424B3 1 tm2135138-4_424b3.htm 424B3 tm2135138-4_424b3 - none - 25.015774s
 Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3)
 Registration No. 333-259982
PROSPECTUS
ARQIT QUANTUM INC.
117,925,000 Ordinary Shares
6,266,667 Warrants to Purchase Ordinary Shares
14,891,640 Ordinary Shares Underlying Warrants
This prospectus relates to the offer and sale from time to time by the selling securityholders named in this prospectus (the “Selling Securityholders”) of up to 117,925,000 of our ordinary shares, par value $0.0001 per share (“Ordinary Shares”) and warrants to purchase up to 6,266,667 Ordinary Shares (the “Warrants”). In addition, this prospectus relates to the issuance by us of up to 14,891,640 Ordinary Shares, that are issuable by us upon the exercise of the Public Warrants (as defined below), which were previously registered, and up to 6,266,667 Ordinary Shares underlying Private Warrants (as defined below).
The Selling Securityholders may offer, sell or distribute all or a portion of the securities hereby registered publicly or through private transactions at prevailing market prices or at negotiated prices. We will not receive any of the proceeds from such sales of the ordinary shares or warrants, except with respect to amounts received by us upon the exercise of the warrants. We will bear all costs, expenses and fees in connection with the registration of these securities, including with regard to compliance with state securities or “blue sky” laws. The Selling Securityholders will bear all commissions and discounts, if any, attributable to their sale of ordinary shares or warrants. See “Plan of Distribution.”
Our Ordinary Shares and Warrants are listed on The Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbols “ARQQ” and “ARQQW”, respectively. On December 22, 2021, the last reported sales price of our ordinary shares was $25.13 per share and the last reported sales price of our warrants was $6.14 per warrant.
We are a “foreign private issuer,” and an “emerging growth company” each as defined under the federal securities laws, and, as such, we are subject to reduced public company reporting requirements. See the section entitled “Prospectus Summary — Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company and a Foreign Private Issuer” for additional information.
Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should review carefully the risks and uncertainties described under the heading “Risk Factors” beginning on page 8 of this prospectus, and under similar headings in any amendment or supplements to this prospectus.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
The date of this prospectus is December 23, 2021.

 
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No one has been authorized to provide you with information that is different from that contained in this prospectus or any free writing prospectus filed by us. This prospectus is dated as of the date set forth on the cover hereof. You should not assume that the information contained in this prospectus is accurate as of any date other than that date.
For investors outside the United States: We have not done anything that would permit this offering or possession or distribution of this prospectus in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required, other than in the United States. You are required to inform yourselves about and to observe any restrictions relating to this offering and the distribution of this prospectus.
 
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INDUSTRY AND MARKET DATA
In this prospectus, we present industry data, information and statistics regarding the markets in which the Company competes as well as publicly available information, industry and general publications and research and studies conducted by third parties. This information is supplemented where necessary with the Company’s own internal estimates and information obtained from discussions with its customers, taking into account publicly available information about other industry participants and the Company’s management’s judgment where information is not publicly available. This information appears in “Summary of the Prospectus,” “Arqit’s Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” “Business” and other sections of this prospectus.
Industry publications, research, studies and forecasts generally state that the information they contain has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable, but that the accuracy and completeness of such information is not guaranteed. Forecasts and other forward-looking information obtained from these sources are subject to the same qualifications and uncertainties as the other forward-looking statements in this prospectus. These forecasts and forward-looking information are subject to uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors, including those described under “Risk Factors.” These and other factors could cause results to differ materially from those expressed in any forecasts or estimates.
 
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FREQUENTLY USED TERMS
Unless otherwise stated or unless the context otherwise requires, the terms “the Company,” “the registrant,” “our company,” “the company,” “we,” “us,” “our,” “ours,” and “Arqit” refer to Arqit Quantum Inc.
In this prospectus, unless the context otherwise requires:
Amended and Restated Lock-Up Agreements” means, collectively, the amended and restated lock-up agreements dated October 4, 2021 entered into between the Company, the Sponsor, the former shareholders of Arqit Limited and Heritage Assets SCSP.
Arqit” or “Company” means Arqit Quantum Inc., a Cayman Islands exempted limited liability company with registered number 374857 and whose registered office is at Maples Corporate Services Limited, PO Box 309, Ugland House, Grand Cayman, KY1-1104, Cayman Islands.
Articles” means the memorandum and articles of association of Arqit.
British pounds sterling” or “£” means the legal currency of the United Kingdom.
Business Combination” means the transaction completed on September 3, 2021 pursuant to the Business Combination Agreement, in connection with which Centricus Acquisition Corp. merged with and into Arqit Quantum Inc., with Arqit Quantum Inc. as the surviving entity, following which Arqit Quantum Inc. acquired all of the outstanding share capital of Arqit Limited, with Arqit Limited becoming a wholly-owned subsidiary of Arqit Quantum Inc.
Business Combination Agreement” means the Business Combination Agreement, dated as of May 12, 2021, as it may be amended, by and among Centricus, Arqit, the Sponsor, solely in its capacity as Centricus’ representative, Arqit Limited, David John Williams, solely in his capacity as the Arqit Limited shareholders’ representative, and the shareholders of Arqit Limited party thereto.
Cayman Companies Act” means the Companies Act (As Revised) of the Cayman Islands, as may be amended from time to time.
Centricus” means Centricus Acquisition Corp., an exempted limited liability company incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands, which merged with and into Arqit Quantum Inc. on September 2, 2021, with Arqit Quantum Inc. as the surviving entity as part of the completion of the Business Combination.
Centricus ordinary shares” means the ordinary shares, with par value $0.0001 per share, of Centricus.
Code” means the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended.
COVID-19” means the disease known as coronavirus disease or COVID-19, the virus known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and any evolutions or mutations thereof.
EAR” means the Export Administration Regulations of the U.K. Export Control Act 2002, as amended.
Exchange Act” means the U.S. Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.
FCPA” means the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended.
Gartner” means Gartner, Inc.
Gartner Content” means the Gartner content described in the Gartner research entitled “Forecast: Information Security and Risk Management, Worldwide, 2019-2025, 2Q21 Update, September 27, 2021”.
IFRS” means International Financial Reporting Standards as adopted by the International Accounting Standards Board.
IRS” means the U.S. Internal Revenue Service.
ITAR” means the International Traffic in Arms Regulations of the Bureau of Industry and Security of the U.S. Department of Commerce.
 
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JOBS Act” means the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, as amended.
Nasdaq” means the Nasdaq Capital Market.
NATO” means the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
NIST” means the U.S. Department of Commerce’s National Institute of Standards and Technology.
ordinary shares” means the ordinary shares, with $0.0001 par value per share, of the Company.
PFIC” means passive foreign investment company within the meaning of Section 1297 of the Code.
PIPE Financing” means the private placement of 7,100,000 ordinary shares to the PIPE Investors for gross proceeds of $71,000,000, pursuant to the Subscription Agreements.
PIPE Investors” means the investors in the PIPE Financing pursuant to the Subscription Agreements.
PKI” means public key infrastructure.
Private Warrants” means the Centricus Acquisition Corp. Warrants sold to the Sponsor in a private placement in connection with Centricus’ IPO, which were assumed by Arqit Quantum Inc. in connection with the closing of the Business Combination.
prospectus” means the prospectus included in this registration statement on Form F-1 (Registration No. 333-259982) filed with the SEC.
Public Warrants” means Centricus Acquisition Corp. Warrants sold in Centricus’ IPO, which were assumed by Arqit Quantum Inc. in connection with the closing of the Business Combination.
QEF election” means a “qualified electing fund” election under Section 1295 of the Code.
Registration Rights Agreement” means the Registration Rights Agreement dated September 3, 2021 among Arqit, the Sponsor, Adam M. Aron, Nicholas Taylor, the shareholders of Arqit Limited prior to the Share Acquisition Closing and Heritage Assets SCSP.
Sarbanes-Oxley Act” means the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.
SEC” means the U.S. Securities Exchange Commission.
Securities Act” means the U.S. Securities Act of 1933, as amended.
Share Acquisition” means the acquisition by Arqit all of the issued share capital of Arqit Limited in exchange for the issue of ordinary shares to the shareholders of Arqit Limited, such that Arqit became a direct wholly owned subsidiary of Arqit.
Share Acquisition Closing” means the closing of the Share Acquisition.
Sponsor” means Centricus Heritage LLC, a Cayman Islands limited liability company with registered number 3562 and whose registered office is at Ugland House, South Church Street, Grand Cayman KY1-1104, Cayman Islands.
Subscription Agreements” means those certain subscription agreements entered into on May 12, 2021, among Centricus, Arqit and the PIPE Investors named therein relating to the PIPE Financing.
U.S. dollar” or “$” means the legal currency of the United States.
warrants” mean Arqit’s outstanding warrants to purchase its ordinary shares, which will become exercisable on February 8, 2022.
Warrant Agreement” means the warrant agreement governing Arqit’s outstanding warrants.
 
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PRESENTATION OF FINANCIAL AND OTHER INFORMATION
This prospectus contains our audited consolidated financial statements as of and for the periods ended September 30, 2021, 2020 and 2019 (our “audited consolidated financial statements”). The Company was incorporated on April 26, 2021 for the purpose of effectuating the Business Combination. Prior to the completion of the Business Combination on September 3, 2021, the Company had no material assets and did not operate any businesses. Therefore, the information in our audited consolidated financial statements as of and for the periods ended September 30, 2020 and 2019 is that of our consolidated subsidiary, Arqit Limited. The Company qualifies as a foreign private issuer as defined under Rule 405 under the Securities Act and prepares its financial statements denominated in U.S. dollars and in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards as adopted by the International Accounting Standards Board (“IFRS”).
The financial statements for Arqit Limited that were included in the Company’s prior filings with the SEC were denominated in British pounds sterling and have been translated into U.S. dollars in accordance with IFRS in connection with the preparation of the Company’s audited consolidated financial statements.
 
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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
There are forward-looking statements in this prospectus that are subject to risks and uncertainties. These forward-looking statements include information about possible or assumed future results of the business, financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, plans and objectives of the Company. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terminology such as “believe,” “may,” “estimate,” “continue,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “should,” “plan,” “expect,” “predict,” “potential,” or the negative of these terms or other similar expressions. The statements regarding the following matters are forward-looking by their nature:

that the Company is targeting launch of two satellites in 2023;

that there will be significant market opportunities for the Company’s products as a result of an expected transformation in the cyber encryption industry over the next decade;

that consumers, businesses and governments across all geographies and industries will likely need to replace the existing cyber encryption technology used in almost all electronic interfaces in order to maintain cyber security;

that the global addressable market for information security services will be $233.0 billion by the end of 2025;

that new opportunities for growth in demand for the Company’s products are expected in government, defense, telecoms, financial services, Internet of Things and connected car markets;

that “public key infrastructure” will be vulnerable to quantum computer attack; and

that quantum computers of sufficient scale to break “public key infrastructure” may be available within a few years.
The preceding list is not intended to be an exhaustive list of all of forward-looking statements in this prospectus. The forward-looking statements are based on beliefs, assumptions and expectations of the Company of future performance, taking into account the information currently available. These statements are only predictions based upon the current expectations and projections of the Company about future events. There are important factors that could cause actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to differ materially from the results, levels of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. In particular, you should consider the risks provided under “Risk Factors” in this prospectus.
You should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. Although the Company believes that the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable, they cannot guarantee that future results, levels of activity, performance and events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements will be achieved or will occur. Except as required by law, the Company undertakes no obligation to update publicly any forward-looking statements for any reason after the date of this prospectus, to conform these statements to actual results or to changes in expectations.
 
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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY
This summary highlights selected information from this prospectus and does not contain all of the information that is important to you in making an investment decision. This summary is qualified in its entirety by the more detailed information included in this prospectus. Before making your investment decision with respect to our securities, you should carefully read this entire prospectus, including the information under “Risk Factors,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” and the financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus.
Unless otherwise indicated or the context otherwise requires, references in this prospectus to “Company”, “we,” “our,” “us” and other similar terms refer to Arqit Quantum Inc. and our consolidated subsidiaries.
Overview
Arqit is a cybersecurity company that has pioneered a unique quantum encryption technology which makes the communications links of any networked device secure against current and future forms of cyber attack — even an attack from a quantum computer. Arqit’s product, called QuantumCloud™, creates unbreakable software encryption keys that are low cost and easy to use with no new hardware required. The software has universal application to every edge device and cloud machine in the world. Arqit has not only invented a ground-breaking new quantum protocol, but it has also found a way to translate the benefits of quantum security to end point devices.
Arqit’s solution combines world-leading innovation in two areas: a new form of quantum satellite and a software agent that can be downloaded onto any device. Arqit’s quantum satellite technology solves all previously known problems of quantum key distribution and puts identical copies of quantum safe keys into each data center in a network. The data centers use these keys to create secure channels between them — an outer perimeter of quantum safety that Arqit calls the QuantumCloud™. A second innovation is a small software agent downloaded from the QuantumCloud™ onto any form of device or integrated into any piece of software. By exchanging information with the QuantumCloud™, which moderates a key agreement process with all parties involved in a unique way, this software agent is able to create new symmetric encryption keys in partnership with any other device or cloud machine, or in large groups of devices. Keys are never “delivered”, they are created, and so they cannot be intercepted. They are created at the end points in a manner that means they can never be known by a third party, and can be used only once if necessary and replaced infinitely. The service is sold and fulfilled on a self-service basis in the cloud making it an easily scalable business model.
Until recently, Arqit has been a development stage company, however during the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021, it began commercializing its products. Arqit has already signed major, long-term contracts for its services with large companies and government institutions, and is in the process of undertaking pilot phases that are required to be completed with each of its customers. Prior to launch of its satellites, Arqit’s quantum encryption platform, QuantumCloud™, will use machines in data centers to generate a terrestrial simulation of the quantum satellite technology. By 2023, it plans to launch its first two quantum satellites, which will generate a significant increase in the level of security offered by the end-to-end system.
Arqit’s current customers include the UK Government, the European Space Agency, BT plc, and Sumitomo Corporation. Many companies like Verizon, BP, NEOM, Juniper, Dentons, Northrup Grumman and Iridium have contracted to test the use of Arqit’s technologies in different use cases.
The mailing address for Arqit’s principal executive officer is 1st Floor, 3 More London Riverside, More London Place, London, England, SE1 2RE, and its telephone number is +44 203 91 70155.
Recent Developments
Business Combination
On May 12, 2021, the Company entered into a business combination agreement with Centricus Acquisition Corp. (“Centricus”), Centricus Heritage LLC, a Cayman Islands limited liability company,
 
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solely in its capacity as Centricus’ representative, Arqit Limited, a company limited by shares incorporated in England, David John Williams, solely in his capacity as the Arqit Limited shareholders’ representative, and the shareholders of Arqit Limited party thereto (the “Business Combination Agreement”). Pursuant to the Business Combination Agreement, (i) on September 2, 2021, Centricus merged with and into the Company (the “Merger”), with the Company surviving the merger, and the security holders of Centricus (other than security holders of Centricus electing to redeem their Centricus ordinary shares) became security holders of the Company, and (ii) on September 3, 2021, the Company acquired all of the issued and outstanding share capital of Arqit Limited from the shareholders of Arqit Limited in exchange for ordinary shares of the Company, such that Arqit Limited is a direct wholly owned subsidiary of the Company (the “Share Acquisition” and, together with the Merger, the “Business Combination”).
On May 12, 2021, concurrently with the execution of the Business Combination Agreement, the Company and Centricus entered into subscription agreements with certain investors (the “PIPE Investors”), pursuant to which the PIPE Investors agreed to subscribe for and purchase, and Arqit agreed to issue and sell to such PIPE Investors, an aggregate of 7,100,000 ordinary shares of the Company at $10.00 per share for gross proceeds of $71,000,000 (the “PIPE Financing”). The PIPE Financing closed on September 3, 2021 immediately after the Business Combination.
Following the closing of the PIPE Financing, and after giving effect to redemptions of shares by shareholders of Centricus and payment of transaction expenses, the transactions described above generated approximately $96 million for Arqit. Arqit’s ordinary shares and warrants trade on Nasdaq under the symbols “ARQQ” and “ARQQW”, respectively.
Amended and Restated Lock-Up Agreements
In connection with the closing of the Business Combination, the Company entered into lock-up agreements with Centricus Heritage, LLC (the “Sponsor”) and the former shareholders of Arqit Limited (the “Arqit Limited Shareholders”) (the “Original Lock-Up Agreements”).
Pursuant to the Original Lock-Up Agreements, the Sponsor and the Arqit Limited Shareholders had agreed not to transfer any ordinary shares of the Company received pursuant to the Business Combination during the period commencing from the date of the closing of the Business Combination until the earlier to occur of (i) the date on which the closing price of the Company’s ordinary shares during such period exceeded $12.50 per share (as adjusted for share splits, share dividends, reorganizations and recapitalizations) for any 20 trading days during a 30 consecutive trading day period and (ii) 18 months after the closing of the Business Combination.
On October 4, 2021, the Sponsor, the Arqit Limited Shareholders and their transferees, agreed to amend and restate the Original Lock-Up Agreements, and agreed not to transfer any ordinary shares of the Company received pursuant to the Business Combination during the period commencing from the date of the closing of the Business Combination until the earlier to occur of (i) 11:59 p.m. Eastern time on the close of trading on the second full trading day following the public dissemination by the Company of its financial results for the six months ended March 31, 2022; and (ii) such time as determined by the board of directors of the Company as being in the best interest of the parties to permit transfers (the “Amended and Restated Lock-Up Agreements”).
In addition to the Sponsor and the Arqit Limited Shareholders, Heritage Assets SCSP entered into an Amended and Restated Lock-Up Agreement with respect to 1,825,096 shares assigned to it by the Arqit Limited Shareholders at the time of the closing of the Business Combination, which were previously subject to an Original Lock-Up Agreement.
Issuance of Earnout Shares
Pursuant to the terms of the Business Combination, if at any time during the three years following the closing of the Business Combination, the closing price of the Company’s ordinary shares during such period was equal to or exceeded $12.50 per share (as adjusted for share splits, share dividends, reorganizations and recapitalizations) for any 20 trading days during a 30 consecutive trading day period (the “Earnout Condition”), the Arqit Limited Shareholders were entitled to be issued a further 10,000,000 ordinary shares
 
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of the Company (the “Earnout Shares”). On October 5, 2021 the Earnout Condition was met, and therefore on October 6, 2021, the Earnout Shares were issued to the Arqit Limited Shareholders. The Earnout Shares are subject to the Amended and Restated Lock-Up Agreements.
Competitive Strengths
Arqit’s unique cybersecurity technology provides it with a number of competitive strengths.
Symmetric keys are secure
Arqit’s platform creates symmetric encryption keys, which is a cyber-encryption technology that is secure against all forms of attack including by quantum computers. PKI is currently the most widely-used cyber encryption technology, but it is failing to prevent escalating cyber-attacks involving techniques like ransomware and is entirely vulnerable to attack by quantum computers, which are expected to become available within the next few years. A symmetric encryption key, once created, is computationally secure. This means that it is regarded as impossible, even for a quantum computer, to guess a symmetric encryption key in less than millions of years. Arqit’s technology is built around this secure encryption tool.
Groundbreaking and proprietary distribution technology
The importance of Arqit’s platform lies in its ability to “distribute” symmetric keys securely at scale by creating them at end points. Although symmetric encryption keys are secure, to date there has been no secure way to create and distribute symmetric keys electronically. Arqit’s groundbreaking technology has solved these known issues. Its innovations create symmetric encryption keys at end points when they are needed, at scale, securely, at any kind of end point device and in groups of any size. With Arqit’s technology, symmetric encryption keys are never “delivered”, they are created at endpoints, and so they cannot be intercepted. This is a completely new way to create and distribute unbreakable symmetric keys that represents a groundbreaking, novel technology. The keys are created with what is known as a “mixed trust model” which means that no third party computer ever has the key, or sufficient information to recreate or guess the key. The key is never transmitted in creation across any network. It is therefore not possible for any third party to know or guess the key during creation.
Simple to implement
Symmetric encryption keys are built into almost every major software system, so their use, along with a symmetric algorithm such as AES256, is very simple to deploy with no major change to existing customer infrastructure. Symmetric encryption keys impose relatively low computational burdens on end point devices, and Arqit’s lightweight agent is light enough to work on even the smallest of Internet of Things sensors.
Easily scalable
Arqit’s software, fulfilled from the cloud, automatically creates keys in infinite volumes at minimal cost, resulting in low capital expenditure once deployed. From an operating cost perspective, there is no human analysis or information processing required by Arqit’s product, so personnel costs are limited to maintaining core infrastructure, marketing and customer support. These factors make Arqit’s products easily scalable for both Arqit and its customers.
Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company and a Foreign Private Issuer
Emerging Growth Company
Arqit is an “emerging growth company,” as defined in Section 2(a) of the Securities Act, as modified by the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 (the “JOBS Act”). As such, it is eligible to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not “emerging growth companies” including, but not limited to, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”). Additionally, to the extent that Arqit ceases to become a foreign private issuer, emerging growth company status would allow it to include reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive
 
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compensation in its periodic reports and to be exempt from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and shareholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. If some investors find Arqit’s securities less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for Arqit’s securities and the prices of Arqit’s securities may be more volatile.
Arqit will remain an emerging growth company until the earlier of: (1) the last day of the fiscal year (a) following the fifth anniversary of the closing of the Business Combination, (b) in which it has total annual gross revenues of at least $1.07 billion, or (c) in which it is deemed to be a large accelerated filer, which means the market value of its ordinary shares that are held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of the end of the prior fiscal year’s second fiscal quarter; and (2) the date on which it has issued more than $1.00 billion in non-convertible debt during the prior three-year period. References herein to “emerging growth company” shall have the meaning associated with it in the JOBS Act.
Foreign Private Issuer
Arqit is a “foreign private issuer” under SEC rules. Consequently, Arqit is subject to the reporting requirements under the Exchange Act applicable to foreign private issuers. Arqit will be required to file its annual reports on Form 20-F, and will furnish reports on Form 6-K to the SEC regarding certain information that is distributed or required to be distributed by Arqit to its shareholders.
Based on its foreign private issuer status, Arqit will not be required to file periodic reports and financial statements with the SEC as frequently or as promptly as a U.S. company whose securities are registered under the Exchange Act. Arqit will also not be required to comply with Regulation FD, which addresses certain restrictions on the selective disclosure of material information. In addition, among other matters, Arqit officers, directors and principal shareholders will be exempt from the reporting and “short-swing” profit recovery provisions of Section 16 of the Exchange Act and the rules under the Exchange Act with respect to their purchases and sales of Ordinary Shares.
Summary Risk Factors
Investing in our securities involves risks. You should carefully consider the risks described in “Risk Factors” before making a decision to invest in our ordinary shares. If any of these risks actually occurs, our business, financial condition and results of operations would likely be materially adversely affected. In such case, the trading price of our securities would likely decline, and you may lose all or part of your investment. Set forth below is a summary of some of the principal risks we face:
The Company is an early stage company with a history of losses and will be reliant upon a significant increase in sales and marketing activity in order to become profitable in the future.

The Company’s limited operating history makes it difficult to evaluate its business and future prospects and increases the risk of your investment.

The Company’s forecasts and projections are based upon assumptions, analyses and internal estimates developed by its management. If these assumptions, analyses or estimates prove to be incorrect or inaccurate, its actual operating results may differ materially from those forecasted or projected.

The Company has entered into several long term customer contracts, however those contracts are contingent upon the successful implementation of its technology.

The Company may not be able to convert its customer orders in backlog or pipeline into revenue.

The Company’s satellite construction and launch plan could experience delays, or its satellite technology could face unforeseen technical problems, which may result in the delay or failure in its ability to upgrade its product from terrestrial delivery to satellite delivery.

The market adoption of the Company’s product is not fully proven, is evolving and may develop more slowly than or differently from the Company’s expectations. Its future success depends on the growth and expansion of these markets and its ability to adapt and respond effectively to evolving markets.
 
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The Company is reliant upon the lease of data center capacity and access to fiber optic infrastructure from third parties in order to commercialize its product.

Prior to launch of its satellites, the Company intends to procure launch insurance and once its satellites are operational, the Company must renew its in-orbit insurance on an annual basis. If its satellites experience technical problems or there are adverse changes in the insurance market, the Company may not be able to obtain launch or in-orbit insurance, or such insurance may not fully cover any potential losses.

Satellites have a limited life and may fail prematurely, or may experience operational problems, which could have a negative effect on its ability to provide the quality of service that the Company committed to deliver to its customers.

Although the Company is developing an annual recurring revenue model, several of its early contracts have been project-based with uneven milestone payment profiles, which extend for several years. As a result, the Company expects its early results of operations to fluctuate on a quarterly and annual basis.

The complexity of the Company’s products could result in unforeseen delays or expenses from undetected defects, errors or reliability issues in software, which could reduce the market adoption of its new products, damage its reputation with current or prospective customers and expose it to product liability and other claims and adversely affect its operating costs.

The Company may not be able to adequately protect or enforce its intellectual property rights or prevent unauthorized parties from copying or reverse engineering its products or technology. Its efforts to protect and enforce its intellectual property rights and prevent third parties from violating its rights may be costly.

Third-party claims that the Company is infringing intellectual property, whether successful or not, could subject it to costly and time-consuming litigation or expensive licenses, and its business could be adversely affected.

Certain of the Company’s products contain third-party open source software components, and failure to comply with the terms of the underlying open source software licenses could restrict its ability to sell its products or expose the Company to other risks.

The Company’s intellectual property applications, including patent applications, may not be approved or granted or may take longer than expected to be approved, which may have a material adverse effect on its ability to prevent others from commercially exploiting products similar to its.

In addition to patented technology, the Company relies on unpatented proprietary technology, trade secrets, designs, experiences, work flows, data, processes, software and know-how.

The Company currently has and targets many customers that are large corporations with substantial negotiating power, exacting product and quality standards and potentially competitive internal solutions.

The Company currently has a small number of customers, and its business could be materially and adversely affected if the Company loses and is unable to replace any of those customers or if they are unable to pay their invoices.

The markets in which the Company competes are characterized by rapid technological change, and competing product innovations could adversely affect market adoption of its products.

The Company’s business depends substantially on the efforts of its executive officers and highly skilled personnel. The Company needs to attract and retain a large number of skilled, specialized and dedicated employees in different jurisdictions in order to grow and manage its business, and if the Company loses the services of existing key employees or fail to achieve its recruitment goals, its operations may be disrupted.

Failure to comply with governmental trade controls, including export and import control laws and regulations, sanctions, and related regimes could subject the Company to liability or loss of contracting privileges, limit its ability to compete in certain markets or harm its reputation with the governments.
 
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The Company’s business is subject to government regulation, which mandates how the Company may operate its business and may increase the cost of providing services and expanding into new markets.

Failures, or perceived failures, to comply with privacy, data protection, and information security requirements in the jurisdictions in which the Company operates may adversely impact its business, and such legal requirements are evolving and may require improvements in, or changes to, its policies and operations.

It may be difficult to enforce judgments obtained against the Company or its directors and officers in U.S. courts, to effect service of process on it or its directors or officers, and to recover in civil proceedings in the U.K. or elsewhere for U.S. securities law violations.

Fluctuations in currency exchange rates may adversely affect the Company’s business and result of operations.

The Company’s warrants are accounted for as liabilities and the changes in value of the warrants could have a material effect on its financial results.

Interruption or failure of the Company’s information technology and communications systems could impact its ability to effectively provide its products and services.

The Company’s management team has limited experience managing and operating a U.S. public company.

If any of the Company’s third parties’ systems, its customers’ cloud or on- on-premises environments, or its internal systems are breached or if unauthorized access to customer or third-party data is otherwise obtained, public perception of its business may be harmed, and the Company may lose business and incur losses or liabilities.

If the Company’s network and products do not interoperate with its customers’ internal networks and infrastructure or with third-party products, websites, or services, its network may become less competitive and its results of operations may be harmed.
 
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THE OFFERING
Securities offered by the Selling Securityholders
We are registering the resale by the Selling Securityholders named in this prospectus, or their permitted transferees, of an aggregate of 117,925,000 Ordinary Shares and Warrants to purchase up to 6,266,667 Ordinary Shares. In addition, we are registering up to 14,891,640 Ordinary Shares issuable upon the exercise of the Public Warrants that were previously registered and up to 6,266,667 Ordinary Shares underlying Private Warrants.
Terms of the Offering
The Selling Securityholders will determine when and how they will dispose of the ordinary shares registered under this prospectus for resale.
Shares outstanding prior to the offering
As of December 14, 2021, we had 120,073,430 ordinary shares and 14,891,640 warrants issued and outstanding.
Voting Rights
The Ordinary Shares each have one vote per share.
Use of proceeds
We will not receive any of the proceeds from the sale of the ordinary shares or warrants by the Selling Securityholders, except with respect to amounts received by us due to the exercise of the warrants. We expect to use the proceeds received from the exercise of the warrants, if any, for general corporate purposes.
Dividend policy
We have not paid any cash dividends on our ordinary shares to date. Our board of directors will consider whether or not to institute a dividend policy. It is presently intended that we will retain our earnings for use in business operations and, accordingly, it is not anticipated that our board of directors will declare dividends in the foreseeable future.
Nasdaq ticker symbol
Our ordinary shares and warrants are listed on Nasdaq under the symbols “ARQQ” and “ARQQW,” respectively.
Risk factors
See “Risk Factors” and the other information included in this prospectus for a discussion of factors you should consider before deciding to invest in our ordinary shares.
 
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RISK FACTORS
An investment in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks described below before making an investment decision. Our business, prospects, financial condition, or operating results could be harmed by any of these risks, as well as other risks not known to us or that we consider immaterial as of the date of this prospectus. The trading price of our securities could decline due to any of these risks, and, as a result, you may lose all or part of your investment.
Risks Related to Arqit’s Business and Operations
Arqit is an early stage company with a history of losses and will be reliant upon a significant increase in sales and marketing activity in order to become profitable in the future.
Arqit has not yet begun to generate material revenues through the commercialization of its products. For the nine months ended September 30, 2019, Arqit generated an operating profit of only $362,061 and for the years ended September 30, 2020 and 2021, it generated operating losses of $808,972 and $172,560,961, respectively. Arqit intends to continue to invest and to increase investments in sales, marketing and product development, and believes that it will continue to incur operating and net losses until at least the time it is able to fully commercialize its products, which is targeted for 2022, but which may occur later than expected or not at all. Even if Arqit is able to finalize the development of its products and to sell them, there can be no assurance that they will be commercially successful. Arqit’s potential profitability is dependent upon the successful development and commercial introduction and acceptance of its products, which may not occur. Because Arqit will incur the costs and expenses of developing and commercializing its products before it receives any significant revenues with respect thereto, its losses in future periods may be significant. If Arqit is never able to achieve or sustain profitability, its results of operations could differ materially from its expectations and Arqit’s business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
Arqit’s limited operating history makes it difficult to evaluate its business and future prospects and increases the risk of your investment.
Arqit began operations in 2017, has a limited operating history, and operates in the quantum encryption industry, which is rapidly evolving. As a result, there is limited information that investors can use in evaluating Arqit’s business, strategy, operating plan, results and prospects. Arqit intends to derive most of its revenues from the delivery of its quantum encryption key product, QuantumCloudTM, which is a newly developed technology. It is difficult to predict future revenues and appropriately budget for expenses, and Arqit has limited insight into trends that may emerge and affect its business. If the assumptions Arqit uses to plan and operate its business are incorrect or change, its results of operations could differ materially from its expectations and Arqit’s business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
Arqit has entered into several long term customer contracts, however those contracts are contingent upon the successful implementation of its technology.
Arqit has entered into long term customer contracts for the delivery of its products, however its ability to begin fulfillment of those contracts is contingent upon the successful delivery of operational technology, which is still subject to the successful completion of pilot phases with those customers, which began in July 2021, and there can be no assurance that such pilot phases can be completed quickly or successfully. The pilot phases of Arqit’s contracts may be prolonged if the testing results in adjustments to the commercial delivery of its technology, or may not be successfully completed if Arqit is unable to implement its technology to the satisfaction of its customers. If Arqit is unable to successfully deliver operational technology in order to fulfill its customer contracts, its business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected and Arqit may never achieve or sustain profitability.
Arqit may not be able to convert its customer orders in backlog or pipeline into revenue.
As of September 30, 2021, Arqit’s backlog estimates consisted of approximately $130 million in customer contracts, and Arqit had an estimated $1.1 billion in pipeline, consisting of customer contracts in
 
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various stages of negotiation and initial revenue indications from potential customers that have not been contractually committed. There is no assurance that its backlog will materialize in actual revenues, or that Arqit will be able to convert its pipeline into executed contracts that will generate revenues.
Arqit’s ability to convert its estimated backlog into revenue is dependent upon the successful delivery of operational technology to its customers, and assumes that its customers will not cancel or amend the terms of their contracts. In addition, some contracts comprising the backlog are for services scheduled many years in the future, and the economic viability of customers with whom Arqit has contracted is not guaranteed over time. As a result, the contracts comprising its backlog may not result in actual revenue in any particular period, or at all, and the actual revenue from such contracts may differ from its backlog estimates.
The conversion of its pipeline into executed, revenue-generating contracts depends upon a number of factors including the continued interest in potential customers in its products and the successful negotiation of contracts with those customers. If Arqit is able to successfully enter into contracts with potential customers, the realization of estimated revenues from those contracts remains subject to its ability to successfully deliver operational technology to those customers.
If Arqit fails to convert its customer orders in backlog or pipeline into revenue, Arqit’s business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected and Arqit may never achieve or sustain profitability.
Arqit’s satellite construction and launch plan could experience delays, or its satellite technology could face unforeseen technical problems, which may result in the delay or failure in its ability to upgrade its product from terrestrial delivery to satellite delivery.
Arqit intends to launch its first satellite in 2023. Prior to launching its satellites, Arqit’s quantum encryption platform, QuantumCloud™, will use machines to generate a terrestrial simulation of the quantum satellite technology. There are some differences in the level of security provided by QuantumCloud™ when using the terrestrial simulation compared to delivery by satellite, and Arqit therefore expects that the satellites it is building will generate an improvement in the attractiveness of its products to customers.
There is a risk that the construction and launch of its satellites may experience delays or face unforeseen technical problems, some of which may be beyond its control. In addition, Arqit must select a location for and build a mission control center for the command and control of its satellites and global data center network. Arqit will rely on third parties for the supply of equipment, satellite components and services. Any failure of these suppliers or others to perform could require Arqit to seek alternative suppliers or to expand its production capabilities, which could incur additional costs and have a negative impact on its cost or supply of components. In addition, production or logistics in supply or production areas or transit to final destinations can be disrupted for a variety of reasons including, but not limited to, natural and man-made disasters, information technology system failures, commercial disputes, military actions, economic, business, labor, environmental, public health or political issues or international trade disputes. If any of Arqit’s suppliers or service providers terminate their relationships, fail to provide equipment or services on a timely basis, or fail to meet performance expectations, Arqit may face difficulties launching its satellites on time or at all, which could in turn negatively affect its financial results and reputation. If Arqit is unable to launch its satellites and upgrade delivery of its products from terrestrial delivery to satellite delivery, its customers may terminate their contracts, renegotiate their contracts on terms less favorable to Arqit, or reduce the volume of its products they purchase, and its products may be less attractive to new customers. If Arqit fails to upgrade its platform from terrestrial delivery to satellite delivery, or the upgrade of delivery is delayed, its business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
The market adoption of Arqit’s product is not fully proven, is evolving and may develop more slowly than or differently from Arqit’s expectations. Its future success depends on the growth and expansion of these markets and its ability to adapt and respond effectively to evolving markets.
The market adoption of Arqit’s product is relatively new, rapidly evolving, and not fully proven. Accordingly, it is difficult to predict customer adoption and renewals and demand for its products and services, the entry of competitive products, the success of existing competitive products, or the future growth rate, expansion, longevity, and the size of the market for its products. The expansion of and its ability to
 
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penetrate these new and evolving markets depends on a number of factors, including: the cost, performance, and perceived value associated with its products, and the extent to which its products improve security and are easy to use for its customers. If Arqit experiences security incidents or disruptions in delivery or service, the market for its products may be negatively affected. If its products do not continue to achieve market acceptance, or there is a reduction in demand caused by decreased customer acceptance, technological challenges, weakening economic conditions, privacy, data protection and data security concerns, governmental regulation, competing technologies and products, or decreases in information technology spending or otherwise, the market for its products may not continue to develop or may develop more slowly than Arqit expects, which could adversely affect its business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Arqit is reliant upon the lease of data center capacity and access to fiber optic infrastructure from third parties in order to commercialize its product.
Arqit leases its data centers and obtains access to fiber optic infrastructure from third parties and will be reliant on the continued operation of these data centers and infrastructure to commercialize its product. While Arqit has electronic access to the components and infrastructure of its cloud platforms that are hosted by third parties, Arqit does not control the operation of these facilities. Consequently, Arqit may be subject to service disruptions as well as failures to provide adequate support for reasons that are outside of its direct control. The data centers or the fiber optic infrastructure Arqit uses to deliver its products may be vulnerable to damage or interruption from a variety of sources, including earthquakes, floods, fires, power loss, system failures, computer viruses, physical or electronic break-ins, human error or interference (including by disgruntled employees, former employees or contractors), and other catastrophic events. Its data centers or the fiber optic infrastructure Arqit uses may also be subject to local administrative actions, changes to legal or permitting requirements and litigation to stop, limit or delay operations. Despite precautions taken at these facilities, such as disaster recovery, business continuity arrangements, and diversity of supply in the Arqit network, the occurrence of a natural disaster or an act of terrorism, a decision to close the facilities without adequate notice or other unanticipated problems at these facilities could result in interruptions or degredations in its services, impede its ability to scale its operations or have other adverse impacts upon its business. In addition, if Arqit does not accurately plan for its infrastructure capacity requirements and Arqit experiences significant strains on its data center capacity, Arqit may experience delays and additional expenses in arranging new data centers, and its customers could experience performance degradation or service outages that may subject it to financial liabilities, result in customer losses and materially harm its business. If Arqit is unable to efficiently and cost-effectively fix such errors at the data centers or fiber optic infrastructure or other problems that may be identified, this could damage its reputation and negatively impact its relationship with its customers. If Arqit is unable to successfully maintain and manage the data centers and the fiber optic infrastructure that Arqit uses, Arqit’s business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
Prior to launch of its satellites, Arqit intends to procure launch insurance and once its satellites are operational, Arqit must renew its in-orbit insurance on an annual basis. If its satellites experience technical problems or there are adverse changes in the insurance market, Arqit may not be able to obtain launch or in-orbit insurance, or such insurance may not fully cover any potential losses.
Arqit intends to obtain launch insurance prior to launch of its satellites, and in-orbit insurance for its satellites once they are operational and, once obtained, Arqit will need to renew in-orbit insurance on an annual basis. Arqit expects any launch and in-orbit insurance policies that Arqit obtains to have specified exclusions, deductibles and material change limitations. Typically, these insurance policies exclude coverage for specified exclusions and material change limitations customary in the industry. These exclusions may relate to, among other things, losses resulting from in-orbit collisions, acts of war, insurrection, terrorism or military action, government confiscation, strikes, riots, civil commotions, labor disturbances, sabotage, unauthorized use of the satellites and nuclear or radioactive contamination, as well as claims directly or indirectly occasioned as a result of noise, pollution, electrical and electromagnetic interference or interference with the use of property. Therefore, there is a risk that its satellites will experience technical problems and that its launch or in-orbit insurance will not fully cover the losses.
If its in-orbit insurance rates were to rise substantially, the costs associated with maintaining its satellites would increase. In addition, in light of increasing costs, the scope of insurance exclusions and
 
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limitations on the nature of the losses for which Arqit can obtain insurance, or other business reasons, Arqit may conclude that it does not make commercial sense to obtain third-party insurance and may decide to pursue other strategies for mitigating the risk of a satellite failure. It is also possible that insurance could become unavailable, either generally or for a specific satellite, or that new insurance could be subject to broader exclusions on coverage, in which event Arqit would bear greater risk. If Arqit is unable to obtain launch or in-orbit insurance, or its launch or in-orbit insurance does fully cover potential losses, Arqit’s business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
Satellites have a limited life and may fail prematurely, or may experience operational problems, which could have a negative effect on its ability to provide the quality of service that Arqit committed to deliver to its customers.
Arqit may experience in-orbit malfunctions of its satellites once launched, which could adversely affect the reliability of its service or result in total failure of its satellites. In-orbit failure of a satellite may result from various causes, including component failure, loss of power or fuel, inability to control positioning of the satellite, solar or other astronomical events, including solar radiation, wind and flares, and space debris. Other factors that could affect the useful lives of its satellites include the quality of construction, gradual degradation of solar panels and the durability of components. Radiation-induced failure of satellite components may result in damage to or loss of a satellite before the end of its expected life. If one of its satellites fails prematurely or experiences operational problems, Arqit’s business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
Although Arqit is developing an annual recurring revenue model, several of its early contracts have been project-based with uneven milestone payment profiles, which extend for several years. As a result, Arqit expects its early results of operations to fluctuate on a quarterly and annual basis.
As its business matures, Arqit intends to develop an annual recurring revenue model. However, several of its early contracts have been projects based with uneven milestone payment profiles, which extend for several years, and as a result its quarterly results of operations have fluctuated and may vary significantly in the future. As such, historical comparisons of its operating results may not be relevant, meaningful or indicative of future results. Accordingly, the results of any one quarter should not be relied upon as an indication of future performance. Its quarterly financial results may fluctuate as a result of a variety of factors, many of which are outside of its control and may not fully reflect the underlying performance of its business. Factors that may cause these quarterly fluctuations include, without limitation:

the timing and size of its customer contracts in any quarter;

pricing changes that Arqit may adopt to drive market adoption or in response to competitive pressure;

its ability to retain its existing customers and attract new customers;

its ability to develop and bring to market in a timely manner products that meet customer requirements;

fluctuations in demand pressures for its products;

the timing and rate of broader market adoption of its products and technology;

the ability of its customers to commercialize systems that incorporate its products;

any change in the competitive dynamics of its markets, including regulatory developments and new market entrants;

adverse litigation, judgments, settlements or other litigation-related costs, or claims that may give rise to such costs; and

general economic, industry and market conditions, including trade disputes.
These fluctuations could adversely affect its ability to meet its expectations or those of securities analysts, ratings agencies or investors. If Arqit does not meet these expectations for any period, the value of its business could decline significantly.
 
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The complexity of Arqit’s products could result in unforeseen delays or expenses from undetected defects, errors or reliability issues in software, which could reduce the market adoption of its new products, damage its reputation with current or prospective customers and expose it to product liability and other claims and adversely affect its operating costs.
Arqit’s products are highly technical and complex and require high standards to implement and may experience defects, errors or reliability issues at various stages of development and commercial implementation. Arqit may be unable to timely correct problems that have arisen or correct such problems to its customers’ satisfaction. Additionally, undetected errors, defects or security vulnerabilities could result in litigation against Arqit, negative publicity and other consequences. Some errors or defects in its products may only be discovered after they have been tested, commercialized and deployed by customers. If that is the case, Arqit may incur significant additional development costs with respect to its products. These problems may also result in claims, including class actions, against Arqit by its customers or others. Its reputation or brand may be damaged as a result of these problems, customers may be reluctant to buy its products, and Arqit’s business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
Arqit may not be able to adequately protect or enforce its intellectual property rights or prevent unauthorized parties from copying or reverse engineering its products or technology. Its efforts to protect and enforce its intellectual property rights and prevent third parties from violating its rights may be costly.
The success of its products and business depend in part on its ability to obtain patents and other intellectual property rights and maintain adequate legal protection for its products. As of the date of this prospectus, Arqit had 1,485 claims on 23 pending or allowed patents in the UK. Arqit relies on a combination of patent, service mark, trademark and trade secret laws, as well as confidentiality procedures and contractual restrictions, to establish and protect its proprietary rights, all of which provide only limited protection.
Arqit cannot assure you that any patents will be issued with respect to its currently pending patent applications or that any trademarks will be registered with respect to its currently pending applications in a manner that provides adequate defensive protection or competitive advantages, if at all, or that any patents issued to Arqit or any trademarks registered by it will not be challenged, invalidated or circumvented. Arqit may file for patents and trademarks in the U.S., U.K. and in certain international jurisdictions, but such protections may not be available in all countries in which it operates or in which Arqit seeks to enforce its intellectual property rights, or may be difficult to enforce in practice. For example, the legal environment relating to intellectual property protection in certain emerging market countries where Arqit may operate in the future is relatively weaker, often making it difficult to create and enforce such rights. Its currently-registered intellectual property and any intellectual property that may be issued or registered, as applicable, in the future with respect to pending or future applications may not provide sufficiently broad protection or may not prove to be enforceable in actions against alleged infringers. Arqit cannot be certain that the steps Arqit has taken will prevent unauthorized use of its technology or the reverse engineering of its technology. Moreover, others may independently develop technologies that are competitive to or infringe its intellectual property.
Protecting against the unauthorized use of its intellectual property, products and other proprietary rights is expensive and difficult, particularly internationally. Arqit believes that its intellectual property is foundational in the area of encryption technology and intends to enforce the intellectual property portfolio that Arqit has built. Unauthorized parties may attempt to copy or reverse engineer its technology or certain aspects of its products that it considers proprietary. Litigation may be necessary in the future to enforce or defend its intellectual property rights, to prevent unauthorized parties from copying or reverse engineering its products or technology to determine the validity and scope of the proprietary rights of others or to block the importation of infringing products into the U.S., U.K. or other jurisdictions in which Arqit seeks to protect its intellectual property rights.
Any such litigation, whether initiated by Arqit or a third party, could result in substantial costs and diversion of management resources, either of which could adversely affect its business, operating results and financial condition. Even if Arqit obtains favorable outcomes in litigation, Arqit may not be able to obtain adequate remedies, especially in the context of unauthorized parties copying or reverse engineering its products or technology.
 
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Effective patent, trademark, service mark, copyright and trade secret protection may not be available in every country in which its products are available and competitors based in other countries may sell infringing products in one or more markets. Failure to adequately protect its intellectual property rights could result in its competitors offering similar products, potentially resulting in the loss of some of its competitive advantage, and Arqit’s business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
Third-party claims that Arqit is infringing intellectual property, whether successful or not, could subject it to costly and time-consuming litigation or expensive licenses, and its business could be adversely affected.
Participants in Arqit’s industry typically protect their technology, especially embedded software, through copyrights and trade secrets in addition to patents. As a result, there is frequent litigation based on allegations of infringement, misappropriation or other violations of intellectual property rights. Arqit may in the future receive inquiries from other intellectual property holders and may become subject to claims that it infringes their intellectual property rights, particularly as Arqit expands its presence in the market, expands to new use cases and faces increasing competition. In addition, parties may claim that the names and branding of Arqit’s products infringe their trademark rights in certain countries or territories. If such a claim were to prevail, Arqit may have to change the names and branding of its products in the affected territories and could incur other costs.
Arqit may in the future need to initiate infringement claims or litigation in order to try to protect its intellectual property rights. In addition to litigation where Arqit is a plaintiff, its defense of intellectual property rights claims brought against it or its customers or suppliers, with or without merit, could be time-consuming, expensive to litigate or settle, could divert management resources and attention and could force Arqit to acquire intellectual property rights and licenses, which may involve substantial royalty or other payments and may not be available on acceptable terms or at all. Further, a party making such a claim, if successful, could secure a judgment that requires Arqit to pay substantial damages or obtain an injunction and Arqit may also lose the opportunity to license its technology to others or to collect royalty payments. An adverse determination could also invalidate or narrow Arqit’s intellectual property rights and adversely affect its ability to offer its products to its customers and may require that Arqit procure or develop substitute products that do not infringe, which could require significant effort and expense. If any of these events were to materialize, Arqit’s business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
Certain of Arqit’s products contain third-party open source software components, and failure to comply with the terms of the underlying open source software licenses could restrict its ability to sell its products or expose Arqit to other risks.
Arqit’s products contain software modules licensed to it by third-party authors under “open source” licenses. From time to time, there have been claims against companies that distribute or use open source software in their products and services, asserting that open source software infringes the claimants’ IP rights. Arqit could be subject to suits by parties claiming infringement of IP rights in what Arqit believes to be licensed open source software. Use and distribution of open source software may entail greater risks than use of third-party commercial software, as, for example, open source licensors generally do not provide warranties or other contractual protections regarding infringement claims or the quality of the code. Some open source licenses contain requirements that Arqit makes available source code for modifications or derivative works Arqit creates based upon the type of open source software Arqit uses. If Arqit combines its proprietary software with open source software in a certain manner, Arqit could, under certain open source licenses, be required to release the source code of its proprietary software to the public. This would allow its competitors to create similar products with lower development effort and time and ultimately could result in a loss of product sales for Arqit.
Although Arqit monitors its use of open source software to avoid subjecting its products to conditions Arqit does not intend, the terms of many open source licenses have not been interpreted by U.S. courts, and there is a risk that these licenses could be construed in a way that, for example, could impose unanticipated conditions or restrictions on its ability to commercialize its products. In this event, Arqit could be required to seek licenses from third parties to continue offering its products, to make its proprietary code generally
 
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available in source code form, to re-engineer its products or to discontinue the sale of its products if re-engineering could not be accomplished on a timely basis, and Arqit’s business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
Arqit’s intellectual property applications, including patent applications, may not be approved or granted or may take longer than expected to be approved, which may have a material adverse effect on its ability to prevent others from commercially exploiting products similar to its.
Arqit cannot be certain that it is the first inventor of the subject matter to which it has filed a particular patent application or if it is the first party to file such a patent application. The process of securing definitive patent protection can take five or more years. If another party has filed a patent application to the same subject matter as Arqit has, Arqit may not be entitled to some or all of the protection sought by the patent application. Arqit also cannot be certain whether the claims included in a patent application will ultimately be allowed in the applicable issued patent or the timing of any approval or grant of a patent application. Further, the scope of protection of issued patent claims is often difficult to determine. As a result, Arqit cannot be certain that the patent applications that Arqit files will issue, or that its issued patents will afford protection against competitors with similar technology. In addition, if its competitors may design around its registered or issued intellectual property, Arqit’s business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
In addition to patented technology, Arqit relies on unpatented proprietary technology, trade secrets, designs, experiences, work flows, data, processes, software and know-how.
Arqit relies on proprietary information (such as trade secrets, designs, experiences, work flows, data, know-how and confidential information) to protect intellectual property that may not be patentable or subject to copyright, trademark, trade dress or service mark protection, or that Arqit believes is best protected by means that do not require public disclosure. Arqit generally seeks to protect this proprietary information by entering into confidentiality agreements, or consulting, services or employment agreements that contain non-disclosure and non-use provisions with its employees, consultants, customers, contractors and third parties. However, Arqit may fail to enter into the necessary agreements, and even if entered into, such agreements may be breached or may otherwise fail to prevent disclosure, third-party infringement or misappropriation of its proprietary information, may be limited as to their term and may not provide adequate remedies in the event of unauthorized disclosure or use of proprietary information. Arqit has limited control over the protection of trade secrets used by its current or future manufacturing counterparties and suppliers and could lose future trade secret protection if any unauthorized disclosure of such information occurs. In addition, its proprietary information may otherwise become known or be independently developed by its competitors or other third parties. To the extent that Arqit’s employees, consultants, customers, contractors, advisors and other third parties use intellectual property owned by others in their work for it, disputes may arise as to the rights in related or resulting know-how and inventions. Costly and time-consuming litigation could be necessary to enforce and determine the scope of its proprietary rights, and failure to obtain or maintain protection for its proprietary information could adversely affect its competitive business position. Furthermore, laws regarding trade secret rights in certain markets where Arqit operate may afford little or no protection to its trade secrets.
Arqit also relies on physical and electronic security measures to protect its proprietary information, but cannot provide assurance that these security measures will not be breached or provide adequate protection for its property. There is a risk that third parties may obtain and improperly utilize its proprietary information to its competitive disadvantage. Arqit may not be able to detect or prevent the unauthorized use of such information or take appropriate and timely steps to enforce its intellectual property rights, and Arqit’s business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
Arqit currently has and targets many customers that are large corporations with substantial negotiating power, exacting product and quality standards and potentially competitive internal solutions.
Many of Arqit’s existing and potential customers are large, multinational corporations with substantial negotiating power relative to it and, in some instances, may have internal solutions that may be competitive to its products. Many of these large, multinational corporations that are existing or potential customers also
 
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have significant development resources, which may allow them to acquire or develop independently, or in partnership with others, competitive technologies. Meeting the technical requirements of these companies will require a substantial investment of Arqit’s time and resources. If Arqit is unable to sell its products to these customers or is unable to enter into agreements with these customers on satisfactory terms, Arqit’s business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
Arqit currently has a small number of customers, and its business could be materially and adversely affected if Arqit loses and is unable to replace any of those customers or if they are unable to pay their invoices.
Arqit is in the early stages of commercializing its business, and has a small number of customers. The loss of business from any of Arqit’s major customers (whether by lower overall demand for its products, cancellation of existing contracts or the failure to adopt its products or to award it new business) could have a material adverse effect on its business.
There is also a risk that one or more of Arqit’s major customers could be unable to pay its invoices as they become due or that a customer will simply refuse to make such payments if it experiences financial difficulties. If a major customer were to enter into bankruptcy proceedings or similar proceedings whereby contractual commitments are subject to stay of execution and the possibility of legal or other modification, Arqit could be forced to record a substantial loss.
The markets in which Arqit competes are characterized by rapid technological change, and competing product innovations could adversely affect market adoption of its products.
While Arqit has invested substantial resources in technological development, and believes that its product is a unique innovation, continuing technological changes in quantum technology and changes in the markets for its products could adversely affect adoption of its products, either generally or for particular applications. Arqit’s future success will depend upon its ability to develop and introduce a variety of new capabilities and innovations to its product offerings, as well as to introduce a variety of new product offerings, to address the changing needs of the markets in which Arqit offers its products. Delays in delivering new products that meet customer requirements could damage its relationships with customers and lead them to seek alternative sources of supply. Delays in introducing products and innovations, the failure to choose correctly among technical alternatives or the failure to offer innovative products or configurations at competitive prices may cause existing and potential customers to purchase its competitors’ products or turn to alternative technology.
If Arqit is unable to devote adequate resources to develop products or cannot otherwise successfully develop products or system configurations that meet customer requirements on a timely basis or that remain competitive with technological alternatives, its products could lose market share, its revenue could decline, and Arqit’s business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
Arqit’s business depends substantially on the efforts of its executive officers and highly skilled personnel. Arqit needs to attract and retain a large number of skilled, specialized and dedicated employees in different jurisdictions in order to grow and manage its business, and if Arqit loses the services of existing key employees or fail to achieve its recruitment goals, its operations may be disrupted.
Competition for highly-skilled personnel is often intense and Arqit may incur significant costs to attract and retain highly-skilled personnel. Arqit may not be successful in attracting, integrating, or retaining qualified personnel to fulfill its current or future needs. As its business grows, Arqit will need to recruit a large number of skilled employees in different jurisdictions in which it operates and expects to expand into in the future. Experienced and highly skilled employees are in high demand, competition for these employees can be intense and Arqit’s ability to hire, attract and retain them depends on its ability to provide competitive compensation. Arqit will also need to expend significant time and expense to train the employees that it hires and it may struggle to retain employees, and its competitors may actively seek to hire skilled personnel away from it. If Arqit fails to attract new personnel or to retain and motivate its current personnel, its business and future growth prospects could be adversely affected.
 
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Failure to comply with governmental trade controls, including export and import control laws and regulations, sanctions, and related regimes could subject Arqit to liability or loss of contracting privileges, limit its ability to compete in certain markets or harm its reputation with the governments.
Arqit’s products are subject to export controls in the U.S., U.K. and other jurisdictions, and Arqit incorporates encryption technology into its product offerings. Some of the underlying technology in Arqit’s products may be exported outside of these countries only with the required export authorizations, which may require a license, a license exception, or other appropriate government authorizations, including the filing of an encryption classification request or self-classification report.
Furthermore, its activities are subject to the economic sanctions, laws and regulations of the U.S. and other jurisdictions. Such controls prohibit the shipment or transfer of certain products and services without the required export authorizations or export to countries, governments, and persons targeted by applicable sanctions. Arqit takes precautions to prevent its offerings from being exported in violation of these laws, including: (i) seeking to proactively classify its platforms and obtain authorizations for the export and/or import of its platforms where appropriate, (ii) implementing certain technical controls and screening practices to reduce the risk of violations, and (iii) requiring compliance with U.S. export control and sanctions obligations in customer and vendor contracts. However, Arqit cannot guarantee the precautions it takes will prevent violations of export control and sanctions laws.
As discussed above, if Arqit misclassifies a product or service, export or provides access to a product or service in violation of applicable restrictions, or otherwise fails to comply with export regulations, Arqit may be denied export privileges or subjected to significant per violation fines or other penalties, and its platforms may be denied entry into other countries. Any decreased use of its platforms or limitation on its ability to export or sell its platforms would likely adversely affect its business, results of operations and financial condition. Violations of sanctions or export control laws can result in fines or penalties, including both civil and criminal penalties.
Arqit also notes that if it or its business partners or counterparties, including licensors and licensees, prime contractors, subcontractors, sublicensors, vendors, customers, or contractors, fail to obtain appropriate import, export, or re-export licenses or permits, notwithstanding regulatory requirements or contractual commitments to do so, or if Arqit fails to secure such contractual commitments where necessary, Arqit may also face reputational harm as well as other negative consequences, including government investigations and penalties.
Negative consequences for violations or apparent violations of trade control requirements may include the absolute loss of the right to sell Arqit’s platforms or services to the government of the U.S., or to other public bodies, or a reduction in its ability to compete for such sales opportunities. Further, complying with export control and sanctions regulations for a particular sale may be time-consuming and may result in the delay or loss of sales opportunities.
Other countries in addition to the U.S. and U.K. also regulate the import and export of certain encryption and other technology, including import and export licensing requirements, and have enacted laws that could limit Arqit’s ability to distribute its products or could limit its end-customers’ ability to implement its products in those countries. Changes in Arqit’s products or future changes in export and import regulations may create delays in the introduction of its platform in international markets, prevent its end-customers with international operations from deploying its platform globally or, in some cases, prevent the export or import of its products to certain countries, governments, or persons altogether. From time to time, various governmental agencies have proposed additional regulation of encryption technology. Any change in export or import regulations, economic sanctions or related legislation, increased export and import controls, or change in the countries, governments, persons, or technologies targeted by such regulations, could result in decreased use of Arqit’s platform by, or in its decreased ability to export or sell its products to, existing or potential end-customers with international operations. If there is any limitation on its ability to export or sell its products, Arqit’s business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
Arqit’s business is subject to government regulation, which mandates how Arqit may operate its business and may increase the cost of providing services and expanding into new markets.
Arqit’s ownership and operation of satellites (including the procurement of space licenses in respect of the launch of the satellites and obtaining and maintaining spectrum and orbital resources) and the sale of
 
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services from such system are subject to significant regulation in the U.S., U.K. and other jurisdictions. These rules and regulations may change, and such authorities may adopt regulations that limit or restrict its operations as presently conducted or currently contemplated. Such authorities may also make changes in the licenses of Arqit’s partners or competitors that affect their spectrum, and may significantly affect its business. Further, because regulations in each country are different, Arqit may not be aware if some of its partners or persons with whom Arqit does business do not hold the requisite licenses and approvals. Failure to provide services in accordance with the terms of its licenses or to operate its satellites or ground stations as required by its licenses and applicable laws and government regulations could result in the imposition of government sanctions and/or monetary fines, including the suspension or cancellation of its licenses, and Arqit’s business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
Failures, or perceived failures, to comply with privacy, data protection, and information security requirements in the jurisdictions in which Arqit operates may adversely impact its business, and such legal requirements are evolving and may require improvements in, or changes to, its policies and operations.
Arqit’s current and potential future operations and sales are subject to laws and regulations addressing privacy and the collection, use, storage, disclosure, transfer and protection of a variety of types of data. The primary data privacy laws applicable to Arqit include U.K. General Data Protection Regulation and the U.K. Data Protection Act of 2018. These regimes may, among other things, impose data security requirements, disclosure requirements, and restrictions on data collection, uses, and sharing that may impact its operations and the development of its business. Arqit’s products collect, store and process certain information and its products may evolve to collect additional information. Therefore, the full impact of these privacy regimes on its business is rapidly evolving across jurisdictions and remains uncertain at this time.
Arqit may also be affected by cyber-attacks and other means of gaining unauthorized access to its products, systems, and data. For instance, cyber criminals or insiders may target it or third parties with which Arqit has business relationships to obtain data, or in a manner that disrupts its operations or compromises its products or the systems into which its products are integrated.
Arqit continually assesses the evolving privacy and data security regimes and implements measures that Arqit believes are appropriate in response. Since these data security regimes are evolving, uncertain and complex, especially for a global business like Arqit’s, it may need to update or enhance its compliance measures as its products, markets and customer demands further develop, and these updates or enhancements may require implementation costs. In addition, Arqit may not be able to monitor and react to all developments in a timely manner and the compliance measures that Arqit adopts may prove ineffective. Any failure, or perceived failure, to comply with current and future regulatory or customer-driven privacy, data protection, and information security requirements, or to prevent or mitigate security breaches, cyber-attacks, or improper access to, use of, or disclosure of data, or any security issues or cyber-attacks affecting Arqit, could result in significant liability, costs (including the costs of mitigation and recovery), and a material loss of revenue resulting from the adverse impact on Arqit’s reputation and brand, loss of proprietary information and data, disruption to its business and relationships, and diminished ability to retain or attract customers and business partners. Such events may result in governmental enforcement actions and prosecutions, private litigation, fines and penalties or adverse publicity, and could cause customers and business partners to lose trust in Arqit, and its business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
Fluctuations in currency exchange rates may adversely affect Arqit’s business and result of operations.
Arqit’s functional currency is GBP and its reporting currency is U.S. dollars. Accordingly, fluctuations in the value of GBP relative to the U.S. dollar could affect its results of operations due to translational remeasurements. As its international operations expand, an increasing portion of its revenue and operating expenses will be denominated in non-GBP currencies. Accordingly, Arqit’s revenue and operating expenses will become increasingly subject to fluctuations due to changes in foreign currency exchange rates. If Arqit is not able to successfully hedge against the risks associated with currency fluctuations, Arqit’s business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
 
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Arqit’s warrants are accounted for as liabilities and the changes in value of the warrants could have a material effect on its financial results.
In April 2021, the staff of the SEC issued a statement, wherein they expressed their view that certain terms and conditions common to warrants issued by special purpose acquisition companies (“SPACs”) warrants may require the warrants to be classified as liabilities on the SPAC’s balance sheet as opposed to being treated as equity. Specifically, the SEC’s statement focused on certain settlement terms and provisions related to certain tender offers following a business combination, which terms are similar to those contained in the warrant agreement governing Arqit’s warrants. Considering the SEC statement and the application of IFRS 9 — Financial Instruments and IAS 32 — Financial Instruments: Presentation, Arqit has determined the warrants should be classified as derivative liabilities measured at fair value on its statement of financial position, with any changes in fair value to be reported each period in earnings on its statement of comprehensive income. As a result of the recurring fair value measurement, Arqit’s financial statements may fluctuate quarterly, based on factors which are outside of its control. Due to the recurring fair value measurement, Arqit expects that it will recognize non-cash gains or losses on its warrants each reporting period and that the amount of such gains or losses could be material.
Interruption or failure of Arqit’s information technology and communications systems could impact its ability to effectively provide its products and services.
The availability and effectiveness of Arqit’s services depend on the continued operation of information technology and communications systems. Its systems will be vulnerable to damage or interruption from, among others, physical theft, fire, terrorist attacks, natural disasters, power loss, war, telecommunications failures, viruses, denial or degradation of service attacks, ransomware, social engineering schemes, insider theft or misuse or other attempts to harm its systems. Arqit utilizes reputable third-party service providers or vendors for all of its IT and communications sytems, and these providers could also be vulnerable to harms similar to those that could damage its systems, including sabotage and intentional acts of vandalism causing potential disruptions. Some of its systems will not be fully redundant, and its disaster recovery planning cannot account for all eventualities. Any problems with its third-party cloud hosting providers could result in lengthy interruptions in its business. In addition, Arqit’s services and functionality are highly technical and complex technology which may contain errors or vulnerabilities that could result in interruptions in its business or the failure of its systems.
If any of Arqit’s third parties’ systems, its customers’ cloud or on-premises environments, or its internal systems are breached or if unauthorized access to customer or third-party data is otherwise obtained, public perception of its business may be harmed, and Arqit may lose business and incur losses or liabilities.
Arqit’s success depends in part on its ability to provide effective data security protection in connection with its platforms and services, and Arqit relies on information technology networks and systems to securely store, transmit, index, and otherwise process electronic information. Because its platforms and services are used by its customers to encrypt large data sets that often contain proprietary, confidential, and/or sensitive information (including in some instances personal or identifying information and personal health information), its software is perceived as an attractive target for attacks by computer hackers or others seeking unauthorized access, and its software faces threats of unintended exposure, exfiltration, alteration, deletion, or loss of data. Additionally, because many of Arqit’s customers use its platforms to store, transmit, and otherwise process proprietary, confidential, or sensitive information, and complete mission critical tasks, they have a lower risk tolerance for security vulnerabilities in its platforms and services than for vulnerabilities in other, less critical, software products and services.
Arqit, and the third-party vendors upon which Arqit relies, have experienced, and may in the future experience, cybersecurity threats, including threats or attempts to disrupt its information technology infrastructure and unauthorized attempts to gain access to sensitive or confidential information. Its and its third-party vendors’ technology systems may be damaged or compromised by malicious events, such as cyberattacks (including computer viruses, malicious and destructive code, phishing attacks, and denial of service attacks), physical or electronic security breaches, natural disasters, fire, power loss, telecommunications failures, personnel misconduct, and human error. Such attacks or security breaches may be perpetrated by internal bad actors, such as employees or contractors, or by third parties (including traditional computer
 
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hackers, persons involved with organized crime, or foreign state or foreign state-supported actors). Cybersecurity threats can employ a wide variety of methods and techniques, which may include the use of social engineering techniques, are constantly evolving, and have become increasingly complex and sophisticated; all of which increase the difficulty of detecting and successfully defending against them. Furthermore, because the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access or sabotage systems change frequently and generally are not identified until after they are launched against a target, Arqit and its third-party vendors may be unable to anticipate these techniques or implement adequate preventative measures. Although prior cyberattacks directed at Arqit have not had a material impact on its financial results, and Arqit is continuing to bolster its threat detection and mitigation processes and procedures, Arqit cannot guarantee that future cyberattacks, if successful, will not have a material impact on its business or financial results. While Arqit has security measures in place to protect its information and its customers’ information and to prevent data loss and other security breaches, there can be no assurance that Arqit will be able to anticipate or prevent security breaches or unauthorized access of its information technology systems or the information technology systems of the third-party vendors upon which Arqit relies. Despite its implementation of network security measures and internal information security policies, data stored on personnel computer systems is also vulnerable to similar security breaches, unauthorized tampering or human error.
Many governments have enacted laws requiring companies to provide notice of data security incidents involving certain types of data, including personal data. In addition, most of Arqit’s customers contractually require Arqit to notify them of data security breaches. If an actual or perceived breach of security measures, unauthorized access to its system or the systems of the third-party vendors that Arqit rely upon, or any other cybersecurity threat occurs, Arqit may face direct or indirect liability, costs, or damages, contract termination, its reputation in the industry and with current and potential customers may be compromised, its ability to attract new customers could be negatively affected, and its business, financial condition, and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
Further, unauthorized access to Arqit’s or its third-party vendors’ information technology systems or data or other security breaches could result in the loss of information; significant remediation costs; litigation, disputes, regulatory action, or investigations that could result in damages, material fines, and penalties; indemnity obligations; interruptions in the operation of its business, including its ability to provide new product features, new platforms, or services to its customers; damage to its operation technology networks and information technology systems; and other liabilities. Moreover, its remediation efforts may not be successful. Any or all of these issues, or the perception that any of them have occurred, could negatively affect Arqit’s ability to attract new customers, cause existing customers to terminate or not renew their agreements, hinder Arqit’s ability to obtain and maintain required or desirable cybersecurity certifications, and result in reputational damage, any of which could materially adversely affect its results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects. There can be no assurance that any limitations of liability provisions in Arqit’s license arrangements with customers or in its agreements with vendors, partners, or others would be enforceable, applicable, or adequate or would otherwise protect it from any such liabilities or damages with respect to any particular claim.
Arqit maintains cybersecurity insurance and other types of insurance, subject to applicable deductibles and policy limits, but its insurance may not be sufficient to cover all costs associated with a potential data security incident. Arqit also cannot be sure that its existing general liability insurance coverage and coverage for cyber liability or errors or omissions will continue to be available on acceptable terms or will be available in sufficient amounts to cover one or more large claims or that the insurer will not deny coverage as to any future claim. The successful assertion of one or more large claims against Arqit that exceed available insurance coverage, or the occurrence of changes in its insurance policies, including premium increases or the imposition of large deductible or co-insurance requirements, could result in its business, financial condition and results of operations being materially adversely affected.
If Arqit’s network and products do not interoperate with its customers’ internal networks and infrastructure or with third-party products, websites, or services, its network may become less competitive and its results of operations may be harmed.
Arqit’s network and products must interoperate with its customers’ existing internal networks and infrastructure. These complex internal systems are developed, delivered, and maintained by the customer
 
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and a myriad of vendors and service providers. As a result, the components of its customers’ infrastructure have different specifications, rapidly evolve, utilize multiple protocol standards, include multiple versions and generations of products, and may be highly customized. Arqit must be able to interoperate and provide products to customers with highly complex and customized internal networks, which requires careful planning and execution between its customers, its customer support teams and, in some cases, its channel partners.
Further, when new or updated elements of its customers’ infrastructure or new industry standards or protocols are introduced, Arqit may have to update or enhance its network to allow it to continue to provide its products to customers.
Arqit may not deliver or maintain interoperability quickly or cost-effectively, or at all. These efforts require capital investment and engineering resources. If Arqit fails to maintain compatibility of its network and products with its customers’ internal networks and infrastructures, its customers may not be able to fully utilize its network and products, and Arqit may, among other consequences, lose or fail to increase its market share and number of customers and experience reduced demand for its products, and its business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
Risks Related to Ownership of Ordinary Shares and Warrants
It may be difficult to enforce judgments obtained against Arqit or its directors and officers in U.S. courts, to effect service of process on it or its directors or officers, and to recover in civil proceedings in the U.K. or elsewhere for U.S. securities law violations.
The majority of Arqit’s directors and executive officers reside outside of the U.S., and most of its assets and most of the assets of these persons are located outside of the U.S.. Therefore, a judgment obtained against Arqit, or any of these persons, including a judgment based on the civil liability provisions of the U.S. federal securities laws, may not be collectible in the U.S. and may not be enforced by courts in other jurisdictions. It may also be difficult for its shareholders to effect service of process on these persons in the U.S. or to assert U.S. securities law claims in original actions instituted in the U.K. or elsewhere. U.K. courts may refuse to hear a claim based on an alleged violation of U.S. securities laws reasoning that U.K. is not the most appropriate forum in which to bring such a claim. In addition, even if a U.K. court agrees to hear a claim, it may determine that U.K. law, instead of U.S. law, is applicable to the claim. As a result of potential difficulties associated with enforcing a judgment against Arqit, its shareholders may not be able to collect any damages awarded by either a U.S. or foreign court.
Because Arqit is incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands, you may face difficulties in protecting your interests, and your ability to protect your rights through the U.S. federal courts may be limited.
Arqit is an exempted company incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands. As a result, it may be difficult for shareholders to effect service of process within the United States upon the directors or executive officers of Arqit, or enforce judgments obtained in the United States courts against the directors or officers of Arqit.
The corporate affairs of Arqit are governed by Arqit’s amended and restated memorandum and articles of association, the Cayman Companies Act and the common law of the Cayman Islands. The rights of shareholders to take action against the directors, actions by minority shareholders and the fiduciary responsibilities of the directors of Arqit under Cayman Islands law are to a large extent governed by the common law of the Cayman Islands. The common law of the Cayman Islands is derived in part from comparatively limited judicial precedent in the Cayman Islands as well as from English common law, the decisions of whose courts are of persuasive authority, but are not binding on a court in the Cayman Islands. The rights of Arqit shareholders and the fiduciary responsibilities of Arqit directors under Cayman Islands law are different from what they would be under statutes or judicial precedent in some jurisdictions in the United States. In particular, the Cayman Islands has a less prescriptive body of securities laws as compared to the United States, and certain states, such as Delaware, may have more fully developed and judicially interpreted bodies of corporate law. In addition, shareholders of Cayman Islands companies may not have standing to initiate a shareholders’ derivative action in a federal court of the United States.
 
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Shareholders of Cayman Islands exempted companies like Arqit have no general rights under Cayman Islands law to inspect corporate records or to obtain copies of the register of members of these companies. Arqit directors have discretion under our articles of association to determine whether or not, and under what conditions, our corporate records may be inspected by our shareholders, but are not obliged to make them available to our shareholders. This may make it more difficult for you to obtain the information needed to establish any facts necessary for a shareholder motion or to solicit proxies from other shareholders in connection with a proxy contest.
The courts of the Cayman Islands are unlikely (i) to recognize or enforce against Arqit judgments of courts of the United States predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the federal securities laws of the United States or any state, and (ii) in original actions brought in the Cayman Islands, to impose liabilities against Arqit predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the federal securities laws of the United States or any state, so far as the liabilities imposed by those provisions are penal in nature. In those circumstances, although there is no statutory enforcement in the Cayman Islands of judgments obtained in the United States, the courts of the Cayman Islands will recognize and enforce a foreign money judgment of a foreign court of competent jurisdiction without retrial on the merits based on the principle that a judgment of a competent foreign court imposes upon the judgment debtor an obligation to pay the sum for which judgment has been given provided certain conditions are met. For a foreign judgment to be enforced in the Cayman Islands, such judgment must be final and conclusive and for a liquidated sum, and must not be in respect of taxes or a fine or penalty, inconsistent with a Cayman Islands judgment in respect of the same matter, impeachable on the grounds of fraud or obtained in a manner, or be of a kind the enforcement of which is, contrary to natural justice or the public policy of the Cayman Islands (awards of punitive or multiple damages may well be held to be contrary to public policy). A Cayman Islands court may stay enforcement proceedings if concurrent proceedings are being brought elsewhere.
As a result of all of the above, shareholders of Arqit may have more difficulty in protecting their interests in the face of actions taken by our management, members of our board or our controlling shareholders than they would as public shareholders of a United States company.
The grant and future exercise of registration rights may adversely affect the market price of Arqit ordinary shares.
Pursuant to the Registration Rights Agreement and the Subscription Agreements described elsewhere in this prospectus, certain shareholders can each demand that Arqit register their registrable securities under certain circumstances and will each have piggyback registration rights for these securities in connection with certain registrations of securities that Arqit undertakes. Arqit will bear the cost of registering these securities.
As of October 12, 2021, 2,148,430 ordinary shares were unrestricted and Arqit’s registration statement on Form F-1 (File No. 333-259982) registering the resale by shareholders of 117,925,000 ordinary shares became effective. The shareholders who registered shares for resale under the registration statement have registration rights under the Registration Rights Agreement and the Subscription Agreements, and some of such shares are subject to the Lock-Up Agreements. The registration of these securities permits the public sale of such securities. The registration and availability of such a significant number of securities for trading in the public market may have an adverse effect on the market price of Arqit ordinary shares.
Certain shareholders that own a significant percentage of Arqit may have interests that conflict with Arqit’s or yours in the future.
Two shareholders of Arqit beneficially own approximately 43.4% of the outstanding Arqit ordinary shares. See “Beneficial Ownership of Securities.” For so long as these shareholders continue to own a significant percentage of Arqit ordinary shares, they will be able to significantly influence or effectively control the composition of the Arqit board of directors and the approval of actions requiring shareholder approval through their voting power. Accordingly, for such period of time, these shareholders will have significant influence with respect to Arqit’s management, business plans and policies, including the appointment and removal of Arqit’s officers. In particular, for so long as these shareholders continue to own a significant percentage of the outstanding Arqit ordinary shares, they will be able to cause or prevent a change of control of Arqit or a change in the composition of Arqit’s board of directors and could preclude
 
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any unsolicited acquisition of Arqit. The concentration of ownership could deprive you of an opportunity to receive a premium for your Arqit ordinary shares as part of a sale of Arqit and ultimately might affect the market price of the Arqit ordinary shares.
The price of Arqit’s ordinary shares may be volatile.
The price of Arqit’s ordinary shares may fluctuate due to a variety of factors, including:

actual or anticipated fluctuations in its quarterly and annual results and those of other public companies in industry; mergers and strategic alliances in the industry in which it operates;

market prices and conditions in the industry in which it operates;

changes in government regulation;

potential or actual military conflicts or acts of terrorism;

the failure of securities analysts to publish research about us, or shortfalls in its operating results compared to levels forecast by securities analysts;

announcements concerning Arqit or its competitors; and

the general state of the securities markets.
These market and industry factors may materially reduce the market price of Arqit’s ordinary shares, regardless of its operating performance.
Reports published by analysts, including projections in those reports that differ from Arqit’s actual results, could adversely affect the price and trading volume of its ordinary shares.
The trading market for the Ordinary Shares is and will be influenced by the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about Arqit or its business. Projections by such securities or industry analysts may vary widely and may not accurately predict the results Arqit actually achieves. Arqit’s share price may decline if its actual results do not match the projections of these securities research analysts. Similarly, if one or more of the analysts who write reports on Arqit downgrades its stock or publishes inaccurate or unfavorable research about its business, its share price could decline. If one or more of these analysts ceases coverage of Arqit or fails to publish reports on it regularly, its share price or trading volume could decline. While Arqit’s management expects research analyst coverage, if no analysts commence coverage of Arqit, the trading price and volume for its ordinary shares could be adversely affected.
If Arqit were a passive foreign investment company, or “PFIC,” for U.S. federal income tax purposes for any taxable year, U.S. investors could be subject to adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences.
If Arqit were a PFIC for any taxable year (or portion thereof) that is included in the holding period of a U.S. Holder (as defined in the section entitled “United States Federal Income Tax Considerations”) of Arqit’s ordinary shares or warrants, the U.S. Holder may be subject to adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences and may be subject to additional reporting requirements. As of the date hereof, Arqit has not made a determination as to its PFIC status for its most recent taxable year or its current taxable year. Arqit’s possible status as a PFIC is determined on an annual basis based on the composition of its assets, income, activities and market capitalization (which, depending on Arqit’s stock price, may fluctuate significantly) in the relevant taxable year and therefore may be subject to change. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that Arqit is not a PFIC for any taxable year. If Arqit is a PFIC during such U.S. Holder’s holding period for the ordinary shares or warrants, unless the U.S. Holder makes certain elections, Arqit will continue to be treated as a PFIC with respect to such U.S. Holder, even if it ceases to be a PFIC in future taxable years. U.S. Holders are urged to consult their own tax advisors regarding the possible application of the PFIC rules to holders of Arqit securities. For a more detailed explanation of the tax consequences of PFIC classification to U.S. Holders, see “United States Federal Income Tax Considerations — Passive Foreign Investment Company Rules.”
 
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Risks Related to Being a Public Company
Arqit’s management team has limited experience managing and operating a U.S. public company.
Most of the members of Arqit’s management team have limited experience managing and operating a U.S. publicly traded company, interacting with U.S. public company investors, and complying with the increasingly complex laws pertaining to U.S. public companies. Its transition to being a U.S. public company subjects Arqit to significant regulatory oversight and reporting obligations under the U.S. federal securities laws and the continuous scrutiny of securities analysts and investors. These new obligations and constituents will require significant attention from its senior management and could divert their attention away from the day-to-day management of its business. Arqit may not have adequate personnel with the appropriate level of knowledge, experience, and training in the accounting policies, practices or internal controls over financial reporting required of U.S. public companies. The development and implementation of the standards and controls necessary for Arqit to achieve the level of accounting standards required of a public company may require costs greater than expected. To support its operations as a U.S. public company, Arqit plans to hire additional employees, which will increase its operating costs in future periods. Should any of these factors materialize, Arqit’s business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
If Arqit fails to maintain an effective system of disclosure controls and internal control over financial reporting, its ability to produce timely and accurate financial statements or comply with applicable regulations could be impaired.
As a U.S. public company, Arqit is subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”), and the rules and regulations of the applicable listing standards of Nasdaq subject to applicable exemptions as long as Arqit qualifies as Foreign Private Issuer and Emerging Growth Company. Arqit’s management expects that the requirements of these rules and regulations will continue to increase its legal, accounting and financial compliance costs, make some activities more difficult, time-consuming and costly and place significant strain on its personnel, systems and resources.
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires, among other things, that Arqit maintains effective disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting. In particular, Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires Arqit to perform system and process evaluation and testing of its internal control over financial reporting to allow Arqit’s management to report on the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting (beginning with Arqit’s annual report on Form 20-F for the fiscal year ending September 30, 2022), and to allow Arqit’s independent registered public accounting firm to attest to the effectiveness of such control (once Arqit becomes an accelerated filer). As an emerging growth company, Arqit’s management expects to avail itself of the exemption from the requirement that its independent registered public accounting firm attest to the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. See “— As an “emerging growth company,” Arqit cannot be certain if the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to “emerging growth companies” will make the Arqit ordinary shares less attractive to investors.” However, Arqit may no longer avail itself of this exemption when it ceases to be an emerging growth company. At such time, Arqit’s independent registered public accounting firm may issue a report that is adverse in the event it is not satisfied with the level at which its internal control over financial reporting is documented, designed or operating. As a public company, Arqit will be required to provide an annual management report on the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting commencing with its second annual report on Form 20-F. Any failure to maintain effective disclosure controls and internal control over financial reporting could have a material and adverse effect on Arqit’s business, results of operations and financial condition and could cause a decline in the trading price of the Arqit ordinary shares.
As a foreign private issuer, Arqit is exempt from a number of rules under the U.S. securities laws and is permitted to file less information with the SEC than a U.S. company. This may limit the information available to holders of the Arqit ordinary shares.
Arqit is a foreign private issuer, as such term is defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act, however, under Rule 405, the determination of foreign private issuer status is made annually on the last business day
 
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of an issuer’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter and, accordingly, the next determination will be made with respect to Arqit on March 31, 2022.
As a foreign private issuer, Arqit is not subject to all of the disclosure requirements applicable to public companies organized within the United States. For example, Arqit is exempt from certain rules under the Exchange Act, that regulate disclosure obligations and procedural requirements related to the solicitation of proxies, consents or authorizations applicable to a security registered under the Exchange Act, including the U.S. proxy rules under Section 14 of the Exchange Act (including the requirement applicable to emerging growth companies to disclose the compensation of its Chief Executive Officer and the other two most highly compensated executive officers on an individual, rather than an aggregate, basis). In addition, Arqit’s officers and directors are exempt from the reporting and “short-swing” profit recovery provisions of Section 16 of the Exchange Act and related rules with respect to their purchases and sales of its securities. Moreover, while Arqit’s management expects to submit quarterly interim consolidated financial data to the SEC under cover of the SEC’s Form 6-K, it will not be required to file periodic reports and financial statements with the SEC as frequently or as promptly as U.S. public companies and will not be required to file quarterly reports on Form 10-Q or current reports on Form 8-K under the Exchange Act. Furthermore, Arqit ordinary shares are not listed on any market in the Cayman Islands and Arqit does not currently intend to list its ordinary shares on any market in the Cayman Islands, Arqit’s home country. As a result, Arqit is not subject to the reporting and other requirements of companies listed in the Cayman Islands. Accordingly, there may be less publicly available information concerning Arqit’s business than there would be if Arqit were a public company organized in the United States.
Arqit may lose its foreign private issuer status in the future, which could result in significant additional cost and expense.
In the future, Arqit would lose its foreign private issuer status if a majority of its shareholders, directors or management are U.S. citizens or residents and it fails to meet additional requirements necessary to avoid loss of foreign private issuer status. Although Arqit’s management has elected to comply with certain U.S. regulatory provisions, its loss of foreign private issuer status would make such provisions mandatory. The regulatory and compliance costs to Arqit under U.S. securities laws as a U.S. domestic issuer may be significantly higher. If Arqit is not a foreign private issuer, it will be required to file periodic reports and registration statements on U.S. domestic issuer forms with the SEC, which are more detailed and extensive than the forms available to a foreign private issuer. For example, the annual report on Form 10-K requires domestic issuers to disclose executive compensation information on an individual basis with specific disclosure regarding the domestic compensation philosophy, objectives, annual total compensation (base salary, bonus, and equity compensation) and potential payments in connection with change in control, retirement, death or disability, while the annual report on Form 20-F permits foreign private issuers to disclose compensation information on an aggregate basis. Arqit would also have to mandatorily comply with U.S. federal proxy requirements, and its officers, directors, and principal shareholders will become subject to the short-swing profit disclosure and recovery provisions of Section 16 of the Exchange Act. Arqit may also be required to modify certain of its policies to comply with good governance practices associated with U.S. domestic issuers. Such conversion and modifications will involve additional costs. In addition, Arqit may lose its ability to rely upon exemptions from certain corporate governance requirements on U.S. stock exchanges that are available to foreign private issuers.
Arqit has incurred and expects to continue to incur increased costs and obligations as a result of being a public company.
As a publicly traded company, Arqit has incurred and expects to continue to incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses that it was not required to incur in the recent past, particularly after it is no longer an “emerging growth company” as defined under the JOBS Act. In addition, new and changing laws, regulations and standards relating to corporate governance and public disclosure, including the Dodd Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act and the rules and regulations promulgated and to be promulgated thereunder, as well as under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the JOBS Act, and the rules and regulations of the SEC and national securities exchanges have created uncertainty for public companies and increased the costs and the time that Arqit’s board of directors and management must devote to complying with these rules and regulations. Arqit’s management expects these rules and regulations to
 
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increase its legal and financial compliance costs and lead to a diversion of management time and attention from revenues generating activities.
Furthermore, the need to establish the corporate infrastructure demanded of a public company may divert management’s attention from its focus on Arqit’s business strategy, which could prevent Arqit from improving its business, results of operations and financial condition. Arqit has made, and will continue to make, changes to its internal controls and procedures for financial reporting and accounting systems to meet its reporting obligations as a publicly traded company. However, the measures it takes may not be sufficient to satisfy Arqit’s obligations as a publicly traded company.
For as long as Arqit remains an “emerging growth company” as defined in the JOBS Act, it may take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not “emerging growth companies.” Arqit may remain an “emerging growth company” until the September 2, 2026 (the fifth anniversary of the closing of the merger of Centricus with and into the Arqit) or until such earlier time that it has more than $1.07 billion in annual revenues, have more than $700 million in market value of Arqit’s ordinary shares held by non-affiliates, or issue more than $1.00 billion of non-convertible debt over a three- year period. Further, there is no guarantee that the exemptions available to Arqit under the JOBS Act will result in significant savings. To the extent Arqit’s management chooses not to use exemptions from various reporting requirements under the JOBS Act, Arqit will incur additional compliance costs, which may impact earnings.
As an “emerging growth company,” Arqit cannot be certain if the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to “emerging growth companies” will make the Arqit ordinary shares less attractive to investors.
Arqit is an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the JOBS Act, and it may take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies including, but not limited to, not being required to obtain an assessment of the effectiveness of its internal controls over financial reporting from its independent registered public accounting firm pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. Additionally, to the extent that Arqit ceases to become a foreign private issuer, emerging growth company status would allow it to include reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in its periodic reports and to be exempt from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and shareholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. Arqit’s management cannot predict if investors will find its Arqit ordinary shares less attractive because it will rely on these exemptions. If some investors find Arqit’s ordinary shares less attractive as a result, there may be a less active market for the Arqit ordinary shares and its share price may be more volatile.
If Arqit does not develop and implement all required accounting practices and policies, it may be unable to provide the financial information required of a U.S. publicly traded company in a timely and reliable manner.
If Arqit fails to develop and maintain effective internal controls and procedures and disclosure procedures and controls, it may be unable to provide financial information and required SEC reports that a U.S. publicly traded company is required to provide in a timely and reliable fashion. Any such delays or deficiencies could penalize Arqit, including by limiting its ability to obtain financing, either in the public capital markets or from private sources and hurt its reputation and could thereby impede its ability to implement its growth strategy.
 
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USE OF PROCEEDS
All of the ordinary shares and warrants offered by the Selling Securityholders pursuant to this prospectus will be sold by the Selling Securityholders for their respective amounts. We will not receive any of the proceeds from these sales.
We will receive up to an aggregate of approximately $171.3 million from the exercise of the warrants, assuming the exercise in full of all such warrants for cash. We expect to use the net proceeds from the exercise of the warrants for general corporate purposes, which may include acquisitions and other business opportunities and the repayment of indebtedness. Our management will have broad discretion over the use of proceeds from the exercise of the warrants.
There is no assurance that the holders of the warrants will elect to exercise any or all of the warrants. To the extent that the warrants are exercised on a “cashless basis,” the amount of cash we would receive from the exercise of the warrants will decrease.
 
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MARKET PRICE OF OUR SECURITIES
Our Ordinary Shares and Warrants began trading on The Nasdaq Capital Market (“Nasdaq”) under the symbols “ARQQ” and “ARQQW,” respectively, on September 7, 2021. On December 22, 2021, the closing sale prices of our ordinary shares and warrants were $25.13 and $6.14, respectively. As of December 22, 2021, there were approximately 101 holders of record of our ordinary shares and 2 holders of record of our warrants. Such numbers do not include beneficial owners holding our securities through nominee names.
 
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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL
CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
For purposes of this section, “Arqit” refers to Arqit Limited prior to the consummation of the Business Combination, unless the context otherwise requires. Arqit Quantum Inc., is the new combined company in connection with the Business Combination, in which shareholders of Centricus Acquisition Corp. and Arqit Limited exchanged their shares for shares in Arqit Quantum Inc. Following the Business Combination, Arqit Limited is the primary operating subsidiary of Arqit Quantum Inc. The following discussion and analysis provides information which Arqit’s management believes is relevant to an assessment and understanding of Arqit’s results of operations and financial condition. This discussion and analysis should be read together with the unaudited and audited consolidated financial statements and related notes of Arqit that are included elsewhere in this prospectus. This discussion and analysis should also be read together with the section of this prospectus entitled “Business”. In addition to historical financial information, this discussion and analysis contains forward-looking statements based upon current expectations that involve risks, uncertainties and assumptions. See the section entitled “Forward-Looking Statements.” Actual results and timing of selected events may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including those set forth under “Risk Factors” or elsewhere in this prospectus.
Overview
Arqit is a cybersecurity company that has pioneered a unique quantum encryption technology which makes the communications links of any networked device secure against current and future forms of cyber attack — even an attack from a quantum computer. Arqit’s product, called QuantumCloud™, creates unbreakable software encryption keys that are low cost and easy to use with no new hardware required. The software has universal application to every edge device and cloud machine in the world. Arqit has not only invented a ground-breaking new quantum protocol, but it has also found a way to translate the benefits of quantum security to end point devices.
Arqit’s solution combines world-leading innovation in two areas: a new form of quantum satellite and a software agent that can be downloaded onto any device. Arqit’s quantum satellite technology solves all previously known problems of quantum key distribution and puts identical copies of quantum safe keys into each data center in a network. The data centers use these keys to create secure channels between them — an outer perimeter of quantum safety that Arqit calls the QuantumCloud™. A second innovation is a small software agent downloaded from the QuantumCloud™ onto any form of device or integrated into any piece of software. By exchanging information with the QuantumCloud™, which moderates a key agreement process with all parties involved in a unique way, this software agent is able to create new symmetric encryption keys in partnership with any other device or cloud machine, or in large groups of devices. Keys are never “delivered”, they are created, and so they cannot be intercepted. They are created at the end points in a manner that means they can never be known by a third party, and can be used only once if necessary and replaced infinitely. The service is sold and fulfilled on a self-service basis in the cloud making it an easily scalable business model.
Until recently, Arqit has been a development stage company, however during the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021, it began commercializing its products. Arqit has already signed major, long-term contracts for its services with large companies and government institutions, and is in the process of undertaking pilot phases that are required to be completed with each of its customers. Prior to launch of its satellites, Arqit’s quantum encryption platform, QuantumCloud™, will use machines in data centers to generate a terrestrial simulation of the quantum satellite technology. By 2023, it plans to launch its first two quantum satellites, which will generate a significant increase in the level of security offered by the end-to-end system.
The Business Combination and the PIPE Financing
On May 12, 2021, the Company entered into a business combination agreement with Centricus Acquisition Corp. (“Centricus”), Centricus Heritage LLC, a Cayman Islands limited liability company, solely in its capacity as Centricus’ representative, Arqit Limited, a company limited by shares incorporated in England, David John Williams, solely in his capacity as the Arqit Limited shareholders’ representative, and the shareholders of Arqit Limited party thereto (the “Business Combination Agreement”). Pursuant to
 
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the Business Combination Agreement, (i) on September 2, 2021, Centricus merged with and into the Company (the “Merger”), with the Company surviving the merger, and the security holders of Centricus (other than security holders of Centricus electing to redeem their Centricus ordinary shares) became security holders of the Company, and (ii) on September 3, 2021, the Company acquired all of the issued and outstanding share capital of Arqit Limited from the shareholders of Arqit Limited in exchange for ordinary shares of the Company, such that Arqit Limited is a direct wholly owned subsidiary of the Company (the “Share Acquisition” and, together with the Merger, the “Business Combination”).
On May 12, 2021, concurrently with the execution of the Business Combination Agreement, the Company and Centricus entered into subscription agreements with certain investors (the “PIPE Investors”), pursuant to which the PIPE Investors agreed to subscribe for and purchase, and the Company agreed to issue and sell to such PIPE Investors, an aggregate of 7,100,000 ordinary shares of the Company at $10.00 per share for gross proceeds of $71,000,000 (the “PIPE Financing”). The PIPE Financing closed on September 3, 2021 immediately after the Business Combination.
Following the closing of the PIPE Financing, and after giving effect to redemptions of shares by shareholders of Centricus and payment of transaction expenses, the transactions described above generated approximately $96 million for the Company. The Company’s ordinary shares and warrants trade on Nasdaq under the symbols “ARQQ” and “ARQQW”, respectively.
The acquisition of Arqit Limited’s shares by the Company has been accounted for as a “reverse acquisition” in accordance with IFRS. Under this method of accounting, the Company will be treated as the “acquired” company for financial reporting purposes. This determination was primarily based on the fact that Arqit Limited’s shareholders hold a majority of the voting power of the combined company, Arqit Limited’s operations substantially comprise the ongoing operations of the combined company, Arqit Limited’s designees comprise a majority of the governing body of the combined company, and Arqit Limited’s senior management comprises the senior management of the combined company. Accordingly, for accounting purposes, the acquisition of Arqit Limited’s shares by the Company has been treated as the equivalent of Arqit Limited issuing shares for the net assets of the Company, accompanied by a recapitalization. It has been determined that the Company is not a business under IFRS, hence the transaction is accounted for within the scope of IFRS 2 (Share-based Payments). In accordance with IFRS 2, the difference in the fair value of the Arqit Limited equity instruments deemed issued to the Company’s shareholders over the fair value of identifiable net assets of the Company represents a service for listing, and is accounted for as a share-based payment which is expensed as incurred. The net assets will be stated at historical cost, with no goodwill or other intangible assets recorded. Operations prior to the acquisition of the Arqit Limited shares by the Company have been deemed to be those of Arqit Limited. Upon closing of the Business Combination, the Company became the successor SEC registrant, and Arqit Limited’s financial statements for previous periods have been included as part of the Company’s audited consolidated financial statements included in this prospectus, and to be disclosed in its future periodic reports filed with the SEC. The Company is a foreign private issuer as defined under Rule 405 under the Securities Act and prepares its financial statements denominated in U.S. dollars and in accordance with IFRS.
As a consequence of the Business Combination, the Company’s ordinary shares were registered under the Exchange Act and listed on Nasdaq, which will require the Company to hire additional personnel and implement procedures and processes to address public company regulatory requirements and customary practices. The Company expects to incur additional annual expenses as a public company for, among other things, directors’ and officers’ liability insurance, director fees and additional internal and external accounting and legal and administrative resources, including increased audit and legal fees.
Key Factors Affecting Operating Results
Arqit has not yet begun to generate material revenues through the commercialization of its products and believes that its performance and future success depend on several factors that present significant opportunities for it but also pose risks and challenges, including those discussed below and in the section of this prospectus entitled “Risk Factors — Risks Related to Arqit’s Business and Operations”.
 
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Accounting for Business Combination
The acquisition of Arqit Limited’s shares by Arqit in connection with the Business Combination was accounted for as a “reverse acquisition” in accordance with IFRS. Under this method of accounting, Arqit was treated as the “acquired” company for financial reporting purposes.
This determination was primarily based on the fact that Arqit Limited’s shareholders hold a majority of the voting power of the combined company, Arqit Limited’s operations substantially comprise the ongoing operations of the combined company, Arqit Limited’s designees are comprised a majority of the governing body of the combined company, and Arqit Limited’s senior management is the senior management of the combined company.
Accordingly, for accounting purposes, the acquisition of Arqit Limited’s shares by Arqit is treated as the equivalent of Arqit Limited issuing shares for the net assets of Arqit, accompanied by a recapitalization. It has been determined that Arqit is not a business under IFRS, hence the transaction is accounted for within the scope of IFRS 2 (Share-based Payments). In accordance with IFRS 2, the difference in the fair value of the Arqit Limited equity instruments deemed issued to Arqit shareholders over the fair value of identifiable net assets of Arqit represents a service for listing, and is accounted for as a share-based payment which is expensed as incurred, and is reflected on Arqit’s consolidated statement of comprehensive income as “reverse acquisition expense.” Operations prior to the acquisition of the Arqit Limited shares by Arqit will be deemed to be those of Arqit Limited.
Valuation of Warrants
In April 2021, the staff of the SEC issued a statement, wherein they expressed their view that certain terms and conditions common to warrants issued by special purpose acquisition companies (“SPACs”) warrants may require the warrants to be classified as liabilities on the SPAC’s balance sheet as opposed to being treated as equity. Specifically, the SEC’s statement focused on certain settlement terms and provisions related to certain tender offers following a business combination, which terms are similar to those contained in the warrant agreement governing Arqit’s warrants. As a result of the SEC statement, Arqit has evaluated the accounting treatment of its warrants, and pursuant to the guidance in IFRS 9 (Financial Instruments), determined the warrants should be classified as derivative liabilities measured at fair value on its statement of financial position, with any changes in fair value to be reported each period in earnings on its statement of comprehensive income. As a result of the recurring fair value measurement, Arqit’s financial statements may fluctuate quarterly, based on factors which are outside of its control. Due to the recurring fair value measurement, Arqit expects that it will recognize non-cash gains or losses on its warrants each reporting period and that the amount of such gains or losses could be material.
Technologically Advanced Product Portfolio
Arqit has invented a unique quantum encryption technology which makes the communications links of any networked device secure against current and future forms of cyber attack — even an attack from a quantum computer. Arqit’s product, called QuantumCloud™, creates unbreakable software encryption keys that are low cost and easy to use. Arqit’s software is fulfilled from the cloud requiring no extra infrastructure or hardware on the part of the customer. Its products have broad application across industries, including 5G networks, connected autonomous vehicles, national security and financial services network security. Arqit’s future success will be dependent on its ability to continue to execute against its product roadmap, which includes launching two quantum satellites in 2023.
Commencement of Commercialization and Partnerships
Arqit has already signed contracts for its services with several large companies and government institutions, including the UK Government, the European Space Agency, BT plc and Sumitomo Corporation, and has contracted with other companies to test the use of Arqit’s technologies in different use cases. However, Arqit has not yet begun to generate material revenues through the commercialization of its products. Arqit is in the process of undertaking pilot phases that are required to be completed with each of its customers. Arqit ultimately achieving profitability is dependent upon the successful development, commercial introduction and acceptance of its products, the continued interest of potential customers in its
 
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products and the successful negotiation of contracts with those customers. Should Arqit’s assumptions about the commercialization of its encryption technology prove overly optimistic or if Arqit is unable to develop, obtain or progress its partnerships, Arqit may fail to generate operating cash flow and may incur delays in its ability to achieve profitability. This may also lead Arqit to make changes to its commercialization plans, which could result in cost overruns or unanticipated delays, which could in turn adversely impact margins and cash flows.
Planned Satellite Launches
Arqit plans to launch its first two quantum satellites by 2023, which will lead to a significant increase in the level of security offered by its end to end system and improve the attractiveness of its products to potential customers. In July 2021, Arqit launched an interim version of QuantumCloudTM in which the source of root keys will be simulated until the satellites launch and supplied by a terrestrial quantum random number generator. Although this is a significant improvement over existing technology, it is not as secure as the quantum satellite version of QuantumCloudTM will be. However, prior to launching its quantum satellites, Arqit must construct the satellites, select a location for and build a mission control center for the command and control of its satellites and global data center network, procure launch insurance and secure launch licenses. If Arqit is unable to launch its satellites and upgrade delivery of its products from terrestrial delivery to satellite delivery, customers may terminate their contracts, renegotiate their contracts on terms less favorable to Arqit, or reduce the volume of its products they purchase, and its products may be less attractive to new customers. As a result, Arqit may not be able to fully convert its backlog and pipeline estimates into revenue and its growth plans and results of operations may be adversely impacted.
Market Trends
Arqit believes there will be a transformation in the cyber encryption industry over the next decade as PKI, the most widely used cyber encryption technology, is becoming less secure as new technologies develop, and is not secure against quantum computers, which are expected to become available within the next few years. Arqit anticipates that there will be robust demand for its products as consumers, businesses and governments across all geographies and industries will need to replace the existing cyber encryption technology used in almost all electronic interfaces in order to maintain cyber security and that, as a result, there is significant market opportunity for Arqit’s more secure cyber encryption products. Gartner estimates that the global addressable market for information security services will be $233.0 billion by the end of 2025.
There will continue to be demand for more secure encryption products and Arqit is not currently aware of any competitors that offer or are developing encryption technology that addresses the threat of quantum computers. Arqit’s competitors are suppliers of QKD, quantum encryption and legacy encryption, each of which has inherent limitations. Therefore Arqit believes that it is well positioned to take advantage of this market opportunity. Arqit’s future growth and financial performance is highly dependent on the continued demand for its products and on its ability to successfully compete with any current or new competitors.
Margin Improvements
Arqit believes that it has the opportunity to establish high margin unit economics when operating at scale as its software, fulfilled from the cloud, automatically creates keys in infinite volumes at minimal cost, resulting in low capital expenditure once deployed. Its business model is positioned for scalability due to the low costs of software distribution, ability to leverage the same product platform across its partner base and limited personnel costs. From an operating cost perspective, there is no human analysis or information processing required by Arqit’s product, so personnel costs are limited to maintaining core infrastructure, marketing and customer support. Arqit’s future performance will depend on its ability to deliver on these economies of scale with lower product costs to enable widespread adoption. Achievement of cash flow generation is dependent on order volume, which will dictate pricing and margin. Achieving this scale is further dependent on undertaking successful pilot phases with its customers and expanding its contracts with existing customers. While Arqit believes its unique technology provides a compelling value proposition for favorable margins and expects to achieve and maintain high margins on its products, emergence of competition in the cyber encryption industry may negatively impact its pricing, margins and market share.
 
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Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic
Given the nature of its products and business operations, the COVID-19 pandemic has not had any material impact, positive or negative, on Arqit’s business during the periods under review.
Key Components of Statement of Comprehensive Income
Basis of Presentation
Currently, Arqit conducts business through one operating segment, which is the provision of cybersecurity services. Prior to July 2021, Arqit was a pre-revenue company and as of the date of this prospectus, it still has only limited commercial operations relating to its core product — QuantumCloud™. Its activities to date have been conducted in the United Kingdom. Arqit’s historical results are reported in IFRS.
Revenue
Arqit commenced commercialization and began generating revenue in the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021 through QuantumCloud™ — its core product. Arqit has already signed contracts with several large companies and government institutions for the provision of those services. The majority of revenue is expected to be derived from the direct sale of QuantumCloud™ and other related services to defence, telecoms, financial services and automation companies.
Other Operating Income
Other operating income primarily relates to income from Arqit’s agreement with the European Space Agency (“ESA”) for the partial funding of Arqit’s development and operational validation of the quantum key distribution satellite system, including the design, build and launch of the first quantum key distribution satellite and associated mission capability in the ground service, user and control segments.
Administrative Expenses
Administrative expenses primarily consist of the costs associated with employment of Arqit’s non-satellite construction staff, legal, insurance, accounting and consulting expenses, travel and marketing expenses such as public relations activities, rent and general office expenses.
Administrative expenses also include depreciation charges. Depreciation charges mainly relate to the depreciation of computer equipment calculated under the straight-line depreciation method over the equipment’s estimated useful life. The rate used is between three and five years. Computer equipment is written off over three years.
Arqit operates an equity-settled share-based incentive scheme and its share-based charges are included as part of administrative expenses. In addition, changes in the valuation of accounts denominated in currencies other than British pounds sterling are reflected in administrative expenses.
Arqit expects its administrative expenses to increase as its overall activity levels increase due to the commencement and expansion of commercial operations, and costs associated with being a public company.
Reverse Acquisition Expense
Arqit’s Business Combination was accounted for as a reverse acquisition under IFRS 2 (Share-based Payments) whereby Arqit Limited was deemed to have issued shares in exchange for the net assets and listing status of Arqit. The deemed consideration was the fair value of the shares that Arqit Limited would have had to issue to Arqit to acquire the same percentage equity interest in the combined entity that results from the reverse acquisition. The reverse acquisition expense represents the premium paid for obtaining the public listing, and is calculated the difference between the fair value of the deemed consideration and the fair value of the net assets acquired, and is a non-recurring expense.
 
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Nasdaq Listing Expense
Nasdaq listing expense primarily consists of legal and other professional fees incurred in preparation for and execution of the Business Combination, which are non-recurring.
Fair Value Movement on Loss in Warrant Valuation
Warrants are classified as financial liabilities at fair value, and the change in the fair value of the warrants is reflected in Arqit’s consolidated statement of comprehensive income. For the year ended September 30, 2021, the warrants were valued as of the date of the completion of the Business Combination, September 3, 2021, for the purpose of determining the deemed acquisition cost. At this date, Arqit Limited (as the accounting acquirer) acquired all of Arqit’s assets and liabilities at their fair value. A further valuation of the warrants was performed as of the September 30, 2021 year end. The difference between the two valuations is a non-cash expense that is reflected in Arqit’s consolidated statement of comprehensive income.
Finance Costs and Finance Income
Finance costs and finance income primarily relate to the accounting recognition and measurement of Arqit’s £3,500,000 convertible loan notes issued June 21, 2019 and November 6, 2019 (the “Series B convertible loan notes”) in line with the requirements of IFRS.
The Series B convertible loan notes have a 0% interest rate and are redeemable at the principal amount plus an amount equal to 20% of such principal amount at any time on or after the maturity date. As the Series B convertible loan notes are redeemable at the request of the holder and convertible into a variable number of equity instruments, they have been treated as a financial liability in accordance with IFRS International Accounting Standards (“IAS”) 32. At initial recognition on day one, the Series B convertible loan notes are measured at fair value, calculated by applying the prevailing market interest rate at the time of issue, for similar non-convertible debt.
The difference between the fair value and the transaction value is reflected in Arqit’s statement of comprehensive income as finance income. As the discount unwinds over the period from subscription date to maturity date, it is reflected as finance costs in Arqit’s statement of comprehensive income.
Income Tax Credit
Income tax credit represents tax credit generated in the UK net of deferred tax. Arqit has received research and development tax credits in the year ended September 30, 2020 in accordance with the requirements as set out by HM Revenue & Customs (“HMRC”). The research and development tax credit is calculated using the current rules as prescribed by HMRC.
Research and Development Expenses
Arqit’s policy regarding research and development expenses is consistent with the requirements of IFRS IAS 38. Research costs are expensed as incurred through the income statement, while development costs are capitalized after technical and commercial feasibility of the asset for sale or use have been established. Capitalized development costs are recorded as intangible assets and amortized from the point at which the asset is ready for use.
For the periods ended September 30, 2021, 2020 and 2019, there were no research costs reflected in the statement of comprehensive income. This is primarily due to the research phase being deemed as complete in 2018. For all periods presented, eligible costs have been treated as development costs and capitalized.
 
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Results of Operations
Comparison of the Years Ended September 30, 2021 and 2020
The following table presents Arqit’s historic operating results:
Year ended
September 30,
2021
Year ended
September 30,
2020
Variance
$
$
$
%
Revenue
47,910 47,910
Other operating income
1,963,670 (1,963,670)
Administrative expenses
(14,559,321) (2,772,642) (11,786,679) 425%
Reverse acquisition expense
(155,459,939) (155,459,939)
Nasdaq listing expense
(2,589,611) (2,589,611)
Operating (loss)/profit
(172,560,961) (808,972) (171,751,989) 21,231%
Change in fair value of warrants
(98,090,070) (98,090,070)
Finance costs
(1,078,070) (392,783) (685,287) 174%
Finance income
64,902 (64,902)
(Loss)/profit before tax
(271,729,101) (1,136,853) (270,592,248) 23,802%
Income tax credit
568,534 (568,534)
(Loss)/profit for the financial year
(271,729,101) (568,319) (271,160,782) 47,713%
Revenue
Arqit began generating revenues from its commercial operations during the year ended September 30, 2021, and therefore revenues were $47,910 compared to nil for the year ended September 30, 2020.
Other Operating Income
Other operating income in prior periods related to our contract with ESA. We had no income from this contract during the year ended September 30, 2021, and therefore our other operating income decreased to nil for the year ended September 30, 2021 from $1,963,670 for the year ended September 30, 2020.
Administrative Expenses
The following table summarizes Arqit’s administrative expenses for the periods presented:
Year ended
September 30,
2021
Year ended
September 30,
2020
Variance
$
$
$
%
Staff costs
10,935,570 3,090,091 7,845,479 254%
Capitalisation of staff costs
(3,478,034) (1,533,915) (1,944,119) 127%
Professional fees
4,733,186 424,626 4,308,560 1,015%
Rent
187,739 158,568 29,171 18%
Share option charge
165,570 121,597 43,973 36%
Depreciation
52,550 4,787 47,763 998%
Foreign exchange
623,184 (9,854) 633,038 (6,424)%
Other administrative costs
1,339,556 516,742 822,814 159%
14,559,321 2,772,642 11,786,679 425%
 
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Total administrative expenses have increased by $11,786,679 from $2,772,642 for the year ended September 30, 2020 to $14,559,321 for the year ended September 30, 2021.
The increase was primarily due to higher personnel-related costs (across all administrative functions), reflecting an increase in head count to support the expansion and growth, increased rent and property utilities as Arqit leased additional office space and an increase in professional fees for accounting, legal and other services in connection with the expansion of Arqit’s business.
Depreciation charge increased by $47,763 primarily due to additional computer equipment acquired for general administrative purposes, and foreign exchange costs increased by $633,038 due to a revaluation of the funds held in Arqit’s U.S. dollar-denominated account.
Other administrative costs consist of marketing, IT costs and other non-material costs and increased by $822,814 from $516,742 for the year ended September 30, 2020 to $1,339,556 for the year ended September 30, 2021 primarily a result of growth in business activity levels.
Reverse Acquisition Expense
Reverse acquisition expense for the year ended September 30, 2021 was $155,459,939 and represents the non-cash premium paid for obtaining the public listing in connection with the Business Combination which closed on September 3, 2021, and therefore no such costs were incurred for the year ended September 30, 2020.
Nasdaq Listing Expense
Nasdaq listing expense for the year ended September 30, 2021 was $2,589,611, primarily consisting of non-recurring legal and other professional fees incurred in preparation for and execution of the Business Combination which closed on September 3, 2021, and therefore no such costs were incurred for the year ended September 30, 2020.
Finance Costs
Finance costs increased by $685,287 from $392,783 for the year ended September 30, 2020 to $1,078,070 for the year ended September 30, 2021. The increase was primarily due to additional interest expense in relation to the additional unsecured convertible loans issued on October 31, 2020 and January 5, 2021.
Finance Income
Finance income, which is the difference between the fair value and the transaction value of certain of the convertible loan notes, decreased to nil for the year ended September 30, 2021 from $64,902 for the year ended September 30, 2020 because Arqit did not issue any convertible loan notes of this nature in the year ended September 30, 2021.
Income Tax Credit
Income tax credit was nil for the year ended September 30, 2021, compared to $568,534 for the year ended September 30, 2020 due to a deferred tax asset being recognized in the year ended September 30, 2020 as a result of timing differences, unutilized tax losses and tax relief relating to research and development.
Comparison of the Year Ended September 30, 2020 and Nine Months Ended September 30, 2019
On September 30, 2019, Arqit changed its fiscal year end from December 31 to September 30. Therefore the financial statements for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2019 comprise a period of only nine calendar months from January 1, 2019 to September 30, 2019. Given Arqit’s limited operating history and activities since inception, management does not believe that the difference in calendar months between the periods materially impacts the comparability of the two periods or the comparative discussion presented below.
 
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The following table presents Arqit’s historic operating results:
Year ended
September 30,
2020
Nine months ended
September 30,
2019
Variance
$
$
$
%
Revenue
Other operating income
1,963,670 1,250,056 713,614 57%
Administrative expenses
(2,772,642) (887,995) (1,884,647) 212%
Operating (loss)/profit
(808,972) 362,061 (1,171,033) (323)%
Finance costs
(392,783) (88,466) (304,317) 343%
Finance income
64,902 510,252 (445,350) (87)%
(Loss)/profit before tax
(1,136,853) 783,847 (1,920,700) (245)%
Income tax credit
568,534 253,718 314,816 124%
(Loss)/profit for the financial year
(568,319) 1,037,565 (1,605,884) (155)%
Other Operating Income
Other operating income primarily relates to the ESA contract and has increased by $713,614 from $1,250,056 for the nine months ended September 30, 2019 to $1,963,670 for the year ended September 30, 2020. The increase is due to more delivery milestones being reached in 2020 compared to 2019.
Administrative Expenses
The following table summarizes Arqit’s administrative expenses for the periods presented:
Year ended
September 30,
2020
Nine months
ended
September 30,
2019
Variance
$
$
$
%
Staff costs
3,090,091 455,661 2,634,430 578%
Capitalisation of staff costs
(1,533,915) (417,158) (1,116,757) 268%
Professional fees
424,626 185,217 239,409 129%
Rent
158,568 58,261 100,307 172%
Share option charge
121,597 11,392 110,205 967%
Depreciation
4,787 308 4,479 1,453%
Foreign exchange
(9,854) 60,247 (70,101) (116)%
Other administrative costs
516,742 534,067 (17,325) (3)%
2,772,642 887,995 1,884,647 212%
Total administrative expenses have increased by $1,884,647 from $887,995 for the nine months ended September 30, 2019 to $2,772,642 for the year ended September 30, 2020.
The increase was primarily due to higher personnel-related costs (across all administrative functions), reflecting an increase in head count to support the expansion and growth of Arqit, increased rent and property utilities as Arqit leased additional office space and an increase in professional fees for accounting, legal and other services in connection with the expansion of Arqit’s business.
Depreciation charge increased by $4,479 for the year ended September 30, 2020 primarily due to additional computer equipment acquired for general administrative purposes.
Finance Costs
Finance costs increased by $304,317 from $88,466 in the nine months ended September 30, 2019 to $392,783 for the year ended September 30, 2020. The increase was primarily due to the unwinding of
 
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discounts in relation to the initial and additional Series B convertible loan notes issued on June 21, 2019 and November 6, 2019 respectively. For the nine months ended September 30, 2019, the unwinding of discount was less than three months, from the subscription date June 21, 2019 to September 30, 2019, leading to lower finance costs compared to the year ended September 30, 2020, where the discount was unwound over twelve months.
Finance Income
Finance income, which is the difference between the fair value and the transaction value of certain of the convertible loan notes, decreased by $445,350 from $510,252 in the nine months ended September 30, 2019 to $64,902 for the year ended September 30, 2020. This is primarily due to a lower transaction value of convertible loan notes issued during the year ended September 30, 2020 as compared to the nine months ended September 30, 2019, of $3,876,120 and $646,020 respectively.
Income Tax Credit
Income tax credit increased by $314,816 from $253,718 in the nine months ended September 30, 2019 to $568,534 for the year ended September 30, 2020 due to timing differences, unutilized tax losses and tax relief received in 2020 relating to research and development.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Arqit began to generate revenue from its principal business operations — the provision of cybersecurity services — in the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021. Prior to then, as a pre-revenue company, the net losses Arqit has incurred since inception are consistent with its strategy and budget. Arqit will continue to incur net losses in accordance with its operating plan as it begins commercialization of its products.
Since inception, Arqit has funded its operations, research and development, capital expenditure and working capital requirements through capital contributions, loans and borrowings from certain venture investors and grants from UK government’s Future Fund. Arqit’s primary source of liquidity and capital resources to fund its growth to date have been from (1) the net proceeds of approximately $96 million from the Business Combination and the PIPE Financing and (2) from the issuance of £15,000,000 of convertible loan notes including: (i) £1,000,000 of convertible loan notes issued on March 22, 2018, (ii) £3,500,000 of convertible loan notes issued on June 21, 2019 and November 6, 2019 (iii) £10,500,000 of convertible loan notes issued on October 13, 2020 and December 18, 2020. In connection with the Business Combination, all of the convertible loan notes were converted into ordinary shares. Arqit’s primary uses of liquidity have been its research and development activities.
Cash Flows Summary
The following table shows a summary of Arqit’s cash flows for the years ended September 30, 2021 and 2020, and nine months ended September 30, 2019.
Year ended
September 30,
2021
Year ended
September 30,
2020
Nine months ended
September 30,
2019
Net cash provided by (used in):
Operating activities
(24,034,772) (1,334,067) 3,831,280
Investing activities
(9,305,110) (4,570,703) (3,621,921)
Financing activities
120,105,258 1,679,652 3,706,686
Net (decrease) increase in cash and cash equivalents
86,765,376 (4,225,118) 3,916,045
Cash Flows Used in and Provided by Operating Activities
Cash flows used in operating activities to date have primarily resulted from personnel related costs, fluctuations in trade payables and other current assets and liabilities. As Arqit expects to continue to increase hiring in connection with the commencement of commercial operations, it expects its cash used in
 
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operating activities to increase significantly before it starts to generate any material cash flows from commercialization of its products.
During the year ended September 30, 2021 cash used in operating activities was $24,034,772. The primary factors affecting operating cash flows during the period were a net loss of $271,729,101 and adjustments for non-cash items of $253,768,129.
Cash flows used in operating activities to date have primarily resulted from personnel related costs, fluctuations in trade payables and other current assets and liabilities. As Arqit expects to increase hiring leading up to the commencement of commercial operations, it expects its cash used in operating activities to increase significantly before it starts to generate any material cash flows from commercialization of its products.
During the year ended September 30, 2020, cash used in operating activities was $1,334,067. The primary factors affecting operating cash flows during the period were a net loss of $1,136,853, adjustments for non-cash items of $126,384, net finance cost of $327,881 and tax credit received of $833,301. This was offset by movements in working capital of $1,457,091.
During the nine months ended September 30, 2019, cash provided by operating activities was $3,831,280. The primary factors affecting operating cash flows during the period were a net profit of $783,847, adjustments for non-cash items of $11,700 and movements in working capital of $3,575,192. This was offset by net finance income of $421,786.
Arqit’s non-cash items primarily consist of fair value movement on warrant valuation, listing service expense, share-based charges and depreciation, while movements in working capital are primarily driven by changes in trade and other payables.
Cash Flows Used in Investing Activities
Net cash used in investing activities was $9,305,110 for the year ended September 30, 2021, compared with $4,570,703 for the year ended September 30, 2020 and $3,621,921 for the nine months ended September 30, 2019. These year over year increases were primarily attributed to the costs incurred in the development of intangible fixed assets.
Cash Flows Provided by Financing Activities
Cash flows provided by financing activities primarily relate to funds acquired as part of the Business Combination, proceeds from convertible loan notes and borrowings which have been used to fund working capital and for general corporate purposes.
Net cash provided by financing activities was $120,105,258 for the year ended September 30, 2021, compared with $1,679,652 for the year ended September 30, 2020 and $3,706,686 for the nine months ended September 30, 2019. The significant increase for the year ended September 30, 2021 was as a result of funds raised in connection with the Business Combination.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
Arqit’s financial statements are prepared in accordance with international accounting standards in conformity with the requirements of the Companies Act 2006 and IFRS.
While significant accounting policies are described in more detail in Arqit’s audited financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus, it believes that the following accounting policies are those most critical to the judgments and estimates used in the preparation of its financial statements.
Warrants Valuation
Estimating the fair value of warrants requires a determination of the most appropriate valuation model, which depends on the terms and conditions of the warrant. This estimate also requires determination of the most appropriate inputs to the valuation model including equity value, exercise price, volatility, dividend yield, risk free rate and exercise period and making assumptions about them. For the measurement
 
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of the fair value of warrants at both the acquisition and the reporting date, Arqit uses a Binomial Option Pricing Model. The assumptions and models used for this estimation are disclosed in the notes to Arqit’s audited consolidated financial statements.
Deemed Acquisition Cost
A ‘reverse acquisition’ is a business combination in which the legal acquirer-i.e. the entity that issues the securities (listed entity) becomes the acquiree for accounting purposes and the legal acquiree becomes the acquirer for accounting purposes.
A reverse acquisition is accounted for under IFRS 2 (Share-based Payments) whereby the legal acquiree Arqit Limited is deemed to have issued shares in exchange for the net assets and listing status of Arqit. The deemed consideration is the fair value of the shares that Arqit Limited would have had to issue to Arqit to acquire the same percentage equity interest in the combined entity that results from the reverse acquisition.
The deemed acquisition cost is recognised in profit or loss and is the difference between the fair value of the deemed consideration and the fair value of the net assets acquired. It represents the premium paid for obtaining the public listing. Detail on the reverse acquisition of Arqit is disclosed in the notes to Arqit’s audited consolidated financial statements.
Capitalisation of Development Costs
Arqit capitalizes costs for product development projects. Initial capitalization of costs is based on management’s judgement that technological and economic feasibility is confirmed, usually when a product development project has reached a defined milestone according to an established project management model, and all other recognition criteria within IAS 38 can be demonstrated. In determining the amounts to be capitalised, management makes assumptions regarding the expected future cash generation of the project, discount rates to be applied and the expected period of benefits. At September 30, 2021, the carrying amount of capitalised development costs were $18,235,034, compared with $8,776,530 at September 30, 2020 and $4,047,138 at September 30, 2019.
Share-Based Payments
Estimating fair value for share-based payment transactions requires determination of the most appropriate valuation model, which depends on the terms and conditions of the grant. This estimate also requires determination of the most appropriate inputs to the valuation model including the expected life of the share option or appreciation right, volatility and dividend yield and making assumptions about them. For the measurement of the fair value of equity settled transactions with employees at the grant date, Arqit uses a Black Scholes valuation. The assumptions and models used for estimating fair value for share-based payment transactions are disclosed in the notes to Arqit’s audited consolidated financial statements.
Accounting Treatment of Income from European Space Agency (“ESA”)
There are mixed indicators whether the arrangement is in scope of IAS 20 or IFRS 15, and this assessment is a key management judgement. In 2019 Arqit entered in an agreement with the ESA whereby it has undertaken to carry out all work necessary to design, develop, manufacture, assemble, integrate, verify, obtain licenses and launch a satellite (“QKDSat”), and to deploy and pilot the operations of the QKDSat system. ESA has undertaken to pay specified amounts upon the achievement of specific milestones related to this undertaking, as set out in the agreement. QKDSat is constituted under the ARTES 33-11 programme line which ESA has created with the objective of validating Quantum Key Distribution technologies.
Based on management’s analysis, Arqit is providing specific deliverables (intellectual property) and services (satellite design) to ESA, which in its view it is a reasonable judgement that IAS 20 is not applicable and Arqit is providing services to ESA in its capacity as a customer. Arqit’s primary output of is the provision of Quantum Key Distribution rather than satellite design services and the sale of intellectual property. While the performance obligations in the ESA agreement are not Arqit’s primary output, the sale of satellite design services and intellectual property is an ordinary output of Arqit.
 
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Given the judgement associated with the above, and whether the provision of such services is “revenue” from the ordinary activities of the business, presentation as “Other Income” is concluded as appropriate and reflects the substance of the ESA agreement.
Market Rate of Interest Used in Accounting for Convertible Loan Notes
Management have deemed the interest to be 10%. This assessment was made on the basis of informal opinions sought from advisers, and management’s own experience of similar instruments from prior engagements in other businesses.
Deferred Tax Asset
Judgement is required to determine whether deferred tax assets are recognised in the statement of financial position. Deferred tax assets, arising from unutilised tax losses, require Arqit to assess the likelihood it will generate sufficient taxable earnings in future periods, in order to utilise recognised deferred tax assets. To the extent that future cash flows and taxable income differ significantly from estimates, Arqit’s ability to realise the net deferred tax assets recorded at the reporting date could be impacted.
Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk
Arqit is exposed to market risk in the ordinary course of business. Market risk represents the risk of loss that may impact Arqit’s financial position due to adverse changes in financial market prices and rates. It is, and has been throughout the period under review, Arqit’s policy not to use or trade in derivative financial instruments. Arqit’s financial instruments comprise its cash and cash equivalents and various items such as trade creditors that arise directly from its operations. The main purpose of Arqit’s financial assets and liabilities is to provide finance for its operations in the near term.
Interest Rate Risk Management
Arqit would be exposed to interest rate risk if it borrows funds, when required, at variable interest rates. There is currently no exposure to interest rate risk.
Credit Risk
Credit risk is the risk of financial loss where counterparties are not able to meet their obligations. Arqit’s policy is that surplus cash, when not used to repay borrowings, is placed on deposit with the its main relationship banks and with other banks or money market funds based on a minimum credit rating of A3/A- and maximum exposure. There is no significant concentration of risk to any single counterparty. Arqit considers that the credit quality of the various receivables is good in respect of the amounts outstanding and therefore credit risk is considered to be low. There is no significant concentration of risk. The carrying amount of financial assets, represents Arqit’s maximum exposure to credit risk at the reporting date assuming that any security held has no value.
Foreign Exchange Risk
Arqit operates internationally and is exposed to foreign exchange risk arising from various currency exposures, primarily with respect to British pounds sterling and Euro. Arqit holds British pounds sterling, U.S. dollar and Euro bank accounts in order to limit its exposure. Arqit is also exposed to foreign exchange risk to the extent that its ultimate parent entity has a U.S. dollar functional currency.
Liquidity Risk
Liquidity risk is the risk that Arqit does not have sufficient financial resources available to meet its obligations as they fall due. Arqit manages liquidity risk by continuously monitoring forecast and actual cash flows, matching the expected cash flow timings of financial assets and liabilities with the use of cash and cash equivalents, borrowings, overdrafts and committed revolving credit facilities with a minimum of 12 months to maturity. Future borrowing requirements are forecast on a monthly basis and funding headroom is maintained above forecast peak requirements to meet unforeseen events.
 
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JOBS Act
On April 5, 2012, the JOBS Act was signed into law. The JOBS Act contains provisions that, among other things, relax certain reporting requirements for qualifying public companies. Arqit qualifies as an “emerging growth company” under the JOBS Act.
Arqit is in the process of evaluating the benefits of relying on the reduced reporting requirements provided by the JOBS Act. Subject to certain conditions set forth in the JOBS Act, if, as an “emerging growth company,” Arqit chooses to rely on such exemptions it may not be required to, among other things, (i) provide an auditor’s attestation report on its system of internal controls over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, (ii) comply with any requirement that may be adopted by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board regarding mandatory audit firm rotation or a supplement to the auditor’s report providing additional information about the audit and the financial statements (auditor discussion and analysis), (iii) provide all of the compensation disclosure that may be required of non-emerging growth public companies under the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (applicable only if Arqit ceased to be a foreign private issuer), and (iv) disclose certain executive compensation related items such as the correlation between executive compensation and performance and comparisons of the CEO’s compensation to median employee compensation (applicable only if Arqit ceased to be a foreign private issuer). These exemptions will apply until September 3, 2026 (five years following the closing of the Business Combination) or until Arqit is no longer an “emerging growth company,” whichever is earlier. Although emerging growth companies are permitted under the JOBS Act to comply with new or revised accounting pronouncements based on the effective date for private (not publicly traded) companies, Arqit does not intend to take advantage of the option to delay compliance.
 
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BUSINESS
Overview
Arqit is a cybersecurity company that has pioneered a unique quantum encryption technology which makes the communications links of any networked device secure against current and future forms of cyber attack  —  even an attack from a quantum computer. Arqit’s product, called QuantumCloud™, creates unbreakable software encryption keys that are low cost and easy to use with no new hardware required. The software has universal application to every edge device and cloud machine in the world. Arqit has not only invented a ground-breaking new quantum protocol, but it has also found a way to translate the benefits of quantum security to end point devices.
Arqit’s solution combines world-leading innovation in two areas: a new form of quantum satellite and a software agent that can be downloaded onto any device. Arqit’s quantum satellite technology solves all previously known problems of quantum key distribution and puts identical copies of quantum safe keys into each data center in a network. The data centers use these keys to create secure channels between them  —  an outer perimeter of quantum safety that Arqit calls the QuantumCloud™. A second innovation is a small software agent downloaded from the QuantumCloud™ onto any form of device or integrated into any piece of software. By exchanging information with the QuantumCloud™, which moderates a key agreement process with all parties involved in a unique way, this software agent is able to create new symmetric encryption keys in partnership with any other device or cloud machine, or in large groups of devices. Keys are never “delivered”, they are created, and so they cannot be intercepted. They are created at the end points in a manner that means they can never be known by a third party, and can be used only once if necessary and replaced infinitely. The service is sold and fulfilled on a self-service basis in the cloud making it an easily scalable business model.
Until recently, Arqit has been a development stage company, however during the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021, it began commercializing its products. Arqit has already signed major, long-term contracts for its services with large companies and government institutions, and is in the process of undertaking pilot phases that are required to be completed with each of its customers. Prior to launch of its satellites, Arqit’s quantum encryption platform, QuantumCloud™, will use machines in data centers to generate a terrestrial simulation of the quantum satellite technology. By 2023, it plans to launch its first two quantum satellites, which will generate a significant increase in the level of security offered by the end-to-end system.
Arqit’s current customers include the UK Government, the European Space Agency, BT plc, and Sumitomo Corporation. Many companies like Verizon, BP, NEOM, Juniper, Dentons, Northrup Grumman and Iridium have contracted to test the use of Arqit’s technologies in different use cases.
Market Opportunity
Arqit believes that there will be significant market opportunities for its innovative products as a result of an expected transformation in the cyber encryption industry over the next decade. Public key infrastructure or “PKI” is currently the most widely-used cyber encryption technology. However, PKI is becoming less secure as new technologies develop, and is not secure against quantum computers, which are expected to be of sufficient scale to break PKI within the next few years.
For example, the U.S. Department of Commerce’s National Institute of Standards and Technology (the “NIST”), which leads efforts on mitigation of the quantum threat to cyber security, published a report in April 2021, “Getting Ready for Post-Quantum Cryptography: Exploring Challenges Associated with Adopting and Using Post-Quantum Cryptographic Algorithms”, in which it expressed concern that the alternatives currently proposed for making PKI stronger do not offer a sufficiently adequate or timely solution. Regarding the near term threat of quantum computers to cyber security, the NIST noted, “all secret symmetric keys and private asymmetric keys that are now protected using current public-key algorithms, as well as the information protected under those keys, will be subject to exposure,” and that “any information still considered to be private or otherwise sensitive will be vulnerable to exposure and undetected modification.”
 
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Therefore, consumers, businesses and governments across all geographies and industries will likely need to replace the existing cyber encryption technology used in almost all electronic interfaces in order to maintain cyber security. Symmetric encryption keys are secure against quantum computers. However, to date there has been no secure way to create and distribute symmetric keys electronically. In regards to available alternatives, the NIST stated, “There are multiple candidate classes for post-quantum cryptography. Unfortunately, each class has at least one requirement for secure implementation that makes drop-in replacement unsuitable.”
Arqit believes that it has developed an almost universal solution to previously identified issues with delivery of symmetric encryption keys. Arqit’s pioneering technology provides a simple, cost-effective and secure way to create and distribute symmetric keys electronically that can be applied universally across geographies, industries and devices, making it well placed to take advantage of this significant upcoming market opportunity.
Total Addressable Market
According to Gartner, it is estimated that the global addressable market for information security services will be $233.0 billion by the end of 2025. New opportunities for growth are also expected in government, defense, telecoms, financial services, Internet of Things and connected car markets. Arqit believes that every connected service is vulnerable to current and future attacks on PKI, in particular by quantum computers in the near to mid-term. This vulnerability will affect cyber security on every connected end point, network device and cloud machine globally, and Arqit believes that its product is the only known way to effectively distribute a cyber encryption methodology that is secure against quantum computer attack. As a result, Arqit has assumed that the entire information security market represents its total addressable market. Arqit’s estimates of its total addressable market are limited by a lack of reliable data on the government and Internet of Things markets, which are therefore excluded from its total addressable market estimate, but which Arqit expects to be two of its key markets in the future.
[MISSING IMAGE: tm2135138d1-bc_total4c.jpg]
Source: Calculations performed, and charts/graphics created, by Arqit based on Gartner, Inc. research. Gartner, Inc., Forecast: Information Security and Risk Management, Worldwide, 2019-2025, 2Q21 Update, September 27, 2021. The Gartner content described herein (the “Gartner Content”) represent(s) research opinion or viewpoints published, as part of a syndicated subscription service, by Gartner, Inc. (“Gartner”), and are not representations of fact. Gartner Content speaks as of its original publication date (and not as of the date of this prospectus), and the opinions expressed in the Gartner Content are subject to change without notice.
 
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Arqit has successfully targeted companies in several of these sectors, and now intends to further expand into others given its products are highly relevant to all sub-segments.
Arqit’s Technology
Encryption is the foundation of the communications technology we use. However, the technology we rely on for encryption in most cases was developed over 20 years ago. There are vulnerabilities in this technology already, and near term developments in digital technology and quantum computing will significantly increase risks.
The origins of encryption are in symmetric encryption keys  —  long truly random numbers. The number of permutations involved in guessing a 256 digit symmetrical key is estimated to be equal to all of the atoms in the Milky Way. The fastest computer known would take more than the age of the universe to perform this guess. And because there are no mathematics involved in creating a random number, even a quantum computer will offer no meaningful advantage in speeding this up.
Therefore symmetric encryption keys are computationally secure, but to date there has been no secure way to create and distribute symmetric keys electronically. As a result, “public key infrastructure” or “PKI” was invented, which involves two parties sharing the performance of a calculation which is difficult to emulate in a practical time period. The internet has driven the adoption of PKI, not because it was the most secure, but because it was flexible enough to be reverse engineered into something that was already created. PKI is a flexible tool, but it is vulnerable to attack, especially given the development of the Internet of Things, cloud-based interfaces and other transformational technologies.
The problem will imminently become more profound because, unlike symmetric encryption keys, PKI will be vulnerable to quantum computer attack. Although quantum computers are currently operating at relatively modest scale, quantum computers of sufficient scale to break PKI may be available within a few years.
The universal and long-term answer to this threat is not to make the mathematics used in PKI more difficult given it is not sustainable or practical to try to defeat an infinitely capable computing machine. The answer lies in finding a secure way to create and distribute symmetric encryption keys, which is what Arqit has invented.
Arqit has found a way to create symmetric encryption keys at end points when they are needed, at scale, securely, at any kind of end point device and in groups of any size. With Arqit’s technology, symmetric encryption keys are never “delivered”, they are created at endpoints, and so they cannot be intercepted.
The method for key creation relies on the unique ability of the ARQ19 satellite protocol to put identical copies of symmetric “root” keys to any location in the world, specifically data centers which host the Arqit QuantumCloud™ system. End point devices are able to securely authenticate into QuantumCloud™ at different data centers which then moderate a key creation process by sharing cryptographic information with the end points. From the combination of elements of shared secrets that can be shared by the parties, the end points are then able to create a new shared symmetric encryption. Prior to Arqit’s planned satellite launches in 2023, the source of root keys used in data centers will occur through terrestrial transmission which is secure but not quantum safe. By 2023, Arqit intends to upgrade its transmission to satellite, which will provide provable security in the delivery of key data into the data centers as a result of its ARQ19 algorithm. The end point keys are then created in a manner that means that no third party can ever know them and they are computationally secure even against a quantum attack. The ability to use symmetric encryption keys inside an AES256 algorithm is already incorporated in all standard networking software systems, and therefore Arqit’s product is very simple to implement.
 
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[MISSING IMAGE: tm2127896d1-tbl_arqits4clr.jpg]
The Arqit technology includes three areas of innovation:

Quantum Key Infrastructure.   Arqit embeds random number sources in QuantumCloud™ which provides the source for key creation. The key creation is done through a new quantum protocol that Arqit has invented called ARQ19 which solves most of the known problems with “quantum key distribution” or “QKD”, and replaces it with a new concept called “quantum key infrastructure” or “QKI”. Through QKI, the system does not distribute keys, it distributes quantum random numbers which are an input into a key creation process involving other areas of Arqit proprietary classical cryptography.

QuantumCloudTM Software.   Arqit’s QuantumCloud™ software shares data across multiple data centers, encrypting each piece of data uniquely using a management layer which never knows the customer data.

End Point Security.   Arqit invented a novel form of end point security called “distributed secure communications cryptography” or “DSCC” whereby end points can create initial symmetric key-protected channels and limitless group or session keys. The end points rely on the QuantumCloudTM platform to deliver random number sources but create keys themselves, such that the keys are always unknowable by any third party. Arqit’s ARQ19 protocol is a fundamental cryptographical discovery, and its DSCC invention allows quantum cryptography to be commercialized for the mass market.
Quantum Key Infrastructure
Arqit technology is not “quantum key distribution” or “QKD”. Arqit invented a new quantum algorithm called ARQ19 which solves all known problems with QKD and replaces it with a new concept called “quantum key infrastructure” or “QKI” whereby the system does not distribute keys, it distributes quantum random numbers which are an input into a key creation process involving other areas of Arqit proprietary classical cryptography. Keys are not distributed, they are created on the end point or edge devices, with some assistance/moderation from third parties, but can never be known by third party devices other than intended key partner groups.
At the root of the solution to the encryption challenge is the “key distribution” problem. Although symmetric encryption keys are computationally secure, to date there has been no secure way to create and distribute those keys electronically. “Quantum key distribution” or “QKD” was first proposed as a solution in the 1980s. The laws of physics tell us that an eavesdropper cannot intercept, read and use quantum information, therefore we know with certainty that it cannot be stolen and used. One method of QKD is through the use of fiber optics, however there are significant limitations on the physical length of the fiber, which makes it impractical for large scale adoption. The use of satellites for QKD overcomes that problem, but still has known limitations.
 
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The basic principle of satellite QKD relies upon encoding random numbers on board a satellite into the quantum mechanical properties of individual photons. These are transmitted from space to earth in the form of a laser beam and are received by an “optical ground receiver” or “OGR” containing a telescope and a quantum detector. Two recipients will each host an OGR, receive the same quantum information, and each down convert it to digital bits. After reaching agreement on which bits of information they both received in common (information transmitted attenuates in transit when it hits other particles), they store the information in the form of digital keys consisting of a long string of randomly created and securely delivered ones and zeros to be used in encrypting and decrypting data across any classical internet communications channel.
Satellite QKD, however, has several protocol and implementation flaws that need to be overcome before it is commercially viable. In the currently known satellite QKD science, there are two practical protocols, called “decoy state” and “entangled photon.”

Decoy State Protocol: In the decoy state protocol, or “BB84”, when the satellite moves over head it sends key data to the “A” OGR. It then stores the key and continues in its orbit until it is over the “B” OGR and then sends the key data again. This means that the satellite can distribute keys globally. But because it remembers the key during transit between A and B, theoretically the satellite could be attacked in transit and the key could be copied. Therefore, using this protocol symmetric encryption keys can be distributed globally, but cannot be called “provably secure”.

Entangled Photon Protocol: In the entangled photon protocol or “E91” and “E92”, the satellite sends key data using two transmitters simultaneously to the A OGR and the B OGR. Thus, the satellite does not need to remember the key and it cannot be intercepted in transit. However, in order to use this protocol, A and B must simultaneously be in direct line of sight of the satellite. From a low orbit of 750 km, the A and B point cannot be further than approximately 700 km from each other. Thus, in this protocol, keys cannot be sent globally, however they are “provably secure.” This protocol also has impractically high loss rate to be of significant utility even in limited geographies.
Therefore, to date, symmetric encryption keys could be sent through satellite QKD either globally or in a provably secure way, but not both, which is a material drawback for practical use.
Arqit’s invention  —  the ARQ19 algorithm  —  permits random numbers to be sent globally and in a provably secure manner. Using Arqit’s proprietary technology, the satellite sends random numbers which OGRs use to create keys in a manner which is entirely isolated from the satellite or any other infrastructure. Thus, the only entities that can ever know the keys created are the two OGRs involved in doing so. This means that the ARQ19 protocol is entirely secure against third parties, which is a novel class of cryptographic service.
In addition, there are two main practical implementation flaws that impact the commercial usability of satellite QKD, but which Arqit’s QKI technology has solved:

Limited Throughput: Prior experiments demonstrate a satellite key throughput of around 1 kilobit per second. This is not a high enough volume of keys to be reliable or practically usable. The Arqit system is currently capable of delivering a maximum throughput of 1.75 megabit per second. The two-satellite system, in its average performance mode with small telescopes, is expected to deliver sufficient random numbers to facilitate the creation of 2 quadrillion end point key pairs per annum.

Network Size: Satellite QKD science is based on creating key pairs shared by two locations. Although this works well in a diagram, the reality of the internet is that there are many endpoints that would need to share keys; the internet does not consist of pairs of communicators. For satellite QKD to be useful it must be possible for the same keys to be distributed to large numbers of locations. Arqit’s ARQ19 algorithm allows an unlimited number of locations with an OGR to create shared group keys in a provably secure manner. This allows large data center networks to have common group keys, and this is fundamental to the ability of DSCC to create group keys with large numbers of devices distributed around the world.
QuantumCloudTM Platform
The QuantumCloudTM is a Platform as a Service or “PaaS” that creates a secure global mesh between different cloud providers and on-premises data centers around the globe. QuantumCloudTM supplies the
 
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platform that enables end points to share data securely for the creation of new keys. It also allows Arqit to provide highly secure services for customers to store, communicate and sign their data. This PaaS architecture means that our customers can easily integrate quantum safe cryptographic services into new or existing platforms.
Arqit can extend this secure platform to give customers access to their keys, in a quantum safe manner anywhere in the globe. QuantumCloudTM uses different quantum keys at every layer of infrastructure and with each piece of data. The system ensures that data centers only communicate across quantum safe channels. Within these channels, a form of technology divides data into separate pieces for storage across different data centers, and orders and records encrypted addresses at which the different pieces are stored. Transactions are signed with quantum keys and layered into this technology. Quantum keys are moved inside the QuantumCloudTM using a novel symmetric key algorithm called “ARQ20”, which Arqit has patent pending for use exclusively within QuantumCloudTM. Finally, data is sent out to the secure end points inside the quantum encrypted channel achieved by the use of keys created using the DSCC process.
As a result, Arqit can store and transact data securely in the cloud and to include any form of end point device within this security boundary. There are many applications of this, and Arqit expects to be able to make fundamental contributions to innovation in many industries. For example, blockchain software can be made quantum safe by the use of Arqit’s new signing technology and digital wallets at the end point and their transactions can be secured. The connected car market cannot safely operate in the long term unless the encryption of its communications channels are secure. The expanded attack surface of 5G mobile networks demand urgent improvement.
In July 2021, Arqit launched an interim version of QuantumCloudTM that will operate prior to the launch of its satellites, which is targeted for 2023. The source of root keys will be simulated until the satellites launch. The root keys are simply supplied by a terrestrial quantum random number generator distributing key data through symmetric encryption key algorithm channels to the QuantumCloudTM node in each data center. Although it is still a significant improvement over existing technology, it is not quite as secure as the quantum satellite version of QuantumCloudTM will be.
The ability to create new symmetric keys at the end points as moderated by QuantumCloudTM is an extremely important innovation, and is a step forward for organizations who already use a legacy method of infrequently refreshing symmetric encryption keys. Many organizations in defense, financial services and critical national infrastructure have never trusted PKI and so used symmetric encryption keys by physically transporting them. However, even symmetrical encryption keys that are physically transported must be refreshed to provide secrecy. The more times a key is used, the more likely an attacker might learn about it over time, and the more opportunities there may be for it to be stolen. Therefore, QuantumCloudTM provides some very significant advantages to such organizations, even though its root source of entropy is not as fully quantum safe as satellite delivery will be. As a result, Arqit believes a very significant early source of revenue will be simply upgrading existing symmetric key systems to MetroQuantumCloudTM which can be done remotely at low frictional and financial cost.
Competitive Strengths
Arqit’s unique cybersecurity technology provides it with a number of competitive strengths.
Symmetric keys are secure
Arqit’s platform creates symmetric encryption keys, which is a cyber-encryption technology that is secure against all forms of attack including by quantum computers. PKI is currently the most widely-used cyber encryption technology, but it is failing to prevent escalating cyber-attacks involving techniques like ransomware and is entirely vulnerable to attack by quantum computers, which are expected to become available within the next few years. A symmetric encryption key, once created, is computationally secure. This means that it is regarded as impossible, even for a quantum computer, to guess a symmetric encryption key in less than millions of years. Arqit’s technology is built around this secure encryption tool.
Groundbreaking and proprietary distribution technology
The importance of Arqit’s platform lies in its ability to “distribute” symmetric keys securely at scale by creating them at end points. Although symmetric encryption keys are secure, to date there has been no secure
 
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way to create and distribute symmetric keys electronically. Arqit’s groundbreaking technology has solved these known issues. Its innovations create symmetric encryption keys at end points when they are needed, at scale, securely, at any kind of end point device and in groups of any size. With Arqit’s technology, symmetric encryption keys are never “delivered”, they are created at endpoints, and so they cannot be intercepted. This is a completely new way to create and distribute unbreakable symmetric keys that represents a groundbreaking, novel technology. The keys are created with what is known as a “mixed trust model” which means that no third party computer ever has the key, or sufficient information to recreate or guess the key. The key is never transmitted in creation across any network. It is therefore not possible for any third party to know or guess the key during creation.
Simple to implement
Symmetric encryption keys are built into almost every major software system, so their use, along with a symmetric algorithm such as AES256, is very simple to deploy with no major change to existing customer infrastructure. Symmetric encryption keys impose relatively low computational burdens on end point devices, and Arqit’s lightweight agent is light enough to work on even the smallest of Internet of Things sensors.
Easily scalable
Arqit’s software, fulfilled from the cloud, automatically creates keys in infinite volumes at minimal cost, resulting in low capital expenditure once deployed. From an operating cost perspective, there is no human analysis or information processing required by Arqit’s product, so personnel costs are limited to maintaining core infrastructure, marketing and customer support. These factors make Arqit’s products easily scalable for both Arqit and its customers.
Go-to-Market Strategy
Arqit’s strategy is very focused. Its core product is QuantumCloudTM, which is a PaaS that allows the same service to be used by any organization for any application. The platform can be used on a self-service basis in the cloud. Customers can sign a contract in the cloud and pay per request for a range of features.
Arqit has signed major long term contracts for QuantumCloudTM service in the government and telecoms sectors in the UK and Japan. Arqit has also recently entered into a number of contracts with customers for the provision of QuantumCloudTM in other geographies and sectors with initial pilot stage projects launching in the second half of 2021. The applications in which these projects are focused are:

5G and Open Radio Access Network Encryption: 5G and Open Radio Access Network have powerful advantages for the consumers, but the new architectures greatly multiply the attack surface creating significant concerns about network security and privacy of customer data. QuantumCloudTM can entirely mitigate these risks at very low cost and has almost frictionless ease of adoption.

Connected Autonomous Vehicles: Vast amounts of data must be processed in the cloud, but if the end point (the hardware security module in the vehicle) is not secure, a mal actor could seize control of the vehicle and cause an accident. Arqit’s technology is capable of potentially facilitating safe fully autonomous vehicle operation.

National Defense: Historically the U.S. and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (“NATO”) allies have relied upon a comparative advantage in technology versus their most advanced adversaries. With the advent of the large-scale low-cost availability of technologies, as well as heavy research and development investment by such adversaries, this advantage has been eroded and, in some cases, reversed. The new, next generation advantage will be in rapid data driven decision making, allowing allied militaries to outthink and outpace their more technologically sophisticated opponents. The new paradigm will be driven instead by common platforms, common standards, and a need for a new model of security and cryptography by implication. Arqit’s QuantumCloudTM is capable of providing a highly scalable method of mitigating many of these fundamental security challenges.

Financial Services Network Security: Global payment networks operate on the basis of payment servers co-located with bank servers in data centers all over the world. The servers involved already use symmetric key encryption to protect their communications channels, but the keys are refreshed
 
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only periodically through physical delivery. Arqit has worked with payments technology companies to solve this problem with the remote installation of software onto the server estate which will refresh keys many times per day.

Identity Protection: Through its joint venture with the law firm Dentons, Arqit is developing a product called QuantumKeepTM for creating and securing digital identity and then associating the identity with relevant documentation and information. QuantumKeepTM is expected to launch in the fourth quarter of 2021. This has broad applications within professional services, financial services, healthcare and government for “know your client” procedures.
Arqit intends to distribute its products both directly and through channel partnership agreements.
Arqit’s Products
QuantumCloudTM
Arqit’s core product is QuantumCloudTM. This is a PaaS which is underpinned by cloud infrastructure in the form of data centers and quantum key infrastructure. The PaaS creates keys in the cloud and at end points. These keys can be used variously to encrypt channels, encrypt data at rest and sign transaction.
These products will be delivered in the cloud, requiring no extra infrastructure or hardware on the part of the customer, and with the use of simple lightweight agents at end points like mobile phones, cars or Internet of Things sensors.
As a PaaS, QuantumCloudTM is broadly applicable across all geographies and sectors, delivering the same key creation functionality to all applications and use cases. This provides Arqit with the flexibility to identify and develop Software as a Service products in areas such as identity, distributed ledger and financial payments which would have sufficient benefit and differentiation from the stronger, simpler encryption that Arqit provides to potentially give it a route to leadership in certain vertical markets, rather than selling to all legacy market participants.
Service Variants

Multi-Tenanted: This is Arqit’s standard service where customers use a shared service hosted in the cloud by Arqit on servers owned by Arqit and operated on a multi-tenanted basis. Keys used for managed encryption inside the cloud are drawn from hardware security modules under the control of Arqit, and software runs on shared servers. Pricing for this option will be a one-time fee per end point installation, as well as a fee per key created.

Private Instance: QuantumCloudTM can also be sold as a private instance, typically for government customers who want total control over all infrastructure. Arqit’s satellite QKI technology can also be sold in a private instance format for an “on premises” service for customers who demand end to end control of the key creation process. Customers buy a dedicated service involving the installation of an OGR which will initially communicate terrestrially with Arqit’s data centers, and later photonically with Arqit’s quantum satellites to receive entropy, which is used to then create new symmetric keys with other OGRs at other locations. Entropy is received on a “store and forward” or “buffered” basis with keys created from that entropy at a later time when OGRs are able to synchronize. Pricing for this option will be an annual licensing charge, a charge for hardware, a one-time fee per end point installation, as well as a fee per key created.
Other Technologies
Arqit has also created a product called ARQ19-T, which uses the proprietary ARQ19 quantum algorithm to provide dramatic advances in the provision of quantum key infrastructure in terrestrial fiber networks. Arqit is planning to test the ARQ19-T algorithm in the quantum fiber networks of several telecommunications networks and, if successful, ARQ19-T will be licensed to hardware vendors.
In July 2021, Arqit announced its intention to develop a digital assets product to deliver a new layer of technology to protect against quantum attack for the blockchain community, which Arqit expects will enable governments, enterprises and distributed networks to embrace blockchain for large scale use cases.
 
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Arqit may create other novel technologies which can be developed using its specific expertise in quantum physics, engineering and software. Where early customers can be identified to share risks in the development of such technologies, Arqit is likely to partner with such customers to develop technologies.
Competition
Arqit’s competitors are suppliers of QKD, quantum encryption and legacy encryption services. There have been a significant number of entrants into these markets in the last five years, mostly in the areas of QKD and quantum encryption:

QKD Systems: These are predominantly fiber optic-based QKD systems that are limited by both distance as well as their point to point nature. Although they all have products in market, they are at early stages with a number of pilots requiring significant support from the QKD vendors. The majority of these providers are targeting data center architectures with a product that has a limit of around 100 kilometers, meaning that it is only suitable in a metro area. With the cost, complexity and point to point nature of the technology, it is always going to be limited.

Quantum Encryption: There are number of companies that are creating services based on “post quantum algorithms” which are cryptographic algorithms that are designed to extend the principles of PKI to be more secure against attack by a quantum computer. Such algorithms can never be “provably secure” against quantum attack because they are mathematical in their construction, and therefore only secure until a quantum computer can be programmed to break them.

Legacy Encryption Competitors: The legacy encryption key management market spans a number of different product categories from hardware security modules to key management software, and along with most product categories has seen existing and new entrants into the market offering “as a service” versions of these products. The goal of these vendors is to reduce the management burden and costs of PKI and to reduce the downtime risk by automating processes. They are therefore not direct competitors of Arqit as they are not addressing the near-term threat of quantum computers or other fundamental issues of PKI.

Traditional Key Management: There are a number of traditional incumbents in the key management space. Most of these vendors started as hardware security modules and have added additional key management software and other features. They are already being distributed by start-ups in this sector as they have difficulty delivering functionality as a service to agile environments.

Machine Identity Management: New entrants into the key management market are aligning around “machine identity management” rather than the pure traditional key management. However, the fundamental goal of these technologies are to mitigate the risks and shortcomings of PKI in the modern internet.

DevOps/Cloud Key Management: Where developers have been struggling to integrate PKI into their development pipelines, a number of the cloud providers and development automation frameworks have included key management into their platforms. Cloud providers are rarely seen providing encryption services outside of their own platforms.

Manual Key Distribution: Finally there are companies who provide on premises appliances and human courier services for the current methodology of using symmetric key encryption. The UK Government provides its own service through a department of the National Cyber Security Centre called the UK Key Production Agency, which is the master source of trust in the product of symmetric keys which are delivered through these physical courier methods to a variety of government and commercial customers.
Key Partnerships
The Federated Quantum System
On June 11, 2021, Arqit announced the formation of an international consortium of companies and government organizations to provide its quantum encryption technology to government customers in a
 
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federated system concept, called the Federated Quantum System (the “FQS”). The UK, USA, Japan, Canada, Italy, Belgium and Austria are currently represented. Government customers typically have more stringent control requirements for their cloud technology and, with support from the UK Space Agency, Arqit has designed a version of its technology to meet these requirements. The FQS consists of dedicated satellites, control systems and QuantumCloud™ software. The first FQS satellites are expected to be launched on Virgin Orbit’s LauncherOne from Newquay in Cornwall in 2023, after the launch of the first commercial Arqit satellites. Arqit expects that the FQS will enable collaboration between NATO-allied governments, allowing sovereign protection of strategic national assets and interoperability for joint operations.
Satellite Development Partnerships
The following is a description of Arqit’s key partnerships in connection with the development and constructions of its satellites:
European Space Agency
On July 30, 2019, Arqit entered into a contract with the European Space Agency or “ESA” under the ESA’s Advanced Research Telecommunications Systems program for the partial funding of Arqit’s development and operational validation of the quantum key distribution satellite system, including the design, build and launch of the first quantum key distribution satellite and associated mission capability in the ground service, user and control segments. The ESA agreement divides work into two phases: the first phase covers the preliminary design and the second phase covers the detailed design and implementation and all activities until the end of the service deployment and evaluation. Arqit is permitted to start second phase only upon receipt of written notification from the ESA of the relevant authorisation to proceed. Arqit has agreed to sub-contract certain elements of this project with payment allocated between Arqit and the sub-contractors in agreed proportions.
Qinetiq Space NV
On January 27, 2020, Arqit entered into a firm fixed price contract with Qinetiq Space NV or “Qinetiq” for delivery by Qinetiq of quantum key distribution satellites by May 2022 and for conducting a launch readiness review by July 2022. Acceptance by Arqit of the satellites will be subject to testing and Arqit’s pre-shipment review that the satellite meets its performance specifications, and title of the satellites will pass to Arqit after launch and in-orbit testing is completed. Under the terms of this contract, Arqit will pay Qinetiq from (i) its private investment sources and (ii) ESA funding which is flowed down from Arqit’s contract with the ESA described above in “— European Space Agency”. Payment from ESA funding is subject to the satisfaction by Qinetiq of the relevant milestones set forth in the agreements between Arqit and the ESA.
Intellectual Property
The ability to protect its material intellectual property is paramount to Arqit’s business. Arqit relies upon a combination of protections afforded to owners of patents, designs, copyrights, trade secrets, and trademarks, along with employee and third-party non-disclosure agreements and other contractual restrictions to establish and protect its intellectual property rights. In particular, unpatented trade secrets in the fields of research, development and engineering are an important aspect of Arqit’s business by ensuring that its technology and strategic business assets remain confidential. Arqit pursues patent protection when it believes it has developed a patentable invention and the benefits of obtaining a patent outweigh the risks of making the invention public through patent filings.
As of the date of this prospectus, Arqit has approximately 1,485 patent claims on 23 pending or allowed patents in the UK. Arqit pursues global registration of its domain names and products and services trademarks and as of the date of this prospectus, Arqit had 12 registered trademarks and four pending trademarks.
Based on the filing dates of Arqit’s existing patent applications, and assuming the patents are granted and renewed throughout their lifetimes, Arqit currently expects each patent right to provide protection for up to 20 years from the relevant filing dates which, as of the date of this prospectus, range from June 4, 2018 to October 18, 2021.
 
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Arqit regularly reviews its development efforts to assess the existence and patentability of new inventions, and is prepared to file additional patent applications when it determines it would benefit its business to do so.
Facilities
Arqit operates from serviced offices for its headquarters at 3 More London Riverside, London SE1 2RE, and additionally leases 191 square feet of research space at Cambridge Science Park.
Employees
As of the date of this prospectus, Arqit had 74 full-time employees based in the UK, a majority of which are engaged in research and development and related functions. Arqit anticipates significant employee growth as it continues to commercialize its products. Arqit is highly dependent on human capital and a strong leadership team. It aims to attract, retain and develop staff with the skills, experience and potential necessary to implement its growth strategy.
Group Structure
Arqit Limited, a company limited by shares incorporated in England, is a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company and is the Company’s primary operating subsidiary. Arqit Limited has two wholly-owned subsidiaries: Arqit Inc., a Delaware corporation and Arqit LLC, a Delaware limited liability company. Neither Arqit Inc. nor Arqit LLC currently has any material operations. Arqit Limited also holds 50% of the outstanding share capital of Quantum Keep Limited, a company limited by shares incorporated in England. Quantum Keep Limited is a joint venture with Dentons Nominees Limited and Middle East Limited, which together hold the remaining outstanding share capital. Quantum Keep Limited was formed to develop an application initially for use by law firms that verifies and stores identity information and associates customer records with that identity.
Government Regulation
International Traffic in Arms Regulations and Export Controls
Arqit is subject to U.S. and U.K. import and export control laws, including the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (“ITAR”) and Export Administration Regulations (“EAR”) of the Bureau of Industry and Security of the U.S. Department of Commerce and the U.K. Export Control Act 2002 (as amended and extended by the Export Control Order 2008) and their respective implementing rules and regulations. The ITAR generally restricts the export of hardware, software, technical data, and services that have defense or strategic applications. The EAR similarly regulates the export of hardware, software, and technology that has commercial or “dual-use” applications (i.e., for both military and commercial applications) or that have less sensitive military or space-related applications that are not subject to the ITAR. The regulations exist to advance the national security and foreign policy interests of the U.S.
The U.S. government agencies responsible for administering the ITAR and the EAR have significant discretion in the interpretation and enforcement of these regulations. The agencies also have significant discretion in approving, denying, or conditioning authorizations to engage in controlled activities. Such decisions are influenced by the U.S. government’s commitments to multilateral export control regimes, particularly the Missile Technology Control Regime concerning the spaceflight business.
Many different types of internal controls and measures are required to ensure compliance with such export control rules. The inability to secure and maintain other necessary export authorizations could negatively impact Arqit’s ability to compete successfully or to operate its satellites as planned. Failure to comply with export control laws and regulations could expose Arqit to civil or criminal penalties, fines, investigations, more onerous compliance requirements, loss of export privileges, debarment from government contracts, or limitations on its ability to enter into contracts with the U.S. or U.K. government. In addition, any changes in export control regulations or U.S. or U.K. government licensing policy, such as that necessary to implement U.S. and U.K. government commitments to multilateral control regimes, may restrict its operations. See “Risk Factors  —  Risks Relating to Arqit’s Business and Operations   —  Failure
 
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to comply with governmental trade controls, including export and import control laws and regulations, sanctions, and related regimes could subject Arqit to liability or loss of contracting privileges, limit its ability to compete in certain markets or harm its reputation with the governments.”
Anti-Bribery, Anti-Corruption and Sanctions Laws and Regulations
Arqit’s operations are subject to anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws and regulations, including the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”) and the UK Bribery Act, and economic and trade sanctions, including those administered by the Office of Foreign Assets Control of the U.S. Treasury, the U.S. Department of State and the European Union. These statutes generally prohibit providing anything of value to foreign officials for the purposes of obtaining or retaining business or securing any improper business advantage. Arqit may deal with both governments and state-owned business enterprises, the employees of which are considered foreign officials for purposes of these laws.
Data Protection Laws and Regulations
Arqit’s operations and sales are subject to laws and regulations addressing privacy and the collection, use, storage, disclosure, transfer and protection of a variety of types of data, including the UK Data Protection Act 2018, the UK General Data Protection Regulation, European Directive 2002/58/EC (the ePrivacy Directive) and implementing national legislation and any data laws and regulations enacted in the United Kingdom post-Brexit. These regimes may, among other things, impose data security requirements, disclosure requirements, and restrictions on data collection, uses, and sharing that may impact Arqit’s operations and the development of its business. Arqit’s products collect, store and process certain information and its products may evolve to collect additional information. Compliance with these and any other applicable privacy and data security laws and regulations is a rigorous and time-intensive process, and Arqit may be required to put in place additional mechanisms to ensure compliance with new data protection rules. For further information, see “Risk Factors  —  Risks Relating to Arqit’s Business  —  Failures, or perceived failures, to comply with privacy, data protection, and information security requirements in the jurisdictions in which Arqit operates may adversely impact its business, and such legal requirements are evolving and may require improvements in, or changes to, its policies and operations.
Other Regulations
In addition, Arqit is subject to laws and regulations relating to antitrust, competition, intellectual property and other matters. Arqit has implemented internal controls designed to minimize and detect potential violations of laws and regulations in a timely manner, but can provide no assurance that such policies and procedures will be followed at all times or will effectively detect and prevent violations of the applicable laws by one or more of its employees, consultants, agents, or partners.
Legal Proceedings
From time to time, Arqit may become involved in legal proceedings or be subject to claims arising in the ordinary course of its business. Arqit is not currently a party to any legal proceedings, the outcome of which, if determined adversely to it, would individually or in the aggregate have a material adverse effect on its business or financial condition.
 
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MANAGEMENT
The following persons serve as Arqit’s directors and executive officers. For biographical information concerning the directors and executive officers, see below.
Name
Age
Position
David Williams
52
Executive Chairman, Founder and Chief Executive Officer
David Bestwick
56
Co-Founder and Chief Technology Officer
Nick Pointon
51
Chief Financial Officer and Executive Director
Manfredi Lefebvre d’Ovidio
68
Senior Independent Director
Carlo Calabria
61
Director
Stephen Chandler
52
Director
Lt General VeraLinn Jamieson
61
Director
Garth Ritchie
53
Director
General Stephen Wilson
62
Director
Air Vice-Marshal Peter Rochelle
56
Chief Operating Officer
Paul Feenan
48
Chief Revenue Officer
Dr. Daniel Shiu
52
Chief Cryptographer
Patrick Willcocks
53
General Counsel and Corporate Secretary
David Williams is the Founder, Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of the board of directors of Arqit. Prior to founding Arqit, from 2002 to 2017 Mr. Williams was the co-founder and CEO of Avanti Communications Group plc, which pioneered the use of Ka-band satellite communication. Mr. Williams also served as Founder Chairman of the Advisory Board of Seraphim Space Ventures, a $100 million high technology venture capital firm based in London, which he initiated with UK Government support in 2014. Prior to this, Mr. Williams was an investment banker specializing in financing international telecom businesses. Mr. Williams holds a Bachelor of Arts (Honors) in Economics and Politics from the University of Leeds. He was granted the Queens Award for Export in 2015 and received the Quoted Company Entrepreneur of the Year in 2006.
David Bestwick is the Co-Founder and Chief Technology Officer of Arqit. Prior to co-founding Arqit, from 1996 to 2018 Mr. Bestwick was the Co-Founder and Chief Technology Officer of Avanti Communications Group plc, which pioneered the use of Ka-band satellite communication. Mr. Bestwick spent his early career at the Marconi Research Laboratory and VEGA Group plc, where he worked on the commercialization of Earth Observation satellite data. Mr. Bestwick also advised the European Space Agency on its telecommunications research strategy and sits on the Board of the Quantum Technology Industry Group. He earned a Bachelor of Science (Honors) in Astrophysics from the University of Leicester.
Nick Pointon is the Chief Financial Officer and a member of the board of directors of Arqit. Prior to joining Arqit, from 2017 to 2021 Mr. Pointon was the Group CFO of Privitar, a venture capital-funded data privacy company, and from 2011 to 2016 was the Vice President of Finance at King Digital Entertainment plc, which listed on the NYSE prior to being bought by Activision Blizzard, Inc. Mr. Pointon has experience acting as Financial Controller in a number of private and public telecoms and technology businesses. Mr. Pointon holds an LLB in Law from Kings College London and trained as a Chartered Accountant with Moore Stephens before moving to KPMG for two years’ post-qualification experience.
Manfredi Lefebvre d’Ovidio is a member of the board of directors of Arqit and serves as senior independent director. Mr. Lefebvre d’Ovidio is Chairman of Heritage Group, a diversified conglomerate with interests in the cruise industry, property and financial investments. Mr. Lefebvre d’Ovidio assumed the role of Executive Chairman of Silversea Cruises from 2001 until 2020. During this period, Mr. Lefebvre d’Ovidio transformed Silversea Cruises from a cruise line with five vessels to a market leader covering over 900 destinations worldwide. Further, he expanded the product range of Silversea Cruises by adding an expedition fleet, which quickly became a leader in luxury expedition cruising as well. In 2018, Mr. Lefebvre d’Ovidio sold two-thirds equity stake of Silversea Cruises to Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd. for approximately
 
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$1 billion. Heritage Group recently acquired a majority stake in the high- end tour operator Abercrombie & Kent with Mr. Lefebvre d’Ovidio also becoming co-Chairman of its board. Mr. Lefebvre d’Ovidio serves as the Vice President of the Monaco Chamber of Shipping, Member of Executive Committee of the World Tourism and Travel Council, and has held a number of key roles in Cruise Lines International Association, including European Chairman, Member of the Global Executive Committee, and Chairman from 2007 to 2013. Mr. Lefebvre d’Ovidio was honored with the Chevalier de l’Ordre de Saint Charles and Grimaldi by SAS Prince Albert of Monaco.
Carlo Calabria is a member of the board of directors of Arqit. Mr. Calabria has close to four decades of experience in the financial services sector and has held multiple senior leadership positions at some of the world’s largest financial institutions. In 2012, he founded CMC Capital Limited, an investment banking boutique specializing in mergers and acquisitions and debt restructuring, which he led until 2016, and then returned in 2021. Mr. Calabria is a mergers and acquisitions expert with vast experience across different sectors and regions. In 2016, he joined Barclays as Chairman of M&A and then served as Head of Banking for Barclays Europe from 2016 to 2020 and was responsible for investment banking activities in Continental Europe and Central and Eastern Europe, Middle East and Africa. Prior to joining Barclays, he served as Head of International M&A, first at Credit Suisse and then at Merrill Lynch from 2006 to 2011. Prior to this, Mr. Calabria worked at Credit Suisse from 1990 to 2006 and began his investment banking career at Morgan Grenfell & Co. Ltd in 1983. Mr Calabria holds a Master of Arts (Honors) in Economics from Rome University, La Sapienza.
Stephen Chandler is a member of the board of directors of Arqit. Mr. Chandler is an entrepreneur, investor and company builder, with 20 years of experience in forming, funding, running, advising and investing in technology businesses. Mr. Chandler is a co-founder of over ten businesses with involvement in dozens more. Since 2009 he has been the Co-founder and Managing Partner at Notion Capital, a venture capital firm focused on Cloud Computing and Software-as-a-Service. Following an early career at Deloitte and then UBS, he was the Chief Financial Officer at MessageLabs, a cyber security company, through to its acquisition by Symantec in 2008. He is currently a board director of several growing tech companies, including GoCardless, Paddle, Panaseer, Novatiq and Virtual Stock. Mr. Chandler is a qualified Chartered Accountant and holds a Bachelor of Arts (Honors) in Accounting & Economics from the University of Exeter.
Lt General VeraLinn Jamieson is a member of the board of directors of Arqit. Lt. General Jamieson is experienced in data management, cloud technology, artificial intelligence and machine learning, with over 37 years of government experience. She achieved the rank of Lieutenant General in the U.S. Air Force. Lt. General Jamieson served as the Director of the United States Air Force’s Intelligence Surveillance, Reconnaissance and Cyber Effects enterprise, conducting operations for the Department of Defence from 2016 to 2019. Before she assumed her position as Deputy Chief of Staff, Lt. General Jamieson served as the Deputy Commander, Joint Functional Component Command for ISR and U.S. Strategic Command in Washington D.C. Lt. General Jamieson also serves as a director of Digital Realty Inc. She holds a Bachelor of Science in Business Administration from West Virginia University and a Master of Arts in Strategic Studies and Aviation Management from the National Defence University and Embry Riddle University.
Garth Ritchie is a member of the board of directors of Arqit. Mr. Ritchie has over 25 years of experience in banking and finance where he has held a number of senior leadership positions. In 1996, Mr. Ritchie joined Deutsche Bank in the Johannesburg office and went on to become a member of the Global Markets Executive Committee in 2009 as Head of Equities. In January 2016, Mr. Ritchie was appointed to Deutsche Bank’s Management Board with responsibility for Deutsche Bank’s markets division. In 2017, he became Co-Head of the newly created Corporate & Investment Bank. In 2018, he became its sole Head and was appointed as President. In June 2020, Mr. Ritchie joined Centricus, a London-based global investment firm, where he leads the firm’s capital markets and advisory business. Mr. Ritchie earned his B.Com. in Finance and Economics from the University of Port Elizabeth.
General Stephen Wilson is a member of the board of directors of Arqit. General Wilson served as Four-Star U.S. Air Force General until December 2020 and has over 39 years of military service. He managed the organizing, training, and equipping 685,000 active-duty, Guard and Reserve Airmen. He helped manage the planning, programming, budgeting and execution of the Air Force’s $205 billion annual budget. General Wilson also served on the Joint Requirements Oversight Council setting the acquisition requirements for
 
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the Department of Defense. He has engaged in multiple flying tours and led bomber, intelligence, surveillance control operations. He has supported other key operations including Iraqi Freedom, Enduring Freedom and Combined Joint Task Force-Horn of Africa. General Wilson has held a number of command positions. This includes acting as Joint Functional Component Commander for Global Strike and Air Force Global Strike Command. General Wilson has received many awards including three Defense Service Medals, the Defense Superior Service Medal, two Legions of Merit, two Bronze Stars and two Air Medals. General Wilson is a command pilot with more than 4,500 flying hours and nearly 700 combat hours. General Wilson serves on the board of directors of New Vista Acquisition Company and B.A.E Systems, Inc. General Wilson is a graduate of Texas A&M University with a Bachelor of Science in Aerospace Engineering and the U.S. Air Force Weapons School. He holds Masters degrees in Engineering Management from South Dakota School of Mines and Technology and in Strategic Studies from Air University.
Air Vice-Marshal Peter Rochelle has served as the Chief Operating Officer of Arqit since September 2020. Prior to joining Arqit, Air Vice-Marshal Rochelle served in the Royal Air Force for 34 years. After his MA in Defence, he was involved in the Acquisition and Government Strategic Programme Delivery. He proceeded to act as Chief of Staff for DG FMC and then Programme director, for Carrier Enabled Power Projection project. After completing his role as Chief of Staff Capability, Acquisition and Force Development in April 2020, Peter was mandated to deliver a record high £40 billion sub-portfolio. This included the delivery of the F35 programme, acquisition of P8 and E7. Peter was also instrumental in the development of the RAF and the UK’s Rapid Capability Office. He co-developed the UK’s first Air Information Experimentation Lab, Space Coalition development and created the Op Olympic Defender justification. Throughout his extensive military experience, he has been awarded DFC (Kosovo), an OBE and a CB for services to Acquisition. Additionally he was recognised as fellow of the UK endorsed Innovation Knowledge Exchange (FIKE).
Paul Feenan has served as the Chief Revenue Officer of Arqit since April 2021. Prior to this, Mr. Feenan was the Managing Director for Global Institutional Sales at Arqit since April 2020. Mr. Feenan was previously the Director for Strategic Partnerships at JUMO, a Cape Town headquartered, global financial technology company, from 2016 to 2020. Mr. Feenan was the Director for Government Services at Avanti Communications Group plc from 2012 to 2016. Prior to this, Mr. Feenan was a commissioned British Army Officer where he served for over 16 years in a variety of Command and Operational roles including as the lead for Domestic Counterterrorism in the run-up to the 2012 London Olympic Games. He has a Master of Arts (Honors) Degree in Geography from the University of Cambridge.
Dr. Daniel Shiu has served as the Chief Cryptographer of Arqit since 2021. Prior to joining Arqit, Dr. Shiu worked for the UK’s intelligence, cyber and security agency GCHQ for 19 years. He was the UK’s first National Technical Authority for Cryptographic Design and Quantum Information Processing and was part of the National Technical Authority function, assumed by the new National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC). He was responsible for briefing the Government’s Chief Scientific Adviser in Crypto mathematical matters. Dr. Shiu also served as Head of the Heilbronn Institute for Mathematical Research (HIMR) and represented GCHQ in co-directing the National Quantum Technologies Program. Throughout his career, Dr. Shiu’s has received multiple prizes, including an international, annual award for best crypto-mathematician and on three separate occasions an international award for the best cryptanalytic achievement of the year. He has a BSc (Honors) and ARCS in Mathematics from Imperial College London, and a DPhil in Mathematics from the University of Oxford (Pembroke College).
Patrick Willcocks is General Counsel and Corporate Secretary of Arqit. Prior to joining Arqit, Mr. Willcocks ran a legal consultancy. From 2009 to 2018, Mr. Willcocks was General Counsel and Company Secretary of Avanti Communications Group plc. Prior to this, Patrick was a senior attorney at HP/EDS, a banking and financing solicitor at Eversheds Sutherland, and an investment banker at a number of international banks. Patrick has an LLB (Honors) Degree in Law from Trinity College Dublin, a Barrister-at-Law degree from the Honorable Society of King’s Inns in Dublin, and a Masters in Business Studies (Strategic Planning) and a Diploma in Business Studies from UCD Business School.
Family Relationships
There are no family relationships between any of the executive officers and directors.
 
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Board Composition
Director Independence
The Nasdaq corporate governance rules require that a majority of the board of directors be independent. An “independent director” is defined generally as a person who has no material relationship with the listed company (either directly or as a partner, stockholder, or officer of an organization that has a relationship with the listed company). Arqit has eight directors, six of whom — directors Calabria, Chandler, d’Ovidio, Jamieson, Ritchie and Wilson — the board has determined qualify as independent directors as defined in the Nasdaq corporate governance rules.
Classes of Directors
The board of directors is divided into three staggered classes of directors. At each annual meeting of its shareholders, a class of directors will be elected for a three-year term to succeed the same class whose term is then expiring, as follows:

the Class I directors include Stephen Chandler, Lt General VeraLinn Jamieson and General Stephen Wilson;

the Class II directors include Nick Pointon and Carlo Calabria; and

the Class III directors include David Williams, Manfredi Lefebvre d’Ovidio and Garth Ritchie.
Risk Oversight
The board of directors oversees the risk management activities designed and implemented by its management. The board of directors executes its oversight responsibility both directly and through its committees. The board of directors also considers specific risk topics, including risks associated with its strategic initiatives, business plans and capital structure. Arqit’s management, including its executive officers, are primarily responsible for managing the risks associated with the operation and business of the company and provides appropriate updates to the board of directors and the audit committee. The board of directors delegates to the audit committee oversight of its risk management process, and its other committees also consider risk as they perform their respective committee responsibilities. All committees report to the board of directors as appropriate, including when a matter rises to the level of material or enterprise risk.
Committees of the Board of Directors
Arqit has established a separately standing audit committee, nominations and corporate governance committee and compensation committee.
Audit Committee
Listing Requirements
Under Nasdaq corporate governance rules, we are required to maintain an audit committee consisting of at least three independent directors, each of whom is financially literate and one of whom has accounting or related financial management expertise.
The audit committee is comprised of Stephen Chandler, Lt General VeraLinn Jamieson and Garth Ritchie. Stephen Chandler serves as the chairperson of the audit committee. All members of the audit committee meet the requirements for financial literacy under the applicable rules and regulations of the SEC and the Nasdaq corporate governance rules. The board of directors has determined that Stephen Chandler is an audit committee financial expert as defined by the SEC rules and is financially literate as defined by Nasdaq corporate governance rules.
The board of directors has determined that each member of the audit committee is independent, as such term is defined in Rule 10A3(b)(1) under the Exchange Act, which is different from the general test for independence of board and committee members.
 
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Audit Committee Role
The board of directors adopted an audit committee charter setting forth the responsibilities of the audit committee, which are consistent with the SEC rules and Nasdaq corporate governance rules. These responsibilities include:

retaining and terminating our independent auditors, subject to ratification by the board of directors, and in the case of retention, subject to ratification by the shareholders;

pre-approving audit and non-audit services to be provided by the independent auditors and related fees and terms;

overseeing the accounting and financial reporting processes of Arqit;

managing audits of Arqit’s financial statements;

preparing all reports as may be required of an audit committee under the rules and regulations promulgated under the Exchange Act;

reviewing with management and Arqit’s independent auditor its annual and quarterly financial statements prior to publication, filing, or submission to the SEC;

recommending to the board of directors the retention and termination of the internal auditor, and the internal auditor’s engagement fees and terms, as well as approving the yearly or periodic work plan proposed by the internal auditor;

reviewing with Arqit’s general counsel and/or external counsel, as deemed necessary, legal and regulatory matters that may have a material impact on the financial statements;

identifying irregularities in Arqit’s business administration, inter alia, by consulting with the internal auditor or with the independent auditor, and suggesting corrective measures to the board of directors;

reviewing policies and procedures with respect to transactions (other than transactions related to compensation or terms of services) between Arqit and its officers and directors, affiliates of officers or directors, or transactions that are not in the ordinary course of business and deciding whether to approve such acts and transactions; and

establishing procedures for handling employee complaints relating to the management of Arqit’s business and the protection to be provided to such employees.
Nominations and Corporate Governance Committee
Arqit’s nominations and corporate governance committee is comprised of Manfredi Lefebvre d’Ovidio, General Stephen Wilson and Carlo Calabria. Manfredi Lefebvre d’Ovidio serves as the chairperson of the nominations and corporate governance committee. The board of directors adopted a nominations and corporate governance committee charter setting forth the responsibilities of the committee, which include:

overseeing and assisting the board of directors in reviewing and recommending nominees for election of directors;

assessing the performance of the members of the board of directors; and

establishing and maintaining effective corporate governance policies and practices, including, but not limited to, developing and recommending to the board of directors a set of corporate governance guidelines applicable to Arqit’s business.
Compensation Committee
Arqit’s compensation committee is comprised of Garth Ritchie, Carlo Calabria and Lt General VeraLinn Jamieson, all of whom are independent directors. Carlo Calabria serves as the chairperson of the compensation committee. The board of directors adopted a compensation committee charter setting forth the responsibilities of the committee. The purpose of the compensation committee is to review and approve
 
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compensation paid to our officers and directors and to administer our incentive compensation plans, including authority to make and modify awards under such plans.
Code of Ethics
Arqit has a Code of Ethics that applies to all of its employees, officers, and directors. This includes Arqit’s principal executive officer, principal financial officer, and principal accounting officer or controller, or persons performing similar functions. Arqit will disclose on its website any future amendments of the Code of Ethics or waivers that exempt any principal executive officer, principal financial officer, principal accounting officer or controller, persons performing similar functions, or directors from provisions in the Code of Ethics.
Limitation on Liability and Indemnification of Officers and Directors
Cayman Islands law does not limit the extent to which a company’s memorandum and articles of association may provide for indemnification of officers and directors, except to the extent any such provision may be held by the Cayman Islands courts to be contrary to public policy, such as to provide indemnification against willful default, fraud or the consequences of committing a crime. The amended and restated memorandum and articles of association provide for indemnification of Arqit’s officers and directors to the maximum extent permitted by law, including for any liability incurred in their capacities as such, except through their own actual fraud, willful default or willful neglect. In addition, Arqit entered into indemnification agreements with each of its executive officers and directors. The indemnification agreements provide the indemnitees with contractual rights to indemnification, and expense advancement and reimbursement, to the fullest extent permitted under Cayman Islands law, subject to certain exceptions contained in those agreements. Arqit has a policy of directors’ and officers’ liability insurance that insures Arqit’s officers and directors against the cost of defense, settlement or payment of a judgment in some circumstances and insures Arqit against its obligations to indemnify its officers and directors.
These indemnification obligations may discourage shareholders from bringing a lawsuit against Arqit’s officers or directors for breach of their fiduciary duty. These provisions also may have the effect of reducing the likelihood of derivative litigation against Arqit’s officers and directors, even though such an action, if successful, might otherwise benefit Arqit and its shareholders. Furthermore, a shareholder’s investment may be adversely affected to the extent Arqit pays the costs of settlement and damage awards against its officers and directors pursuant to these indemnification provisions.
Arqit believes that these provisions, the insurance and the indemnity agreements are necessary to attract and retain talented and experienced officers and directors.
Historical Executive Officer and Director Compensation
The aggregate cash compensation paid by Arqit and its subsidiaries to its executive officers and directors who for the year ended September 30, 2021 was $2,351,685. This amount includes $61,007 set aside or accrued to provide pension, severance, retirement or similar benefits or expenses.
As of September 30, 2021, 60,000 options to purchase ordinary shares had been granted to Arqit’s executive officers and directors.
Executive Officer and Director Compensation
Arqit’s policies with respect to the compensation of its executive officers and directors are administered by its board of directors in consultation with the compensation committee. The compensation decisions regarding Arqit’s executives is based on the need to attract individuals with the skills necessary for the company to achieve its business plan, to reward those individuals fairly over time, and to retain those individuals who continue to perform at or above the company’s expectations.
Arqit has an executive compensation program that is competitive with other similarly-situated companies in its industry. This includes a base salary, cash annual bonus and long-term equity compensation awards that are, in each case, consistent with market practices and designed to incentivize, motivate and retain key employees.
 
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Each of Arqit’s executive officers and employees is party to an employment agreement with Arqit, all of which are in substantially the same form. Under their respective agreements, each executive officer and employee is compensated with an annual base salary and most are also eligible for an annual discretionary bonus. In addition, each executive officer and employee is subject to a perpetual confidentiality covenant, and non-competition and non-solicitation restrictive covenants during the term of employment and for a period of three to twelve months after the termination of employment. Each of the agreements also includes agreement by the executive officer or employee to assign all intellectual property rights created during the course of employment to Arqit. The agreements include a notice period of one week to one month if either Arqit or the executive officer or employee wishes to terminate the agreement, other than for cause, in which case termination is effective immediately. Arqit may provide payment in lieu of such notice or may require the executive officer or employee to be placed on garden leave.
Arqit has a compensation plan for its directors. Arqit, working with the compensation committee, has set director compensation at a level comparable with those directors with similar positions at comparable companies. Each non-executive director receives an annual cash retainer of $60,000. Each director who serves as the chairman of a committee receives an additional $20,000 per year and each other member of a committee receives an additional $10,000 per year per committee. Directors have the option to elect to receive their cash compensation in the form of either cash or restricted share units (“RSUs”). In addition, directors will benefit from an annual grant of 15,000 RSUs which will be awarded in accordance with Arqit’s incentive award plan. Arqit also intends to enter into director appointment letters with each of its directors, which will provide for fees, reimbursement of expenses, and include standard provisions regarding duties and confidentiality.
Equity Compensation — Incentive Award Plan
Arqit’s board of directors adopted an incentive award plan (the “Incentive Award Plan”) in order to facilitate the grant of cash and equity incentives to its directors, employees (including executive officers) and consultants and its affiliates and to enable it and certain of its affiliates to obtain and retain services of these individuals, which is essential to Arqit’s long-term success.
The purpose of the Incentive Award Plan is to enhance Arqit’s ability to attract, retain and motivate persons who make (or are expected to make) important contributions by providing these individuals with equity ownership opportunities and/or equity-linked compensatory opportunities. Equity awards and equity-linked compensatory opportunities are intended to motivate high levels of performance and align the interests of directors, employees and consultants with those of stockholders by giving directors, employees and consultants the perspective of an owner with an equity or equity-linked stake in the company and providing a means of recognizing their contributions to our success. Arqit’s board of directors believes that equity awards are necessary to remain competitive in its industry and are essential to recruiting and retaining the highly qualified employees who help us meet our goals.
The aggregate number of ordinary shares available for issuance under the Incentive Award Plan is equal to 12.5% of the sum of the total number of issued and outstanding ordinary shares, which equals an aggregate pool of 15 million ordinary shares. Prior to the completion of the Business Combination, Arqit Limited granted options over Arqit Limited ordinary shares to its employees, consultants and advisors. The holders of each of these options agreed to exchange these options for equivalent options to acquire 8,106,425 ordinary shares, which were issued under amended option agreements with terms consistent with the Incentive Award Plan, leaving 6,893,575 ordinary shares available for issuance in respect of future grants of awards under the Incentive Award Plan. The compensation committee may make grants of awards under the Incentive Award Plan to key employees, in forms and amounts to be determined by the compensation committee based on the recommendations of an independent compensation consultant. No final decisions have been made with respect to grants of equity awards under the Incentive Award Plan.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES
The following description of the material terms of the securities of the Company includes a summary of specified provisions of the Articles. This description is qualified by reference to the Articles.
The Company is a Cayman Islands exempted company (company number 374857) and its affairs are governed by the Articles, the Cayman Companies Act and the common law of the Cayman Islands. The Company is authorized to issue 469,000,001 ordinary shares, $0.0001 par value each and 30,999,999 preference shares, $0.0001 par value each. The Company currently has only one class of issued ordinary shares, which have identical rights in all respects and rank equally with one another. As of December 14, 2021, there were 120,073,430 ordinary shares and 14,891,640 warrants issued and outstanding.
New Ordinary Shares
Holders of ordinary shares are entitled to one vote for each share held of record on all matters to be voted on by shareholders.
There is no cumulative voting with respect to the election of directors, with the result that the holders of more than 50% of the shares voted for the election of directors can elect all of the directors.
Holders of ordinary shares do not have any conversion, preemptive or other subscription rights and there is no sinking fund or redemption provisions applicable to the ordinary shares.
Dividends
Subject to the foregoing, the payment of cash dividends in the future, if any, will be at the discretion of the board of directors and will depend upon such factors as earnings levels, capital requirements, contractual restrictions, the Company’s overall financial condition, available distributable reserves and any other factors deemed relevant by the board of directors.
Liquidation
On a winding-up or other return of capital, subject to any special rights attaching to any other class of shares, holders of ordinary shares will be entitled to participate in any surplus assets in proportion to their shareholdings.
Differences in Company Law
Cayman Islands companies are governed by the Cayman Companies Act. The Cayman Companies Act is modelled on English Law but does not follow recent English Law statutory enactments, and differs from laws applicable to United States corporations and their shareholders. Set forth below is a summary of the material differences between the provisions of the Cayman Companies Act applicable to the Company and the laws applicable to companies incorporated in the United States and their shareholders.
Mergers and Similar Arrangements
In certain circumstances, the Cayman Companies Act allows for mergers or consolidations between two Cayman Islands companies, or between a Cayman Islands exempted company and a company incorporated in another jurisdiction (provided that is facilitated by the laws of that other jurisdiction).
Where the merger or consolidation is between two Cayman Islands companies, the directors of each company must approve a written plan of merger or consolidation containing certain prescribed information. That plan or merger or consolidation must then be authorized by either (a) a special resolution (usually a majority of two thirds of the voting shares voted at a general meeting) of the shareholders of each company; and (b) such other authorization, if any, as may be specified in such constituent company’s articles of association. No shareholder resolution is required for a merger between a parent company (i.e., a company that owns at least 90% of the issued shares of each class in a subsidiary company) and its subsidiary company.
The consent of each holder of a fixed or floating security interest of a constituent company must be obtained, unless the court waives such requirement. If the Registrar of Companies of the Cayman Islands
 
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is satisfied that the requirements of the Cayman Companies Act (which includes certain other formalities) have been complied with, the Registrar of Companies of the Cayman Islands will register the plan of merger or consolidation.
Where the merger or consolidation involves a foreign company, the procedure is similar, save that with respect to the foreign company, the directors of the Cayman Islands exempted company are required to make a declaration to the effect that, having made due enquiry, they are of the opinion that the requirements set out below have been met: (i) that the merger or consolidation is permitted or not prohibited by the constitutional documents of the foreign company and by the laws of the jurisdiction in which the foreign company is incorporated, and that those laws and any requirements of those constitutional documents have been or will be complied with; (ii) that no petition or other similar proceeding has been filed and remains outstanding or order made or resolution adopted to wind up or liquidate the foreign company in any jurisdictions; (iii) that no receiver, trustee, administrator or other similar person has been appointed in any jurisdiction and is acting in respect of the foreign company, its affairs or its property or any part thereof; and (iv) that no scheme, order, compromise or other similar arrangement has been entered into or made in any jurisdiction whereby the rights of creditors of the foreign company are and continue to be suspended or restricted.
Where the surviving company is the Cayman Islands exempted company, the directors of the Cayman Islands exempted company are further required to make a declaration to the effect that, having made due enquiry, they are of the opinion that the requirements set out below have been met: (i) that the foreign company is able to pay its debts as they fall due and that the merger or consolidated is bona fide and not intended to defraud unsecured creditors of the foreign company; (ii) that in respect of the transfer of any security interest granted by the foreign company to the surviving or consolidated company (a) consent or approval to the transfer has been obtained, released or waived; (b) the transfer is permitted by and has been approved in accordance with the constitutional documents of the foreign company; and (c) the laws of the jurisdiction of the foreign company with respect to the transfer have been or will be complied with; (iii) that the foreign company will, upon the merger or consolidation becoming effective, cease to be incorporated, registered or exist under the laws of the relevant foreign jurisdiction; and (iv) that there is no other reason why it would be against the public interest to permit the merger or consolidation.
Where the above procedures are adopted, the Cayman Companies Act provides for a right of dissenting shareholders to be paid a payment of the fair value of his shares upon their dissenting to the merger or consolidation if they follow a prescribed procedure. In essence, that procedure is as follows: (a) the shareholder must give his written objection to the merger or consolidation to the constituent company before the vote on the merger or consolidation, including a statement that the shareholder proposes to demand payment for his shares if the merger or consolidation is authorized by the vote; (b) within 20 days following the date on which the merger or consolidation is approved by the shareholders, the constituent company must give written notice to each shareholder who made a written objection; (c) a shareholder must within 20 days following receipt of such notice from the constituent company, give the constituent company a written notice of his intention to dissent including, among other details, a demand for payment of the fair value of his shares; (d) within seven days following the date of the expiration of the period set out in paragraph (b) above or seven days following the date on which the plan of merger or consolidation is filed, whichever is later, the constituent company, the surviving company or the consolidated company must make a written offer to each dissenting shareholder to purchase his shares at a price that the company determines is the fair value and if the company and the shareholder agree the price within 30 days following the date on which the offer was made, the company must pay the shareholder such amount; and (e) if the company and the shareholder fail to agree a price within such 30 day period, within 20 days following the date on which such 30 day period expires, the company (and any dissenting shareholder) must file a petition with the Cayman Islands courts to determine the fair value and such petition must be accompanied by a list of the names and addresses of the dissenting shareholders with whom agreements as to the fair value of their shares have not been reached by the company. At the hearing of that petition, the court has the power to determine the fair value of the shares together with a fair rate of interest, if any, to be paid by the company upon the amount determined to be the fair value. Any dissenting shareholder whose name appears on the list filed by the company may participate fully in all proceedings until the determination of fair value is reached. These rights of a dissenting shareholder are not available in certain circumstances, for example, to dissenters holding shares of any class in respect of which an open market exists on a recognized stock exchange or recognized interdealer
 
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quotation system at the relevant date or where the consideration for such shares to be contributed are shares of any company listed on a national securities exchange or shares of the surviving or consolidated company.
Moreover, Cayman Islands law has separate statutory provisions that facilitate the reconstruction or amalgamation of companies in certain circumstances, schemes of arrangement will generally be more suited for complex mergers or other transactions involving widely held companies, commonly referred to in the Cayman Islands as a “scheme of arrangement” which may be tantamount to a merger. In the event that a merger was sought pursuant to a scheme of arrangement (the procedures for which are more rigorous and take longer to complete than the procedures typically required to consummate a merger in the United States), the arrangement in question must be approved by a majority in number of each class of shareholders and creditors with whom the arrangement is to be made and who must in addition represent three-fourths in value of each such class of shareholders or creditors, as the case may be, that are present and voting either in person or by proxy at an annual general meeting, or extraordinary general meeting summoned for that purpose. The convening of the meetings and subsequently the terms of the arrangement must be sanctioned by the Cayman Islands courts. While a dissenting shareholder would have the right to express to the court the view that the transaction should not be approved, the court can be expected to approve the arrangement if it satisfies itself that:

we are not proposing to act illegally or beyond the scope of our corporate authority and the statutory provisions as to majority vote have been complied with;

the shareholders have been fairly represented at the meeting in question;

the arrangement is such as a businessman would reasonably approve; and

the arrangement is not one that would more properly be sanctioned under some other provision of the Cayman Companies Act or that would amount to a “fraud on the minority.”
If a scheme of arrangement or takeover offer (as described below) is approved, any dissenting shareholder would have no rights comparable to appraisal rights (providing rights to receive payment in cash for the judicially determined value of the shares), which would otherwise ordinarily be available to dissenting shareholders of United States corporations.
Squeeze-out Provisions
When a takeover offer is made and accepted by holders of 90% of the shares to whom the offer relates within four months, the offeror may, within a two-month period, require the holders of the remaining shares to transfer such shares on the terms of the offer. An objection can be made to the Cayman Islands courts, but this is unlikely to succeed unless there is evidence of fraud, bad faith, collusion or inequitable treatment of the shareholders.
Further, transactions similar to a merger, reconstruction and/or an amalgamation may in some circumstances be achieved through means other than these statutory provisions, such as a share capital exchange, asset acquisition or control, or through contractual arrangements of an operating business.
Shareholders’ Suits
Maples and Calder (Cayman) LLP, our Cayman Islands legal counsel, is not aware of any reported class action having been brought in a Cayman Islands court. Derivative actions have been brought in the Cayman Islands courts, and the Cayman Islands courts have confirmed the availability for such actions. In most cases, we will be the proper plaintiff in any claim based on a breach of duty owed to us, and a claim against (for example) our officers or directors usually may not be brought by a shareholder. However, based both on Cayman Islands authorities and on English authorities, which would in all likelihood be of persuasive authority and be applied by a court in the Cayman Islands, exceptions to the foregoing principle apply in circumstances in which:

a company is acting, or proposing to act, illegally or beyond the scope of its authority;

the act complained of, although not beyond the scope of the authority, could be effected if duly authorized by more than the number of votes which have actually been obtained; or
 
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those who control the company are perpetrating a “fraud on the minority.”
A shareholder may have a direct right of action against us where the individual rights of that shareholder have been infringed or are about to be infringed.
Enforcement of Civil Liabilities
The Cayman Islands has a different body of securities laws as compared to the United States and provides less protection to investors. Additionally, Cayman Islands companies may not have standing to sue before the Federal courts of the United States.
We have been advised by Maples and Calder (Cayman) LLP, our Cayman Islands legal counsel, that the courts of the Cayman Islands are unlikely (i) to recognize or enforce against us judgments of courts of the United States predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the federal securities laws of the United States or any state; and (ii) in original actions brought in the Cayman Islands, to impose liabilities against us predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the federal securities laws of the United States or any state, so far as the liabilities imposed by those provisions are penal in nature. In those circumstances, although there is no statutory enforcement in the Cayman Islands of judgments obtained in the United States, the courts of the Cayman Islands will recognize and enforce a foreign money judgment of a foreign court of competent jurisdiction without retrial on the merits based on the principle that a judgment of a competent foreign court imposes upon the judgment debtor an obligation to pay the sum for which judgment has been given provided certain conditions are met. For a foreign judgment to be enforced in the Cayman Islands, such judgment must be final and conclusive and for a liquidated sum, and must not be in respect of taxes or a fine or penalty, inconsistent with a Cayman Islands judgment in respect of the same matter, impeachable on the grounds of fraud or obtained in a manner, and or be of a kind the enforcement of which is, contrary to natural justice or the public policy of the Cayman Islands (awards of punitive or multiple damages may well be held to be contrary to public policy). A Cayman Islands court may stay enforcement proceedings if concurrent proceedings are being brought elsewhere.
Special Considerations for Exempted Companies
We are an exempted company with limited liability under the Cayman Companies Act. The Cayman Companies Act distinguishes between ordinary resident companies and exempted companies. Any company that is registered in the Cayman Islands but conducts business mainly outside of the Cayman Islands may apply to be registered as an exempted company. The requirements for an exempted company are essentially the same as for an ordinary company except for the exemptions and privileges listed below:

an exempted company does not have to file an annual return of its shareholders with the Registrar of Companies of the Cayman Islands;

an exempted company’s register of members is not open to inspection;

an exempted company does not have to hold an annual general meeting;

an exempted company may issue shares with no par value;

an exempted company may obtain an undertaking against the imposition of any future taxation (such undertakings are usually given for 20 years in the first instance);

an exempted company may register by way of continuation in another jurisdiction and be deregistered in the Cayman Islands;

an exempted company may register as a limited duration company; and

an exempted company may register as a segregated portfolio company.
Limited liability” means that the liability of each shareholder is limited to the amount unpaid by the shareholder on the shares of the company (except in exceptional circumstances, such as involving fraud, the establishment of an agency relationship or an illegal or improper purpose or other circumstances in which a court may be prepared to pierce or lift the corporate veil).
 
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Indemnification of Directors and Executive Officers and Limitation of Liability
Cayman Islands law does not limit the extent to which a company’s articles of association may provide for indemnification of officers and directors, except to the extent any such provision may be held by the Cayman Islands courts to be contrary to public policy, such as to provide indemnification against willful default, willful neglect, civil fraud or the consequences of committing a crime. The Articles permit indemnification of officers and directors for any liability, action, proceeding, claim, demand, costs damages or expenses, including legal expenses, incurred in their capacities as such unless such liability (if any) arises from actual fraud, willful neglect or willful default which may attach to such directors or officers. This standard of conduct is generally the same as permitted under the Delaware General Corporation Law for a Delaware corporation. In addition, we have entered into indemnification agreements with our directors and senior executive officers that provide such persons with additional indemnification beyond that provided in the Articles.
Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to our directors, officers or persons controlling us under the foregoing provisions, we have been informed that, in the opinion of the SEC, such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable.
Anti-Takeover Provisions in the Articles
Some provisions of the Articles may discourage, delay or prevent a change of control of our company or management that shareholders may consider favorable, including a provision that authorizes our board of directors to issue preference shares in one or more series and to designate the price, rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions of such preference shares without any further vote or action by our shareholders.
Such shares could be issued quickly with terms calculated to delay or prevent a change in control of our company or make removal of management more difficult. If our board of directors decides to issue these preference shares, the price of our ordinary shares may fall and the voting and other rights of the holders of our ordinary shares may be materially adversely affected.
However, under Cayman Islands law, our directors may only exercise the rights and powers granted to them under the Articles for a proper purpose and for what they believe in good faith to be in the best interests of our company.
Directors’ Fiduciary Duties
Under Delaware corporate law, a director of a Delaware corporation has a fiduciary duty to the corporation and its shareholders. This duty has two components: the duty of care and the duty of loyalty. The duty of care requires that a director act in good faith, with the care that an ordinarily prudent person would exercise under similar circumstances. Under this duty, a director must inform himself or herself of, and disclose to shareholders, all material information reasonably available regarding a significant transaction. The duty of loyalty requires that a director act in a manner he or she reasonably believes to be in the best interests of the corporation. A director must not use his or her corporate position for personal gain or advantage. This duty prohibits self-dealing by a director and mandates that the best interest of the corporation and its shareholders take precedence over any interest possessed by a director, officer or controlling shareholder and not shared by the shareholders generally. In general, actions of a director are presumed to have been made on an informed basis, in good faith and in the honest belief that the action taken was in the best interests of the corporation. However, this presumption may be rebutted by evidence of a breach of one of the fiduciary duties. Should such evidence be presented concerning a transaction by a director, a director must prove the procedural fairness of the transaction, and that the transaction was of fair value to the corporation.
Under Cayman Islands law, directors and officers owe the following fiduciary duties:

duty to act in good faith in what the director or officer believes to be in the best interests of the company as a whole;

duty to exercise powers for the purposes for which those powers were conferred and not for a collateral purpose;
 
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directors should not improperly fetter the exercise of future discretion;

duty to exercise powers fairly as between different sections of shareholders;

duty not to put themselves in a position in which there is a conflict between their duty to the company and their personal interests; and

duty to exercise independent judgment.
In addition to the above, directors also owe a duty of care which is not fiduciary in nature. This duty has been defined as a requirement to act as a reasonably diligent person having both the general knowledge, skill and experience that may reasonably be expected of a person carrying out the same functions as are carried out by that director in relation to the company and the general knowledge skill and experience of that director.
As set out above, directors have a duty not to put themselves in a position of conflict and this includes a duty not to engage in self-dealing, or to otherwise benefit as a result of their position. However, in some instances what would otherwise be a breach of this duty can be forgiven and/or authorized in advance by the shareholders provided that there is full disclosure by the directors. This can be done by way of permission granted in the amended and restated memorandum and articles of association or alternatively by shareholder approval at general meetings.
Shareholder Action by Written Consent
Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, a corporation may eliminate the right of shareholders to act by written consent by amendment to its certificate of incorporation. The Articles provide that shareholders may approve corporate matters by way of a unanimous written resolution signed by or on behalf of each shareholder who would have been entitled to vote on such matter at a general meeting without a meeting being held.
Shareholder Proposals
Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, a shareholder has the right to put any proposal before the annual meeting of shareholders, provided it complies with the notice provisions in the governing documents. A special meeting may be called by the board of directors or any other person authorized to do so in the governing documents, but shareholders may be precluded from calling special meetings.
The Cayman Companies Act provides shareholders with only limited rights to requisition a general meeting, and does not provide shareholders with any right to put any proposal before a general meeting. However, these rights may be provided in a company’s articles of association. The Articles do not permit our shareholders to requisition either an annual general meeting or an extraordinary general meeting, or to put forth a proposal at a general meeting. As a Cayman Islands exempted company, we are not obliged by law to call annual general meetings.
Cumulative Voting
Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, cumulative voting for elections of directors is not permitted unless the corporation’s certificate of incorporation specifically provides for it. Cumulative voting potentially facilitates the representation of minority shareholders on a board of directors since it permits the minority shareholder to cast all the votes to which the shareholder is entitled on a single director, which increases the shareholder’s voting power with respect to electing such director. As permitted under Cayman Islands law, the Articles do not provide for cumulative voting. As a result, our shareholders are not afforded any less protections or rights on this issue than shareholders of a Delaware corporation.
Removal of Directors
Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, a director of a corporation with a classified board may be removed only for cause with the approval of a majority of the issued and outstanding shares entitled to vote, unless the certificate of incorporation provides otherwise. Under the Articles, directors may be removed
 
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only for cause by a special resolution (usually a majority of two thirds of the voting shares voted at a general meeting) of our shareholders. A director will also cease to be a director if he or she (i) becomes bankrupt or makes any arrangement or composition with his creditors; (ii) dies or is found to be or becomes of unsound mind; (iii) resigns his office by notice in writing; (iv) the director absents himself or herself (for the avoidance of doubt, without being represented by proxy) from three consecutive meetings of the board of directors without special leave of absence from the directors, and the directors pass a resolution that he or she has by reason of such absence vacated office; or (v) all of the other directors (being not less than two in number) determine that he or she should be removed as a director for “Cause” ​(i.e., a conviction for a criminal offence involving dishonesty or engaging in conduct which brings a director or the Company into disrepute or which results in a material financial detriment to the Company) (and not otherwise), either by a resolution passed by all of the other directors at a meeting of the directors duly convened and held in accordance with the Articles or by a resolution in writing signed by all of the other directors.
Transactions with Interested Shareholders
The Delaware General Corporation Law contains a business combination statute applicable to Delaware corporations whereby, unless the corporation has specifically elected not to be governed by such statute under its certificate of incorporation, it is prohibited from engaging in certain business combinations with an “interested shareholder” for three years following the date that such person becomes an interested shareholder. An interested shareholder generally is a person or a group who or which owns or owned 15% or more of the target’s outstanding voting stock within the past three years. This has the effect of limiting the ability of a potential acquirer to make a two-tiered bid for the target in which all shareholders would not be treated equally. The statute does not apply if, among other things, prior to the date on which such shareholder becomes an interested shareholder, the board of directors approves the transaction which resulted in the person becoming an interested shareholder. This encourages any potential acquirer of a Delaware corporation to negotiate the terms of any acquisition transaction with the target’s board of directors.
Cayman Islands law has no comparable statute. As a result, we cannot avail ourselves of the types of protections afforded by the Delaware business combination statute. However, although Cayman Islands law does not regulate transactions between a company and its significant shareholders, it does provide that such transactions must be entered into bona fide in the best interests of the company and for a proper corporate purpose and not with the effect of constituting a fraud on the minority shareholders.
Dissolution; Winding Up
Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, unless the board of directors approves the proposal to dissolve, dissolution must be approved by shareholders holding 100% of the total voting power of the corporation. Only if the dissolution is initiated by the board of directors may it be approved by a simple majority of the corporation’s outstanding shares. Delaware law allows a Delaware corporation to include in its certificate of incorporation a supermajority voting requirement in connection with dissolutions initiated by the board.
Under Cayman Islands law, a company may be wound up by either an order of the courts of the Cayman Islands or by a special resolution of its members or, if the company is unable to pay its debts as they fall due, by an ordinary resolution of its members. The court has authority to order winding up in a number of specified circumstances including where it is, in the opinion of the court, just and equitable to do so.
Under the Articles, if the Company is wound up, the liquidator of our company may distribute the assets with the sanction of an ordinary resolution of the shareholders and any other sanction required by law.
Variation of Rights of Shares
Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, a corporation may vary the rights of a class of shares with the approval of a majority of the outstanding shares of such class, unless the certificate of incorporation provides otherwise.
 
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Under the Articles, if our share capital is divided into more than one class of shares, the rights attached to any such class may, whether or not the Company is being wound up, be varied without the consent of the holders of the issued shares of that class where such variation is considered by the directors not to have a material adverse effect upon such rights; otherwise, any such variation shall be made only with the consent in writing of the holders of not less than two thirds of the issued shares of that class or with the approval of a resolution passed by a majority of not less than two thirds of the votes cast at a separate meeting of the holders of the shares of that class.
Amendment of Governing Documents
Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, a corporation’s governing documents may be amended with the approval of a majority of the outstanding shares entitled to vote on the matter, unless the certificate of incorporation provides otherwise. As permitted by Cayman Islands law, the Articles may only be amended by a special resolution of the shareholders.
Rights of Non-Resident or Foreign Shareholders
There are no limitations imposed by the Articles on the rights of non-resident or foreign shareholders to hold or exercise voting rights on our shares. In addition, there are no provisions in the Articles governing the ownership threshold above which shareholder ownership must be disclosed.
Directors’ Power to Issue Shares
Subject to applicable law, our board of directors is empowered to issue or allot shares or grant options and warrants with or without preferred, deferred, or other rights or restrictions.
Inspection of Books
Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, any shareholder of a corporation may for any proper purpose inspect or make copies of the corporation’s stock ledger, list of shareholders and other books and records.
Holders of our shares have no general right under Cayman Islands law to inspect or obtain copies of our register of members or our corporate records.
Directors
Appointment and removal
The Directors are divided into three classes designated as Class I, Class II and Class III, respectively. Directors were assigned to each class in accordance with a resolution or resolutions adopted by the board of Directors. At the 2022 annual general meeting of the Company, the term of office of the Class I Directors shall expire and Class I Directors shall be elected for a full term of three years. At the 2023 annual general meeting of the Company, the term of office of the Class II Directors shall expire and Class II Directors shall be elected for a full term of three years. At the 2024 annual general meeting of the Company, the term of office of the Class III Directors shall expire and Class III Directors shall be elected for a full term of three years. At each succeeding annual general meeting of the Company, Directors shall be elected for a full term of three years to succeed the Directors of the class whose terms expire at such annual general meeting. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Article, each Director shall hold office until the expiration of his term, until his successor shall have been duly elected and qualified or until his earlier death, resignation or removal.
There is no cumulative voting with respect to the appointment of directors.
An ordinary resolution under Cayman Islands law, which requires the affirmative vote of a majority of the shareholders who attend and vote at a general meeting of the company, is required to elect a director.
The office of a Director shall be vacated if all of the other Directors (being not less than two in number) determine that he should be removed as a Director for Cause (and not otherwise) (as such term is
 
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defined in our amended and restated memorandum and articles of association), either by a resolution passed by all of the other Directors at a meeting of the Directors duly convened and held in accordance with the Articles or by a resolution in writing signed by all of the other Directors.
Warrants
Public Shareholders’ Warrants
Each whole warrant entitles the registered holder to purchase one ordinary share at a price of  $11.50 per share, subject to adjustment as discussed below, which will become exercisable on February 8, 2022 (one year after the closing of Centricus’ IPO). Pursuant to the Warrant Agreement, a warrantholder may exercise its warrants only for a whole number of ordinary shares. This means only a whole warrant may be exercised at a given time by a warrantholder. The warrants will expire on September 3, 2026 (five years after closing of the Business Combination), at 5:00 p.m., New York City time, or earlier upon redemption or liquidation.
We will not be obligated to deliver any ordinary shares pursuant to the exercise of a warrant and will have no obligation to settle such warrant exercise unless a registration statement under the Securities Act with respect to the ordinary shares underlying the warrants is then effective and a prospectus relating thereto is current, subject to our satisfying our obligations described below with respect to registration, or a valid exemption from registration is available. No warrant will be exercisable and we will not be obligated to issue a ordinary share upon exercise of a warrant unless the ordinary share issuable upon such warrant exercise has been registered, qualified or deemed to be exempt under the securities laws of the state of residence of the registered holder of the warrants. In the event that the conditions in the two immediately preceding sentences are not satisfied with respect to a warrant, the holder of such warrant will not be entitled to exercise such warrant and such warrant may have no value and expire worthless. In no event will we be required to net cash settle any warrant.
We have agreed that as soon as practicable, but in no event later than twenty business days after the closing of the Business Combination, we will use our commercially reasonable efforts to file with the SEC a registration statement for the registration, under the Securities Act, of the ordinary shares issuable upon exercise of the warrants, and we will use our commercially reasonable efforts to cause the same to become effective within 60 business days after the closing of the Business Combination, and to maintain the effectiveness of such registration statement and a current prospectus relating to those ordinary shares until the warrants expire or are redeemed, as specified in the Warrant Agreement; provided that if our ordinary shares are at the time of any exercise of a warrant not listed on a national securities exchange such that they satisfy the definition of a “covered security” under Section 18(b)(1) of the Securities Act, we may, at our option, require holders of public warrants who exercise their warrants to do so on a “cashless basis” in accordance with Section 3(a)(9) of the Securities Act and, in the event we so elect, we will not be required to file or maintain in effect a registration statement, but we will use our commercially reasonable efforts to register or qualify the shares under applicable blue sky laws to the extent an exemption is not available. If a registration statement covering the ordinary shares issuable upon exercise of the warrants is not effective by the 60th day after the closing of the initial business combination, warrantholders may, until such time as there is an effective registration statement and during any period when we will have failed to maintain an effective registration statement, exercise warrants on a “cashless basis” in accordance with Section 3(a)(9) of the Securities Act or another exemption, but we will use our commercially reasonable efforts to register or qualify the shares under applicable blue sky laws to the extent an exemption is not available. In such event, each holder would pay the exercise price by surrendering the warrants for that number of ordinary shares equal to the lesser of  (A) the quotient obtained by dividing (x) the product of the number of ordinary shares underlying the warrants, multiplied by the excess of the “fair market value” ​(defined below) less the exercise price of the warrants by (y) the fair market value and (B) 0.361 per whole warrant. The “fair market value” as used in this paragraph shall mean the volume weighted average price of the ordinary shares for the 10 trading days ending on the trading day prior to the date on which the notice of exercise is received by the warrant agent.
No fractional ordinary shares will be issued upon exercise. If, upon exercise, a holder would be entitled to receive a fractional interest in a share, we will round down to the nearest whole number of the number of ordinary shares to be issued to the holder.
 
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A holder of a warrant may notify us in writing in the event it elects to be subject to a requirement that such holder will not have the right to exercise such warrant, to the extent that after giving effect to such exercise, such person (together with such person’s affiliates), to the warrant agent’s actual knowledge, would beneficially own in excess of 4.9% or 9.8% (as specified by the holder) of the ordinary shares issued and outstanding immediately after giving effect to such exercise.
Redemption of warrants for cash when the price per ordinary share equals or exceeds $18.00.   Once the warrants become exercisable, we may redeem the outstanding warrants (except as described herein with respect to the private placement warrants):

in whole and not in part;

at a price of  $0.01 per warrant;

upon a minimum of 30 days’ prior written notice of redemption to each warrantholder; and

if, and only if, the closing price of the ordinary shares equals or exceeds $18.00 per share (as adjusted for adjustments to the number of shares issuable upon exercise or the exercise price of a warrant as described under the heading “— Warrants — Public Shareholders’ Warrants — Anti-Dilution Adjustments”) for any 20 trading days within a 30-trading day period ending three trading days before we send the notice of redemption to the warrantholders.
We will not redeem the warrants as described above unless a registration statement under the Securities Act covering the issuance of the ordinary shares issuable upon exercise of the warrants is then effective and a current prospectus relating to those ordinary shares is available throughout the 30-day redemption period. If and when the warrants become redeemable by us, we may exercise our redemption right even if we are unable to register or qualify the underlying securities for sale under all applicable state securities laws.
We have established the last of the redemption criteria discussed above to prevent a redemption call unless there is at the time of the call a significant premium to the warrant exercise price. If the foregoing conditions are satisfied and we issue a notice of redemption of the warrants, each warrantholder will be entitled to exercise his, her or its warrant prior to the scheduled redemption date. However, the price of the ordinary shares may fall below the $18.00 redemption trigger price (as adjusted for adjustments to the number of shares issuable upon exercise or the exercise price of a warrant as described under the heading “— Warrants — Public Shareholders’ Warrants — Anti-Dilution Adjustments”) as well as the $11.50 (for whole shares) warrant exercise price after the redemption notice is issued.
Redemption of warrants for ordinary shares when the price per ordinary share equals or exceeds $10.00. Once the warrants become exercisable, we may redeem the outstanding warrants:

in whole and not in part;

at $0.10 per warrant upon a minimum of 30 days’ prior written notice of redemption provided that holders will be able to exercise their warrants on a cashless basis prior to redemption and receive that number of shares determined by reference to the table below, based on the redemption date and the “fair market value” of our ordinary shares (as defined below) except as otherwise described below;

if, and only if, the closing price of our ordinary shares equals or exceeds $10.00 per public share (as adjusted for adjustments to the number of shares issuable upon exercise or the exercise price of a warrant as described under the heading “— Warrants — Public Shareholders’ Warrants — Anti-Dilution Adjustments”) for any 20 trading days within the 30-trading day period ending three trading days before we send the notice of redemption to the warrantholders; and

if the closing price of the ordinary shares for any 20 trading days within a 30-trading day period ending on the third trading day prior to the date on which we send the notice of redemption to the warrantholders is less than $18.00 per share (as adjusted for adjustments to the number of shares issuable upon exercise or the exercise price of a warrant as described under the heading “— Warrants — Public Shareholders’ Warrants — Anti-Dilution Adjustments”), the private placement warrants must also be concurrently called for redemption on the same terms as the outstanding public warrants, as described above.
 
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Beginning on the date the notice of redemption is given until the warrants are redeemed or exercised, holders may elect to exercise their warrants on a cashless basis. The numbers in the table below represent the number of ordinary shares that a warrantholder will receive upon such cashless exercise in connection with a redemption by us pursuant to this redemption feature, based on the “fair market value” of our ordinary shares on the corresponding redemption date (assuming holders elect to exercise their warrants and such warrants are not redeemed for $0.10 per warrant), determined for these purposes based on volume weighted average price of our ordinary shares during the 10 trading days immediately following the date on which the notice of redemption is sent to the holders of warrants, and the number of months that the corresponding redemption date precedes the expiration date of the warrants, each as set forth in the table below. We will provide our warrantholders with the final fair market value no later than one business day after the 10-trading day period described above ends.
The share prices set forth in the column headings of the table below will be adjusted as of any date on which the number of shares issuable upon exercise of a warrant or the exercise price of a warrant is adjusted as set forth under the heading “— Anti-Dilution Adjustments” below. If the number of shares issuable upon exercise of a warrant is adjusted, the adjusted share prices in the column headings will equal the share prices immediately prior to such adjustment, multiplied by a fraction, the numerator of which is the exercise price of the warrant after such adjustment and the denominator of which is the price of the warrant immediately prior to such adjustment. In such an event, the number of shares in the table below shall be adjusted by multiplying such share amounts by a fraction, the numerator of which is the number of shares deliverable upon exercise of a warrant immediately prior to such adjustment and the denominator of which is the number of shares deliverable upon exercise of a warrant as so adjusted. If the exercise price of a warrant is adjusted, (a) in the case of an adjustment pursuant to the fifth paragraph under the heading “— Anti-Dilution Adjustments” below, the adjusted share prices in the column headings will equal the unadjusted share price multiplied by a fraction, the numerator of which is the higher of the Market Value and the Newly Issued Price as set forth under the heading “— Anti-Dilution Adjustments” and the denominator of which is $10.00 and (b) in the case of an adjustment pursuant to the second paragraph under the heading “— Anti-Dilution Adjustments” below, the adjusted share prices in the column headings will equal the unadjusted share price less the decrease in the exercise price of a warrant pursuant to such exercise price adjustment.
Fair Market Value of the Ordinary Shares
Redemption Date (period to expiration of warrants)
≤ $10.00
11.00
12.00
13.00
14.00
15.00
16.00
17.00
≥ 18.00
60 months
0.261 0.281 0.297 0.311 0.324 0.337 0.348 0.358 0.361
57 months
0.257 0.277 0.294 0.310 0.324 0.337 0.348 0.358 0.361
54 months
0.252 0.272 0.291 0.307 0.322 0.335 0.347 0.357 0.361
51 months
0.246 0.268 0.287 0.304 0.320 0.333 0.346 0.357 0.361
48 months
0.241 0.263 0.283 0.301 0.317 0.332 0.344 0.356 0.361
45 months
0.235 0.258 0.279 0.298 0.315 0.330 0.343 0.356 0.361
42 months
0.228 0.252 0.274 0.294 0.312 0.328 0.342 0.355 0.361
39 months
0.221 0.246 0.269 0.290 0.309 0.325 0.340 0.354 0.361
36 months
0.213 0.239 0.263 0.285 0.305 0.323 0.339 0.353 0.361
33 months
0.205 0.232 0.257 0.280 0.301 0.320 0.337 0.352 0.361
30 months
0.196 0.224 0.250 0.274 0.297 0.316 0.335 0.351 0.361
27 months
0.185 0.214 0.242 0.268 0.291 0.313 0.332 0.350 0.361
24 months
0.173 0.204 0.233 0.260 0.285 0.308 0.329 0.348 0.361
21 months
0.161 0.193 0.223 0.252 0.279 0.304 0.326 0.347 0.361
18 months
0.146 0.179 0.211 0.242 0.271 0.298 0.322 0.345 0.361
15 months
0.130 0.164 0.197 0.230 0.262 0.291 0.317 0.342 0.361
12 months
0.111 0.146 0.181 0.216 0.250 0.282 0.312 0.339 0.361
9 months
0.090 0.125 0.162 0.199 0.237 0.272 0.305 0.336 0.361
6 months
0.065 0.099 0.137 0.178 0.219 0.259 0.296 0.331 0.361
3 months
0.034 0.065 0.104 0.150 0.197 0.243 0.286 0.326 0.361
0 months
0.042 0.115 0.179 0.233 0.281 0.323 0.361
 
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The exact fair market value and redemption date may not be set forth in the table above, in which case, if the fair market value is between two values in the table or the redemption date is between two redemption dates in the table, the number of ordinary shares to be issued for each warrant exercised will be determined by a straight-line interpolation between the number of shares set forth for the higher and lower fair market values and the earlier and later redemption dates, as applicable, based on a 365 or 366-day year, as applicable. For example, if the volume weighted average price of our ordinary shares during the 10 trading days immediately following the date on which the notice of redemption is sent to the holders of the warrants is $11.00 per share, and at such time there are 57 months until the expiration of the warrants, holders may choose to, in connection with this redemption feature, exercise their warrants for 0.277 ordinary shares for each whole warrant. For an example where the exact fair market value and redemption date are not as set forth in the table above, if the volume weighted average price of our ordinary shares during the 10 trading days immediately following the date on which the notice of redemption is sent to the holders of the warrants is $13.50 per share, and at such time there are 38 months until the expiration of the warrants, holders may choose to, in connection with this redemption feature, exercise their warrants for 0.298 ordinary shares for each whole warrant. In no event will the warrants be exercisable on a cashless basis in connection with this redemption feature for more than 0.361 ordinary shares per warrant (subject to adjustment). Finally, as reflected in the table above, if the warrants are out of the money and about to expire, they cannot be exercised on a cashless basis in connection with a redemption by us pursuant to this redemption feature, since they will not be exercisable for any ordinary shares.
This redemption feature differs from the typical warrant redemption features used in some other blank check offerings, which only provide for a redemption of warrants for cash (other than the private placement warrants) when the trading price for the ordinary shares exceeds $18.00 per share for a specified period of time. This redemption feature is structured to allow for all of the outstanding warrants to be redeemed when the ordinary shares are trading at or above $10.00 per public share, which may be at a time when the trading price of our ordinary shares is below the exercise price of the warrants. We have established this redemption feature to provide us with the flexibility to redeem the warrants without the warrants having to reach the $18.00 per share threshold set forth above under “— Redemption of warrants for cash when the price per ordinary share equals or exceeds $18.00.” Holders choosing to exercise their warrants in connection with a redemption pursuant to this feature will, in effect, receive a number of shares for their warrants based on an option pricing model with a fixed volatility input as of the date of this prospectus. This redemption right provides us with an additional mechanism by which to redeem all of the outstanding warrants, and therefore have certainty as to our capital structure as the warrants would no longer be outstanding and would have been exercised or redeemed. We will be required to pay the applicable redemption price to warrantholders if we choose to exercise this redemption right and it will allow us to quickly proceed with a redemption of the warrants if we determine it is in our best interest to do so. As such, we would redeem the warrants in this manner when we believe it is in our best interest to update our capital structure to remove the warrants and pay the redemption price to the warrantholders.
As stated above, we can redeem the warrants when the ordinary shares are trading at a price starting at $10.00, which is below the exercise price of  $11.50, because it will provide certainty with respect to our capital structure and cash position while providing warrantholders with the opportunity to exercise their warrants on a cashless basis for the applicable number of shares. If we choose to redeem the warrants when the ordinary shares are trading at a price below the exercise price of the warrants, this could result in the warrantholders receiving fewer ordinary shares than they would have received if they had chosen to wait to exercise their warrants for ordinary shares if and when such ordinary shares were trading at a price higher than the exercise price of  $11.50.
Anti-Dilution Adjustments.   If the number of outstanding ordinary shares is increased by a capitalization or share dividend payable in ordinary shares, or by a split-up of ordinary shares or other similar event, then, on the effective date of such capitalization or share dividend, split-up or similar event, the number of ordinary shares issuable on exercise of each warrant will be increased in proportion to such increase in the outstanding ordinary shares. A rights offering made to all or substantially all holders of ordinary shares entitling holders to purchase ordinary shares at a price less than the “historical fair market value” ​(as defined below) will be deemed a share dividend of a number of ordinary shares equal to the product of  (i) the number of ordinary shares actually sold in such rights offering (or issuable under any other equity securities sold in such rights offering that are convertible into or exercisable for ordinary shares) and
 
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(ii) one minus the quotient of  (x) the price per ordinary share paid in such rights offering and (y) the historical fair market value. For these purposes, (i) if the rights offering is for securities convertible into or exercisable for ordinary shares, in determining the price payable for ordinary shares, there will be taken into account any consideration received for such rights, as well as any additional amount payable upon exercise or conversion and (ii) “historical fair market value” means the volume weighted average price of ordinary shares as reported during the 10 trading day period ending on the trading day prior to the first date on which the ordinary shares trade on the applicable exchange or in the applicable market, regular way, without the right to receive such rights.
In addition, if we, at any time while the warrants are outstanding and unexpired, pay a dividend or make a distribution in cash, securities or other assets to all or substantially all of the holders of the ordinary shares on account of such ordinary shares (or other securities into which the warrants are convertible), other than (a) as described above or (b) any cash dividends or cash distributions which, when combined on a per share basis with all other cash dividends and cash distributions paid on the ordinary shares during the 365-day period ending on the date of declaration of such dividend or distribution does not exceed $0.50 (as adjusted to appropriately reflect any other adjustments and excluding cash dividends or cash distributions that resulted in an adjustment to the exercise price or to the number of ordinary shares issuable on exercise of each warrant) but only with respect to the amount of the aggregate cash dividends or cash distributions equal to or less than $0.50 per share, then the warrant exercise price will be decreased, effective immediately after the effective date of such event, by the amount of cash and/or the fair market value of any securities or other assets paid on each ordinary share in respect of such event.
If the number of outstanding ordinary shares is decreased by a consolidation, combination, reverse share sub-division or reclassification of ordinary shares or other similar event, then, on the effective date of such consolidation, combination, reverse share sub-division, reclassification or similar event, the number of ordinary shares issuable on exercise of each warrant will be decreased in proportion to such decrease in outstanding ordinary shares.
Whenever the number of ordinary shares purchasable upon the exercise of the warrants is adjusted, as described above, the warrant exercise price will be adjusted by multiplying the warrant exercise price immediately prior to such adjustment by a fraction (x) the numerator of which will be the number of ordinary shares purchasable upon the exercise of the warrants immediately prior to such adjustment and (y) the denominator of which will be the number of ordinary shares so purchasable immediately thereafter.
In case of any reclassification or reorganization of the outstanding ordinary shares (other than those described above or that solely affects the par value of such ordinary shares), or in the case of any merger or consolidation of us with or into another corporation (other than a consolidation or merger in which we are the continuing corporation and that does not result in any reclassification or reorganization of our outstanding ordinary shares), or in the case of any sale or conveyance to another corporation or entity of the assets or other property of us as an entirety or substantially as an entirety in connection with which we are dissolved, the holders of the warrants will thereafter have the right to purchase and receive, upon the basis and upon the terms and conditions specified in the warrants and in lieu of the ordinary shares immediately theretofore purchasable and receivable upon the exercise of the rights represented thereby, the kind and amount of ordinary shares or other securities or property (including cash) receivable upon such reclassification, reorganization, merger or consolidation, or upon a dissolution following any such sale or transfer, that the holder of the warrants would have received if such holder had exercised their warrants immediately prior to such event. However, if such holders were entitled to exercise a right of election as to the kind or amount of securities, cash or other assets receivable upon such consolidation or merger, then the kind and amount of securities, cash or other assets for which each warrant will become exercisable will be deemed to be the weighted average of the kind and amount received per share by such holders in such consolidation or merger that affirmatively make such election, and if a tender, exchange or redemption offer has been made to and accepted by such holders (other than a tender, exchange or redemption offer made by the company in connection with redemption rights held by shareholders of the company as provided for in the company’s amended and restated memorandum and articles of association or as a result of the redemption of ordinary shares by the company if a proposed initial business combination is presented to the shareholders of the company for approval) under circumstances in which, upon completion of such tender or exchange offer, the maker thereof, together with members of any group (within the meaning of Rule 13d-5(b)(1) under the Exchange Act) of which such maker is a part, and together with any affiliate or associate
 
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of such maker (within the meaning of Rule 12b-2 under the Exchange Act) and any members of any such group of which any such affiliate or associate is a part, own beneficially (within the meaning of Rule 13d-3 under the Exchange Act) more than 50% of the issued and outstanding ordinary shares, the holder of a warrant will be entitled to receive the highest amount of cash, securities or other property to which such holder would actually have been entitled as a shareholder if such warrantholder had exercised the warrant prior to the expiration of such tender or exchange offer, accepted such offer and all of the ordinary shares held by such holder had been purchased pursuant to such tender or exchange offer, subject to adjustment (from and after the consummation of such tender or exchange offer) as nearly equivalent as possible to the adjustments provided for in the Warrant Agreement. If less than 70% of the consideration receivable by the holders of ordinary shares in such a transaction is payable in the form of ordinary shares in the successor entity that is listed for trading on a national securities exchange or is quoted in an established over-the-counter market, or is to be so listed for trading or quoted immediately following such event, and if the registered holder of the warrant properly exercises the warrant within thirty days following public disclosure of such transaction, the warrant exercise price will be reduced as specified in the Warrant Agreement based on the Black-Scholes value (as defined in the Warrant Agreement) of the warrant. The purpose of such exercise price reduction is to provide additional value to holders of the warrants when an extraordinary transaction occurs during the exercise period of the warrants pursuant to which the holders of the warrants otherwise do not receive the full potential value of the warrants.
The warrants have been issued in registered form under a Warrant Agreement between Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company, as warrant agent, and us. The Warrant Agreement provides that the terms of the warrants may be amended without the consent of any holder for the purpose of (i) curing any ambiguity or correct any mistake, including to conform the provisions of the Warrant Agreement to the description of the terms of the warrants and the Warrant Agreement set forth in this prospectus, or defective provision, (ii) amending the provisions relating to cash dividends on ordinary shares as contemplated by and in accordance with the Warrant Agreement or (iii) adding or changing any provisions with respect to matters or questions arising under the Warrant Agreement as the parties to the Warrant Agreement may deem necessary or desirable and that the parties deem to not adversely affect the rights of the registered holders of the warrants, provided that the approval by the holders of at least 50% of the then-outstanding public warrants is required to make any change that adversely affects the interests of the registered holders. You should review a copy of the Warrant Agreement, which is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, for a complete description of the terms and conditions applicable to the warrants.
The warrantholders do not have the rights or privileges of holders of ordinary shares and any voting rights until they exercise their warrants and receive ordinary shares. After the issuance of ordinary shares upon exercise of the warrants, each holder will be entitled to one vote for each share held of record on all matters to be voted on by shareholders.
If, upon exercise of the warrants, a holder would be entitled to receive a fractional interest in a share, we will, upon exercise, round down to the nearest whole number the number of ordinary shares to be issued to the warrantholder.
Private Placement Warrants
Except as described below, the private placement warrants have terms and provisions that are identical to those of the warrants. The private placement warrants (including the ordinary shares issuable upon exercise of the private placement warrants) will not be redeemable by us (except as described under “— Warrants — Public Shareholders’ Warrants — Redemption of warrants when the price per ordinary share equals or exceeds $10.00”) so long as they are held by the Sponsor or its permitted transferees (except as otherwise set forth herein). The Sponsor, or its permitted transferees, has the option to exercise the private placement warrants on a cashless basis. If the private placement warrants are held by holders other than the Sponsor or its permitted transferees, the private placement warrants will be redeemable by us in all redemption scenarios and exercisable by the holders on the same basis as the warrants.
Except as described above under “— Public Shareholders’ Warrants — Redemption of warrants when the price per ordinary share equals or exceeds $10.00,” if holders of the private placement warrants elect to exercise them on a cashless basis, they would pay the exercise price by surrendering his, her or its warrants for
 
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that number of ordinary shares equal to the quotient obtained by dividing (x) the product of the number of ordinary shares underlying the warrants, multiplied by the excess of the “historical fair market value” (defined below) over the exercise price of the warrants by (y) the historical fair market value. For these purposes, the “historical fair market value” shall mean the average reported closing price of the ordinary shares for the 10 trading days ending on the third trading day prior to the date on which the notice of warrant exercise is sent to the warrant agent or on which the notice of redemption is sent to the holders of warrants, as applicable. We expect to have policies in place that restrict insiders from selling our securities except during specific periods of time. Even during such periods of time when insiders will be permitted to sell our securities, an insider cannot trade in our securities if he or she is in possession of material non-public information. Accordingly, unlike Centricus public shareholders who could exercise their warrants and sell the ordinary shares received upon such exercise freely in the open market in order to recoup the cost of such exercise, the insiders could be significantly restricted from selling such securities. As a result, we believe that allowing the holders to exercise such warrants on a cashless basis is appropriate.
Enforceability of Civil Liability under Cayman Islands Law
The Company has been advised by Maples and Calder (Cayman) LLP, its Cayman Islands legal counsel, that the courts of the Cayman Islands are unlikely (i) to recognize, or enforce against the Company, judgments of courts of the United States predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the United States or any State; and (ii) in original actions brought in the Cayman Islands, to impose liabilities against the Company predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the United States or any State, so far as the liabilities imposed by those provisions are penal in nature. In those circumstances, although there is no statutory enforcement in the Cayman Islands of judgments obtained in the United States, the courts of the Cayman Islands will recognize and enforce a foreign money judgment of a foreign court of competent jurisdiction without retrial on the merits based on the principle that a judgment of a competent foreign court imposes upon the judgment debtor an obligation to pay the sum for which judgment has been given provided certain conditions are met. For a foreign judgment to be enforced in the Cayman Islands, such judgment must be final and conclusive and for a liquidated sum, and must not be in respect of taxes or a fine or penalty, inconsistent with a Cayman Islands judgment in respect of the same matter, impeachable on the grounds of fraud or obtained in a manner, and or be of a kind the enforcement of which is, contrary to natural justice or the public policy of the Cayman Islands (awards of punitive or multiple damages may well be held to be contrary to public policy). A Cayman Islands court may stay enforcement proceedings if concurrent proceedings are being brought elsewhere. There is recent Privy Council authority (which is binding on the Cayman Islands court) in the context of a reorganization plan approved by the New York Bankruptcy Court which suggests that due to the universal nature of bankruptcy/insolvency proceedings, foreign money judgments obtained in foreign bankruptcy/insolvency proceedings may be enforced without applying the principles outlined above. However, a more recent English Supreme Court authority (which is highly persuasive but not binding on the Cayman Islands court), has expressly rejected that approach in the context of a default judgment obtained in an adversary proceeding brought in the New York Bankruptcy Court by the receivers of the bankruptcy debtor against a third party, and which would not have been enforceable upon the application of the traditional common law principles summarized above and held that foreign money judgments obtained in bankruptcy/insolvency proceedings should be enforced by applying the principles set out above, and not by the simple exercise of the Courts’ discretion. Those cases have now been considered by the Cayman Islands court. The Cayman Islands court was not asked to consider the specific question of whether a judgment of a bankruptcy court in an adversary proceeding would be enforceable in the Cayman Islands, but it did endorse the need for active assistance of overseas bankruptcy proceedings. We understand that the Cayman Islands court’s decision in that case has been appealed and it remains the case that the law regarding the enforcement of bankruptcy/insolvency related judgments is still in a state of uncertainty.
Anti-Money Laundering — Cayman Islands
If any person in the Cayman Islands knows or suspects or has reasonable grounds for knowing or suspecting that another person is engaged in criminal conduct or money laundering or is involved with terrorism or terrorist financing and property and the information for that knowledge or suspicion came to their attention in the course of business in the regulated sector, or other trade, profession, business or employment, the person will be required to report such knowledge or suspicion to (i) the Financial Reporting
 
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Authority of the Cayman Islands, pursuant to the Proceeds of Crime Law (2020 Revision) of the Cayman Islands if the disclosure relates to criminal conduct or money laundering, or (ii) a police officer of the rank of constable or higher, or the Financial Reporting Authority, pursuant to the Terrorism Law (2018 Revision) of the Cayman Islands, if the disclosure relates to involvement with terrorism or terrorist financing and property. Such a report shall not be treated as a breach of confidence or of any restriction upon the disclosure of information imposed by any enactment or otherwise.
Data Protection — Cayman Islands
We have certain duties under the Data Protection Act (As Revised) of the Cayman Islands (the “DPL”) based on internationally accepted principles of data privacy.
Privacy Notice
Introduction
This privacy notice puts our shareholders on notice that through your investment in the Company you will provide us with certain personal information which constitutes personal data within the meaning of the DPL (“personal data”). In the following discussion, the “company” refers to us and our affiliates and/or delegates, except where the context requires otherwise.
Investor Data
We will collect, use, disclose, retain and secure personal data to the extent reasonably required only and within the parameters that could be reasonably expected during the normal course of business. We will only process, disclose, transfer or retain personal data to the extent legitimately required to conduct our activities of on an ongoing basis or to comply with legal and regulatory obligations to which we are subject. We will only transfer personal data in accordance with the requirements of the DPL, and will apply appropriate technical and organizational information security measures designed to protect against unauthorized or unlawful processing of the personal data and against the accidental loss, destruction or damage to the personal data.
In our use of this personal data, we will be characterized as a “data controller” for the purposes of the DPL, while our affiliates and service providers who may receive this personal data from us in the conduct of our activities may either act as our “data processors” for the purposes of the DPL or may process personal information for their own lawful purposes in connection with services provided to us.
We may also obtain personal data from other public sources. Personal data includes, without limitation, the following information relating to a shareholder and/or any individuals connected with a shareholder as an investor: name, residential address, email address, contact details, corporate contact information, signature, nationality, place of birth, date of birth, tax identification, credit history, correspondence records, passport number, bank account details, source of funds details and details relating to the shareholder’s investment activity.
Who this Affects
If you are a natural person, this will affect you directly. If you are a corporate investor (including, for these purposes, legal arrangements such as trusts or exempted limited partnerships) that provides us with personal data on individuals connected to you for any reason in relation your investment in the company, this will be relevant for those individuals and you should transmit the content of this Privacy Notice to such individuals or otherwise advise them of its content.
How the Company May Use a Shareholder’s Personal Data
The company, as the data controller, may collect, store and use personal data for lawful purposes, including, in particular:

where this is necessary for the performance of our rights and obligations under any purchase agreements;
 
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where this is necessary for compliance with a legal and regulatory obligation to which we are subject (such as compliance with anti-money laundering and FATCA/CRS requirements); and/or

where this is necessary for the purposes of our legitimate interests and such interests are not overridden by your interests, fundamental rights or freedoms.
Should we wish to use personal data for other specific purposes (including, if applicable, any purpose that requires your consent), we will contact you.
Why We May Transfer Your Personal Data
In certain circumstances we may be legally obliged to share personal data and other information with respect to your shareholding with the relevant regulatory authorities such as the Cayman Islands Monetary Authority or the Tax Information Authority. They, in turn, may exchange this information with foreign authorities, including tax authorities.
We anticipate disclosing personal data to persons who provide services to us and their respective affiliates (which may include certain entities located outside the United States, the Cayman Islands or the European Economic Area), who will process your personal data on our behalf.
The Data Protection Measures We Take
Any transfer of personal data by us or our duly authorized affiliates and/or delegates outside of the Cayman Islands shall be in accordance with the requirements of the DPL.
We and our duly authorized affiliates and/or delegates shall apply appropriate technical and organizational information security measures designed to protect against unauthorized or unlawful processing of personal data, and against accidental loss or destruction of, or damage to, personal data.
We shall notify you of any personal data breach that is reasonably likely to result in a risk to your interests, fundamental rights or freedoms or those data subjects to whom the relevant personal data relates.
 
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BENEFICIAL OWNERSHIP OF SECURITIES
The following table sets forth information regarding the beneficial ownership of the Company as of December 14, 2021 by:

each beneficial owner of more than 5% of the outstanding the Company’s Ordinary Shares;

each executive officer or a director of the Company; and

all of the Company’s executive officers and directors as a group.
Beneficial ownership is determined according to the rules of the SEC, which generally provide that a person has beneficial ownership of a security if he, she or it possesses sole or shared voting or investment power over that security, including options and warrants that are currently exercisable or exercisable within 60 days.
Each Company ordinary share will entitle the holder to one vote.
Beneficial ownership percentages are based on a total of 134,965,070 ordinary shares, which includes (i) 120,073,430 ordinary shares issued and outstanding as of December 14, 2021, and (ii) 14,891,640 warrants that will become exercisable on February 8, 2022.
Number of
Ordinary Shares
Approximate
Percentage of
Outstanding
Ordinary Shares
Five Percent Holders:
D2BW Limited(1)
30,304,808 22.5%
David Williams(2)
45,139,805 33.4%
David Bestwick(2)
38,387,742 28.4%
Notion Capital III GP LLP(3)
16,192,494 12.0%
The Evolution Technology Fund II, SCSp.(4)
9,931,461 7.4%
Centricus Heritage LLC(5)
14,851,667 11.0%
Heritage Assets SCSP(6)
17,919,716 13.4%
Directors and Executive Officers(7):
David Williams(2)
45,139,805 33.4%
David Bestwick(2)
38,387,742 28.4%
Nick Pointon
Carlo Calabria(8)
2,443,837 1.8%
Stephen Chandler
Manfredi Lefebvre d’Ovidio(6)
17,919,716 13.4%
Lt General VeraLinn Jamieson
Garth Ritchie
148,105
*
General Stephen Wilson
Air Vice-Marshal Peter Rochelle
Paul Feenan
Dr. Daniel Shiu
Patrick Willcocks
All directors and executive officers of the Company as a group
73,734,397 54.6%
(1)
The business address for D2BW Limited is 1st Floor, 3 More London Riverside, London SE1 2RE, United Kingdom. David Williams and David Bestwick are the beneficial owners of D2BW Limited, and have shared investment and voting power over the shares held by D2BW Limited.
 
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(2)
The business address for each of David Williams and David Bestwick is 1st Floor, 3 More London Riverside, London SE1 2RE, United Kingdom. Includes 30,304,808 shares held by D2BW Limited, of which David Williams and David Bestwick are the beneficial owners and have shared investment and voting power over the shares held by D2BW Limited.
(3)
The business address for Notion Capital III GP LLP is 91 Wimpole Street, London W1G 0EF, United Kingdom. Includes 15,948,285 shares held by Notion Capital III GP LLP and 244,209 shares held by MNL Nominees Limited over which Notion Capital Managers LLP has sole investment and voting power. The investment decisions of Notion Capital Managers LLP are made by the majority vote of an investment committee comprised of five members, including Stephen Chandler. Under the so-called “rule of three,” if voting and dispositive decisions regarding an entity’s securities are made by three or more individuals, and a voting or dispositive decision requires the approval of at least a majority of those individuals, then none of the individuals is deemed a beneficial owner of the entity’s securities. Based upon the foregoing analysis, no individual member of the investment committee of Notion Capital Managers LLP exercises voting or dispositive control over any of the securities over which it holds sole investment and voting power. Accordingly, Mr. Chandler is not deemed to have or share beneficial ownership of such shares.
(4)
The business address for The Evolution Technology Fund II, SCSp. is 15 Boulevard F.W. Raiffeisen, L-2411 Luxembourg. Evolution Equity Partners II Sarl is the general partner of The Evolution Technology Fund II, SCSp. and has sole investment and voting power over the shares held by The Evolution Technology Fund II, SCSp.
(5)
The business address for Centricus Heritage LLC is c/o Maples Corporate Services Limited, P.O. Box 309, Ugland House, Grand Cayman, KY1-1104, Cayman Islands. Includes 6,266,667 warrants which will become exercisable on February 8, 2022. Heritage Assets SCSP, Centricus Partners LP and Mr. Calabria are deemed to have beneficial ownership of 3,609,000, 3,317,000, and 1,659,000 shares, respectively, and Heritage Assets SCSP is deemed to have beneficial ownership of 6,266,667 warrants, which are expected to be distributed by Centricus Heritage LLC to those parties within the next 60 days.
(6)
The business address for Heritage Assets SCSP is c/o Heritage Services SAM Attn: Cristina Levis, 7 Rue Du Gabian, 98000, Monaco. Includes 8,044,049 shares currently held by Heritage Assets SCSP, 3,609,000 shares and 6,266,667 warrants (which will become exercisable on February 8, 2022) expected to be distributed to Heritage Assets SCSP by Centricus Heritage LLC within the next 60 days, over which Mr. Lefebvre d’Ovidio has sole investment and voting power.
(7)
The business address for each of the directors and executive officers of the Company is 1st Floor, 3 More London Riverside, London SE1 2RE, United Kingdom.
(8)
Includes 1,659,000 shares which are expected to be distributed by Centricus Heritage LLC to Mr. Calabria within the next 60 days.
 
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SELLING SECURITYHOLDERS
On September 3, 2021, we consummated the Business Combination.
The Selling Securityholders may offer and sell, from time to time, any or all of the ordinary shares or warrants being offered for resale by this prospectus.
The term “Selling Securityholders” includes the securityholders listed in the table below and their permitted transferees.
The table below provides, as of the date of this prospectus, information regarding the beneficial ownership of our ordinary shares and warrants of each Selling Securityholder, the number of ordinary shares and warrants that may be sold by each Selling Securityholder under this prospectus and that each Selling Securityholder will beneficially own after this offering. Beneficial ownership percentages are based on a total of 134,965,070 ordinary shares, which includes (i) 120,073,430 ordinary shares issued and outstanding as of December 14, 2021, and (ii) 14,891,640 warrants that will become exercisable on February 8, 2022.
Because each Selling Securityholder may dispose of all, none or some portion of their securities, no estimate can be given as to the number of securities that will be beneficially owned by a Selling Securityholder upon termination of this offering. For purposes of the table below, however, we have assumed that after termination of this offering none of the securities covered by this prospectus will be beneficially owned by the Selling Securityholder and further assumed that the Selling Securityholders will not acquire beneficial ownership of any additional securities during the offering. In addition, the Selling Securityholders may have sold, transferred or otherwise disposed of, or may sell, transfer or otherwise dispose of, at any time and from time to time, our securities in transactions exempt from the registration requirements of the Securities Act after the date on which the information in the table is presented.
Ordinary Shares
Warrants
Name
Beneficially
Owned
Prior to
Offering
Number
Registered
for Sale
Hereby
Beneficially
Owned
After
Offering
Beneficially
Owned
Prior to
Offering
Number
Registered
for Sale
Hereby
Beneficially
Owned
After
Offering
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Adam Hall(1)(25)
502,386 * 502,386
Anatino Properties Limited(2)
108,000 * 78,000