive new workloads and use cases for customers differentiating our innovations further. We continue to integrate AI-enabled products to support our customers' needs.
Expand within existing customers.    We have a strong track-record of expanding within our existing customer base. We believe there are significant cross-sell and upsell opportunities within our existing customer base by adding new products, addressing new workloads, and growing with our customers’ overall data footprint. In addition, we assist our customers in migrating their traditional self-managed data management applications to our cloud solutions.
Expand our total customer base.    Historically we have focused our direct sales efforts on IT leaders within large enterprises; however, as the universe of data practitioners expands, we have augmented our
- 12 -

outreach to focus on targeting a line of business user with our cloud solutions and industry-based go to market ("GTM") sales teams. We continue to make strategic investments in sales to grow our overall customer base, with a focus on targeting IT leaders and end users of data-driven companies.
Transition to a cloud-only strategy.   We are completing the pivot to our cloud-only strategy by prioritizing cloud-only organic growth and continuing investment in innovation for our cloud-based IDMC platform, while reducing our emphasis on self-managed solutions. We believe that a cloud-only model will allow us to simplify the organization from hybrid to cloud, create operational efficiencies and synergies by aligning our sales team in furtherance of this strategy, and improve our speed of execution.
Continue to grow and develop our partner ecosystem. Our strategic partners—including cloud hyperscalers; cloud data platforms; global system integrators; and our value-added resellers and distributors—help extend the reach of our go-to-market strategy and accelerate the adoption of our AI-powered data management cloud platform. For additional information on our technology collaborations, see the section titled "— Our Partners." We plan to continue investing in R&D to maintain product support and compatibility with our strategic partners, and we intend to further build out our partner program to broaden our distribution footprint globally and drive greater awareness and consumption of our products.
Continue to expand our international business. We believe that the addressable market for our AI-powered data management cloud platform in EMEA and Asia-Pacific is substantially larger than our current market penetration. As enterprises around the world increase their public cloud adoption, we see a significant opportunity to expand the use of our cloud subscription offerings outside of North America.
Continue to advance IDMC by building new cloud subscription offerings. We plan to make significant ongoing investments in research and development to release new cloud subscription offerings that will further expand our addressable market. We will also continue to invest in our cloud go-to-market strategy with dedicated product management, pre-sales, customer success, consulting, and professional services to help drive greater usage of our AI-powered data management cloud platform among all data users.
Our Customers
We sell our AI-powered data management cloud platform to approximately 5,400 customers in approximately 100 countries and territories worldwide as of December 31, 2023. Our AI-powered data management cloud platform is used globally by enterprises of all sizes across a broad range of industries, including some of the world’s largest enterprises, government agencies, and high-profile brands that trust us with their data management needs. No customer accounted for more than 10% of our revenue in any of the last three years. As of December 31, 2023, our customers included 9 of the Fortune 10, 86 of the Fortune 100, and 893 of the Global 2000. The number of customers that contributed more than $1 million in Subscription ARR was 240, 206 and 153 as of December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. For the same periods, the number of customers that contributed more than $100,000 of Subscription ARR was 1,988, 1,916 and 1,660, respectively.
Our Partners
Our partner strategy is focused on delivering complete end-to-end solutions for our customers, driving general awareness of our AI-powered data management cloud platform, and broadening our distribution and reach to new customers. We actively work with four types of partners:
Cloud Platform Partners. We have strategic partnerships with the leading cloud hyperscalers including AWS, Microsoft Azure, Google Cloud and Oracle Cloud. These partnerships enable our customers to deploy on the platform of their choice and take advantage of the benefits of a multi-cloud, hybrid infrastructure. Customers can also access our products via AWS, Microsoft Azure, Google Cloud and Oracle Cloud marketplaces. We collaborate with our hyperscaler partners to produce new joint, integrated offerings and drive sales by focusing on unique customer problems and use cases. For example: (i) we have joint cloud migration and modernization programs with AWS, Microsoft Azure, Google Cloud and Oracle Cloud providing customers with a faster, cost-effective path to modernize to the cloud; and (ii) we are a Premier Google Cloud Partner and a Strategic Partner for Google Cloud Analytics Data Platform Migration, a SAP Smart Analytics priority solution plays.
- 13 -

Cloud Technology Partners. We also have strategic partnerships with leading cloud technology partners, including Snowflake, Databricks and MongoDB . These partnerships enable optimized data processing, spanning data integration, governance and cataloging to support a seamless user experience. We collaborate with our cloud technology partners to support new innovations in data processing. For example, in 2023, we announced two new innovations with Snowflake: (i) we released our Superpipe service for Snowflake, integrating complex ERP and CRM data up to 3.5x faster than previous approaches, and (ii) we announced the public preview of our Enterprise Data Integrator Snowflake native application. With Databricks, we enhanced Databricks-verified Unity catalog support for our Cloud Data Integration and Cloud Data Integration Free services. Finally we announced a new strategic partnership with MongoDB to bring a cloud-native, trusted data-driven applications to customers across financial services, insurance and healthcare verticals.
Global System Integrators. We have deep relationships with leading global system integrators, such as Accenture, Capgemini, Cognizant, Deloitte, Infosys, KPMG, LTI Mindtree, TCS and Wipro. We have over 30,000 certified Informatica professionals across these partners on IDMC, and work closely with these integrators in many of our key customer accounts on a daily basis . As well as being highly skilled on IDMC, our GSI partners have built Centers of Excellence inside their Data and AI practices to help scale delivery of our solutions. Many have also built their own industry solutions to address ESG, Cloud Modernization and Customer 360 which are based on IDMC.
Channel Partners. We have a scaled and well-defined alliances program where we partner with value-added resellers and distributors across the world to expand our reach in international markets. Our relationship with these channel partners ranges from fulfillment services to co-sell or independent resell in some markets.
Collectively, our robust partner ecosystem helps us source leads, drive awareness of our AI-powered data management cloud platform, build unique and tailored solutions for customers, and provide state-of-the-art training and implementation support to our customers. We continue to invest in formal alliances with leading consulting, data management, and implementation service providers to help our customers migrate their legacy data management solutions to the cloud.
Sales and Marketing
We sell our solutions primarily through a global direct sales team, which consists of field sales, technical sales, inside sales and partner sales professionals segmented by customer size and region. Our direct sales team is focused both on new customer acquisition and driving expanded use of our products with existing customers, as well as fostering long-term collaborations to drive their multi-year journey to the cloud. The breadth of our AI-powered data management cloud platform offerings allows us to engage at many levels of an organization and across many key buying personas and functional centers including, for example, the chief data officer’s organization, the chief information officer’s organization, and line of business buyers like within the chief marketing officer's organization and chief financial officer's organization. The substantial majority of our global sales and marketing efforts are carried out by teams located in North America, EMEA and Japan. In Asia-Pacific, we go to market with a combination of direct sales and channel alliances.
Our marketing strategy is global, data-driven and digital-first, designed to generate awareness of our products and a targeted pipeline of qualified opportunities. Our marketing team combines the creation of inbound demand, to drive traffic to our website and usage of our AI-powered data management cloud platform, with direct marketing, business development, and marketing efforts targeted at business and technology leaders. We believe in a data-driven targeting of all our user personas with personalized content, offers and messaging, including joint go-to-market initiatives with our strategic partners.
Customer Support and Success
We support our customers through a global customer support and success team consisting of approximately 900 employees as of December 31, 2023, primarily based out of 10 locations worldwide anchored around our major delivery hubs in Bangalore, Redwood City and Maidenhead . The primary objective of this team is to support our customers; helping them to realize optimal business value from our products by providing the right subject matter expertise to accelerate value creation. Our delivery framework is the right blend of people and technology, powered by a technology platform to interact with our customers and offer digital knowledge assets tailored to the customer persona for in-depth guidance on how to drive business outcomes with Informatica solutions. This team also manages customer renewals, and our renewal rates for subscription and maintenance in 2023 were 92% and 95%,
- 14 -

respectively. Our Customer Satisfaction ("CSAT") score for the fourth quarter of 2023 was 4.7/5.0, with approximately 79% of our customers who responded to the survey rating us 5/5. The CSAT score is determined based on an internal survey of customers following the close of any support case, whereby customers rate their experience between 1 and 5 (with 5 being the highest). We achieved a 17% response rate for this survey and therefore the results may not be reflective of our broader customer base.
Research and Development
We manage our research and development costs with strategic development centers across the globe–Redwood City, California; Toronto, Canada; Stuttgart, Germany; Dublin, Ireland; and Bangalore, India. With over 1,700 full-time employees dedicated to research and development as of December 31, 2023, we spend over $300 million annually in research, development and related activities to advance our AI-powered data management cloud platform roadmap. On the partnership front, we are heavily invested in joint innovation and joint solutions with the major hyperscalers and cloud platforms . For additional information on our technology collaborations, see the section titled “—Our Partners.”
Competition
The markets we serve are highly competitive and rapidly evolving. With the launch of Informatica IDMC, we believe we are the first data management vendor to offer enterprises a single cloud platform serving a comprehensive range of data management requirements. Our competition includes the following:
Hand-coded custom-built solutions developed by internal IT teams;
Point solution vendors that compete with one or more of our products;
Cloud service providers ("CSPs") with limited platform-specific capabilities in data management; and
Full stack software vendors that compete in the data management solutions market.
We compete on the basis of a number of factors, including:
ability to offer a comprehensive platform with best of breed products;
interoperability with multi-cloud, hybrid environments and applications;
ability to embed advanced AI and machine learning in our AI-powered data management cloud platform;
performance, reliability and security;
ease of deployment and ease of use by the full breadth of data practitioners;
elasticity and ability to quickly scale services;
strength of cloud ecosystem partnerships;
responsiveness to evolving customer needs and use cases;
success of sales & marketing efforts;
quality of customer support; and
brand awareness and reputation.
We believe, based on the factors listed above, that we are favorably positioned relative to our competitors. Nonetheless, some of our competitors have advantages over us, such as greater financial resources, larger sales forces, better brand recognition, longer operating histories, and more expansive geographical footprints. For additional information see section titled “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business.”
Regulatory Matters
We are subject to a variety of laws in the United States and abroad, including laws regarding privacy, data protection, data security, data retention and consumer protection, accessibility, sending and storing of electronic messages, human resource services, employment and labor laws, workplace safety, intellectual property and the
- 15 -

provision of online payment services, including credit card processing, consumer protection laws, anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws, export controls, international sanctions laws, federal securities laws and tax regulations, which are continuously evolving and developing. The manners in which existing laws and regulations are applied to SaaS businesses, and how they will relate to our business in particular, both in the United States and internationally, often are unclear. For example, we sometimes cannot be certain which laws will be deemed applicable to us given the global nature of our business, including with respect to such topics as privacy, data protection and security, pricing, advertising, taxation, content regulation and intellectual property ownership and infringement.
In addition, regulatory authorities around the world are considering a number of legislative and regulatory proposals concerning climate-related matters, privacy, data protection, AI, spam, data storage, data localization, content regulation, cybersecurity, sanctions and export controls, government access to personal information and other matters that may be applicable to our business. More countries are enacting and enforcing laws related to the appropriateness of content and enforcing those and other laws by blocking access to services that are found to be out of compliance. It is also likely that as our business grows and evolves, as an increasing portion of our business shifts to the cloud, and as our solutions are used by additional groups, we will become subject to laws and regulations in additional jurisdictions. For additional information, see the section titled “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Regulation.”
 
Privacy, Data Protection and Security
We place a priority on privacy, data protection and security. We are subject to, and maintain various policies and practices designed to comply with, applicable U.S. and foreign privacy, data protection and security laws, regulations, standards and contractual and other obligations, including with respect to our use, disclosure and other processing of personal information. These obligations, as well as their interpretation, are evolving and we expect them to continue to change over time, which have required, and may require, us to modify our practices and policies and to incur substantial costs and expenses in an effort to comply.
Our information systems and technical infrastructure for cloud services are hosted within SOC 2® attested data centers and utilize a combination of clustering, multiple datacenters and data replication to maintain high availability and resiliency. Our cloud subscription offerings utilize identity and access controls, multi-factor authentication, real-time security monitoring, and both encryption in transit and encryption at rest to protect customer data using keys unique to each tenant. We may need to take additional measures to maintain and improve our information security posture in an effort to avoid security breaches or incidents, including those affecting personal information or other sensitive or proprietary data. For additional information regarding risks relating to privacy, data protection, and security, see the sections titled “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Regulation.” and ITEM 1C. "Cybersecurity."
Human Capital Management
Our Values: DATA (Do Good, Act as One Team, Think Customer-First and Aspire & Innovate) are our foundation and define the Informatica experience. With the mutual goals of “delighting our employees and our customers”, we invest with strong intent to the lifecycle journey beginning with recruiting and onboarding, fostering a culture of inclusiveness, diversity, equity and belonging with a focus on growing both the business and our employees. Our employees receive competitive compensation and benefit programs, and are recognized in a number of ways, including employee driven appreciation and recognition programs. We frequently survey our employees and work to continually strengthen our culture. Our commitment to our employees was especially evident during the pandemic, and we have continued hybrid work protocols, with a multitude of programs designed to drive wellness and engagement as well as at home productivity. This commitment has been reflected in strong engagement scores.
As of December 31, 2023, we had over 5,000 full-time employees, including approximately 1,700 in product development, 1,200 in sales and marketing, 1,500 in operations and customer support, and 600 in general and administrative. As of December 31, 2023, over 3,600 of our employees were located outside the United States, with approximately 2,400 of our employees located in India. None of our U.S. employees are covered by collective bargaining agreements. However, in certain countries in which we operate, we are subject to, and comply with, local labor law requirements which may automatically make our employees subject to industry-wide collective bargaining
- 16 -

agreements. We may be required to comply with the terms of these collective bargaining agreements. We believe our employee relations are good, and we have not experienced any work stoppages.
Diversity and Inclusion
We are proud to be a global leader in the promotion and practice of diversity and inclusion. In addition to having offices and employees all over the world, we take pride in and celebrate our cultural diversity. Informatica searches the globe for top talent in an effort to recruit and hire diverse individuals with a variety of skills, experiences, and backgrounds. Our objective is to continue to improve our hiring, development, advancement, and retention of diverse talent and to foster an environment of inclusivity, diversity, equity and belonging ("IDEB"). Our employees are key contributors to supporting our IDEB vision with employee resource groups, postings and education on our IDEB site, organized company-wide celebrations, speakers, and community outreach.
We require our employees and managers to participate in training programs directed at maintaining a harassment-free, diverse, and secure workplace. With our diverse employee population, we uphold the rights to work in an environment that promotes equal opportunity and prohibits discriminatory practices against race, color, national origin, ancestry, caste, medical condition, religious creed (including religious dress and grooming practices), marital status, registered domestic partner status, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity and expression, genetic characteristics and information, age, veteran status, or any other protected characteristic. We are committed to cultivating a respectful workplace and preventing harassment in all its forms.
Health and Safety
We recognize that a healthy environment and safe workplaces are critical to our business, strategy, and communities. We address environmental issues in an integrated manner to encompass protection of the environment as well as the health and safety of our workforce. Our policy is in place to protect our employees, families, customers, and our communities. We now use a hybrid working model for employees worldwide.
 
Compensation and Benefits
We provide robust market-based compensation and benefits to our employees. In addition to competitive base salaries, all qualified employees are eligible for variable pay and to participate in our Employee Stock Purchase Plan ("ESPP"). We grant equity awards to attract, reward and retain employees. Executive-level employees may receive performance stock units which are eligible to vest upon achievement of key financial targets.
To support the health and wellness of our workforce, we offer premium health coverage with minimal out-of-pocket contributions for our global employees as well as a number of other welfare programs for added security. Employees also are well supported in their time-off needs.
Training and Development
We believe every employee can make a difference and can shape their career at Informatica, so we empower them in their roles to explore various career paths. We assist employees as they grow in a role in general career advancement with access to both on-line, classroom and virtual training. Employees have access to both a rich array of technical and professional development opportunities.
Communication and Engagement
Frequent and transparent communications are paramount at Informatica to engage and inform our teams. We utilize multiple communication channels to ensure our employees and managers receive timely information regarding the business strategy, product and service releases, financial results and priorities; as well as how to stay connected.
- 17 -

Intellectual Property
Our success depends in part upon our proprietary technology. We rely on a combination of patent, copyright, trademark and trade secret rights, confidentiality procedures, and licensing arrangements to establish and protect our proprietary rights. As of December 31, 2023, we had 35 patent applications filed and 128 patents issued in a variety of jurisdictions. Our issued patents are scheduled to expire at various times through February 2041. In addition, we have registered identifiers important to our business including “Informatica” and “CLAIRE” as trademarks in the United States and other jurisdictions. We are also the registered holder of a variety of domestic and international domain names that include “Informatica” and similar variations. In addition to the protections provided by our intellectual property rights, as part of our confidentiality procedures, we generally enter into non-disclosure agreements with our employees, distributors, and corporate partners and into license agreements with respect to our software, documentation, and other proprietary information. Where appropriate, we have also entered into patent cross-license agreements with third parties, thereby acquiring additional intellectual property rights which preserve our ability to pursue normal business activity and minimize our risks in entering new and adjacent technology markets.
Nonetheless, our intellectual property rights may not be successfully asserted in the future or may be invalidated, circumvented, or challenged. Our industry is characterized by the existence of a large number of patents and frequent claims and related litigation based on allegations of patent infringement or other violations of intellectual property rights. We believe that competitors will try to develop products and services that are similar to ours and that may infringe our intellectual property rights. Our competitors or other third parties may also claim that our AI-powered data management cloud platform infringes their intellectual property rights. From time to time, third parties have in the past and may in the future assert claims of infringement, misappropriation or other violations of intellectual property rights against us or our customers or channel partners, whom our license or other agreements may obligate us to indemnify against these claims. Successful claims of infringement by a third party could prevent us from offering certain services or features, require us to develop alternate, non-infringing technology, which could require significant time and during which we could be unable to continue to offer our affected subscriptions or services, require us to obtain a license, which may not be available on reasonable terms or at all, or force us to pay substantial damages, royalties or other fees. As we face increasing competition and gain an increasingly higher profile, the possibility of intellectual property rights claims against us grows. We are not aware of any current infringement of any third-party patents or other proprietary rights by us, although we cannot guarantee this is the case. In addition, the laws of various foreign countries where our products are distributed do not protect our intellectual property rights to the same extent as U.S. laws. Our inability to protect our proprietary information could harm our business. For a further discussion of our intellectual property rights, see the section titled “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property.”
Corporate Information
We were incorporated in Delaware in June 2021. Our principal executive offices are located at 2100 Seaport Boulevard, Redwood City, California 94063, and our telephone number is (650) 385-5000.
Informatica, the Informatica logo and our other registered or common law trademarks, service marks or trade names appearing in this Report are the property of Informatica Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries. This Report contains trademarks and trade names of other businesses that are the property of their respective holders. We have omitted the ® and ™ designations, as applicable, for the trademarks we name in this Report.
Available Information
Our website is located at www.informatica.com, and our investor relations website is located at http://investors.informatica.com. We have used, and intend to continue to use, our Investor Relations website as a means of disclosing material non-public information and for complying with our disclosure obligations under Regulation FD. Copies of our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to these reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act are available, free of charge, on our investor relations website as soon as reasonably practicable after we file such material electronically with or furnish it to the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC. The SEC also maintains a website that contains our SEC filings. The address of the site is www.sec.gov.

- 18 -

ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
Investing in our Class A common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below, together with all of the other information contained in this Report, including the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our consolidated financial statements and the related notes thereto, before making a decision to invest in our Class A common stock. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties that we are unaware of, or that we currently believe are not material, may also become factors that affect us. If any of the risks occur, our business, financial condition, operating results and prospects could be materially and adversely affected. In that event, the market price of our Class A common stock could decline, and you could lose part or all of your investment.
Risk Factor Summary

Our business is subject to numerous risks and uncertainties that you should consider. These risks include, but are not limited to, the following:
If we are unable to attract and retain customers, our future results of operations could be harmed.
Our business and revenue have been adversely affected and could in the future be adversely affected by macroeconomic factors in the global economy, including those related to inflationary pressures, volatility and uncertainty in the financial services industry, shifting foreign exchange rates, geopolitical disruptions, and the effects of global health crises.
A security breach or incident may compromise the integrity of our products, create service outages for our hosted products, or allow unauthorized access to our network or our customers’ data, harm our reputation, create additional liability and adversely impact our financial results.
We have experienced strong subscription revenue growth in recent periods, and our recent growth rates may not be indicative of our future growth.
If our existing customers terminate or do not renew their subscriptions or maintenance contracts, it could have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
If we do not successfully manage our strategy and business model transition for our cloud- and subscription-based offerings, including our consumption-based license model, our business may become more difficult to predict and our results of operations may be adversely affected.
Legal and regulatory changes in jurisdictions in which we do business, including regulations relating to localization and transfer of personal and other regulated types of data, and changes in the manner in which those laws and regulations are interpreted and enforced, could impose additional costs on the operation of our products and services, require changes in their functionality, or reduce customer demand.
The loss of our key personnel, unexpected sales force personnel turnover or decrease in sales force productivity, or the inability to attract and retain additional skilled personnel could adversely affect our ability to grow our company successfully and may negatively impact our results of operations.
If we are unable to successfully respond to technological advances and evolving industry standards, we could experience a reduction in our future product sales, which would cause our revenues to decline.
Our current research and development efforts, including the introduction of new products, the integration of acquired products, and the enhancements of existing products, may not be successful or result in significant revenue, cost savings or other benefits in the near future, if at all.
- 19 -

Risks Related to Our Business and Industry
If we are unable to attract and retain customers, our future results of operations could be harmed.
The success of our business depends on our ability to attract and retain customers. To do so, we must persuade decision makers at enterprises and other organizations that our products offer significant advantages over those of our competitors. Other factors, many of which are out of our control, have impacted or may in the future impact our ability to attract and retain customers, including:
our failure to generate sufficient awareness and demand for our products;
our failure to meet sales targets for net new subscription business including our cloud offerings;
our failure to migrate on-premise products to cloud subscription offerings;
potential customers’ commitments to existing vendors;
potential customers’ greater familiarity and/or comfort with our competitors’ products;
real or perceived switching costs;
real or perceived complexity deploying our products;
our failure to help our customers successfully deploy and use our products;
our failure to satisfy customer demand for new features, products and services;
our failure to expand sales via additional new products with existing customers;
potential customers’ failure to appreciate the benefits of our platform relative to their existing data management products;
our competitors’ product offerings and pricing strategies being considered favorable to ours;
our failure to expand, retain, motivate and align our sales and marketing personnel;
our failure to develop or expand relationships with existing sales partners or to attract new sales partners;
the adoption of new, or amendment of existing, laws, rules and regulations that negatively impact the utility of our products;
the perceived risk, commencement or outcome of litigation against us; and
deteriorating general economic conditions.
If our efforts to attract and retain customers are not successful, our revenue and rate of revenue growth may decline, we may not be able to achieve, or successfully sustain, profitability, our business may become more difficult to predict, and our future results of operations could be materially harmed.
Our business and revenue have been adversely affected and could in the future be adversely affected by global macroeconomic factors, including those related to inflationary pressures, volatility and uncertainty in the financial services industry, geopolitical disruptions, and the effects of global health crises.
Continuing concerns over economic and business prospects in the United States and throughout the world, including impacts related to inflationary pressures, volatility and uncertainty in the financial services industry, and geopolitical disruptions have contributed to increased volatility and diminished expectations for the global economy. As a global company, we are subject to the risks arising from adverse changes in the domestic and global economies. In addition, uncertainty in the macroeconomic environment and associated global economic conditions have resulted in volatility in credit, equity, and foreign currency markets. Our revenues are subject to foreign currency exchange volatility, resulting in a favorable impact of approximately $2.6 million from foreign currency exchange rates for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the year ended December 31, 2022. These macroeconomic conditions have and are likely to continue to adversely affect the buying patterns of our customers and prospective customers, including the length of sales cycles, our overall pipeline and pipeline conversion rates, and our revenue growth expectations. In addition, we have experienced, and could experience in the future, delays in payments or cancellations from our customers experiencing weakness in their business as a result of the macroeconomic environment and associated global economic conditions, which could increase our credit risk exposure or adversely impact our cash flows and harm our financial condition. For example, in 2022 and 2023 we experienced lengthening sales cycles, a decrease in pipeline conversion rates and slower revenue growth. If
- 20 -

macroeconomic or geopolitical conditions continue to deteriorate or if the recovery is delayed, slows or is uneven, our overall results of operations could be adversely affected, we may not be able to grow at the rates we have experienced in the past and we could fail to meet the expectations of investors.
The full extent of the impact of current macroeconomic factors, including those related to inflationary pressures, volatility and uncertainty in the financial services sector, foreign exchange rates, geopolitical disruptions, and the effects of global health crises, on our operational and financial performance remains uncertain and will depend on many factors outside of our control. Due to our subscription-based business model, the effects of any such factors may not be fully reflected in our results of operations until future periods. To the extent these factors adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition, this may also have the effect of heightening many of the other risks described in this section.
 
A security breach or incident may compromise the integrity of our products, create service outages for our hosted products, or allow unauthorized access to our network or our customers’ data, harm our reputation, create additional liability and adversely impact our financial results.
We make significant efforts to implement cybersecurity risk management processes that maintain the security and integrity of our product source code and the computer systems that are used to develop and host our products. However, the threats to computer systems, networks and data security are increasingly diverse and sophisticated. In addition to traditional computer “hackers,” ransomware attacks, malicious code (such as viruses and worms), employee error, theft or misuse, and denial of service attacks, sophisticated nation-state and nation-state supported actors now engage in intrusions and attacks (including advanced persistent threat intrusions), and fundamental software vulnerabilities add to the risks to our products and computer systems, including our internal network and service providers' systems, and the information they store and process. These risks and threats are heightened by the fact that many of our employees and service providers work remotely. Like all cloud service providers and organizations, our cloud software and enterprise networks could be affected by incidents caused by cybersecurity attacks. The impact of such an incident could disrupt the proper functioning of our products, create a service outage for our cloud services, cause errors in the output of our customers’ work, allow unauthorized access to, or use, disclosure, loss, acquisition, modification, unavailability, destruction or other processing of, sensitive, proprietary or confidential information of ours or our customers, and cause other destructive outcomes.
If any actual or perceived cybersecurity attack or security breach or incident affecting us or our products or services were to occur, our services could be delayed or interrupted, our reputation may suffer, customers may stop buying our products and services, we could face claims, lawsuits and other proceedings by governmental and private actors, could face fines and other potential liability, and could find it necessary or appropriate to expend significant capital and other resources to alleviate problems caused by the cybersecurity attack or security breach or incident, and our business, renewal rates, results of operations and financial condition could be negatively affected. We and our service providers may face difficulties or delays in identifying, remediating and otherwise responding to any cybersecurity attack or other security breach or incident.
In addition, as we continue to devote more resources to evaluate our computer systems, networks and products for security vulnerabilities, the cost of addressing these vulnerabilities and otherwise working to prevent security breaches and incidents could reduce our operating margins. If we do not address security vulnerabilities or otherwise provide adequate security features in our products and cloud services, customers may delay or stop purchasing our products and cloud services. Furthermore, we expect the risks related to computer system, network or security incidents to increase as we continue to develop our products and cloud subscription offerings, which may store, transmit and process our customers’ sensitive, proprietary or confidential data, including personal or identifying information, in cloud-based IT environments.
We use open source and other third-party libraries and applications, which may be subject to security vulnerabilities that affect our products, services or operations. These providers historically announce security vulnerabilities in their products and libraries from time to time, which our operations and development teams monitor and evaluate for impact to our products and services. We expect these third-party providers to continue testing and making similar announcements. These announced vulnerabilities have caused our security, operations, development and customer success personnel to invest unplanned time and resources in investigation, patching, documentation, and customer communications.
We also engage third-party vendors and service providers to store and otherwise process some of our and our customers’ data, including sensitive and personal information. Our vendors and service providers may also be the targets of cyberattacks, malicious software, phishing schemes, fraud and other means of effectuating security breaches and incidents. Our ability to monitor our vendors and service providers’ data security is limited, and, in any
- 21 -

event, third parties may be able to circumvent those security measures, resulting in the unauthorized access to, or misuse, disclosure, loss, acquisition, modification, unavailability, destruction or other processing of, our and our customers’ data, including sensitive and personal information. There have been and may continue to be significant supply chain attacks, and we cannot guarantee that our or our third-party providers' systems and networks have not been breached or that they do not contain exploitable defects or bugs that could result in a breach of or disruption to our systems and networks or the systems and networks of third parties that support us and our products and services.
In addition, we have acquired a number of companies, products, services and technologies and may continue to do so in the future. As a result, we may inherit additional IT security issues when we integrate these acquisitions. Throughout our history, our self-managed products have accrued historical potential security vulnerabilities. As we migrate these products and underlying features and components to our cloud platform, many of these vulnerabilities are addressed, but some may persist. These potential vulnerabilities are reviewed according to our risk-based process that considers the residual risk based on compensating controls and other factors. Within our self-managed products, some existing vulnerabilities may become more impactful over time and some vulnerabilities may be newly discovered along with the normal course of security vulnerability disclosure. These vulnerabilities may require significant unplanned engineering effort and cost to resolve and redistribute to customers who remain on the self-managed version of our software.
Further, we have incorporated artificial intelligence ("AI") technologies into our platform, and may continue to do so in the future. Our use of AI technologies may create additional cybersecurity risks or increase cybersecurity risks, including risks of security breaches and incidents. Further, AI technologies may be used in connection with certain cybersecurity attacks, resulting in heightened risks of security breaches and incidents.
 
Techniques used to sabotage or obtain unauthorized access to computers systems or networks are constantly evolving and, in some instances, are not identified until launched against a target. We and our service providers may be unable to anticipate these techniques, react in a timely manner, or implement adequate preventative measures. Further, we cannot assure that any limitations of liability provisions in our customer and user agreements, contracts with third-party vendors and service providers or other contracts would be enforceable or adequate or would otherwise protect us from any liabilities or damages with respect to any particular claim relating to a security breach or other security-related matter. We also cannot be sure that our existing insurance coverage will continue to be available on acceptable terms, if at all, or will be available in sufficient amounts, if at all, to cover claims related to a security incident or breach, or that the insurer will not deny coverage as to any future claim. The successful assertion of claims against us that exceed available insurance coverage, or the occurrence of changes in our insurance policies, including premium increases or the imposition of large deductible or co-insurance requirements, could have a material adverse effect on our business, including our financial condition, operating results, and reputation.

We have experienced strong subscription revenue growth in recent periods, and our recent growth rates may not be indicative of our future growth.
We have experienced strong subscription revenue growth in recent periods. We recognized subscription revenues of $1,003.5 million, $857.2 million and $747.7 million, representing approximately 100%, 99%, and 96% of total software revenue during the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. The year-over-year growth rates for subscription revenue were 17%, 15%, and 26% during the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively, on the basis of year-over-year additions of $146.3 million, $109.5 million and $153.8 million in subscription revenue for those same periods. As we increase our total subscription revenue in any given period, it requires higher year-over-year increases in the absolute value of new subscription revenue to maintain the same percentage growth rate. As a result, our current subscription revenue growth rates have declined and may continue to decline, may not be indicative of our future subscription revenue growth rates, may be adversely impacted by foreign exchange rates, and we may not be able to sustain revenue growth consistent with recent history, or at all. We believe our ability to continue to increase our subscription revenue depends on a number of factors, including, but not limited to:
our ability to attract and retain subscription customers;
our ability to expand within our existing subscription customer basis;
our ability to continue to expand customer adoption of our platform;
our ability to compete effectively against a variety of different vendors who offer data management products;
continued growth of cloud-based services; and
- 22 -

our ability to continue to develop new products to expand the offerings in our platform.
If we are unable to achieve any of these requirements, our subscription revenue growth may decline, and our business and results of operations would be adversely affected.
 
If our existing customers terminate or do not renew their subscription or maintenance contracts, it could have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
We expect to derive a significant portion of our Subscription ARR from our existing subscription customer base. For the year ended December 31, 2023, approximately 90% of our total Subscription ARR was generated from existing subscription customers. As a result, achieving a high renewal rate of our subscriptions is critical to our business. Our customers typically have no contractual obligation to renew their subscriptions after the completion of their then current subscription term, which is typically one to three years, and certain of our customers have a right to terminate during the subscription term. Our customers’ renewal rates may decline or fluctuate, and termination rates may increase or fluctuate, as a result of a number of factors, including their lack of satisfaction with our platform or our customer support, their failure to utilize all of the IPUs purchased in their original agreement, our products’ inability to integrate with new and changing technologies, the perception of frequent or severe subscription outages, delays or lags in our product uptime or latency, and a mismatch in the pricing of our products and competing offerings.
Even if our customers renew their subscriptions, they may renew for shorter subscription terms than we anticipate, they may not expand the usage of our products at the rate we are expecting, or they may insist on other renewal terms that are less economically beneficial to us. We cannot be certain that our customers will renew or expand their subscriptions nor can we be certain that our customers will not terminate their subscriptions in whole or in part. If our customers terminate or do not renew their subscriptions, or renew on less favorable terms, our revenue may grow more slowly than expected or decline, our subscription renewal rate and subscription net retention rate may decline, and we may not accurately predict future revenue from existing customers.
Furthermore, in 2023, we had $496.0 million of maintenance revenue, which was 31% of our total revenue of $1,595.2 million. In 2022, we had $520.0 million of maintenance revenue, which was 35% of our total revenue of $1,505.1 million. Achieving a high renewal rate on our maintenance contracts is critical to our business. Our customers have no contractual obligation to renew their maintenance contracts after the completion of their then-current contract term, which is typically one to three years, and certain of our customers have a right to terminate during the term. Our customers’ renewal rates may decline or fluctuate, and termination rates may increase or fluctuate, as a result of a number of factors, including the change in our business model to move away from self-managed licenses in favor of cloud subscription offerings, customers’ lack of satisfaction with our products or our customer support, our products’ inability to integrate with new and changing technologies and a mismatch in the pricing of our products and competing offerings.
Even if our customers renew their maintenance, they may renew for shorter terms than we anticipate or on other terms that are less economically beneficial to us. Customers may also not renew their maintenance if they want to move their perpetual licenses to a cloud architecture and we are unable to accommodate them with an acceptable migration plan. We cannot be certain that our customers will renew their maintenance nor can we be certain that our customers will not terminate their maintenance in whole or in part. If our customers terminate or do not renew their maintenance, or renew on less favorable terms, our revenue may grow more slowly than expected or decline, our maintenance renewal rate may decline, and we may not accurately predict future revenue from existing customers.
If we do not successfully manage our strategy and business model transition for our cloud- and subscription-based offerings, including our consumption-based license model, our business may become more difficult to predict and our results of operations may be adversely affected.
The continued adoption of cloud services, the increasing customer demand for subscription-based licensing, the accelerating volume and diversity of data creation, and the critical importance of security continue to redefine business computing. We offer our products on a subscription-based license model including our cloud data management products that provide our customers with functionality within a cloud-based IT environment. Our strategy and business model for these subscription-based offerings, which are also offered on a consumption-based pricing model, differs from our legacy perpetual license-based model, continue to evolve and are subject to risks and uncertainties. It is difficult to forecast the revenue mix of perpetual, maintenance, self-managed subscription
- 23 -

and cloud subscription for our new sales and this makes it challenging to predict what portion of our new sales will be recognized as revenue in the current period versus recognized ratably over multiple periods.
We have continued to build on our cloud-focused strategy with the development of IDMC. As a result, we are deriving an increasing portion of our revenues over time from our subscription-based offerings. For example, we are investing in our go-to-market strategies and customer success organization for our cloud subscription offerings and self-managed subscription products. These go-to-market strategies and efforts differ from those we have used for perpetual license software products, may be temporarily disruptive and result in reduced sales productivity in addition to increased costs. The market for subscription-based offerings is not as mature as the market for perpetual license products and it may not develop as anticipated. In addition, market acceptance of subscription-based offerings, particularly cloud-based solutions, may be affected by a variety of factors, including concerns regarding the data security, privacy, cost, reliability, performance and perceived value associated with such offerings. Many customers have invested substantial resources on traditional, perpetually licensed, self-managed software solutions, and the related ongoing support services, and they may be unwilling or reluctant to migrate to cloud-based solutions or other subscription-based offerings. We may not be able to compete effectively or generate significant demand for or revenues from our subscription-based offerings. Also, we expect demand for our subscription-based offerings to unfavorably impact demand for certain of our other products and services, such as support services on perpetually licensed products. In addition, our subscription offering strategy will require continued investment in product development and operations, including cloud-based IT infrastructure. Additionally, our future success depends in part on the growth of the market for cloud data management solutions and an increase in the desire to ingest, store and process data in the cloud, and the market for cloud data management solutions and applications may not grow as expected and, even if such growth occurs, our business may not grow at similar rates, or at all. We may incur costs at a higher than expected rate as our subscription business continues to expand, adversely affecting our financial performance. In addition, we will incur costs associated with the investments in our subscription business in advance of our ability to recognize the revenue associated with our subscription offerings, which will have an adverse impact on our margins. As we continue to focus increasingly on cloud only solutions, we expect that fewer resources will be devoted to our self-managed offerings, which may cause customers who are only interested in self-managed solutions to not renew their subscription for those self-managed solutions. If we are unable to successfully establish our subscription offerings and navigate our business model transition in light of the foregoing risks and uncertainties, our results of operations could be negatively affected.
As part of our strategy to move our business model from perpetual licenses and its associated maintenance to cloud and subscription based licensing, we have undertaken a program to migrate the installed base of our traditional PowerCenter products, which were originally under perpetual licenses, to our new cloud-based data integration offerings. As part of these migration transactions, we have offered and may continue to offer our customers credits on their maintenance bills and related professional services to assist with the overall migration process. To date we have signed agreements to migrate approximately 4.8% of that installed base maintenance revenue to our cloud solution. These migration projects can be time consuming and may require a significant level of professional services and customer data validation work to complete. As a result, the rate at which we are able to continue to migrate our maintenance installed base is difficult to forecast and there is no guarantee that we will be able to maintain or accelerate the pace of such migration projects.
Legal and regulatory changes in jurisdictions in which we do business, including regulations relating to artificial intelligence and machine learning or to localization and transfer of personal and other regulated types of data, and changes in the manner in which those laws and regulations are interpreted and enforced, could deter or reduce customer demand.
Changes in laws and regulations relating to artificial intelligence and machine learning, data privacy, data protection, and security, and changes in how courts and supervisory authorities interpret and enforce those laws and regulations, may have the effect of deterring customers in some jurisdictions from commencing, continuing, or expanding use of our products and services. In particular, laws and regulations relating to the localization of categories of information in the jurisdiction of origin or to restrictions on transfer of categories of information out of the jurisdiction may reduce demand for our provision of cloud, professional and support services and/or inhibit our ability to offer those services efficiently and effectively with the features customers desire. This risk is heightened as more customers use cloud services in lieu of self-managed software. Even where we host cloud services in a customer’s jurisdiction, regulators concerned about the possibility of surveillance and intelligence gathering by foreign government entities may encourage those customers to seek alternative services of locally owned and controlled providers where available. If we are unable to retain existing customers and attract new customers as the legal and regulatory landscape continues to change, or if we fail to adapt to these changes, our results of operations
- 24 -

may suffer. See risks related to privacy, data protection and information security regulation under “Risks Related to Regulation” below.
The loss of our key personnel, an unexpected turnover in sales force personnel or decrease in sales force productivity, or the inability to attract and retain additional skilled personnel could adversely affect our ability to grow our company successfully and may negatively impact our results of operations.
We believe our ability to attract and retain highly skilled personnel and key members of our management team is critical to our long-term success. Historically, there has been a significant level of competition to attract these individuals, and we have in the past, and may in the future, experience changes in our senior management team. As new senior personnel join our company and become familiar with our business strategy and systems, or as existing senior personnel assume new roles within the company, their integration or transition could result in disruption to our ongoing operations.
The future success of our business requires us to add, attract, train, and retain skilled personnel. We provide business practices training to our sales teams. Our business is subject to increasing structural and regulatory complexity which makes it more critical for us to attract and retain qualified and technically competent employees in the United States and internationally. If we are unable to effectively attract and train new personnel on a timely basis, or if we experience unexpected levels of turnover, our results of operations may be negatively affected.
We continue to be substantially dependent on our sales force to obtain new customers and to drive additional usage and sales among our existing customers. We believe that there is competition for sales personnel, including enterprise sales representatives and sales engineers, with the skills and technical knowledge that we require. Our ability to achieve revenue targets will depend, in large part, on our success in recruiting, training and retaining sufficient numbers of sales personnel to support our growth. Further, from time to time, we have experienced an increased level of turnover in our direct sales force, particularly in the first quarter of a year. Such increase in the turnover rate affects our ability to generate software revenues. Although we have hired replacements in our sales force and are continuing to hire additional sales personnel to grow our business, we typically experience lower productivity from newly hired sales personnel for a period of approximately nine months. We continue to invest in training for our sales personnel, including updates to cover new, acquired, or enhanced products, as we broaden our product platform. In addition, we periodically make adjustments to our sales organization in response to a variety of internal and external factors, such as changes in our strategy, market opportunities, competitive threats, management changes, product introductions or enhancements, acquisitions, sales performance, increases in sales headcount and cost levels. Such adjustments may be temporarily disruptive and result in reduced productivity. If we are unable to effectively attract, train and retain new sales personnel, particularly sales specialists or domain experts, or if we experience an increase in the level of sales force turnover or decrease in sales force productivity, our ability to generate revenues from both new and existing customers and our growth rate may be negatively affected.
 
We have relied on our ability to grant equity awards as one mechanism for recruiting and retaining highly skilled talent. If our stock price falls significantly below the exercise price of stock options previously granted to employees, or has fallen from the grant date value for employee RSUs, the retention value of the equity awards we have made to employees is reduced proportionally, which may lead to higher voluntary attrition rates. As a result, we may need to provide additional cash or equity compensation to recruit and retain employees.
We currently do not have any key-man life insurance relating to our key personnel, and the employment of key personnel in the United States is generally at will and not subject to employment contracts.
If we are unable to successfully respond to technological advances and evolving industry standards, we could experience a reduction in our future product sales, which would cause our revenues to decline.
The market for our products is characterized by continuing technological development, the emergence of new technologies, evolving industry standards, changing customer needs, and frequent new product introductions and enhancements. The introduction of products by our competitors or others incorporating new technologies, such as the use of AI or machine learning, the emergence of new industry standards, or changes in customer requirements could render our existing products obsolete, unmarketable, or less competitive. In addition, industry-wide adoption or increased use of hand-coding, open source standards or other uniform open standards across heterogeneous applications could minimize the importance of the integration functionality of our products and materially adversely affect the competitiveness and market acceptance of our products. Furthermore, the standards on which we choose to develop new products or enhancements may not allow us to compete effectively for business opportunities.
- 25 -

Our success depends upon our ability to enhance existing products, to respond to changing customer requirements, and to develop and introduce new products in a timely manner that keep pace with technological and competitive developments, including those that may incorporate artificial intelligence and machine learning ("AI/ML"), and emerging industry standards we may be subject to new, or heightened legal, ethical, and other challenges. We have in the past experienced delays in releasing new products and product enhancements and may experience similar delays in the future. As a result, in the past, some of our customers deferred purchasing our products until the next upgrade was released. Future delays or problems in the installation or implementation of our new releases may cause customers to forgo purchases of subscriptions to our products and purchase those of our competitors instead. Additionally, even if we are able to develop new products and product enhancements, we cannot ensure that they will achieve market acceptance.
Our current research and development efforts, including the introduction of new products, the integration of acquired products, and the enhancement of existing products, may not be successful or result in significant revenue, cost savings or other benefits in the near future, if at all.
Rapid technological changes, including changes in customer requirements and preferences, are characteristic in the software industry. In particular, in the market for enterprise data management software and services, especially for broader data management initiatives, we have experienced increased competition from new and emerging technologies and increased market confusion from our customers or prospective customers about the benefits of our products compared to other solutions. In order to address the expanding data management needs of our customers and prospective customers, and to respond to rapid technological changes, technological trends and customer concerns, we introduce new products and technology enhancements on a regular basis, including products we acquire. For example, in June 2023, we acquired Privitar Limited, a provider of data privacy and security controls for enterprise data customers. Also in 2023, we released the PowerCenter Cloud Edition to accelerate and automate much of the migration effort associated with modernizing from on-premises PowerCenter to IDMC. We intend to continue our investments to develop and introduce new products and product enhancements.
The introduction of new products, integration of acquired products and enhancement of existing products is a complex and costly process involving inherent risks, such as:
the failure to accurately anticipate the impact of new and emerging technologies or changes in technological trends;
the failure to accurately anticipate changes in customer requirements and preferences;
delays in completion, launch, delivery, or availability;
delays in customer adoption or market acceptance;
delays in customer purchases in anticipation of products not yet released;
product quality issues, including the possibility of defects and the costs of remediating any such defects;
market confusion based on changes to the product packaging and pricing as a result of a new product release;
market confusion based on the introduction of new and emerging technologies by us and our competitors or changes in technological trends, particularly the shift to cloud-based solutions;
interoperability and integration issues between our existing products and newly acquired products or technologies, and the costs of remediating any such issues;
interoperability and integration issues with third-party technologies and the costs of remediating any such issues;
customer issues with migrating or upgrading from previous product versions and the costs of remediating any such issues;
bugs, errors, or other defects or deficiencies in the early stages of introduction;
loss of existing customers that choose a competitor’s product instead of upgrading or migrating to the new or enhanced product; and
loss of maintenance revenues from existing customers that do not upgrade or migrate.
- 26 -

Developing our products and related enhancements is expensive. We devote significant resources to the development of new products, the acquisition of products, and the enhancement of existing products, as well as to the integration of these products with each other. We recognized $335.1 million, $318.8 million and $260.7 million of research and development expense during the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. Our investments in research and development may not result in significant design improvements, marketable products or features, or may result in products that are more expensive than anticipated. Additionally, we may not achieve the cost savings or the anticipated performance improvements we expect, and we may take longer to generate revenue, or generate less revenue, than we anticipate. Our future plans include significant investments in research and development and related product opportunities. We believe that we must continue to dedicate a significant amount of resources to our research and development efforts to maintain our competitive position. However, we may not receive significant revenue from these investments in the near future, if at all, or these investments may not yield the expected benefits, either of which could adversely affect our business and results of operations. For example, while the use of AI/ML are leading to advancements in technology, if they are not widely adopted and accepted or fail to operate as expected, our business and reputation may be harmed. In addition, as we develop new products, particularly those based on new or emerging technologies, we may need to develop sales and marketing strategies that differ from the strategies we currently utilize, which may result in increased levels of investment and additional costs. For example, we are continuing to evolve our business model to increase subscription revenue and we are investing in our go-to-market strategies for our newer products.
Additionally, we have in the past experienced bugs, errors, or other defects or deficiencies in new products, including cloud subscription offerings and product updates and may have similar experiences in the future. Furthermore, our ability to increase the usage of our products depends, in part, on the development of new use cases for our products and may be outside of our control. We also have invested, and may continue to invest, in the acquisition of complementary businesses, technologies, services, products and other assets that expand the products that we can offer our customers. We may make these investments without being certain that they will result in products or enhancements that will be accepted by existing or prospective customers. Additionally, even if we are able to develop new products and product enhancements, we cannot ensure that they will achieve market acceptance. If we are unable to successfully enhance our existing products to meet evolving customer requirements, increase adoption and usage of our products, develop new products, or if our efforts to increase the usage of our products are more expensive than we expect, then our business, results of operations and financial condition would be adversely affected.
If we do not compete effectively, our revenues may not grow and could decline.
The market for our products is highly competitive, quickly evolving, and subject to rapidly changing technology, which may expand the alternatives available to our current and potential customers for their data management requirements. Our competition consists of:
hand-coded custom-built solutions developed by internal IT teams;
point solution vendors that compete with one of our products;
cloud service providers ("CSPs") with limited platform-specific capabilities in data management; and
stack vendors that compete across in many of our markets with data management solutions.
From time to time, we compete with business intelligence and analytics vendors that offer, or may develop, products with functionalities that compete with our products.
Certain of our competitors have substantially greater financial, technical, marketing, and other resources, greater name recognition, specialized sales or domain expertise, broader product portfolios and stronger customer relationships than we do and may be able to exert greater influence on customer purchasing decisions. New or emerging technologies, technological trends or changes in customer requirements may result in certain of our strategic partners, including CSPs, becoming potential competitors in the future. Our competitors may be able to respond more quickly than we can to new or emerging technologies, technological trends and changes in customer requirements. Our current and potential competitors may develop and market new technologies that render our existing or future products obsolete, unmarketable, or less competitive. In addition, new products or enhancements of existing products that we introduce may not adequately address or respond to new or emerging technologies, technological trends or changes in customer requirements. Moreover, competition from new and emerging technologies and changes in technological trends, particularly the shift to cloud-based solutions, has increased market confusion about the benefits of our products compared to other solutions.
- 27 -

We expect competition to increase as other established and emerging companies enter the data management and data integration software market, as customer requirements evolve and as new products and technologies are introduced. Our ability to compete depends upon many factors both within and beyond our control, including the following:
ability to offer a comprehensive platform with best of breed products;
 
interoperability with multi-cloud, hybrid environments and applications;
ability to embed advanced AI and machine learning in our platform;
performance, reliability and security;
ease of deployment and ease of use by the full breadth of data practitioners;
elasticity and ability to quickly scale services;
strength of cloud ecosystem partnerships;
responsiveness to evolving customer needs and use cases;
success of sales & marketing efforts;
quality of customer support; and
brand awareness and reputation.
We may have difficulty competing on the basis of price in circumstances where our competitors develop and market products with similar or superior functionality and pursue an aggressive pricing strategy. For example, some of our competitors may provide guarantees of prices and product implementation, offer data management products at no cost in order to charge a premium for additional functionality, or bundle data management products with other products at no cost to the customer or at deeply discounted prices for promotional purposes or as a long-term pricing strategy. These difficulties may increase as larger companies target the data management markets. A customer may be unwilling to pay a separate cost for our data management products if the customer has a bundled pricing arrangement with a company that offers a wider variety of products than us. As a result, increased competition, alternate pricing models and bundling strategies could seriously impede our ability to sell additional products and services on terms favorable to us.
In addition, consolidation among vendors in the software industry is continuing at a rapid pace. Our current and potential competitors may make additional strategic acquisitions, consolidate their operations, or establish cooperative relationships among themselves or with other solution providers, thereby increasing their ability to provide a broader suite of software products or solutions and more effectively address the needs of our current and prospective customers. Such acquisitions could cause potential customers to defer or not proceed with purchasing our products. Our current and potential competitors may also establish or strengthen cooperative relationships with our current or future strategic partners, thereby limiting our ability to sell products through these channels. If any of this were to occur, our ability to market and sell our software products would be impaired. In addition, competitive pressures could reduce our market share or require us to reduce our prices, either of which could harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
Furthermore, during periods of U.S. or global economic uncertainty, our customers’ capital spending may be significantly reduced. As a result, there is significantly increased competition for the allocation of IT budget dollars, and other IT implementations may take priority over the use of our products and services.
We may experience fluctuations in our quarterly or annual operating results, especially in the amount of self-managed subscription license and other license revenues we recognize.
Our quarterly and annual operating results, particularly the upfront portion of revenue from new sales of our self-managed subscription license and existing contract renewals, have fluctuated in the past and may do so in the future. Our self-managed products, predominantly sold under a subscription-based license, are difficult to forecast accurately and are vulnerable to short-term shifts in customer demand. We may experience a reduction in contract duration for self-managed subscription licenses which would reduce the amount of revenue that we recognize on net new and renewal transactions. Also, we may experience order deferrals by customers in anticipation of future new product introductions or product enhancements, as well as a result of their particular budgeting and purchase cycles. The continued global economic and geopolitical uncertainty may also cause further customer order deferrals or reductions, stricter customer purchasing controls and approval processes, and adversely affect budgeting and purchase cycles. By comparison, our short-term expenses are relatively fixed and based in part on our expectations
- 28 -

of future revenues. We generally recognize a substantial portion of our self-managed product license revenues in the last month of each quarter and, sometimes in the last few weeks or days of each quarter. As a result, we cannot predict the adverse impact caused by cancellations or delays in prospective orders until the end of each quarter.
Moreover, the expansion of our product portfolio through the introduction of new products and enhancements has increased the complexity of our transactions and this may increase the length of our sales cycles and reduce the predictability of the timing and the amount of future sales.
Due to the difficulty we experience in predicting our quarterly license revenues, we believe that period-to-period comparisons of our operating results are not necessarily a good indication of our future performance.
In addition, a number of the other factors discussed in this section may cause fluctuations in our quarterly or annual operating results. As a result, our future operating results or forecasts of future operating results could fail to meet the expectations of investors, which could cause our stock price to decline.
Market adoption of cloud-based data management solutions may not grow as we expect, which may harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The market for cloud-based data management solutions is not as mature as the market for on-premises products, and it may not develop as anticipated. In addition, market acceptance of cloud-based solutions may be affected by a variety of factors, including concerns regarding the security, privacy, cost, reliability, performance and perceived value associated with such offerings. Many customers have invested substantial resources on traditional, on-premises software solutions and the related ongoing support services, and they may be unwilling or reluctant to migrate to cloud-based solutions. If our cloud-based solutions do not achieve widespread adoption or the market for cloud-based data management solutions generally does not evolve as expected, it could result in reduced customer purchases, reduced renewal rates and decreased revenue, any of which will adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
If we are unable to accurately forecast sales and trends in our business, we may fail to meet expectations.
We use a “pipeline” system, a common industry practice, to forecast sales and trends in our business. Our sales personnel monitor the status of all potential sales of our products and estimate when a customer will make a purchase decision and the potential dollar amount of the sale. We aggregate these estimates periodically in order to generate a sales pipeline. We assess the pipeline at various points in time to look for trends in our business. While this pipeline analysis may provide us with some guidance in business planning and budgeting, these pipeline estimates are necessarily speculative. Our pipeline estimates may not correlate to revenues in a particular quarter or over a longer period of time, particularly in a weak or uncertain global macroeconomic environment. In addition, our pipeline estimates can prove to be unreliable in a particular quarter or over a longer period of time, in part because both the “conversion rate” of the pipeline into actual sales and the quality and timing of pipeline generation can be very difficult to estimate.
The conversion of the sales pipeline into actual license or subscription sales may also be affected by the tendency of some of our customers to wait until the end of a fiscal period in the hope of obtaining more favorable terms, which can also impede our ability to negotiate, execute and deliver on these contracts in a timely manner. Because we have historically converted a substantial portion of our pipeline into sales in the last month of each quarter and sometimes in the last few weeks of each quarter, we may not be able to adjust our cost structure in a timely manner in response to variations in the pipeline conversion rate. In addition, for newly acquired companies, we have limited ability to predict how their pipelines will convert into sales or revenues following acquisition. Any change in the conversion rate of the pipeline into customer sales or in the pipeline itself could cause us to improperly budget for future expenses that are in line with our expected future revenues, which would adversely affect our operating margins and results of operations.
A reduction in our sales pipeline and pipeline conversion rate could adversely affect the growth of our company.
We continue to experience a reduced conversion rate of our overall pipeline year over year, primarily as a result of general economic slowdowns and general macroeconomic uncertainty due in part to geopolitical disruptions, which caused the amount of customer purchases to be reduced, deferred, or cancelled. Recent and current global macroeconomic uncertainty and trends have had and may continue to have an adverse effect on our pipeline conversion rate in the near future. If we are unable to continue to increase the size of our sales pipeline and
- 29 -

our pipeline conversion rate, our results of operations could fail to meet the expectations of investors, which could cause our stock price to decline.
We have international operations and sales offices in other countries and have experienced and may continue to experience various leadership transitions in our worldwide sales organization.
We recognized $528.3 million, $535.7 million and $496.8 million of sales and marketing expense during the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. As our products become more complex and we target new customers for our software and services, we expect to broaden our go-to-market initiatives and, as a result, our sales and marketing expenses may increase. We expect these investments to increase our revenues, sales productivity, and eventually our profitability. However, if we experience unexpected turnover in sales personnel, do not achieve expected increases in our sales pipeline, experience a decline in our sales pipeline conversion ratio, or do not achieve increases in productivity and efficiencies from our new sales personnel as they gain more experience, then we may not achieve our expected increases in revenue, sales productivity, and profitability.
As a result of our lengthy sales cycles, our expected revenues are susceptible to fluctuations, which could cause us to fail to meet expectations.
Due to the expense, broad functionality, and company-wide deployment of our products, our customers’ decisions to purchase subscriptions to our products typically require the approval of their executive decision makers. Also, macroeconomic uncertainty, inflationary pressures, volatility and uncertainty in the financial services sector, geopolitical disruptions, and other challenging global economic conditions, have and are likely to continue to adversely affect the buying patterns of our customers and prospective customers, including the size of transactions, and length of our sales cycle. In addition, we frequently must educate our potential customers about the full benefits of our products, which also can require significant time. These trends toward greater customer executive level involvement or stricter customer purchasing controls and approval processes and increased customer education efforts are likely to increase, particularly as we expand our market focus to broader data management initiatives and experience increased competition from new or emerging technologies. Further, our sales cycle may lengthen as we continue to focus our sales efforts on large corporations. In addition, the purchase of subscriptions to our products may be delayed, or our sales cycle may become more complex, due to potential conflicts in our sales channels and sales processes if we increasingly sell our subscription-based offerings to accounts that have pre-existing perpetual license-based products. As a result of these factors, the length of time from our initial contact with a customer to the customer’s decision to purchase subscriptions to our products typically ranges from three to twelve months. We are subject to a number of significant risks as a result of our lengthy sales cycle that could delay, reduce or otherwise adversely affect the purchase of subscriptions to our products, including:
changes in our customers’ budgetary constraints and internal acceptance review procedures;
the timing of our customers’ budget cycles;
the seasonality of technology purchases, which historically has resulted in stronger sales of our products in the fourth quarter of the year, especially when compared to lighter sales in the first quarter of the year;
our customers’ concerns about the introduction of our products;
our customers’ concerns about managing a combination of perpetual license-based products and subscription-based products;
our customers’ concerns about migrating pre-existing perpetual license-based products to our cloud offerings;
market confusion over the introduction of new or emerging technologies by us or our competitors or changes in technological trends, particularly the shift to cloud-based solutions; or
potential downturns in general economic or political conditions or potential tightening of credit markets that could occur during the sales cycle.
If our sales cycles lengthen unexpectedly, they could adversely affect the timing of our revenues or increase costs which may independently cause fluctuations in our revenues and results of operations. Finally, if we are unsuccessful in closing sales of our products after spending significant funds and management resources, our operating margins and results of operations could be adversely impacted.
- 30 -

The sales prices of our products may decrease, which may reduce our gross profits and adversely affect our financial results.
The sales prices for our subscription offerings and professional services may decline for a variety of reasons, including competitive pricing pressures, discounts, a change in our mix of subscription offerings, self-managed offerings and professional services and their respective margins, anticipation of the introduction of new subscription offerings or professional services, or promotional programs. Competition continues to increase in the market segments in which we participate, and we expect competition to further increase in the future, thereby leading to increased pricing pressures. Larger competitors with more diverse product and service offerings may reduce the price of products or services that compete with ours or may bundle them with other products and services. We cannot guarantee that we will be successful in developing and introducing new subscription offerings with enhanced functionality on a timely basis, or that any such new subscription offerings, if introduced, will enable us to maintain our prices and gross profits at levels that will allow us to achieve and maintain profitability.

Additionally, currency fluctuations in certain countries and regions may negatively impact actual prices that channel partners and customers are willing to pay in those countries and regions. In prior years, fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates have negatively affected, and in the future could negatively affect our revenues. Changes in foreign currency exchange rates driven by the general weakening of the U.S. dollar favorably impacted reported revenue by approximately $2.6 million in the year ended December 31, 2023. The impact on revenue from fluctuations in foreign currency is calculated by comparing current period revenue to the translated current period revenue for the year ended December 31, 2023 using the prior year's exchange rates.
We rely on our relationships with our strategic partners. If we do not establish, maintain and strengthen these relationships, our ability to generate revenue and control expenses could be adversely affected.
We believe that our ability to increase the sales of our products depends in part upon establishing, maintaining and strengthening relationships with our current strategic partners and any future strategic partners.
In addition to our direct sales force, we rely on established relationships with a variety of strategic partners, such as hyperscaler cloud partners, cloud data platforms, systems integrators, resellers, and distributors, for marketing, licensing, implementing, and supporting our products in the United States and internationally. We also rely on relationships with strategic technology partners, such as enterprise application providers, database vendors, data quality vendors, and enterprise information integration vendors, for the promotion and implementation of our products. In addition, as we develop new products, particularly those based on new or emerging technologies, we may need to establish relationships with new strategic partners, including those that may differ from the types of strategic partners we currently have. We may not be able to successfully establish such relationships, which may adversely affect the market acceptance of our products. In addition, given our limited history with our newer strategic partners, we cannot be certain these relationships will result in significant increases in sales of our products, particularly our newer products.
Our strategic partners offer products from several different companies, including, in some cases, products that compete with our products. We have limited control, if any, as to whether these strategic partners devote adequate resources to promoting, selling, and implementing our products as compared to our competitors’ products. Also, new or emerging technologies, technological trends or changes in customer requirements may result in certain of our strategic partners becoming potential competitors in the future. In addition, from time to time our strategic partners have acquired, and will likely continue to acquire, competitors of ours. Such consolidation makes it critical that we continue to develop, maintain and strengthen our relationships with other strategic partners. We may not be able to strengthen such relationships and successfully generate additional revenue.
Our Informatica Partner Program agreements with our strategic partners typically have a duration of 24 months, and generally may be terminated for any reason by either party with advance notice prior to each renewal date. It should be noted that in some jurisdictions, even with a right to termination for convenience, partners may be entitled to compensation upon termination, depending on local law, their level of investment and the notice period given. There can be no assurance that we will retain these strategic partners or that we will be able to secure additional or replacement strategic partners. The loss of one or more of our significant strategic partners or a decline in the number or size of orders from any of them could harm our results of operations. In addition, many of our new strategic partners require extensive training and may take several months or more to achieve productivity. Our strategic partner sales structure could subject us to lawsuits, potential liability, and reputational harm if, for example, any of our strategic partners misrepresents the functionality of our offerings, violates laws or does not comply with our policies or their own policies. If our strategic partners are unsuccessful in fulfilling the orders for our
- 31 -

offerings, or if we are unable to enter into arrangements with and retain high quality strategic partners, our ability to sell our offerings and results of operations could be harmed.
In addition, we may not be able to maintain strategic partnerships or attract sufficient additional strategic partners who have the ability to market our products effectively, are qualified to provide timely and cost-effective customer support and service, or have the technical expertise and personnel resources necessary to implement our products for our customers. In particular, if our strategic partners do not devote sufficient resources to implement our products, we may incur substantial additional costs associated with hiring and training additional qualified technical personnel to implement solutions for our customers in a timely manner.
Furthermore, our relationships with our strategic partners may not generate enough revenue to offset the significant resources used to develop these relationships. If we are unable to leverage the strength of our strategic partnerships to generate additional revenues, our revenues could decline.
Delivering certain of our products via the cloud increases our expenses and may pose other challenges to our business.
We offer and sell software products delivered as a cloud service and software that is self-managed by our customers using their own infrastructure. Our cloud solutions enable quick setup and subscription pricing. We have less experience selling our cloud service offerings. Although a majority of our subscription revenue is currently generated from customers using our self-managed products, we believe that over time more customers will move to the cloud offering. As more of our customers transition to the cloud, we may be subject to additional contractual obligations with respect to privacy and data protection, service level agreements, as well as competitive pressures and higher operating costs, any of which may harm our business. We are directing a significant portion of our financial and operating resources to implement a robust cloud offering for our products, but even if we continue to make these investments, we may be unsuccessful in growing or implementing our cloud offering competitively, and our business, results of operations and financial condition could be harmed. If our cloud offering does not develop as quickly as we expect, or if we are unable to continue to scale our systems to meet the requirements of a large cloud offering, our business may be harmed.
 
We expect our revenue mix to vary over time, which could harm our gross margin and operating results.
We expect our revenue mix to vary over time due to a number of factors, including the mix of our self-managed subscription products, cloud subscription offerings, and professional services revenue. Due to the differing revenue recognition policies applicable to our self-managed subscriptions and cloud subscriptions, shifts in our business mix from quarter-to-quarter or period-to-period could produce substantial variation in revenue recognized. Further, our gross margins and operating results could be harmed by changes in revenue mix and costs, together with numerous other factors, including entry into new markets or growth in lower-margin markets; entry into markets with different pricing and cost structures; pricing discounts; and increased price competition. Any one of these factors or the cumulative effects of certain of these factors may result in significant fluctuations in our gross margin and operating results. This variability, unpredictability and varying revenue recognition methods could result in our failure to meet internal expectations or those of securities analysts or investors for a particular period. If we fail to meet or exceed such expectations for these or any other reasons, the market price of our Class A common stock could decline significantly.
We have a history of losses and may not be able to achieve or maintain profitability on a consistent basis. If we cannot achieve or maintain profitability, our business, financial condition, and results of operations may suffer.
We have incurred net losses since we were taken private in a 2015 transaction led by Permira and CPP Investments (each a "Sponsor" and together "our Sponsors") as a result of recording $3.1 billion in acquired technology and intangible assets. The related amortization expense from these assets was $145.9 million, $185.6 million and $241.0 million for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. In addition, as a result of the 2015 Privatization Transaction and the debt incurred, we recognized interest expense of $151.4 million, $78.0 million and $132.4 million, in the fiscal years 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. As a result, we incurred net losses of $125.3 million, $53.7 million and $99.9 million for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. As a result, we had an accumulated deficit of $1,308.5 million as of December 31, 2023. In addition, while we expect that our operating expenses will decrease year over year as percentages of total revenues in fiscal year 2024 due to the restructuring we announced in November of 2023, we anticipate that our operating expenses generally will increase in the long term as we continue to enhance our offerings, broaden our customer base, expand our sales and marketing activities particularly with regard to our subscription-based offerings, expand our
- 32 -

operations, hire additional employees, and continue to develop our technology. These efforts may prove more expensive than we currently anticipate, and we may not succeed in increasing our revenue sufficiently, or at all, to offset these higher expenses. Revenue growth may slow or revenue may decline for a number of possible reasons, including slowing demand for our products and services or increasing competition. Any failure to increase our revenue as we grow our business could prevent us from achieving profitability or positive cash flow at all or on a consistent basis, which would cause our business, financial condition, and results of operations to suffer. Additionally, increases in interest rates have impacted and will continue to impact profitability as our Credit Facilities (as defined below) have variable interest rates which are no longer being offset by the interest rate swaps that we previously entered into and matured on December 31, 2022.
Our ability to increase sales of our offerings is highly dependent on the quality of our products and customer support, and our failure to offer high quality products and support would have an adverse effect on our business, reputation and results of operations.
After our products are deployed, our customers depend on our maintenance and support services to resolve issues relating to our products, as well as our professional services, consisting of consulting and education services. If we do not succeed in helping our customers quickly resolve post-deployment issues or provide effective ongoing support and education on our products, our ability to sell additional subscriptions to existing customers or expand the value of existing customers’ subscriptions would be adversely affected and our reputation with potential customers could be damaged. Many larger enterprise and government entity customers have more complex IT environments and require higher levels of support than smaller customers. If we fail to meet the requirements of these enterprise customers, it may be more difficult to grow sales with them.
Additionally, it can take several months to recruit, hire, and train qualified technical support employees. We may not be able to hire such resources fast enough to keep up with demand, particularly if the sales of our offerings exceed our internal forecasts. To the extent that we are unsuccessful in hiring, training, and retaining adequate support resources, our ability to provide adequate and timely support to our customers, and our customers’ satisfaction with our offerings, will be adversely affected. Our failure to provide and maintain high-quality products and support services would have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Products sold as a subscription may increase the difficulty of evaluating the performance of our business during a particular period.
We recognize a portion of our total subscription revenue ratably over the term of the subscription agreements, which are typically one to three years in length. As a result, the subscription revenue we report in each quarter is the result of subscription agreements entered into during previous quarters. Consequently, a decline in subscription agreements in any one quarter may not significantly affect, if at all, our results in that quarter but could result in a reduction of revenue recognized in future quarters. We may not be able to adjust our cost structure in response to changes in revenue. Accordingly, the effect of significant downturns in sales of products sold as a subscription may not be fully reflected in our results of operations until future periods. Also, since revenue from customers is recognized, in part, over the term of their subscription, it is difficult for us to rapidly increase revenue through additional sales in any period. The timing of such revenue recognition may make it more difficult to forecast sales and trends in our business, particularly changes in revenue, and could have a potentially negative impact on our financial performance. By contrast, a significant majority of our costs are expensed as incurred. As a result, an increase in customers could result in our recognition of more costs than revenue in the earlier portion of the subscription contract term.
Furthermore, our customers have no obligation to renew their subscription agreement after the expiration of their then current subscription period, and in fact, some former customers have elected not to renew. As a result, we may not be able to accurately predict future renewal rates, and our customers’ renewal rates may decline or fluctuate as a result of a number of factors, including lack of satisfaction with our subscription-based offerings, the prices of our subscription-based offerings and being uncompetitive with the prices offered by competitors, perceived security risks associated with our systems, reductions in customers’ spending levels, a competitor’s product being perceived as better than our product, and general economic conditions. If our customers do not renew their subscriptions, or if they renew on less favorable terms, our revenue may decline.
 
- 33 -

Any significant defect, error or performance failure in our software or services could cause us to lose revenue and expose us to product or other liability claims.
The software and services we offer are inherently complex and, despite extensive testing and quality control, have in the past and may in the future contain defects or errors, especially when first introduced, or not perform as contemplated. These defects, errors or performance failures could cause damage to our reputation, security or privacy breaches or incidents, loss of customers or revenue, product returns, order cancellations, service terminations, or lack of market acceptance of our software and services. As the use of our software and services, including software or services recently acquired or developed, expands to more sensitive, secure, or mission critical uses by our customers, we may be subject to increased scrutiny, potential reputational risk, or potential liability should our software or services fail to perform as contemplated in such deployments. We have in the past and may in the future need to issue corrective releases of our software or services to fix these defects, errors or performance failures, which could require us to allocate significant research and development and customer support resources to address these problems.
Our license and subscription agreements with our customers typically contain provisions designed to limit our exposure to potential product liability claims or liability for data loss or security or privacy breaches. However, the limitation of liability provisions contained in our license agreements may not be effective as a result of existing or future national, federal, state, or local laws or ordinances or unfavorable judicial decisions. Those limitation of liability provisions may also not be sufficient to protect against material losses if several different customers experienced security or privacy breaches or incidents related to the use of our software or services in the same year. Although we have not experienced any product liability claims to date, the sale and support of our products entail the risk of such claims, which could be substantial in light of the use of our products in enterprise-wide environments. In addition, our insurance against product liability may not be adequate to cover a potential claim.
If our products are unable to interoperate with products and services developed and maintained by third parties that are not within our control, our ability to develop and sell our products to our customers could be adversely affected, which would result in harm to our business and operating results.
Our products are designed to interoperate with and provide access to a wide range of third-party developed and maintained database connectors, including hardware and software technologies, which are used by our customers. The future design and development plans of the third parties that maintain these technologies are not within our control and may not be in line with our future product development plans. We may also rely on such third parties to provide us with access to these technologies so that we can properly test and develop our products to interoperate with these third-party technologies. These third parties may in the future refuse or otherwise be unable to provide us with the necessary access to their technologies. In addition, these third parties may decide to design or develop their technologies in a manner that would not be interoperable with our own. The continued consolidation in the enterprise software market may heighten these risks. Furthermore, our expanding product line, including our combination of products delivered on a comprehensive, unified and open data management platform makes maintaining interoperability more difficult as various products may have different levels of interoperability and compatibility, which may change from version to version. If any of the situations described above were to occur, we would not be able to continue to market our products as interoperable with such third-party database connectors, which could adversely affect our ability to successfully sell our products to our customers.
Acquisitions present many risks, which could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.
From time to time, we evaluate potential acquisitions in complementary businesses, products, or technologies. For example, in July 2023, we acquired Privitar Limited, a provider of data privacy and security controls for enterprise data customers.
 
Acquisitions involve a number of risks, including:
the failure to capture the value of the business we acquired, including the loss of any key personnel, customers and business relationships, including strategic partnerships, or the failure of the transaction to advance our business strategy as anticipated;
the difficulties in and costs associated with successfully integrating or incorporating the acquired company’s products, technologies, services, employees, customers, partners, business operations and administrative systems with ours, particularly when the acquired company operates in international jurisdictions;
- 34 -

the disruption of our ongoing business and the diversion of management’s attention by transition or integration issues;
any difficulties in consolidating the acquired company’s financial results with ours, in particular as a result of different accounting principles or financial reporting standards, and the adverse consequences to us of any delay in obtaining the necessary financial information for such consolidation, any unanticipated change in financial information previously reported to us, or the impact the acquired company’s financial performance has on our financial performance as a result of such consolidation;
the failure to accurately predict how the acquired company’s pipeline will convert into sales or revenues following the acquisition, as conversion rates post-acquisition may be quite different from the acquired company’s historical conversion rates and can be affected by changes in business practices that we implement;
any inability to generate revenue from the acquired company’s products in an amount sufficient to offset the associated acquisition and maintenance costs, including addressing issues related to the availability of offerings on multiple platforms and from cross-selling and up-selling our products to the acquired company’s installed customer base or the acquired company’s products to our installed customer base; and
the failure to adequately identify or assess significant problems, liabilities or other issues, including issues with the acquired company’s technology or intellectual property, product quality, security, privacy practices, accounting practices, employees, customers or partners, regulatory compliance, or legal or financial contingencies, particularly when the acquired company operates in international jurisdictions.
We may not be successful in overcoming these risks or any other problems encountered in connection with our acquisitions. To the extent that we are unable to successfully manage these risks, our business, operating results, or financial condition could be adversely affected.
In addition, the consideration paid in connection with an acquisition also affects our financial results. If we should proceed with one or more significant acquisitions in which the consideration includes cash, we could be required to use a substantial portion of our available cash to consummate any such acquisition.
In addition, acquisitions may result in our incurring additional taxes, unforeseen or higher than expected costs, debt, material one-time write-offs, or purchase accounting adjustments including the write-down of deferred revenue and restructuring charges. They may also result in recording goodwill and other intangible assets in our financial statements which may be subject to future impairment charges or ongoing amortization costs, thereby reducing future earnings. In addition, from time to time, we may enter into negotiations for acquisitions or investments that are not ultimately consummated. Such negotiations could result in significant diversion of management time, as well as incurring expenses that may impact operating results.
 
If our products and services do not achieve and/or maintain broad market acceptance, our revenues and revenue growth rate may be adversely affected.
Historically, a significant portion of our revenues have been derived from sales of our traditional data management products, such as PowerCenter and PowerExchange, and related services. We expect revenue from our traditional data management products and services to continue to comprise a significant portion of our revenues for the foreseeable future. If these products and services do not maintain market acceptance, our revenues may decrease.
In addition to our traditional data management and data quality products, we have expanded our platform to include products and services in the emerging market for broader data management initiatives, such as cloud data integration, cloud application integration, cloud data quality and governance, enterprise data catalog, master data management ("MDM"), customer data platform, enterprise integration platform as a service, and data privacy management, among others. The market for our broader data management products and services remains relatively new and continues to change, and efforts to expand beyond our traditional data management products may not succeed and may not result in significant revenue. For example, we announced that we are increasing our investments to develop new products that continue to expand our offerings beyond our traditional data management products.
Our newer products may not achieve market acceptance if our customers or prospective customers:
do not fully value the benefits of using our products;
do not achieve favorable results using our products;
- 35 -

use their budgets for other products that have priority over our products;
defer or decrease product purchases due to macroeconomic uncertainty or global economic conditions;
experience technical difficulties in implementing our products; or
use alternative methods to solve the problems addressed by our products.
Market acceptance of our products may also be affected if, among other things, competition substantially increases in the data management market or transactional applications suppliers integrate their products to such a degree that the utility of the functionality that our products and services provide is minimized or rendered unnecessary. Market acceptance of our products may also be affected by customer confusion surrounding the introduction of new and emerging technologies by us and our competitors or changes in technological trends, particularly the shift to cloud-based solutions or the increase in the use of AI/ML, and confusion about the benefits of our products compared to other solutions. In addition, in order to enable our sales personnel and our external distribution channels to sell these newer products effectively, we have continued to invest resources and incur additional costs in training programs on new product functionalities, key differentiators, and key business values. If these newer products do not achieve market acceptance, our revenues could be adversely affected and our revenue growth rate and profitability could decline.
If we are not able to maintain and enhance our brand, our business and results of operations may be adversely affected.
We believe that the brand identities that we have developed have contributed significantly to the success of our business. We also believe that maintaining and enhancing our brands is important to expanding our customer base and attracting talented employees. In order to maintain and enhance our brands, we may be required to make further investments that may not be successful. Maintaining our brands will depend in part on our ability to remain a leader in data integration and management technology, our ability to preserve our independence and neutrality, and our ability to continue to provide high-quality offerings and customer service. In addition, we could be the subject of a negative social media campaign beyond our control that could adversely affect the perception of our brand. If we fail to promote and maintain our brands, or if we incur excessive costs in doing so, our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows may be harmed.
Our corporate culture has contributed to our success, and if we cannot maintain this culture as we grow, we could lose the innovation, creativity and entrepreneurial spirit we have worked to foster, which could harm our business.
We believe that our culture has been and will continue to be a key contributor to our success. We expect to continue targeted hiring to support our business strategy. If we do not maintain our strong corporate culture as our workforce changes , we may be unable to foster the innovation, creativity, and entrepreneurial spirit that we believe we need to support our growth and to maintain our leadership position in the data management market. Our 2023 reductions in force may also affect employee morale and relationships, which could have an effect on our corporate culture.
We rely on a number of different distribution channels to sell and market our products. Any conflicts that we may experience within these various distribution channels could result in confusion for our customers and a decrease in revenue and operating margins.
We have a number of relationships with resellers, system integrators, and distributors that assist us in obtaining broad market coverage for our products and services. Although our discount policies, sales commission structure, and reseller licensing programs are intended to support each distribution channel with a minimum level of channel conflicts, we may not be able to minimize these channel conflicts in the future. Any channel conflicts that we may experience could result in confusion for our customers and a decrease in revenue and operating margins.
The seasonality of our business can create variance in our quarterly bookings, subscription revenue and cash flows from operations.
Demand for our software products and services are generally highest in the fourth quarter and lowest in the first quarter of each year. We believe that this seasonality results from a number of factors, including companies using their IT budget at the end of the calendar year resulting in higher sales activity in the quarter ending December 31. The seasonality of our business may cause continued or increased fluctuations in our results of
- 36 -

operations and cash flows, which may prevent us from achieving our quarterly or annual forecasts or meeting or exceeding the expectations of research analysts or investors, which in turn may cause a decline in the trading price of our Class A common stock.
Our future quarterly or annual results may fluctuate significantly, which could adversely affect the market price of our Class A common stock.
Our results of operations, including the levels of our revenue, cost of revenue, gross margin, operating expenses, cash flow and deferred revenue, have fluctuated from quarter-to-quarter and year-to-year in the past and may continue to vary significantly in the future so that period-to-period comparisons of our results of operations may not be meaningful. Accordingly, our financial results in any one quarter or period should not be relied upon as indicative of future performance. Our quarterly or annual financial results may fluctuate as a result of a variety of factors, many of which are outside of our control, may be difficult to predict, and may or may not fully reflect the underlying performance of our business. Because the timing and amount of our revenue is difficult to forecast and because our operating costs and expenses are relatively fixed in the short term, if our revenue does not meet our expectations, we are unlikely to be able to adjust our spending to levels commensurate with our revenue. As a result, the effect of revenue shortfalls on our results of operations may be more accentuated, and these and other fluctuations in quarterly results may negatively affect the market price of our Class A common stock. Among the factors that may cause fluctuations in our quarterly financial results are those listed below:
our ability to attract and retain new customers;
the addition or loss of enterprise customers;
our ability to successfully expand our business domestically and internationally;
our ability to gain new channel partners and retain existing channel partners;
fluctuations in the growth rate of the overall market that our solution addresses;
fluctuations in the mix of our revenue;
the unpredictability of the timing of our receipt of orders for self-managed subscriptions-based licenses, the revenue for which we typically recognize the majority upfront;
the amount and timing of operating expenses related to the maintenance and expansion of our business and operations, including continued investments in sales and marketing, research and development and general and administrative resources;
network outages or performance degradation of our cloud service;
security breaches and incidents;
general economic, industry and market conditions, including inflationary pressures, volatility and uncertainty in the financial services sector, and any geopolitical disruptions or economic responses and counter-responses or otherwise by various global actors, including the military conflicts between Russia and Ukraine and involving Israel and Hamas;
decreases in customer renewal rates;
increases or decreases in the number of elements of our subscription offerings or pricing changes upon any renewals of customer agreements;
changes in our pricing policies or those of our competitors;
the budgeting cycles and purchasing practices of customers;
decisions by potential customers to purchase alternative solutions from larger, more established vendors, including from their primary software vendors;
decisions by potential customers to develop in-house solutions as alternatives to our platform;
insolvency or credit difficulties confronting our customers, which could adversely affect their ability to purchase or pay for our software and services;
delays in our ability to fulfill our customers’ orders;
seasonal variations in sales of our solution;
- 37 -

the cost and potential outcomes of future litigation or other disputes;
future accounting pronouncements or changes in our accounting policies;
our overall effective tax rate, including impacts caused by any reorganization in our corporate tax structure and any new legislation or regulatory developments;
 
fluctuations in stock-based compensation expense;
fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates;
the timing and success of new products and service introductions by us or our competitors or any other change in the competitive dynamics of our industry, including consolidation among competitors, customers or strategic partners;
the timing of expenses related to the development or acquisition of technologies or businesses and potential future charges for impairment of goodwill from acquired companies; and
other risk factors described in this Report.
Our investment policy allows an investment portfolio that may be subject to credit and liquidity risks and fluctuations in the market value of our investments and interest rates, which may result in impairment or loss of value of our investments, an inability to sell our investments or a decline in interest income.

Our investment portfolio invests in cash, cash equivalents, money market funds with highly rated financial institutions and highly liquid marketable debt securities that are rated single A or above and held in a separate custody account with a highly rated financial institution. Our investment policy allows us to invest in instruments such as certificates of deposit, commercial paper, corporate notes and bonds, municipal securities, and U.S. government and agency notes and bonds. Although we will follow an established investment policy, which specifies credit quality standards for our investments and limits the amount of credit exposure to any single issue, issuer, or type of investment, and other criteria in order to help mitigate our exposure to interest rate and credit risk, the assets in our investment portfolio may lose value or become impaired, or our interest income may decline. We may be required to record impairment charges for other-than-temporary declines in fair market value in our investments. Future fluctuations in economic and market conditions could adversely affect the market value of our investments, and we could record additional impairment charges and lose some of the principal value of investments in our portfolio. A total loss of an investment or a significant decline in the value of our investment portfolio could adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.
In addition, from time to time we may make strategic investments in private companies. Our strategic investments in private companies are subject to risk of loss of investment capital. Some of these investments may have been made to further our strategic objectives and support our key business initiatives. Our strategic investments in private companies are inherently risky because the markets for the technologies they have under development are typically in the early stages and may never materialize. We could lose the value of our entire investment in these companies.
We may not be able to successfully manage the growth of our business if we are unable to scale our operations and enhance our internal systems, processes, and controls.
We continue to experience growth in our customer base and operations, which may place a strain on our management, administrative, operational and financial infrastructure. We anticipate that additional investments in our infrastructure will be necessary to scale our operations and increase productivity. These additional investments will increase our costs and may adversely affect our operating margins if we are unable to sufficiently increase revenues to cover these additional costs. If we are unable to successfully scale our operations and increase productivity, we may be unable to execute our business strategies. We may need to enter into additional lease commitments or expand existing facilities, which may adversely affect our cash flows and results of operations.
We utilize third-party data center facilities and public cloud providers, including AWS, Microsoft Azure and Google Cloud, to host certain of our services, systems and data. Each of our commercial agreements with AWS, Microsoft Azure and Google Cloud have three-year terms through 2024 or 2025 and will remain in effect until terminated by us or the respective counterparty. AWS may terminate the agreement for convenience by providing us at least 180 days’ advance notice or for cause upon a material breach of the agreement, subject to a 30-day notice and cure period. Microsoft Azure may terminate the agreement without cause upon 60 days’ notice or for material breach, subject to a 30-day notice and cure period. Google Cloud may terminate the agreement for material breach
- 38 -

with a 30-day notice and cure period, if we cease operations or become subject to insolvency proceedings and the proceedings are not dismissed within 90 days, or we are in material breach more than twice notwithstanding any cure of such breaches. From time to time, we renegotiate or renew these agreements to meet our business needs, and there can be no assurance that we will be able to do so on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. While we believe that we could adjust or renew our agreements or transition among these cloud infrastructure providers or to alternative providers on commercially reasonable terms if needed, in the event any of these third-party facilities or public cloud providers become unavailable due to outages, interruptions or other unanticipated problems, or because they are no longer available on commercially reasonable terms, we and some of our customers would incur additional development and other increased costs to enable the transition, we may fail to meet our service level obligations in our customer agreements, and our operations may be impaired, which would adversely affect our business.
In addition, we need to continue to enhance our internal systems, processes, and controls to effectively manage our operations and growth. We are continually investing resources to upgrade and improve our internal systems, processes and controls, human resources information systems and our enterprise resource planning systems, in order to meet the growing requirements of our business, but we cannot guarantee we will do so effectively or efficiently.
Upgrades to our internal systems, processes, and controls may require us to implement incremental internal controls or additional reporting measures to evaluate the effectiveness of such upgrade or improvement, or to adopt new processes or procedures in connection with the upgrade or improvement. We may not be able to successfully implement upgrades and improvements to our systems, processes, and controls in an efficient or timely manner, if at all, and we may discover deficiencies in existing systems, processes, and controls, which could adversely affect our business. We have licensed technology and utilized support services from various third parties to help us implement upgrades and improvements. We may experience difficulties in managing upgrades and improvements to our systems, processes, and controls or in connection with third-party software, which could disrupt existing customer relationships, causing us to lose customers, limit us to smaller deployments of our products, or increase our technical support costs. The support services available for such third-party technology also may be negatively affected by mergers and consolidation in the software industry, and support services for such technology may not be available to us in the future. In addition, we use both self-managed and cloud resources, and any security or other flaws in such resources could have a negative impact on our internal systems, processes, or controls.
We may also need to realign resources from time to time to more efficiently address market or product requirements. For example, in January 2023, we announced a plan to reduce our workforce by approximately 450 employees, representing approximately 7% of our current global workforce (the "January Plan"), and in November 2023, we announced a plan to reduce our workforce by approximately 500 employees, representing approximately 10% of our current global workforce, and reduce our global real estate footprint (the “November Plan”). As disclosed in our Current Report on Form 8-K, filed on November 1, 2023, we estimated that we will incur non-recurring charges of approximately $35 million to $45 million in connection with the November Plan, primarily related to cash expenditures for employee transition, notice period and severance payments, employee benefits, real-estate related charges, and other costs. We expect that the majority of these charges will be incurred by the end of the first quarter of 2024 and the implementation of the November Plan to be substantially complete by the end of the third quarter of 2024. To the extent the current or any future realignment requires changes to our internal systems, processes, and controls or organizational structure, including a slowdown in hiring or a further reduction in force, we could experience disruption in customer relationships, increases in costs, increased employee turnover, and decreased employee morale and productivity. Furthermore, as we expand our geographic presence and capabilities, we may also need to implement additional or enhance our existing systems, processes and controls to comply with U.S. and international laws.
Risks Related to Regulation
Our effective tax rate is difficult to project, and changes in such tax rate or adverse results of tax examinations could adversely affect our operating results.
Based on our corporate structure, we may be subject to taxation in several jurisdictions around the world with increasingly complex tax laws, the application of which can be uncertain. We are a United States-based multinational company subject to tax in multiple United States and foreign tax jurisdictions. Our results of operations would be adversely affected to the extent that our geographical mix of income becomes more weighted toward jurisdictions with higher tax rates and would be favorably affected to the extent the relative geographic mix of income shifts to lower tax jurisdictions. Any change in our mix of earnings is dependent upon many factors and is
- 39 -

therefore difficult to predict. The amount of taxes we pay in these jurisdictions could increase substantially as a result of changes in the applicable tax principles, including increased tax rates, new tax laws or revised interpretations of existing tax laws and precedents. . The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development ("OECD") has introduced a framework to implement a global minimum corporate tax of 15%, referred to as Pillar 2. While some countries have begun implementing framework rules effective in 2024, most countries, including the United States, have not enacted comprehensive legislation to address the new global minimum tax rules. It is possible that as countries enact rules to implement the new framework that our tax uncertainty could increase and ultimately affect our provision for income taxes.In addition, the authorities in the jurisdictions in which we operate could review our tax returns or require us to file tax returns in jurisdictions in which we are not currently filing, and could impose additional tax, interest and penalties. These authorities could also claim that various withholding requirements apply to us or our subsidiaries, assert that benefits of tax treaties are not available to us or our subsidiaries, or challenge our methodologies for valuing developed technology or intercompany arrangements, including our transfer pricing. The relevant taxing authorities may determine that the manner in which we operate our business does not achieve the intended tax consequences. If such a disagreement was to occur, and our position was not sustained, we could be required to pay additional taxes, interest and penalties. Any increase in the amount of taxes we pay or that are imposed on us could increase our worldwide effective tax rate and harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The process of determining our anticipated tax liabilities involves many calculations and estimates that are inherently complex and make the ultimate tax obligation determination uncertain. As part of the process of preparing our consolidated financial statements, we are required to estimate our income taxes in each of the jurisdictions in which we operate prior to the completion and filing of tax returns for such periods. This process requires estimating both our geographic mix of income and our current tax exposures in each jurisdiction where we operate. These estimates involve complex issues, require extended periods of time to resolve, and require us to make judgments, such as anticipating the outcomes of audits with tax authorities and the positions that we will take on tax returns prior to actually preparing the returns. We also determine the need to record deferred tax liabilities and the recoverability of deferred tax assets. A valuation allowance is established to the extent recovery of deferred tax assets is not more likely than not based on our estimation of future taxable income and other factors in each jurisdiction.
Furthermore, our overall effective income tax rate and tax expenses may be affected by various factors in our business, including acquisitions, changes in our legal structure, changes in the geographic mix of income and expenses, changes in valuation allowances, and changes in applicable tax laws and accounting pronouncements. Further, the geographic mix of income and expense is impacted by the fluctuation in exchange rates between the U.S. dollar and the functional currencies of our subsidiaries.
We are under examination by various taxing authorities covering the past several years. We may receive additional assessments from domestic and foreign tax authorities that might exceed amounts reserved by us. In the event we are unsuccessful in reducing the amount of such assessment, our business, financial condition, or results of operations could be adversely affected. Specifically, if additional taxes and/or penalties are assessed as a result of these audits, there could be a material effect on our income tax provision, operating expenses, and net income in the period or periods when that determination is made.
Our failure to protect personal information adequately could have a significant adverse effect on our business.
We have implemented and maintain security measures intended to protect personal information, and we require our service providers to implement and maintain security measures intended to protect personal information they maintain or process for us. However, our security measures and those of our service providers remain vulnerable to various threats posed by hackers and criminals and by internal errors. If our or any of our service providers' security measures are overcome and any personal information that we or our service providers collect, store or otherwise process is breached, compromised or otherwise subject to loss, unavailability, unauthorized access, use or other processing, or if any of these is believed or perceived to have occurred, we may be required to comply with costly and burdensome breach notification and other obligations. We may also be subject to regulatory investigations, enforcement actions and other proceedings and private claims, demands and lawsuits. For example, the California Consumer Privacy Act ("CCPA") imposes a private right of action for certain security breaches that could lead to some form of remedy including regulatory scrutiny, fines, private action, settlements and other consequences. In addition, any actual or perceived security incident is likely to generate negative publicity and may
- 40 -

result in additional cost and liability to us, harm our reputation, inhibit adoption of our products by current and future customers, and adversely affect our business, financial condition, and operating results.

 
We are subject to various laws, regulations, standards and contractual and other obligations related to privacy, data protection and security.
We are subject to various laws, regulations, standards and contractual and other obligations relating to privacy, data protection and security. These obligations are rapidly evolving, may be subject to varying interpretations and enforcement, and are likely to remain uncertain for the foreseeable future.
Internationally, virtually every jurisdiction in which we operate has established its own privacy, data protection and security legal frameworks with which we or our customers must comply. For example, the EU's GDPR and UK's Data Protection Act impose numerous obligations relating to the processing of personal data including, with respect to transfers of personal data to other countries that have not been found to provide adequate protection to such personal data. These regimes provide for significant penalties and other consequences for noncompliance. Similarly, in the United States, various state and federal laws, regulations and standards govern privacy, data protection and security. For example, in California, the CCPA, as modified by the California Privacy Rights Act, requires covered companies to, among other things, provide disclosures to California consumers, and afford such consumers privacy rights such as the ability to opt-out of certain sales of personal information and expanded rights to access and require deletion of their personal information, opt out of certain personal information sharing, and receive detailed information about how their personal information is collected, used and shared. Numerous other states have proposed, and in certain cases enacted, similar legislation. Further, we may be required to publicly post policies and other documentation regarding our privacy, data protection, or security practices, including with respect to our use, disclosure and other processing of personal information. We also may be subject to, or be alleged to be subject to, various standards and contractual and other obligations relating to privacy, data protection, or security, such as the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard.
The effects of privacy, data protection and security laws, regulations, standards and contractual and other obligations are significant and have required, and may require, us to modify our practices and policies and to incur substantial costs and expenses in an effort to comply. Because the interpretation and application of many of these actual and asserted obligations are uncertain, it is possible that they may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent with our practices or the features of our products, and we could face fines, lawsuits, regulatory investigations and other proceedings and other claims and penalties, and we could be required to fundamentally change our products or our business practices, any of which could have an adverse effect on our business. Any inability or perceived inability to adequately address privacy, data protection or security concerns, even if unfounded, or any actual or perceived failure to comply with applicable privacy, data protection or security laws, regulations, standards, or contractual or other actual or asserted obligations, could result in additional cost and liability to us, damage our reputation, inhibit sales and adversely affect our business. Furthermore, the costs of compliance with, and other burdens imposed by, such laws, regulations, standards, and contractual and other obligations that are applicable to the businesses of our customers may limit the use and adoption of, and reduce the overall demand for, our products. Privacy, data protection and security concerns, whether valid or invalid, may inhibit market adoption of our products, particularly in certain industries and countries outside of the United States. If we are not able to adjust to changing laws, regulations, standards, contractual and other obligations relating to privacy, data protection and security, our business may be harmed.
As our business expands, we are subject to increasingly complex regulatory and compliance obligations and differing business practices, both foreign and domestic, which may strain our resources and divert management’s attention.
During the past few years, our organizational structure has increased in complexity due to compliance with financial reporting obligations, tax regulations and tax accounting requirements, acquisitions, our relationships with channel partners, and other regulatory and compliance requirements, including compliance with the rules and regulations related to anti-corruption and anti-bribery laws such as the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act ("FCPA") and the UK Bribery Act of 2010 ("UK Bribery Act") or those related to anti-trust or anti-competitive market practices, including Article 101(3) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union or U.S. anti-trust laws. In addition, new or changing rules and regulations, including those relating to corporate governance, securities laws and public disclosure, often create uncertainty for public companies, increasing legal and financial compliance costs and making some activities more time consuming. These practices may evolve over time upon new guidance from regulatory or governing bodies, resulting in continued uncertainty regarding compliance and higher costs to adopt or modify our practices accordingly. Also, as we expand internationally, we become subject to the various rules and regulations of foreign jurisdictions. If we are unable to effectively comply with the rules and regulations applicable to
- 41 -

us, particularly those relating to financial reporting, investors may lose confidence in our ability to manage our compliance obligations. Furthermore, we continue to develop our cloud services, which may store, transmit and process our customers’ sensitive, proprietary or confidential data, including personal or identifying information, in cloud-based IT environments. These new cloud services may expose us to higher regulation than our traditional self-managed products and services, particularly with respect to privacy, data protection and security. Our efforts to comply with all of these requirements may result in an increase in expenses and a diversion of management’s time and attention from other business activities. If our efforts to comply differ or are perceived to differ from those intended or required by regulatory or governing bodies, such authorities or others may initiate inquiries or other proceedings against us, and we may be subject to fines, other liabilities and damages to our reputation, any of which may have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Overall, the combination of increased structural complexity and the ever-increasing regulatory complexity make it more critical for us to attract and retain qualified and technically competent employees in the United States and internationally.We provide business practices training and other comprehensive training to our sales teams, which has increased in rigor as our business has become more complex.
We, our employees, agents, representatives, business partners, and third-party intermediaries may have direct or indirect interactions with officials and employees of government agencies or state-owned or affiliated entities and we may be held liable for the corrupt or other illegal activities of these employees, agents, representatives, business partners, or third-party intermediaries, even if we do not explicitly authorize such activities. We maintain a presence or conduct business in the Asia-Pacific, Middle East/Africa, and Latin America regions, where business practices can differ from those in the U.S. and can create internal control risks. We cannot assure you that all of our employees and agents will not take actions in violation of applicable law, for which we may be ultimately held responsible. Any allegations or violation of the FCPA or other applicable anti-bribery, anti-corruption laws, and anti-money laundering laws could result in, sanctions, settlements, prosecution, enforcement actions, fines, damages, adverse media coverage, investigations, loss of export privileges, severe criminal or civil sanctions, or suspension or debarment from U.S. government contracts, all of which may have an adverse effect on our reputation, business, results of operations, and prospects.
Issues in the development and use of AI, combined with an uncertain regulatory environment, may result in reputational harm, liability, or other adverse consequences to our business and operations.
We use machine learning and AI technologies in our offerings and business, including in solutions complementing our CLAIRE-powered IDMC platform, and we are making investments in expanding our AI capabilities in our products and offerings, including ongoing deployment and improvement of existing machine learning and AI technologies, as well as developing new product features using AI technologies. AI technologies are complex and rapidly evolving, and we face significant competition from other companies as well as evolving legal and regulatory landscapes. Laws and regulations applicable to AI continue to develop and may be inconsistent from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. For example, the European Union's Artificial Intelligence Act will prohibit certain AI applications and systems and impose additional requirements on the use of certain applications or systems. The use of AI technologies in new or existing products or offerings may result in new or enhanced governmental or regulatory scrutiny, new or modified laws or regulations, claims, demands, and litigation, confidentiality, privacy, data protection, or security risks, ethical concerns, or other complications that could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Uncertainty around new and emerging AI technologies may require additional investment in the development and maintenance of proprietary datasets and machine learning models, development of new approaches and processes to provide attribution or remuneration to creators of training data, and development of appropriate protections, safeguards, and policies for handling the processing of data with machine learning and AI technologies, which may be costly and could impact our expenses. AI technologies also present emerging ethical and social issues, including with respect to potential or actual bias reflected in, or flawed outputs of, models. AI technologies that we make use of may produce or create outputs that appear correct but are factually inaccurate or otherwise flawed, which may expose us to brand or reputational harm, competitive harm, regulatory scrutiny, and/or legal liability.
 
We are subject to governmental export and import controls that could impair our ability to compete in international markets or subject us to liability if we violate these controls.
Our software is subject to U.S. export control laws and regulations including the Export Administration Regulations ("EAR"), and trade and economic sanctions maintained by the Office of Foreign Assets Control ("OFAC"). As such, an export license may be required to export or reexport our products to certain countries, end-
- 42 -

users and end-uses. Because we incorporate encryption functionality into our products, we also are subject to certain U.S. export control laws that apply to encryption items. If we were to fail to comply with such U.S. export controls laws and regulations, U.S. economic sanctions, or other similar laws, we could be subject to both civil and criminal penalties, including substantial fines, possible incarceration for employees and managers for willful violations, and the possible loss of our export or import privileges. Obtaining the necessary export license for a particular sale or offering may not be possible and may be time-consuming and may result in the delay or loss of sales opportunities. Furthermore, U.S. export control laws and economic sanctions prohibit the export of products to certain U.S. embargoed or sanctioned countries, governments and persons, as well as for prohibited end-uses. Monitoring and ensuring compliance with these complex U.S. export control laws is particularly challenging because our offerings are widely distributed throughout the world and are available for download without registration. Even though we take precautions to ensure that we and our partners comply with all relevant export control laws and regulations, any failure by us or our partners to comply with such laws and regulations could have negative consequences for us, including reputational harm, government investigations and penalties. These risks are heightened in the case of rapidly evolving world events in Ukraine and Eastern Europe, as the United States, other countries and global coalitions have issued numerous sanctions and revisions to export control regulations against Russia, Belarus and other regions in quick succession and with very short time periods with which to fully comply. Current or future geopolitical unrest, such as the conflict involving Israel and Hamas, could result in similar sanctions or regulations that would require us to undertake additional compliance efforts and create additional risks.
In addition, various countries regulate the import of certain encryption technology, including through import permit and license requirements, and have enacted laws that could limit our ability to distribute our products or could limit our end-customers’ ability to implement our products in those countries. Changes in our products or changes in export and import regulations in such countries may create delays in the introduction of our products into international markets, prevent our end-customers with international operations from deploying our products globally or, in some cases, prevent or delay the export or import of our products to certain countries, governments or persons altogether. Any change in export or import laws or regulations, economic sanctions or related legislation, shift in the enforcement or scope of existing export, import or sanctions laws or regulations, or change in the countries, governments, persons, or technologies targeted by such export, import or sanctions laws or regulations, could result in decreased use of our products by, or in our decreased ability to export or sell our products to, existing or potential end-customers with international operations. Any decreased use of our products or limitation on our ability to export to or sell our products in international markets could adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.
If we fail to establish or maintain an effective system of internal controls, we may be unable to accurately report our financial results or prevent fraud, and investor confidence and the market price of our Class A common stock may be adversely affected.
As a public company in the United States, we are required to maintain internal controls over financial reporting and to report any material weaknesses in such internal control. In addition, we are required to furnish a report by management on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 ("Section 404"). We have designed, implemented and tested the internal control over financial reporting required to comply with these obligations. This process is time-consuming, costly, and complicated. In addition, our independent registered public accounting firm are required to attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. If we identify material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, if we are unable to comply with the requirements of Section 404 in a timely manner or assert that our internal control over financial reporting are effective, or if our independent registered public accounting firm expresses a negative opinion as to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports and the market price of our Class A common stock may be adversely affected, and we could become subject to investigations by the stock exchange on which our securities are listed, the SEC, or other regulatory authorities, which could require additional financial and management resources.
Changes in existing financial accounting standards or practices may adversely affect our results of operations.
We prepare our consolidated financial statements in accordance with GAAP. Changes in existing accounting rules or practices, new accounting pronouncements, or varying interpretations of current accounting pronouncements could have a significant adverse effect on our results of operations or the manner in which we conduct our business. A change in existing financial accounting standards or practices may even retroactively adversely affect previously reported transactions.
- 43 -

If our estimates or judgments relating to our critical accounting policies are based on assumptions that change or prove to be incorrect, our results of operations could fall below expectations of securities analysts and investors, resulting in a decline in the market price of our Class A common stock.
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, as provided in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included elsewhere in this Report, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets, liabilities, equity, revenue, and expenses that are not readily apparent from other sources. Our results of operations may be adversely affected if our assumptions change or if actual circumstances differ from those in our assumptions, which could cause our results of operations to fall below our publicly announced guidance or the expectations of securities analysts and investors, resulting in a decline in the market price of our Class A common stock. Significant assumptions and estimates used in preparing our consolidated financial statements include those related to revenue recognition, measurement of stock-based compensation expense, accounting for intangible assets, assessing indicators of potential goodwill impairment, and accounting for income taxes including deferred tax assets and liabilities.
The IRS or other taxing authorities could seek to recharacterize the Restructuring Transactions.
The Company was formed as part of a series of restructuring transactions, which collectively had the net effect of reorganizing the corporate structure of Ithacalux Topco S.C.A. (“Ithacalux”), resulting in Informatica Inc. being the top-tier entity in that corporate structure rather than Ithacalux (“Restructuring Transactions”).
The Restructuring Transactions were intended to simplify our organizational structure in connection with our initial public offering on October 29, 2021 (our "IPO"). There can be no assurance that the IRS or other taxing authorities in the United States, Europe and Asia will not seek to recharacterize or reorder the Restructuring Transactions or to assert a claim for withholding or other taxes in connection with the Restructuring Transactions, which if successful, could result in tax liabilities to us or our subsidiaries and/or impact our operations in the future.
If our solutions fail to help our customers achieve and maintain compliance with regulations and industry standards, our revenues and operating results could be harmed.
We generate a portion of our revenues from solutions that enable organizations to achieve and maintain compliance with regulations and industry standards. For example, many of our customers subscribe to our security and compliance solutions to help them comply with general security standards, such as those developed and maintained by the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology ("NIST"), and with industry-specific security standards such as the HIPAA Security Rule, which applies to entities that need to protect electronic protected health information. Standard setting agencies and industry organizations like International Standards Organization may significantly change their security standards with little or no notice, including changes that could make their standards more or less onerous for businesses. Governments may also adopt new laws or regulations, or make changes to existing laws or regulations, that could impact the demand for or value of our solutions.
 
If we are unable to adapt our solutions to changing regulatory standards in a timely manner, or if our solutions fail to assist with or expedite our customers’ compliance initiatives, our customers may lose confidence in our solutions and could switch to products offered by our competitors. In addition, if regulations and standards related to data security, vulnerability management and other IT security and compliance requirements are relaxed or the penalties for non-compliance are changed in a manner that makes them less onerous, our customers may view government and industry regulatory compliance as less critical to their businesses, and our customers may be less willing to purchase subscriptions to our solutions. In any of these cases, our revenues and operating results could be harmed.

 
- 44 -

Risks Related to Our International Operations
Our operations outside of our North American region expose us to increased risks that could limit our future growth.
We have significant operations outside of our North American region, including sales and professional services operations, software development centers and customer support centers, and we have historically derived a significant portion of our revenue from outside the United States. We derived approximately 32%, 31% and 33% of our revenue from outside our North American region during the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. Our international operations are subject to numerous risks, including:
geopolitical disruption and resulting sanctions and export controls, and general economic and political conditions in these foreign markets;
fluctuations in exchange rates between the U.S. dollar and foreign currencies;
slower or impaired collections on accounts receivable;
increased operating costs due to inflation, particularly in EMEA and India;
greater difficulty in protecting our ownership rights to intellectual property developed in foreign countries, which may have laws that materially differ from those in the United States;
higher risk of unexpected changes in regulatory practices, tariffs, and tax laws and treaties;
greater risk of a failure of our employees to comply with both U.S. and foreign laws, including the EU General Data Protection Regulation antitrust regulations, the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the UK Bribery Act of 2010, and any trade regulations ensuring fair trade practices;
increased expenses, delays and our limited experience in developing, testing and marketing localized versions of our products;
increased competition from companies in the industry segments that we target or other vendors of data management software products that are more established in a particular region than us;
potential conflicts with our established distributors in countries in which we elect to establish a direct sales presence, or the inability to enter into or maintain strategic distributor relationships with companies in certain international markets where we do not have a local presence;
our limited experience in establishing a sales, marketing and support presence and the appropriate internal systems, processes, and controls;
difficulties in recruiting, training, managing, and retaining our international staff, particularly our international sales management and sales personnel, which have adversely affected our ability to increase sales productivity, and the costs and expenses associated with such activities;
differing business practices, which may require us to enter into customer agreements that include non-standard terms related to payment, maintenance rates, warranties, or performance obligations that may affect our ability to recognize revenue ratably; and
communication delays between our main development and support center in California and our international development and support centers, which may delay the development, testing, release or support of new and existing products, and communication delays between our U.S. headquarters and our shared services center in India.
 
These factors and other factors could harm our ability to grow international revenues and, consequently, materially impact our business, results of operations, and financial condition. The expansion of our existing international operations and entry into additional international markets will require significant management attention and financial resources. Our failure to manage our international operations and the associated risks effectively could limit the future growth of our business.
- 45 -

Continued uncertainty in the U.S. and global economies along with uncertain geopolitical conditions, could negatively affect sales of our products and services and could harm our operating results.
As our business has grown, we have become increasingly subject to the risks arising from adverse changes in the domestic and global economies. We have experienced the adverse effect of economic slowdowns and downturns in the past, which resulted in a significant reduction in capital spending by our customers, as well as longer sales cycles and the deferral or delay of purchases of subscriptions to our products.
We continue to invest in our international operations. There are significant risks with overseas investments, and our growth prospects in these regions are uncertain. Increased volatility in the European credit, equity and foreign currency markets or geopolitical disruptions, including the military conflicts between Russia and Ukraine and Israel and Hamas, could cause delays in or cancellations of orders or have other negative impacts on our business operations in Europe and other regions throughout the world. If tensions between the United States, members of NATO and Russia continue to escalate and create global security concerns, that may lead to an increased adverse impact on regional and global economies and increase the likelihood of cyberattacks. Deterioration of economic or geopolitical conditions in the countries in which we do business could also cause slower or impaired collections on accounts receivable.
Although we do not have material business involvement in Ukraine, Russia or Belarus, geopolitical instability in the region and new sanctions and enhanced export controls may impact our ability to sell or export our software products in Ukraine, Russia, Belarus and surrounding countries. A majority of our business in Russia and Belarus is already restricted by sanctions and export control laws. While we do not believe the overall impact to be material to our business results, if the conflict and scope of sanctions expand further or persist for an extended period of time, our business could be harmed.
We may experience fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates that could adversely impact our results of operations.
Our international sales and operations expose us to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates. An unfavorable change in the exchange rate of foreign currencies against the U.S. dollar would result in lower revenues when translated into U.S. dollars, although operating expenses would be lower as well. Our main revenue exposures are in Euro, Yen, and Sterling. On occasion, exchange rates have been particularly volatile and have affected quarterly revenue and profitability. In prior years, fluctuations from foreign currency exchange rates have negatively affected, and in the future could negatively affect our revenues.Changes in foreign currency exchange rates driven by the general weakening of the U.S. dollar favorably impacted reported revenue by approximately $2.6 million in the year ended December 31, 2023. The impact on revenue from fluctuations in foreign currency is calculated by comparing current period revenue to the translated current period revenue for the year ended December 31, 2023 using the comparable period’s exchange rates from the prior year. As fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates occur or increase, the effect of changes in foreign currency exchange rates could become material to revenue, operating expenses, and net income. In particular, these unfavorable exchange rate changes could have a significant impact on the operating expenses of our international operations in India, where we had approximately 2,400 employees as of December 31, 2023.
 
If we are not successful in sustaining and expanding our international business, we may incur additional losses and our revenue growth could be harmed.
Our future results depend, in part, on our ability to sustain and expand our penetration of the international markets in which we currently operate and to expand into additional international markets. We depend on direct sales and our channel partner relationships to sell our offerings in international markets. Our ability to expand internationally will depend upon our ability to deliver functionality and foreign language translations that reflect the needs of the international clients that we target. Our ability to expand internationally involves various risks, including the need to invest significant resources in such expansion, and the possibility that returns on such investments will not be achieved in the near future or at all in these less familiar competitive environments. We may also choose to conduct our international business through other partnerships. If we are unable to identify partners or negotiate favorable terms, our international growth may be limited. In addition, we have incurred and may continue to incur significant expenses in advance of generating material revenue as we attempt to establish our presence in particular international markets.
Sustaining and expanding our international business will also require significant attention from our management and will require us to add additional management and other resources in these new markets. Our ability to expand our business, attract talented employees and enter into partnerships in an increasing number of international markets requires considerable management attention and resources and is subject to the particular
- 46 -

challenges of supporting a rapidly growing business in an environment of multiple languages, cultures, customs, legal systems, alternative dispute systems, regulatory systems, commercial infrastructures and technology infrastructure. If we are unable to grow our international operations in a timely and effective manner, we may incur additional losses and our revenue growth could be harmed.
Risks Related to Our Sales to Government Entities
A portion of our revenue is generated by sales to government entities, which are subject to a number of challenges and risks, including government investigations.
Sales to U.S. and foreign federal, state, and local governmental agency end-customers have historically accounted for approximately 10% of our revenue for each of the past three fiscal years, and we may in the future increase sales to government entities. However, government entities have announced reductions in, or experienced increased pressure to reduce, government spending. In particular, such measures have adversely affected European public sector transactions. Furthermore, the continued U.S. debt, income tax and budget issues, including future delays in approving the U.S. budget or reductions in government spending, may adversely impact future U.S. public sector transactions. For example, a shutdown of the U.S. federal government could delay public sector transactions and contracting by government entities. Such budgetary constraints or shifts in spending priorities of government entities may adversely affect sales of our products and services to such entities. We expect these conditions to continue to adversely affect public sector transactions in the near-term.
In addition, sales to government entities are subject to a number of risks. Government entities may continue use of on-premises software indefinitely, be slow to transition workloads from on-premises software to SaaS services, or impose challenging regulatory requirements on government use of SaaS services, any of which may inhibit the growth of our public sector business. Selling to government entities can be highly competitive, expensive and time consuming, often requiring significant upfront time and expense without any assurance that we will successfully sell our products to such governmental entity. Government entities may require contract terms that differ from our standard arrangements. Government contracts may require the maintenance of certain security clearances for facilities and employees. Government certification requirements applicable to us and our products are constantly evolving and at times restrict our ability to sell to certain government customers until we have met the new or revised requirements, which can entail administrative time and effort possibly resulting in additional costs and delays. In addition, our failure to obtain or maintain certain government certifications, for example FedRamp or similar security certifications from U.S. states or foreign governments, limits our ability to sell any of our products to these government entities, and may expose us to fines or penalties for failure to comply. Government demand and payment for our products may be more volatile as they are affected by public sector budgetary cycles, funding authorizations, and the potential for funding reductions or delays, making the time to close such transactions more difficult to predict. This risk is enhanced as the size of such sales to the government entities increases. As the use of our products, including products recently acquired or developed, expands to more sensitive, secure or mission critical uses by our government customers, we may be subject to increased scrutiny, potential reputational risk, or potential liability should our products fail to perform as contemplated in such deployments or should we not comply with the terms of our government contracts or government contracting and security requirements.
Most of our sales to government entities have been made indirectly through third-party distributors or resellers that sell our products. Government entities may have contractual or other legal rights to terminate contracts with our providers for convenience or due to a default, and any such termination may adversely impact our future results of operations. For example, if the provider receives a significant portion of its revenue from sales to such governmental entity, the financial health of the provider could be substantially harmed which could negatively affect our future sales to such provider. Governments routinely audit and investigate government contractors, and we may be subject to such audits and investigations. If an audit or investigation uncovers improper or illegal activities, including any misuse of confidential or classified information by our employees, we may be subject to civil or criminal penalties and administrative sanctions, including termination of contracts, forfeiture of profits, suspension of payments, fines, and suspension or prohibition from doing business with such government entity, or enter into a settlement in lieu of the foregoing, which may not be on favorable terms to us. In addition, we could suffer serious reputational harm if allegations of impropriety were made against us or our employees or should our products not perform as contemplated in government deployments.
In compliance with recently issued sanctions and enhanced export control regulations, we have stopped sales of software to all sanctioned customers including government end customers in Russia and Belarus. The impact of this stoppage is not material to our overall business and our financial operations.
- 47 -

Our agreement with the U.S. Department of Defense limits our control over one of our subsidiaries. If this agreement is terminated, we may be suspended from selling our products for various projects or to various agencies within the U.S. government.
Our subsidiary, Informatica Federal Operations Corporation, which markets, sells and supports our products to various classified U.S. government agencies, is required by the National Industrial Security Program to maintain facility security clearances and to be insulated from foreign ownership, control or influence. To comply with the National Industrial Security Program requirements, in July 2016, we, our parent entities, Informatica Federal Operations Corporation and the Department of Defense entered into an agreement with respect to the ownership and operations of Informatica Federal Operations Corporation. Under the agreement, we, among other things, agreed to follow an affiliated operations plan describing products and services that may be provided among affiliated entities while mitigating the risks of foreign ownership, control, or influence.
The agreement may be terminated and Informatica Federal Operations Corporation’s facility security clearance may be revoked in the event of a breach of the proxy agreement, or if it is determined by the Department of Defense that termination is in the national interest. If Informatica Federal Operations Corporation’s facility security clearance is revoked, we may lose a portion of our sales to U.S. government classified agencies and our business, financial condition and results of operations would be harmed.
Our government contracts contain unfavorable provisions that are not typical of commercial contracts.
Many of our government contracts contain provisions that give the government rights and remedies not typically found in private commercial contracts, including provisions enabling the government to:
terminate or cancel our existing contracts for convenience;
suspend us from doing business with a foreign government or prevent us from selling our products in certain countries;
audit and object to our contract-related costs and expenses, including allocated indirect costs; and
change specific terms and conditions in our contracts, including changes that would reduce the value of our contracts.
In addition, many jurisdictions have laws and regulations that deem government contracts in those jurisdictions to include these types of provisions, even if the contract itself does not contain them. If a government terminates a contract with us for convenience, we may not recover our incurred or committed costs, any settlement expenses or profit on work completed prior to the termination. If a government terminates a contract for default, we may not recover even those amounts, and instead we may be liable for any costs incurred by a government in procuring undelivered items and services from another source.
If we fail to comply with complex procurement laws and regulations, we may be subject to civil and criminal penalties and administrative sanctions.
We must comply with domestic and foreign laws and regulations relating to the formation, administration and performance of government contracts. These laws and regulations affect how we do business with government agencies in various countries and may impose added costs on our business. For example, in the United States, we are subject to the Federal Acquisition Regulations, which comprehensively regulate the formation, administration and performance of federal government contracts, and to the Truth in Negotiations Act, which requires certification and disclosure of cost and pricing data in connection with contract negotiations. We are subject to similar regulations in foreign countries as well.
If a government review or investigation uncovers improper or illegal activities, we may be subject to civil and criminal penalties and administrative sanctions, including termination of contracts, forfeiture of profits, suspension of payments, fines and suspension or debarment from doing business with government agencies, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. For example, in March 2019, we reached a settlement of a civil False Claims Act investigation brought by the U.S. Attorney’s Office for the District of Columbia ("DC USAO") and the Civil Fraud Section of the U.S. Department of Justice (together with the DC USAO, the "DOJ") in August 2015. Under the terms of the settlement, we agreed to pay $21.9 million related to a dispute regarding the accuracy of information in our commercial sales practices submissions and statements regarding the country of origin of certain products between January 1, 2008 and March 31, 2017 in consideration for the release of the company by the DOJ and the U.S. General Services Administration with respect to the claims alleged in the investigation as set forth in the settlement agreement. In addition, a government may reform its
- 48 -

procurement practices or adopt new contracting rules and regulations that could be costly to satisfy or that could impair our ability to obtain new contracts.
Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property
Our use of open source software could negatively affect our ability to sell our solution and subject us to possible litigation.
A portion of our technologies incorporate open source software, and we expect to continue to incorporate open source software in our solution in the future. Few of the licenses applicable to open source software have been interpreted by courts, and there is a risk that these licenses could be construed in a manner that could impose unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our ability to commercialize our products. Moreover, we cannot guarantee that we have not incorporated additional open source software in our software in a manner that is inconsistent with the terms of the applicable license or our current policies and procedures. If we fail to comply with these licenses, we may be subject to certain requirements, including requirements that we offer our solutions that incorporate the open source software for no cost, that we make available source code for modifications or derivative works we create based upon, incorporating or using the open source software and that we license such modifications or derivative works under the terms of applicable open source licenses. If an author or other third party that distributes such open source software were to allege that we had not complied with the conditions of one or more of these licenses, we could be required to incur significant legal expenses defending against such allegations and could be subject to significant damages, enjoined from the sale of our solutions that contained the open source software and required to comply with onerous conditions or restrictions on these solutions, which could disrupt the distribution and sale of these solutions. In addition, there have been claims challenging the ownership rights in open source software against companies that incorporate open source software into their products, and the licensors of such open source software provide no warranties or indemnities with respect to such claims. In any of these events, we and our customers could be required to seek licenses from third parties in order to continue offering our products, which may not be available on favorable terms or at all, and to re-engineer our products or discontinue the sale of our products in the event re-engineering cannot be accomplished on a timely basis. We and our customers may also be subject to suits by parties claiming infringement due to the reliance by our solutions on certain open source software, and such litigation could be costly for us to defend or subject us to an injunction. Any of the foregoing could require us to devote additional research and development resources to re-engineer our solutions, could result in customer dissatisfaction, and may adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We may be unable to predict the future course of open source technology development, which could reduce the market appeal of our offerings, damage our reputation and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
We do not exercise control over the development of open source technology incorporated into our offerings. Different groups of open source software programmers compete with one another to develop new technology. Open source technology may include security vulnerabilities, to which our products and services may be exposed without timely or effective means for remediation or mitigation. Typically, the technology developed by one group will become more widely used than that developed by others. In some offerings, the race to innovate eclipses the responsibility to continuously patch security vulnerabilities and functional bugs. If an offering we rely on is unable to keep pace with our functional or non-functional requirements, we may be required to invest resources to keep it updated or to seek alternatives. If we acquire or adopt new technology and incorporate it into our offerings but competing technology becomes more widely used or accepted, the market appeal of our offerings may be reduced, which could harm our reputation, diminish our brands and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
We face intellectual property infringement claims that could be costly to defend and result in our loss of significant rights.
As is common in the software industry, we have received, and may from time to time in the future receive, notices from third parties claiming infringement by our products of third-party patent and other proprietary rights. For example, in the past four years, Informatica has been the subject of one such patent suit, which was resolved in less than three months for an immaterial amount.
As the number of software products in our target markets increases and the functionality of these products further overlaps, we may become increasingly subject to claims by a third party that our technology infringes such party’s proprietary rights. In addition, there is a growing occurrence of patent suits and regulatory investigations
- 49 -

being brought by organizations that use patents to generate revenue without manufacturing, promoting, or marketing products or investing in research and development in bringing products to market. These organizations have been active in the enterprise software market and have targeted whole industries as defendants.
Any claims, with or without merit, could be time consuming, result in costly litigation, cause product shipment delays, or require us to enter into royalty or licensing agreements, any of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and operating results. Although we do not believe that we are currently infringing any proprietary rights of others, legal action claiming patent infringement could be commenced against us. We may not prevail in such litigation given the complex technical issues and inherent uncertainties in patent litigation. The potential effects on our business that may result from third-party infringement claims include the following:
we have been and could be in the future obligated to incur significant legal costs and expenses defending the patent infringement suit;
we may be forced to enter into royalty or licensing agreements, which may not be available on terms favorable to us;
we may be required to indemnify our customers or obtain replacement products or functionality for our customers;
we may be forced to significantly increase our development efforts and resources to redesign our products as a result of these claims; and
we may be forced to discontinue offering some or all of our products.
If we are not able to adequately protect our proprietary rights, third parties could develop and market products that are equivalent to our own, which would harm our sales efforts.
Our success depends upon our proprietary technology. We believe that our product development, product enhancements, name recognition, and the technological and innovative skills of our personnel are essential to establishing and maintaining a technology leadership position. We rely on a combination of patent, copyright, trademark, and trade secret rights, confidentiality procedures, and licensing arrangements designed to establish and protect our proprietary rights.
However, these legal rights and contractual agreements may provide only limited protection. Our pending patent applications may not be allowed or our competitors may successfully challenge the validity or scope of any of our issued patents or any future issued patents. Our patents alone may not provide us with any significant competitive advantage, and third parties may develop technologies that are similar or superior to our technology or design around our patents. Third parties could copy or otherwise obtain and use our products or technology without authorization or develop similar technology independently. We cannot easily monitor any unauthorized use of our products, and, although we are unable to determine the extent to which piracy of our software products exists, software piracy is a prevalent problem in our industry in general. We may be forced to initiate litigation to protect our proprietary rights. Litigating claims related to the enforcement of proprietary rights is very expensive and can be burdensome in terms of management time and resources, which could adversely affect our business and operating results. In addition, the risk of not adequately protecting our proprietary technology and our exposure to competitive pressures may be increased if a competitor should resort to unlawful means in competing against us.
We have entered into certain agreements with many of our customers and partners that require us to place the source code of our products into escrow. Such agreements generally provide that such parties will have a limited, non-exclusive right to continue use of such code if there is a bankruptcy proceeding by or against us, we cease to do business or we fail to meet our support obligations. Although our agreements with these third parties limit the scope of rights to use of the source code, we may be unable to effectively control such third parties’ actions.
Furthermore, effective protection of intellectual property rights is unavailable or limited in various foreign countries. The protection of our proprietary rights may be inadequate, and our competitors could independently develop similar technology, duplicate our products, or design around any patents or other intellectual property rights we hold.
- 50 -

Risks Related to Our Indebtedness
Our substantial indebtedness could materially adversely affect our financial condition and prevent us from fulfilling our obligations under our existing indebtedness.
We have a significant amount of indebtedness. As of December 31, 2023, our total outstanding indebtedness was approximately $1.82 billion. Subject to the limits contained in the credit agreement that governs our credit facilities (the "Credit Facilities") and our other debt instruments, we may need to incur substantial additional debt from time to time to finance working capital, capital expenditures, investments or acquisitions, or for other general corporate purposes. If we do so, the risks related to our high level of debt could intensify. Specifically, our level of debt could have important consequences to the holders of our common stock, including the following:
making it more difficult for us to satisfy our obligations with respect to our debt; and if we fail to comply with these requirements, an event of default could result;
limiting our ability to obtain additional financing to fund future working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions or other general corporate requirements;
requiring a substantial portion of our cash flows to be dedicated to debt service payments instead of other purposes, thereby reducing the amount of cash flows available for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions and other general corporate purposes;
increasing our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions;
exposing us to the risk of increased interest rates as certain of our borrowings, including borrowings under the Credit Facilities, are at variable rates of interest;
limiting our flexibility in planning for and reacting to changes in the industry in which we compete;
placing us at a disadvantage compared to other, less leveraged competitors; and
increasing our cost of borrowing.
In addition, the credit agreement that governs the Credit Facilities contains restrictive covenants that limit our ability to engage in activities that may be in our long-term best interest. Our failure to comply with those covenants could result in an event of default which, if not cured or waived, could result in the acceleration of all our debt.
We may not be able to generate sufficient cash to service all of our indebtedness and may be forced to take other actions to satisfy our obligations under our indebtedness, which may not be successful.
Our ability to make scheduled payments on or refinance our debt obligations depends on our financial condition and operating performance, which are subject to prevailing economic and competitive conditions and to certain financial, business, legislative, regulatory and other factors beyond our control.
We may be unable to maintain a level of cash flows from operating activities sufficient to permit us to pay the principal and interest on our indebtedness. For the year ended December 31, 2023, our cash flows dedicated for debt service requirements totaled $166.1 million, which includes principal payments of $18.8 million and interest payments of $147.3 million. For the year ended December 31, 2023, our net cash provided by operating activities was $266.3 million, which includes interest paid of $147.3 million. As such, our cash flows from operating activities, before giving effect to the payment of interest, amounted to $413.6 million. For the year ended December 31, 2023, approximately 40% of our net cash provided by operating activities, before giving effect to the payment of interest, was dedicated to debt service, both principal and interest.
If our cash flows and capital resources are insufficient to fund our debt service obligations, we could face substantial liquidity problems and could be forced to reduce or delay investments and capital expenditures or to dispose of material assets or operations, seek additional debt or equity capital or restructure or refinance our indebtedness. We may not be able to effect any such alternative measures, if necessary, on commercially reasonable terms or at all and, even if successful, those alternative actions may not allow us to meet our scheduled debt service obligations. The credit agreement that governs the Credit Facilities restricts our ability to dispose of assets and use the proceeds from those dispositions and may also restrict our ability to raise debt or equity capital to be used to repay other indebtedness when it becomes due. We may not be able to consummate those dispositions or to obtain proceeds in an amount sufficient to meet any debt service obligations then due. Our inability to generate sufficient cash flows to satisfy our debt obligations, or to refinance our indebtedness on
- 51 -

commercially reasonable terms or at all, would materially adversely affect our financial position and results of operations.
In addition, we conduct substantially all of our international operations through our subsidiaries. Accordingly, repayment of our indebtedness is dependent on local restrictions that may impact our ability to obtain cash from cash flow generated by our subsidiaries. While the Credit Agreement (as defined below) limits the ability of our subsidiaries to incur consensual restrictions on their ability to pay dividends or make other intercompany payments to us, these limitations are subject to qualifications and exceptions. In the event that we do not receive distributions from our subsidiaries, we may be unable to make required principal and interest payments on our indebtedness.
If we cannot make scheduled payments on our debt, we will be in default and the lenders under the Credit Facilities could terminate their commitments to loan money, the lenders could foreclose against the assets securing their borrowings and we could be forced into bankruptcy or liquidation. All of these events could result in your losing your investment in our Class A common stock.
Despite our current level of indebtedness, we and our subsidiaries may still be able to incur substantially more debt. This could further exacerbate the risks to our financial condition described above.
We and our subsidiaries may need to incur significant additional indebtedness in the future. Although the Credit Agreement contains restrictions on the incurrence of additional indebtedness, these restrictions are subject to a number of qualifications and exceptions, and the additional indebtedness incurred in compliance with these restrictions could be substantial. These restrictions also will not prevent us from incurring obligations that do not constitute indebtedness. In addition, as of December 31, 2023, our Revolving Facility would have provided for unused commitments of $250.0 million (with an exception of letters of credit of $1.6 million utilized under the Revolving Facility), which could be increased, subject to certain conditions. If we incur any additional indebtedness, the holders of that indebtedness will be entitled to any proceeds distributed in connection with any insolvency, liquidation, reorganization, dissolution or other winding up of our company before such proceeds are distributed to you. If new debt is added to our currently anticipated debt levels, the related risks that you now face could intensify.
The terms of the Credit Agreement restricts our current and future operations, particularly our ability to respond to changes in the economy or our industry or to take certain actions.
The Credit Agreement contains a number of restrictive covenants that impose significant operating and financial restrictions on us and may limit our ability to engage in acts that may be in our long-term best interest, including restrictions on our ability to:
incur additional indebtedness and guarantee indebtedness;
pay dividends or make other distributions or repurchase or redeem our capital stock;
prepay, redeem or repurchase certain subordinated debt;
issue certain preferred stock or similar equity securities;
make loans and investments;
sell assets;
incur liens;
enter into transactions with affiliates;
enter into agreements restricting our subsidiaries’ ability to pay dividends; and
consolidate, merge, sell or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of our assets.
In addition, the Credit Agreement requires us to maintain a first lien net leverage ratio if borrowings outstanding under the Revolving Facility exceed a specified threshold. Our ability to meet this leverage ratio can be affected by events beyond our control, and we may be unable to meet the ratio.
- 52 -

A breach of the covenants or restrictions under the Credit Agreement could result in an event of default under the applicable indebtedness. Such default may allow the creditors to accelerate the related debt and may result in the acceleration of any other debt to which a cross-acceleration or cross-default provision applies. In addition, an event of default under the Credit Agreement would permit the lenders under our Credit Facilities to terminate all commitments to extend further credit under those facilities. Furthermore, if we were unable to repay the amounts due and payable under the Credit Facilities, the lenders thereunder could proceed against the collateral granted to them to secure that indebtedness. In the event our lenders accelerate the repayment of our borrowings, we and our subsidiaries may not have sufficient assets to repay that indebtedness. As a result of these restrictions, we may be:
limited in how we conduct our business;
 
unable to raise additional debt or equity financing to operate during general economic or business downturns; or
unable to compete effectively or to take advantage of new business opportunities.
These restrictions may affect our ability to grow in accordance with our strategy. In addition, our financial results, substantial indebtedness and credit ratings could materially adversely affect the availability and terms of our financing.
Our variable rate indebtedness subjects us to interest rate risk, which could cause our debt service obligations to increase significantly.
Borrowings under the Credit Facilities are at variable rates of interest and expose us to interest rate risk. During 2022 and the first three quarters of 2023, the U.S. Federal Reserve (the “Fed”) has sharply raised interest rates from historically low levels and has signaled an intention to continue to do so until current inflation levels re-align with the Fed’s long-term inflation target. To the extent the Fed decided to again raise interest rates, there is a risk that rates across the financial system may rise including the Secured Overnight Financing Rate ("SOFR"). As interest rates increase, our debt service obligations on the variable rate indebtedness increase even though the amount borrowed remained the same, and our net income and cash flows, including cash available for servicing our indebtedness, correspondingly decrease. Each quarter point change in interest rates on the current debt outstanding would result in approximately a $4.6 million change in annual interest expense on our indebtedness under the Credit Facilities. We entered into interest rate swap instruments, which matured on December 31, 2022, to limit our exposure to changes in variable interest rates. With the maturity of the interest rate swaps, we are fully subject to interest rate risk if SOFR rates increase.
Risks Related to Ownership of Our Class A Common Stock and Our Capitalization Structure
The market price of our Class A common stock may be volatile, and you could lose all or part of your investment.
The market price of our Class A common stock may be volatile and could be subject to fluctuations in response to various factors, some of which are beyond our control. These fluctuations could cause you to lose all or part of your investment in our Class A common stock since you might be unable to sell your shares at or above the price you paid for such shares. Factors that could cause fluctuations in the market price of our Class A common stock include the following:
price and volume fluctuations in the overall stock market from time to time;
volatility in the trading prices and trading volumes of technology stocks;
changes in operating performance and stock market valuations of other technology companies generally, or those in our industry in particular;
sales of shares of our Class A common stock by us or our stockholders;
failure of securities analysts to maintain coverage of us, changes in financial estimates by securities analysts who follow our company, or our failure to meet these estimates or the expectations of investors;
the financial projections we may provide to the public, any changes in those projections, or our failure to meet those projections;
announcements by us or our competitors of new products, features, or services;
the public’s reaction to our press releases, other public announcements, and filings with the SEC;
- 53 -

rumors and market speculation involving us or other companies in our industry;
actual or anticipated changes in our results of operations or fluctuations in our results of operations;
actual or anticipated developments in our business, our competitors’ businesses or the competitive landscape generally;
litigation involving us, our industry, or both, or investigations by regulators into our operations or those of our competitors;
developments or disputes concerning our intellectual property or other proprietary rights;
actual or perceived security breaches or incidents;
announced or completed acquisitions of businesses, products, services, or technologies by us or our competitors;
new laws or regulations or new interpretations of existing laws or regulations applicable to our business;
changes in accounting standards, policies, guidelines, interpretations, or principles;
any significant change in our management; and
general economic conditions and slow or negative growth of our markets.
In addition, in the past, following periods of volatility in the overall market and the market price of a particular company’s securities, securities class action litigation has often been instituted against these companies. This litigation, if instituted against us, could result in substantial costs and a diversion of our management’s attention and resources.
We may need additional capital, and we cannot be certain that additional financing will be available on favorable terms, or at all.
Historically, we have funded our operations and capital expenditures primarily through cash generated from our operations as well as debt refinancings. Although we currently believe that our existing cash and cash equivalents, cash flow from operations and the proceeds from the IPO will be sufficient to meet our cash needs for at least the next twelve months, we may require additional financing. We evaluate financing opportunities from time to time, and our ability to obtain financing will depend, among other things, on our development efforts, business plans, operating performance, and condition of the capital markets at the time we seek financing. We cannot assure you that additional financing will be available to us on favorable terms when required, or at all. If we raise additional funds through the issuance of equity or equity-linked or debt securities, those securities may have rights, preferences or privileges senior to the rights of our Class A common stock, and our stockholders may experience dilution.
 
Substantial future sales of our Class A common stock could depress the market price of our Class A common stock.
The market price of our Class A common stock could decline as a result of sales of a large number of shares of our Class A common stock in the market, and the perception that these sales could occur may also depress the market price of our Class A common stock. As of December 31, 2023, approximately 79% of our outstanding Class A and Class B-1 common stock is owned by entities affiliated with our Sponsors, including approximately 51.4 million Class A shares owned by Ithaca L.P., a limited partnership affiliated with Permira (“Ithaca”).
The Sponsors and their affiliates may from time to time seek to sell or otherwise dispose of some or all of their shares, including by selling shares in underwritten offerings, block trades or open market transactions, or by distributing shares to their equity holders or otherwise. For example, under our amended and restated registration rights agreement, the Sponsors and their affiliates can require us to register shares owned by them for public sale in the United States. In addition, certain Sponsor-affiliated entities, including Ithaca, have the right to distribute some or all of their Class A shares to their limited partners. If any of these entities were to register or distribute their shares, such shares would be available for resale in the public market, either immediately or at a later date. For example, in November 2023, Ithaca distributed approximately 8.6 million shares of Class A common stock to four of its limited partners, all of which were available for immediate resale in the public market. Following this distribution, approximately 51.4 million shares of Class A common stock will continue to be held in Ithaca for approximately one year, unless otherwise sold by Ithaca or distributed to Ithaca’s limited partners prior to such time. Permira will
- 54 -

continue to retain voting and investment power over the shares held by Ithaca. The shares distributed by Ithaca to its limited partners are available for immediate resale in the public market at the discretion of the applicable limited partner. We also filed a registration statement to register shares reserved for future issuance under our equity compensation plans. As a result, subject to the satisfaction of applicable exercise periods, the shares issued upon exercise of outstanding stock options or upon settlement of outstanding RSU awards are available for immediate resale in the open market.
Sales of our shares as restrictions end or pursuant to registration rights may make it more difficult for us to sell equity securities in the future at a time and at a price that we deem appropriate. These sales also could cause the market price of our Class A common stock to fall and make it more difficult for you to sell shares of our Class A common stock.
The Sponsors have a controlling influence over matters requiring stockholder approval, which could delay or prevent a change of control.
Our Sponsors and their affiliates control approximately 79% of the combined voting power of our capital stock as a result of their beneficial ownership of our Class A common stock and Class B common stock as of December 31, 2023. The Sponsors have entered into a stockholders agreement whereby they each agreed, among other things, to vote the shares each beneficially owns and is entitled to vote thereon in favor of the director nominees designated by Permira and CPP Investments, respectively.
Under the stockholders agreement and our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation and amended and restated bylaws, and applicable law, for so long as a Sponsor owns or holds of record, directly or indirectly, in the aggregate at least 15% of the Company’s outstanding shares of our Class A and Class B-1 common stock, the following actions will require the affirmative vote of each such Sponsor:
any changes to the size of our board of directors;
any termination, appointment or replacement of our Chief Executive Officer;
any transactions that would result in a change of control;
any acquisitions, dispositions or the incurrence of indebtedness over $300 million; and
any changes in the Corporate Opportunity provisions in our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation.
Additionally, for so long as Permira and CPP Investments each beneficially own, in the aggregate, 20% or more of the shares of our Class A common stock and Class B-1 common stock held by them upon completion of the IPO, each will have the right to designate two members of our board of directors. For so long as Permira and CPP Investments each beneficially own, in the aggregate, less than 20% but at least 10% of the shares of our Class A common stock and Class B-1 common stock held by them upon completion of the IPO, each will have the right to designate one member of our board of directors. Further, for so long as the Sponsors have a right to appoint, in the aggregate, four members of our board of directors, the Sponsors will have a right to jointly appoint one additional member of our board of directors. For so long as a Sponsor has the right to designate at least one member of our board of directors, such Sponsor is entitled to appoint at least one nominee to serve on each committee of our board of directors, other than the audit committee, and the chair of each of the committees, other than the audit committee, is a director serving on such committee who is designated by the Sponsors. However, as soon as we are no longer a “controlled company” under the rules of the NYSE, our committee membership will comply with all applicable requirements of those standards and a majority of our board of directors will be “independent directors,” as defined under the rules of the NYSE, subject to any phase-in provisions.
Certain of our directors have relationships with the Sponsors, which may cause conflicts of interest with respect to our business.
Three of our ten directors are affiliated with Permira, and two of our directors are employees of CPP Investments. These directors have fiduciary duties to us and, in addition, have duties to the respective Sponsor and their affiliates, respectively. As a result, these directors may face real or apparent conflicts of interest with respect to matters affecting both us and the Sponsors, whose interests may be adverse to ours in some circumstances.
- 55 -

The Sponsors and their affiliates may pursue corporate opportunities independent of us that could present conflicts with our and our stockholders’ interests.
The Sponsors and their affiliates are in the business of making or advising on investments in companies and hold (and may from time to time in the future acquire) interests in or provide advice to businesses that directly or indirectly compete with certain portions of our business or are suppliers or customers of ours. The Sponsors and their affiliates may also pursue acquisitions that may be complementary to our business and, as a result, those acquisition opportunities may not be available to us.
Delaware law and provisions in our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation and amended and restated bylaws could make a merger, tender offer, or proxy contest difficult, thereby depressing the market price of our Class A common stock.
Our status as a Delaware corporation and the anti-takeover provisions of the Delaware General Corporation Law may discourage, delay, or prevent a change in control by prohibiting us from engaging in a business combination with an interested stockholder for a period of three years after the person becomes an interested stockholder, even if a change of control would be beneficial to our existing stockholders. In addition, our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation and amended and restated bylaws contain provisions that may make the acquisition of our company more difficult, including the following:
any transaction that would result in a change in control of our company requires the approval of a majority of our outstanding Class A common stock and Class B-1 common stock voting as a separate class;
our board of directors is classified into three classes of directors with staggered three-year terms and after the Sponsors cease to beneficially own, in the aggregate, at least 50% of the outstanding shares of our Class A common stock and Class B-1 common Stock, directors will only be able to be removed from office for cause;
after the Sponsors cease to beneficially own, in the aggregate, at least 50% of the outstanding shares of our Class A common stock and Class B-1 common stock, our stockholders will only be able to take action at a meeting of stockholders and not by written consent;
vacancies on our board of directors will be able to be filled only by our board of directors and not by stockholders;
after the Sponsors cease to beneficially own, in the aggregate, at least 50% of the outstanding shares of our Class A common stock and Class B-1 common stock, only our chair of the board of directors or a majority of board of directors will be authorized to call a special meeting of stockholders;
certain litigation against us can only be brought in Delaware;
 
our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation authorizes undesignated preferred stock, the terms of which may be established and shares of which may be issued without the approval of the holders of Class A common stock; and
advance notice procedures apply for stockholders to nominate candidates for election as directors or to bring matters before an annual meeting of stockholders.
These anti-takeover defenses could discourage, delay, or prevent a transaction involving a change in control of our company. These provisions could also discourage proxy contests and make it more difficult for stockholders to elect directors of their choosing and to cause us to take other corporate actions they desire, any of which, under certain circumstances, could limit the opportunity for our stockholders to receive a premium for their shares of our capital stock, and could also affect the price that some investors are willing to pay for our Class A common stock.
Our amended and restated bylaws designate a state or federal court located within the State of Delaware as the exclusive forum for substantially all disputes between us and our stockholders, and also provide that the federal district courts will be the exclusive forum for resolving any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act, each of which could limit our stockholders’ ability to choose the judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers or employees.
Our amended and restated bylaws provide that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware is the exclusive forum for the following types of actions or proceedings under Delaware statutory or common law: (1) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, (2) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, stockholders, officers or other employees to us or our stockholders, (3) any action
- 56 -

arising pursuant to any provision of the Delaware General Corporation Law, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or our amended and restated bylaws or (4) any other action asserting a claim that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine shall be the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware (or, if the Court of Chancery does not have jurisdiction, the federal district court for the District of Delaware), in all cases subject to the court having jurisdiction over indispensable parties named as defendants. The provisions would not apply to suits brought to enforce a duty or liability created by the Exchange Act, or any other claim for which the U.S. federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction.
Section 22 of the Securities Act creates concurrent jurisdiction for federal and state courts over all such Securities Act actions. Accordingly, both state and federal courts have jurisdiction to entertain such claims. To prevent having to litigate claims in multiple jurisdictions and the threat of inconsistent or contrary rulings by different courts, among other considerations, our amended and restated bylaws also provide that the federal district courts of the United States of America is the exclusive forum for resolving any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act. However, while the Delaware Supreme Court ruled in March 2020 that federal forum selection provisions purporting to require claims under the Securities Act be brought in federal court are “facially valid” under Delaware law, there is uncertainty as to whether other courts will enforce our federal forum provision. If the federal forum provision is found to be unenforceable, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such matters.
Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in any of our securities shall be deemed to have notice of and consented to this provision. This exclusive-forum provision may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum of such stockholder's choosing for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other employees, which may discourage lawsuits against us and our directors, officers and other employees. If a court were to find the exclusive-forum provision in our amended and restated bylaws to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving the dispute in other jurisdictions, which could harm our results of operations.
 
Our Class A common stock market price and trading volume could decline if securities or industry analysts do not publish research or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business.
The trading market for our Class A common stock depends in part on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. The analysts’ estimates are based upon their own opinions and are often different from our estimates or expectations. If one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrade our Class A common stock or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, the market price of our Class A common stock would likely decline. If few securities analysts commence coverage of us, or if one or more of these analysts cease coverage of us or fail to publish reports on us regularly, demand for our securities could decrease, which might cause the market price and trading volume of our Class A common stock to decline.
We are a controlled company within the meaning of the rules of the NYSE and, as a result, will qualify for and intend to rely on exemptions from certain corporate governance requirements.
Our Sponsors beneficially own a majority of the combined voting power of all classes of our outstanding voting stock. As a result, we are a controlled company within the meaning of the rules of the NYSE. Under the NYSE rules, a company of which more than 50% of the voting power is held by another person or group of persons acting together is a controlled company and may elect not to comply with certain NYSE corporate governance requirements, including the requirements that:
a majority of the board of directors consist of independent directors;
the nominating and governance committee be composed entirely of independent directors; and
the compensation committee be composed entirely of independent directors.
These requirements will not apply to us as long as we remain a controlled company. We have taken advantage of some of these exemptions. Accordingly, you may not have the same protections afforded to stockholders of companies that are subject to all of the corporate governance requirements of the NYSE.
Our Sponsors and their affiliates control us and their interests may conflict with ours or yours in the future.
Our Sponsors and their affiliates control approximately 79% of the combined voting power of our capital stock as a result of their beneficial ownership of our Class A common stock and Class B common stock as of December 31, 2023. Even when the Sponsors and their affiliates cease to beneficially own shares of our common
- 57 -

stock representing a majority of the combined voting power, for so long as the Sponsors continue to beneficially own a significant percentage of our common stock, the Sponsors will still be able to significantly influence the composition of our board of directors and the approval of actions requiring stockholder approval through their combined voting power. Accordingly, for such period of time, the Sponsors and their affiliates will have significant influence with respect to our management, business plans and policies. In particular, the Sponsors and their affiliates are able to cause or prevent a change of control of our company or a change in the composition of our board of directors and could preclude any unsolicited acquisition of our company. The concentration of voting power could deprive you of an opportunity to receive a premium for your shares of Class A common stock as part of a sale of our company and ultimately might affect the market price of our Class A common stock.
The Sponsors and their affiliates engage in a broad spectrum of activities. In the ordinary course of their business activities, the Sponsors and their affiliates may engage in activities where their interests conflict with our interests or those of our stockholders. Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation will provide that none of the Sponsors, any of their affiliates or any director who is not employed by us (including any non-employee director who serves as one of our officers in both his director and officer capacities) or his or her affiliates will have any duty to refrain from engaging, directly or indirectly, in the same business activities or similar business activities or lines of business in which we operate. The Sponsors and their affiliates also may pursue acquisition opportunities that may be complementary to our business, and, as a result, those acquisition opportunities may not be available to us. In addition, the Sponsors and their affiliates may have an interest in us pursuing acquisitions, divestitures and other transactions that, in their judgment, could enhance their investment, even though such transactions might involve risks to you.
We do not intend to pay dividends for the foreseeable future.
We currently intend to retain any future earnings to finance the operation and expansion of our business. We do not expect the Company or our subsidiaries to declare or pay any dividends in the foreseeable future. As a result, stockholders must rely on sales of their Class A common stock after price appreciation as the only way to realize any future gains on their investment.
General Risk Factors
The requirements of being a public company may strain our resources, divert management’s attention and affect our ability to attract and retain qualified board members.
As a public company, we are subject to the reporting and corporate governance requirements of the Exchange Act, the listing requirements of the NYSE and other applicable securities rules and regulations, including the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act. Compliance with these rules and regulations has increased and will continue to increase our legal and financial compliance costs, make some activities more difficult, time-consuming or costly and increase demand on our systems and resources. Among other things, the Exchange Act requires that we file annual, quarterly and current reports with respect to our business and results of operations and maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting. In order to enhance our disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting to meet this standard, significant resources and management oversight may be required. As a result, management’s attention may be diverted from other business concerns, which could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. Although we have already hired additional personnel to help comply with these requirements, we may need to further expand our legal and finance departments in the future, which will increase our costs and expenses. In addition, changing laws, regulations and standards relating to corporate governance and public disclosure are creating uncertainty for public companies, increasing legal and financial compliance costs and making some activities more time-consuming. These laws, regulations and standards are subject to varying interpretations, in many cases due to their lack of specificity, and, as a result, their application in practice may evolve over time as new guidance is provided by regulatory and governing bodies. This could result in continuing uncertainty regarding compliance matters and higher costs necessitated by ongoing revisions to disclosure and governance practices. We intend to invest resources to comply with evolving laws, regulations and standards, and this investment may result in increased general and administrative expense and a diversion of management’s time and attention from revenue-generating activities to compliance activities. If our efforts to comply with new laws, regulations and standards differ from the activities intended by regulatory or governing bodies, regulatory authorities may initiate legal proceedings against us and our business and prospects may be harmed. As a result of disclosure of information in the filings required of a public company and in this Report, our business and financial condition will become more visible, which may result in threatened or actual litigation, including by competitors and other third parties. If such claims are successful, our business, financial
- 58 -

condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially harmed, and even if the claims do not result in litigation or are resolved in our favor, these claims, and the time and resources necessary to resolve them, could divert the resources of our management and materially harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
In addition, these new rules and regulations will make it more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance, and we may be required to accept reduced coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain coverage. These factors could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified executive officers and members of our board of directors, particularly to serve on our audit committee and compensation committee.
In addition, as a result of our disclosure obligations as a public company, we will have reduced strategic flexibility and will be under pressure to focus on short-term results, which may materially and adversely affect our ability to achieve long-term profitability.
Business interruptions could adversely affect our business.
Our operations are vulnerable to interruption by fire, earthquake, power loss, telecommunications or network failure, and other significant natural disasters or events beyond our control. In addition, acts of terrorism, war and other geopolitical unrest (including the military conflicts between Russia and Ukraine and Israel and Hamas, and any related political or economic responses and counter-responses or otherwise by global actors) could cause disruptions in our business or the business of our partners, customers or the economy as a whole. We have prepared a detailed disaster recovery plan which includes the use of internal and external resources and will continue to expand the scope over time. Disasters or disruptions can negatively affect our operations given necessary interaction among our international facilities.
Our headquarters and a number of our employees are located in the San Francisco Bay Area, a region known for seismic activity. In the event such an earthquake or any other natural disaster or man-made failure occurs, it could disrupt the operations of our affected facilities and recovery of our resources. In addition, we do not carry sufficient business interruption insurance to compensate us for losses that may occur, and any losses or damages incurred by us could have a material adverse effect on our business.
Our corporate business processes rely on SaaS providers such as Microsoft O365, Salesforce, Oracle and Marketo to provide highly available business services. In addition, our cloud subscription offerings depend on third-party service providers, including AWS, Microsoft Azure and Google Cloud, and certain single-source suppliers, including MITI, for our database connectors. Disruptions to any of our service providers or suppliers could also have a negative effect on our operations and harm our business.
We may be the subject of litigation which, if adversely determined, could harm our business and operating results.
Our business is subject to regulation by various federal, state, local and foreign governmental agencies, including agencies responsible for monitoring and enforcing employment and labor laws, workplace safety, laws relating to privacy, security and data protection, consumer protection laws, anti-bribery laws, import/export controls, federal securities laws and tax laws and regulations. Noncompliance with applicable regulations or requirements could subject us to investigations, sanctions, enforcement actions, disgorgement of profits, fines, damages and civil and criminal penalties or injunctions. We have been, currently are, and may in the future be, subject to legal claims arising in the normal course of business. Such legal claims have included governmental, intellectual property-related, commercial, and employment claims, and may in the future include those categories of claims, as well as, product liability, class action, whistleblower and other litigation and claims. An unfavorable outcome on any litigation matter could require that we pay substantial damages. In addition, we may decide to settle any litigation, which could cause us to incur significant costs.
The outcome of litigation and other claims or lawsuits is intrinsically uncertain. Management’s view of the litigation might also change in the future. Actual outcomes of litigation and other claims or lawsuits could differ from the assessments made by management in prior periods, which are the basis for our accounting for these litigations and claims under GAAP. A settlement or an unfavorable outcome on any litigation matter could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, reputation, financial position or cash flows. In addition, responding to any action will likely result in a significant diversion of management’s attention and resources and an increase in professional fees. Enforcement actions and sanctions could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.


- 59 -

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None

ITEM 1C. CYBERSECURITY
Cybersecurity Risk Management.
We have established policies and processes for assessing, identifying, and managing material risk from cybersecurity threats, and as described further below, have integrated these processes into our overall risk management systems and processes. Our board of directors performs meaningful oversight of these cybersecurity risk management processes, and our management team is responsible for the day-to-day management of the material risks we face.
Management roles in cybersecurity risk management.
We have several committees and individual management positions responsible for assessing, identifying, and managing the material cybersecurity risks that we face.
Enterprise Risk Management Committee.
Our Enterprise Risk Management Committee performs a central function in the assessment and management of our important business risks overall. Our Enterprise Risk Management Committee is comprised of members of our executive leadership. The committee meets periodically to review risk-related topics, including updates on cybersecurity risks and incidents, cybersecurity policy changes, and certain cybersecurity investment recommendations. The diverse skills and experience relevant to cybersecurity risk management possessed by the senior management and executive positions on this committee contribute to our effective management of such risks. The Enterprise Risk Management Committee is informed about and monitors the prevention, detection, mitigation and remediation of cybersecurity incidents through its Cybersecurity Steering Subcommittee and the Global Security Organization.
The Cybersecurity Steering Subcommittee oversees teams of subject matter experts and working groups assigned to focus on specific cybersecurity risk management issues, and receives periodic status updates from those teams.
The Enterprise Risk Management Committee provides reports to the audit committee of our board of directors on a quarterly basis to support its oversight of our cybersecurity risk management.
Chief Information Security Officer.
Our Chief Information Security Officer ("CISO") leads our Global Security Organization. Our CISO supports our compliance with standards and contractual obligations relevant to cybersecurity and good risk governance. Our CISO has over ten years of experience focused on cybersecurity. Our CISO has degrees in computer science and management information systems, each with an emphasis on information security, and has certificates from the Global Information Assurance Certification program as an Information Security Professional and for Strategic Planning, Policy and Leadership. Our CISO has held senior positions focused on the management and operation of our cybersecurity risk management processes for over five years.
In addition to its oversight, monitoring and other responsibilities, the Global Security Organization conducts an annual risk assessment process concerning our enterprise and product families. This process supports our prioritization, planning and execution of security program improvements. We also maintain a risk management process throughout the year designed to compile and manage risks through a variety of technical and administrative controls.
Third-party cybersecurity risk management.
Our cybersecurity processes are designed to identify and address cybersecurity risks associated with our use of third-party technologies and service providers.
Our processes call for the evaluation of third parties for security and compliance risks before onboarding them for potential use within our own systems and services. For applicable vendors, we require audit reports and regular responses to our detailed security questionnaires particularly for vendors associated with critical assets. In addition, our procurement processes call for specific contractual obligations from relevant vendors regarding their maintenance of appropriate cybersecurity controls and relevant certifications. Our internal Software Development
- 60 -

Lifecycle is designed to build our products in part relying upon industry-standard practices and third-party tools and services to test our code and bundled third-party libraries for known security misconfigurations and errors.
Our people are a crucial pillar of our cybersecurity.
We operate processes to maintain an internal culture that expressly values cybersecurity. This includes broad-based processes for cybersecurity training, internal communications, reporting concerns, and escalations. Our security awareness and skills training processes guide behaviors across our workforce to be security conscious.
Consultants provide valuable services within our cybersecurity risk management.
Our cybersecurity risk management processes and technical safeguards are supported by consultants and other service providers including for security assessments of our suppliers, independent risk assessments and forensic analyses. We have also retained third-party providers to monitor and assess our cybersecurity posture by a variety of security indicators, cybersecurity threat intelligence signals and other sources and methods.
Incident response processes are an integral part of our cybersecurity posture.
If indications are reported of an actual or threatened incident affecting our information systems or networks, or affecting a third party provider relevant to our security, we commence our incident response processes led by the Global Security Organization. This comprehensive incident response process is designed to address possible and confirmed cybersecurity incidents and enable escalations and notifications to appropriate management and members of the audit committee.
After an incident has been contained our processes shift emphasis to the continuity of business operations, and if necessary, restoration of services and the recovery of any affected business systems and data.
Board oversight of cybersecurity risk management.
On a quarterly basis either the audit committee or the full board of directors receive information regarding our cybersecurity risk management from our Global Security Organization and from a representative of our Chief Product Officer’s organization. The chair of the audit committee also updates the full board of directors on specific topics that are presented or discussed at the regular meeting of the audit committee.
The audit committee also receives an annual review from the CISO regarding our cybersecurity strategies, including how changes in the threat landscape and changes to our risk posture and business and compliance requirements may affect our risk management strategies.

As a result of the significance of the cybersecurity threats to our business, we expend material efforts on our cybersecurity risk management processes, although we have not identified any specific threat or incident that has materially affected or is reasonably likely to materially affect the Company, including our business strategy, results of operations, or financial condition. For additional information regarding our risks from cybersecurity threats, please refer to Item 1A, “Risk Factors,” in this annual report on Form 10-K, including the risk factors entitled: “A security breach or incident may compromise the integrity of our products, create service outages for our hosted products, or allow unauthorized access to our network or our customers’ data, harm our reputation, create additional liability and adversely impact our financial results.”

ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
We own our corporate headquarters, which is located in two buildings totaling approximately 290,000 square feet in Redwood City, California, which we purchased in 2012. We also own the associated 11.6 acres of land including two parking lots. These buildings are our principal facilities and house executive, sales and marketing, product development, customer support and general and administrative employees.
We also occupy leased facilities in the United States, including offices located in Austin, Texas and New York, which are primarily used for sales and marketing, product development and general and administrative employees. We lease office facilities outside of the United States in Sydney and Melbourne, Australia; Sao Paulo, Brazil; Hong Kong, China; Paris, France; Dublin, Ireland; Milan, Italy; Tokyo, Japan; Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Singapore; Madrid, Spain; Stockholm, Sweden; and Maidenhead, United Kingdom and are used primarily for sales and marketing, customer support, and general and administrative employees.
We also lease facilities in Bangalore, India; Stuttgart, Germany; and Toronto, Canada which are used primarily for our product development, customer support, professional services and general and administrative
- 61 -

employees. We also lease additional facilities including Maxdorf, Germany; Chennai and Hyderabad, India; Jerusalem, Israel; and Krakow, Poland; where our offices are primarily used for product development.

We also lease executive suites to support our sales and marketing organizations in geographies where a permanent office is not required.
These leased facilities expire at various times through 2035. We are continually evaluating the adequacy of existing facilities and additional facilities in other locations, and believe our existing facilities are suitable to address our current needs. We are also looking at the implications of hybrid offices.
ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
From time to time we may become involved in legal proceedings or be subject to claims arising in the ordinary course of our business. We are not presently a party to any legal proceedings that in the opinion of our management, if determined adversely to us, would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flows. Future litigation may be necessary to defend ourselves, our partners and our customers by determining the scope, enforceability and validity of third-party proprietary rights, or to establish our proprietary rights. The results of any current or future litigation cannot be predicted with certainty, and regardless of the outcome, litigation can have an adverse impact on us because of defense and settlement costs, diversion of management resources and other factors. See Note 19. Commitments and Contingencies in the Notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements.  
 
ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

None

PART II

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Market for Our Common Stock and Related Stockholder Matters

Our Class A common stock has been traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “INFA” since October 27, 2021. Prior to that time, there was no public market for our Class A common stock. Our Class B-1 common stock and Class B-2 common stock are not traded on any public market.

Holders of Record

At February 14, 2024, there were 18 stockholders of record of our Class A common stock, one stockholder of record of our Class B-1 common stock and one stockholder of record of our Class B-2 common stock. The number of record holders of our Class A common stock does not include beneficial holders who hold their shares in “street name,” meaning that the shares are held for their accounts by a broker or other nominee. Accordingly, we believe that the total number of beneficial holders of our Class A common stock is higher than the number of our stockholders of record.

Dividend Policy

We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our Class A common stock. Additionally, our ability to pay dividends on our Class A common stock and Class B-1 common stock is limited by restrictions on our ability to pay dividends or make distributions under the terms of our Credit Facilities. The holders of Class B-2 common stock are entitled to a nominal annual dividend of CAD$15,000 in the aggregate. We currently intend to retain all of our future earnings, if any, to finance our operations and do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our Class A common stock in the foreseeable future. Any future determination as to the declaration and payment of dividends will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on then-existing conditions, including our financial condition, operating results, contractual restrictions, capital requirements, business prospects, and other factors our board of directors may deem relevant.
- 62 -


Stock Price Performance Graph

This performance graph shall not be deemed “soliciting material” or to be “filed” with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, for purposes of Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, or otherwise subject to the liabilities under that Section, and shall not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any of our filings under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act.

The following graph shows the cumulative total returns to our stockholders between October 27, 2021 (the date that our Class A common stock commenced trading on the New York Stock Exchange) through December 31, 2023 in comparison to the S&P 500 Index and the S&P 500 Information Technology Index at their respective closing prices. An investment of $100 is assumed to have been made in our Class A common stock and in each index at the market close on October 27, 2021, and its relative performance is tracked through December 31, 2023. The returns shown are based on historical results and are not intended to suggest future performance.
Stock Price Graph.jpg
Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities

None.

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

On October 31, 2023, our board of directors approved a share repurchase authorization which enables us to repurchase up to $200 million of our Class A common stock through privately-negotiated purchases with individual holders or in the open market. A committee of the board of directors will determine the timing, amount and terms of any repurchase. The repurchase authorization does not have an expiration date.

There were no repurchases made during the three months ended December 31, 2023.


ITEM 6. RESERVED

- 63 -

ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND  RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and related notes appearing elsewhere in this Report. This discussion contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from those discussed below. Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those identified below and those discussed in the sections titled “Risk Factors” and “Information Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” included elsewhere in this Report.
A discussion regarding our financial condition and results of operations for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022 is presented below. A discussion regarding our financial condition and results of operations for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022 compared to the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021 can be found in “Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in Part II, Item 7 of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022 filed with the SEC on February 27, 2023.

Overview
We have pioneered a new category of software, the Intelligent Data Management Cloud (“IDMC”). IDMC is our artificial intelligence (“AI”) powered platform that connects, manages, and unifies data across any public cloud or hybrid cloud environment, empowering enterprises to modernize and advance their data strategies.
We generate revenues from the sale of subscriptions to our software products and professional services, and maintenance agreements supporting perpetual licenses mainly sold in prior periods. Substantially all of our software revenue consists of fees generated from our subscription-based products. We have grown our subscription revenue to $1,003.5 million in 2023, from $857.2 million and $747.7 million in 2022 and 2021, respectively. Over these periods, our subscription revenue as a percentage of total software revenue was approximately 100%, 99%, and 96% for 2023, 2022, and 2021, respectively.
Our products can be subscribed to as individually distinct product families or together as a tightly integrated platform to support complex data management needs and mission critical workloads. Our products are subscribed through contracts primarily with a one-, two- or three-year term, with an average contract term of approximately two years for the year ended December 31, 2023. Substantially all of our subscription customers pay us annual fees in advance at the start of each contract year. We recognize revenue from our cloud subscription on a ratable basis over the contract term. We generally recognize the majority of the revenue from our self-managed subscription licenses at the start of the contract term. The remaining portion of self-managed subscription fees attributable to related support services are generally recognized on a ratable basis over the contract term.
We use a consumption-based pricing model to provide customers greater flexibility regarding use and consumption of a broad array of our cloud subscription offerings. The consumption-based pricing model is based on Master Data Management ("MDM") records or Informatica Processing Units ("IPUs"), which is an innovative way to measure the consumption of our cloud-based services. Under the IPU model, customers pre-purchase a maximum number of IPUs to be consumed per month over the subscription term.
In the first quarter of 2023, we introduced a variation of the IPU consumption-based pricing model called Flex IPUs. Under this new model, customers pre-purchase a number of Flex IPUs to be consumed per year of the subscription term. Additional fees are charged for incremental IPUs consumed above the annual maximum, if the customer’s usage requires it.
We previously generated additional software revenue from the sale of perpetual licenses. However, consistent with our business transformation strategy and focus on subscription revenue, our perpetual license revenue as a percentage of our total revenues has decreased year over year and represented approximately 0%, 1%, and 4% of total revenues, for 2023, 2022, and 2021, respectively.
Our maintenance revenues consist of recurring maintenance fees related to perpetual licenses sold in prior periods. Our recurring maintenance fees grant our customers access to software updates and support for our perpetual license products.
- 64 -

We generate professional services revenues through one-time fees associated with implementation, education, and consulting services related to our software products. We recognized $588.4 million, $637.6 million, and $667.1 million of maintenance and professional services revenues during fiscal year ended 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
We market and sell our subscription products primarily through our global direct sales team, which is enhanced by our relationships and collaboration with our partners that include global system integrators such as Deloitte and Accenture, hyperscale cloud platform providers such as AWS, Microsoft Azure, Google Cloud and Oracle Cloud, and other channel partners such as value added resellers and distributors. Our sales organization consists of marketing, sales development, inside sales, and field sales personnel. It is generally organized by region, customer size and certain industry verticals. Cloud hyperscalers help us amplify our commercial reach when we jointly engage in cloud modernization efforts. In addition, our global system integrator partners provide implementation services for our products for customers as part of their support of broader, overall cloud modernization initiatives.
Historically, we have focused our selling efforts on executives such as chief information officers (“CIO”) and chief data officers (“CDO”) who are often making decisions to subscribe to our products for their most important business initiatives. CIOs adopt our platform as part of their analytics and AI projects, cloud migration journey, application modernization efforts, and business 360 initiatives. CDOs utilize our products as part of their overall data governance, access, and security strategies in order to democratize data access for everyone across the company. We are expanding our go-to-market efforts to focus more on industry-specific market segments, departmental lines of business and small and medium sized enterprise customers.
We employ a “land and expand” model to increase sales to our existing customer base. Once customers have purchased a subscription to one of our products—for example, Data Integration—they often identify additional use cases for our software and expand their use of our products accordingly. For example, as a customer seeks to expand the distribution of data-centric reports powered by our data integration solutions to a broader set of internal or external users, enhanced levels of data quality and control may be required, prompting subscription to our Data Quality and Data Governance families of products. We also market our cloud subscription to our large installed base of perpetual license maintenance customers, enabling them to advance their cloud modernization efforts to migrate existing processes and net new workloads from costly-to-maintain on-premises IT infrastructure to lower-cost elastic cloud architecture. In 2023, we released the PowerCenter Cloud Edition to accelerate and automate much of the migration effort associated with modernizing from on-premises PowerCenter to IDMC.
Purchasing patterns for our products have followed quarterly and seasonal trends that we expect to continue. We typically sell a substantial portion of our cloud services in the last month of each quarter, and demand for our products and professional services are generally highest in the fourth quarter and lowest in the first quarter of each year.
Factors Affecting Our Performance
We believe that the growth of our business and our future success are dependent upon many factors, including those described below. While each of these factors presents significant opportunities for us, these factors also pose important challenges that we must successfully address in order to sustain the growth of our business and improve our results of operations.
Continued Adoption of our Subscription Offerings.    Our success will largely depend on customers’ continued uptake of our subscription offerings. Our success will also largely depend on the value businesses place on data management as part of their overall digital transformation initiatives and the timing and willingness of businesses to move their data and workloads to the cloud. As companies from all industries continue to shift to subscription and cloud-based services, we believe demand for our platform and subscription-based products will increase. A large majority of our subscription products were architected to be deployed natively in public, private, or hybrid cloud environments. In addition, we assist our customers with migrations of their Informatica self-managed data integration, data quality and MDM installations to our corresponding cloud solutions. For the period starting in our fourth fiscal quarter of 2020 and ended December 31, 2023, we have entered into agreements to migrate a total of approximately $48.0 million of maintenance and self-managed ARR. Our future growth will depend in part on our ability to develop new market-leading cloud subscription offerings to expand the offerings in our platform.
- 65 -

New Customer Acquisition.    Our future growth depends, in part, on our ability to acquire new customers. Our ability to acquire new customers is demonstrated by the fact that 54% of our subscription customers as of December 31, 2023 did not have a prior perpetual license maintenance contract with us. In addition, our ability to attract new customers will depend, in part, on our ability to continue to compete effectively against a variety of different vendors who offer existing data management products, as well as our ability to convert companies into paying customers who are using custom-built solutions. Additionally, we will continue to rely on our sales and marketing team to effectively and efficiently identify and engage with prospective customers, increase brand awareness, and drive adoption of our products. We also have a business development team for our go-to-market strategy that is focused on growing adoption of our products by targeting key business personnel adjacent to technical roles, as well as small- and mid-market organizations, which represents a new addressable customer base for us. We will continue to make strategic investments in sales to grow our total customer base, with a focus on targeting these new buyers.
Expansion Within our Customer Base.    Our business depends, in part, on our ability to expand within our large existing customer base by adding new products, addressing cloud modernization initiatives, and growing with our customers’ overall data footprint. We have successfully expanded our existing customers’ adoption of our platform through upselling and cross-selling, as evidenced by our Subscription NRR (as defined below in Key Business Metrics), which was 106% and 111%, and Cloud Subscription NRR (as defined below in Key Business Metrics), which was 119% and 117% as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. We increased the average Subscription ARR (as defined below in Key Business Metrics) per subscription customer from December 31, 2022 to December 31, 2023, from $263 thousand to $298 thousand, respectively. We continuously focus on increasing the value our customers derive from our platform and often become a strategic vendor to them in the process. For example, as of December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, we had 240, 206 and 153 customers individually with over $1 million in Subscription ARR each, respectively.
 
Retention of Existing Customers.    Our business also depends, in part, on our ability to retain our existing customer base. We typically enjoy a high customer renewal rate, which we attribute to the fact that our products are embedded in mission-critical applications, as well as the fact that we have an expansive product portfolio and world-class customer success organization. For example, as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, our subscription renewal rate1 was 92% and 94%, respectively, and our maintenance renewal rate2 was 95% and 96%, respectively. We intend to continue investing in our products and customer success organization to maintain these favorable retention rates.
Investment in Partner Go-to-Market Efforts.  Our business and results of operations will also be significantly affected by our success in strengthening our relationships with strategic partners, including cloud hyperscalers, cloud partners, global system integrators and other channel partners such as regional systems integrators, value-added resellers and distributors. We believe further developing these key strategic relationships will help us scale and enhance co-selling of our products and services with these partners. Many of our GSI partners have built Centers of Excellence inside their Data and AI practices and have staffed them with Informatica IDMC skilled resources and many have also built solutions which include Informatica in the standard architecture. These developments have helped to expand our footprint with our largest partners and to be recommended more often and in more customer accounts. We plan to continue to strengthen and expand our network of strategic partners to increase sales to both new and existing customers and offer new and existing products on partner marketplaces. We believe that investing in sales enablement and co-selling efforts with our strategic partners will
1 We compute the subscription renewal rate by assessing the annual value of subscription contracts that expire or have an anniversary date within the current quarter (denominator) and compare this to the annual renewed value or amount not cancelled for that set of contracts, including price uplifts, if any, realized on renewed contracts (numerator). We typically allow for a grace period of up to six months past the original contract expiration quarter during which we engage in the renewal process before we report the contract as lost /inactive. This grace-period renewal amount has been an immaterial portion over the last three years. If there is an actual cancellation for a subscription contract, we count that amount as removed from the numerator in that period.

2 We compute the maintenance renewal rate by assessing the annual value of maintenance contracts for perpetual licenses that expire or have an anniversary date within the current quarter (denominator) and compare this to the annual renewed value or amount not cancelled for that set of contracts, including price uplifts, if any, realized on renewed contracts (numerator). We typically allow for a grace period of up to six months past the original contract expiration quarter during which we engage in the renewal process before we report the contract as lost /inactive. This grace-period renewal amount has been an immaterial portion over the last three years. If there is an actual cancellation for a maintenance contract, we count that amount as removed from the numerator in that period. If a customer cancels a maintenance contract and migrates the underlying product to one of our cloud subscription, this loss of maintenance would be counted as a cancellation and reduce our maintenance renewal rate.
- 66 -

broaden our distribution footprint globally and extend and improve our engagement with a broad set of prospective customers.
Global Macroeconomic Factors. Uncertainty in the macroeconomic environment, including elevated inflation concerns, global supply chain concerns, rising interest rates, fluctuation in foreign exchange rates, volatility and uncertainty in the financial services industry, geopolitical pressures, including the war in Ukraine and the conflict involving Israel and Hamas, and associated global economic conditions have resulted in volatility in credit, equity, and foreign currency markets. These macroeconomic conditions have and are likely to continue to adversely affect the buying patterns of our customers and prospective customers, including the length of sales cycles, our overall pipeline and pipeline conversion rates, and our revenue growth expectations. For example, beginning in the second quarter of 2022, and continuing through 2023, we have experienced an impact from the current macroeconomic environment as prospective and existing customers applied elevated levels of scrutiny to purchasing decisions that adversely impacted the ability to close new business. We experienced these headwinds at an increasing magnitude beginning in the third quarter of 2022, and we expect some or all of the global macroeconomic factors will continue to impact our operations.
Refer to the section titled “Risk Factors” for further discussion of the possible impact of the global macroeconomic factors on our business.
Key Business Metrics and Non-GAAP Financial Measure
We review a number of operating and financial metrics, including the following unaudited key business metrics and non-GAAP financial measure to evaluate our business, measure our performance, identify trends affecting our business, formulate business plans, and make strategic decisions.
 
Year Ended December 31,
202320222021
(in thousands, except percentages)
Cloud Subscription Annual Recurring Revenue
$616,792 $451,188 $316,994 
Self-managed Subscription Annual Recurring Revenue
515,874 543,035 485,335 
Subscription Annual Recurring Revenue
1,132,666 994,223 802,329 
Maintenance Annual Recurring Revenue493,579 522,837 557,908 
Total Annual Recurring Revenue
$1,626,245 $1,517,060 $1,360,237 
Subscription Net Retention Rate (End-user level)106 %111 %114 %
Cloud Subscription Net Retention Rate (End-user level)119 %117 %115 %
Cloud Subscription Net Retention Rate (Global Parent level)125 %123 %121 %
 
Key Business Metrics
Annual Recurring Revenue
Annual Recurring Revenue (“ARR”) represents the expected annual billing amounts from all active maintenance and subscription agreements. ARR is calculated based on the contract Monthly Recurring Revenue (“MRR”) multiplied by 12. MRR is calculated based on the accounting adjusted total contract value divided by the number of months of the agreement based on the start and end dates of each contracted line item. The aggregate ARR calculated at the end of each reported period represents the value of all contracts that are active as of the end of the period, including those contracts that have expired but are still under negotiation for renewal. We typically allow for a grace period of up to 6 months past the original contract expiration quarter during which we engage in the renewal process before we report the contract as lost /inactive. This grace-period ARR amount has been less than 2% of the reported ARR in each period presented. If there is an actual cancellation of an ARR contract, we remove that ARR value at that time.
We believe ARR is an important metric for understanding our business since it tracks the annualized cash value collected over a 12-month period for all of our recurring contracts, irrespective of whether it is a maintenance contract on a perpetual license, a ratable cloud contract, or a self-managed term-based subscription license. ARR
- 67 -

should be viewed independently of total revenue and deferred revenue related to our software and services contracts and is not intended to be combined with or to replace either of those items.

Maintenance Annual Recurring Revenue
Maintenance Annual Recurring Revenue (“Maintenance ARR”) represents the portion of ARR only attributable to our maintenance contracts.
We believe that Maintenance ARR is a helpful metric for understanding our business since it represents the approximate annualized cash value collected over a 12-month period for all our maintenance contracts. Maintenance ARR includes maintenance contracts supporting our perpetual licenses. Maintenance ARR should be viewed independently of maintenance revenue and deferred revenue related to our maintenance contracts and is not intended to be combined with or to replace either of those items. As we continue to shift our focus from perpetual to cloud, we expect Maintenance ARR will decrease in future quarters.
Subscription Annual Recurring Revenue
Subscription Annual Recurring Revenue (“Subscription ARR”) represents the portion of ARR only attributable to our subscription contracts.
We believe that Subscription ARR is a helpful metric for understanding our business since it represents the approximate annualized cash value collected over a 12-month period for all of our recurring subscription contracts. Subscription ARR excludes maintenance contracts on our perpetual licenses to provide information regarding the period-to-period performance and overall size and scale of our subscription business as we continue to focus our efforts on subscription-based licensing. Subscription ARR should be viewed independently of subscription revenue and deferred revenue related to our subscription contracts and is not intended to be combined with or to replace either of those items.
Cloud Subscription Annual Recurring Revenue
Cloud Subscription Annual Recurring Revenue (“Cloud Subscription ARR”) represents the portion of ARR that is attributable to our hosted cloud contracts.
We believe that Cloud Subscription ARR is a helpful metric for understanding our business since it represents the approximate annualized cash value collected over a 12-month period for all of our recurring Cloud contracts. Cloud Subscription ARR is a subset of our overall Subscription ARR, and by providing this breakdown of Cloud Subscription ARR, it provides visibility on the size and growth rate of our Cloud Subscription ARR within our overall Subscription ARR. Cloud Subscription ARR should be viewed independently of subscription revenue and deferred revenue related to our subscription contracts and is not intended to be combined with or to replace either of those items.
Subscription Net Retention Rate
Subscription Net Retention Rate (“Subscription NRR”) compares the contract value for Subscription ARR from the same set of customers at the end of a period compared to the prior year. We treat divisions, segments or subsidiaries inside companies as separate customers when defining the End-user level. To calculate our Subscription NRR for a particular period, we first establish the Subscription ARR value at the end of the prior year period. We subsequently measure the Subscription ARR value at the end of the current period from the same cohort of customers. The net retention rate is then calculated by dividing the aggregate Subscription ARR in the current period by the prior year period. An increase in the Subscription NRR occurs as a result of price increases on existing contracts, higher consumption of existing products, and sales of additional new subscription products to existing customers exceeding losses from subscription contracts due to price decreases, usage decreases and cancellations. Our Cloud Subscription Net Retention Rate continues to outpace total Subscription NRR as self-managed subscription customers are moving to cloud offerings which is net neutral to Subscription NRR but will be additive to Cloud NRR for the same cohort of customers. We believe Subscription NRR is an important metric for understanding our business since it measures the rate at which we are able to sell additional products into our subscription customer base.
- 68 -

Cloud Subscription Net Retention Rate
Cloud Subscription Net Retention Rate ("Cloud Subscription NRR") compares the contract value for Cloud Subscription ARR from the same set of customers at the end of a period compared to the prior year. We treat divisions, segments or subsidiaries inside companies as separate customers when defining the End-user level. We treat divisions, segments, or subsidiaries of a company as one customer when defining the Global Parent level. Global Parent customers are determined using Dun & Bradstreet GDUNS identifiers. To calculate our Cloud Subscription NRR for a particular period, we first establish the Cloud Subscription ARR value at the end of the prior year period. We subsequently measure the Cloud Subscription ARR value at the end of the current period from the same cohort of customers. Cloud Subscription NRR is then calculated by dividing the aggregate Cloud Subscription ARR in the current period by the prior year period. An increase in the Cloud Subscription NRR occurs as a result of price increases on existing contracts, higher consumption of existing products, and sales of additional new subscription products to existing customers exceeding losses from subscription contracts due to price decreases, usage decreases and cancellations. We believe Cloud Subscription NRR is an important metric for understanding our business since it measures the rate at which we are able to sell additional products into our cloud subscription customer base.
Non-GAAP Financial Measures
In addition to our results determined in accordance with GAAP in the United States, we believe the following non-GAAP measure is useful in evaluating our operating performance. We use the following non-GAAP financial information to evaluate our ongoing operations and for internal planning and forecasting purposes. We believe that non-GAAP financial information, when taken collectively, may be helpful to investors because it provides consistency and comparability with past financial performance. However, non-GAAP financial information is presented for supplemental informational purposes only, has limitations as an analytical tool and should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for financial information presented in accordance with GAAP. In addition, other companies, including companies in our industry, may calculate similarly titled non-GAAP measures differently or may use other measures to evaluate their performance, all of which could reduce the usefulness of our non-GAAP financial measure as tools for comparison. A reconciliation is provided below for our non-GAAP financial measure to the most directly comparable financial measure stated in accordance with GAAP. Investors are encouraged to review the related GAAP financial measures and the reconciliation of this non-GAAP financial measure to its most directly comparable GAAP financial measure, and not to rely on any single financial measure to evaluate our business.

 
- 69 -

Adjusted EBITDA
We define adjusted EBITDA as GAAP net loss as adjusted for income tax benefit (expense), interest income, interest expense, loss on debt refinancing, other income (expense) net, stock-based compensation, amortization of intangibles, equity compensation related payments, restructuring, acquisition costs, sponsor-related costs and depreciation.
Year Ended December 31,
202320222021
(in thousands)
GAAP net loss
$(125,283)$(53,675)$(99,929)
Income tax expense
48,111 19,478 24,039 
Interest income
(39,686)(9,224)(1,213)
Interest expense
151,396 78,020 132,439 
Loss on debt refinancing
— — 30,882 
Other income, net
(975)(8,996)(26,312)
Stock-based compensation
218,099 135,862 45,017 
Amortization of intangibles
149,280 188,825 245,895 
Equity compensation
— 332 (10)
Restructuring
59,755 — 128 
Acquisition costs
1,584 — — 
Sponsor-related costs
— — 1,644 
Depreciation
17,083 21,007 24,839 
Adjusted EBITDA
$479,364 $371,629 $377,419 
We believe adjusted EBITDA is an important metric for understanding our business to assess our relative profitability adjusted for balance sheet debt levels.
Components of Results of Operations
Software Revenues
Subscription Revenues.    Subscription revenues consist of revenues from customers from cloud subscription, self-managed subscription licenses, and self-managed subscription support and other. Revenues from our cloud subscription are recognized over time on a ratable basis over the contract term beginning on the date that the service is made available to the customer or on the date the contractual term commences, if later. The Company’s cloud subscription include cloud functionalities and, for most products, also a secure agent that is installed on a customer’s premises. The secure agent performs tasks and enables secure communication behind a customer’s firewall with the cloud functionalities. For these products, customers are not able to use either the cloud functionalities or secure agent for their intended purpose on their own without use of the other component. The cloud functionalities and secure agent are accounted for together as a single performance obligation because we have concluded that the cloud functionalities and secure agent are highly interdependent and interrelated based on the significant two-way dependency between the components. The majority of the revenues expected over the term of our self-managed subscription licenses is recognized at a point in time upon transfer of control of the license to the customer. Support and other services sold with self-managed subscription licenses are recognized over time on a ratable basis over the contract term beginning on the date the service is made available to the customer. In general, new subscription contracts are typically one to three years in length, with an average contract duration of approximately two years. Our subscription software fees are typically billed annually in advance in equal installments across the term of the contracts for both cloud and self-managed subscriptions.
Perpetual License Revenues.    Perpetual license revenues are revenues from customers and partners for sales of our software under on-premises perpetual licenses. Revenue from our perpetual license products is generally recognized at a point in time upon transfer of control of the license to the customer, which is typically upon making the software available to our customers. We expect revenue from perpetual licenses to be less than 1% of total revenues going forward, as we focus the majority of our product development spending on pure cloud subscription offerings and our go-to-market efforts on subscription-based licensing for software sales.
- 70 -

Service Revenues
Maintenance Revenues.    Maintenance revenue, which consists of fees for ongoing support and product updates mainly for our previously sold perpetual licenses, is recognized ratably over the term of the contract, typically one year. Maintenance contracts are generally billed annually in advance. We expect our maintenance revenues to gradually decrease over time as we have ceased actively selling new perpetual licenses and our customers are expected to transition over time to our subscription-based licensing model and adopt our cloud subscription offerings.
Professional Services Revenues.    Professional services revenues consist of non-recurring fees associated with implementation, education, and consulting services related to our software products. Consulting revenues are primarily related to configuration, installation, and implementation of our products. These services are generally performed on a time-and-materials basis and, accordingly, revenues are recognized as the services are performed. Consulting services, if included as part of the software arrangement, generally do not entail significant modification or customization of the software and hence, such services are not considered essential to the functionality of the software. Education service revenues are generated from classes offered at our headquarters, sales and training offices, customer locations, and on-line. Revenues are recognized as the classes are delivered or when the subscription period ends. We expect professional services revenues to decrease slightly in 2024.
Cost of Revenues
Cost of Software Revenues.    Our cost of software revenues is a combination of costs of subscription revenues and perpetual licenses. Cost of subscription revenues consists primarily of fees paid to third-party vendors for cloud services related to our subscription services, fees paid to third parties for software used by us to deliver, monitor and secure our subscription products, internal personnel-related expenses, including stock-based compensation, to operate and secure our hosting infrastructure; royalties paid to postal authorities for address data and other vendors that provide content for our data-as-a-service offerings. In addition, these expenses include costs which are personnel-related expenses from our IT, Facilities and Procurement functions and expenses related to occupancy and enterprise systems allocated based on headcount (“Shared Costs”). Cost of perpetual license revenues consists primarily of software royalties payable to third parties.
Cost of Maintenance and Professional Services Revenues.    Our cost of service revenues is a combination of costs of maintenance, consulting and education services revenues. Our cost of maintenance revenues consists primarily of costs associated with customer service personnel-related expenses, including stock-based compensation, and royalty fees for maintenance related to third-party software providers. Cost of consulting revenues consists primarily of personnel-related expenses, including employee costs, stock-based compensation, subcontractor costs and travel, entertainment, Shared Costs, and other expenses. Cost of education services revenues consists primarily of the costs of providing education classes and materials at our headquarters, sales and training offices and customer locations.
Amortization of Acquired Technology.    Amortization of acquired technology is the amortization of technologies recorded primarily as a result of the 2015 transaction where the Company was taken private by our Sponsors (the “2015 Privatization Transaction”) and, to a lesser extent, from business acquisitions and acquired technology licenses.
Operating Expenses
Research and Development
Our research and development expenses consist primarily of salaries and other personnel-related expenses, including stock-based compensation, outside services, travel expenses, Shared Costs, software expenses associated with the development of new products, enhancement and localization of existing products, and quality assurance and development of documentation for our products. All software development costs for software intended to be marketed to customers have been expensed in the period incurred since the costs incurred subsequent to the establishment of technological feasibility have not been significant. With our cloud-only, consumption-driven strategy, we intend to further focus our research and development efforts on our cloud subscription offerings. We expect this to lead to cost savings in research and development expense as a percentage of total revenues.
- 71 -

Sales and Marketing
Our sales and marketing expenses consist primarily of personnel-related expenses, including commissions and bonuses, as well as stock-based compensation, costs of public relations, seminars, marketing programs, lead generation, travel and entertainment, trade shows, software expenses, outside services and Shared Costs. With our cloud-only, consumption-driven strategy, we intend to further focus our go-to-market efforts on our cloud subscription offerings. We expect this to lead to cost savings in sales and marketing expense as a percentage of total revenues.
General and Administrative    
Our general and administrative expenses consist primarily of personnel-related expenses, including stock-based compensation, for finance, human resources, legal, and general management, as well as professional service expenses associated with recruiting, legal, tax and accounting services, travel expenses and Shared Costs. We expect our general and administrative expenses to continue to increase in absolute dollars for the foreseeable future but may vary as a percentage of total revenues.
Amortization of Intangible Assets
Amortization of intangible assets is the amortization of customer relationships, and trade names and trademarks recorded as a result of the 2015 Privatization Transaction and, to a lesser extent, acquired through business acquisitions.
Restructuring
Restructuring charges include our reorganization activities. On January 10, 2023, we announced a plan to reduce our workforce by approximately 450 employees, representing approximately 7% of the global workforce, and a closure of an office in Israel (the “January Plan”). On November 1, 2023, we announced a plan to reduce our workforce by approximately 500 employees, representing approximately 10% of our current global workforce, and reduce our global real estate footprint (the “November Plan”).
Interest Income (Expense) and Other Income, Net
Interest income (expense) and other income, net consists primarily of interest expense, interest income earned on our cash, cash equivalents, investments, mark-to-market gains and losses on interest rate swaps, unrealized foreign exchange gain and loss on monetary assets and liabilities, foreign exchange transaction gains and losses and rental income.
Income Taxes
We use the liability method of accounting for income taxes in accordance with ASC 740, Income Taxes. Under this method, income tax expense or benefit is recognized for the amount of taxes payable or refundable for the current year. In addition, deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been recognized in the Company’s consolidated financial statements or tax returns. The measurement of current and deferred tax assets and liabilities is based on provisions of currently enacted tax laws. We evaluate the realization of deferred tax assets based on all available evidence and establish a valuation allowance to reduce deferred tax assets when it is more likely than not that they will not be realized.

 
- 72 -

Results of Operations
The following table sets forth our consolidated statement of operations data for the periods indicated (in thousands):

Year Ended December 31,
202320222021
Revenues:
Subscriptions
$1,003,484 $857,163 $747,672 
Perpetual license
3,307 10,397 29,269 
Software revenue
1,006,791 867,560 776,941 
Maintenance and professional services
588,369 637,558 667,114 
Total revenues
1,595,160 1,505,118 1,444,055 
Cost of revenues:
Subscriptions
157,229 105,387 81,266 
Perpetual license
787 636 4,452 
Software costs
158,016 106,023 85,718 
Maintenance and professional services
168,513 202,126 172,820 
Amortization of acquired technology
11,766 35,354 73,461 
Total cost of revenues
338,295 343,503 331,999 
Gross profit
1,256,865 1,161,615 1,112,056 
Operating expenses:
Research and development
335,072 318,769 260,660 
Sales and marketing
528,253 535,680 496,816 
General and administrative
162,708 128,092 122,240 
Amortization of intangible assets
137,514 153,471 172,434 
Restructuring
59,755 — — 
Total operating expenses
1,223,302 1,136,012 1,052,150 
Income from operations
33,563 25,603 59,906 
Interest income
39,686 9,224 1,213 
Interest expense
(151,396)(78,020)(132,439)
Loss on debt refinancing
— — (30,882)
Other income, net
975 8,996 26,312 
Loss before income taxes
(77,172)(34,197)(75,890)
Income tax expense
48,111 19,478 24,039 
Net loss
$(125,283)$(53,675)$(99,929)

 
- 73 -

The following table presents certain financial data for the periods indicated as a percentage of total revenues:

Year Ended December 31,
202320222021
Revenues:
Subscriptions
63 %57 %52 %
Perpetual license
— 
Software revenue
63 58 54 
Maintenance and professional services
37 42 46 
Total revenues
100 100 100 
Cost of revenues:
Subscriptions
10 
Perpetual license
— — — 
Software costs
10 
Maintenance and professional services
10 14 12 
Amortization of acquired technology
Total cost of revenues
21 23 23 
Gross profit
79 77 77 
Operating expenses:
Research and development
21 21 18 
Sales and marketing
33 36 34 
General and administrative
10 
Amortization of intangible assets
12 
Restructuring— — 
Total operating expenses
77 75 73 
Income from operations
Interest income
— 
Interest expense
(9)(4)(9)
Loss on debt refinancing
— — (2)
Other income, net
— 
Loss before income taxes
(5)(2)(5)
Income tax expense
Net loss
(8)%(4)%(7)%

 

Comparison of Fiscal Years Ended December 31, 2023 and 2022
Revenues
The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, our revenues (in thousands, except percentages):

Year Ended December 31,
Percent
Change
20232022
Cloud subscription
$499,922 $359,380 39 %
Self-managed subscription license
298,048 294,671 %
Self-managed subscription support and other
205,514 203,112 %
Subscriptions
1,003,484 857,163 17 %
Perpetual license
3,307 10,397 (68)%
Total software revenues
1,006,791 867,560 16 %
Maintenance
495,968 519,996 (5)%
Professional services
92,401 117,562 (21)%
Total maintenance and professional services revenues
588,369 637,558 (8)%
Total revenues
$1,595,160 $1,505,118 %
- 74 -

Total revenues increased by 6% to $1,595.2 million during the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to $1,505.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2022, primarily due to a 39% increase in cloud subscription revenues, which represents 31% of total revenues for the year ended December 31, 2023.
Software Revenues
Our subscription revenues increased to $1,003.5 million (or 63% of total revenues) for the year ended December 31, 2023 from $857.2 million (or 57% of total revenues) for the year ended December 31, 2022. The increase in subscription revenues of $146.3 million (or 17%) for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the year ended December 31, 2022 was due to an increase in our cloud subscription customers and continued expansion within existing customers.
Our cloud subscription revenues increased to $499.9 million (or 31% of total revenues) for the year ended December 31, 2023 from $359.4 million (or 24% of total revenues) for the year ended December 31, 2022. The increase in cloud services revenues of $140.5 million (or 39%) for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the year ended December 31, 2022 was due to an increase in our cloud subscription customers and continued expansion within existing customers.
Our self-managed subscription license revenues increased slightly to $298.0 million (or 19% of total revenues) for the year ended December 31, 2023 from $294.7 million (or 20% of total revenues) for the year ended December 31, 2022.
Our self-managed subscription support and other revenues increased to $205.5 million (or 13% of total revenues) for the year ended December 31, 2023 from $203.1 million (or 13% of total revenues) for the year ended December 31, 2022.
We expect subscription revenues to account for substantially all of our software revenues going forward due to our ceasing of active selling of perpetual licenses. Additionally, we continue to expect a shift in the mix of our subscription revenues, with the cloud subscription revenues increasing as a percentage of total subscription revenues driven by our cloud only, consumption driven strategy.
Our perpetual license revenues decreased to $3.3 million (less than 1% of total revenues) for the year ended December 31, 2023 from $10.4 million (or 1% of total revenues) for the year ended December 31, 2022. The decrease in perpetual license revenues of $7.1 million (or 68%) for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the year ended December 31, 2022 was due to the cessation of active selling of perpetual licenses.
We expect perpetual license revenues to continue to remain immaterial as compared to total software revenues in future periods.
Maintenance and Professional Services Revenues
Maintenance revenues decreased to $496.0 million (or 31% of total revenues) for the year ended December 31, 2023 from $520.0 million (or 35% of total revenues) for the year ended December 31, 2022. The decrease of $24.0 million (or 5%) for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the year ended December 31, 2022 was due to non-renewals, declining sales of perpetual licenses and an unfavorable foreign currency impact partially offset by price uplifts upon renewal. We expect maintenance revenues to continue to decrease gradually in dollar value and as a percentage of total revenue due to the cessation of active sales of perpetual licenses.
Professional services revenues decreased to $92.4 million (or 6% of total revenues) for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to $117.6 million (or 8% of total revenues) for the year ended December 31, 2022. The decrease of $25.2 million (or 21%) in professional services revenues for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the year ended December 31, 2022 was primarily driven by a decrease in demand for our implementation and other consulting offerings. The decrease in demand for our implementation and other consulting offerings is due to our strategy to have third party providers perform an increasing share of our customers' implementation work.
- 75 -

Cost of Revenues
The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, our cost of revenues (in thousands, except percentages):

Year Ended December 31,
Percent
Change
20232022
Cost of software revenues
$158,016 $106,023 49 %
Cost of maintenance and professional service revenues
168,513 202,126 (17)%
Amortization of acquired technology
11,766 35,354 (67)%
Total cost of revenues
$338,295 $343,503 (2)%
Cost of software revenues, as a percentage of software revenues
16 %12 %
Cost of maintenance and professional services revenues, as a percentage of maintenance and professional service revenues
29 %32 %
Cost of Software Revenues

Cost of software revenues increased to $158.0 million (or 16% of software revenues) for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to $106.0 million (or 12% of software revenues) for the year ended December 31, 2022. The increase of $52.0 million (or 49%) for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the year ended December 31, 2022 was primarily due to a $35.5 million increase in personnel-related expenses driven by $7.4 million higher stock-based compensation, in addition to continuing to scale up our hosted infrastructure support teams, a $8.1 million increase in fees paid to third party vendors for hosting services related to our subscription services, a $4.3 million increase in Shared Costs related to occupancy and enterprise systems allocated based on headcount, a $2.3 million increase in outside consulting and other expenses, and a $1.8 million increase in royalty fees.
Cost of Maintenance and Professional Services Revenues
Cost of maintenance and professional services revenues decreased to $168.5 million (or 29% of maintenance and professional services revenues) for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to $202.1 million (or 32% of maintenance and professional services revenues) for the year ended December 31, 2022. The decrease of $33.6 million (or 17%) during the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the year ended December 31, 2022 was primarily due to an $22.2 million decrease in personnel-related expenses, a $6.0 million decrease in outside consulting expense, a $3.0 million decrease in Shared Costs related to occupancy and enterprise systems allocated based on headcount, a $1.6 million decrease in software expenses, and a $0.8 million decrease in costs related to hosting and other expenses.
Amortization of Acquired Technology
Amortization of acquired technology decreased to $11.8 million (or 1% of total revenues) for the year ended December 31, 2023 from $35.4 million (or 2% of total revenues) for the year ended December 31, 2022. The decrease of $23.6 million (or 67%) for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the year ended December 31, 2022 was primarily due to a decrease in the amortization of acquired technology primarily from the 2015 Privatization Transaction, as components of the technology become fully amortized.
Operating Expenses
Research and Development
The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, our research and development expenses (in thousands, except percentages):

Year Ended December 31,
Percent
Change
20232022
Research and development
$335,072 $318,769 %
Research and development expenses increased to $335.1 million (or 21% of total revenues) for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to $318.8 million (or 21% of total revenues) for the year ended December 31,
- 76 -

2022. The increase of $16.3 million (or 5%) during the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the year ended December 31, 2022 was primarily due to a $18.0 million net increase in personnel-related expenses, mainly driven by $23.0 million higher stock-based compensation expense which was partially offset by savings from a decrease in headcount. The increase was partially offset by a $1.7 million decrease in Shared Costs and other expenses.

 
Sales and Marketing
The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, our sales and marketing expenses (in thousands, except percentages):

Year Ended December 31,
Percent
Change
20232022
Sales and marketing
$528,253 $535,680 (1)%
Sales and marketing expenses decreased to $528.3 million (or 33% of total revenues) during the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to $535.7 million (or 36% of total revenues) during the year ended December 31, 2022. The decrease of $7.4 million (or 1%) for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the year ended December 31, 2022 was primarily due to a $5.8 million net decrease in personnel-related expenses mainly driven by savings from a decrease in headcount which was partially offset by a $22.3 million increase in stock-based compensation, a $5.0 million decrease in marketing expenses, a $1.4 million decrease in Shared Costs, a $0.9 million decrease in equipment and software expense, and a $0.4 million decrease in outside services. These decreases were partially offset by a $6.1 million increase in travel expense.

General and Administrative
The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, our general and administrative expenses (in thousands, except percentages):

Year Ended December 31,
Percent
Change
20232022
General and administrative
$162,708 $128,092 27 %
General and administrative expenses increased to $162.7 million (or 10% of total revenues) during the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to $128.1 million (or 9% of total revenues) during the year ended December 31, 2022. The increase of 34.6 million (or 27%) was primarily due to a $34.0 million increase in personnel-related expenses mainly driven by a $23.9 million increase in stock-based compensation, a $0.7 million increase in outside services, and a $0.6 million increase in Shared Costs and other expenses; partially offset by a $0.4 million decrease in bad debt expense, and a $0.3 million decrease in other administrative expenses.
Other Operating Expenses
The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, our amortization of intangible assets and restructuring (in thousands, except percentages):

Year Ended December 31,
Percent
Change
20232022
Amortization of intangible assets
$137,514 $153,471 (10)%
Restructuring
59,755 — 100 %
Amortization of intangible assets decreased to $137.5 million (or 9% of total revenues) during the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to $153.5 million (or 10% of total revenues) during the year ended December 31, 2022. The decrease of $16.0 million (or 10%) for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the year ended December 31, 2022 was due to a decrease in the amortization of our intangible assets primarily from the 2015 Privatization Transaction, as the components of the intangible assets become fully amortized.
Restructuring costs increased to $59.8 million (or 4% of total revenues) during the year ended December 31, 2023. The increase of $59.8 million (or 100%) in restructuring costs for the year ended December 31,
- 77 -

2023 compared to the year ended December 31, 2022 was a result of the January Plan and November Plan. Refer to Note 12. Restructuring in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for details.
Interest and Other (Expense), Net
The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, our interest and other expense, net (in thousands, except percentages):

Year Ended December 31,
Percent
Change
20232022
Interest income
$39,686 $9,224 330 %
Interest expense(151,396)(78,020)94 %
Other income, net
975 8,996 (89)%
Interest and other (expense), net
$(110,735)$(59,800)85 %
The decrease in interest and other income (expense), net, of $50.9 million (or 85%) for the year ended December 31, 2023 compa