As filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission on October 12, 2021.

Registration No. 333-        

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549

_____________________

AMENDMENT NO. 1
TO
FORM S-1
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

_____________________

Allarity Therapeutics, Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

_____________________

Delaware

 

2834

 

20-5871008

(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)

 

(Primary Standard Industrial
Classification Code Number)

 

(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)

210 Broadway, Suite 201
Cambridge, MA 02139
Telephone: (401) 426
-4664
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)

_____________________

Steve Carchedi
c/o Allarity Therapeutics, Inc.
210 Broadway, Suite 201
Cambridge, MA 02139
Telephone: (401) 426
-4664
(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

_____________________

Copies to:

Scott E. Bartel
Lewis Brisbois Bisgaard & Smith LLP
633 West 5
th Street, Suite 4000
Los Angeles, CA 90071
(213) 358
-6174

 

Michael A. Adelstein

Kelley Drye & Warren LLP

3 World Trade Center

175 Greenwich Street

New York, NY 10007

(212) 808-7540

_____________________

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public:

As soon as practicable after this Registration Statement is declared effective.

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, check the following box. 

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer

 

 

Accelerated filer

 

Non-accelerated filer

 

 

Smaller reporting company

 

       

Emerging growth company

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act. 

 

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CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

Title of Each Class of Securities To Be Registered

 

Amount
to be
Registered
(1)

 

Proposed
Maximum
Aggregate
Offering
Price Per
Security

 

Proposed
Maximum
Aggregate
Offering
Price
(3)

 

Amount of
Registration
Fee
(4)

Common Stock, $0.0001 par value per share, issuable upon conversion of Series A Preferred Stock and exercise of the PIPE Warrant

 

13,964,057(2)

 

$

9.50(3)

 

$

132,658,541.50

 

$

14,473.05

 

Total

     

 

   

$

132,658,541.50

 

$

14,473.05

(5)

____________

(1)      In the event of a stock split, stock dividend or other similar transaction involving the registrant’s common stock (“Common Stock”), in order to prevent dilution, the number of shares of Common Stock registered hereby shall be automatically increased to cover the additional shares of Common Stock in accordance with Rule 416(a) under the Securities Act.

(2)      Consists of the maximum number of shares issuable upon conversion of Allarity’s Series A Preferred Stock using an estimate floor conversion price of twenty percent (20%) of an estimated fixed conversion price of $8.86 and the maximum number of shares issuable upon the exercise of the PIPE Warrant with an estimated exercise price of $7.47 per share.

(3)     Estimated solely for the purpose of calculating the registration fee and computed pursuant to Rule 457(g) and Rule 457(c)(f)(1) under the Securities Act, the per share offering price of Allarity common stock was calculated as follows: (1) $0.19, which represents the average high and low sales price of Allarity Therapeutics A/S ordinary share as reported on the Nasdaq First North Growth Market in Stockholm, Sweden on September 9, 2021 times (ii) 50 which represent the proposed exchange ratio of 0.02 shares of Allarity common stock for each Allarity Therapeutics A/S ordinary share to be issued in the proposed Recapitalization Share Exchange that is the subject of the Registrant’s Form S-4 registration statement (SEC File No. 333-258968).

(4)      The registration fee has been calculated pursuant to Rule 457 under the Securities Act.

(5)      Previously paid.

The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until the registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

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The information in this preliminary prospectus is not complete and may be changed. These securities may not be sold until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities nor does it seek an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

Subject to Completion, Dated October 12, 2021

PRELIMINARY PROSPECTUS

Up to 12,618,590 Shares of Common Stock

This prospectus relates to the offer and sale from time to time by 3i, LP, a Delaware limited partnership (“3i, LP”), or their permitted transferees that may be identified in this prospectus by prospectus supplement (the “selling stockholders”) of

•        up to 12,618,590 shares of Common Stock consisting of:

•        up to 2,018,958 shares of Common Stock issued upon conversion of 20,000 share of our Series A Preferred Stock originally issued in a private placement to 3i LP based upon an initial conversion price $9.906;

•        up to 2,018,958 shares of Common Stock issuable upon exercise of the PIPE Warrant based upon an exercise price of $9.906; and

•        up to 8,580,674 additional shares of Common Stock that may be issuable upon conversion of our Preferred Stock using the alternative conversion price in the event that the five (5) day volume weighed average price (“VWAP”) of our Common Stock is less than the initial conversion price or if our average daily U.S. Dollar volume of our Common Stock is less than $2 million based using the Floor Price. See, Description of Our Capital Stock — The Series A Preferred Stock to be issued in the PIPE Investment. This amount also includes 505,740 shares allocated to the exercise of the PIPE Warrants to comply with our obligation to register 125% of the number of shares of our Common Stock issuable upon the exercise of the PIPE Warrant.

We are registering the shares of Common Stock covered by this prospectus under the terms of a registration rights agreement between us and 3i, LP. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares of Common Stock offered for resale by the selling stockholders, although we may receive up to $20 million in gross proceeds if the selling stockholders exercise the PIPE Warrant in full.

Although the total number of shares of Common Stock that may be offered for resale by the selling stockholders covered by this prospectus will not change, the actual number of shares of Common Stock that may be issued to the selling stockholders and offered for resale will be determined first by a fixed conversion price of our Series A Preferred Stock and the exercise price of the PIPE Warrant that will be calculated upon consummation of our Recapitalization Share Exchange by dividing $80 million by the actual number of shares of our Common Stock issued in our Recapitalization Share Exchange. As of the date of this prospectus, the initial fixed conversion price of our Series A Preferred Stock and the exercise price of the PIPE Warrant is estimated to be $9.906. Prior to requesting acceleration of the effectiveness of the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part being, this prospectus will be amended to reflect the final fixed conversion price of our Series A Preferred Stock and the exercise price of the PIPE Warrant.

The selling stockholders may offer, sell or distribute all or a portion of the securities hereby registered publicly or through private transactions at prevailing market prices or at negotiated prices. We will bear all costs, expenses and fees in connection with the registration of these securities, including with regard to compliance with state securities or “blue sky” laws. The selling stockholders will bear all commissions and discounts, if any, attributable to their sale of shares of Common Stock. See the section titled “Plan of Distribution.

We have filed an application to have our common stock listed on The Nasdaq Capital Market (“Nasdaq”) under the symbol “ALLR” . The common stock offered for resale by the selling stockholders that is covered by this prospectus will not be offered or sold unless and until our shares of common stock have been accepted for listing on Nasdaq.

We are an “emerging growth company” and a “smaller reporting company” as defined under U.S. federal securities laws and, as such, have elected to comply with reduced public company reporting requirements. This prospectus complies with the requirements that apply to an issuer that is an emerging growth company and a smaller reporting company. We are incorporated in Delaware.

___________________

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should review carefully the risks and uncertainties described in the section titled “Risk Factors” beginning on page 12 of this prospectus, and under similar headings in any amendments or supplements to this prospectus.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities, or passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

__________________

Prospectus dated             , 2021

 

Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Page

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

 

1

FREQUENTLY USED TERMS

 

2

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

 

3

Overview

 

3

Background to Our Recapitalization Share Exchange

 

6

The Private Placement (PIPE Financing)

 

6

Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company and a Smaller Reporting Company

 

7

Summary of Risk Factors

 

8

Corporate Information

 

9

The Offering

 

11

RISK FACTORS

 

12

Risks Related to Financial Position and Need for Capital

 

12

Risks Related to the Discovery and Development of Our Therapeutic Candidates

 

16

Risks Related to the Approval and Commercialization of Our Therapeutic Candidates

 

31

Risks Related to Our Reliance on Third Parties

 

41

Risks Related to Our Business and Industry

 

44

Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property

 

50

General Risk Factors Related to Owning our Common Stock and this Offering

 

56

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

66

MARKET AND INDUSTRY DATA

 

68

USE OF PROCEEDS

 

69

DETERMINATION OF OFFERING PRICE

 

70

MARKET INFORMATION FOR OUR SECURITIES AND DIVIDEND POLICY

 

71

SELECTED HISTORICAL FINANCIAL INFORMATION

 

72

COMPARATIVE PER SHARE DATA

 

73

MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

74

BUSINESS

 

84

Overview

 

84

Companion Diagnostics

 

91

Priority Therapeutic Programs

 

97

Secondary Therapeutic Programs

 

139

Intellectual Property

 

162

License Agreement with Novartis for Dovitinib

 

165

License Agreement with Eisai for Stenoparib

 

166

Development, Option and License Agreement with R-Pharma for IXEMPRA®

 

167

Drug License and Development Agreement for Irofulven

 

167

Asset Purchase Agreement with Lantern Pharma, Inc. for Irofulven

 

168

Out-License Agreement with SMERUD

 

169

Manufacturing and Supply

 

169

Commercialization

 

170

Competition

 

170

Government Regulation

 

171

Facilities

 

184

Human Capital

 

184

Legal Proceedings

 

184

MANAGEMENT

 

185

Directors and Executive Officers

 

185

Involvement in Certain Legal Proceedings

 

187

Executive Compensation and Director Compensation

 

188

Summary Compensation Table

 

188

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Page

Outstanding Equity Awards as of December 31, 2020

 

189

Pension Benefits

 

189

Nonqualified Deferred Compensation

 

189

Service Agreements

 

189

Stock Options

 

190

Employee Benefit Plans

 

191

2021 Equity Incentive Plan

 

191

2020 Non-Employee Director Compensation

 

194

Emerging Growth Company Status

 

195

Executive Compensation Following our Recapitalization Share Exchange

 

195

Family Relationships and Arrangements

 

195

Board Composition, Committees, and Independence

 

195

Director Independence

 

195

Role of our Board of Directors in Risk Oversight

 

196

Board Committees

 

196

Executive and Director Compensation after our Recapitalization Share Exchange

 

200

Limitation on Liability and Indemnification of Directors and Officers

 

201

Code of Business Conduct and Ethics for Employees, Executive Officers, and Directors

 

201

CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS

 

202

SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT

 

204

SELLING STOCKHOLDERS

 

206

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

 

208

DESCRIPTION OF OUR CAPITAL STOCK

 

210

Common Stock

 

210

Preferred Stock

 

210

The Series A Convertible Preferred Stock to be issued in the PIPE Investment

 

211

Dividends

 

212

Annual Shareholder Meetings

 

212

Dissenters’ Rights of Appraisal and Payment

 

213

Shareholders’ Derivative Actions

 

213

Exclusive Forum

 

213

Limitations on Liability and Indemnification of Officers and Directors

 

213

EXPERTS

 

214

CHANGE IN REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

 

215

LEGAL MATTERS

 

216

WHERE YOU CAN FIND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

 

216

INDEX TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

F-1

You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus, any supplement to this prospectus or in any free writing prospectus, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). Neither we nor the selling stockholders have authorized anyone to provide you with additional information or information different from that contained in this prospectus filed with the SEC. We take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. The selling stockholders are offering to sell, and seeking offers to buy, our securities only in jurisdictions where offers and sales are permitted. The information contained in this prospectus is accurate only as of the date of this prospectus, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any sale of our securities. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since that date.

For investors outside of the United States: Neither we nor the selling stockholders, have done anything that would permit this offering or possession or distribution of this prospectus in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required, other than in the United States. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus must inform themselves about, and observe any restrictions relating to, the offering of our securities and the distribution of this prospectus outside the United States.

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement on Form S-1 that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) using the “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, the selling stockholders may, from time to time, sell the securities offered by them described in this prospectus. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale by such selling stockholders of the securities offered by them described in this prospectus. This prospectus also relates to the resale by the selling stockholders of shares of Common Stock issuable upon the exercise of the PIPE Warrant. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares of Common Stock underlying the PIPE Warrant pursuant to this prospectus, except with respect to amounts received by us upon the exercise of the PIPE Warrant for cash.

Neither we nor the selling stockholders have authorized anyone to provide you with any information or to make any representations other than those contained in this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement or any free writing prospectuses prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. Neither we nor the selling stockholders take responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. Neither we nor the selling stockholders will make an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

We may also provide a prospectus supplement or post-effective amendment to the registration statement to add information to, or update or change information contained in, this prospectus. You should read both this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement or post-effective amendment to the registration statement together with the additional information to which we refer you in the sections of this prospectus titled “Where You Can Find More Information.

On May 20, 2021, we entered a Plan of Reorganization and Asset Purchase Agreement (the “Recapitalization Share Exchange”), which was amended and restated on September 23, 2021, between us, Allarity Acquisition Subsidiary, our wholly owned Delaware subsidiary (“Acquisition Sub”), and Allarity Therapeutics A/S, an Aktieselskab organized under the laws of Denmark, subject the approval of the Recapitalization Share Exchange at an Extraordinary General Meeting of the shareholders of Allarity Therapeutics A/S to be held on or about October 22, 2021. Pursuant to the terms of the Recapitalization Share Exchange, our Acquisition Sub will acquire substantially all of the assets and liabilities of Allarity Therapeutics A/S in exchange for shares of our common stock pursuant to a Form S-4 registration statement (SEC Reg. No. 333-258968) which was filed with SEC on August 20, 2021. Because we were formed as a “business combination related shell company” as defined in SEC Rule 405, and have not had any significant business activity other than activity related to the consummation of the Recapitalization Share Exchange, only the financial statements of our parent Allarity Therapeutics A/S are required to be included in this prospectus. Consequently, as of the date of this prospectus, the financial statements and other financial information, as well as the description of our business reflect the financial statements and other financial information and business operations of our parent Allarity Therapeutics A/S.

Unless the context indicates otherwise, references in this prospectus to the “Company,” “Allarity,” “we,” “us,” “our” and similar terms refer to Allarity Therapeutics, Inc., Allarity Therapeutics A/S and its respective consolidated subsidiaries.

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FREQUENTLY USED TERMS

3i, LP” means 3i, LP, a Delaware limited liability company.

Acquisition Sub” means Allarity Acquisition Subsidiary, Inc., a Delaware corporation and wholly owned subsidiary of Allarity Therapeutics, Inc., a Delaware corporation.

Allarity” means Allarity Therapeutics, Inc., a Delaware corporation and its consolidated subsidiaries, including Allarity Therapeutics A/S.

Allarity A/S” means Allarity Therapeutics A/S, an Aktieselskab organized under the laws of Denmark , prior to the consummation of the Recapitalization Share Exchange.

Allarity Common Stock” or “Common Stock means common stock of Allarity Therapeutics, Inc., a Delaware corporation, $0.0001 par value.

Closing” means the closing of the Recapitalization Share Exchange and concurrently the PIPE Financing.

Closing Date” means the date on which the Closing occurred.

Code” means the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended.

Effective Time” means the time at which the Recapitalization Share Exchange became effective pursuant to its terms.

Floor Price” means a price equal to 20% of the original fixed conversion price of the Preferred Stock.

PIPE Financing” or “PIPE Investment” refers to the sale of 20,000 shares of Series A Preferred Stock in a private placement concurrent with the Recapitalization Share Exchange, pursuant to a Securities Purchase Agreements with 3i LP pursuant to which the 3i, LP agreed to purchased 20,000 shares of Series A Preferred Stock at a purchase price of $1000.00 per share for an aggregate purchase of $20 million and the issuance of the PIPE Warrant with an aggregate exercise price of $20 million.

PIPE Warrant” means the warrant issued in the PIPE Financing to 3i, LP for the purchase of up to $20 million worth of shares of our Common Stock at an exercise price equal to the fixed conversion price of our Preferred Stock expiring three (3) years from the Closing Date.

Preferred Stock” means the Series A Preferred Stock of Allarity Therapeutics, Inc., a Delaware corporation, $0.0001 par value, issued to 3i, LP in the PIPE Financing.

Private Placement” means the private placement of 20,000 shares of Series A Preferred Stock and the PIPE Warrant consummated by the Securities Purchase Agreements with 3i LP.

Securities Purchase Agreement or “SPA” means the Securities Purchase Agreement with 3i, LP, a Delaware limited partnership, for the sale of 20,000 shares of Series A Preferred Stock for an aggregate purchase price of $20 million and the issuance of the PIPE warrant.

Selling Security Holders” means 3i, LP or its permitted transferees.

Recapitalization Share Exchange” means the transactions contemplated by the Recapitalization Share Exchange pursuant to the Amended and Restated Plan of Reorganization and Asset Purchase Agreement, dated September 23, 2021, by an between Allarity Therapeutics, Inc., Allarity Acquisition Subsidiary, Inc., and Allarity Therapeutics A/S.

Registration Rights Agreement” or “RRA” means the Registration Rights Agreement with 3i, LP relating to the registration of the shares of our common stock for resale by 3i, LP issuable upon conversion of our Preferred Stock an upon exercise of the PIPE Warrant.

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

This summary highlights information contained elsewhere in this prospectus and does not contain all of the information that you should consider in making your investment decision. Before investing in our securities, you should carefully read this entire prospectus, including our consolidated financial statements and the related notes thereto and the information set forth in the sections titled “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”

Overview

We are a clinical stage biopharmaceutical company targeting some of the greatest unmet needs in oncology by developing differentiated and novel therapeutic candidates together with our proprietary DRP® companion diagnostics in a precision medicine approach. Our business strategy includes a focus on leveraging our proprietary DRP® companion diagnostics platform to streamline the drug development process and to identify patients that will benefit from therapeutic candidates that other biotechnology or pharmaceutical companies have abandoned or shelved after initiating clinical trials under an IND application filed with the FDA, including candidates that have failed to achieve statistical significance on the original endpoints established in the clinical trials. We use our proprietary DRP® companion diagnostics platform to advance therapeutic candidates by targeting and evaluating patient sub-populations having gene signatures, determined by our DRP® companion diagnostics platform, that will potentially correlate with drug efficacy and patient response to treatment. While we have not yet successfully received regulatory or marketing approval for any of our therapeutic candidates or companion diagnostics, and while we believe that our approach has the potential to reduce the cost and time of drug development through the identification and selection of patient populations more likely to respond to therapy, our strategy involves risks and uncertainties that differ from other biotechnology companies that focus solely on new therapeutic candidates that do not have a history of failed clinical development. By utilizing our DRP® platform to generate a drug-specific companion diagnostic for each of our therapeutic candidates, if approved by the FDA, we believe our therapeutic candidates have the potential to advance the goal of personalized medicine by selecting the patients most likely to benefit from each of our therapeutic candidates and avoid the treatment of non-responder patients. All of our therapeutic candidates are clinical stage assets and the FDA has not yet approved any of our therapeutic candidates or any of our DRP® companion diagnostics. As used in this prospectus, statements regarding the use of our proprietary DRP® companion diagnostics or our proprietary DRP® platform or our observations that a therapeutic candidate may have anti-cancer or anti-tumer activity or is observed to be well tolerated in a patient population should not be construed to mean that we have resolved all issues of safety and/or efficacy for any of our therapeutic candidates or DRP® companion diagnostic. Issues of safety and efficacy for any therapeutic candidate companion diagnostic may only be determined by the U.S. FDA or other applicable regulatory authorities in jurisdictions outside the United States.

Our DRP® platform has been retrospectively validated by us using retrospective observational studies in 35 clinical trials that were conducted or sponsored by other companies. The FDA considers a retrospective observational study to be one in which the study identifies the population and determines the exposure/treatment from historical data (i.e. data generated prior to the initiation of the study) with the variables and outcomes of interest determined at the time the study is designed. See, Framework for FDA’s Real-World Evidence Program, page 6 (December 2018), https://www.fda.gov/media/120060/download. The FDA has accepted our retrospective validation in support of two Investigational Device Exemption (“IDE”) applications to conduct clinical trials, one with respect to LiPlaCis® and one with respect to stenoparib.

We anticipate submitting a New Drug Application (NDA) to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for our lead therapeutic candidate, dovitinib, a second-generation “pan”-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), before December 31, 2021, while continuing to expand patient enrollment in our ongoing Phase 2 clinical trials for our two other priority programs, stenoparib, a novel inhibitor of the key DNA damage repair enzyme poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), and IXEMPRA® (ixabepilone), a selective microtubule inhibitor. We may additionally conduct a near-term clinical trial for stenoparib to test the anti-viral activity of this therapeutic candidate as a potential treatment for SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) applications. We have not yet submitted an Investigational New Drug (“IND”) application to the FDA to conduct such a trial and if we decide to do so, the FDA may not approve our IND application. We also intend to opportunistically acquire other promising oncology assets, which have undergone prior clinical trial data demonstrating

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that these candidates are well tolerated in the tested patient population coupled with promising signs of anti-tumor activity, for our pipeline over the next five years. We were founded in Denmark in 2004 by our chief scientific officer, Steen Knudsen, Ph.D., and our Senior Vice President of Information Technologies, Thomas Jensen, both of whom were formerly academic researchers at the Technical University of Denmark working to advance novel bioinformatic and diagnostic approaches to improving cancer patient response to therapeutics.

Our clinical and commercial development team is advancing our pipeline of targeted oncology therapeutic candidates, all of which have previously succeeded at least though Phase 1 clinical demonstrating that the therapeutic candidate is well tolerated. Our three priority assets, dovitinib, stenoparib, and IXEMPRA® (ixabepilone) are all former drug candidates of large pharmaceutical companies. Our lead therapeutic candidate, dovitinib, is a selective inhibitor of several classes of tyrosine kinases, including FGFR and VEGFR, and was formerly developed by Novartis Pharmaceuticals through Phase 3 clinical trials in numerous indications. We anticipate submitting an NDA with the FDA before December 31, 2021, for the treatment of third line renal cell carcinoma (RCC or kidney cancer) in patients selected by our Dovitinib-DRP® companion diagnostic. Our anticipated NDA will be supported by a concomitant Pre-Market Approval (PMA) application to the FDA for approval of our dovitinib-specific DRP® companion diagnostic for use to select and treat patients likely to respond to dovitinib. Our second priority therapeutic candidate is stenoparib (formerly E7449), a novel inhibitor of the key DNA damage repair enzyme poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), which also has an observed inhibitory action against Tankyrases, another important group of DNA damage repair enzymes. Stenoparib was formerly developed by Eisai, Inc. (Eisai) through Phase 1 clinical trials, and we are currently advancing a Phase 2 clinical trial of this therapeutic candidate for the treatment of ovarian cancer at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (Boston, MA USA.) together with its stenoparib-specific DRP® companion diagnostic, for which the FDA has previously approved an Investigational Device Exemption (IDE) application.

Our third priority therapeutic candidate is IXEMPRA® (ixabepilone), a selective microtubule inhibitor, which has been shown to interfere with cancer cell division, leading to cell death. IXEMPRA® (ixabepilone) was formerly developed and brought to market by Bristol-Myers Squibb, is currently marketed and sold in the U.S. by R-PHARM US LLC, for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer treated with two or more prior chemotherapies. We are currently advancing IXEMPRA®, together with its drug-specific DRP® companion diagnostic, in a Phase 2 European clinical trial for the same indication, with the goal of eventually submitting an application for Marketing Authorization (MA) with the European Medicine Agency (EMA) to market IXEMPRA®, together with its drug-specific DRP® companion diagnostic, in the European market.

Our focused approach to address major unmet needs in oncology leverages our management’s significant expertise in discovery, medicinal chemistry, manufacturing, clinical development, and commercialization. As a result, we have created substantial intellectual property around the composition of matter for our new chemical entities. The foundations of our approach include:

•        The pursuit of clinical-stage assets:    We strive to identify and pursue novel oncology therapeutic candidates that have advanced beyond Phase 1 clinical trials that demonstrated the candidate is well tolerated by the tested patient population, and are preferably Phase 2 to Phase 3 clinical stage, having previously shown signs of anti-cancer activity in patients. Accordingly, the assets we have acquired, and intend to acquire, have undergone prior clinical trials by other pharmaceutical companies demonstrating that these candidates are well tolerated in the tested patient population, and in some cases, have observed anti-cancer or anti-tumor properties. We often focus our acquisition efforts on therapeutic candidates that have been the subject of clinical trials conducted by large pharmaceutical companies. Further we intend to select therapeutic candidates for which we believe we can develop a drug-specific DRP® to advance together with the therapeutic candidate in further clinical trials as a companion diagnostic to select and treat the patients most likely to respond to the therapeutic candidate. We further consider whether the licensor or assignor can provide us substantial clinical grade active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) for the therapeutic candidate, at low-to-no cost, for our use in future clinical trials. The availability of API at low-to-no cost reduces both our future clinical trial costs and the lead time it takes us to start a new clinical trial for the therapeutic candidate. As an example, our lead therapeutic candidate, dovitinib, was developed by Novartis through Phase 2 clinical trials in numerous indications and in Phase 3 clinical trials for RCC before we acquired the therapeutic candidate, and it came with substantial no cost API supply to support our continuing advancement towards submitting an NDA to the FDA.

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•        Our proprietary DRP® companion diagnostics:    We believe our proprietary and patented Drug Response Predictor (DRP®) platform provides us with a substantial clinical and commercial competitive advantage for each of therapeutic candidates in our pipeline. DRP® is a proprietary, predictive biomarker technology that employs complex systems biology, bio-analytics with a proprietary clinical relevance filter to bridge the gap between in vitro cancer cell responsiveness to a given therapeutic candidate and in vivo likelihood of actual patient response to that therapeutic candidate. The DRP® platform has been retrospectively validated by us using retrospective observational studies in 35 clinical trials that were conducted or sponsored by other companies. We intend to develop and validate a drug-specific DRP® biomarker for each and every therapeutic candidate in our therapeutic candidate pipeline to serve as a companion diagnostic to select and treat patients most likely to respond to that therapeutic candidate. Our DRP® technology has also been peer-reviewed by numerous publications and we have patented DRP®s for more than 70 anti-cancer drugs.

•        A precision oncology approach:    Our focused strategy is to advance our pipeline of therapeutic candidates, together with DRP® companion diagnostics, to bring these therapeutic candidates, once approved, to market and to patients through a precision oncology approach. DRP® provides a gene expression fingerprint that we believe reveals whether a specific tumor in a specific patient is likely to respond to one of our therapeutic candidates and therefore can be used to identify those patients who are most likely to respond to a particular therapeutic treatment in order to guide therapy decisions and lead to better treatment outcomes. Our DRP® companion diagnostics may be used both to identify a susceptible patient population for inclusion in clinical trials during the drug development process (and to exclude the non-susceptible patient population), and further to select the optimal anti-cancer drug for individual patients in the treatment setting once an anti-cancer drug is approved and marketed. By including only patients that have tumors that we believe may respond to our therapeutic candidate in our clinical trials, we believe our proprietary DRP® companion diagnostics platform has the potential to improve the overall treatment response in our clinical trials and thereby improving our chances for regulatory approval to market our therapeutic candidate, while potentially reducing the time, cost, and risk of clinical development.

The following chart summarizes our therapeutic candidate pipeline:

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We have out-licensed LiPlaCis® and 2X-111 to our longtime CRO partner Smerud Medical Research International.

Since our inception, we have incurred losses and have an accumulated deficit of $37.4 million as of December 31, 2020. Our net losses were $5,073,000 and $14,400,000 for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. Our net losses were $7,658,000 and $2,937,000 for the six months ended June 30, 2021 and June 30, 2020, respectively, resulting in an increase of our accumulated deficit to $45 million. We expect to continue to incur significant expenses and increasing operating losses for the foreseeable future. None of our current therapeutic candidates have been approved for marketing in the United States, or in any other jurisdiction, and may never receive such approval. It could be several years, if ever, before we have a commercialized drug that generates significant revenues. As a result, we are uncertain when or if we will achieve profitability and, if so, whether we will be able to sustain profitability.

Our recurring losses from operations since inception and required additional funding to finance our operations raise substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern. Furthermore, our independent registered public accounting firm has included an explanatory paragraph relating to our ability to continue as a going concern in its report on our audited financial statements included in this prospectus. Our audited financial statements at December 31, 2020 and 2019 and for the years then ended were prepared assuming that we will continue as a going concern.

We believe that the net proceeds from the PIPE Investment, together with our existing cash and cash equivalents as of the date of this prospectus, and our anticipated expenditures and commitments for calendar year 2021 and 2022, will enable us to fund our operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements for at least 12 months from the date of this prospectus. Our estimate as to how long we expect the net proceeds from the PIPE Investment, together with our existing cash and cash equivalents, to be able to continue to fund our operations is based on assumptions that may prove to be wrong, and we could use our available capital resources sooner than we currently expect. Further, changing circumstances, some of which may be beyond our control, could cause us to consume capital significantly faster than we currently anticipate, and we may need to seek additional funds sooner than planned.

Background to Our Recapitalization Share Exchange

We were previously known as Oncology Venture A/S and changed our name to Allarity Therapeutics A/S on October 7, 2020. On April 6, 2021, we incorporated Allarity Therapeutics, Inc., a Delaware corporation, for the purposes of undertaking a Recapitalization Share Exchange, a PIPE Financing, and migrating the trading in our shares from the Nasdaq First North Growth Market: Stockholm to the Nasdaq Capital Market in the U.S. On May 20, 2021, we entered into a Plan of Reorganization and Asset Purchase Agreement wherein we agreed to form Allarity Acquisition Subsidiary (“Acquisition Sub) for the purposes of acquiring substantially all of the assets and assuming substantially all of the liabilities of Allarity A/S in exchange for and amount of shares of our common stock based on an exchange ratio of 0.02 shares of our common stock for each whole ordinary share of Allarity Therapeutics A/S which would be distributed to the shareholders of Allarity Therapeutics A/S first through a voluntary share buy-back program and then by extraordinary dividend. Thereafter, Allarity Therapeutics A/S would commence a plan of liquidation and dissolution. We filed a Form S-4 registration statement with the SEC (SEC File No. 333-258968) on August 20, 2021, which has not yet been declared effective, and we anticipate holding an Extraordinary General Meeting of the shareholders of Allarity Therapeutics A/S on or about October 22, 2021, to approve the Recapitalization Share Exchange and related proposals.

The Private Placement (PIPE Financing)

Concurrently with the execution of the Plan of Reorganization and Asset Purchase Agreement on May 20, 2021, we entered into a Securities Purchase Agreement (“SPA”) and related agreements with 3i, LP, a Delaware limited partnership, (“3i, LP”) wherein we agreed to sell, and 3i, LP agreed to purchase, 20,000 shares of our Series A Preferred Stock (the “Preferred Stock”) and a warrant to purchase additional shares of our common stock (the “PIPE Warrant”) for an aggregate purchase price of $20 million with a closing conditioned upon the consummation of our Recapitalization Share Exchange and a listing of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market. Simultaneously with the execution of the SPA, we also entered into a Registration Rights Agreement with 3i, LP wherein we agreed to register a number of shares of our Common Stock equal to the maximum number of shares of our Common Stock

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that could be issued upon conversion of the Preferred Stock using a conversion price equal to 20% of $80,000,000 divided by the number of shares of Common Stock then outstanding (the “Floor Price”) price plus 100% of the shares of Common Stock issuable upon exercise of the PIPE Warrant, or a maximum of 13,964,057 shares of our Common Stock. Because we were formed as a “business combination related shell company” as defined in SEC Rule 405 for the purposes of undertaking our Recapitalization Share Exchange, Allarity Therapeutics A/S, our parent who will become our predecessor upon consummation of the Recapitalization Share Exchange, was deemed to be the accounting acquirer in the Recapitalization Share Exchange. While we are the legal acquirer of Allarity Therapeutics A/S in the Recapitalization Share Exchange, because Allarity Therapeutics A/S is deemed to be the accounting acquirer, the historical consolidated financial statements of Allarity Therapeutics A/S will become our historical consolidated financial statements upon the consummation of the Recapitalization Share Exchange and are included in this prospectus.

On the Closing Date of the SPA, 3i, LP will purchase 20,000 share of our Series A Preferred Stock for $1,000 per share. Each share of Preferred Stock has a right to convert into shares of our common stock at a fixed conversion calculated upon consummation of our Recapitalization Share Exchange. However, in the event that the average of the volume weighted average price (“VWAP”) of our shares for each of the five (5) trading days immediately preceding the date of receipt is less than the fixed conversion price, or other triggering events, each share of Preferred Stock is entitled to convert at a price equal to 90% of the sum of the two (2) lowest VWAPs during the ten (10) trading day period immediately preceding delivery divided by two (2), but not less than the Floor Price, or if thirty (30) days after our Common Stock commences trading on the Nasdaq Capital Market the average daily U.S. Dollar volume for the ten (10) days previous to conversion divided by ten (10) is less than $2,000,000, then each share of Preferred Stock is entitled to convert at the lower of the fixed conversion price or a price equal to 80% of the sum of the two (2) lowest VWAPs during the ten (10) trading day period immediately preceding delivery divided by two (2), but not less than the Floor Price (“Volume Alternate Failure”). Also on the Closing Date of the SPA, we will issued 3i, LP the PIPE Warrant which entitles 3i, LP to purchase up to $20 million of our shares of common stock at an initial exercise price equal to the Floor Price of our Preferred Stock, subject to adjustment in the event we issue additional shares of our common stock, or securities convertible into our common stock, at a price less than the fixed conversion price of our Preferred Stock, which would result in reducing the exercise price of the PIPE Warrant to a price equal to the price for the additional issuance. The sale of our Preferred Stock and the issuance of the PIPE Warrant to 3i, LP will occur concurrently with the Closing of the Recapitalization Share Exchange. See, Description of Our Capital Stock — The Series A Preferred Stock to be issued in the PIPE Investment

The rights of holders of the Common Stock are governed by our amended certificate of incorporation, our bylaws and the Delaware General Corporation Law (“DGCL”). See the sections entitled “Description of Our Capital Stock.”

Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company and a Smaller Reporting Company

We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, or the JOBS Act, and we intend to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not “emerging growth companies” including not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements, and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. In addition, Section 107 of the JOBS Act also provides that an “emerging growth company” can take advantage of the extended transition period provided in Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act, for complying with new or revised accounting standards. In other words, an “emerging growth company” can delay the adoption of certain accounting standards until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies. We are not electing to delay such adoption of new or revised accounting standards, and as a result, we will comply with new or revised accounting standards on the relevant dates on which adoption of such standards is required for non-emerging growth companies. We cannot predict if investors will find our common stock less attractive because we may rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our common stock less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our common stock and our stock price may be more volatile. We may take advantage of these reporting exemptions until we are no longer an “emerging growth company.” We will remain an “emerging growth company” until the earliest of (i) the last day of the fiscal year in which we have total annual gross revenues of $1.07 billion or more; (ii) the last day of our fiscal

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year following the fifth anniversary of the date of the completion of our Recapitalization Share Exchange; (iii) the date on which we have issued more than $1 billion in nonconvertible debt during the previous three years; or (iv) the date on which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer under the rules of the SEC.

Additionally, we are a “smaller reporting company” as defined in Item 10(f)(1) of Regulation S-K. Even after we no longer qualify as an emerging growth company, we may still qualify as a “smaller reporting company,” which would allow us to continue to take advantage of many of the same exemptions from disclosure requirements, including presenting only the two most recent fiscal years of audited financial statements and reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in this prospectus and our periodic reports and proxy statements. We may continue to be a smaller reporting company after the Recapitalization Share Exchange is consummated if either (i) the market value of our stock held by non-affiliates is less than $250 million or (ii) our annual revenue was less than $100 million during the most recently completed fiscal year and the market value of our stock held by non-affiliates is less than $700 million. To the extent we take advantage of such reduced disclosure obligations, it may also make comparison of our financial statements with other public companies difficult or impossible.

Summary of Risk Factors

Below is a summary of material factors that make an investment in our securities speculative or risky. Importantly, this summary does not address all of the risks and uncertainties that we face. Additional discussion of the risks and uncertainties summarized in this risk factor summary, as well as other risks and uncertainties that we face, can be found under the section titled “Risk Factors” in this prospectus. The below summary is qualified in its entirety by that more complete discussion of such risks and uncertainties. You should consider carefully the risks and uncertainties described under the section titled “Risk Factors” as part of your evaluation of an investment in our securities:

•        We have incurred significant losses since inception and anticipate that we may continue to incur losses for the foreseeable future and may never achieve or maintain profitability.

•        Our recurring losses from operations since inception and required additional funding to finance our operations raise substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern. Furthermore, our independent registered public accounting firm has included an explanatory paragraph relating to our ability to continue as a going concern in its report on our audited financial statements included in this prospectus. Our audited financial statements at December 31, 2020 and 2019 and for the years then ended were prepared assuming that we will continue as a going concern. We have incurred significant losses and has an accumulated deficit of $45 million as of June 30, 2021. As of August 20, 2021, our cash which includes the proceeds of our rights offering in June 2021 is insufficient to fund our current operating plan and planned capital expenditures for at least the next 12 months. These conditions give rise to a substantial doubt over our ability to continue as a going concern.

•        We will need substantial funding to pursue our business objectives. If we are unable to raise capital when needed or on favorable terms, we could be forced to delay, reduce or terminate our product development, other operations or commercialization efforts.

•        If we do not obtain regulatory approval for and successfully commercialize our therapeutic candidates in one or more indications or we experience significant delays in doing so, we may never generate any revenue or become profitable.

•        Our approach to the discovery and development of therapeutic candidates based on our DRP® platform is unproven, and we do not know whether we will be able to develop any therapeutic candidates of commercial value, or if competing technological approaches will limit the commercial value of our therapeutic candidates or render our DRP® platform obsolete.

•        Our DRP® platform-based therapeutic candidates are based on a novel technology, which makes it difficult to predict the time and cost of therapeutic candidate development.

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•        If we encounter difficulties enrolling patients in our clinical trials, our clinical development activities could be delayed or otherwise adversely affected.

•        We face competition, which may result in others discovering, developing or commercializing cancer therapies before or more successfully than us.

•        We rely on third parties to perform the chemistry work associated with our drug discovery, preclinical activities and to conduct our preclinical studies and clinical trials, and our business could be substantially harmed if these third parties cease performing services or perform in an unsatisfactory manner.

•        We do not have our own manufacturing capabilities and will rely on third parties to produce clinical and commercial supplies of API for our therapeutic candidates.

•        If we are unable to obtain, maintain, protect and enforce sufficient patent and other intellectual property rights for our therapeutic candidates and technology, or if the scope of patent and other intellectual property rights obtained is not sufficiently broad, we may not be able to compete effectively in our market.

•        The patent protection we obtain for our therapeutic candidates and technology may be challenged or not sufficient enough to provide us with any competitive advantage.

•        Our business, operations and clinical development plans and timelines and supply chain could be adversely affected by the effects of health epidemics, including the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, on the manufacturing, clinical trial and other business activities performed by us or by third parties with whom we conduct business, including our contract manufacturing organizations (“CMOs”), contract research organizations (“CROs”), shippers and others.

•        Our future success depends on our ability to retain our founder Dr. Steen Knudsen, our CEO Steve Carchedi and our other key employees, consultants and advisors and to attract, retain and motivate qualified personnel.

•        You may experience substantial dilution to your ownership of our Common Stock in the event that the five (5) day VWAP of our Common Stock is less that the original conversion price of the Preferred Stock issued to 3i, LP and the Preferred Stock is converted using the alternative conversion price set forth in the certificate of designations for the Preferred Stock. See, Description of Our Capital Stock — The Series A Preferred Stock to be issued in the PIPE Investment.

•        You may experience substantial dilution to your ownership of our Common Stock in the event that the five (5) day average daily U.S. Dollar trading volume of our Common Stock is less $2 million and the Preferred Stock issued to 3i, LP is converted using the alternative conversion price set forth in the certificate of designations for the Preferred Stock.

Corporate Information

Our parent who will become our predecessor upon consummation of the Recapitalization Share Exchange was originally organized as Oncology Venture A/S, an Aktieselskab organized under the laws of Denmark and changed its name to Allarity Therapeutics A/S on October 7, 2020. On April 6, 2021, we were incorporated as Allarity Therapeutics, Inc., a Delaware corporation, for the purposes of undertaking our Recapitalization Share Exchange, our PIPE Financing, and migrating the trading in our shares from the Nasdaq First North Growth Market: Stockholm to the Nasdaq Capital Market in the U.S. Upon the consummation of our Recapitalization Share Exchange, we will acquire substantially all of the assets and assumed substantially all of the liabilities of our parent, Allarity Therapeutics A/S. Our principal executive offices are located at 210 Broadway, Suite 201, Cambridge, MA 02139 and our telephone number is (401) 426-4664. Our corporate website address is www.allarity.com. Information contained on or accessible through our website is not a part of this prospectus, and the inclusion of our website address in this prospectus is an inactive textual reference only.

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Allarity and its subsidiaries own or have rights to trademarks, trade names and service marks that they use in connection with the operation of their business. In addition, their names, logos and website names and addresses are their trademarks or service marks. Other trademarks, trade names and service marks appearing in this prospectus are the property of their respective owners. Solely for convenience, in some cases, the trademarks, trade names and service marks referred to in this prospectus are listed without the applicable ®, ™ and SM symbols, but they will assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, their rights to these trademarks, trade names and service marks.

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The Offering

Shares of Common Stock offered by the selling stockholders

 


Up to 12,618,590 shares of our Common Stock consisting of:

•   up to 2,018,958 shares of Common Stock issued upon conversion of 20,000 share of our Series A Preferred Stock originally issued in a private placement to 3i, LP based upon an initial conversion price $9.906;

•   up to 2,018,958 shares of Common Stock issuable upon exercise of the PIPE Warrant based upon an exercise price of $9.906; and

•   up to 8,580,674 additional shares of Common Stock that may be issuable upon conversion of our Preferred Stock using the alternative conversion price in the event that the five (5) day volume weighed average price (“VWAP”) of our Common Stock is less than the initial conversion price or if our average daily U.S. Dollar volume of our Common Stock is less than $2 million based using the Floor Price. See, Description of Our Capital Stock — The Series A Preferred Stock to be issued in the PIPE Investment. This amount also includes 505,740 shares allocated to the exercise of the PIPE Warrants to comply with our obligation to register 125% of the number of shares of our Common Stock issuable upon the exercise of the PIPE Warrant.

Limitation on the number of shares of Common Stock Beneficially Owned upon conversion of the Preferred Stock or the exercise of the PIPE Warrant

 




Pursuant to the Certificate of Designation for our Series A Preferred Stock and the terms of the PIPE Warrant, a holder of our Preferred Stock or PIPE Warrant may not convert any shares of the Preferred Stock into Common Stock, or exercise the PIPE Warrant to purchase share of our Common Stock, if such conversion or exercise would result in the holder beneficially owing more than 4.99% of our Common Stock as determined under SEC Rule 13d-3. See the section titled “Description of Our Capital Stock.”

Plan of Distribution

 

The selling stockholders may offer, sell or distribute all or a portion of the securities hereby registered publicly or through private transactions at prevailing market prices or at negotiated prices. See the section titled “Plan of Distribution.”

Use of proceeds

 

We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares of Common Stock by the selling stockholders.

Risk factors

 

Before investing in our securities, you should carefully read and consider the information set forth in “Risk Factors” beginning on page 12.

Nasdaq ticker symbols

 

We have filed an application to have our shares of Common Stock listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “ALLR”

For additional information concerning the offering, see the section titled “Plan of Distribution” beginning on page 197.

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RISK FACTORS

An investment in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. Before making an investment decision, you should give careful consideration to the following risk factors, in addition to the other information included in this prospectus, including our financial statements and related notes, before deciding whether to invest in shares of our common stock. The occurrence of any of the adverse developments described in the following risk factors could materially and adversely harm our business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects. In that case, the trading price of our common stock could decline, and you may lose all or part of your investment.

Risks Related to Financial Position and Need for Capital

We have a limited operating history and have never generated any revenues other than from research grants and a limited number of DRP® biomarker development agreements, which may make it difficult to evaluate the success of our business to date and to assess our future viability.

Our predecessor, Allarity Therapeutics A/S, was initially organized under the laws of Denmark on September 9, 2004, and to date we have been largely focused on organizing and staffing our company, raising capital, developing our proprietary DRP® companion diagnostics platform and acquiring the rights to, advancing the development of, our therapeutic candidates, including conducting clinical trials on our therapeutic candidates, and completing our Recapitalization Share Exchange. We have not yet demonstrated an ability to successfully obtain marketing approvals, manufacture drugs on a commercial scale, or conduct sales and marketing activities necessary for successful commercialization. Consequently, predictions about our future success or viability may not be as accurate as they could be if we had a longer operating history or a history of successfully developing and commercializing drugs.

We expect our financial condition and operating results to continue to fluctuate from quarter to quarter and year to year due to a variety of factors, many of which are beyond our control. We will need to eventually transition from a company with a research and development focus to a company capable of undertaking commercial activities. We may encounter unforeseen expenses, difficulties, complications and delays, and may not be successful in such a transition.

We have incurred significant operating losses since inception and anticipate that we will continue to incur substantial operating losses for the foreseeable future and may never achieve or maintain profitability.

Since our inception of our predecessor, Allarity Therapeutics , we have incurred losses and have an accumulated deficit of $37.4 million as of December 31, 2020. Our net losses were $5,073,000 and $14,400,000 for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. Our net losses were $7,658,000 and $2,937,000 for the six months ended June 30, 2021 and June 30, 2020, respectively, resulting in an increase of our accumulated deficit to $45 million. We expect to continue to incur significant expenses and increasing operating losses for the foreseeable future. None of our current therapeutic candidates have been approved for marketing in the United States, or in any other jurisdiction, and may never receive such approval. It could be several years, if ever, before we have a commercialized drug that generates significant revenues. As a result, we are uncertain when or if we will achieve profitability and, if so, whether we will be able to sustain profitability. The net losses we incur may fluctuate significantly from quarter to quarter and year to year. We anticipate that our expenses will increase substantially as we:

•        continue the development of our therapeutic candidates, including, but not limited to, the submission of an application for New Drug Approval (“NDA”) for dovitinib, our most advanced therapeutic candidate, to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) and advancing our DRP®-guided Phase 2 clinical trial of stenoparib as a treatment for ovarian cancer, being conducted at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (Boston, MA USA.) and our DRP®-guided Phase 2 clinical trial of IXEMPRA® as a treatment for metastatic breast cancer, being conducted at numerous locations in Europe;

•        initiate preclinical studies and clinical trials for any additional indications for our current therapeutic candidates and any future therapeutic candidates that we may pursue;

•        continue to build our portfolio of therapeutic candidates through the acquisition or in-license of additional therapeutic candidates or technologies;

•        continue to develop, maintain, expand and protect our intellectual property portfolio;

•        continue to develop, maintain, and expand our proprietary DRP® companion diagnostics platform;

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•        pursue regulatory approvals for our current and future therapeutic candidates that successfully complete clinical trials;

•        ultimately establish a sales, marketing, distribution and other commercial infrastructure to commercialize any therapeutic candidate for which we may obtain marketing approval, or partner with third parties to effect the same;

•        hire additional clinical, regulatory, scientific and accounting personnel; and

•        incur additional legal, accounting and other expenses in operating as a U.S. listed public company.

To become and remain profitable, we must develop and eventually commercialize one or more therapeutic candidates with significant market potential or license one or more of our therapeutic candidates to an industry partner. This will require us to be successful in a range of challenging activities, including completing clinical trials of our therapeutic candidates, publishing our data and findings on our therapeutic candidates with peer reviewed publications, developing commercial scale manufacturing processes, obtaining marketing approval, manufacturing, marketing and selling any current and future therapeutic candidates for which we may obtain marketing approval, and satisfying any post-marketing requirements. While we anticipate submitting an NDA to the U.S. FDA on our therapeutic candidate Dovitinib before December 31, 2021, we are only in the early stages of most of these activities and, in some cases, have not yet commenced certain of these activities. We may never succeed in any or all of these activities and, even if we do, we may never generate sufficient revenue to achieve profitability.

Because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with drug development, we are unable to accurately predict the timing or amount of expenses or when, or if, we will obtain marketing approval to commercialize any of our therapeutic candidates. If we are required by the FDA, or other regulatory authorities such as the European Medicines Agency, or EMA, to perform studies and trials in addition to those currently expected, or if there are any delays in the development, or in the completion of any planned or future preclinical studies or clinical trials of our current or future therapeutic candidates, our expenses could increase and profitability could be further delayed.

Even if we do achieve profitability, we may not be able to sustain or increase profitability on a quarterly or annual basis. Our failure to become and remain profitable would decrease the value of our company and could impair our ability to raise capital, maintain our research and development efforts, expand our business or continue our operations. A decline in the value of our company also could cause you to lose all or part of your investment.

Our recurring losses from operations since inception and required additional funding to finance our operations raise substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern. Furthermore, our independent registered public accounting firm has included an explanatory paragraph relating to our ability to continue as a going concern in its report on our audited financial statements included in this prospectus. Our audited financial statements at December 31, 2020 and 2019 and for the years then ended were prepared assuming that we will continue as a going concern.

Our report from our independent registered public accounting firm for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 includes an explanatory paragraph stating that our recurring losses from operations since inception and required additional funding to finance our operations raise substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern. Such an opinion could materially limit our ability to raise additional funds through the issuance of new debt or equity securities or otherwise. There is no assurance that sufficient financing will be available when needed to allow us to continue as a going concern. The perception that we may not be able to continue as a going concern may also make it more difficult to operate our business due to concerns about our ability to meet our contractual obligations. Our ability to continue as a going concern is contingent upon, among other factors, the sale of the shares of our preferred stock in the PIPE Investment discussed elsewhere in this prospectus or obtaining alternate financing. We cannot provide any assurance that we will be able to raise additional capital.

If we are unable to secure additional capital, we may be required to curtail our clinical and research and development initiatives and take additional measures to reduce costs in order to conserve our cash in amounts sufficient to sustain operations and meet our obligations. These measures could cause significant delays in our clinical and regulatory efforts, which is critical to the realization of our business plan. The accompanying financial statements do not include any adjustments that may be necessary should we be unable to continue as a going concern. It is not

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possible for us to predict at this time the potential success of our business. The revenue and income potential of our proposed business and operations are currently unknown. If we cannot continue as a viable entity, you may lose some or all of your investment.

Even if the Pipe Investment is successful, we will need substantial additional funding, and if we are unable to raise capital when needed, we could be forced to delay, reduce or eliminate our drug development programs or commercialization efforts.

We anticipate that our expenses will increase substantially as we continue preparations for the submission of an NDA to the U.S. FDA for our therapeutic candidate dovitinib and as we advance our DRP®-guided Phase 2 clinical trial of stenoparib as a treatment for ovarian cancer, being conducted at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (Boston, MA USA.), our DRP®-guided Phase 2 clinical trial of IXEMPRA® as a treatment for metastatic breast cancer, being conducted at numerous locations in Europe, and advance development of our other therapeutic candidates; seek to identify and develop additional therapeutic candidates; acquire or in-license other therapeutic candidates or technologies; seek regulatory and marketing approvals for our therapeutic candidates that successfully complete clinical trials, if any; establish sales, marketing, distribution and other commercial infrastructure in the future to commercialize various drugs for which we may obtain marketing approval, if any; require the manufacture of larger quantities of therapeutic candidates for clinical development and, potentially, commercialization; maintain, expand and protect our intellectual property portfolio; develop, maintain, and expand our proprietary DRP® companion diagnostics platform; hire and retain additional personnel, such as clinical, quality control and scientific personnel; add operational, financial and management information systems and personnel, including personnel to support our drug development and help us comply with our obligations as a public company; and add equipment and physical infrastructure to support our research and development programs.

We plan to use the net proceeds of the PIPE Investment primarily to fund our ongoing clinical development efforts for our three priority pipeline projects. We will be required to expend significant funds in order to prepare and submit an NDA with the U.S. FDA for our therapeutic candidate dovitinib and to advance the development of stenoparib, IXEMPRA® and our other therapeutic candidates. In addition, while we may seek one or more collaborators for future development of our current therapeutic candidates or any future therapeutic candidates that we may develop for one or more indications, we may not be able to enter into a partnership or out-license for any of our therapeutic candidates for such indications on suitable terms, on a timely basis or at all. In any event, the net proceeds of the PIPE Investment and our existing cash and cash equivalents will not be sufficient to fund all of the efforts that we plan to undertake or to fund the completion of development of our therapeutic candidates or our other preclinical studies. Accordingly, we will be required to obtain further funding through public or private equity offerings, debt financings, collaborations and licensing arrangements or other sources. Other than the PIPE Investment, we do not have any committed external source of funds. Further financing may not be available to us on acceptable terms, or at all. Our failure to raise capital as and when needed would have a negative impact on our financial condition and our ability to pursue our business strategy.

We believe that the net proceeds from the PIPE Investment, together with our existing cash and cash equivalents as of the date of this prospectus, and our anticipated expenditures and commitments for calendar year 2021 and 2022, will enable us to fund our operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements for at least 12 months from the date of this prospectus. Our estimate as to how long we expect the net proceeds from the PIPE Investment, together with our existing cash and cash equivalents, to be able to continue to fund our operations is based on assumptions that may prove to be wrong, and we could use our available capital resources sooner than we currently expect. Further, changing circumstances, some of which may be beyond our control, could cause us to consume capital significantly faster than we currently anticipate, and we may need to seek additional funds sooner than planned. Our future funding requirements, both short-term and long-term, will depend on many factors, including:

•        the scope, progress, timing, costs and results of our DRP®-guided Phase 2 clinical trial of stenoparib as a treatment for ovarian cancer, being conducted at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (Boston, MA USA.), our DRP®-guided Phase 2 clinical trial of IXEMPRA® as a treatment for metastatic breast cancer, being conducted at numerous locations in Europe, and our preclinical studies and clinical trials of our other therapeutic candidates;

•        the costs associated with maintaining, expanding and updating our proprietary DRP® companion diagnostics platform;

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•        the costs, timing and outcome of seeking regulatory approvals;

•        the costs of our licensing or commercialization activities for any of our therapeutic candidates that receive marketing approval to the extent such costs are not the responsibility of any future collaborators, including the costs and timing of establishing drug sales, marketing, distribution and manufacturing capabilities;

•        our headcount growth and associated costs as we expand our research and development activities as well as potentially establish a commercial infrastructure;

•        our ability to enter into and the terms and timing of any collaborations, licensing agreements or other arrangements;

•        revenue received from commercial sales, if any, of our current and future therapeutic candidates;

•        the costs of preparing, filing and prosecuting patent applications, maintaining and protecting our intellectual property rights and defending against intellectual property related claims;

•        the number of future therapeutic candidates that we pursue and their development requirements;

•        changes in regulatory policies or laws that may affect our operations;

•        changes in physician acceptance or medical society recommendations that may affect commercial efforts;

•        the costs of acquiring potential new therapeutic candidates or technology;

•        the costs associated with maintaining and expanding our cybersecurity systems; and

•        the costs of operating as a public company.

We have identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting. If we are unable to remediate these material weakness, or if we identify additional material weaknesses in the future or otherwise fail to maintain an effective system of internal controls, we may not be able to accurately or timely report our financial condition or results of operations, which may adversely affect our business and stock price.

Prior to the date of this prospectus, we had limited accounting personnel and other resources with which to address our internal controls and procedures. Our independent registered public accounting firm has not conducted an audit of our internal control over financial reporting. However, in connection with the audit of our consolidated financial statements as of and for year ended December 31, 2020, we and our independent registered public accounting firm identified three material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting.

The material weaknesses identified were:

•        a lack of accounting resources required to fulfill US GAAP and SEC reporting requirements;

•        a lack of comprehensive US GAAP accounting policies and financial reporting procedures; and

•        a lack of segregation of duties given the size of our finance and accounting team.

We have implemented and are continuing to implement various measures to address the material weaknesses identified; these measures include:

•        the hiring of a chief financial officer that is a CPA in the U.S;

•        The retention of an outside consultant who is a CPA, CA, CPA (Illinois) who is experienced with public company reporting and is conversant in IFRS, US GAAP and SEC accounting issues. Said consultant is being retained to assist us in our ongoing development of our comprehensive US GAAP accounting policies, financial reporting procedures and internal controls over financial reporting; and

•        increasing the accounting resources in Denmark.

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A significant deficiency is a control deficiency, or a combination of control deficiencies, that adversely affects our ability to initiate, authorize, record, process, or report external financial data reliably in accordance with US GAAP such that there is more than a remote likelihood that a misstatement of our annual or interim financial statements that is more than inconsequential will not be prevented or detected by our employees. A material weakness is a significant deficiency, or combination of significant deficiencies, that results in more than a remote likelihood that a material misstatement of our annual or interim financial statement will not be prevented or detected by our employees. In response, we have begun the process of evaluating our internal control over financial reporting, although we may not complete our review until after this offering is completed. We have also taken several remedial actions set forth above to address these material weaknesses.

Furthermore, it is possible that, had our independent registered public accounting firm conducted an audit of our internal control over financial reporting such firm might have identified additional material weaknesses and deficiencies. Upon the completion of this offering, we will become a public company in the United States subject to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or Section 404, will require that we include a report of management on our internal control over financial reporting in our annual report on Form 10-K beginning with our annual report for the fiscal year ending December 31, 2022. In addition, once we cease to be an “emerging growth company” as such term is defined in the JOBS Act and a “smaller reporting company” as defined in Item 10(f)(1) of Regulation S-K, our independent registered public accounting firm must attest to and report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. Our management may conclude that our internal control over financial reporting is not effective. Moreover, even if our management concludes that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, our independent registered public accounting firm, after conducting its own independent testing, may issue a report that is qualified if it is not satisfied with our internal controls or the level at which our controls are documented, designed, operated or reviewed, or if it interprets the relevant requirements differently from us. In addition, after this Offering, our reporting obligations may place a significant strain on our management, operational and financial resources and systems for the foreseeable future. We may be unable to timely complete our evaluation, testing and any required remediation.

During the course of documenting and testing our internal control procedures in order to satisfy the requirements of Section 404, we may identify other weaknesses and deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting. In addition, if we fail to maintain the adequacy of our internal control over financial reporting, as these standards are modified, supplemented or amended from time to time, we may not be able to conclude on an ongoing basis that we have effective internal control over financial reporting in accordance with Section 404. If we fail to achieve and maintain an effective internal control environment, we could experience material misstatements in our financial statements and fail to meet our reporting obligations, which would likely cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information. This could in turn limit our access to capital markets, harm our results of operations, and lead to a decline in the trading price of our ordinary shares. Additionally, ineffective internal control over financial reporting could expose us to increased risk of fraud or misuse of corporate assets and subject us to potential delisting from The Nasdaq Stock Market, regulatory investigations and civil or criminal sanctions. We may also be required to restate our financial statements for prior periods.

Risks Related to the Discovery and Development of Our Therapeutic Candidates

Clinical trials are very expensive, time-consuming and difficult to design and implement, and involve uncertain outcomes. Furthermore, results of earlier preclinical studies and clinical trials may not be predictive of results of future preclinical studies or clinical trials.

The risk of failure for most of our therapeutic candidates is substantial. It is impossible to predict when or if any of our therapeutic candidates will prove effective or safe or effective in humans or will receive regulatory approval. To obtain the requisite regulatory approvals to market and sell any of our therapeutic candidates, we must demonstrate through extensive preclinical studies and clinical trials that our therapeutic candidates are safe and effective in humans for use in each target indication. Preclinical investigation and clinical testing is expensive and can take many years to complete, and the outcome is inherently uncertain. Failure can occur at any time during the preclinical investigation or clinical trial process, or during the regulatory approval process.

In addition, the results of preclinical studies and earlier clinical trials may not be predictive of the results of later-stage preclinical studies or clinical trials. The results generated to date in preclinical studies and clinical trials for our therapeutic candidates do not ensure that later preclinical studies or clinical trials will demonstrate similar results.

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Therapeutic candidates in later stages of clinical trials may fail to show the desired safety and efficacy traits despite having progressed through preclinical and earlier stage clinical trials. In later-stage clinical trials, we will likely be subject to more rigorous statistical analyses than in completed earlier stage clinical trials. A number of companies in the pharmaceutical industry have suffered significant setbacks in later-stage clinical trials due to adverse safety profiles or lack of efficacy, notwithstanding promising results in earlier trials, and we cannot be certain that we will not face similar setbacks. Moreover, preclinical and clinical data are often susceptible to varying interpretations and analyses, and many companies that have believed their therapeutic candidates performed satisfactorily in preclinical studies and clinical trials have nonetheless failed to obtain marketing approval of their products.

In some instances, there can be significant variability in safety or efficacy results between different clinical trials of the same therapeutic candidate due to numerous factors, including changes in clinical trial procedures set forth in protocols, differences in the size and type of the patient populations, adherence to the dosing regimen and other clinical trial protocols, and the rate of dropout among clinical trial participants. If we fail to produce positive results in our planned preclinical studies or clinical trials of any of our therapeutic candidates, the development timeline and regulatory approval and commercialization prospects for our therapeutic candidates, and, correspondingly, our business and financial prospects, would be materially and adversely affected.

We may encounter substantial delays in our preclinical studies or clinical trials or we may fail to demonstrate safety and efficacy to the satisfaction of applicable regulatory authorities.

Before obtaining marketing approval from regulatory authorities for the sale of our therapeutic candidates, we must conduct extensive clinical trials to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of the therapeutic candidate for its intended indications. Preclinical studies and clinical trials are expensive, time-consuming and uncertain as to outcome. We cannot guarantee that any preclinical studies or clinical trials will be conducted as planned or completed on schedule, if at all. A failure of one or more preclinical studies or clinical trials can occur at any stage of testing. Events that may prevent successful or timely completion of preclinical or clinical development include:

•        delays in conducting experiments or preclinical studies or unsatisfactory results from such experiments or studies;

•        delays in reaching a consensus with regulatory authorities on trial design;

•        delays in reaching agreement or failing to agree on acceptable terms with prospective CROs and clinical trial sites;

•        delays in opening sites and recruiting suitable patients to participate in our clinical trials;

•        delays in enrollment due to travel or quarantine policies, or other factors, related to COVID-19, other pandemics or other events outside our control;

•        imposition of a clinical hold by regulatory authorities as a result of a serious adverse event, concerns with a class of therapeutic candidates or after an inspection of our clinical trial operations or trial sites;

•        delays in having patients complete participation in a trial or return for post-treatment follow-up;

•        occurrence of serious adverse events associated with the therapeutic candidate that are viewed to outweigh its potential benefits; or

•        changes in regulatory requirements and guidance that require amending or submitting new clinical protocols.

For instance, the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and the measures taken by the governmental authorities could disrupt the supply chain and the manufacture or shipment of drug substances and finished drug products for our therapeutic candidates for use in our research and clinical trials, delay, limit or prevent our employees and CROs from continuing research and development activities, impede the ability of patients to enroll or continue in clinical trials, or impede testing, monitoring, data collection and analysis or other related activities, any of which could delay our clinical trials and increase our development costs, and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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Any inability to timely and successfully complete preclinical and clinical development could result in additional costs to us or impair our ability to achieve regulatory and commercialization milestones. In addition, if we make manufacturing or formulation changes to our therapeutic candidates, we may need to conduct additional testing to bridge our modified therapeutic candidate to earlier versions. Clinical trial delays could also shorten any periods during which we may have the exclusive right to commercialize our therapeutic candidates, if approved, or allow our competitors to bring comparable drugs to market before we do, which could impair our ability to successfully commercialize our therapeutic candidates and may harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Additionally, if the results of our clinical trials are inconclusive or if there are safety concerns or serious adverse events associated with our therapeutic candidates, we may:

•        be delayed in obtaining marketing approval, if at all;

•        obtain approval for indications or patient populations that are not as broad as intended or desired;

•        obtain approval with labeling that includes significant use or distribution restrictions or safety warnings;

•        be subject to additional post-marketing testing requirements;

•        be required to perform additional clinical trials to support approval or be subject to additional post-marketing testing requirements;

•        have regulatory authorities withdraw, or suspend, their approval of the drug or impose restrictions on its distribution in the form of a modified risk evaluation and mitigation strategy, or REMS;

•        be subject to the addition of labeling statements, such as warnings or contraindications;

•        be sued; or

•        experience damage to our reputation.

Our drug development costs will also increase if we experience delays in testing or obtaining marketing approvals. We do not know whether any of our preclinical studies or clinical trials will begin as planned, need to be restructured or be completed on schedule, if at all.

Further, we, the FDA or an institutional review board (“IRB”) may suspend our clinical trials at any time if it appears that we or our collaborators are failing to conduct a trial in accordance with regulatory requirements, including the FDA’s current Good Clinical Practice, (“GCP”), regulations, that we are exposing participants to unacceptable health risks or if the FDA finds deficiencies in our Investigational New Drug (“IND”) Applications, or INDs, or the conduct of these trials. Therefore, we cannot predict with any certainty the schedule for commencement and completion of future clinical trials. If we experience delays in the commencement or completion of our clinical trials, or if we terminate a clinical trial prior to completion, the commercial prospects of our therapeutic candidates could be negatively impacted, and our ability to generate revenues from our therapeutic candidates may be delayed or eliminated entirely.

If we encounter difficulties enrolling patients in our clinical trials, our clinical development activities could be delayed or otherwise adversely affected.

We may experience difficulties in patient enrollment in our clinical trials for a variety of reasons, including challenges resulting from the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. The timely completion of clinical trials in accordance with their protocols depends, among other things, on our ability to enroll a sufficient number of patients who remain in the study until its conclusion. The enrollment of patients depends on many factors, including:

•        the patient eligibility criteria defined in the protocol;

•        the size and health of the patient population required for analysis of the trial’s primary endpoints;

•        the proximity of patients to study sites;

•        the design of the trial;

•        our ability to recruit clinical trial investigators with the appropriate competencies and experience;

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•        clinicians’ and patients’ perceptions as to the potential advantages of the therapeutic candidate being studied in relation to other available therapies, including any new drugs that may be approved for the indications we are investigating;

•        our ability to obtain and maintain patient consents;

•        sufficient number of patients willing to consent to a recent biopsy; and

•        the risk that patients enrolled in clinical trials will drop out of the trials before completion.

In addition, our clinical trials will compete with other clinical trials for therapeutic candidates that are in the same therapeutic areas as our therapeutic candidates, and this competition will reduce the number and types of patients available to us, because some patients who might have opted to enroll in our trials may instead opt to enroll in a trial being conducted by one of our competitors. Since the number of qualified clinical investigators is limited, we expect to conduct some of our clinical trials at the same clinical trial sites that some of our competitors use, which will reduce the number of patients who are available for our clinical trials at such clinical trial site. Moreover, because our therapeutic candidates represent a departure from more commonly used methods for cancer treatment, potential patients and their doctors may be inclined to use conventional therapies rather than enroll patients in any future clinical trial.

Delays in patient enrollment may result in increased costs or may affect the timing or outcome of our current or planned clinical trials, which could prevent completion of these trials and adversely affect our ability to advance the development of our therapeutic candidates.

We may expend our limited resources to pursue a particular therapeutic candidate or indication and fail to capitalize on therapeutic candidates or indications that may be more profitable or for which there is a greater likelihood of success.

Because we have limited financial and managerial resources, we focus on research programs that we identify for specific indications using our proprietary DRP® companion diagnostics platform. As a result, we may forego or delay pursuit of opportunities with other therapeutic candidates or for other indications, even those that we have begun investigating and that may have shown promise, that later prove to have greater commercial potential. Our resource allocation decisions may cause us to fail to capitalize on viable commercial therapies or profitable market opportunities. Our spending on current and future research and development programs and therapeutic candidates for specific indications may not yield any commercially viable products. If we do not accurately evaluate the commercial potential or target market for a particular therapeutic candidate, we may relinquish valuable rights to that therapeutic candidate through collaboration, licensing or other royalty arrangements in cases in which it would have been more advantageous for us to retain sole development and commercialization rights to such therapeutic candidate.

We have limited experience in drug discovery and drug development and may not receive regulatory approval to market our therapeutic candidates.

Prior to the acquisition of our therapeutic candidates, we were not involved in and had no control over their preclinical and clinical development. In addition, we rely upon the parties from whom we have acquired our therapeutic candidates from to have conducted such research and development in accordance with the applicable protocol, legal, regulatory and scientific standards, having accurately reported the results of all clinical trials conducted prior to our acquisition of the applicable therapeutic candidate, and having correctly collected the data from these studies and trials. To the extent any of these has not occurred, our expected development time and costs may be increased, which could adversely affect our prospects for marketing approval of, and receiving any future revenue from, these therapeutic candidates.

In the near term, we are dependent on our ability to advance the development of our therapeutic candidates. If we are unable to submit an NDA to the U.S. FDA for our therapeutic candidate dovitinib, or initiate or complete the clinical development of, obtain marketing approval for or successfully commercialize our other therapeutic candidates, either alone or with a collaborator, or if we experience significant delays in doing so, our business could be substantially harmed.

Although we anticipate submitting an NDA to the FDA for our therapeutic candidate dovitinib during 2021, we currently do not have any drugs that have received regulatory approval and may never be able to develop marketable therapeutic candidates. We are investing a significant portion of our efforts and financial resources in the advancement

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of dovitinib, stenoparib, IXEMPRA®, and our other therapeutic candidates and in the development of our proprietary DRP® companion diagnostics platform. Our prospects are substantially dependent on our ability, or those of any future collaborator, to develop, obtain marketing approval for and successfully commercialize therapeutic candidates in one or more disease indications.

The success of dovitinib, stenoparib, IXEMPRA®, and our other therapeutic candidates will depend on several factors, including the following:

•        submission of an NDA for dovitinib to the FDA and receiving marketing approval for dovitinib for an indication of Renal Cell Carcinoma (“RCC”) together with our DRP® companion diagnostic;

•        advancing our DRP®-guided Phase 2 clinical trial of stenoparib as a treatment for ovarian cancer, being conducted at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (Boston, MA USA.) and our DRP®-guided Phase 2 clinical trial of IXEMPRA® as a treatment for metastatic breast cancer, being conducted at numerous locations in Europe;

•        initiation, progress, timing, costs and results of clinical trials of our other therapeutic candidates and potential therapeutic candidates;

•        establishment of a safety, tolerability and efficacy profile that is satisfactory to the FDA or any comparable foreign regulatory authority for marketing approval;

•        obtaining and maintaining patent, trade secret protection and regulatory exclusivity, both in the United States and relevant global markets;

•        the performance of our future collaborators, if any;

•        the extent of any required post-marketing approval commitments to applicable regulatory authorities;

•        establishment of supply arrangements with third-party raw materials suppliers and manufacturers;

•        establishment of arrangements with third-party manufacturers to obtain finished drug product that is appropriately packaged for sale;

•        protection of our rights in our intellectual property portfolio;

•        successful launch of commercial sales following any marketing approval;

•        a continued acceptable safety profile following any marketing approval;

•        commercial acceptance by patients, the medical community and third-party payors; and

•        our ability to compete with other therapies.

Many of these factors are beyond our control, including the results of clinical trials, the time required for the FDA or any comparable foreign regulatory authorities to review any regulatory submissions we may make, potential threats to our intellectual property rights and the manufacturing, marketing and sales efforts of any future collaborator. If we are unable to develop, receive marketing approval for and successfully commercialize dovitinib and our other therapeutic candidates, on our own or with any future collaborator or experience delays as a result of any of these factors or otherwise, our business could be substantially harmed. The regulatory approval processes of the FDA and comparable foreign authorities are lengthy, time consuming, expensive and inherently unpredictable, and if we are ultimately unable to obtain regulatory approval for our therapeutic candidates, our business will be substantially harmed.

The time required to obtain approval by the FDA and comparable foreign authorities is unpredictable but can take many years following the commencement of clinical trials and depends upon numerous factors, including the substantial discretion of the regulatory authorities. The results of preclinical studies and early clinical trials of our therapeutic candidates may not be predictive of the results of later-stage clinical trials. Therapeutic candidates in later stages of clinical trials may fail to show the desired safety and efficacy traits despite having progressed through preclinical studies and initial clinical trials. It is not uncommon for companies in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries to suffer significant setbacks in advanced clinical trials due to nonclinical findings made while clinical

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studies were underway and safety or efficacy observations made in clinical studies, including previously unreported adverse events. Our future clinical trial results may not be successful, and notwithstanding any potential promising results in earlier studies, we cannot be certain that we will not face similar setbacks. The historical failure rate for therapeutic candidates in our industry is high. In addition, approval policies, regulations, or the type and amount of clinical data necessary to gain approval may change during the course of a therapeutic candidate’s clinical development and may vary among jurisdictions. We have not obtained final regulatory approval for any therapeutic candidate and it is possible that none of our existing therapeutic candidates or any therapeutic candidates we may seek to develop in the future will ever obtain regulatory approval.

Our therapeutic candidates could fail to receive regulatory clearance or marketing approval for many reasons, including the following:

•        the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may disagree with the design or implementation of our clinical trials, including, but not limited to, the use of genomic or biomarker signatures to identify patients that may respond to drug efficacy;

•        we may be unable to demonstrate to the satisfaction of the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities that a therapeutic candidate is safe and effective for its proposed indication;

•        we may be unable to identify and recruit a sufficient number of patients with relevant genomic or biomarker signatures in order to conduct clinical trials on our therapeutic candidates or the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may not approve a DRP® companion diagnostic that is required to select patients responsive to one of our therapeutic candidates;

•        the results of clinical trials may not meet the level of statistical significance required by the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities for approval;

•        the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may disagree with our interpretation of data from preclinical studies or clinical trials;

•        the data collected from clinical trials of our therapeutic candidates may not be sufficient to support the submission of an NDA, or other submission or to obtain regulatory approval in the United States or elsewhere;

•        the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may fail to approve the manufacturing processes or facilities of third-party manufacturers with which we contract for clinical and commercial supplies; and

•        the approval policies or regulations of the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may significantly change in a manner rendering our clinical data insufficient for approval.

We have not previously completed all clinical trials for any of our therapeutic candidates and we are relying on the clinical trial results of others to advance dovitinib to the submission of an NDA with the FDA. Consequently, we may not have the necessary capabilities, including adequate staffing, to successfully manage the execution and completion of any clinical trials we initiate in a way that leads to our obtaining marketing approval for our therapeutic candidates in a timely manner, or at all. This lengthy approval process as well as the unpredictability of future clinical trial results may result in our failing to obtain regulatory approval to market our therapeutic candidates, which would significantly harm our business, results of operations and prospects.

In addition, even if we were to obtain approval, regulatory authorities may approve any of our therapeutic candidates for fewer or more limited indications than we request, may not approve the price we intend to charge for our drugs, may grant approval contingent on the performance of costly post-marketing clinical trials, may approve a therapeutic candidate with a label that does not include the labeling claims necessary or desirable for the successful commercialization of that therapeutic candidate or may restrict its distribution. Any of the foregoing restrictions or requirements could materially harm the commercial prospects for our therapeutic candidates.

We have not previously submitted an NDA to the FDA or similar drug approval filings to comparable foreign authorities, for any therapeutic candidate, and we cannot be certain that any of our therapeutic candidates will be successful in clinical trials or receive regulatory approval. Further, our therapeutic candidates may not receive regulatory approval even if they are successful in clinical trials. If we do not receive regulatory approvals for our therapeutic candidates, we may not be able to continue our operations. Even if we successfully obtain regulatory approvals to market

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one or more of our therapeutic candidates, our revenues will be dependent, in part, upon the size of the markets in the territories for which we gain regulatory approval and have commercial rights. If the markets for patients that we are targeting for our therapeutic candidates are not as significant as we estimate, or if the price we charge for our therapeutic candidate is too high, we may not generate significant revenues from sales of such drugs, if approved.

We plan to seek regulatory approval to commercialize our therapeutic candidates both in the United States and the European Union and in additional foreign countries. While the scope of regulatory approval is similar in other countries, to obtain separate regulatory approval in many other countries we must comply with numerous and varying regulatory requirements of such countries regarding safety and efficacy and governing, among other things, clinical trials and possible limitations placed upon commercial sales, pricing and distribution of our therapeutic candidates, and we cannot predict success in these jurisdictions.

Our business strategy of using our proprietary DRP® companion diagnostics platform to advance therapeutic candidates that have previously failed therapeutic clinical trial endpoints in Phase 2 or later clinical trials conducted by others and that we believe may be successfully developed with a DRP® companion diagnostic may not be successful, and important issues relating to safety and efficacy remain to be resolved for most of our therapeutic candidates. Our strategy also involves risks and uncertainties that differ from other biotechnology companies that focus solely on new therapeutic candidates that do not have a history of failed clinical trials.

Our therapeutic candidate portfolio includes small molecules that others have tried, but failed, to develop into an approved commercialized drug. Our strategy to use our proprietary DRP® companion diagnostics platform to identify and subsequently clinically advance therapeutic candidates that have previously failed clinical trial endpoints but that we believe have potential to succeed with a DRP® companion diagnostic may not be successful.

Our business strategy includes a focus on leveraging our proprietary DRP® companion diagnostics platform to streamline the drug development process and to identify patients that will benefit from therapeutic candidates that other biotechnology or pharmaceutical companies have abandoned or shelved after initiating clinical trials under an IND application filed with the FDA, including candidates that have failed to achieve statistical significance on the original endpoints established in the clinical trials. We use our proprietary DRP® companion diagnostics platform to advance therapeutic candidates by targeting and evaluating patient sub-populations having gene signatures, determined by our DRP® companion diagnostics platform, that will potentially correlate with drug efficacy and patient response to treatment. While we have not yet successfully received regulatory or marketing approval for any of our therapeutic candidates or companion diagnostics, and while we believe that our approach has the potential to reduce the cost and time of drug development through the identification and selection of patient populations more likely to respond to therapy, our strategy involves risks and uncertainties that differ from other biotechnology companies that focus solely on new therapeutic candidates that do not have a history of failed clinical development. These risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, the following:

•        The remaining term of the initial patents filed with respect to a therapeutic candidate may be significantly less than the patent term for a newly discovered therapeutic candidate;

•        Potential out-licensees, alliance partners and collaborators may view a therapeutic candidate identified with our proprietary DRP® companion diagnostics platform with more skepticism because of its history of failed clinical trials, thereby requiring a higher level of additional data and further explanations of mechanisms of action in order to overcome this skepticism and obtain commercially reasonable terms for future development or collaboration;

•        key personnel and institutional knowledge relating to a therapeutic candidate that we couple with a DRP® companion diagnostic may no longer be available for us;

•        The current standard of care in the targeted therapeutic indication for the DRP® companion diagnostic-selected patient population may be different than the standard of care that existed during the candidate’s last clinical trial, which will require more time and resources from us to reassess and redesign the regulatory development path for the DRP® -coupled therapeutic candidate; and

•        The DRP®-coupled therapeutic candidate may be perceived to be in an “older” therapeutic drug type or focus area of oncology, thereby generating less enthusiasm and support compared to therapeutic focus areas of oncology that may be perceived as more recent.

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We are dependent on Smerud Medical Research International for the development of LiPlaCis® and 2X-111.

We have out-licensed both LiPlaCis® and 2X-111, to our long-time CRO partner Smerud Medical Research International, in our efforts to advance the clinical development of these assets. Smerud intends to conduct expanded enrollment of a DRP®-guided Phase 2 clinical trial in Europe for LiPlaCis® and 2X-111, with the intent of establishing sufficient clinical results to garner the interest of a larger pharmaceutical acquirer or partner to advance the programs through Phase 3 clinical trials and, if approved, to market. Although Smerud will be solely responsible for the development of LiPlaCis® and 2X-111, we intend to support both of these clinical trials with our proprietary DRP® companion diagnostics and our clinical trial and regulatory expertise. Under the agreement, we are entitled to receive certain specified milestone payments from Smerud and we are also entitled to receive royalty payments based on incremental levels of annual sales of LiPlaCis® and 2X-111 by Smerud or any third-party program acquirer. As a result of the license agreement with Smerud, we are completely dependent on Smerud for the development of LiPlaCis® and 2X-111.

We may depend on enrollment of patients with specific genomic or biomarker signatures, identified through DRP® companion diagnostics, in our clinical trials in order for us to continue development of our therapeutic candidates. If we are unable to enroll patients with specific genomic or biomarker signatures in our clinical trials, our research, development and commercialization efforts could be adversely affected.

The timely completion of clinical trials in accordance with their protocols depends, among other things, on our ability to enroll a sufficient number of patients with genomic or biomarker signatures we have identified by our DRP® companion diagnostics platform, and who remain in the study until its conclusion. We may experience difficulties in patient enrollment in our clinical trials for a variety of reasons. Patient enrollment is affected by many factors including the size and nature of the patient population with the specific genomic or biomarker signature we have identified, the proximity of patients to clinical sites, the eligibility criteria for the trial, the design of the clinical trial, the size of the patient population required for analysis of the trial’s primary endpoints, the proximity of patients to study sites, our ability to recruit clinical trial investigators with the appropriate competencies and experience, our ability to obtain and maintain patient consents, the risk that patients enrolled in clinical trials will drop out of the trials before completion, and competing clinical trials and clinicians’ and patients’ perceptions as to the potential advantages of the drug being studied in relation to other available therapies, including any new drugs that may be approved for the indications we are investigating. We will compete with other pharmaceutical companies for clinical sites, physicians and the limited number of patients who fulfill the stringent requirements for participation in oncology clinical trials. Also, due to the confidential nature of clinical trials, we do not know how many of the eligible patients may be enrolled in competing studies and who are consequently not available to us for our clinical trials. Our clinical trials may be delayed or terminated due to the inability to enroll enough patients. The delay or inability to meet planned patient enrollment may result in increased costs and delay or termination of our trials, which could have a harmful effect on our ability to develop drugs.

Delays in clinical testing could result in increased costs to us and delay our ability to generate revenue.

Although we intend to advance our ongoing DRP®-guided Phase 2 clinical trial of stenoparib as a treatment for ovarian cancer, being conducted at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (Boston, MA USA.) and our ongoing DRP®-guided Phase 2 clinical trial of IXEMPRA® as a treatment for metastatic breast cancer, being conducted at numerous locations in Europe, we are planning for certain clinical trials relating to our other therapeutic candidates, or for other indications of all of our therapeutic candidates, there can be no assurance that the FDA will accept our proposed trial designs. We may experience delays in our clinical trials and we do not know whether planned clinical trials will begin on time, need to be redesigned, enroll patients on time or be completed on schedule, if at all. Clinical trials can be delayed for a variety of reasons, including delays related to:

•        obtaining regulatory clearance to commence a trial or obtaining regulatory approval to utilize a DRP® companion diagnostic in a trial to select and treat patients;

•        reaching agreement on acceptable terms with prospective contract research organizations, or CROs, and clinical trial sites, the terms of which can be subject to extensive negotiation and may vary significantly among different CROs and trial sites;

•        delays in our CRO’s schedules relating to testing patients involved in our clinical trials;

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•        obtaining institutional review board, or IRB, approval at each site;

•        recruiting suitable patients to participate in a trial;

•        identifying clinical sites with adequate infrastructure (including data collection) to conduct the trial;

•        clinical sites deviating from trial protocol or dropping out of a trial;

•        addressing patient safety concerns that arise during the course of a trial;

•        having patients complete a trial or return for post-treatment follow-up;

•        adding a sufficient number of clinical trial sites; or

•        manufacturing sufficient quantities and quality of a therapeutic candidate for use in clinical trials.

We may also experience numerous unforeseen events during, or as a result of, clinical trials that could delay or prevent our ability to receive marketing approval or commercialize our therapeutic candidates, including:

•        we may receive feedback from regulatory authorities that requires us to modify the design of our clinical trials;

•        we may not have the ability to test patients for our clinical trials that require a specific genomic or biomarker signature in order to qualify for enrollment;

•        clinical trials of our therapeutic candidates may produce negative or inconclusive results, and we may decide, or regulators may require us, to conduct additional clinical trials or abandon drug development programs;

•        the number of patients required for clinical trials of our therapeutic candidates may be larger than we anticipate, enrollment in these clinical trials may be slower than we anticipate or participants may drop out of these clinical trials at a higher rate than we anticipate;

•        our third-party contractors may fail to comply with regulatory requirements or meet their contractual obligations to us in a timely manner, or at all;

•        the cost of clinical trials of our therapeutic candidates may be greater than we anticipate;

•        the supply or quality of our therapeutic candidates or other materials necessary to conduct clinical trials of our therapeutic candidates may be insufficient or inadequate;

•        regulators may revise the requirements for approving our therapeutic candidates, or such requirements may not be as we anticipate; and

•        any future collaborators that conduct clinical trials may face any of the above issues, and may conduct clinical trials in ways they view as advantageous to themselves but that are suboptimal for us.

If we are required to conduct additional clinical trials or other testing of our therapeutic candidates beyond those that we currently contemplate, if we are unable to successfully complete clinical trials of our therapeutic candidates or other testing, if the results of these trials or tests are not positive or are only modestly positive or if there are safety concerns, we may:

•        incur unplanned costs;

•        be delayed in obtaining marketing approval for our therapeutic candidates or not obtain marketing approval at all;

•        obtain marketing approval in some countries and not in others;

•        obtain marketing approval for indications or patient populations that are not as broad as intended or desired;

•        obtain marketing approval with labeling that includes significant use or distribution restrictions or safety warnings, including boxed warnings;

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•        be subject to additional post-marketing testing requirements; or

•        have the drug removed from the market after obtaining marketing approval.

Furthermore, we intend to rely on CROs, cancer research centers and clinical trial sites to ensure the proper and timely conduct of our clinical trials and we intend to have agreements governing their committed activities. They may not perform as required or we may face competition from other clinical trials being conducted by other pharmaceutical companies.

We could encounter delays if a clinical trial is suspended or terminated by us, by the Institutional Review Board or IRB of the institutions in which such trials are being conducted, by the Data Safety Monitoring Board, or DSMB, for such trial or by the FDA or other regulatory authorities. Such authorities may impose such a suspension or termination due to a number of factors, including failure to conduct the clinical trial in accordance with regulatory requirements or our clinical protocols, inspection of the clinical trial operations or trial site by the FDA or other regulatory authorities resulting in the imposition of a clinical hold, unforeseen safety issues or adverse side effects, failure to demonstrate a benefit from using a drug, changes in governmental regulations or administrative actions or lack of adequate funding to continue the clinical trial.

Further, conducting clinical trials in foreign countries, as we may do for our current and future therapeutic candidates, presents additional risks that may delay completion of our clinical trials. These risks include the failure of enrolled patients in foreign countries to adhere to clinical protocol as a result of differences in healthcare services or cultural customs, managing additional administrative burdens associated with foreign regulatory schemes, as well as political and economic risks relevant to such foreign countries.

If we experience delays in the completion of, or termination of, any clinical trial of our therapeutic candidates, the commercial prospects of our therapeutic candidates will be harmed, and our ability to generate revenues from any of these therapeutic candidates will be delayed. In addition, any delays in completing our clinical trials will increase our costs, slow down our therapeutic candidate development and approval process and jeopardize our ability to commence drug sales and generate revenues. Any of these occurrences may harm our business, financial condition and prospects significantly. In addition, many of the factors that cause, or lead to, a delay in the commencement or completion of clinical trials may also ultimately lead to the denial of regulatory approval of our therapeutic candidates.

Our therapeutic candidates may cause undesirable side effects or have other properties that could delay or prevent their regulatory approval, limit the commercial profile of an approved label, or result in significant negative consequences following marketing approval, if any.

Undesirable side effects caused by our therapeutic candidates could cause us or regulatory authorities to interrupt, delay or halt clinical trials and could result in a more restrictive label or the delay or denial of regulatory approval by the FDA or other comparable foreign authorities. The clinical evaluation of some of our therapeutic candidates in patients is still in the early stages and it is possible that there may be side effects associated with their use. In such an event, we, the FDA, the IRBs at the institutions in which our studies are conducted, or the DSMB could suspend or terminate our clinical trials or the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities could order us to cease clinical trials or deny approval of our therapeutic candidates for any or all targeted indications. Treatment-related side effects could also affect patient recruitment or the ability of enrolled patients to complete the clinical trial or result in potential product liability claims. In addition, these side effects may not be appropriately recognized or managed by the treating medical staff. We expect to have to train medical personnel using our therapeutic candidates to understand the side effect profiles for our clinical trials and upon any commercialization of any of our therapeutic candidates. Inadequate training in recognizing or managing the potential side effects of our therapeutic candidates could result in patient injury or death. Any of these occurrences may harm our business, financial condition and prospects significantly.

Additionally, if one or more of our therapeutic candidates receives marketing approval, and we or others later identify undesirable side effects caused by such drugs, a number of potentially significant negative consequences could result, including:

•        regulatory authorities may withdraw approvals of such drugs;

•        we may be required to recall a drug or change the way such a drug is administered to patients;

•        additional restrictions may be imposed on the marketing or distribution of the particular drug or the manufacturing processes for the drug or any component thereof;

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•        regulatory authorities may require additional warnings on the label, such as a “black box” warning or contraindication;

•        we may be required to implement Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies, or REMS, or create a medication guide outlining the risks of such side effects for distribution to patients;

•        we could be sued and held liable for harm caused to patients;

•        our drug may become less competitive; and

•        our reputation may suffer.

Any of these events could prevent us from achieving or maintaining market acceptance of the particular therapeutic candidate or for particular indications of a therapeutic candidate, if approved, and could significantly harm our business, results of operations and prospects.

We are leveraging our proprietary DRP® companion diagnostics platform in an attempt to create a pipeline of therapeutic candidates using biomarker identification and patient stratification for the development of oncology drugs in a personalized medicine approach. While we believe that applying our proprietary DRP® companion diagnostics platform to drugs that have failed, been abandoned or otherwise failed to meet clinical endpoints and then developing a precision oncology approach that identifies the mechanism of action, potential combination drug usage and potentially responsive patient population is a powerful strategy, our approach is both innovative and has not been approved by the FDA or any equivalent foreign regulatory authority. While we have retrospectively validated our proprietary DRP® companion diagnostics platform in 35 clinical trials conducted by other companies, we have not yet received approval from the FDA or other regulatory agency to market a companion diagnostic. Because our approach is both innovative and in the early stages of development, the cost and time needed to develop our therapeutic candidates is difficult to predict, and our efforts may not result in the successful discovery and development of commercially viable medicines. We may also be incorrect about the effects of our therapeutic candidates on the diseases of our defined patient populations, which may limit the utility of our approach or the perception of the utility of our approach. Furthermore, our estimates of our defined patient populations available for study and treatment may be lower than expected, which could adversely affect our ability to conduct clinical trials and may also adversely affect the size of any market for medicines we may successfully commercialize. Our approach may not result in time savings, higher success rates or reduced costs as we expect it to, and if not, we may not attract collaborators or develop new drugs as quickly or cost effectively as expected and therefore we may not be able to commercialize our approach as originally expected.

Our proprietary DRP® companion diagnostics platform may fail to help us select and treat likely responder patients for our therapeutic candidates or help us identify additional potential therapeutic candidates.

Any drug development that we are conducting using our proprietary DRP® companion diagnostics platform may not be successful or have commercial value or therapeutic utility. Our proprietary DRP® companion diagnostics platform may initially show promise in identifying potential therapeutic candidates, yet fail to yield viable therapeutic candidates for clinical development or commercialization for a number of reasons, including:

•        research programs to identify new therapeutic candidates will require substantial technical, financial and human resources, and we may be unsuccessful in our efforts to identify new therapeutic candidates. If we are unable to identify suitable additional compounds for preclinical and clinical development, our ability to develop therapeutic candidates and obtain product revenues in future periods could be compromised, which could result in significant harm to our financial position and adversely impact our stock price;

•        compounds identified through our proprietary DRP® companion diagnostics platform may not demonstrate efficacy, safety or tolerability at levels acceptable to regulatory authorities;

•        our a DRP® companion diagnostics platform may fail to successfully identify likely responder patients and therefore not yield greater therapeutic benefit than observed in un-selected patients.

•        potential therapeutic candidates may, on further study, be shown to have harmful side effects or other characteristics that indicate that they are unlikely to receive marketing approval and achieve market acceptance;

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•        competitors may develop alternative therapies that render our potential therapeutic candidates non-competitive or less attractive; or

•        a potential therapeutic candidate may not be capable of being produced at an acceptable cost.

Any failure by us to comply with existing regulations could harm our reputation and operating results.

We will be subject to extensive regulation by U.S. federal and state and foreign governments in each of the markets where we intend to sell our therapeutic candidates if and after they are approved. For example, we will have to adhere to all regulatory requirements including the FDA’s current GCPs, Good Laboratory Practice, or GLP, and GMP requirements. If we fail to comply with applicable regulations, including FDA pre-or post- approval cGMP requirements, then the FDA or other foreign regulatory authorities could sanction us. Even if a drug is FDA-approved, regulatory authorities may impose significant restrictions on a drug’s indicated uses or marketing or impose ongoing requirements for potentially costly post-marketing studies.

Any action against us for violation of these laws, even if we successfully defend against it, could cause us to incur significant legal expenses, divert our management’s attention from the operation of our business and damage our reputation. We will need to expend significant resources on compliance efforts and such expenses are unpredictable and might adversely affect our results.

The FDA’s and other regulatory authorities’ policies may change and additional government regulations may be enacted that could prevent, limit or delay regulatory approval of our therapeutic candidates. For example, in December 2016, the 21st Century Cures Act, or Cures Act, was signed into law. The Cures Act, among other things, is intended to modernize the regulation of drugs and spur innovation, but its ultimate implementation is unclear. If we are slow or unable to adapt to changes in existing requirements or the adoption of new requirements or policies, or if we are not able to maintain regulatory compliance, we may lose any marketing approval that we may have obtained and we may not achieve or sustain profitability, which would adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

In addition, we cannot predict the likelihood, nature or extent of government regulation that may arise from future legislation or administrative or executive action, either in the United States or abroad. If we are slow or unable to adapt to changes in existing requirements or the adoption of new requirements or policies, or if we are not able to maintain regulatory compliance, we may lose any marketing approval that we may have obtained and we may not achieve or sustain profitability.

We may be subject to extensive regulations outside the United States and may not obtain marketing approvals for drugs in Europe and other jurisdictions.

In addition to regulations in the United States, should we or our collaborators pursue marketing approvals for our therapeutic candidates internationally, we and our collaborators will be subject to a variety of regulations in other jurisdictions governing, among other things, clinical trials and any commercial sales and distribution of our drugs. Whether or not we, or our collaborators, obtain applicable FDA regulatory clearance and marketing approval for a drug, we must obtain the requisite approvals from regulatory authorities in foreign countries prior to the commencement of clinical trials or marketing of the drug in those countries. The requirements and process governing the conduct of clinical trials, drug licensing, pricing and reimbursement vary from country to country.

We expect to pursue marketing approvals for IXEMPRA® and our other therapeutic candidates in Europe and other jurisdictions outside the United States with collaborative partners. The time and process required to obtain regulatory approvals and reimbursement in Europe and other jurisdictions may be different from those in the United States regulatory and approval in one jurisdiction does not ensure approvals in any other jurisdiction; however, negative regulatory decisions in any jurisdiction may have a negative impact on the regulatory process in other jurisdictions.

Additionally, on June 23, 2016, the electorate in the United Kingdom voted in favor of leaving the European Union, commonly referred to as Brexit. On March 29, 2017, the country formally notified the European Union of its intention to withdraw pursuant to Article 50 of the Lisbon Treaty triggering a two-year period for the United Kingdom to formally leave the European Union. Following a series of extensions to leave the European Union, on January 31, 2020, the United Kingdom officially left the European Union commencing a transition period in which the United Kingdom is required to continue to follow all European Union rules and trading relationships, but will no longer be

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represented in the European Parliament. During the transition period, the United Kingdom and the European Union will engage in negotiations for new trade agreements and, among other things, the regulation of their pharmaceutical industries. Since a significant proportion of the regulatory framework in the United Kingdom is derived from European Union directives and regulations, the transition period could materially impact the regulatory regime with respect to the approval of our therapeutic candidates in the United Kingdom or the European Union. Any delay in obtaining, or an inability to obtain, any marketing approvals, as a result of Brexit or otherwise, would prevent us from commercializing our therapeutic candidates in the United Kingdom and/or the European Union and restrict our ability to generate revenue and achieve and sustain profitability. If any of these outcomes occur, we may be forced to restrict or delay efforts to seek regulatory approval in the United Kingdom and/or European Union for our therapeutic candidates, which could materially and adversely affect our business.

Our business operations and current and future relationships with investigators, healthcare professionals, consultants, third-party payors and customers will be subject, directly or indirectly, to federal and state healthcare fraud and abuse laws, false claims laws, transparency laws, health information privacy and security laws and other healthcare laws and regulations. If we are unable to comply, or have not fully complied, with such laws, we could face substantial penalties.

Although we do not currently have any therapeutic products on the market, our current and future operations may be, directly or indirectly through our prescribers, customers and third-party payors, subject to various U.S. federal and state healthcare laws and regulations, including, without limitation, the U.S. federal Anti-Kickback Statute, the U.S. federal civil and criminal false claims laws and the Physician Payments Sunshine Act and regulations. Healthcare providers, physicians and others play a primary role in the recommendation and prescription of any products for which we obtain marketing approval. These laws may impact, among other things, our current business operations, including our clinical research activities, and proposed sales, marketing and education programs and constrain the business of financial arrangements and relationships with healthcare providers, physicians and other parties through which we may market, sell and distribute our therapeutic products for which we obtain marketing approval. In addition, we may be subject to patient data privacy and security regulation by both the U.S. federal government and the states in which we conduct our business. Finally, we may be subject to additional healthcare, statutory and regulatory requirements and enforcement by foreign regulatory authorities in jurisdictions in which we conduct our business. The laws that may affect our ability to operate include:

•        the U.S. federal Anti-Kickback Statute, which prohibits, among other things, persons or entities from knowingly and willfully soliciting, offering, receiving or paying any remuneration (including any kickback, bribe or certain rebates), directly or indirectly, overtly or covertly, in cash or in kind, to induce or reward either the referral of an individual for, or the purchase, lease, order or recommendation of, any good, facility, item or service, for which payment may be made, in whole or in part, under U.S. federal and state healthcare programs such as Medicare and Medicaid. A person or entity does not need to have actual knowledge of the statute or specific intent to violate it in order to have committed a violation;

•        the U.S. federal false claims, including the False Claims Act, which can be enforced through whistleblower actions, and civil monetary penalties laws, which, among other things, impose criminal and civil penalties against individuals or entities for knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, to the U.S. federal government, claims for payment or approval that are false or fraudulent, knowingly making, using or causing to be made or used, a false record or statement material to a false or fraudulent claim, or from knowingly making a false statement to avoid, decrease or conceal an obligation to pay money to the U.S. federal government. In addition, the government may assert that a claim including items and services resulting from a violation of the U.S. federal Anti-Kickback Statute constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the False Claims Act;

•        the U.S. federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, or HIPAA, which imposes criminal and civil liability for, among other things, knowingly and willfully executing, or attempting to execute, a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program, or knowingly and willfully falsifying, concealing or covering up a material fact or making any materially false statement, in connection with the delivery of, or payment for, healthcare benefits, items or services; similar to the U.S. federal Anti-Kickback Statute, a person or entity does not need to have actual knowledge of the statute or specific intent to violate it in order to have committed a violation;

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•        HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act of 2009, or HITECH, and its implementing regulations, and as amended again by the Modifications to the HIPAA Privacy, Security, Enforcement and Breach Notification Rules Under HITECH and the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act; Other Modifications to the HIPAA Rules, commonly referred to as the Final HIPAA Omnibus Rule, published in January 2013, which imposes certain obligations, including mandatory contractual terms, with respect to safeguarding the privacy, security and transmission of individually identifiable health information without appropriate authorization by covered entities subject to the Final HIPAA Omnibus Rule, i.e. health plans, healthcare clearinghouses and certain healthcare providers, as well as their business associates that perform certain services for or on their behalf involving the use or disclosure of individually identifiable health information;

•        the U.S. Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, which prohibits, among other things, the adulteration or misbranding of drugs, biologics and medical devices;

•        the U.S. federal legislation commonly referred to as Physician Payments Sunshine Act, enacted as part of the Affordable Care Act, and its implementing regulations, which requires certain manufacturers of drugs, devices, biologics and medical supplies that are reimbursable under Medicare, Medicaid or the Children’s Health Insurance Program to report annually to the CMS information related to certain payments and other transfers of value to physicians (defined to include doctors, dentists, optometrists, podiatrists and chiropractors) and teaching hospitals, as well as ownership and investment interests held by the physicians described above and their immediate family members;

•        analogous state laws and regulations, including: state anti-kickback and false claims laws, which may apply to our business practices, including, but not limited to, research, distribution, sales and marketing arrangements and claims involving healthcare items or services reimbursed by any third-party payor, including private insurers; state laws that require pharmaceutical companies to comply with the pharmaceutical industry’s voluntary compliance guidelines and the relevant compliance guidance promulgated by the U.S. federal government, or otherwise restrict payments that may be made to healthcare providers and other potential referral sources; state laws and regulations that require drug manufacturers to file reports relating to pricing and marketing information, which requires tracking gifts and other remuneration and items of value provided to healthcare professionals and entities; state and local laws requiring the registration of pharmaceutical sales representatives; and state laws governing the privacy and security of health information in certain circumstances, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and often are not preempted by HIPAA, thus complicating compliance efforts; and

•        European and other foreign law equivalents of each of the laws, including reporting requirements detailing interactions with and payments to healthcare providers.

Ensuring that our internal operations and future business arrangements with third parties comply with applicable healthcare laws and regulations will involve substantial costs. It is possible that governmental authorities will conclude that our business practices do not comply with current or future statutes, regulations, agency guidance or case law involving applicable fraud and abuse or other healthcare laws and regulations. If our operations are found to be in violation of any of the laws described above or any other governmental laws and regulations that may apply to us, we may be subject to significant penalties, including civil, criminal and administrative penalties, damages, fines, exclusion from U.S. government funded healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, or similar programs in other countries or jurisdictions, disgorgement, imprisonment, contractual damages, reputational harm, diminished profits, additional reporting requirements and oversight if we become subject to a corporate integrity agreement or similar agreement to resolve allegations of non-compliance with these laws and the delay, reduction, termination or restructuring of our operations. Further, defending against any such actions can be costly and time-consuming, and may require significant financial and personnel resources. Therefore, even if we are successful in defending against any such actions that may be brought against us, our business may be impaired. If any of the physicians or other providers or entities with whom we expect to do business is found to not be in compliance with applicable laws, they may be subject to significant criminal, civil or administrative sanctions, including exclusions from government funded healthcare programs and imprisonment. If any of the above occur, it could adversely affect our ability to operate our business and our results of operations.

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Failure to comply with current or future federal, state and foreign laws and regulations and industry standards relating to privacy and data protection laws could lead to government enforcement actions (which could include civil or criminal penalties), private litigation, and/or adverse publicity and could negatively affect our operating results and business.

We and our collaborators and third-party providers may be subject to federal, state and foreign data privacy and security laws and regulations. In the U.S., numerous federal and state laws and regulations, including federal health information privacy laws, state data breach notification laws, state health information privacy laws and federal and state consumer protection laws, such as Section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act, that govern the collection, use, disclosure and protection of health-related and other personal information could apply to our operations or the operations of our collaborators and third-party providers.

In many jurisdictions, enforcement actions and consequences for noncompliance are rising. In the U.S., these include enforcement actions in response to rules and regulations promulgated under the authority of federal agencies and state attorneys general and legislatures and consumer protection agencies. In addition, privacy advocates and industry groups have regularly proposed, and may propose in the future, self-regulatory standards that may legally or contractually apply to us. If we fail to follow these security standards, even if no customer information is compromised, we may incur significant fines or experience a significant increase in costs. Many state legislatures have adopted legislation that regulates how businesses operate online, including measures relating to privacy, data security and data breaches. Laws in all 50 states require businesses to provide notice to customers whose personally identifiable information has been disclosed as a result of a data breach. The laws are not consistent, and compliance in the event of a widespread data breach is costly. States are also constantly amending existing laws, requiring attention to frequently changing regulatory requirements. Furthermore, California recently enacted the California Consumer Privacy Act (the “CCPA”), which became effective in January 2020. The CCPA gives California residents expanded rights to access and delete their personal information, opt out of certain personal information sharing and receive detailed information about how their personal information is used. The CCPA provides for civil penalties for violations, as well as a private right of action for data breaches that is expected to increase data breach litigation. At this time, we do not collect personal data on residents of California but should we begin to do so, the CCPA will impose new and burdensome privacy compliance obligations on our business and will raise new risks for potential fines and class actions.

Foreign data protection laws, including EU General Data Protection Regulation (the “GDPR”), may also apply to health-related and other personal information obtained outside of the U.S. The GDPR, which came into effect in 2018, introduced new data protection requirements in the European Union, as well as potential fines for noncompliant companies of up to the greater of €20.0 million or 4% of annual global revenue. The regulation imposes numerous new requirements for the collection, use and disclosure of personal information, including more stringent requirements relating to consent and the information that must be shared with data subjects about how their personal information is used, the obligation to notify regulators and affected individuals of personal data breaches, extensive new internal privacy governance obligations and obligations to honor expanded rights of individuals in relation to their personal information (e.g., the right to access, correct and delete their data). Among other requirements, the GDPR regulates transfers of personal data subject to the GDPR to third countries that have not been found to provide adequate protection to such personal data, including the U.S., and the efficacy and longevity of current transfer mechanisms between the EU and the U.S. remains uncertain. For example, in 2016, the EU and U.S. agreed to a transfer framework for data transferred from the EU to the U.S., called the Privacy Shield, but the Privacy Shield was invalidated in July 2020 by the Court of Justice of the European Union. Because we undertake clinical trials in Europe, we are subject to the GDPR and as a result will increase our responsibility and potential liability in relation to personal data that we process, and we may be required to put in place additional mechanisms to ensure compliance with the new EU data protection rules.

Compliance with U.S. and foreign data protection laws and regulations could require us to take on more onerous obligations in our contracts, restrict our ability to collect, use and disclose data, or in some cases, impact our ability to operate in certain jurisdictions. Failure by us or our collaborators and third-party providers to comply with U.S. and foreign data protection laws and regulations could result in government enforcement actions (which could include civil or criminal penalties), private litigation and/or adverse publicity and could negatively affect our operating results and business. Moreover, clinical trial subjects about whom we or our potential collaborators obtain information, as well as the providers who share this information with us, may contractually limit our ability to use and disclose the information. Claims that we have violated individuals’ privacy rights, failed to comply with data protection laws or breached our contractual obligations, even if we are not found liable, could be expensive and time consuming to defend, could result in adverse publicity and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

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Our inability to obtain or retain sufficient clinical trial liability insurance at an acceptable cost to protect against potential liability claims could prevent or inhibit our ability to conduct clinical trials for therapeutic candidates we develop.

Although we currently have clinical trial liability insurance, in the future we may need to secure additional coverage before commencing patient enrollment for our clinical trials in the United States or other jurisdictions. Any claim that may be brought against us could result in a court judgment or settlement in an amount that is not covered, in whole or in part, by our existing insurance or that is in excess of the limits of our insurance coverage. We expect we will supplement our clinical trial coverage with product liability coverage in connection with the commercial launch of dovitinib or other therapeutic candidates we develop in the future; however, we may be unable to obtain such increased coverage on acceptable terms or at all. If we are found liable in a clinical trial lawsuit or a product liability lawsuit in the future, we will have to pay any amounts awarded by a court or negotiated in a settlement that exceed our coverage limitations or that are not covered by our insurance, and we may not have, or be able to obtain, sufficient capital to pay such amounts.

The FDA and other regulatory agencies actively enforce the laws and regulations prohibiting the promotion of off-label uses.

If we are found to have improperly promoted off-label uses of our drugs or therapeutic candidates, if approved, we may become subject to significant liability. Such enforcement has become more common in the industry. The FDA and other regulatory agencies strictly regulate the promotional claims that may be made about prescription drug products, such as our therapeutic candidates, if approved. In particular, a drug may not be promoted for uses that are not approved by the FDA or such other regulatory agencies as reflected in the drug’s approved labeling. If we receive marketing approval for our therapeutic candidates for our proposed indications, physicians may nevertheless use our drugs for their patients in a manner that is inconsistent with the approved label, if the physicians personally believe in their professional medical judgment it could be used in such manner. However, if we are found to have promoted our drugs for any off-label uses, the federal government could levy civil, criminal and/or administrative penalties, and seek fines against us. The FDA or other regulatory authorities could also request that we enter into a consent decree or a corporate integrity agreement, or seek a permanent injunction against us under which specified promotional conduct is monitored, changed or curtailed. If we cannot successfully manage the promotion of our therapeutic candidates, if approved, we could become subject to significant liability, which would materially adversely affect our business and financial condition.

Risks Related to the Approval and Commercialization of Our Therapeutic Candidates

Even if we are successful in completing all preclinical studies and clinical trials, we may not be successful in commercializing one or more of our therapeutic candidates.

Even if we complete the necessary preclinical studies and clinical trials, the marketing approval process is expensive, time-consuming and uncertain and may prevent us from obtaining approvals for the commercialization of some or all of our therapeutic candidates. If we are not able to obtain, or if there are delays in obtaining, required regulatory approvals, we will not be able to commercialize our therapeutic candidates, and our ability to generate revenue will be materially impaired.

Our therapeutic candidates and the activities associated with their development and commercialization, including their design, testing, manufacture, safety, efficacy, recordkeeping, labeling, storage, approval, advertising, promotion, sale and distribution, export and import are subject to comprehensive regulation by the FDA and other regulatory agencies in the United States and by the EMA and similar regulatory authorities outside of the United States. Failure to obtain marketing approval for a therapeutic candidate will prevent us from commercializing the therapeutic candidate. We have not submitted an application for or received marketing approval for any of our therapeutic candidates in the United States or in any other jurisdiction.

We have only limited experience in filing and supporting the applications necessary to gain marketing approvals and expect to rely on third-party clinical research organizations or other third-party consultants or vendors to assist us in this process. Securing marketing approval requires the submission of extensive preclinical and clinical data and supporting information to regulatory authorities for each therapeutic indication to establish the therapeutic candidate’s safety and efficacy. Securing marketing approval also requires the submission of information about the drug

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manufacturing process to, and inspection of manufacturing facilities by, the regulatory authorities. Our therapeutic candidates may not be effective, may be only moderately effective or may prove to have undesirable or unintended side effects, toxicities or other characteristics that may preclude our obtaining marketing approval or prevent or limit commercial use. New cancer drugs frequently are indicated only for patient populations that have not responded to an existing therapy or have relapsed. If any of our therapeutic candidates receives marketing approval, the accompanying label may limit the approved use of our drug in this way, which could limit sales of the drug.

The process of obtaining marketing approvals, both in the United States and abroad, is expensive, may take many years, if approval is obtained at all, and can vary substantially based upon a variety of factors, including the type, complexity and novelty of the therapeutic candidates involved. Changes in marketing approval policies during the development period, changes in or the enactment of additional statutes or regulations, or changes in regulatory review for each submitted drug application, may cause delays in the approval or rejection of an application. Regulatory authorities have substantial discretion in the approval process and may refuse to accept any application or may decide that our data is insufficient for approval and require additional preclinical, clinical or other studies. In addition, varying interpretations of the data obtained from preclinical studies and clinical trials could delay, limit or prevent marketing approval of a therapeutic candidate. Any marketing approval we ultimately obtain may be limited or subject to restrictions or post-approval commitments that render the approved drug not commercially viable.

If our drugs do not gain market acceptance, our business will suffer because we might not be able to fund future operations.

A number of factors may affect the market acceptance of our drugs or any other products we develop or acquire, including, among others:

•        the price of our drugs relative to other products for the same or similar treatments;

•        the perception by patients, physicians and other members of the health care community of the effectiveness and safety of our drugs for their indicated applications and treatments, or the value of our DRP® companion diagnostics in improving patient benefit;

•        our ability to fund our sales and marketing efforts; and

•        the effectiveness of our sales and marketing efforts.

If our drugs do not gain market acceptance, we may not be able to fund future operations, including developing, testing and obtaining regulatory approval for new therapeutic candidates and expanding our sales and marketing efforts for our approved drugs, which would cause our business to suffer.

We may in the future develop therapeutic candidates in combination with other therapies and that may expose us to additional risks.

We may develop future therapeutic candidates for use in combination with one or more currently approved cancer therapies. Even if any therapeutic candidate we develop was to receive marketing approval or be commercialized for use in combination with other existing therapies, we would continue to be subject to the risks that the FDA or similar foreign regulatory authorities could revoke approval of the therapy used in combination with our therapeutic candidate or that safety, efficacy, manufacturing or supply issues could arise with these existing therapies. Combination therapies are commonly used for the treatment of cancer, and we would be subject to similar risks if we develop any of our therapeutic candidates for use in combination with other drugs or for indications other than cancer. This could result in our own products being removed from the market or being less successful commercially.

We may also evaluate our therapeutic candidates in combination with one or more other cancer therapies that have not yet been approved for marketing by the FDA or similar foreign regulatory authorities. We will not be able to market and sell our therapeutic candidates we develop in combination with any such unapproved cancer therapies that do not ultimately obtain marketing approval.

If the FDA or similar foreign regulatory authorities do not approve or revoke the approval of these other drugs, or if safety, efficacy, manufacturing or supply issues arise with the drugs we choose to evaluate in combination with our therapeutic candidates, we may be unable to obtain approval of or market our therapeutic candidates.

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We may rely on orphan drug status to commercialize some of our therapeutic candidates, and even if orphan drug status is approved, such approval may not confer marketing exclusivity or other commercial advantages or expected commercial benefits.

We may rely on orphan drug exclusivity for our therapeutic candidates. In the United States, orphan drug designation entitles a party to financial incentives such as opportunities for grant funding towards clinical trial costs, tax advantages and user-fee waivers. In addition, if a drug that has orphan drug designation subsequently receives the first FDA marketing approval for the disease for which it has such designation, the drug is entitled to orphan drug exclusivity. Orphan drug exclusivity in the United States provides that the FDA may not approve any other applications, including a full NDA, to market the same drug for the same indication for seven years, and except in limited circumstances the applicable exclusivity period is ten years in Europe. The European exclusivity period can be reduced to six years if a drug no longer meets the criteria for orphan drug designation or if the drug is sufficiently profitable so that market exclusivity is no longer justified.

Even if we, or any future collaborators, obtain orphan drug designation for a therapeutic candidate, we, or they, may not be able to obtain or maintain orphan drug exclusivity for that therapeutic candidate. We may not be the first to obtain marketing approval of any therapeutic candidate for which we have obtained orphan drug designation for the orphan-designated indication due to the uncertainties associated with developing pharmaceutical products, and it is possible that another company also holding orphan drug designation for the same therapeutic candidate will receive marketing approval for the same indication before we do. If that were to happen, our applications for that indication may not be approved until the competing company’s period of exclusivity expires. In addition, exclusive marketing rights in the United States may be limited if we seek approval for an indication broader than the orphan-designated indication or may be lost if the FDA later determines that the request for designation was materially defective or if we are unable to assure sufficient quantities of the drug to meet the needs of patients with the rare disease or condition. Further, even if we, or any future collaborators, obtain orphan drug exclusivity for a drug, that exclusivity may not effectively protect the drug from competition because different drugs with different active moieties may be approved for the same condition. Even after an orphan drug is approved, the FDA can subsequently approve the same drug with the same active moiety for the same condition if the FDA concludes that the later drug is clinically superior in that it is shown to be safer, more effective or makes a major contribution to patient care or the manufacturer of the drug with orphan exclusivity is unable to maintain sufficient drug quantity. Orphan drug designation neither shortens the development time or regulatory review time of a drug nor gives the drug any advantage in the regulatory review or approval process, nor does it prevent competitors from obtaining approval of the same therapeutic candidate as ours for indications other than those in which we have been granted orphan drug designation.

On August 3, 2017, the U.S. Congress passed the FDA Reauthorization Act of 2017, or FDARA. FDARA, among other things, codified the FDA’s preexisting regulatory interpretation, to require that a drug sponsor demonstrate the clinical superiority of an orphan drug that is otherwise the same as a previously approved drug for the same rare disease in order to receive orphan drug exclusivity. The new legislation reverses prior precedent holding that the Orphan Drug Act unambiguously requires that the FDA recognize the orphan exclusivity period regardless of a showing of clinical superiority. The FDA may further reevaluate the Orphan Drug Act and its regulations and policies. We do not know if, when or how the FDA may change the orphan drug regulations and policies in the future, and it is uncertain how any changes might affect our business. Depending on what changes the FDA may make to its orphan drug regulations and policies, our business could be adversely impacted.

A Breakthrough Therapy designation by the FDA for our therapeutic candidates may not lead to a faster development or regulatory review or approval process, and it does not increase the likelihood that our therapeutic candidates will receive marketing approval.

We may seek a breakthrough therapy designation for some of our therapeutic candidates. A breakthrough therapy is defined as a drug that is intended, alone or in combination with one or more other drugs, to treat a serious or life-threatening disease or condition, and preliminary clinical evidence indicates that the drug may demonstrate substantial improvement over existing therapies on one or more clinically significant endpoints, such as substantial treatment effects observed early in clinical development. For drugs and biologics that have been designated as breakthrough therapies, interaction and communication between the FDA and the sponsor of the trial can help to identify the most efficient path for clinical development while minimizing the number of patients placed in ineffective control regimens. Drugs designated as breakthrough therapies by the FDA are also eligible for accelerated approval.

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Designation as a breakthrough therapy is within the discretion of the FDA. Accordingly, even if we believe one of our therapeutic candidates meets the criteria for designation as a breakthrough therapy, the FDA may disagree and instead determine not to make such designation. Even if we receive Breakthrough Therapy designation, the receipt of such designation for a therapeutic candidate may not result in a faster development process, review or approval compared to drugs considered for approval under conventional FDA procedures and does not assure ultimate approval by the FDA. In addition, even if one or more of our therapeutic candidates qualify as breakthrough therapies, the FDA may later decide that the drugs no longer meet the conditions for qualification or decide that the time period for FDA review or approval will not be shortened.

A Fast Track designation by the FDA may not lead to a faster development or regulatory review or approval process.

We may seek Fast Track designation for some of our therapeutic candidates. If a drug is intended for the treatment of a serious or life-threatening condition and the drug demonstrates the potential to address unmet medical needs for this condition, the drug sponsor may apply for FDA Fast Track designation. The FDA has broad discretion whether or not to grant this designation, so even if we believe a particular therapeutic candidate is eligible for this designation, we cannot assure you that the FDA would decide to grant it. Even if we do receive Fast Track designation, we may not experience a faster development process, review or approval compared to conventional FDA procedures. The FDA may withdraw Fast Track designation if it believes that the designation is no longer supported by data from our clinical development program.

Failure to obtain marketing approval in foreign jurisdictions would prevent our therapeutic candidates from being marketed abroad.

In order to market and sell our drugs in the European Union and many other foreign jurisdictions, we or our potential third-party collaborators must obtain separate marketing approvals and comply with numerous and varying regulatory requirements. The approval procedure varies among countries and can involve additional testing. The time required to obtain approval may differ substantially from that required to obtain FDA marketing approval. The regulatory approval process outside of the United States generally includes all of the risks associated with obtaining FDA approval. In addition, in many countries outside of the United States, it is required that the drug be approved for reimbursement before the drug can be approved for sale in that country. We or our potential third-party collaborators may not obtain approvals from regulatory authorities outside of the United States on a timely basis, if at all. Approval by the FDA does not ensure approval by regulatory authorities in other countries or jurisdictions, and approval by one regulatory authority outside of the United States does not ensure approval by regulatory authorities in other countries or jurisdictions or by the FDA. However, a failure or delay in obtaining regulatory approval in one country may have a negative effect on the regulatory process in other countries. We may not be able to file for marketing approvals and may not receive necessary approvals to commercialize our drugs in any market.

If we are required by the FDA to obtain approval of a DRP® companion diagnostic in connection with approval of a therapeutic candidate, and we do not obtain or face delays in obtaining FDA approval of a DRP® diagnostic device, we will not be able to commercialize the therapeutic candidate and our ability to generate revenue will be materially impaired.

According to FDA guidance, if the FDA determines that a companion diagnostic device is essential to the safe and effective use of a novel therapeutic drug or indication, the FDA generally will not approve the therapeutic drug or new therapeutic drug indication if the companion diagnostic is not also approved or cleared for that indication. Under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, or FDCA, companion diagnostics are regulated as medical devices, and the FDA has generally required companion diagnostics intended to select the patients who will respond to cancer treatment to obtain Premarket Approval, or a PMA, for the diagnostic. The PMA process, including the gathering of clinical and preclinical data and the submission to and review by the FDA, involves a rigorous premarket review during which the applicant must prepare and provide the FDA with reasonable assurance of the device’s safety and effectiveness and information about the device and its components regarding, among other things, device design, manufacturing and labeling. A PMA is not guaranteed and may take considerable time, and the FDA may ultimately respond to a PMA submission with a “not approvable” determination based on deficiencies in the application and require additional clinical trial or other data that may be expensive and time-consuming to generate and that can substantially delay approval. As a result, if we are required by the FDA to obtain approval of a companion diagnostic for a therapeutic candidate, and we do not obtain or there are delays in obtaining FDA approval of a diagnostic device, we may not be able to commercialize the therapeutic candidate on a timely basis or at all and our ability to generate revenue will be materially impaired.

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Our business strategy involving drug development includes the development of a companion diagnostic using our proprietary DRP® companion diagnostics platform for each of our therapeutic candidates. On April 2, 2021, we filed a PMA with the FDA for a companion diagnostic for dovitinib, which is currently under review by the FDA, and we intend to file a PMA for each of our therapeutic candidates if, and when, we decide to pursue the submission of an NDA for each therapeutic candidate.

Any therapeutic candidate for which we obtain marketing approval could be subject to post-marketing restrictions or withdrawal from the market and we may be subject to substantial penalties if we fail to comply with regulatory requirements or if we experience unanticipated problems with our drugs, when and if any of them are approved.

Any therapeutic candidate for which we obtain marketing approval, along with the manufacturing processes, post-approval clinical data, labeling, advertising and promotional activities for such drug, will be subject to continual requirements of and review by the FDA and other regulatory authorities. These requirements include submissions of safety and other post-marketing information and reports, registration and listing requirements, cGMP requirements relating to manufacturing, quality control, quality assurance and corresponding maintenance of records and documents, requirements regarding the distribution of samples to physicians and recordkeeping. Even if marketing approval of a therapeutic candidate is granted, the approval may be subject to limitations on the indicated uses for which the drug may be marketed or to the conditions of approval, including the requirement to implement a REMS. New cancer drugs frequently are indicated only for patient populations that have not responded to an existing therapy or have relapsed. If any of our therapeutic candidates receives marketing approval, the accompanying label may limit the approved use of our drug in this way, which could limit sales of the drug.

The FDA may also impose requirements for costly post-marketing studies or clinical trials and surveillance to monitor the safety or efficacy of the drug, including the adoption and implementation of REMS. The FDA and other agencies, including the Department of Justice, or the DOJ, closely regulate and monitor the post-approval marketing and promotion of drugs to ensure they are marketed and distributed only for the approved indications and in accordance with the provisions of the approved labeling. The FDA and DOJ impose stringent restrictions on manufacturers’ communications regarding off-label use, and if we do not market our drugs for their approved indications, we may be subject to enforcement action for off-label marketing. Violations of the FDCA and other statutes, including the False Claims Act, relating to the promotion and advertising of prescription drugs may lead to investigations and enforcement actions alleging violations of federal and state healthcare fraud and abuse laws, as well as state consumer protection laws.

In addition, later discovery of previously unknown adverse events or other problems with our drugs, manufacturers or manufacturing processes, or failure to comply with regulatory requirements, may have various consequences, including:

•        restrictions on such drugs, manufacturers or manufacturing processes;

•        restrictions and warnings on the labeling or marketing of a drug;

•        restrictions on drug distribution or use;

•        requirements to conduct post-marketing studies or clinical trials;

•        warning letters or untitled letters;

•        withdrawal of the drugs from the market;

•        refusal to approve pending applications or supplements to approved applications that we submit;

•        recall of drugs;

•        fines, restitution or disgorgement of profits or revenues;

•        suspension or withdrawal of marketing approvals;

•        damage to relationships with any potential collaborators;

•        unfavorable press coverage and damage to our reputation;

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•        refusal to permit the import or export of our drugs;

•        drug seizure;

•        injunctions or the imposition of civil or criminal penalties; or

•        litigation involving patients using our drugs.

We operate in a highly competitive and rapidly changing industry.

Biotechnological and pharmaceutical drug development is highly competitive and subject to rapid and significant technological advancements. Our success is highly dependent upon our ability to in-license, acquire, develop and obtain regulatory approval for new and innovative drugs on a cost-effective basis and to market them successfully, as well as maintaining the competitive advantages of our DRP® companion diagnostics platform. In doing so, we face and will continue to face intense competition from a variety of businesses, including large, fully integrated, well-established pharmaceutical companies who already possess a large share of the market, specialty pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical companies, academic institutions, government agencies and other private and public research institutions in the United States, the European Union and other jurisdictions.

Many of the companies against which we are competing or against which we may compete in the future have significantly greater financial resources and expertise in research and development, manufacturing, preclinical testing, conducting clinical trials, obtaining regulatory approvals and marketing approved drugs than we do. These third parties compete with us in recruiting and retaining qualified scientific and management personnel, establishing clinical trial sites and patient registration for clinical trials, as well as in acquiring technologies complementary to, or necessary for, our programs. Mergers and acquisitions in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries could result in even more resources being concentrated among a small number of our competitors.

Competition may further increase as a result of advances in the commercial applicability of technologies and greater availability of capital for investment in these industries. Our competitors may succeed in developing, acquiring or licensing, on an exclusive basis, drugs that are more effective or less costly than any therapeutic candidate that we may develop.

Established pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies may invest heavily to accelerate discovery and development of novel compounds or to in-license novel compounds that could make our therapeutic candidates less competitive. Similarly, such companies may invest heavily to accelerate discovery and development of novel companion diagnostic approaches that make our DRP® companion diagnostics platform less competitive. In addition, any new drug that competes with an approved drug must demonstrate compelling advantages in efficacy, convenience, tolerability and safety in order to overcome price competition and to be commercially successful. Accordingly, our competitors may succeed in obtaining patent protection, discovering, developing, receiving FDA approval for or commercializing drugs before we do, which would have an adverse impact on our business and results of operations.

The availability of our competitors’ drugs, or competitive companion diagnostics, could limit the demand and the price we are able to charge for any therapeutic candidate we commercialize, if any. The inability to compete with existing or subsequently introduced drugs would harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

If we are unable to develop satisfactory sales and marketing capabilities, we may not succeed in commercializing our therapeutic candidate.

We have no experience in marketing and selling drug products. We have not yet entered into arrangements for the sale and marketing of dovitinib, stenoparib, IXEMPRA® or any other therapeutic candidate, although we are exploring a number of such arrangements. Typically, pharmaceutical companies would employ groups of sales representatives and associated sales and marketing staff numbering in the hundreds to thousands of individuals to call on this large number of physicians and hospitals. We may seek to collaborate with a third-party to market our drugs or may seek to market and sell our drugs by ourselves. If we seek to collaborate with a third-party, we cannot be sure that a collaborative agreement can be reached on terms acceptable to us. If we seek to market and sell our drugs directly, we will need to hire additional personnel skilled in marketing and sales. We cannot be sure that we will be able to acquire, or establish third-party relationships to provide, any or all of these marketing and sales capabilities. The establishment of a direct sales force or a contract sales force or a combination direct and contract sales force to market our drugs will

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be expensive and time-consuming and could delay any drug launch. Further, we can give no assurances that we may be able to maintain a direct and/or contract sales force for any period of time or that our sales efforts will be sufficient to generate or to grow our revenues or that our sales efforts will ever lead to profits.

Even if we obtain regulatory approvals to commercialize dovitinib, stenoparib, IXEMPRA® or our other therapeutic candidates, our therapeutic candidates may not be accepted by physicians or the medical community in general.

There can be no assurance that dovitinib, stenoparib, IXEMPRA® and our other therapeutic candidates or any other therapeutic candidate successfully developed by us, independently or with partners, will be accepted by physicians, hospitals and other health care facilities. Dovitinib, stenoparib, IXEMPRA® and our other and any future therapeutic candidates we develop will compete with a number of drugs manufactured and marketed by major pharmaceutical and biotech companies. The degree of market acceptance of any drugs we develop depends on a number of factors, including:

•        our demonstration of the clinical efficacy and safety of dovitinib, stenoparib, IXEMPRA® and our other therapeutic candidates;

•        timing of market approval and commercial launch of dovitinib, stenoparib, IXEMPRA® and our other therapeutic candidates;

•        the clinical indication(s) for which dovitinib, stenoparib, IXEMPRA® and our other therapeutic candidates are approved;

•        drug label and package insert requirements;

•        advantages and disadvantages of our therapeutic candidates compared to existing therapies, particularly in combination with our DRP® companion diagnostics;

•        continued interest in and growth of the market for anticancer tyrosine kinase inhibitory, PARP inhibitory, and microtubule inhibitory drugs;

•        strength of sales, marketing, and distribution support;

•        drug pricing in absolute terms and relative to alternative treatments;

•        future changes in health care laws, regulations, and medical policies; and

•        availability of reimbursement codes and coverage in select jurisdictions, and future changes to reimbursement policies of government and third-party payors.

Significant uncertainty exists as to the coverage and reimbursement status of any therapeutic candidate for which we obtain regulatory approval. In the United States and markets in other countries, sales of any drugs for which we receive regulatory approval for commercial sale will depend in part on the availability of reimbursement from third-party payors. Third-party payors include government health administrative authorities, managed care providers, private health insurers and other organizations.

Healthcare reform measures could hinder or prevent our therapeutic candidates’ commercial success.

The U.S. government and other governments have shown significant interest in pursuing healthcare reform. Any government-adopted reform measures could adversely impact the pricing of healthcare drugs and services in the United States or internationally and the amount of reimbursement available from governmental agencies or other third-party payors. The continuing efforts of the U.S. and foreign governments, insurance companies, managed care organizations and other payors of health care services to contain or reduce health care costs may adversely affect our ability to set prices for our drugs which we believe are fair, and our ability to generate revenues and achieve and maintain profitability.

New laws, regulations and judicial decisions, or new interpretations of existing laws, regulations and decisions, that relate to healthcare availability, methods of delivery or payment for products and services, or sales, marketing or pricing, may limit our potential revenue, and we may need to revise our research and development programs. The pricing and reimbursement environment may change in the future and become more challenging due to several

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reasons, including policies advanced by the current executive administration in the United States, new healthcare legislation or fiscal challenges faced by government health administration authorities. Specifically, in both the United States and some foreign jurisdictions, there have been a number of legislative and regulatory proposals to change the health care system in ways that could affect our ability to sell our drugs profitably.

For example, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act, or the PPACA has substantially changed the way healthcare is financed by both government health plans and private insurers, and significantly impacts the pharmaceutical industry. The PPACA contains a number of provisions that are expected to impact our business and operations in ways that may negatively affect our potential revenues in the future. For example, the PPACA imposes a non-deductible excise tax on pharmaceutical manufacturers or importers that sell branded prescription drugs to government programs which we believe will increase the cost of our drugs. In addition, as part of the PPACA’s provisions closing a funding gap that currently exists in the Medicare Part D prescription drug program, we will be required to provide a discount on branded prescription drugs equal to 50% of the government-negotiated price, for drugs provided to certain beneficiaries who fall within the donut hole. Similarly, PPACA increases the level of Medicaid rebates payable by manufacturers of brand-name drugs from 15.1% to 23.1% and requires collection of rebates for drugs paid by Medicaid managed care organizations. The PPACA also includes significant changes to the 340B drug discount program including expansion of the list of eligible covered entities that may purchase drugs under the program. At the same time, the expansion in eligibility for health insurance benefits created under PPACA is expected to increase the number of patients with insurance coverage who may receive our drugs. While it is too early to predict all the specific effects the PPACA or any future healthcare reform legislation will have on our business, they could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition.

Congress periodically adopts legislation like the PPACA and the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement and Modernization Act of 2003, that modifies Medicare reimbursement and coverage policies pertaining to prescription drugs. Implementation of these laws is subject to ongoing revision through regulatory and sub regulatory policies. Congress also may consider additional changes to Medicare policies, potentially including Medicare prescription drug policies, as part of ongoing budget negotiations. While the scope of any such legislation is uncertain at this time, there can be no assurances that future legislation or regulations will not decrease the coverage and price that we may receive for our proposed drugs. Other third-party payors are increasingly challenging the prices charged for medical products and services. It will be time consuming and expensive for us to go through the process of seeking coverage and reimbursement from Medicare and private payors. Our proposed drugs may not be considered cost-effective, and coverage and reimbursement may not be available or sufficient to allow us to sell our proposed drugs on a profitable basis. Further federal and state proposals and health care reforms are likely which could limit the prices that can be charged for the therapeutic candidates that we develop and may further limit our commercial opportunities. Our results of operations could be materially adversely affected by proposed healthcare reforms, by the Medicare prescription drug coverage legislation, by the possible effect of such current or future legislation on amounts that private insurers will pay and by other health care reforms that may be enacted or adopted in the future.

In September 2007, the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 was enacted, giving the FDA enhanced post-marketing authority, including the authority to require post-marketing studies and clinical trials, labeling changes based on new safety information, and compliance with risk evaluations and mitigation strategies approved by the FDA. The FDA’s exercise of this authority could result in delays or increased costs during drug development, clinical trials and regulatory review, increased costs to assure compliance with post-approval regulatory requirements, and potential restrictions on the sale and/or distribution of approved drugs.

Governmental efforts to pursue regulatory reform may limit the FDA’s ability to engage in oversight and implementation activities in the normal course, and that could negatively impact our business.

Prior presidential administrations have taken several executive actions, including the issuance of a number of executive orders, that could impose significant burdens on, or otherwise materially delay, the FDA’s ability to engage in routine regulatory and oversight activities such as implementing statutes through rulemaking, issuance of guidance, and review and approval of marketing applications. On January 30, 2017, President Trump issued an executive order, applicable to all executive agencies, including the FDA, requiring that for each notice of proposed rulemaking or final regulation to be issued in fiscal year 2017, the agency shall identify at least two existing regulations to be repealed, unless prohibited by law. These requirements are referred to as the “two-for-one” provisions. This executive order included a budget neutrality provision that requires the total incremental cost of all new regulations in the 2017 fiscal year, including repealed regulations, to be no greater than zero, except in limited circumstances. For fiscal years

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2018 and beyond, the executive order required agencies to identify regulations to offset any incremental cost of a new regulation. While the current Biden administration has revoked this executive order, no assurances can be given that a future presidential administration will not issue a similar executive order. If a future presidential administration were to issue a similar executive order, it would be difficult to predict how those requirements would be implemented, and the extent to which they would impact the FDA’s ability to exercise its regulatory authority. If future executive actions impose constraints on the FDA’s ability to engage in oversight and implementation activities in the normal course, our business may be negatively impacted.

Enacted and future legislation may increase the difficulty and cost for us to obtain marketing approval of and commercialize our therapeutic candidates and affect the prices we may charge for such therapeutic candidates.

The U.S. and many foreign jurisdictions have enacted or proposed legislative and regulatory changes affecting the healthcare system that could prevent or delay marketing approval of our therapeutic candidates, restrict or regulate post-approval activities and affect our ability to profitably sell any product for which we obtain marketing approval.

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively, the “Affordable Care Act”), includes measures that have significantly changed the way healthcare is financed by both governmental and private insurers. There remain judicial, executive and congressional challenges to certain aspects of the Affordable Care Act. Since 2017, there have been executive orders and other directives designed to delay the implementation of certain provisions of the Affordable Care Act or otherwise circumvent some of the requirements for health insurance mandated by the Affordable Care Act. In addition, while Congress has not passed comprehensive repeal legislation, it has enacted laws that modify certain provisions of the Affordable Care Act such as removing penalties, effective January 1, 2019, for not complying with the Affordable Care Act’s individual mandate to carry health insurance. Additionally, the 2020 federal spending package permanently eliminated, effective January 1, 2020, the Affordable Care Act-mandated “Cadillac” tax on high-cost employer-sponsored health coverage and medical device tax and, effective January 1, 2021, also eliminates the health insurer tax. In 2018, a U.S. District Court ruled that the Affordable Care Act is unconstitutional in its entirety because the “individual mandate” was effectively repealed by Congress as part of the Tax Act. Additionally, in 2019, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 5th Circuit upheld the District Court ruling that the individual mandate was unconstitutional and remanded the case back to the District Court to determine whether the remaining provisions of the Affordable Care Act are invalid as well. The U.S. Supreme Court heard oral argument on the case on November 10, 2020 and issued its decision on June 17, 2021, holding that the state plaintiff’s in the case challenging the constitutionality of minimum essential health care coverage provisions of the Affordable Care Act lacked standing to bring an action under Article III, Section 2 of the U.S. Constitution. On February 10, 2021, the Biden administration withdrew the federal government’s support for overturning the Affordable Care Act. Although the U.S. Supreme Court had not yet ruled on the constitutionality of the Affordable Care Act, on January 28, 2021, President Biden issued an executive order that initiated a special enrollment period for purposes of obtaining health insurance coverage through the Affordable Care Act marketplace, which began on February 15, 2021 and will remain open through August 15, 2021. The executive order also instructed certain governmental agencies to review and reconsider their existing policies and rules that limit access to healthcare, including among others, reexamining Medicaid demonstration projects and waiver programs that include work requirements, and policies that create unnecessary barriers to obtaining access to health insurance coverage through Medicaid or the Affordable Care Act. Notwithstanding the Supreme Court recent ruling on standing to challenge the constitutionality of the Affordable Care Act, it is unclear how additional litigation and the healthcare reform measures of the Biden administration will impact the Affordable Care Act and our business. We continue to evaluate the effect that the Affordable Care Act and its possible repeal and replacement has on our business.

In addition, other legislative changes have been proposed and adopted since the Affordable Care Act was enacted. For example, the Budget Control Act of 2011, among other things, created the Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction to recommend to Congress proposals in spending reductions. The Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction did not achieve a targeted deficit reduction, which triggered the legislation’s automatic reduction to several government programs. This includes aggregate reductions to Medicare payments to providers of, on average, 2% per fiscal year through 2030 unless Congress takes additional action. However, COVID-19 relief legislation suspended the 2% Medicare sequester from May 1, 2020, through December 31, 2021. Recently, there has been increasing legislative and enforcement interest in the U.S. with respect to specialty drug pricing practices. Specifically, there have been several recent U.S. congressional inquiries and legislation designed to, among other things, bring more transparency to drug pricing, reduce the cost of prescription drugs under Medicare, review the relationship between pricing and manufacturer patient programs and reform government program reimbursement methodologies for drugs.

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For example, at the federal level, the Trump administration’s used several means to propose or implement drug pricing reform, including through federal budget proposals, executive orders and policy initiatives. For example, on July 24, 2020, the administration announced several executive orders to lower drug prices that attempt to implement several of the administration’s proposals. Additionally, the FDA recently released a final rule, effective November 30, 2020, implementing a portion of the importation executive order providing guidance for states to build and submit importation plans for drugs from Canada. Further, on November 20, 2020, the Department of Health and Human Services finalized a regulation removing safe harbor protection for price reductions from pharmaceutical manufacturers to plan sponsors under Part D, either directly or through pharmacy benefit managers, unless the price reduction is required by law. The implementation of the rule has been delayed by the Biden administration from January 1, 2022 to January 1, 2023 in response to ongoing litigation. The rule also creates a new safe harbor for price reductions reflected at the point-of-sale, as well as a new safe harbor for certain fixed fee arrangements between pharmacy benefit managers and manufacturers, the implementation of which have also been until January 1, 2023. On November 20, 2020, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (“CMS”) issued an interim final rule implementing President Trump’s Most Favored Nation executive order, which would tie Medicare Part B payments for certain physician-administered drugs to the lowest price paid in other economically advanced countries, effective January 1, 2021. On December 28, 2020, the United States District Court in Northern California issued a nationwide preliminary injunction against implementation of the interim final rule. At the state level, legislatures have increasingly passed legislation and implemented regulations designed to control pharmaceutical and biological product pricing, including price or patient reimbursement constraints, discounts, restrictions on certain product access and marketing cost disclosure and transparency measures, and, in some cases, designed to encourage importation from other countries and bulk purchasing. It is possible that additional governmental action is taken in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, which may impact our business. We are unable to predict the future course of federal or state healthcare legislation in the U.S. directed at broadening the availability of healthcare and containing or lowering the cost of healthcare. These and any further changes in the law or regulatory framework that reduce our revenue or increase our costs could also have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We expect that the healthcare reform measures that have been adopted and may be adopted in the future, may result in more rigorous coverage criteria and in additional downward pressure on the price that we receive for any approved therapeutic product and could seriously harm our future revenues. Any reduction in reimbursement from Medicare or other government programs may result in a similar reduction in payments from private payors. The implementation of cost containment measures or other healthcare reforms may prevent us from being able to generate revenue, attain profitability or commercialize our therapeutic candidates.

Governments outside of the United States tend to impose strict price controls, which may adversely affect our revenues, if any.

In some countries, particularly the countries of the European Union and Canada, the pricing of prescription pharmaceuticals is subject to governmental control. In these countries, pricing negotiations with governmental authorities can take considerable time after the receipt of marketing approval for a drug. To obtain reimbursement or pricing approval in some countries, we may be required to conduct a clinical trial that compares the cost-effectiveness of our therapeutic candidate to other available therapies. If reimbursement of our drugs is unavailable or limited in scope or amount, or if pricing is set at unsatisfactory levels, our business could be harmed, possibly materially.

If we or any third-party manufacturers or contractors we engage now or in the future fail to comply with environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, we could become subject to fines or penalties or incur costs or liabilities that could harm our business.

We and third-party manufacturers we engage now are, and any third-party manufacturers we may engage in the future will be, subject to numerous environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, including those governing laboratory procedures and the handling, use, storage, treatment and disposal of hazardous materials and wastes. Our operations, including work conducted through third-party manufacturers or contractors, involve the use of hazardous and flammable materials, including chemicals and biological materials. Our operations also produce hazardous waste products. We generally contract with third parties for the disposal of these materials and wastes. We cannot eliminate the risk of contamination or injury from these materials. In the event of contamination or injury resulting from our use of hazardous materials, we could be held liable for any resulting damages, and any liability could exceed our resources. Liability under certain environmental laws governing the release and cleanup of hazardous materials is

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joint and several and could be imposed without regard to fault. We also could incur significant costs associated with civil or criminal fines and penalties or become subject to injunctions limiting or prohibiting our activities for failure to comply with such laws and regulations.

Although we maintain general liability insurance as well as workers’ compensation insurance to cover us for costs and expenses we may incur due to injuries to our employees resulting from the use of hazardous materials, this insurance may not provide adequate coverage against potential liabilities. We do not maintain insurance for environmental liability or toxic tort claims that may be asserted against us in connection with our storage or disposal of biological, hazardous or radioactive materials.

In addition, we may incur substantial costs in order to comply with current or future environmental, health and safety laws and regulations. These current or future laws and regulations may impair our research, development or production efforts. Our failure to comply with these laws and regulations also may result in substantial fines, penalties or other sanctions.

Further, with respect to the operations of our current and any future third-party contract manufacturers or other contractors, it is possible that if they fail to operate in compliance with applicable environmental, health and safety laws and regulations or properly dispose of wastes associated with our drugs, we could be held liable for any resulting damages, suffer reputational harm or experience a disruption in the manufacture and supply of our therapeutic candidates or drugs. In addition, our supply chain may be adversely impacted if any of our third-party contract manufacturers become subject to injunctions or other sanctions as a result of their non-compliance with environmental, health and safety laws and regulations.

We may experience challenges with the acquisition, development, enhancement or deployment of technology necessary for our proprietary DRP® companion diagnostics platform.

Our proprietary DRP® companion diagnostics platform and other aspects of our business strategy requires sophisticated computer systems and software for data collection, data processing, cloud-based platforms, analytics, statistical projections and forecasting, and other applications and technologies. We seek to address our technology risks by increasing reliance on the use of innovations by cross-industry technology leaders and adapt these innovations for their biopharmaceutical and diagnostic use in our proprietary DRP® companion diagnostics platform. Some of the technologies supporting these industries are changing rapidly and we must continue to adapt to these changes in a timely and effective manner at an acceptable cost. There can be no guarantee that we will be able to develop, acquire or integrate new technologies, that these new technologies will meet our needs or achieve our expected goals, or that we will be able to do so as quickly or cost-effectively as our competitors. Significant technological change could render our proprietary DRP® companion diagnostics platform obsolete. Our continued success will depend on our ability to adapt to changing technologies, manage and process ever-increasing amounts of data and information and improve the performance, features and reliability of our services in response to changing client and industry demands. We may experience difficulties that could delay or prevent the successful design, development, testing, and introduction of advanced versions of our proprietary DRP® companion diagnostics platform, limiting our ability to identify new therapeutic candidates. New services, or enhancements to existing services, using our proprietary DRP® companion diagnostics platform may not adequately meet our requirements. Any of these failures could have a material adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition.

Risks Related to Our Reliance on Third Parties

We rely on third parties to conduct our preclinical studies and clinical trials. If these third parties do not successfully perform their contractual legal and regulatory duties or meet expected deadlines, we may not be able to obtain regulatory approval for or commercialize our therapeutic candidates and our business could be substantially harmed.

We have relied upon and plan to continue to rely upon third-party medical institutions, clinical investigators, contract laboratories and other third-party CROs to monitor and manage data for our ongoing preclinical and clinical programs. We have also out-licensed two of our therapeutic candidates, LiPlaCis® and 2X-111, to Smerud Medical Research International (“Smerud”), our long-time CRO partner in Europe. We rely on these parties for execution of our preclinical studies and clinical trials, and control only certain aspects of their activities. Nevertheless, we are responsible for ensuring that each of our studies is conducted in accordance with the applicable protocol, legal,

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regulatory and scientific standards, and our reliance on the CROs does not relieve us of our regulatory responsibilities. We and our CROs are required to comply with cGCPs, which are regulations and guidelines enforced by the FDA, the Competent Authorities of the Member States of the European Economic Area, or EEA, and comparable foreign regulatory authorities for all of our drugs in clinical development.

Regulatory authorities enforce these cGCPs through periodic inspections of trial sponsors, principal investigators and trial sites. If we or any of our CROs fail to comply with applicable cGCPs, the clinical data generated in our clinical trials may be deemed unreliable and the FDA, the EMA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may require us to perform additional clinical trials before approving our marketing applications. We cannot assure you that upon inspection by a given regulatory authority, such regulatory authority will determine that any of our clinical trials comply with cGCP regulations. In addition, our clinical trials must be conducted with product produced under current good manufacturing practices, or cGMP, regulations. Our failure to comply with these regulations may require us to repeat clinical trials, which would delay the regulatory approval process.

If any of our relationships with these third-party CROs terminate, we may not be able to enter into arrangements with alternative CROs or to do so on commercially reasonable terms. In addition, our CROs are not our employees, and except for remedies available to us under our agreements with such CROs, we cannot control whether or not they devote sufficient time and resources to our on-going clinical, nonclinical and preclinical programs. If CROs do not successfully carry out their contractual duties or obligations or meet expected deadlines, if they need to be replaced or if the quality or accuracy of the clinical data they obtain is compromised due to the failure to adhere to our clinical protocols, regulatory requirements or for other reasons, our clinical trials may be extended, delayed or terminated and we may not be able to obtain regulatory approval for or successfully commercialize our therapeutic candidates. As a result, our results of operations and the commercial prospects for our therapeutic candidates would be harmed, our costs could increase and our ability to generate revenues could be delayed.

Many of the third parties with whom we contract may also have relationships with other commercial entities, including our competitors, for whom they may also be conducting clinical trials or other drug development activities that could harm our competitive position. If the third parties conducting our clinical trials do not perform their contractual duties or obligations, experience work stoppages, do not meet expected deadlines, terminate their agreements with us or need to be replaced, or if the quality or accuracy of the clinical data they obtain is compromised due to their failure to adhere to our clinical trial protocols or to GCPs, or for any other reason, we may need to enter into new arrangements with alternative third parties. Switching or adding additional CROs involves additional cost and requires management time and focus. In addition, there is a natural transition period when a new CRO commences work. As a result, delays occur, which can materially impact our ability to meet our desired clinical development timelines. Though we carefully manage our relationships with our CROs, there can be no assurance that we will not encounter similar challenges or delays in the future or that these delays or challenges will not have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and prospects.

We are substantially dependent on third parties for the manufacture of our clinical supplies of our therapeutic candidates and Clinical Laboratory Improvements Act (“CLIA”) diagnostic laboratories to test patient biopsies in support of our clinical trials, and we intend to rely on third parties to produce commercial supplies of any approved therapeutic candidate. Therefore, our development of our drugs could be stopped or delayed, and our commercialization of any future drug could be stopped or delayed or made less profitable if third-party diagnostic laboratories lose their CLIA credentials or manufacturers fail to obtain approval of the FDA or comparable regulatory authorities or fail to provide us timely test results or with drug products in sufficient quantities or at acceptable prices.

The manufacture of pharmaceutical products is complex and requires significant expertise, capital investment, process controls and know-how. Common difficulties in pharmaceutical manufacturing may include: sourcing and producing raw materials, transferring technology from chemistry and development activities to production activities, validating initial production designs, scaling manufacturing techniques, improving costs and yields, establishing and maintaining quality controls and stability requirements, eliminating contaminations and operator errors, and maintaining compliance with regulatory requirements. We do not currently have nor do we plan to acquire the infrastructure or capability internally in accordance with cGMP prescribed by the FDA or to produce an adequate supply of compounds to meet future requirements for clinical trials and commercialization of our drugs. Drug manufacturing facilities are subject to inspection before the FDA will issue an approval to market a new drug product, and all of the manufacturers that we intend to use must adhere to the cGMP regulations prescribed by the FDA.

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We expect therefore to rely on third-party manufacturers for clinical supplies of our therapeutic candidates that we may develop. These third-party manufacturers will be required to comply with current good manufacturing practices, or cGMPs, and other applicable laws and regulations. We will have no control over the ability of these third parties to comply with these requirements, or to maintain adequate quality control, quality assurance and qualified personnel. If the FDA or any other applicable regulatory authorities do not approve the facilities of these third parties for the manufacture of our other therapeutic candidates or any drugs that we may successfully develop, or if it withdraws any such approval, or if our suppliers or contract manufacturers decide they no longer want to supply or manufacture for us, we may need to find alternative manufacturing facilities, in which case we might not be able to identify manufacturers for clinical or commercial supply on acceptable terms, or at all. Any of these factors would significantly impact our ability to develop, obtain regulatory approval for or market our therapeutic candidates and adversely affect our business.

We and/or our third-party manufacturers may be adversely affected by developments outside of our control, and these developments may delay or prevent further manufacturing of our drugs. Adverse developments may include labor disputes, resource constraints, shipment delays, inventory shortages, lot failures, unexpected sources of contamination, lawsuits related to our manufacturing techniques, equipment used during manufacturing, or composition of matter, unstable political environments, pandemics, acts of terrorism, war, natural disasters, and other natural and man-made disasters. If we or our third-party manufacturers were to encounter any of the above difficulties, or otherwise fail to comply with contractual obligations, our ability to provide any drug for clinical trial or commercial purposes would be jeopardized. This may increase the costs associated with completing our clinical trials and commercial production. Further, production disruptions may cause us to terminate ongoing clinical trials and/or commence new clinical trials at additional expense. We may also have to take inventory write-offs and incur other charges and expenses for drugs that fail to meet specifications or pass safety inspections. If production difficulties cannot be solved with acceptable costs, expenses, and timeframes, we may be forced to abandon our clinical development and commercialization plans, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition, and the value of our securities.

We also rely on third-party diagnostic laboratories certified under CLIA for testing of patient biopsies in our clinical trials. Under the CLIA, diagnostic laboratories are subject to inspection and certification by the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (“CMS”) and if a diagnostic laboratory we use to test patient biopsies fail their CMS inspection or lose their CMS certification for the type of tests we need, our clinical trials could be delayed or the results from our clinical trials may not be acceptable to the FDA or an equivalent foreign regulatory authority.

We, or third-party manufacturers on whom we rely, may be unable to successfully scale-up manufacturing of our therapeutic candidates in sufficient quality and quantity, which would delay or prevent us from developing our therapeutic candidates and commercializing approved drugs, if any.

In order to conduct clinical trials of our therapeutic candidates and commercialize any approved therapeutic candidates, we, or our manufacturers, will need to manufacture them in large quantities. We, or our manufacturers, may be unable to successfully increase the manufacturing capacity for any of our therapeutic candidates in a timely or cost-effective manner, or at all. In addition, quality issues may arise during scale-up activities. If we, or any of our manufacturers, are unable to successfully scale up the manufacture of our therapeutic candidates in sufficient quality and quantity, the development, testing, and clinical trials of that therapeutic candidate may be delayed or infeasible, and regulatory approval or commercial launch of any resulting drug may be delayed or not obtained, which could significantly harm our business. If we are unable to obtain or maintain third-party manufacturing for commercial supply of our therapeutic candidates, or to do so on commercially reasonable terms, we may not be able to develop and commercialize our therapeutic candidates successfully.

Our failure to find third-party collaborators to assist or share in the costs of drug development could materially harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our strategy for the development and commercialization of our proprietary therapeutic candidates may include the formation of collaborative arrangements with third parties. Existing and future collaborators have significant discretion in determining the efforts and resources they apply and may not perform their obligations as expected. Potential third-party collaborators include biopharmaceutical, pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, academic institutions and other entities. Third-party collaborators may assist us in:

•        funding research, preclinical development, clinical trials and manufacturing;

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•        seeking and obtaining regulatory approvals; and

•        successfully commercializing any future therapeutic candidates.

If we are not able to establish further collaboration agreements, we may be required to undertake drug development and commercialization at our own expense. Such an undertaking may limit the number of therapeutic candidates that we will be able to develop, significantly increase our capital requirements and place additional strain on our internal resources. Our failure to enter into additional collaborations could materially harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

In addition, our dependence on licensing, collaboration and other agreements with third parties may subject us to a number of risks. These agreements may not be on terms that prove favorable to us and may require us to relinquish certain rights in our therapeutic candidates. To the extent we agree to work exclusively with one collaborator in a given area, our opportunities to collaborate with other entities could be curtailed. Lengthy negotiations with potential new collaborators may lead to delays in the research, development or commercialization of therapeutic candidates. The decision by our collaborators to pursue alternative technologies or the failure of our collaborators to develop or commercialize successfully any therapeutic candidate to which they have obtained rights from us could materially harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Risks Related to Our Business and Industry

Our business, operations and clinical development plans and timelines and supply chain could be adversely affected by the effects of health epidemics, including the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, on the manufacturing, clinical trial and other business activities performed by us or by third parties with whom we conduct business, including our CMOs, CROs, shippers and others.

Our business could be adversely affected by health epidemics wherever we have clinical trial sites or other business operations. In addition, health epidemics could cause significant disruption in the operations of CMOs, CROs and other third parties upon whom we rely. For example, the COVID-19 pandemic has presented a substantial public health and economic challenge around the world and is affecting employees, patients, communities and business operations, as well as the U.S. economy and financial markets. Many geographic regions have imposed, or in the future may impose, “shelter-in-place” orders, quarantines or similar orders or restrictions to control the spread of COVID-19. Our U.S. headquarters is located in the eastern portion of the U.S. and we have implemented work-from-home policies for all employees. The effects of the executive orders and our work-from-home policies may negatively impact productivity, disrupt our business and delay our clinical programs and timelines, the magnitude of which will depend, in part, on the length and severity of the restrictions and other limitations on our ability to conduct our business in the ordinary course. These and similar, and perhaps more severe, disruptions in our operations could negatively impact our business, operating results and financial condition.

We are dependent on a worldwide supply chain for products to be used in our clinical trials and, if approved by the regulatory authorities, for commercialization. Quarantines, shelter-in-place and similar government orders, or the expectation that such orders, shutdowns or other restrictions could occur, whether related to COVID-19 or other infectious diseases, could impact personnel at third-party manufacturing facilities in the U.S. and other countries, or the availability or cost of materials or supplies, which could disrupt our supply chain or our ability to enroll patients in or perform testing for our clinical trials. In addition, closures of transportation carriers and modal hubs could materially impact our clinical development and any future commercialization timelines.

If our relationships with our suppliers or other vendors are terminated or scaled back as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic or other health epidemics, we may not be able to enter into arrangements with alternative suppliers or vendors or do so on commercially reasonable terms or in a timely manner. Switching or adding additional suppliers or vendors involves substantial cost and requires management time and focus. In addition, there is a natural transition period when a new supplier or vendor commences work. As a result, delays generally occur, which could adversely impact our ability to meet our desired clinical development and any future commercialization timelines. Although we carefully manage our relationships with our suppliers and vendors, there can be no assurance that we will not encounter challenges or delays in the future or that these delays or challenges will not have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition and prospects. See “Risk Factors — Risks Related to Our Dependence on Third Parties.”

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In addition, our ongoing clinical trials in the U.S. and Europe may be affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. In the future, clinical site initiation and patient enrollment may be delayed due to prioritization of hospital resources toward the COVID-19 pandemic or concerns among patients about participating in clinical trials during a pandemic and public health measures imposed by the respective national governments of countries in which the clinical sites are located. Some patients may have difficulty following certain aspects of clinical trial protocols if quarantines impede patient movement or interrupt healthcare services. Similarly, our inability to successfully recruit and retain patients and principal investigators and site staff who, as healthcare providers, may have heightened exposure to COVID-19 or experience additional restrictions by their institutions, city or state governments could adversely impact our clinical trial operations.

The spread of COVID-19 has also led to disruption and volatility in the global capital markets, which increases the cost of, and adversely impacts access to, capital and increases economic uncertainty. The trading prices for the common stock of other biopharmaceutical companies have, at times, been highly volatile as a result of COVID-19. To the extent the COVID-19 pandemic adversely affects our business, financial results and value of our common stock, it may also affect our ability to access capital, which could in the future negatively affect our liquidity.

The global pandemic of COVID-19 continues to evolve rapidly. The ultimate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic or a similar health epidemic is highly uncertain and subject to change. We do not yet know the full extent of potential delays or impacts on our business, our clinical trials, healthcare systems or the global economy as a whole. However, these effects could have a material impact on our operations, and we will continue to monitor the COVID-19 situation closely.

We will need to increase the size of our organization and the scope of our outside vendor relationships, and we may experience difficulties in managing growth.

As of the date of this prospectus, we employed a total of 13 full-time employees. Our current internal departments include research and development, finance and administration. We intend to expand our management team to include an operation ramp up of additional scientific development and technical staff required to achieve our business objectives. We will need to expand our managerial, operational, technical and scientific, financial and other resources in order to manage our operations and clinical trials, establish independent manufacturing, continue our research and development activities, and commercialize our therapeutic candidates. Our management and scientific personnel, systems and facilities currently in place may not be adequate to support our future growth.

Our need to effectively manage our operations, growth and various projects requires that we:

•        manage our ongoing and future clinical trials effectively;

•        manage our internal development efforts effectively while carrying out our contractual obligations to licensors, contractors and other third parties;

•        continue to improve our operational, financial and management controls and reporting systems and procedures; and

•        attract and retain sufficient numbers of talented employees.

We may utilize the services of vendors and research partners or collaborators to perform tasks including preclinical studies and clinical trial management, statistics and analysis, regulatory affairs, medical advisory, market research, formulation development, chemistry, manufacturing and control activities, other drug development functions, legal, auditing, financial advisory, and investor relations. Our growth strategy may also entail expanding our group of contractors or consultants to implement these and other tasks going forward. Because we rely on numerous consultants to outsource many key functions of our business, we will need to be able to effectively manage these consultants to ensure that they successfully carry out their contractual obligations and meet expected deadlines. However, if we are unable to effectively manage our outsourced activities or if the quality or accuracy of the services provided by consultants is compromised for any reason, our clinical trials may be extended, delayed or terminated, and we may not be able to obtain regulatory approval for our therapeutic candidate or otherwise advance our business. There can be no assurance that we will be able to manage our existing consultants or find other competent outside contractors and consultants on economically reasonable terms, or at all. If we are not able to effectively expand our organization

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by hiring new employees and expanding our groups of consultants and contractors, we may be unable to successfully implement the tasks necessary to further develop and commercialize our therapeutic candidate and, accordingly, may not achieve our research, development and commercialization goals.

We depend on our senior management team, and the loss of one or more of our executive officers or key employees or an inability to attract and retain highly skilled employees could adversely affect our business.

Our success depends largely upon the continued services of our founder and Chief Scientific Officer, Dr. Steen Knudsen, Ph.D., Steve Carchedi, our Chief Executive Officer, President and Director and James G. Cullem, our Senior Vice President of Corporate Development. We do not maintain “key person” insurance for Messrs. Knudsen, Carchedi, Cullem or any of our other key employees. We also rely on employees in the areas of research and development, regulatory compliance and approvals, and general and administrative functions. From time to time, there may be changes in our executive management and employees resulting from the hiring or departure of executives or other key employees which could disrupt our business. The replacement of one or more of our executive officers or other key employees would likely involve significant time and costs and may significantly delay or prevent the achievement of our business objectives.

To continue to execute our growth strategy, we also must attract and retain highly skilled personnel. We might not be successful in maintaining our unique culture and continuing to attract and retain qualified personnel. We have from time to time in the past experienced, and we expect to continue to experience in the future, difficulty in hiring and retaining highly skilled personnel with appropriate qualifications. The pool of qualified personnel with experience in bioinformatics, genomics, or experience working with the biopharma market is limited overall. In addition, many of the companies with which we compete for experienced personnel have greater resources than we have.

In addition, in making employment decisions, particularly in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries, job candidates often consider the value of the stock options or other equity instruments they are to receive in connection with their employment. Volatility in the price of our stock might, therefore, adversely affect our ability to attract or retain highly skilled personnel. Furthermore, the requirement to expense stock options and other equity instruments might discourage us from granting the size or type of stock option or equity awards that job candidates require to join our company. If we fail to attract new personnel or fail to retain and motivate our current personnel, our business and future growth prospects could be severely harmed.

Our employees, independent contractors, consultants, commercial collaborators, principal investigators, CROs and vendors may engage in misconduct or other improper activities, including non-compliance with regulatory standards and requirements.

We are exposed to the risk that our employees, independent contractors, consultants, commercial collaborators, principal investigators, CROs and vendors may engage in fraudulent conduct or other illegal activity. Misconduct by these parties could include intentional, reckless or negligent conduct or unauthorized activities that violates (1) the laws and regulations of the FDA, the EMA, and other similar regulatory authorities, including those laws requiring the reporting of true, complete and accurate information to such authorities, (2) manufacturing standards, (3) federal and state data privacy, security, fraud and abuse and other healthcare laws and regulations in the U.S. and abroad and (4) laws that require the true, complete and accurate reporting of financial information or data. In particular, sales, marketing and business arrangements in the healthcare industry are subject to extensive laws and regulations intended to prevent fraud, misconduct, kickbacks, self-dealing and other abusive practices. These laws and regulations may restrict or prohibit a wide range of pricing, discounting, marketing and promotion, sales commission, customer incentive programs and other business arrangements. Misconduct by these parties could also involve the improper use of individually identifiable information, including information obtained in the course of clinical trials, creating fraudulent data in our preclinical studies or clinical trials or illegal misappropriation of therapeutic candidates, which could result in regulatory sanctions and serious harm to our reputation.

In connection with the Recapitalization Share Exchange, we will adopt a code of business conduct and ethics, but it is not always possible to identify and deter misconduct by employees and other third parties, and the precautions we take to detect and prevent this activity may not be effective in controlling unknown or unmanaged risks or losses or in protecting us from governmental investigations or other actions or lawsuits stemming from a failure to be in compliance with such laws or regulations. Additionally, we are subject to the risk that a person or government could allege such fraud or other misconduct, even if none occurred. If any such actions are instituted against us, and we

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are not successful in defending ourselves or asserting our rights, those actions could have a significant impact on our business, including the imposition of significant civil, criminal and administrative penalties, including damages, fines, disgorgement, imprisonment, exclusion from participation in government healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, contractual damages, reputational harm and the delay, reduction, termination or restructuring of our operations.

Business interruptions could adversely affect future operations, revenues, and financial conditions, and may increase our costs and expenses.

Our operations, and those of our directors, advisors, contractors, consultants, CROs, and collaborators, could be adversely affected by earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, typhoons, extreme weather conditions, fires, water shortages, power failures, business systems failures, medical epidemics and other natural and man-made disaster or business interruptions. Our phones, electronic devices and computer systems and those of our directors, advisors, contractors, consultants, CROs, and collaborators are vulnerable to damages, theft and accidental loss, negligence, unauthorized access, terrorism, war, electronic and telecommunications failures, and other natural and man-made disasters. Operating as an international company, our employees conduct business outside of our headquarters and leased or owned facilities. These locations may be subject to additional security and other risk factors due to the limited control of our employees. If such an event as described above were to occur in the future, it may cause interruptions in our operations, delay research and development programs, clinical trials, regulatory activities, manufacturing and quality assurance activities, sales and marketing activities, hiring, training of employees and persons within associated third parties, and other business activities. For example, the loss of clinical trial data from completed or future clinical trials could result in delays in our regulatory approval efforts and significantly increase our costs to recover or reproduce the data.

Likewise, we will rely on third parties to manufacture our therapeutic candidates and conduct clinical trials, and similar events as those described in the prior paragraph relating to their business systems, equipment and facilities could also have a material adverse effect on our business. To the extent that any disruption or security breach were to result in a loss of, or damage to, our data or applications, or inappropriate disclosure of confidential or proprietary information, we could incur liability and the further development and commercialization of our therapeutic candidate could be delayed or altogether terminated.

International operations may expose us to business, regulatory, political, operational, financial, pricing and reimbursement risks associated with doing business outside of the U.S.

Our business will be subject to risks associated with conducting business internationally. Some of our suppliers, industry partners and clinical study centers are located outside of the U.S. Furthermore, our business strategy incorporates potential international expansion as we seek to obtain regulatory approval for, and commercialize, our therapeutic candidates in patient populations outside the U.S. If approved, we may hire sales representatives and conduct physician and patient association outreach activities outside of the U.S. Doing business internationally involves a number of risks, including but not limited to:

•        multiple, conflicting and changing laws and regulations such as privacy regulations, tax laws, export and import restrictions, employment laws, regulatory requirements and other governmental approvals, permits and licenses;

•        failure by us to obtain and maintain regulatory approvals for the use of our products in various countries;

•        rejection or qualification of foreign clinical trial data by the competent authorities of other countries;

•        delays or interruptions in the supply of clinical trial materials resulting from any events affecting raw material supply or manufacturing capabilities abroad, including those that may result from the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic;

•        additional potentially relevant third-party patent and other intellectual property rights;

•        complexities and difficulties in obtaining, maintaining, protecting and enforcing our intellectual property;

•        difficulties in staffing and managing foreign operations;

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•        complexities associated with managing multiple payor reimbursement regimes, government payors or patient self-pay systems;

•        limits in our ability to penetrate international markets;

•        financial risks, such as longer payment cycles, difficulty collecting accounts receivable, the impact of local and regional financial crises on demand and payment for our therapeutic candidates and exposure to foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations;

•        natural disasters, political and economic instability, including wars, terrorism and political unrest, outbreak of disease, including COVID-19 and related shelter-in-place orders, travel, social distancing and quarantine policies, boycotts, curtailment of trade and other business restrictions;

•        certain expenses including, among others, expenses for travel, translation and insurance; and

•        regulatory and compliance risks that relate to anti-corruption compliance and record-keeping that may fall within the purview of the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, its accounting provisions or its anti-bribery provisions or provisions of anti-corruption or anti-bribery laws in other countries.

Any of these factors could harm our future international expansion and operations and, consequently, our results of operations.

Our internal computer systems, or those used by our CROs or other contractors or consultants, may fail or experience security breaches or other unauthorized or improper access.

Despite the implementation of security measures, our internal computer systems, and those of our CROs and other third parties on which we rely, are vulnerable to privacy and information security incidents, such as data breaches, damage from computer viruses and unauthorized access, malware, natural disasters, fire, terrorism, war and telecommunication, electrical failures, cyber-attacks or cyber-intrusions over the Internet, attachments to emails, persons inside our organization or persons with access to systems inside our organization. The risk of a security breach or disruption, particularly through cyber-attacks or cyber intrusion, including by computer hackers, foreign governments and cyber terrorists, has generally increased as the number, intensity and sophistication of attempted attacks and intrusions from around the world have increased. While we have not experienced any such material system failure or security breach to our knowledge to date, if such an event were to occur and cause interruptions in our operations, it could result in a material disruption of our development programs and our business operations. For example, the loss of clinical trial data from completed, ongoing or future clinical trials could result in delays in our regulatory approval efforts and significantly increase our costs to recover or reproduce the data. Likewise, we rely on third parties for the manufacture of our therapeutic candidates and to conduct clinical trials, and similar events relating to their computer systems could also have a material adverse effect on our business.

Unauthorized disclosure of sensitive or confidential data, including personally identifiable information, whether through a breach of computer systems, systems failure, employee negligence, fraud or misappropriation, or otherwise, or unauthorized access to or through our information systems and networks, whether by our employees or third parties, could result in negative publicity, legal liability and damage to our reputation. Unauthorized disclosure of personally identifiable information could also expose us to sanctions for violations of data privacy laws and regulations around the world. To the extent that any disruption or security breach resulted in a loss of or damage to our data or applications, or inappropriate disclosure of confidential or proprietary information, we could incur liability and the further development of our therapeutic candidates could be delayed.

As we become more dependent on information technologies to conduct our operations, cyber incidents, including deliberate attacks and attempts to gain unauthorized access to computer systems and networks, may increase in frequency and sophistication. These threats pose a risk to the security of our systems and networks, the confidentiality and the availability and integrity of our data and these risks apply both to us, and to third parties on whose systems we rely for the conduct of our business. Because the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access, disable or degrade service or sabotage systems change frequently and often are not recognized until launched against a target, we and our partners may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate preventative measures. Further, we do not have any control over the operations of the facilities or technology of our cloud and service providers, including any third-party vendors that collect, process and store personal data on our behalf. Our systems, servers and platforms and those of our service providers may be vulnerable to computer viruses or physical or electronic break-ins that our

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or their security measures may not detect. Individuals able to circumvent such security measures may misappropriate our confidential or proprietary information, disrupt our operations, damage our computers or otherwise impair our reputation and business. We may need to expend significant resources and make significant capital investment to protect against security breaches or to mitigate the impact of any such breaches. There can be no assurance that we or our third-party providers will be successful in preventing cyber-attacks or successfully mitigating their effects. To the extent that any disruption or security breach were to result in a loss of, or damage to, our data or applications, or inappropriate disclosure of confidential or proprietary information, we could incur liability and the further development and commercialization of our future therapeutic candidates could be delayed.

Our failure to successfully acquire, develop and market additional therapeutic candidates could impair our
ability to grow.

As part of our growth strategy, we may evaluate, acquire, license, develop and/or market additional therapeutic candidates and technologies. We anticipate these investments will constitute a material portion of our business. However, our internal research capabilities are limited and we may be dependent upon pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical companies, academic scientists and other researchers to sell or license therapeutic candidates or technologies to us. The success of this strategy depends partly upon our ability to identify, select and acquire promising pharmaceutical therapeutic candidates for further development together with our proprietary DRP® companion diagnostics platform. The process of proposing, negotiating and implementing a license or acquisition of a therapeutic candidate is lengthy and complex. Other companies, including some with substantially greater financial, marketing and sales resources, may compete with us for the license or acquisition of therapeutic candidates and technologies. We have limited resources to identify and execute the acquisition or in-licensing of potential therapeutic candidates and technologies and to integrate them into our current infrastructure. Moreover, we may devote resources to potential acquisitions or in-licensing opportunities that are never completed, or we may fail to realize the anticipated benefits of such efforts. Furthermore, we may not be able to acquire the rights to additional therapeutic candidates on terms that we find acceptable, or at all.

In addition, future acquisitions of intellectual property rights may entail numerous operational and financial risks, including:

•        exposure to unknown liabilities;

•        disruption of our business and diversion of our management’s and technical personnel’s time and attention to develop acquired therapeutic candidates or technologies;

•        incurrence of substantial debt or dilutive issuances of securities to pay for acquisition costs;

•        higher than expected acquisition costs; and

•        increased amortization expenses.

Any therapeutic candidate that we acquire may require additional development efforts prior to commercial sale or out-licensing, including extensive clinical testing and approval by the FDA and applicable foreign regulatory authorities. All therapeutic candidates are prone to risks of failure typical of pharmaceutical drug development, including the possibility that a therapeutic candidate will not be shown to be sufficiently safe and effective for approval by regulatory authorities. In addition, we cannot provide assurance that any drugs that we may develop or approved drugs that we may acquire will be manufactured profitably or achieve market acceptance.

We have obtained statistical data, market data and other industry data and forecasts used throughout this Prospectus from market research, publicly available information and industry publications which we believe are reliable.

This prospectus contains estimates, projections and other information concerning our industry, our business and the markets for our therapeutic candidates, including data regarding the estimated size of such markets and the incidence of certain medical conditions. We obtained the industry, market and similar data set forth in this prospectus from our internal estimates and research and from academic and industry research, publications, surveys and studies conducted by third parties, including governmental agencies. In some cases, we do not expressly refer to the sources from which this data is derived. Information that is based on estimates, forecasts, projections, market research or similar methodologies is inherently subject to uncertainties and actual events or circumstances may differ materially from events and circumstances that are assumed in this information.

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Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property

If we do not obtain patent term extension for any therapeutic candidates we may develop or obtain a patent on our DRP® companion diagnostic for a therapeutic candidate, our business may be materially harmed.

In the United States, depending upon the timing, duration, and specifics of any FDA marketing approval of a therapeutic candidate, the patent term of a patent that covers an FDA-approved drug may be eligible for limited patent term extension, which permits patent term restoration as compensation for the patent term lost during the FDA regulatory review process. The Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984, also known as the Hatch-Waxman Act, permits a patent term extension of up to five years beyond the expiration of the patent. The length of the patent term extension is related to the length of time the drug is under regulatory review. Patent term extension cannot extend the remaining term of a patent beyond a total of 14 years from the date of drug approval, and only one patent applicable to an approved drug may be extended and only those claims covering the approved drug, a method for using it, or a method for manufacturing it may be extended. Similar provisions are available in Europe and other non-United States jurisdictions to extend the term of a patent that covers an approved drug. While, in the future, if and when our therapeutic candidates receive FDA approval, we expect to apply for patent term extensions on patents directed to those therapeutic candidates, there is no guarantee that the applicable authorities will agree with our assessment of whether such extensions should be granted, and even if granted, the length of such extensions. We may not be granted an extension because of, for example, failing to exercise due diligence during the testing phase or regulatory review process, failing to apply within applicable deadlines, failing to apply prior to expiration of the relevant patents, or otherwise failing to satisfy applicable requirements. If we are unable to obtain any patent term extension or the term of any such extension is less than we request, or if we are not able to obtain a patent on our DRP® companion diagnostic for our therapeutic candidate, our competitors may obtain approval of competing drugs following the expiration of our patent rights, or use a similar companion diagnostic, and our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects could be materially harmed.

Changes to patent laws in the United States and other jurisdictions could diminish the value of patents in general, thereby impairing our ability to protect our drugs.

Changes in either the patent laws or interpretation of patent laws in the United States, including patent reform legislation such as the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act, or the Leahy-Smith Act, could increase the uncertainties and costs surrounding the prosecution of our owned and in-licensed patent applications and the maintenance, enforcement or defense of our owned and in-licensed issued patents. The Leahy-Smith Act includes a number of significant changes to United States patent law. These changes include provisions that affect the way patent applications are prosecuted, redefine prior art, provide more efficient and cost-effective avenues for competitors to challenge the validity of patents, and enable third-party submission of prior art to the USPTO during patent prosecution and additional procedures to attack the validity of a patent at USPTO-administered post-grant proceedings, including post-grant review, inter parties review, and derivation proceedings. Assuming that other requirements for patentability are met, prior to March 2013, in the United States, the first to invent the claimed invention was entitled to the patent, while outside the United States, the first to file a patent application was entitled to the patent.

After March 2013, under the Leahy-Smith Act, the United States transitioned to a first-to-file system in which, assuming that the other statutory requirements for patentability are met, the first inventor to file a patent application will be entitled to the patent on an invention regardless of whether a third-party was the first to invent the claimed invention. As such, the Leahy-Smith Act and its implementation could increase the uncertainties and costs surrounding the prosecution of our patent applications and the enforcement or defense of our issued patents, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.

In addition, the patent positions of companies in the development and commercialization of biologics and pharmaceuticals are particularly uncertain. Recent U.S. Supreme Court rulings have narrowed the scope of patent protection available in certain circumstances and weakened the rights of patent owners in certain situations. This combination of events has created uncertainty with respect to the validity and enforceability of patents once obtained. Depending on future actions by the U.S. Congress, the federal courts, and the USPTO, the laws and regulations governing patents could change in unpredictable ways that could have a material adverse effect on our patent rights and our ability to protect, defend and enforce our patent rights in the future.

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We or our licensors may become involved in lawsuits to protect or enforce our patent or other intellectual property rights, which could be expensive, time-consuming and unsuccessful.

Competitors and other third parties may infringe, misappropriate or otherwise violate our or our licensor’s issued patents or other intellectual property. As a result, we or our licensors may need to file infringement, misappropriation or other intellectual property related claims, which can be expensive and time-consuming. Any claims we assert against perceived infringers could provoke such parties to assert counterclaims against us alleging that we infringe, misappropriate or otherwise violate their intellectual property. In addition, in a patent infringement proceeding, such parties could counterclaim that the patents we or our licensors have asserted are invalid or unenforceable. In patent litigation in the United States, defendant counterclaims alleging invalidity or unenforceability are commonplace. Grounds for a validity challenge could be an alleged failure to meet any of several statutory requirements, including lack of novelty, obviousness, or non-enablement. Grounds for an unenforceability assertion could be an allegation that someone connected with prosecution of the patent withheld relevant information from the USPTO, or made a misleading statement, during prosecution. Third parties may institute such claims before administrative bodies in the United States or abroad, even outside the context of litigation. Such mechanisms include re-examination, post-grant review, inter parties review, interference proceedings, derivation proceedings, and equivalent proceedings in foreign jurisdictions (e.g., opposition proceedings).

An adverse result in any such proceeding could put one or more of our owned or in-licensed patents at risk of being invalidated or interpreted narrowly, and could put any of our owned or in-licensed patent applications at risk of not yielding an issued patent. A court may also refuse to stop the third-party from using the technology at issue in a proceeding on the grounds that our owned or in-licensed patents do not cover such technology. Furthermore, because of the substantial amount of discovery required in connection with intellectual property litigation, there is a risk that some of our confidential information or trade secrets could be compromised by disclosure during this type of litigation. Any of the foregoing could allow such third parties to develop and commercialize competing technologies and products and have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.

Third parties may initiate legal proceedings alleging that we are infringing, misappropriating or otherwise violating their intellectual property rights, the outcome of which would be uncertain and could have a material adverse effect on the success of our business.

Our commercial success depends upon our ability, and the ability of our collaborators, to develop, manufacture, market and sell our therapeutic candidates and use our proprietary technologies without infringing, misappropriating or otherwise violating the intellectual property and proprietary rights of third parties. There is considerable patent and other intellectual property litigation in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. We may become party to, or threatened with, adversarial proceedings or litigation regarding intellectual property rights with respect to our technology and therapeutic candidates, including interference proceedings, post grant review, inter parties review, and derivation proceedings before the USPTO and similar proceedings in foreign jurisdictions such as oppositions before the European Patent Office.

The legal threshold for initiating litigation or contested proceedings is low, so that even lawsuits or proceedings with a low probability of success might be initiated and require significant resources to defend. Litigation and contested proceedings can also be expensive and time-consuming, and our adversaries in these proceedings may have the ability to dedicate substantially greater resources to prosecuting these legal actions than we can. The risks of being involved in such litigation and proceedings may increase if and as our therapeutic candidates near commercialization and as we gain the greater visibility associated with being a public company. Third parties may assert infringement claims against us based on existing patents or patents that may be granted in the future, regardless of merit. We may not be aware of all such intellectual property rights potentially relating to our technology and therapeutic candidates and their uses. Thus, we do not know with certainty that our technology and therapeutic candidates, or our development and commercialization thereof, do not and will not infringe, misappropriate or otherwise violate any third-party’s intellectual property.

Even if we believe that third-party intellectual property claims are without merit, there is no assurance that a court would find in our favor on questions of misappropriation, infringement, validity, enforceability, or priority. A court of competent jurisdiction could hold these third-party patents are valid, enforceable, and infringed, which could materially and adversely affect our ability to commercialize any technology or therapeutic candidate covered by the asserted third-party patents. In order to successfully challenge the validity of any such U.S. patent in federal court,

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we would need to overcome a presumption of validity. As this burden is a high one requiring us to present clear and convincing evidence as to the invalidity of any such U.S. patent claim, there is no assurance that a court of competent jurisdiction would invalidate the claims of any such U.S. patent.

If we are found to infringe, misappropriate or otherwise violate a third-party’s intellectual property rights, we could be required to obtain a license from such third-party to continue developing, manufacturing and marketing our technology and therapeutic candidates. However, we may not be able to obtain any required license on commercially reasonable terms or at all. Even if we were able to obtain a license, it could be non-exclusive; thereby giving our competitors and other third parties access to the same technologies licensed to us and could require us to make substantial licensing and royalty payments. We could be forced, including by court order, to cease developing, manufacturing and commercializing the infringing technology or drug. In addition, we could be found liable for significant monetary damages, including treble damages and attorneys’ fees, if we are found to have willfully infringed a patent or other intellectual property right and could be forced to indemnify our collaborators or others. A finding of infringement could prevent us from commercializing our therapeutic candidates or force us to cease some of our business operations, which could materially harm our business. In addition, we may be forced to redesign our therapeutic candidates, seek new regulatory approvals and indemnify third parties pursuant to contractual agreements. Claims that we have misappropriated the confidential information or trade secrets of third parties could have a similar material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.

Intellectual property litigation or other legal proceedings relating to intellectual property could cause us to spend substantial resources and distract our personnel from their normal responsibilities.

Even if resolved in our favor, litigation or other legal proceedings relating to intellectual property claims may cause us to incur significant expenses, and could distract our technical and management personnel from their normal responsibilities. In addition, there could be public announcements of the results of hearings, motions or other interim proceedings or developments and if securities analysts or investors perceive these results to be negative, it could have a substantial adverse effect on the price of our common stock. Such litigation or proceedings could substantially increase our operating losses and reduce the resources available for development activities or any future sales, marketing or distribution activities. We may not have sufficient financial or other resources to conduct such litigation or proceedings adequately. Some of our competitors may be able to sustain the costs of such litigation or proceedings more effectively than we can because of their greater financial resources and may also have an advantage in such proceedings due to their more mature and developed intellectual property portfolios. Uncertainties resulting from the initiation and continuation of intellectual property litigation or other proceedings could compromise our ability to compete in the marketplace.

Obtaining and maintaining patent protection depends on compliance with various procedural, document submission, fee payment and other requirements imposed by governmental patent agencies, and our patent protection could be reduced or eliminated for non-compliance with these requirements.

Periodic maintenance, renewal and annuity fees and various other government fees on any issued patent and pending patent application must be paid to the USPTO and foreign patent agencies in several stages or annually over the lifetime of our owned and in-licensed patents and patent applications. The USPTO and various foreign governmental patent agencies require compliance with a number of procedural, documentary, fee payment and other similar provisions during the patent application process. In certain circumstances, we rely on our licensing partners to pay these fees to, or comply with the procedural and documentary rules of, the relevant patent agency. With respect to our patents, we rely on an annuity service to remind us of the due dates and to make payment after we instruct them to do so. While an inadvertent lapse can in many cases be cured by payment of a late fee or by other means in accordance with the applicable rules, there are situations in which noncompliance can result in abandonment or lapse of the patent or patent application, resulting in partial or complete loss of patent rights in the relevant jurisdiction. Non-compliance events that could result in abandonment or lapse of a patent or patent application include failure to respond to official actions within prescribed time limits, non-payment of fees and failure to properly legalize and submit formal documents. In such an event, potential competitors might be able to enter the market with similar or identical products or technology. If we or our licensors fail to maintain the patents and patent applications directed to our therapeutic candidates, it would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.

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If we fail to comply with our obligations in our intellectual property licenses and funding arrangements with third parties, we could lose rights that are important to our business.

We are party to license and funding agreements that impose, and we may enter into additional licensing and funding arrangements with third parties that may impose, diligence, development and commercialization timelines, milestone payment, royalty, insurance and other obligations on us. Under our existing licensing and funding agreements, we are obligated to pay certain specified milestone payments and royalties on net drug sales of therapeutic candidates or related technologies to the extent they are covered by the agreements. If we fail to comply with such obligations under current or future license and funding agreements, our counterparties may have the right to terminate these agreements or require us to grant them certain rights. Such an occurrence could materially adversely affect the value of any therapeutic candidate being developed under any such agreement. Termination of these agreements or reduction or elimination of our rights under these agreements may result in our having to negotiate new or reinstated agreements with less favorable terms, or cause us to lose our rights under these agreements, including our rights to important intellectual property or technology, which would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.

Additionally, these and other license agreements may not provide exclusive rights to use the licensed intellectual property and technology in all relevant fields of use and in all territories in which we may wish to develop or commercialize our technology and drugs in the future. As a result, we may not be able to prevent competitors from developing and commercializing competitive products and technology in fields of use and territories not included in such agreements. In addition, we may not have the right to control the preparation, filing, prosecution, maintenance, enforcement, and defense of patents and patent applications directed to the technology that we license from third parties. Therefore, we cannot be certain that these patents and patent applications will be prepared, filed, prosecuted, maintained, and defended in a manner consistent with the best interests of our business. If our licensors fail to prosecute, maintain, enforce, and defend such patents, or lose rights to those patents or patent applications, the rights we have licensed may be reduced or eliminated, and our right to develop and commercialize any of our drugs that are the subject of such licensed rights could be adversely affected.

We may need to obtain additional licenses from others to advance our research or allow commercialization of our therapeutic candidates. It is possible that we may be unable to obtain additional licenses at a reasonable cost or on reasonable terms, if at all, or such licenses may be non-exclusive. The licensing or acquisition of third-party intellectual property rights is a competitive area, and several more established companies may pursue strategies to license or acquire third-party intellectual property rights that we may consider attractive or necessary. These established companies may have a competitive advantage over us due to their size, capital resources and greater clinical development and commercialization capabilities. In addition, companies that perceive us to be a competitor may be unwilling to assign or license rights to us. We also may be unable to license or acquire third-party intellectual property rights on terms that would allow us to make an appropriate return on our investment or at all.

If we are unable to obtain rights to required third-party intellectual property rights or maintain the existing intellectual property rights we have, we may be required to expend significant time and resources to redesign our technology, therapeutic candidates, or the methods for manufacturing them or to develop or license replacement technology, all of which may not be feasible on a technical or commercial basis. If we are unable to do so, we may be unable to develop or commercialize the affected technology and therapeutic candidates, which could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects significantly.

Disputes may arise regarding intellectual property subject to a licensing agreement, including:

•        the scope of rights granted under the license agreement and other interpretation related issues;

•        the extent to which our technology and processes infringe on intellectual property of the licensor that is not subject to the licensing agreement;

•        the sublicensing of patent and other rights under our collaborative development relationships;

•        our diligence obligations under the license agreement and what activities satisfy those diligence obligations;

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•        the inventorship and ownership of inventions and know-how resulting from the joint creation or use of intellectual property by our licensors and us and our partners; and

•        the priority of invention of patented technology.

In addition, the agreements under which we currently license intellectual property or technology from third parties are complex, and certain provisions in such agreements may be susceptible to multiple interpretations. The resolution of any contract interpretation disagreement that may arise could narrow what we believe to be the scope of our rights to the relevant intellectual property or technology, or increase what we believe to be our financial or other obligations under the relevant agreement, either of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects. Moreover, if disputes over intellectual property that we have licensed prevent or impair our ability to maintain our current licensing arrangements on commercially acceptable terms, we may be unable to successfully develop and commercialize the affected technology and therapeutic candidates, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial conditions, results of operations, and prospects.

Our licensors may have relied on third-party consultants or collaborators or on funds from third parties such that our licensors are not the sole and exclusive owners of the patents and patent applications we in-licensed. If other third parties have ownership rights to our in-licensed patents, they may be able to license such patents to our competitors, and our competitors could market competing products and technology. This could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, business, financial conditions, results of operations, and prospects.

In spite of our best efforts, our licensors might conclude that we have materially breached our license agreements and might therefore terminate the license agreements, thereby removing our ability to develop and commercialize therapeutic candidates and technology covered by these license agreements. If these in-licenses are terminated, or if the underlying intellectual property fails to provide the intended exclusivity, competitors would have the freedom to seek regulatory approval of, and to market, products and technologies identical to ours. This could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, business, financial conditions, results of operations, and prospects.

We may not be able to protect our intellectual property and proprietary rights throughout the world.

Filing, prosecuting, and defending patents on therapeutic candidates in all countries throughout the world would be prohibitively expensive, and the laws of foreign countries may not protect our rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States. Consequently, we may not be able to prevent third parties from practicing our inventions in all countries outside the United States, or from selling or importing products made using our inventions in and into the United States or other jurisdictions. Competitors may use our technologies in jurisdictions where we have not obtained patent protection to develop their own products and, further, may export otherwise infringing products to territories where we have patent protection or licenses but enforcement is not as strong as that in the United States. These products may compete with our products, and our patents or other intellectual property rights may not be effective or sufficient to prevent them from competing.

Many companies have encountered significant problems in protecting and defending intellectual property rights in foreign jurisdictions. The legal systems of certain countries, particularly certain developing countries, do not favor the enforcement of patents, trade secrets, and other intellectual property protection, particularly those relating to pharmaceutical products, which could make it difficult for us to stop the infringement of our patents or marketing of competing products in violation of our intellectual property and proprietary rights generally. Proceedings to enforce our intellectual property and proprietary rights in foreign jurisdictions could result in substantial costs and divert our efforts and attention from other aspects of our business, could put our patents at risk of being invalidated or interpreted narrowly, could put our patent applications at risk of not issuing, and could provoke third parties to assert claims against us. We may not prevail in any lawsuits that we initiate, and the damages or other remedies awarded, if any, may not be commercially meaningful. Accordingly, our efforts to enforce our intellectual property and proprietary rights around the world may be inadequate to obtain a significant commercial advantage from the intellectual property that we develop or license.

Many countries have compulsory licensing laws under which a patent owner may be compelled to grant licenses to third parties. In addition, many countries limit the enforceability of patents against government agencies or government contractors. In these countries, the patent owner may have limited remedies, which could materially diminish the value of such patent. If we or any of our licensors is forced to grant a license to third parties with respect to any patents relevant to our business, our competitive position may be impaired, and our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects may be adversely affected.

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We may be subject to claims by third parties asserting that our employees, consultants, contractors or advisors have wrongfully used or disclosed alleged trade secrets of their current or former employers or claims asserting we have misappropriated their intellectual property, or claiming ownership of what we regard as our own intellectual property.

Many of our employees, consultants, contractors and advisors were previously employed, or may currently be employed, at universities or other pharmaceutical or biotechnology companies, including our competitors or potential competitors. Although we try to ensure that our employees, contractors and advisors do not use the proprietary information or know-how of others in their work for us, we may be subject to claims that these individuals or we have used or disclosed intellectual property, including trade secrets or other proprietary information, of any such individual’s current or former employer. Litigation may be necessary to defend against these claims.

In addition, while it is our policy to require our employees, consultants, contractors and advisors who may be involved in the development of intellectual property to execute agreements assigning such intellectual property to us, we may be unsuccessful in executing such an agreement with each party who in fact develops intellectual property that we regard as our own. Our intellectual property assignment agreements with them may not be self-executing or may be breached, and we may be forced to bring claims against third parties, or defend claims they may bring against us, to determine the ownership of what we regard as our intellectual property. Such claims could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial conditions, results of operations, and prospects.

If we fail in prosecuting or defending any such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable intellectual property rights or personnel, which could have a material adverse effect on our competitive business position and prospects. Such intellectual property rights could be awarded to a third-party, and we could be required to obtain a license from such third-party to commercialize our technology or products, which license may not be available on commercially reasonable terms, or at all, or such license may be non-exclusive. Even if we are successful in prosecuting or defending against such claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and be a distraction to our management and employees.

In addition to seeking patents for some of our technology and therapeutic candidates, we also rely on trade secrets and confidentiality agreements relating to the development of our proprietary DRP® companion diagnostics platform to protect our unpatented know-how, technology and other proprietary information, in order to maintain our competitive position. We seek to protect our trade secrets and other proprietary technology, in part, by entering into non-disclosure and confidentiality agreements with parties who have access to them, such as our employees, corporate collaborators, outside scientific collaborators, contract research organizations, contract manufacturers, consultants, advisors and other third parties. Although we may not have done so in the past, we intend to enter into confidentiality and invention or patent assignment agreements with our employees and consultants in the future. We cannot guarantee that we have entered into such agreements with each party that may have or has had access to our trade secrets or proprietary technology. Despite these efforts, any of these parties may breach the agreements and disclose our proprietary information, including our trade secrets, and we may not be able to obtain adequate remedies for such breaches. Detecting the disclosure or misappropriation of a trade secret and enforcing a claim that a party illegally disclosed or misappropriated a trade secret is difficult, expensive and time-consuming, and the outcome is unpredictable. In addition, some courts inside and outside of the United States are less willing or unwilling to protect trade secrets. If any of our trade secrets were to be lawfully obtained or independently developed by a competitor or other third-party, we would have no right to prevent them, or those to whom they communicate it, from using that technology or information to compete with us. If any of our trade secrets were to be disclosed to or independently developed by a competitor or other third-party, our competitive position would be materially and adversely harmed.

Intellectual property rights do not necessarily address all potential threats.

The degree of future protection afforded by our intellectual property rights is uncertain because intellectual property rights have limitations and may not adequately protect our business or permit us to maintain our competitive advantage. For example:

•        we, or our license partners or current or future collaborators, might not have been the first to make the inventions covered by the issued patent or pending patent applications that we license or may own in the future;

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•        we, or our license partners or current or future collaborators, might not have been the first to file patent applications covering certain of our or their inventions;

•        others may independently develop similar or alternative technologies or duplicate any of our technologies without infringing our owned or in-licensed intellectual property rights;

•        it is possible that our owned and in-licensed pending patent applications or those we may own or in-license in the future will not lead to issued patents;

•        issued patents that we hold rights to may be held invalid or unenforceable, including as a result of legal challenges by our competitors;

•        our competitors might conduct research and development activities in countries where we do not have patent rights and then use the information learned from such activities to develop competitive products for sale in our major commercial markets;

•        we may not develop additional proprietary technologies that are patentable;

•        the patents of others may harm our business; and

•        we may choose not to file a patent in order to maintain certain trade secrets or know-how, and a third-party may subsequently file a patent covering such intellectual property, or may independently develop such trade secret and be free to exploit it.

Should any of these events occur, they could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.

General Risk Factors Related to Owning our Common Stock and this Offering

An active trading market for our common stock may not develop, and you may not be able to sell your common stock at or above the initial public offering price.

Prior to the completion of our Recapitalization Share Exchange, there has been no public market for our common stock. An active trading market for shares of our common stock may never develop or be sustained following the Recapitalization Share Exchange. If an active trading market does not develop, you may have difficulty selling your shares of common stock at an attractive price, or at all. An inactive market may also impair our ability to raise capital by selling our common stock, and it may impair our ability to attract and motivate our employees through equity incentive awards and our ability to acquire other companies, drugs or technologies by using our common stock as consideration.

If our recently completed Recapitalization Share Exchange does not meet the expectations of investors or securities analysts or for other reasons the expected benefits do not occur, the market price of our common stock traded on the Nasdaq Stock Market, may decline.

If the perceived benefits our recently completed Recapitalization Share Exchange do not meet the expectations of investors or securities analysts, the market price of common stock traded on the Nasdaq Capital Market may decline. Prior to our Recapitalization Share Exchange, there has not been a public market for our common stock in the U.S. If an active market for our common stock develops and continues, the trading price of our common stock could be volatile and subject to wide fluctuations in response to various factors, some of which are beyond our control. Any of the factors listed below could have a negative impact on your investment in our securities and our securities may trade at prices significantly below the price you paid for them. In such circumstances, the trading price of our securities may not recover and may experience a further decline.

Factors affecting the trading price of our securities may include:

•        adverse regulatory decisions;

•        any delay in our regulatory filings for our therapeutic candidates and any adverse development or perceived adverse development with respect to the applicable regulatory authority’s review of such filings, including without limitation the FDA’s issuance of a “refusal to file” letter or a request for additional information;

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•        the impacts of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and related restrictions;

•        the commencement, enrollment or results of any future clinical trials we may conduct, or changes in the development status of our therapeutic candidates;

•        adverse results from, delays in or termination of clinical trials;

•        unanticipated serious safety concerns related to the use of our therapeutic candidates;

•        lower than expected market acceptance of our therapeutic candidates following approval for commercialization, if approved;

•        changes in financial estimates by us or by any securities analysts who might cover our securities;

•        conditions or trends in our industry;

•        changes in the market valuations of similar companies;

•        stock market price and volume fluctuations of comparable companies and, in particular, those that operate in the biopharmaceutical industry;

•        publication of research reports about us or our industry or positive or negative recommendations or withdrawal of research coverage by securities analysts;

•        announcements by us or our competitors of significant acquisitions, strategic partnerships or divestitures;

•        announcements of investigations or regulatory scrutiny of our operations or lawsuits filed against us;

•        investors’ general perception of our business prospects or management;

•        recruitment or departure of key personnel;

•        overall performance of the equity markets;

•        trading volume of our common stock;

•        disputes or other developments relating to intellectual property rights, including patents, litigation matters and our ability to obtain, maintain, defend, protect and enforce patent and other intellectual property rights for our technologies;

•        significant lawsuits, including patent or shareholder litigation;

•        proposed changes to healthcare laws in the U.S. or foreign jurisdictions, or speculation regarding such changes;

•        general political and economic conditions; and

•        other events or factors, many of which are beyond our control.

In addition, in the past, stockholders have initiated class action lawsuits against biopharmaceutical and biotechnology companies following periods of volatility in the market prices of these companies’ stock. Such litigation, if instituted against us, could cause us to incur substantial costs and divert management’s attention and resources from our business.

The price of our common stock may fluctuate substantially.

You should consider an investment in our common stock to be risky, and you should invest in our common stock only if you can withstand a significant loss and wide fluctuations in the market value of your investment. Some factors that may cause the market price of our common stock to fluctuate, in addition to the other risks mentioned in this “Risk Factors” section and elsewhere in this prospectus, are:

•        sale of our common stock by our stockholders, executives, and directors;

•        volatility and limitations in trading volumes of our shares of common stock;

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•        our ability to obtain financings to conduct and complete research and development activities including, but not limited to, our proposed clinical trials, and other business activities;

•        possible delays in the expected recognition of revenue due to lengthy and sometimes unpredictable sales timelines;

•        the timing and success of introductions of new drugs by our competitors or any other change in the competitive dynamics of our industry, including consolidation among competitors, customers or strategic partners;

•        network outages or security breaches;

•        the lack of market acceptance and sales growth for our therapeutic candidates, if any, that receive marketing approval;

•        our ability to secure resources and the necessary personnel to conduct clinical trials on our desired schedule;

•        commencement, enrollment or results of our clinical trials for our therapeutic candidates or any future clinical trials we may conduct;

•        changes in the development status of our therapeutic candidates;

•        any delays or adverse developments or perceived adverse developments with respect to the FDA’s review of our planned NDA, PMA and clinical trials;

•        any delay in our submission for studies or drug approvals or adverse regulatory decisions, including failure to receive regulatory approval for our therapeutic candidates;

•        unanticipated safety concerns related to the use of our therapeutic candidates;

•        failures to meet external expectations or management guidance;

•        changes in our capital structure or dividend policy and future issuances of securities;

•        sales of large blocks of common stock by our stockholders, including, but not limited to, sales by 3i, LP, a Delaware limited partnership as a result of the conversion of a Series A Convertible Preferred Stock into common stock and the liquidation of the PIPE Investment;

•        our cash position;

•        announcements and events surrounding financing efforts, including debt and equity securities;

•        our inability to enter into new markets or develop new drugs;

•        reputational issues;

•        competition from existing technologies and drugs or new technologies and drugs that may emerge;

•        announcements of acquisitions, partnerships, collaborations, joint ventures, new drugs, capital commitments, or other events by us or our competitors;

•        changes in general economic, political and market conditions in or any of the regions in which we conduct our business;

•        changes in industry conditions or perceptions;

•        changes in valuations of similar companies or groups of companies;

•        analyst research reports, recommendation and changes in recommendations, price targets, and withdrawals of coverage;

•        departures and additions of key personnel;

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•        disputes and litigations related to intellectual properties, proprietary rights, and contractual obligations;

•        changes in applicable laws, rules, regulations, or accounting practices and other dynamics; and

•        other events or factors, many of which may be out of our control.

In addition, if the market for stocks in our industry or industries related to our industry, or the stock market in general, experiences a loss of investor confidence, the trading price of our common stock could decline for reasons unrelated to our business, financial condition and results of operations. If any of the foregoing occurs, it could cause our stock price to fall and may expose us to lawsuits that, even if unsuccessful, could be costly to defend and a distraction to management.

We have broad discretion in the use of the net proceeds from the PIPE Investment and may not use them effectively.

Our management will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds from the PIPE Investment. Because of the number and variability of factors that will determine our use of the net proceeds from the PIPE Investment, their ultimate use may vary substantially from their currently intended use. Our management may not apply our cash from the PIPE Investment in ways that ultimately increase the value of any investment in our securities or enhance stockholder value. The failure by our management to apply these funds effectively could harm our business. Pending their use, we may invest the net proceeds from the PIPE Investment in short-term, investment-grade, interest-bearing securities. These investments may not yield a favorable return to our stockholders. If we do not invest or apply our cash in ways that enhance stockholder value, we may fail to achieve expected financial results, which may result in a decline in the price of our shares of common stock, and, therefore, may negatively impact our ability to raise capital, invest in or expand our business, acquire additional therapeutic candidates or licenses, commercialize our therapeutic candidates, or continue our operations.

We may acquire other companies or technologies, which could divert our management’s attention, result in dilution to our stockholders and otherwise disrupt our operations and adversely affect our operating results.

We may in the future seek to acquire or invest in businesses, applications and services or technologies that we believe could complement or expand our services, enhance our technical capabilities or otherwise offer growth opportunities. The pursuit of potential acquisitions may divert the attention of management and cause us to incur various expenses in identifying, investigating and pursuing suitable acquisitions, whether or not they are consummated.

In addition, we do not have any experience in acquiring other businesses. If we acquire additional businesses, we may not be able to integrate the acquired personnel, operations and technologies successfully or effectively manage the combined business following the acquisition. We also may not achieve the anticipated benefits from the acquired business due to a number of factors, including:

•        inability to integrate or benefit from acquired technologies or services in a profitable manner;

•        unanticipated costs or liabilities associated with the acquisition;

•        difficulty integrating the accounting systems, operations and personnel of the acquired business;

•        difficulties and additional expenses associated with supporting legacy drugs and hosting infrastructure of the acquired business;

•        difficulty converting the customers, if any, of the acquired business onto our platform and contract terms, including disparities in the revenue, licensing, support or professional services model of the acquired company;

•        diversion of management’s attention from other business concerns;

•        adverse effects to our existing business relationships with business partners and customers as a result of the acquisition;

•        the potential loss of key employees;

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•        use of resources that are needed in other parts of our business; and

•        use of substantial portions of our available cash to consummate the acquisition.

In addition, a significant portion of the purchase price of companies we acquire may be allocated to acquired goodwill and other intangible assets, which must be assessed for impairment at least annually. In the future, if our acquisitions do not yield expected returns, we may be required to take charges to our operating results based on this impairment assessment process, which could adversely affect our results of operations.

Acquisitions could also result in dilutive issuances of equity securities or the incurrence of debt, which could adversely affect our operating results. In addition, if an acquired business fails to meet our expectations, our operating results, business and financial position may suffer.

Market and economic conditions may negatively impact our business, financial condition and share price.

Concerns over inflation, energy costs, geopolitical issues, the U.S. mortgage market and a declining real estate market, unstable global credit markets and financial conditions, and volatile oil prices have led to periods of significant economic instability, diminished liquidity and credit availability, declines in consumer confidence and discretionary spending, diminished expectations for the global economy and expectations of slower global economic growth going forward, increased unemployment rates, and increased credit defaults in recent years. Our general business strategy may be adversely affected by any such economic downturns, volatile business environments and continued unstable or unpredictable economic and market conditions. If these conditions continue to deteriorate or do not improve, it may make any necessary debt or equity financing more difficult to complete, more costly, and more dilutive. Failure to secure any necessary financing in a timely manner and on favorable terms could have a material adverse effect on our growth strategy, financial performance, and share price and could require us to delay or abandon development or commercialization plans.

If, following our recent Recapitalization Share Exchange, securities or industry analysts do not publish or cease publishing research or reports about us, our business, or our market, or if they change their recommendations regarding our securities adversely, the price and trading volume of common stock could decline.

The trading market for common stock will be influenced by the research and reports that industry or securities analysts may publish about us, our business, market or competitors. Securities and industry analysts do not currently, and may never, publish research on us. If no securities or industry analysts commence coverage of us, our share price and trading volume would likely be negatively impacted. If any of the analysts who may cover us change their recommendation regarding our common stock adversely, or provide more favorable relative recommendations about our competitors, the price of our common stock would likely decline. If any analyst who may cover us were to cease coverage of us or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause our share price or trading volume to decline.

Because certain of our stockholders control a significant number of shares of our common stock, they may have effective control over actions requiring stockholder approval.

Following this offering, our directors, executive officers and principal stockholders, and their respective affiliates, in the aggregate will beneficially own approximately 3.8% of our outstanding shares of common stock. As a result, these stockholders, acting together, may have the ability to control, or influence the control, the outcome of matters submitted to our stockholders for approval, including the election of directors and any merger, consolidation or sale of all or substantially all of our assets. In addition, these stockholders, acting together, may have the ability to control the management and affairs of our company. Accordingly, this concentration of ownership might harm the market price of our common stock by:

•        delaying, deferring or preventing a change in corporate control;

•        impeding a merger, consolidation, takeover or other business combination involving us; or

•        discouraging a potential acquirer from making a tender offer or otherwise attempting to obtain control of us.

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Future sales, or the perception of future sales, by us or our stockholders in the public market could cause the market price for our common stock to decline.

The sale of shares of our common stock in the public market, or the perception that such sales could occur, could harm the prevailing market price of shares of our common stock. These sales, or the possibility that these sales may occur, also might make it more difficult for us to sell equity securities in the future at a time and at a price that it deems appropriate.

Upon consummation of the Recapitalization Share Exchange, we anticipate having a total of approximately 8,075,824 shares of common stock outstanding and 20,000 shares of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock outstanding assuming the closing of the PIPE Investment has occurred convertible into 2,018,958 shares of common stock at an anticipated fixed conversion price of $9.906 per share, subject to adjustments. All shares of Delaware Common Stock issued in the Recapitalization Share Exchange and upon conversion of the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock, from time to time, will be freely tradable without registration under the Securities Act, and without restriction by persons other than our “affiliates” (as defined under Rule 144 of the Securities Act, “Rule 144”), including our directors, executive officers and other affiliates.

In addition, the shares of common stock reserved for Converted Options and future issuances under our 2021 Equity Incentive Plan will become eligible for sale in the public market once those shares are issued, subject to provisions relating to various vesting agreements, lock-up agreements and, in some cases, limitations on volume and manner of sale applicable to affiliates under Rule 144, as applicable. A total of approximately 15% of the issued and outstanding shares of our common stock immediately before the effective time of the Recapitalization Share Exchange is expected to be reserved for future issuance under our 2021 Equity Incentive Plan. We expect to file one or more registration statements on Form S-8 under the Securities Act to register shares of our common stock or securities convertible into or exchangeable for shares of our common stock issued pursuant to our 2021 Equity Incentive Plan. Any such Form S-8 registration statements will automatically become effective upon filing. Accordingly, shares registered under such registration statements will be available for sale in the open market.

In the future, we may also issue our securities in connection with investments or acquisitions. The amount of shares of our common stock issued in connection with an investment or acquisition could constitute a material portion of our then-outstanding shares of common stock. Any issuance of additional securities in connection with investments or acquisitions may result in additional dilution to our stockholders.

Because there are no current plans to pay cash dividends on shares of our common stock for the foreseeable future, you may not receive any return on investment unless you sell your shares of common stock for a price greater than that which you paid for it.

We intend to retain future earnings, if any, for future operations, expansion and debt repayment and have no current plans to pay any cash dividends for the foreseeable future. Any decision to declare and pay dividends as a public company in the future will be made at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on, among other things, our results of operations, financial condition, cash requirements, contractual restrictions and other factors that our board of directors may deem relevant. In addition, our ability to pay dividends may be limited by covenants of any existing and future outstanding indebtedness we or our subsidiaries incur or from restrictions imposed by any preferred stock we may issue in the future. As a result, you may not receive any return on an investment in our common stock unless you sell your shares of common stock for a price greater than that which you paid for it.

We are an “emerging growth company” and a “smaller reporting company” and will be able to avail ourselves of reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies and smaller reporting companies, which could make our common stock less attractive to investors.

We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, or the JOBS Act, and we intend to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not “emerging growth companies” including not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements, and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. In addition, Section 107 of the JOBS Act also provides that an “emerging growth

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company” can take advantage of the extended transition period provided in Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act, for complying with new or revised accounting standards. In other words, an “emerging growth company” can delay the adoption of certain accounting standards until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies. We are not electing to delay such adoption of new or revised accounting standards, and as a result, we will comply with new or revised accounting standards on the relevant dates on which adoption of such standards is required for non-emerging growth companies. We cannot predict if investors will find our common stock less attractive because we may rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our common stock less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our common stock and our stock price may be more volatile. We may take advantage of these reporting exemptions until we are no longer an “emerging growth company.” We will remain an “emerging growth company” until the earliest of (i) the last day of the fiscal year in which we have total annual gross revenues of $1.07 billion or more; (ii) the last day of our fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the date of the completion of this offering; (iii) the date on which we have issued more than $1 billion in nonconvertible debt during the previous three years; or (iv) the date on which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer under the rules of the SEC.

Additionally, we are a “smaller reporting company” as defined in Item 10(f)(1) of Regulation S-K. Even after we no longer qualify as an emerging growth company, we may still qualify as a “smaller reporting company,” which would allow us to continue to take advantage of many of the same exemptions from disclosure requirements, including presenting only the two most recent fiscal years of audited financial statements and reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in this prospectus and our periodic reports and proxy statements. We may continue to be a smaller reporting company after the Recapitalization Share Exchange is consummated if either (i) the market value of our stock held by non-affiliates is less than $250 million or (ii) our annual revenue was less than $100 million during the most recently completed fiscal year and the market value of our stock held by non-affiliates is less than $700 million. To the extent we take advantage of such reduced disclosure obligations, it may also make comparison of our financial statements with other public companies difficult or impossible.

We may be at risk of securities class action litigation.

We may be at risk of securities class action litigation. In the past, biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies have experienced significant stock price volatility, particularly when associated with binary events such as clinical trials and drug approvals. If we face such litigation, it could result in substantial costs and a diversion of management’s attention and resources, which could harm our business and results in a decline in the market price of our common stock.

There is no assurance that an active and liquid trading market in our common stock will develop.

Even though our shares may be listed on the Nasdaq Stock Market, there can be no assurance any broker will be interested in trading our common stock. Therefore, it may be difficult to sell any shares you purchase in this offering if you desire or need to sell them. The underwriters are not obligated to make a market in our common stock, and even after making a market, can discontinue market making at any time without notice. We cannot provide any assurance that an active and liquid trading market in our common stock will develop or, if developed, that the market will continue.

Our certificate of incorporation and our by-laws, and Delaware law may have anti-takeover effects that could discourage, delay or prevent a change in control, which may cause our stock price to decline.

Our certificate of incorporation, our by-laws, and Delaware law could make it more difficult for a third-party to acquire us, even if closing such a transaction would be beneficial to our stockholders. We will be authorized to issue up to 500,000 shares of preferred stock upon the completion of the Recapitalization Share Exchange, 20,000 shares of which have been designated as Series A Preferred Stock that has been sold in the PIPE Investment. The remaining preferred stock may be issued in one or more series, the terms of which may be determined at the time of issuance by our board of directors without further action by stockholders. The terms of any series of preferred stock may include voting rights (including the right to vote as a series on particular matters), preferences as to dividend, liquidation, conversion and redemption rights and sinking fund provisions. None of our preferred stock will be outstanding at the closing of this offering. The issuance of any preferred stock could materially adversely affect the rights of the holders of our common stock, and therefore, reduce the value of our common stock. In particular, specific rights granted to future holders of preferred stock could be used to restrict our ability to merge with, or sell our assets to, a third-party and thereby preserve control by the present management.

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Provisions of our certificate of incorporation, by-laws and Delaware law also could have the effect of discouraging potential acquisition proposals or making a tender offer or delaying or preventing a change in control, including changes a stockholder might consider favorable. Such provisions may also prevent or frustrate attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our management. In particular, our certificate of incorporation and by-laws and Delaware law, as applicable, among other things:

•        provide for a classified board of directors;

•        provide the board of directors with the ability to alter the by-laws without stockholder approval;

•        establishing advance notice requirements for nominations for election to the board of directors or for proposing matters that can be acted upon at stockholder meetings; and

•        provide that vacancies on the board of directors may be filled by a majority of directors in office, although less than a quorum.

Our Certificate of Incorporation designates the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware (or, if the Court of Chancery does not have jurisdiction, the federal district court for the District of Delaware) as the exclusive forum for certain types of claims that the federal courts do not have exclusive jurisdiction, which may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable.

Article Fourteenth of our Certificate of Incorporation specifies that unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the court of Chancery of the State of Delaware (or, if the Court of Chancery does not have jurisdiction, the federal district court for the District of Delaware) shall, to the fullest extent permitted by law, be the sole and exclusive forum for: (a) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf; any action asserting a claim of breach of fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers or other employees to us or to our stockholders; (b) any action asserting a claim against us arising pursuant to the Delaware General Corporation Law (“DGCL”) or certificate of incorporation or our by-laws; or (c) or any action asserting a claim against us that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine. There is uncertainty as to whether a court would enforce this provision with respect to claims under the Securities Act where the state courts have concurrent jurisdiction and our stockholders cannot waive compliance with the federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder. The exclusive forum provision may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes against us and our directors, officers and other employees, which may discourage such lawsuits, or may require increased costs to bring a claim.

Financial reporting obligations of being a public company in the United States require well defined disclosure and procedures and internal control over financial reporting that we did not have prior to our Recapitalization Share Exchange and that are expensive and time-consuming requiring our management to devote substantial time to compliance matters.

As a publicly traded company in the U.S., we will incur significant additional legal, accounting and other expenses that we did not incur as a Danish company prior to our Recapitalization Share Exchange. For example, as a Danish company with our ordinary shares listed on the Nasdaq First North Growth Market in Stockholm, we were not required to have, and did not have, well defined disclosure controls and procedures and internal controls over financial reporting that are generally required of U.S. publicly held companies. In connection with our review of our previously existing internal controls as part of our preparations for becoming a U.S. publicly traded company, we determined that our internal control over financial reporting for prior periods were ineffective and included material weaknesses that needed to be remedied. See, “— We have identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting. If we are unable to remediate these material weakness, or if we identify additional material weaknesses in the future or otherwise fail to maintain an effective system of internal controls, we may not be able to accurately or timely report our financial condition or results of operations, which may adversely affect our business and stock price”. Although we have taken, and are continuing to take, additional steps to remedy these material weaknesses in order to assure compliance with our future financial reporting obligations, there can be no assurance that we will be able to do so in a timely manner or at all, or that additional material weaknesses may not exist.

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These reporting obligations associated with being a public company in the United States require significant expenditures and will place significant demands on our management and other personnel, including costs resulting from our reporting obligations under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, (the “Exchange Act”), and the rules and regulations regarding corporate governance practices, including those under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as amended, (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”), the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, as amended, (the “Dodd-Frank Act”), and the listing requirements of the stock exchange on which our securities are to be listed. These rules require the establishment and maintenance of effective disclosure controls and procedures and internal controls over financial reporting and changes in corporate governance practices, among many other complex rules that are often difficult to implement, monitor and maintain compliance with. Moreover, despite recent reforms made possible by the JOBS Act, the reporting requirements, rules, and regulations will make some activities more time-consuming and costly, particularly after we are no longer an “emerging growth company.” In addition, we expect these rules and regulations to make it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance. Our management and other personnel will need to devote a substantial amount of time to ensure that we comply with all of these requirements and to keep pace with new regulations, otherwise we may fall out of compliance and risk becoming subject to litigation or being delisted, among other potential problems.

If we fail to comply with the rules under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act related to our disclosure controls and procedures or internal controls over our financial reporting in the future, or, if we discover additional material weaknesses and other deficiencies in our internal controls over financial reporting, our stock price could decline significantly and raising capital could be more difficult.

Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires annual management assessments of the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting after a transition period ending with our second annual report on Form 10-K filed under Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. If we fail to comply with the rules under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act related to disclosure controls and procedures in the future, or, if in the future we discover additional material weaknesses and other deficiencies in our internal controls over financial reporting, our stock price could decline significantly and raising capital could be more difficult.

Following the completion of our Recapitalization Share Exchange, we will incur significant increased expenses and administrative burdens as a U.S. public company, which could negatively impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Following our recently completed Recapitalization Share Exchange, we will face increased legal, accounting, administrative and other costs and expenses as a U.S. public company that we did not incur prior to the Recapitalization Share Exchange. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”), including the requirements of Section 404, as well as rules and regulations subsequently implemented by the SEC, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 and the rules and regulations promulgated and to be promulgated thereunder, the PCAOB and the securities exchanges, impose additional reporting and other obligations on public companies. Compliance with public company requirements will increase costs and make certain activities more time-consuming. A number of those requirements will require us to carry out activities we have not done previously. For example, we will create new board committees and adopt new internal controls and disclosure controls and procedures. In addition, expenses associated with SEC reporting requirements will be incurred. Furthermore, if any issues in complying with those requirements are identified (for example, if the auditors identify a material weakness or significant deficiency in the internal control over financial reporting as previously disclosed, See, — We have identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting. If we are unable to remediate these material weakness, or if we identify additional material weaknesses in the future or otherwise fail to maintain an effective system of internal controls, we may not be able to accurately or timely report our financial condition or results of operations, which may adversely affect our business and stock price), we could incur additional costs rectifying those issues, and the existence of those issues could adversely affect our reputation or investor perceptions of it. It may also be more expensive to obtain director and officer liability insurance. Risks associated with our status as a public company may make it more difficult to attract and retain qualified persons to serve on our board of directors or as executive officers. The additional reporting and other obligations imposed by these rules and regulations will increase legal and financial compliance costs and the costs of related legal, accounting and administrative activities. These increased costs will require us to divert a significant amount of money that could otherwise be used to expand our business and achieve strategic objectives. Advocacy efforts by stockholders and third parties may also prompt additional changes in governance and reporting requirements, which could further increase costs

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Comprehensive tax reform bills could adversely affect our business and financial condition.

The U.S. government recently enacted comprehensive federal income tax legislation that includes significant changes to the taxation of business entities. These changes include, among others, a permanent reduction to the corporate income tax rate. Notwithstanding the reduction in the corporate income tax rate, the overall impact of this tax reform is uncertain, and our business and financial condition could be adversely affected. This prospectus does not discuss any such tax legislation or the manner in which it might affect purchasers of our common stock. We urge our stockholders to consult with their legal and tax advisors with respect to any such legislation and the potential tax consequences of investing in our common stock.

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus contains forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements provide Allarity’s current expectations or forecasts of future events. Forward-looking statements include statements about Allarity’s expectations, beliefs, plans, objectives, intentions, assumptions and other statements that are not historical facts. The words “anticipates,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intends,” “may,” “might,” “plan,” “possible,” “potential,” “predicts,” “project,” “should,” “would” and similar expressions may identify forward-looking statements, but the absence of these words does not mean that a statement is not forward-looking. Forward-looking statements relating to Allarity in this prospectus include, but are not limited to, statements about:

•        our ability to recognize the anticipated benefits of the Recapitalization Share Exchange, which may be affected by, among other things, competition and our ability to grow and manage growth profitably;

•        costs related to the Recapitalization Share Exchange;

•        the benefits from the Recapitalization Share Exchange;

•        our ability to consummate the Recapitalization Share Exchange;

•        the occurrence of any other event, change or other circumstances that could give rise to the termination or delay of the Reorganization Agreement;

•        our plans to develop and commercialize its drug candidates;

•        the initiation, timing, progress and results of our current and future preclinical studies and clinical trials, as well as our research and development programs;

•        our expectations regarding the impact of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic on its business, industry and the economy;

•        our estimates regarding expenses, future revenue, capital requirements and needs for additional financing after the reorganization;

•        our ability to successfully acquire or in-license additional product candidates on reasonable terms;

•        our ability to maintain and establish collaborations or obtain additional funding;

•        our ability to obtain regulatory approval of its current and future drug candidates;

•        our expectations regarding the potential market size and the rate and degree of market acceptance of such drug candidates; and

•        other risks and uncertainties set forth in the section titled “Risk Factors” as set forth in this prospectus, which is incorporated herein by reference.

These forward-looking statements are based on information available as of the date of this prospectus, and current expectations, forecasts and assumptions, and involve a number of risks and uncertainties. Accordingly, forward-looking statements should not be relied upon as representing our views as of any subsequent date, and we do not undertake any obligation to update forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date they were made, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as may be required under applicable securities laws.

In addition, statements that we “believe,” and similar statements, reflect such our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based upon information available to us as of the date of this prospectus, and while we believe such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and these statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information.

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Forward-looking statements are not guarantees of performance. You should not put undue reliance on these statements which speak only as of the date hereof. You should understand that the following important factors, in addition to those discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this prospectus, could affect our future results and could cause those results or other outcomes to differ materially from those expressed or implied in the forward-looking statements in this prospectus:

•        the outcome of any legal proceedings that may be instituted against Allarity Therapeutics A/S, or others following announcement of the Recapitalization Share Exchange and the transactions contemplated therein;

•        the ability to recognize the anticipated benefits of the Recapitalization Share Exchange, which may be affected by, among other things, our ability to grow and manage growth profitably, maintain relationships with customers, compete within its industry and retain its key employees;

•        the costs related to the proposed Recapitalization Share Exchange;

•        the possibility that we may be adversely impacted by other economic, business, and/or competitive factors;

•        any future currency exchange and interest rates;

•        the significant uncertainty created by the COVID-19 pandemic; and

•        other risks and uncertainties indicated in this prospectus, including those under “Risk Factors” herein.

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MARKET AND INDUSTRY DATA

This prospectus contains estimates, projections and other information concerning our industry, our business and the markets for our therapeutic candidates, including data regarding the estimated size of such markets and the incidence of certain medical conditions. We obtained the industry, market and similar data set forth in this prospectus from our internal estimates and research and from academic and industry research, publications, surveys and studies conducted by third parties, including governmental agencies. In some cases, we do not expressly refer to the sources from which this data is derived. Information that is based on estimates, forecasts, projections, market research or similar methodologies is inherently subject to uncertainties and actual events or circumstances may differ materially from events and circumstances that are assumed in this information. While we believe our internal research is reliable, such research has not been verified by any third party.

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USE OF PROCEEDS

All of the shares of common stock offered by the selling stockholders pursuant to this prospectus will be sold by the selling stockholders for their respective accounts. We will not receive any of the proceeds from these sales.

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DETERMINATION OF OFFERING PRICE

We cannot currently determine the price or prices at which shares of common stock may be sold by the selling stockholders under this prospectus. See, Plan of Distribution.

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MARKET INFORMATION FOR OUR SECURITIES AND DIVIDEND POLICY

Market Information

We have applied for listing of our common stock on Nasdaq under the symbols “ALLR.” Prior to the consummation of the Recapitalization Share Exchange, Allarity Therapeutics A/S ordinary shares were listed on the Nasdaq First North Growth Market: Stockholm under the symbol “ALLR:ST.” As of October [    ], 2021, following the consummation of our Recapitalization Share Exchange, there were [        ] holders of record of our common stock.

Dividend Policy

We do not anticipate declaring or paying, in the foreseeable future, any cash dividends on our common stock. We intend to retain all available funds and future earnings, if any, to fund the development and expansion of our business, and we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Any future determination regarding the declaration and payment of dividends, if any, will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on then-existing conditions, including our financial condition, operating results, contractual restrictions, capital requirements, business prospects and other factors our board of directors may deem relevant.

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SELECTED HISTORICAL FINANCIAL INFORMATION

The following selected historical financial information of Allarity Therapeutics A/S set forth below should be read in conjunction with “Allarity Therapeutics Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and Allarity Therapeutics A/S, historical financial statements and the related notes thereto contained elsewhere in this prospectus.

The selected consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss data for the year ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, and the selected consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2020 and 2019 are each derived from Allarity Therapeutics A/S’ audited consolidated financial statements appearing elsewhere in this prospectus. The selected consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss data for the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, and the selected consolidated balance sheet data as of June 30, 2021, are derived from Allarity Therapeutics A/S’ unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements appearing elsewhere in this prospectus. The Allarity Therapeutics A/S unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements were prepared on the same basis as its audited annual financial statements and include all adjustments, consisting only of normal recurring adjustments that are considered necessary for a fair statement of the financial information set forth in those statements. The historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected in the future.

 

As of
December 31,
2020

 

As of
December 31,
2019

 

As of
June 30,
2021

Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:

 

 

   

 

   

 

 

Total assets

 

$

33,403

 

$

31,607

 

$

38,780

Total liabilities

 

$

6,552

 

$

10,704

 

$

9,960

Total stockholders’ equity

 

$

26,851

 

$

20,903