8.926.633.298.926.633.290001850235FYfalseW8TRTRtrueP1YP14D00.200.200.010.010.101749330007001270000.1011380006630000.100.100.101300017000280008000P14D0001850235ifrs-full:FixturesAndFittingsMemberifrs-full:TopOfRangeMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:FixturesAndFittingsMemberifrs-full:BottomOfRangeMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:MotorVehiclesMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:LeaseholdImprovementsMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:ComputerSoftwareMemberifrs-full:TopOfRangeMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:ComputerSoftwareMemberifrs-full:BottomOfRangeMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:CapitalisedDevelopmentExpenditureMemberifrs-full:TopOfRangeMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:CapitalisedDevelopmentExpenditureMemberifrs-full:BottomOfRangeMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:LaterThanThreeYearsAndNotLaterThanFourYearsMember2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:LaterThanFourYearsAndNotLaterThanFiveYearsMember2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:LaterThanTwoYearsAndNotLaterThanThreeYearsMember2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:LaterThanThreeYearsAndNotLaterThanFourYearsMember2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:LaterThanOneYearAndNotLaterThanTwoYearsMember2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:LaterThanFourYearsAndNotLaterThanFiveYearsMember2021-12-310001850235heps:MerchandiseSuppliersMember2022-12-310001850235heps:MerchandiseSuppliersMember2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:FinancialLiabilitiesMemberifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMembercurrency:USD2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:FinancialLiabilitiesMemberifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMembercurrency:GBP2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:FinancialLiabilitiesMemberifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMembercurrency:EUR2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:FinancialLiabilitiesMemberifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMembercurrency:CHF2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:FinancialAssetsMemberifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMembercurrency:USD2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:FinancialAssetsMemberifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMembercurrency:GBP2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:FinancialAssetsMemberifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMembercurrency:EUR2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:FinancialAssetsMemberifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMembercurrency:CHF2022-12-310001850235heps:TradeReceivablesAndDueFromRelatedPartiesMemberifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMembercurrency:USD2022-12-310001850235heps:TradeReceivablesAndDueFromRelatedPartiesMemberifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMembercurrency:EUR2022-12-310001850235heps:TradeReceivablesAndDueFromRelatedPartiesMemberifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMembercurrency:CHF2022-12-310001850235heps:TradePayableAndDueToRelatedPartiesMemberifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMembercurrency:USD2022-12-310001850235heps:TradePayableAndDueToRelatedPartiesMemberifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMembercurrency:GBP2022-12-310001850235heps:TradePayableAndDueToRelatedPartiesMemberifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMembercurrency:EUR2022-12-310001850235heps:TradePayableAndDueToRelatedPartiesMemberifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMembercurrency:CHF2022-12-310001850235heps:ShortTermProvisionsMemberifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMembercurrency:USD2022-12-310001850235heps:IfrsOtherCurrentAssetsMemberifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMembercurrency:USD2022-12-310001850235heps:IfrsCashAndCashEquivalentsMemberifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMembercurrency:USD2022-12-310001850235heps:IfrsCashAndCashEquivalentsMemberifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMembercurrency:GBP2022-12-310001850235heps:IfrsCashAndCashEquivalentsMemberifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMembercurrency:EUR2022-12-310001850235heps:IfrsCashAndCashEquivalentsMemberifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMembercurrency:CHF2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:FinancialLiabilitiesMemberifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMember2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:FinancialAssetsMemberifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMember2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMembercurrency:USD2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMembercurrency:GBP2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMembercurrency:EUR2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMembercurrency:CHF2022-12-310001850235heps:TradeReceivablesAndDueFromRelatedPartiesMemberifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMember2022-12-310001850235heps:TradePayableAndDueToRelatedPartiesMemberifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMember2022-12-310001850235heps:ShortTermProvisionsMemberifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMember2022-12-310001850235heps:IfrsOtherCurrentAssetsMemberifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMember2022-12-310001850235heps:IfrsCashAndCashEquivalentsMemberifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMember2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMember2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:FinancialLiabilitiesMemberifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMembercurrency:USD2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:FinancialLiabilitiesMemberifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMembercurrency:GBP2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:FinancialLiabilitiesMemberifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMembercurrency:EUR2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:FinancialLiabilitiesMemberifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMembercurrency:CHF2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:FinancialAssetsMemberifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMembercurrency:USD2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:FinancialAssetsMemberifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMembercurrency:GBP2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:FinancialAssetsMemberifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMembercurrency:EUR2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:FinancialAssetsMemberifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMembercurrency:CHF2021-12-310001850235heps:TradeReceivablesAndDueFromRelatedPartiesMemberifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMembercurrency:USD2021-12-310001850235heps:TradeReceivablesAndDueFromRelatedPartiesMemberifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMembercurrency:EUR2021-12-310001850235heps:TradePayableAndDueToRelatedPartiesMemberifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMembercurrency:USD2021-12-310001850235heps:TradePayableAndDueToRelatedPartiesMemberifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMembercurrency:GBP2021-12-310001850235heps:TradePayableAndDueToRelatedPartiesMemberifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMembercurrency:EUR2021-12-310001850235heps:TradePayableAndDueToRelatedPartiesMemberifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMembercurrency:CHF2021-12-310001850235heps:IfrsOtherCurrentAssetsMemberifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMembercurrency:USD2021-12-310001850235heps:IfrsCashAndCashEquivalentsMemberifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMembercurrency:USD2021-12-310001850235heps:IfrsCashAndCashEquivalentsMemberifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMembercurrency:GBP2021-12-310001850235heps:IfrsCashAndCashEquivalentsMemberifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMembercurrency:EUR2021-12-310001850235heps:IfrsCashAndCashEquivalentsMemberifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMembercurrency:CHF2021-12-310001850235heps:FinancialInvestmentsMemberifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMembercurrency:USD2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:FinancialLiabilitiesMemberifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMember2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:FinancialAssetsMemberifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMember2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMembercurrency:USD2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMembercurrency:GBP2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMembercurrency:EUR2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMembercurrency:CHF2021-12-310001850235heps:TradeReceivablesAndDueFromRelatedPartiesMemberifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMember2021-12-310001850235heps:TradePayableAndDueToRelatedPartiesMemberifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMember2021-12-310001850235heps:IfrsOtherCurrentAssetsMemberifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMember2021-12-310001850235heps:IfrsCashAndCashEquivalentsMemberifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMember2021-12-310001850235heps:FinancialInvestmentsMemberifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMember2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:CurrencyRiskMember2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberifrs-full:VehiclesMember2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberifrs-full:FixturesAndFittingsMember2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberifrs-full:ComputerSoftwareMember2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberifrs-full:BuildingsMember2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMemberifrs-full:VehiclesMember2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMemberifrs-full:FixturesAndFittingsMember2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMemberifrs-full:ComputerSoftwareMember2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMemberifrs-full:BuildingsMember2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberifrs-full:VehiclesMember2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberifrs-full:FixturesAndFittingsMember2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberifrs-full:ComputerSoftwareMember2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberifrs-full:BuildingsMember2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMemberifrs-full:VehiclesMember2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMemberifrs-full:FixturesAndFittingsMember2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMemberifrs-full:ComputerSoftwareMember2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMemberifrs-full:BuildingsMember2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberifrs-full:VehiclesMember2020-12-310001850235ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberifrs-full:FixturesAndFittingsMember2020-12-310001850235ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberifrs-full:ComputerSoftwareMember2020-12-310001850235ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberifrs-full:BuildingsMember2020-12-310001850235ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMemberifrs-full:VehiclesMember2020-12-310001850235ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMemberifrs-full:FixturesAndFittingsMember2020-12-310001850235ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMemberifrs-full:ComputerSoftwareMember2020-12-310001850235ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMemberifrs-full:BuildingsMember2020-12-310001850235heps:DorukFinansmanA.Member2022-01-012022-12-310001850235heps:SalesRevenueGoodsNetMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235heps:OtherRevenuesMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235heps:MarketRevenueMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235heps:DeliveryServiceRevenuesMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235heps:SalesRevenueGoodsNetMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235heps:OtherRevenuesMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235heps:MarketRevenueMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235heps:DeliveryServiceRevenuesMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235heps:SalesRevenueGoodsNetMember2020-01-012020-12-310001850235heps:OtherRevenuesMember2020-01-012020-12-310001850235heps:MarketRevenueMember2020-01-012020-12-310001850235heps:DeliveryServiceRevenuesMember2020-01-012020-12-310001850235heps:HepsiFinansalDanmanlkMember2022-12-312022-12-310001850235heps:DorukFinansmanA.Member2022-12-312022-12-310001850235heps:DOdemeElektronikParaVeOdemeHizmetleriA.s.Member2022-12-312022-12-310001850235heps:DFastDagtmHizmetleriVeLojistikA.s.Member2022-12-312022-12-310001850235heps:DoanIrketlerGrubuHoldingA.Memberheps:DorukFinansmanA.Memberheps:DorukFinansmanA.Member2022-02-282022-02-280001850235heps:HepsiFinansalDanmanlkMember2021-12-312021-12-310001850235heps:DOdemeElektronikParaVeOdemeHizmetleriA.s.Member2021-12-312021-12-310001850235heps:DFastDagtmHizmetleriVeLojistikA.s.Member2021-12-312021-12-310001850235heps:DoganSirketlerGrubuHoldingA.s.DoganDisTicaretVeMumessillikA.s.AndDoganFamilyIndividualsMemberheps:DorukFinansmanA.Memberheps:DorukFinansmanA.Member2021-12-162021-12-160001850235heps:EvimizDekorasyonInternetHizmetleriVeDanmanlkTicaretA.s.Member2020-12-312020-12-310001850235heps:DOdemeElektronikParaVeOdemeHizmetleriA.s.Member2020-12-312020-12-310001850235heps:DFastDagtmHizmetleriVeLojistikA.s.Member2020-12-312020-12-310001850235heps:AltncCaddeElektronikTicaretA.s.Member2020-12-312020-12-310001850235ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberifrs-full:MotorVehiclesMember2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberifrs-full:LeaseholdImprovementsMember2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberifrs-full:FixturesAndFittingsMember2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMemberifrs-full:MotorVehiclesMember2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMemberifrs-full:LeaseholdImprovementsMember2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMemberifrs-full:FixturesAndFittingsMember2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberifrs-full:MotorVehiclesMember2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberifrs-full:LeaseholdImprovementsMember2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberifrs-full:FixturesAndFittingsMember2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMemberifrs-full:MotorVehiclesMember2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMemberifrs-full:LeaseholdImprovementsMember2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMemberifrs-full:FixturesAndFittingsMember2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberifrs-full:MotorVehiclesMember2020-12-310001850235ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberifrs-full:LeaseholdImprovementsMember2020-12-310001850235ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberifrs-full:FixturesAndFittingsMember2020-12-310001850235ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberheps:AdvanceGivenForPurchaseOfPropertyPlantAndEquipmentMember2020-12-310001850235ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMemberifrs-full:MotorVehiclesMember2020-12-310001850235ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMemberifrs-full:LeaseholdImprovementsMember2020-12-310001850235ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMemberifrs-full:FixturesAndFittingsMember2020-12-310001850235heps:NotificationReceivedForNonComplianceUnderRepealedCommuniqueOnManagementAndSupervisionOfItSystemsOfPaymentInstitutionsAndElectronicMoneyInstitutionsMember2023-04-280001850235heps:LegalDisputesProvisionMember2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:LegalProceedingsProvisionMember2022-12-020001850235ifrs-full:LegalProceedingsProvisionMember2021-12-310001850235heps:LegalDisputesProvisionMember2021-12-310001850235heps:LegalDisputesProvisionMember2020-12-310001850235ifrs-full:RetainedEarningsMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:RetainedEarningsMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:RetainedEarningsMember2020-01-012020-12-3100018502352021-05-250001850235heps:KeyManagementPersonnelWhoBecameEntitledUnderIndividualContractsMemberheps:ClassBOrdinarySharesMemberifrs-full:SharebasedPaymentArrangementsMember2023-01-312023-01-310001850235heps:KeyManagementPersonnelDeterminedAsHavingSuccessfullyMetYearEndTargetsMemberheps:ClassBOrdinarySharesMemberifrs-full:SharebasedPaymentArrangementsMember2023-01-312023-01-310001850235heps:PostEmploymentBenefitsMember2022-12-310001850235heps:PostEmploymentBenefitsMember2021-12-310001850235heps:PostEmploymentBenefitsMember2020-12-310001850235ifrs-full:ShorttermBorrowingsMember2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:LeaseLiabilitiesMember2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:ShorttermBorrowingsMember2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:LeaseLiabilitiesMember2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:ShorttermBorrowingsMember2020-12-310001850235ifrs-full:LeaseLiabilitiesMember2020-12-310001850235ifrs-full:ShorttermBorrowingsMember2019-12-310001850235ifrs-full:LeaseLiabilitiesMember2019-12-310001850235ifrs-full:SharePremiumMember2021-07-062021-07-060001850235ifrs-full:IssuedCapitalMember2021-07-062021-07-060001850235ifrs-full:SharePremiumMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:IssuedCapitalMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235heps:YasarBegumhanDoganFaralyalMember2022-12-310001850235heps:VuslatDoganSabancMember2022-12-310001850235heps:TurkcommerceB.vMember2022-12-310001850235heps:PublicSharesMember2022-12-310001850235heps:IslDoganMember2022-12-310001850235heps:HanzadeVasfiyeDoganBoynerMember2022-12-310001850235heps:ArzuhanDoganYalcndagMember2022-12-310001850235heps:YasarBegumhanDoganFaralyalMember2021-12-310001850235heps:VuslatDoganSabancMember2021-12-310001850235heps:TurkcommerceB.vMember2021-12-310001850235heps:PublicSharesMember2021-12-310001850235heps:IslDoganMember2021-12-310001850235heps:HanzadeVasfiyeDoganBoynerMember2021-12-310001850235heps:ArzuhanDoganYalcndagMember2021-12-3100018502352021-07-050001850235ifrs-full:AccumulatedImpairmentMember2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:AccumulatedImpairmentMember2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:AccumulatedImpairmentMember2020-12-310001850235ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberifrs-full:OtherIntangibleAssetsMember2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberifrs-full:ComputerSoftwareMember2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberifrs-full:CapitalisedDevelopmentExpenditureMember2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMemberifrs-full:ComputerSoftwareMember2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMemberifrs-full:CapitalisedDevelopmentExpenditureMember2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:IntangibleAssetsUnderDevelopmentMember2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMember2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:GoodwillMember2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMember2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberifrs-full:OtherIntangibleAssetsMember2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberifrs-full:ComputerSoftwareMember2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberifrs-full:CapitalisedDevelopmentExpenditureMember2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMemberifrs-full:ComputerSoftwareMember2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMemberifrs-full:CapitalisedDevelopmentExpenditureMember2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:IntangibleAssetsUnderDevelopmentMember2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMember2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMember2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberifrs-full:OtherIntangibleAssetsMember2020-12-310001850235ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberifrs-full:ComputerSoftwareMember2020-12-310001850235ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberifrs-full:CapitalisedDevelopmentExpenditureMember2020-12-310001850235ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMemberifrs-full:ComputerSoftwareMember2020-12-310001850235ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMemberifrs-full:CapitalisedDevelopmentExpenditureMember2020-12-310001850235ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMember2020-12-310001850235ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMember2020-12-310001850235ifrs-full:OtherReservesMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:OtherReservesMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235heps:ClassBOrdinarySharesMember2021-07-052021-07-050001850235ifrs-full:LaterThanOneYearAndNotLaterThanFiveYearsMember2021-12-310001850235heps:InvestmentFundMemberifrs-full:Level1OfFairValueHierarchyMember2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:Level1OfFairValueHierarchyMember2022-12-310001850235heps:InvestmentFundMember2022-12-310001850235heps:InvestmentFundMemberifrs-full:Level1OfFairValueHierarchyMember2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:Level1OfFairValueHierarchyMember2021-12-310001850235heps:InvestmentFundMember2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:KeyManagementPersonnelOfEntityOrParentMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:KeyManagementPersonnelOfEntityOrParentMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235heps:TurkcommerceB.vMember2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:SharePremiumMember2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:RetainedEarningsMember2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:OtherReservesMember2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:IssuedCapitalMember2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:SharePremiumMember2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:RetainedEarningsMember2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:OtherReservesMember2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:IssuedCapitalMember2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:SharePremiumMember2020-12-310001850235ifrs-full:RetainedEarningsMember2020-12-310001850235ifrs-full:IssuedCapitalMember2020-12-310001850235ifrs-full:SharePremiumMember2019-12-310001850235ifrs-full:RetainedEarningsMember2019-12-310001850235ifrs-full:IssuedCapitalMember2019-12-310001850235ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberheps:AdvanceGivenForPurchaseOfPropertyPlantAndEquipmentMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMemberifrs-full:VehiclesMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMemberifrs-full:FixturesAndFittingsMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMemberifrs-full:ComputerSoftwareMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMemberifrs-full:VehiclesMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMemberifrs-full:FixturesAndFittingsMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMemberifrs-full:ComputerSoftwareMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMemberifrs-full:BuildingsMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMemberifrs-full:MotorVehiclesMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMemberifrs-full:LeaseholdImprovementsMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMemberifrs-full:FixturesAndFittingsMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMemberifrs-full:MotorVehiclesMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMemberifrs-full:LeaseholdImprovementsMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMemberifrs-full:FixturesAndFittingsMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235heps:UnusedVacationMember2022-12-310001850235heps:PersonnelBonusMember2022-12-310001850235heps:UnusedVacationMember2021-12-310001850235heps:PersonnelBonusMember2021-12-310001850235heps:UnusedVacationMember2020-12-310001850235heps:PersonnelBonusMember2020-12-310001850235ifrs-full:FinancialAssetsAtFairValueThroughProfitOrLossCategoryMember2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:FinancialAssetsAtFairValueThroughProfitOrLossCategoryMember2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:FinancialAssetsAtAmortisedCostCategoryMember2021-12-310001850235heps:DorukFinansmanA.Member2022-02-282022-02-2800018502352019-12-310001850235heps:ShortTermSupplierMerchantAndFinancingLoansMember2022-12-310001850235heps:ShortTermSupplierMerchantAndFinancingLoansMember2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:NotLaterThanOneYearMember2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:LaterThanTwoYearsAndNotLaterThanThreeYearsMember2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:LaterThanOneYearAndNotLaterThanTwoYearsMember2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:NotLaterThanOneYearMember2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:LaterThanThreeMonthsAndNotLaterThanOneYearMember2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:LaterThanOneYearAndNotLaterThanFiveYearsMember2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:LaterThanThreeMonthsAndNotLaterThanOneYearMember2021-12-310001850235heps:TimeDepositsMembercurrency:USD2022-12-310001850235heps:TimeDepositsMembercurrency:TRY2022-12-310001850235heps:DemandDepositsMembercurrency:USD2022-12-310001850235heps:DemandDepositsMembercurrency:TRY2022-12-310001850235heps:OtherForeignCurrencyDepositsMember2022-12-310001850235heps:TimeDepositsMembercurrency:USD2021-12-310001850235heps:TimeDepositsMembercurrency:TRY2021-12-310001850235heps:DemandDepositsMembercurrency:USD2021-12-310001850235heps:DemandDepositsMembercurrency:TRY2021-12-310001850235heps:OtherForeignCurrencyDepositsMember2021-12-3100018502352020-12-312020-12-3100018502352019-01-012019-12-3100018502352018-01-012018-12-3100018502352006-01-012006-01-010001850235heps:DoganDsTicaretVeMumessillikA.s.Member2022-12-310001850235heps:DoganBurdaDergiYaynclkVePazarlamaA.sMember2022-12-310001850235heps:DElektronikSansOyunlarVeYaynclkA.s.Member2022-12-310001850235heps:DoganDsTicaretVeMumessillikA.s.Member2021-12-310001850235heps:DoganBurdaDergiYaynclkVePazarlamaA.sMember2021-12-310001850235heps:DElektronikSansOyunlarVeYaynclkA.s.Member2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:OtherRelatedPartiesMember2022-12-310001850235heps:DoganSirketlerGrubuHoldingA.s.Member2022-12-310001850235heps:DoganPortalVeElektronikTicaretA.s.Member2022-12-310001850235heps:DoanYaynlarYaynclkVeYapmclkTicaretA..DoanYaynclkMember2022-12-310001850235heps:DoanMzikYapmVeTicaretA..Member2022-12-310001850235heps:DGayrimenkulYatrmlarVeTicaretA.sMember2022-12-310001850235heps:AytemizAkaryaktDatmA..Member2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:OtherRelatedPartiesMember2021-12-310001850235heps:DorukFactoringA.sMember2021-12-310001850235heps:DoganPortalVeElektronikTicaretA.s.Member2021-12-310001850235heps:DoanYaynlarYaynclkVeYapmclkTicaretA..DoanYaynclkMember2021-12-310001850235heps:DoanMzikYapmVeTicaretA..Member2021-12-310001850235heps:DGayrimenkulYatrmlarVeTicaretA.sMember2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMemberifrs-full:ComputerSoftwareMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMemberifrs-full:CapitalisedDevelopmentExpenditureMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMemberifrs-full:ComputerSoftwareMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMemberifrs-full:CapitalisedDevelopmentExpenditureMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:TradeReceivablesMember2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:TradeReceivablesMember2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:TradeReceivablesMember2020-12-310001850235ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberifrs-full:VehiclesMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberifrs-full:FixturesAndFittingsMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberifrs-full:VehiclesMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberifrs-full:FixturesAndFittingsMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberifrs-full:ComputerSoftwareMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberifrs-full:MotorVehiclesMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberifrs-full:LeaseholdImprovementsMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberifrs-full:MotorVehiclesMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberifrs-full:LeaseholdImprovementsMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberifrs-full:FixturesAndFittingsMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberifrs-full:OtherIntangibleAssetsMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberifrs-full:CapitalisedDevelopmentExpenditureMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberifrs-full:OtherIntangibleAssetsMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberifrs-full:ComputerSoftwareMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberifrs-full:CapitalisedDevelopmentExpenditureMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberifrs-full:FixturesAndFittingsMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberifrs-full:ComputerSoftwareMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:GoodwillMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:SharebasedPaymentArrangementsMember2023-01-312023-01-310001850235ifrs-full:AccumulatedImpairmentMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:AccumulatedImpairmentMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235heps:DorukFinansmanA.Member2021-12-160001850235currency:TRY2022-12-310001850235currency:USD2021-12-310001850235currency:TRY2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:UnusedTaxLossesMember2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:UnusedTaxCreditsMember2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:OtherTemporaryDifferencesMember2022-12-310001850235heps:TradePayablesAndPayablesToMerchantsMember2022-12-310001850235heps:RightOfUseAssetsAndRelatedLeaseLiabilitiesMember2022-12-310001850235heps:ProvisionForImpairmentOfTradeGoodsMember2022-12-310001850235heps:PropertyAndEquipmentAndIntangibleAssetsMember2022-12-310001850235heps:PrepaidExpensesMember2022-12-310001850235heps:AccruedExpensesContractLiabilitiesAndMerchantAdvancesMember2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:UnusedTaxLossesMember2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:UnusedTaxCreditsMember2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:OtherTemporaryDifferencesMember2021-12-310001850235heps:TradePayablesAndPayablesToMerchantsMember2021-12-310001850235heps:RightOfUseAssetsAndRelatedLeaseLiabilitiesMember2021-12-310001850235heps:ProvisionForImpairmentOfTradeGoodsMember2021-12-310001850235heps:PropertyAndEquipmentAndIntangibleAssetsMember2021-12-310001850235heps:PrepaidExpensesMember2021-12-310001850235heps:AccruedExpensesContractLiabilitiesAndMerchantAdvancesMember2021-12-310001850235heps:SuzukiMotorluAraclarPazarlamaA.sMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235heps:MiltaTurizmLetmeleriA..Member2022-01-012022-12-310001850235heps:GlokalDijitalHizmetlerVePazarlamaA.sMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235heps:DoganPortalVeElektronikTicaretA.s.Member2022-01-012022-12-310001850235heps:DElektronikSansOyunlarVeYaynclkA.s.Member2022-01-012022-12-310001850235heps:DegerMerkeziHizmetlerVeYonetimA.sMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235heps:AydnDoganVakfMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235heps:SuzukiMotorluAraclarPazarlamaA.sMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235heps:MiltaTurizmLetmeleriA..Member2021-01-012021-12-310001850235heps:GlokalDijitalHizmetlerVePazarlamaA.sMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235heps:DoganPortalVeElektronikTicaretA.s.Member2021-01-012021-12-310001850235heps:DElektronikSansOyunlarVeYaynclkA.s.Member2021-01-012021-12-310001850235heps:DegerMerkeziHizmetlerVeYonetimA.sMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235heps:AydnDoganVakfMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235heps:SuzukiMotorluAraclarPazarlamaA.sMember2020-01-012020-12-310001850235heps:MiltaTurizmLetmeleriA..Member2020-01-012020-12-310001850235heps:GlokalDijitalHizmetlerVePazarlamaA.sMember2020-01-012020-12-310001850235heps:DoganPortalVeElektronikTicaretA.s.Member2020-01-012020-12-310001850235heps:DoanTrendOtomotivTic.Hiz.VeTek.A..Member2020-01-012020-12-310001850235heps:DElektronikSansOyunlarVeYaynclkA.s.Member2020-01-012020-12-310001850235heps:DegerMerkeziHizmetlerVeYonetimA.sMember2020-01-012020-12-310001850235heps:AydnDoganVakfMember2020-01-012020-12-310001850235ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMemberifrs-full:BuildingsMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberifrs-full:BuildingsMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMember2021-01-012021-12-3100018502352023-01-012023-12-310001850235ifrs-full:OtherRelatedPartiesMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235heps:DoganDsTicaretVeMumessillikA.s.Member2022-01-012022-12-310001850235heps:DoganBurdaDergiYaynclkVePazarlamaA.sMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235heps:DoanYaynlarYaynclkVeYapmclkTicaretA..DoanYaynclkMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235heps:DoanTrendOtomotivTic.Hiz.VeTek.A..Member2022-01-012022-12-310001850235heps:DGayrimenkulYatrmlarVeTicaretA.sMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:OtherRelatedPartiesMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235heps:DoganDsTicaretVeMumessillikA.s.Member2021-01-012021-12-310001850235heps:DoganBurdaDergiYaynclkVePazarlamaA.sMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235heps:DoanYaynlarYaynclkVeYapmclkTicaretA..DoanYaynclkMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235heps:DoanTrendOtomotivTic.Hiz.VeTek.A..Member2021-01-012021-12-310001850235heps:DGayrimenkulYatrmlarVeTicaretA.sMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:OtherRelatedPartiesMember2020-01-012020-12-310001850235heps:DoganDsTicaretVeMumessillikA.s.Member2020-01-012020-12-310001850235heps:DoganBurdaDergiYaynclkVePazarlamaA.sMember2020-01-012020-12-310001850235heps:DoanYaynlarYaynclkVeYapmclkTicaretA..DoanYaynclkMember2020-01-012020-12-310001850235heps:DGayrimenkulYatrmlarVeTicaretA.sMember2020-01-012020-12-310001850235ifrs-full:CapitalisedDevelopmentExpenditureMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:CapitalisedDevelopmentExpenditureMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:CapitalisedDevelopmentExpenditureMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235heps:IfrsEarthquakeMemberheps:KahramanmaraMember2023-02-062023-02-060001850235heps:CompetitionAuthorityInvestigationMemberifrs-full:TopOfRangeMember2021-12-310001850235heps:CompetitionAuthorityInvestigationMemberifrs-full:BottomOfRangeMember2021-12-310001850235currency:USD2022-12-310001850235currency:GBP2022-12-310001850235currency:EUR2022-12-310001850235currency:CHF2022-12-310001850235heps:YasarBegumhanDoganFaralyalMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235heps:VuslatDoganSabancMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235heps:TurkcommerceB.vMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235heps:PublicSharesMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235heps:IslDoganMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235heps:HanzadeVasfiyeDoganBoynerMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235heps:ArzuhanDoganYalcndagMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235heps:YasarBegumhanDoganFaralyalMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235heps:VuslatDoganSabancMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235heps:TurkcommerceB.vMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235heps:PublicSharesMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235heps:IslDoganMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235heps:HanzadeVasfiyeDoganBoynerMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235heps:ArzuhanDoganYalcndagMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235heps:Ifrs_shareBasedCompensationAwardTrancheTwoMember2021-03-252021-03-250001850235heps:Ifrs_shareBasedCompensationAwardTrancheThreeMember2021-03-252021-03-250001850235heps:Ifrs_shareBasedCompensationAwardTrancheOneMember2021-03-252021-03-250001850235heps:RetailSuppliersAndServiceProvidersMember2022-12-310001850235heps:RetailSuppliersAndServiceProvidersMember2021-12-310001850235heps:ClassOrdinarySharesMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235heps:IfrsOverAllotmentOptionMemberheps:AdrOfferedByShareholderMember2021-07-062021-07-060001850235heps:IfrsIpoMemberheps:ClassBOrdinarySharesMember2021-07-062021-07-060001850235heps:IfrsIpoMemberheps:AdrOfferedByShareholderMember2021-07-062021-07-060001850235heps:IfrsIpoMemberheps:AdrOfferedByEntityMember2021-07-062021-07-060001850235heps:NotificationReceivedForNonComplianceUnderRepealedCommuniqueOnManagementAndSupervisionOfItSystemsOfPaymentInstitutionsAndElectronicMoneyInstitutionsMember2023-04-282023-04-280001850235heps:IfrsEarthquakeMemberheps:KahramanmaraMember2023-02-0600018502352021-03-252021-03-2500018502352022-02-2800018502352023-01-012023-01-0100018502352022-01-012022-01-0100018502352021-07-062021-07-060001850235ifrs-full:SharePremiumMember2021-07-052021-07-050001850235ifrs-full:IssuedCapitalMember2021-07-052021-07-050001850235ifrs-full:PreviouslyStatedMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:PreviouslyStatedMember2020-01-012020-12-3100018502352020-01-012022-12-3100018502352019-07-012022-06-3000018502352019-01-012021-12-3100018502352018-01-012020-12-310001850235ifrs-full:FinancialAssetsAtFairValueThroughProfitOrLossCategoryMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:FinancialAssetsAtFairValueThroughProfitOrLossCategoryMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:TradeReceivablesMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:TradeReceivablesMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:FinancialAssetsAtAmortisedCostCategoryMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:FinancialAssetsAtAmortisedCostCategoryMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235currency:USD2022-01-012022-12-310001850235currency:GBP2022-01-012022-12-310001850235currency:EUR2022-01-012022-12-310001850235currency:CHF2022-01-012022-12-310001850235currency:USD2021-01-012021-12-310001850235currency:GBP2021-01-012021-12-310001850235currency:EUR2021-01-012021-12-310001850235currency:CHF2021-01-012021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:CapitalisedDevelopmentExpenditureMember2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:CapitalisedDevelopmentExpenditureMember2021-12-310001850235heps:IfrsIpoMemberheps:AmericanDepositarySharesMember2021-07-062021-07-060001850235ifrs-full:LegalProceedingsProvisionMember2022-12-310001850235heps:TurkishCapitalMarketsBoardFeeProvisionMember2022-12-310001850235heps:ProvisionForCompetitionAuthorityOnSiteInspectionMember2022-11-110001850235heps:CompetitionAuthorityInvestigationMember2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:CapitalisedDevelopmentExpenditureMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:NotLaterThanThreeMonthsMember2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:NotLaterThanThreeMonthsMember2021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:OtherAssetsMemberifrs-full:TopOfRangeMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:OtherAssetsMemberifrs-full:BottomOfRangeMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:FixturesAndFittingsMemberifrs-full:TopOfRangeMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:FixturesAndFittingsMemberifrs-full:BottomOfRangeMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:ComputerSoftwareMemberifrs-full:TopOfRangeMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:ComputerSoftwareMemberifrs-full:BottomOfRangeMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:BuildingsMemberifrs-full:TopOfRangeMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:BuildingsMemberifrs-full:BottomOfRangeMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:ShorttermBorrowingsMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:LeaseLiabilitiesMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:ShorttermBorrowingsMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:LeaseLiabilitiesMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:ShorttermBorrowingsMember2020-01-012020-12-310001850235ifrs-full:LeaseLiabilitiesMember2020-01-012020-12-310001850235heps:DorukFinansmanA.Memberheps:DoanIrketlerGrubuHoldingA.Member2022-02-280001850235heps:DorukFinansmanA.Memberheps:DoanIrketlerGrubuHoldingA.Member2022-02-282022-02-280001850235heps:CompetitionAuthorityInvestigationMember2022-12-310001850235heps:DorukFinansmanA.Memberheps:DoganSirketlerGrubuHoldingA.s.DoganDisTicaretVeMumessillikA.s.AndDoganFamilyIndividualsMember2022-02-280001850235heps:RetailSuppliersAndServiceProvidersMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235heps:MerchandiseSuppliersMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235heps:RetailSuppliersAndServiceProvidersMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235heps:MerchandiseSuppliersMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:TopOfRangeMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:BottomOfRangeMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235heps:DorukFinansmanA.Member2022-02-280001850235heps:ProvisionForCompetitionAuthorityOnSiteInspectionMember2022-11-112022-11-110001850235heps:NotificationReceivedForNonComplianceUnderRepealedCommuniqueOnManagementAndSupervisionOfItSystemsOfPaymentInstitutionsAndElectronicMoneyInstitutionsMemberifrs-full:TopOfRangeMember2023-04-280001850235heps:NotificationReceivedForNonComplianceUnderRepealedCommuniqueOnManagementAndSupervisionOfItSystemsOfPaymentInstitutionsAndElectronicMoneyInstitutionsMemberifrs-full:BottomOfRangeMember2023-04-2800018502352020-01-012020-12-3100018502352022-12-3100018502352021-12-3100018502352020-12-310001850235ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberifrs-full:BuildingsMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:LegalProceedingsProvisionMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235heps:TurkishCapitalMarketsBoardFeeProvisionMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235heps:LegalDisputesProvisionMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235heps:CompetitionAuthorityInvestigationMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235heps:LegalDisputesProvisionMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235heps:CompetitionAuthorityInvestigationMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235heps:PersonnelBonusMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235heps:UnusedVacationMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235heps:PersonnelBonusMember2021-01-012021-12-3100018502352021-01-012021-12-310001850235heps:PostEmploymentBenefitsMember2021-01-012021-12-310001850235ifrs-full:DefinedBenefitPlansOtherThanMultiemployerPlansStatePlansAndPlansThatShareRisksBetweenEntitiesUnderCommonControlMember2022-12-310001850235ifrs-full:DefinedBenefitPlansOtherThanMultiemployerPlansStatePlansAndPlansThatShareRisksBetweenEntitiesUnderCommonControlMember2021-12-310001850235heps:PostEmploymentBenefitsMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235heps:UnusedVacationMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235dei:AdrMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235heps:ClassBOrdinarySharesMember2022-01-012022-12-310001850235heps:ClassOrdinarySharesMember2022-12-310001850235heps:ClassBOrdinarySharesMember2022-12-310001850235dei:BusinessContactMember2022-01-012022-12-3100018502352022-01-012022-12-31iso4217:USDheps:EquityInstrumentsxbrli:sharesiso4217:TRYxbrli:pureiso4217:USDxbrli:sharesheps:itemheps:employeeheps:personheps:Voteiso4217:TRYxbrli:shares

Table of Contents

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 20-F

REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from          to

OR

SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

Date of event requiring this shell company report

Commission File Number: 001-40553

D-MARKET Elektronik Hizmetler ve Ticaret Anonim Şirketi

(Exact Name of registrant as specified in its charter)

D-MARKET Electronic Services & Trading

(Translation of Registrant’s Name into English)

Türkiye

(Jurisdiction of Incorporation or Organization)

Kuştepe Mahallesi Mecidiyeköy Yolu

Cad. no: 12 Kule 2 K2

Şişli-Istanbul, Türkiye

(Address of principal executive office)

Korhan Öz

+90 212 7056866

korhan.oz@hepsiburada.com

Kuştepe Mahallesi Mecidiyeköy Yolu

Cad. no: 12 Kule 2 K2 Şişli-Istanbul, Türkiye

(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Table of Contents

Title of each class

    

Trading Symbol(s)

    

Name of each exchange on which registered

American Depositary Shares

HEPS

The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC

Class B ordinary shares, nominal value TRY 0.20 per share*

The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC

* Not for trading, but only in connection with the registration of the American Depositary Shares pursuant to the requirements of the Securities and Exchange Commission.

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act: None

Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report.285,998,290 Class B ordinary shares and 40,000,000 Class A shares

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.

Yes No

If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

Yes No

Note—Checking the box above will not relieve any registrant required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 from their obligations under those Sections.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.

Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).

Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to § 240.10D-1(b).

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:

U.S. GAAP International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board Other

If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow.

Item 17

Item 18

If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).

Yes No

Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

About this Annual Report

3

Presentation of Financial And Other Information

4

Market and Industry Data

6

Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

7

PART I

8

Item 1. Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers

8

Item 2. Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable

8

Item 3. Key Information

8

B. Capitalization and Indebtedness

8

C. Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds

8

D. Risk Factors

8

Item 4. Information On The Company

56

A. History and Development of the Company

56

B. Business Overview

58

C. Organizational Structure

87

D. Property, Plant and Equipment

87

Item 4A. Unresolved Staff Comments

89

Item 5. Operating And Financial Review And Prospects

89

A. Operating Results

107

B. Liquidity and Capital Resources

113

C. Research and Development, Patents and Licenses, etc.

120

D. Trend Information

120

E. Critical Accounting Estimates

120

Item 6. Directors, Senior Management And Employees

120

A. Directors and Senior Management

120

B. Compensation

128

C. Board Practices

132

D. Employees

135

E. Share Ownership

136

Item 7. Major Shareholders And Related Party Transactions

136

A. Major Shareholders

136

B. Related Party Transactions

139

C. Interests of Experts and Counsel

142

Item 8. Financial Information

142

A. Consolidated Statements and Other Financial Information

142

B. Significant Changes

144

Item 9. The Offer And The Listing

144

A. Offer and Listing Details

144

B. Plan of Distribution

144

C. Markets

144

D. Selling Shareholders

144

E. Dilution

145

F. Expenses of the Issue

145

Item 10. Additional Information

145

A. Share Capital

145

B. Memorandum and Articles of Association

145

C. Material Contracts

145

D. Exchange Controls

145

E. Taxation

146

F. Dividends and Paying Agents

151

G. Statement by Experts

152

H. Documents on Display

152

1

Table of Contents

I. Subsidiary Information

152

J. Annual Report to Security Holders

152

Item 11. Quantitative And Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

152

Item 12. Descrıptıon Of Securıtıes Other Than Equıty Securıtıes

152

A.Debt Securities

152

B.Warrants and Rights

152

C.Other Securities

152

D.American Depositary Shares

153

Part II

156

Item 13. Defaults, Dividend Arrearages And Delinquencies

156

Item 14. Material Modifications To The Rights Of Security Holders And Use Of Proceeds

156

Item 15. Controls And Procedures

156

A. Disclosure Controls and Procedures

156

B. Management’s Annual Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting

156

C. Attestation Report of the Registered Public Accounting Firm

158

D. Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting

158

Item 16A. Audit Committee Financial Expert

158

Item 16B. Code Of Ethics

158

Item 16C. Principal Accountant Fees And Services

158

Item 16D. Exemptions From The Listing Standards For Audit Committees

159

Item 16E. Purchases Of Equity Securities By The Issuer And Affiliated Purchasers

159

Item 16F. Change In Registrant’s Certifying Accountant

159

Item 16G. Corporate Governance

159

Item 16H. Mine Safety Disclosure

161

Item 16I. Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions That Prevent Inspections

161

Part III

162

Item 17. Financial Statements

162

Item 18. Financial Statements

162

Item 19. Exhibits

162

2

Table of Contents

ABOUT THIS ANNUAL REPORT

Except where the context otherwise requires or where otherwise indicated, the terms “Hepsiburada,” the “Company,” the “Group,” “our company,” “our,” “ours” “us,” and “we” or similar terms are to the registrant, D-MARKET Electronic Services & Trading, a joint-stock company incorporated under the laws of Türkiye, together with its consolidated subsidiaries.

All references in this annual report to “TRY” and “Turkish Lira” are to the legal currency of Türkiye, to “U.S. dollars,” “US$”, “USD” and “$” are to the legal currency of the United States, and to “euro”, “” or “EUR” are to the currency of the member states of the European Union (the “EU”) participating in the European Economic and Monetary Union.

All references in this annual report to “Turkstat” are to the Turkish Statistics Institute and to “BKM” are to the Turkish Interbank Card Center.

All references in this annual report to the “Commission” or to the “SEC” are to the United States Securities and Exchange Commission, to the “Exchange Act” are to the U.S. Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and to the “Securities Act” are to the U.S. Securities Act of 1933, as amended. All references to the “Türkiye” are to the Republic of Türkiye.

With respect to our business and operations:

all references to “users” are to all persons accessing our online platform (either through website or mobile application), with or without a registered account;
all references to “members” are to users that have registered on our online platform by creating an account (either through website or mobile application), excluding cancelled memberships;
all references to “customers” are to users (both unregistered users and members) that have purchased at least one item listed on our online platform (either through website or mobile application), including returns and cancellations;
all references to “Active Customers” are to users (both unregistered users and members) who have purchased at least one item listed on our platform within the 12-month period preceding the relevant date, including returns and cancellations;
all references to “merchants” are to legal entities who listed at least one item on our Marketplace within the 12-month period preceding the relevant date;
all references to “Active Merchants” are to merchants who sold at least one item within the 12-month period preceding the relevant date, including returns and cancellations;
all references to “Marketplace” are to the “3P” or “third party” model marketplace that we operate on our online platform, where merchants list and sell items to customers;
all references to “Direct Sales” are to “1P” or “first party” model direct sales operations that we perform on our online platform, where suppliers directly sell products to us on a wholesale basis, and we then store and sell such products to the customers;
all references to “frequency” are to the average number of orders per Active Customer over a 12-month period preceding the relevant date;
all references to “FBM” are to our fulfilled-by-merchant fulfillment model, where merchants perform fulfillment by their own means (FBM is only applicable to our 3P-based Marketplace operations);
all references to “fulfillment” are to our logistical processes relating to the placement of an order, including accepting goods, of picking and storing products, consolidating them into batches and packing them into parcels for delivery as well as return operations, as described in greater detail under “Business Overview— Order Fulfillment”;

3

Table of Contents

all references to the “HepsiLojistik model” are to our fulfilled-by-Hepsiburada fulfillment model, where we, in case of 1P-based Direct Sales, or merchants, in case of 3P-based Marketplace operations, perform fulfillment through HepsiLojistik, thereby performing fulfillment through our logistics infrastructure;
all references to the “Drop-shipping model” are to our drop-shipping fulfillment model, where we accept customer orders in our 1P-based Direct Sales and transfer orders to our suppliers and our suppliers in turn perform fulfillment by their own means (the Drop-shipping model is only applicable to 1P-based Direct Sales operations);
all references to the “Hepsipay Wallet” are to our embedded wallet within our online platform that we launched as part of our Hepsipay strategic asset in June 2021;
all references to “Hepsiburada Premium” are to our loyalty program launched on July 1, 2022 (which replaced our former loyalty program, the Loyalty Club);
all references to “Hepsiburada Premium members” are to our customers that have subscribed to Hepsiburada Premium, excluding customers that have unsubscribed from Hepsiburada Premium as of the relevant date;
all references to “digital products” are to non-cash games on our platform, such as sweepstakes and gamified lotteries; and
all references to “SKU” are to stock keeping units including variants (color, size, etc.).

PRESENTATION OF FINANCIAL AND OTHER INFORMATION

We report under International Financial Reporting Standards (“IFRS”) as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (the “IASB”). None of our financial statements were prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States. We present our consolidated financial statements in Turkish Lira.

Pursuant to the International Accounting Standard 29, Financial Reporting in Hyperinflationary Economies (“IAS 29”), the financial statements of entities whose functional currency is that of a hyperinflationary economy must be adjusted for the effects of changes in a general price index. IAS 29 does not establish an absolute rate when hyperinflation is deemed to arise and IASB does not identify specific hyperinflationary jurisdictions. However, IAS 29 provides a series of non-exclusive guidelines that assist companies in exercising their judgement as to when restatement of financial statements becomes necessary. These guidelines consist of (i) analyzing the behavior of the population regarding preservation of wealth in non-monetary assets or in relatively stable foreign currency, prices being quoted in terms of a relatively stable currency, interest rates and wages being linked to a price index, and the loss of the currency’s purchasing power, and (ii) as a quantitative characteristic, verifying if the three-year cumulative inflation rate approaches or exceeds 100%. In March 2022, the International Practices Task Force of the Centre for Audit Quality, which monitors countries experiencing high inflation, categorized Türkiye as a country with projected 36 months’ cumulative inflation rate greater than 100% as of February 28, 2022. Therefore, Turkish companies reporting under IFRS, including Hepsiburada, have been required to apply IAS 29 to their financial statements for periods ended on and after June 30, 2022.

The Company’s consolidated balance sheets at December 31, 2022 and 2021, and consolidated statements of comprehensive loss, consolidated statements of changes in equity and consolidated statements of cash flows for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020, and, unless otherwise stated, the financial information included elsewhere in this annual report, including figures corresponding to the same period of the prior year, reflect a restatement pursuant to IAS 29. Under IAS 29, the Company’s financial statements are presented in terms of the measuring unit current as of December 31, 2022. All the amounts included in the financial statements which are not stated in terms of the measuring unit current at the end of the reporting period are restated applying the general price index. Adjustment for inflation has been calculated considering the price indices published by the Turkish Statistical Institute (Turkstat). Such indices used to restate the financial statements at December 31, 2022 are as follows:

Date

    

Index

    

Conversion Factor

December 31, 2022

 

1,128.5

 

1.00

December 31, 2021

 

687.0

 

1.64

December 31, 2020

 

504.8

 

2.24

4

Table of Contents

On July 1, 2021, we issued 41,670,000 Class B ordinary shares (with a nominal value of TRY 0.20 per share) represented by American Depositary Shares, with each ADS representing one Class B ordinary share (the “ADSs”), as part of our initial public offering (the “IPO”).

Use of Non-IFRS Financial Measures

Certain parts of this annual report contain non-IFRS financial measures, including, among others, EBITDA, Gross Contribution, Free Cash Flow and Net Working Capital. We define:

“EBITDA” as profit or loss for the period plus taxation on income less financial income plus financial expenses, plus depreciation and amortization plus monetary gains/ (losses);
Gross Contribution” as revenues less cost of inventory sold;
Free Cash Flow” as net cash provided by operating activities less capital expenditures plus proceeds from sale of property and equipment; and
Net Working Capital” as current assets (excluding cash, cash equivalents and financial investments) minus current liabilities (excluding current bank borrowings and current lease liabilities).

The non-IFRS financial measures included in this annual report are unaudited supplementary measures that are not required by, or presented in accordance with, IFRS or any other generally accepted accounting principles. See Item 5. “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Summary Consolidated Financial and Other Data—Key Indicators of Operating and Financial Performance and Non-IFRS Measures” for a reconciliation of certain of these non-IFRS measures to the closest IFRS measure set forth in the consolidated financial statements.

These measures have limitations as analytical tools, and you should not consider them as: (a) an alternative to operating profit or net profit as presented in our consolidated financial statements in accordance with IFRS or other generally accepted accounting principles, or as measures of operating performance; (b) an alternative to cash flows from operating, investing or financing activities, as determined in accordance with IFRS or other generally accepted accounting principles, or as a measure of our ability to meet liquidity needs; or (c) an alternative to any other measures of performance under IFRS or other generally accepted accounting principles. See “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects —Summary Consolidated Financial and Other Data—Key Indicators of Operating and Financial Performance and Non-IFRS Measures” for more detail on the limitations of EBITDA, Gross Contribution, Free Cash Flow and Net Working Capital. Accordingly, investors should not place undue reliance on the non-IFRS financial measures contained in this annual report.

Key Operating Performance Indicators

Certain parts of this annual report contain a number of key operating performance indicators used by our management and often used by competitors in our industry. We define certain terms used in this annual report as follows:

GMV” as gross merchandise value which refers to the total value of orders/products sold through our platform over a given period of time (including value added tax (“VAT”) without deducting returns and cancellations), including cargo income (shipping fees related to the products sold through our platform) and excluding other service revenues and transaction fees charged to our merchants;
Marketplace GMV” as total value of orders/products sold through our Marketplace over a given period of time (including VAT without deducting returns and cancellations), including cargo income (shipping fees related to the products sold through our platform) and excluding other service revenues and transaction fees charged to our merchants;
Share of Marketplace GMV” as the portion of GMV sold through our Marketplace represented as a percentage of our total GMV;
EBITDA as a percentage of GMV” as EBITDA represented as a percentage of GMV;

5

Table of Contents

Number of orders” as the number of orders we received through our platform including returns and cancellations;
Active Customers” as the users (both unregistered users and members) who have purchased at least one item listed on our platform within the 12-month period preceding the relevant date, including returns and cancellations;
Active Merchants” are to merchants who sold at least one item within the 12-month period preceding the relevant date, including returns and cancellations;
Gross Contribution Margin” as Gross Contribution represented as a percentage of GMV; and
frequency” as the average number of orders per Active Customer over a 12-month period preceding the relevant date.

Rounding Adjustments

Certain figures included in this annual report have been subject to rounding adjustments. Accordingly, the figures shown for the same item presented in different tables may vary slightly and figures shown as totals in certain tables may not be an arithmetic aggregation of the figures that precede them.

MARKET AND INDUSTRY DATA

The industry, market and competitive position data included in this annual report is derived from our own internal estimates and research, our management’s understanding of our business and the market in which we operate, as well as from publicly available information, industry and general publications and research, surveys and studies conducted by third parties, such as Electronic Commerce Information System of Turkish Ministry of Trade (“ETBİS”), FutureBright Research, BKM and The Information and Communication Technologies Authority of Türkiye (“ICTA”).

Due to the evolving nature of our industry and competitors, we believe that it is difficult for any market participant, including us, to provide precise data on the market or our industry (see “Risk Factors—Our operating metrics and competitive information, both internally calculated and provided by third parties and included in this annual report, may be calculated differently from the metrics or competitive information published by our competitors or other third parties in our industry and any perceived inaccuracies or inadequate cross-company comparisons may harm our reputation”). Unless otherwise indicated, information contained in this annual report concerning our industry and the markets in which we operate, including our general expectation, market position, market size and growth rate of the markets in which we participate is based on information from various sources noted above, including ETBİS, BKM, ICTA and FutureBright Research, and on assumptions that we have made that are based on those data and other similar sources and on our knowledge of the markets for our products and services. We have not independently verified the accuracy or completeness of the data contained in these industry publications and reports. Although we are not aware of any misstatements regarding the industry data that we present in this annual report, our estimates involve risks and uncertainties and are subject to change based on various factors, including those discussed under “Risk Factors,” “Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements,” and Item 5. “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” in this annual report.

Some market data and statistical information contained in this annual report are also based on management’s estimates and calculations, which are derived from our internal market and brand research and our knowledge of our industry. Information that is based on estimates, forecasts, projections or similar methodologies is inherently subject to uncertainties, and actual events or circumstances may differ materially from events and circumstances that are assumed in this information. The forward-looking information obtained from these sources are subject to the same qualifications and uncertainties as other forward looking statements in this annual report.

6

Table of Contents

CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This annual report contains “forward-looking” statements as defined in Section 27A of the Securities Act, Section 21E of the Exchange Act and the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 that relate to our current expectations and views of future events. These statements relate to events that involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors, including those listed under Item 3.D. “Key Information—Risk Factors,Item 5. “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” and Item 4.B. “Information on the Company—Business Overview,” which may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements.

In some cases, these forward-looking statements can be identified by words or phrases such as “believe,” “may,” “will,” “expect,” “estimate,” “could,” “seek,” “should,” “anticipate,” “aim,” “intend,” “plan,” “potential,” “continue,” “is/are likely to”, “target” or other similar expressions. Forward-looking statements contained in this annual report include, but are not limited to, statements about:

our future financial performance, including our revenue, operating expenses and our ability to achieve and maintain profitability;
our expectations regarding the development of our industry and the competitive environment in which we operate;
the growth of our brand awareness and overall business;
our ability to successfully remediate the material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting;
the outcome of litigation, including the final approval of the proposed class action settlement and execution of the final class action settlement agreement;
our ability to improve our technology platform, customer experience and product offerings to attract and retain merchants and customers; and
our ability to expand our base of Hepsiburada Premium members, and grow and externalize the services of our strategic assets.

These forward-looking statements are subject to risks, uncertainties and assumptions, some of which are beyond our control. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in such forward-looking statements and forecasts are reasonable, no assurance can be given that such expectations will prove to be correct. Actual outcomes may differ materially from the information contained in the forward-looking statements as a result of a number of factors, including, without limitation, the risk factors set forth in “Risk Factors”. You should refer to the “Risk Factors” section of this annual report for a discussion of other important factors that may cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by our forward-looking statements. As a result of these factors, we cannot assure you that the forward-looking statements in this annual report will prove to be accurate.

We operate in an evolving environment. New risks emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for our management to predict all risks, nor can we assess the effect of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements.

The forward-looking statements made in this annual report relate only to events or information as of the date on which the statements are made in this annual report. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise after the date on which the statements are made, or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events. You should read this annual report and the documents that we have filed as exhibits hereto completely and with the understanding that our actual future results or performance may be materially different from what we expect.

7

Table of Contents

PART I

Item 1. Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers

Not applicable.

Item 2. Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable

Not applicable.

Item 3. Key Information

A.[Reserved]

B.Capitalization and Indebtedness

Not applicable.

C.Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds

Not applicable.

D.Risk Factors

You should carefully consider the risks described below. Additional risks not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also impair our business operations. Our business, prospects, financial condition or results of operations could be materially and adversely affected by any of these risks. This annual report also contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. You should carefully review the “Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.” Our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors, including the risks faced by us described below and elsewhere in this annual report.

RISK FACTOR SUMMARY

Risks Relating to Our Business and Industry

We have incurred significant losses in the past and are likely to continue to incur losses as we continue to invest in order to grow, and we may not achieve profitability going forward.
Our expansion into new products, services, technologies, geographies and markets subjects us to additional risks and we may not be able to manage our growth and expansion efficiently or effectively scale and adapt our existing infrastructure.
We may fail to maintain or improve our technology infrastructure, which could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operation and financial condition.
If we fail to maintain and enhance our brand or network effects from our established Marketplace, our business, results of operations and financial condition may be materially and adversely affected.
We operate in competitive markets, and in the future we may not be able to compete effectively.
Failed deliveries, excessive returns and other logistics issues may adversely affect our business, results of operation and financial condition.

8

Table of Contents

If we fail to retain current customers or grow or maintain the level of their engagement, our business, financial condition, prospects and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
We may need to raise additional funds to finance our future capital needs including investing in growth and technology, which may prevent us from growing our business.
Under the terms of our indebtedness, we may be limited from distributing dividends and changes in our share ownership could result in our inability to draw loans or cause acceleration or events of default under our indebtedness.
A significant disruption in internet access, telecommunications networks or our IT platform may cause slow response times or otherwise impair our customers’ experience, which may in turn reduce traffic to our mobile apps and websites and significantly harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may experience significant fluctuations in our results of operations and growth rate.
The COVID-19 pandemic has negatively affected and may continue to negatively affect certain of our business activities and results. Any future occurrence of natural disasters, epidemics, pandemics or other outbreaks, or other catastrophic events could also materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations or financial condition.
Undetected software errors and hacking may cause delays or interruptions on our systems and may reduce the use of our services and damage our brand reputation.
Unauthorized disclosure of sensitive or confidential customer information or our failure, or the perception by our users that we failed, to comply with privacy laws or properly address privacy concerns could harm our business and reputation with customers, merchants and suppliers.
Hepsipay is subject to a number of risks that, if they were to occur, could materially and adversely affect our goal of leading the financial technologies market in Türkiye.
We are subject to credit risk of our borrowers and counterparties in relation to our Buy-Now-Pay-Later solution.
We are subject to payment-related risks.
We may suffer losses relating to the products we sell through our Direct Sales business.
We rely on many service providers in our business, and the nonperformance or loss of a significant third-party provider through bankruptcy, consolidation, or otherwise, could adversely affect our operations.
We operate platforms that include third parties over whose actions we have no control.
Our strategic acquisitions may result in operational challenges, and the failure of an acquisition or investment to produce the anticipated results or the inability to fully integrate an acquired company could have an adverse impact on our business, results of operation and financial condition.
We may use open source code in a manner that could be harmful to our business.
Our operating metrics and competitive information, both internally calculated and provided by third parties and included in this annual report, may be calculated differently from the metrics or competitive information published by our competitors or other third parties in our industry and any perceived inaccuracies or inadequate cross-company comparisons may harm our reputation.
We may not be able to, or may choose not to, insure against all risks we face and may incur losses not covered by insurance, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

9

Table of Contents

We depend upon our Founder, our senior management, our IT specialists and other talented employees to grow, operate and improve our business; if we fail to retain our Founder as a result of ongoing litigation or if we fail to attract, retain and motivate key personnel or if we do not successfully manage the transition associated with our new CEO, our business could be adversely affected.
Employee misconduct or inadvertent mistakes are difficult to determine and detect and could harm our reputation and business.
We face uncertainties relating to the growth and profitability of the e-commerce industry in our region and we may face challenges and uncertainties in implementing our e-commerce strategy.
Our business would be adversely affected if last mile delivery service carriers were classified as employees instead of independent contractors and we may incur significant additional expenses if the employees of subcontractors carrying out delivery services are considered our employees.

Legal and Regulatory Risks

We are subject to tax audits that may result in additional tax liabilities and are exposed to changes in tax laws and regulations as well as their interpretation and implementation, including Türkiye’s digital service tax and earthquake tax.
We may be subject to administrative fines and our reputation may be harmed if the Turkish Competition Authority were to determine that we did not comply with Turkish competition laws and regulations.
We are subject to extensive laws and government regulations across our business, and changes to these laws or any actual or perceived failure by us to comply with such laws and regulations could materially and adversely affect our business.
We may be subject to administrative fines and our reputation may be harmed if the Personal Data Protection Authority were to determine that we breached Turkish Data Protection Law No. 6698.
If we fail to obtain intellectual property rights protection or adequately protect our intellectual property rights, or if we infringe third-party intellectual property rights, our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
We may be subject to intellectual property infringement claims brought against us by others, which are costly to defend and could result in significant damage awards.
We have been and in the future may be involved in litigation, some of which is material.
We may be impacted by fraudulent or unlawful activities of merchants, which could have a material adverse effect on our reputation and business and may result in civil or criminal liability.
We may be subject to product liability claims when people or property are harmed or damaged by the products that are sold on our platform.
We have identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting. If our remediation of material weaknesses is not effective, or if we experience additional material weaknesses in the future or otherwise fail to implement and maintain an effective internal control over financial reporting, we may be unable to accurately report our results of operations, meet our reporting obligations or prevent fraud and investor confidence in our company and the market price of our ADSs may decline.
The requirements of being a public company will continue to require significant resources and management attention, which could make it difficult to manage our business.

10

Table of Contents

We may be classified as a passive foreign investment company (“PFIC”), which could result in adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences to U.S. Holders of ADSs.

Risks Relating to Türkiye

We are subject to risks associated with doing business in an emerging market.
Our headquarters and other operations and facilities are located in Türkiye and, therefore, our prospects, business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected by political or economic instability in Türkiye.
As a result of a trend of inflation in Türkiye, the Turkish economy is treated as hyperinflationary, which may adversely affect our business, profitability, results of operations and the value of our ADSs.
Türkiye’s economy has been facing risks related to its current account deficit, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
The effects of the earthquakes that hit southeastern region of Türkiye in February 2023 as well as potential similar earthquakes in the future may adversely affect our prospects, business, financial condition and results of operations.
We are exposed to the risk of inadvertently violating anti-corruption, anti-money laundering, anti-terrorist financing and economic sanctions laws and regulations and other similar laws and regulations.
Foreign exchange rate risks could affect the Turkish macroeconomic environment, could affect your investment and could significantly affect our results of operation and financial position in future periods if hedging tools are not available at commercially reasonable terms.
Türkiye is subject to internal and external unrest and the threat of future terrorist acts, which may adversely affect us.
Conflict and uncertainty in neighboring and nearby countries may have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects.
Risks from events affecting Türkiye’s relationship with Syria and Iraq.
Risks from events affecting Türkiye’s relationship with Russia and Ukraine.
Risks from events affecting Türkiye’s relationship with the EU.
Risks from events affecting Türkiye’s relationship with the United States.
Türkiye’s economy has been undergoing a significant transformation and remains subject to ongoing structural and macroeconomic risks.
Internet and e-commerce regulation in Türkiye is recent, has undergone changes since its inception and is subject to further development.

Risks Relating to Ownership of our ADSs

Our Founder and chairwoman has significant influence and voting control and, as a principal shareholder, her interests might conflict with or differ from your interests as a shareholder.
The dual class structure of our ordinary shares concentrates voting control with certain shareholders, in particular our Founder, which limits your ability to influence corporate matters.

11

Table of Contents

We may lose our foreign private issuer status in the future, which could result in significant additional costs and expenses.
We are a “controlled company” within the meaning of the Nasdaq listing rules. As a result, we qualify for, and intend to continue to rely on, exemptions from certain corporate governance requirements.
As a foreign private issuer we rely on exemptions from certain of the Nasdaq corporate governance standards, including the requirement that a majority of our board of directors consist of independent directors. Our reliance on such exemptions may afford less protection to holders of our ADSs.
We are an “emerging growth company,” and we cannot be certain if the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies make our ADSs less attractive to investors.
While we currently qualify as an “emerging growth company” under the JOBS Act, if we cease to be an emerging growth company, our costs and the demands placed upon our management will increase.
An active trading market for our ADSs may not be sustained to provide adequate liquidity.
We may need to raise additional funds to finance our future capital needs, which may dilute the value of our outstanding ADSs.
The price of our ADSs might fluctuate significantly, and you could lose all or part of your investment.
If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports or publish unfavorable research about our business, or we fail to meet the expectations of industry analysts, the price of our ADSs and trading volume could decline.
You may not be able to exercise your right to vote the ordinary shares underlying your ADSs.
Shareholders and ADS holders may not be able to exercise preemptive rights and, as a result, may experience substantial dilution upon future issuances of ordinary shares.
ADS holders may not be entitled to a jury trial with respect to claims arising under the deposit agreement, which could result in less favorable outcomes to the plaintiff(s) in any such action.
It is unlikely that we will declare any dividends on our ordinary shares represented by our ADSs and therefore, you must rely on price appreciation of our ordinary shares for a return on your investment; also, to the extent that we declare dividends, we will pay those dividends solely in Turkish Lira.
You may not receive distributions on the ordinary shares represented by our ADSs or any value for them if it is illegal or impractical to make them available to holders of ADSs.
Dividends paid to holders of the ADSs who are not tax resident in Türkiye will be subject to a 10% withholding tax.
You may be subject to limitations on the transfer of your ADSs.
You may experience difficulties in effecting service of legal process, enforcing foreign judgments or bringing original actions in Türkiye based on United States or other foreign laws against us and our management.
We are a Turkish joint stock company. The rights of our shareholders under Turkish law may be different from the rights of shareholders under the laws of U.S. jurisdictions.
We may grant share based compensation to our management and employees, which may cause your interest in the Company to be diluted and our employees’ interests to become excessively tied to the trading price of our ADSs.

12

Table of Contents

We may not maintain our listing on Nasdaq which could limit investors’ ability to make transactions in our ADSs and subject us to additional trading restrictions.

Risks Relating to Our Business and Industry

We have incurred significant losses in the past and are likely to continue to incur losses as we continue to invest in order to grow, and we may not achieve profitability going forward.

We have historically incurred net losses, including net losses of TRY 2,907.5 million, TRY 2,021.0 million and TRY 936.6 million for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020, respectively, as we invested in the expansion of our core businesses and in growing our strategic assets. Our net losses were also significantly impacted by inflation adjustments primarily at the Gross Contribution level as we began to implement IAS 29 inflation accounting. We will need to generate and sustain increased revenue and Gross Contribution levels to outpace growing operating expenses and capital expenditures in future periods to achieve profitability in our core businesses, and even if we do, we may not be able to maintain or increase profitability. We anticipate that we will continue to incur net losses in the near term mainly as a result of continued capital expenditures, including investments in our core businesses and the expansion of our logistics operations and financial services operations.

We believe that our ability to generate future profits mainly depends on our ability to execute our strategy and opportunistic mergers and acquisitions. See Item 4.B. “Information on the Company—Business Overview—Our Strategy.” These, in turn, depend on our success in improving the customer and merchant experiences through expanded logistics and fulfillment capabilities, developing and improving our platform and offering new products and services that complement our existing offering and preserve and foster further network effects. These efforts may prove more expensive than we anticipate, particularly since some of our ongoing revenue generation initiatives remain unproven (for example, our investments in complementary services, see Item 4.B. “Information on the Company—Business Overview—Strategic Assets” and “—Complementary Businesses”). As a result, any failure to adequately increase our revenue or manage the costs related to our expansion could prevent us from attaining or increasing profitability. Additionally, if we introduce new services in connection with our ongoing expansion, including in international markets, this could result in an unexpected increase in costs or divert our senior management’s attention, which could negatively impact our goal of achieving and maintaining profitability. As we expand our services to additional customers and merchants in various regions and add new categories of products, our offerings in such markets and categories may be less profitable than those in which we currently operate, which may not offset the costs required to expand into such markets or categories and could impact our ability to achieve or sustain profitability.

As a result of the preceding factors, we may not be able to achieve, maintain or increase profitability in the near term or at all.

Our expansion into new products, services, technologies, geographies and markets subjects us to additional risks and we may not be able to manage our growth and expansion efficiently or effectively scale and adapt our existing infrastructure.

Our growth strategy depends, in part, on our expansion into new product or service offerings, such as our complementary and value-added services (see Item 4.B. “Information on the Company—Business Overview—Strategic Assets and “—Complementary Businesses”). If we experience significant future growth, we may be required not only to make additional investments in our platform and workforce, but also to expand our fulfillment infrastructure and consumer support or expand our relationships with various partners and other third parties with whom we do business.

Growth of our business places significant demands on our management and key employees. Expansion has increased, and will continue to increase, the complexity of our business and places a significant strain on our management, operations, technical systems, financial resources and internal control over financial reporting functions. Our current and planned personnel, systems, procedures and controls may not be adequate to support and effectively manage our future operations. If our expansion in offerings outpaces our development of fulfillment infrastructure, our performance may be adversely affected, such as our on-time dispatch performance or average time from order to ready-for-dispatch. If we are unable to successfully manage future growth, consumer satisfaction and our reputation may be negatively and materially affected.

Our re-investments in the Company’s growth and certain Company initiatives may fail, which could harm us financially. For example, in the year ended December 31, 2022, we no longer consider Hepsiburada Market (formerly known as HepsiExpress) to be a strategic asset as we do not believe that this business model was likely to be economically feasible, which ran contrary to our focus on becoming a profitable company in the near term.

13

Table of Contents

Expansion of the new services we are offering, such as our expected expansion of payment and lending solutions, and any future expansion of the scope of HepsiGlobal, through which we currently offer a selection of products from international merchants on our platform and aim to enable merchants in Türkiye to make cross-border sales in additional countries in the future, may result in increased or new exposure to regulatory scrutiny and compliance requirements. See “—We are subject to extensive laws and government regulations across our business, and changes to these laws or any actual or perceived failure by us to comply with such laws and regulations could materially and adversely affect our business.”

We may fail to maintain or improve our technology infrastructure, which could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operation and financial condition.

Our success depends, in part, on our ability to continue to innovate and provide a platform for products and services that is attractive to existing or new customers, and in turn attracts merchants and suppliers to our customer base. We are frequently upgrading our technology to provide improved performance, increased scale and better integration among our core businesses and complementary value-added services (see Item 4.B. “Information on the Company—Business Overview—Strategic Assets”). Adopting new technologies, upgrading our website and mobile app infrastructure and maintaining and improving our technology infrastructure require significant investments of time and resources, including adding new hardware, updating software and recruiting and training new engineering personnel. Adverse consequences for the failure to do so may include unanticipated system disruptions, security breaches, computer virus attacks, slower response times, impaired quality of experiences for our users and delays in reporting accurate operating and financial information. In addition, many of the software and interfaces we use are internally developed and proprietary technology. If we experience problems with the functionality and effectiveness of our software or platforms, or are unable to maintain and constantly improve our technology infrastructure to handle our business needs and ensure a consistent and acceptable level of service for our customers and merchants, our business, financial condition, and results of operation, as well as our reputation, could be materially and adversely affected.

If we fail to maintain and enhance our brand or network effects from our established Marketplace, our business, results of operations and financial condition may be materially and adversely affected.

We believe that our “Hepsiburada” brand is fundamentally important to the success of our business and that our brand, as well as the interaction between our customer and merchant value propositions, create significant network effects. Failure to maintain and enhance our brand or the network effects that have contributed to our past growth may materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

We invest in brand building, marketing and expanding our offering of value-added services with the aim of attracting new, and retaining existing, customers and merchants and increasing their level of engagement. From this, we hope to benefit from network effects whereby our larger consumer base attracts more merchants and our broader spectrum of products and services offered by merchants attracts more customers. However, our brand development or the benefits to our customer and merchant value propositions may not achieve the promotional benefits or network effects that we expect. Benefits may not outpace expenses. For example, the value of our brand awareness may not outpace marketing and brand building expenses. In addition, our existing competitors or potentially new entrants may increase the intensity of their marketing campaigns or value-added services, which may force us to increase our spending to maintain our brand awareness and competitive advantages.

The extent to which we are able to maintain or strengthen these network effects depends on our ability to execute a number of challenging tasks. See “—If we fail to retain current customers or grow or maintain the level of their engagement, our business, financial condition, prospects and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.” Any failure to meet such challenges may lead to an increased risk of disruptions to our customer base or merchant base and our customer and merchant value propositions, which could adversely affect our profitability, and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, any changes we make to enhance and improve our platform to meet the needs and interests of certain users or merchants or other third-parties may have a negative impact upon others. If we fail to balance the interests of all users and merchants, users may stop visiting our website and using our mobile app and customers may conduct fewer transactions or use alternative e-commerce services, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

14

Table of Contents

In the event that our brand is subject to persistent and material negative publicity, complaints from customers, merchants, suppliers or business partners, or exposure as a result of our own actions or as a result of events outside of our control, such as our inability to attract users and merchants, to protect private information of our users and merchants against security breaches, any undetected errors, defects or bugs in software underlying our products and services, or disruption in our IT systems or defamation campaigns in social media against us or e-commerce in general, we may have difficulty in retaining our existing users or merchants or attracting new users or merchants. If such negative publicity about us arises or if users or consumers otherwise perceive that content on our online platform is no longer reliable, our reputation, the value of our brand and our user traffic could decline. If our brand is harmed or we are forced to increase our marketing expenses, our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

To maintain good customer relations, we need prompt and accurate customer service to resolve irregularities and disputes. Effective customer service requires significant personnel expense, investment in developing programs and technology infrastructure to help customer service representatives carry out their functions as well as a dedicated budget that can be used to resolve disputes and restore customer satisfaction. These expenses, if not managed properly, could significantly impact our profitability. Failure to manage or train our customer service representatives properly could compromise our ability to handle customer complaints effectively. If we do not handle customer complaints effectively, our reputation may suffer and we may lose our customers’ confidence.

In addition, from time to time in the past we have executed, and may in future execute, advertisement contracts with celebrities and social media influencers to promote our sites and brands in marketing campaigns. Harm to those celebrities’ or social media influencers’ reputations, even if not associated with our sites and brands, could also harm our brand image and result in a material decrease in our revenues, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

We operate in competitive markets, and in the future we may not be able to compete effectively.

The markets for our products and services are competitive and rapidly evolving. The successful execution of our strategy depends on our ability to nurture the loyalty of our customer base, capitalize on our differentiators, promote profitability and offer our payment services, lending solutions and last-mile delivery services to third parties.

We have many competitors in our e-commerce business. We compete with other e-commerce companies, including online third-party marketplaces and online hybrid marketplaces that, like us, combine a third-party marketplace with their own first party sales. We also face competition from offline retailers, including traditional brick-and-mortar retailers with omni-channel capabilities. Some of those omni-channel retailers have advanced their online sales capabilities to meet the increased demand for online retail as a result of COVID-19. We compete with these current and potential competitors for customers, merchants and suppliers. From time to time, our customers may decide not to continue purchasing products on our platform for various reasons, including competition. Our merchants may also decide to switch to our competitors’ services. Some of our existing or potential competitors may have greater resources including funding, more customers, and/or greater brand recognition to develop stronger capabilities and expertise in management, technology, finance, product development, sales, marketing, logistics and other areas. Further, the internet facilitates competitive entry and comparison-shopping, which enhances the ability of new, smaller or lesser-known businesses, including businesses from outside of Türkiye, to compete against us. We will also face e-commerce competition in markets outside of Türkiye that we plan to serve via HepsiGlobal.

In addition, we face competition across other sectors in which we operate. We face intense competition with several well-funded players investing heavily in growth, across the parts of the country and in the verticals we serve our customers. In the last-mile delivery services market, in which HepsiJet operates, small, emerging delivery companies are challenging us, particularly in large cities, by offering their delivery services at relatively lower delivery fees. If competition continues to intensify, we may fail to grow our third-party delivery businesses. In the fulfillment as a service market, in which HepsiLojistik operates, other players have invested in such services. Additionally, competition has intensified in the financial services industry, in which Hepsipay operates, spurred by significant investment into the fintech space and new regulations such as digital banking, open banking, banking-as-a-service and Know Your Customer (“KYC”) regulations in Türkiye, and as a result we may not achieve our goal of becoming one of the leading players in the financial technologies market in Türkiye. Other retailers or marketplaces may also obtain an e-money license or start digital banking operations and extend their operations off-platform, challenging our plans to extend our off-platform partnerships, and as a result, we may fail to reach our goals.

15

Table of Contents

As a result of these various types of current and potential competitors, we may not be able to maintain our level of traffic on our online platform, we may fail to retain or may lose our current market position, we may fail to continue to retain our existing customers and merchants, and we may be required to offer additional customer discounts, or maintain lower prices, which could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

Failed deliveries, excessive returns and other logistics issues may adversely affect our business, results of operation and financial condition.

We offer customers a selection of delivery options, including delivery by courier or collection from our offline network of pick-up and drop-off (“PUDO”) points. If a delivery fails to reach the customer, we may continue bearing the inventory costs or be required to engage with the merchant for the return of the undelivered product. Even if the product is successfully delivered to the customer and delivery is verified, we and our merchants are required either by local regulations or by our operating standards, in most cases, to allow customers to return undamaged products within a certain period of time after delivery, depending on the product. We also face the risk that inventory might be misappropriated or packages mishandled, and we may struggle to verify delivery if the packages are delivered without verification of the customer’s identity via customer signature, confirmation code sent to customer’s mobile phone or otherwise. When products are delivered without verification, we may be required to obtain reimbursement from the courier company for the cost of delivery of a duplicate product to the customer or a refund of the purchase price.

A significant increase in failed deliveries, excessive or mistaken returns or other logistics issues may force us to allocate additional resources to mitigating these issues and may adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

If we fail to retain current customers or grow or maintain the level of their engagement, our business, financial condition, prospects and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

The size and engagement of our Active Customer base, including order frequency and customer loyalty, are critical to our success. A significant component of our value proposition to merchants is their ability to access our 55.6 million members. Our business and financial performance have been and will continue to be significantly determined by our success in engaging, retaining, as well as adding Active Customers. We continue to focus on increasing engagement, whether through our paid-subscription loyalty program, innovation, providing new or improved goods or services, marketing efforts or other means. Accordingly, while our customer base has expanded significantly since 2016, our customer base and/or engagement levels may fail to continue to grow at satisfactory rates, or at all, or may decline. Our user base growth and engagement could be adversely affected if, among other things:

·

we are unable to maintain the quality of our existing products and services;

·

we are unsuccessful in innovating or introducing new products and services;

·

we fail to adapt to changes in user preferences, market trends or advancements in technology;

·

we fail to compete with the current competitors or the potential new entrants in the market;

·

technical or other problems prevent us from delivering our products or services in a timely and reliable manner or otherwise affect the user experience;

·

there are user concerns related to privacy, safety, security or reputational factors;

·

there are adverse changes to our platform that are mandated by, or that we elect to make in response to, legislation, regulation, or litigation, including settlements or consent decrees;

·

we fail to maintain the brand image of our platform or our reputation is damaged;

·

we fail to maintain the competitive advantage of our platform with respect to pricing;

·

there are unexpected temporary or permanent changes to the demographic trends, customer sentiment, competitive landscape or economic development of the markets in which we operate; or

16

Table of Contents

·

there is political instability in the markets that we operate in.

Our efforts to avoid or address any of these events could require us to make substantial expenditures to modify or adapt our services or platform. If we fail to engage with or retain our Active Customers base, or if customers, merchants or suppliers reduce their engagement with our platform, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially and adversely affected.

We may need to raise additional funds to finance our future capital needs including investing in growth and technology, which may prevent us from growing our business.

Our strategy and technological infrastructure require continuous investment. We may need to raise additional funds to finance our existing and future capital needs, including developing new services and technologies and ongoing operating expenses, such as our efforts to launch and develop new payment and lending solutions, the cross-border expansion of HepsiGlobal, and expansion of our existing services. Raising additional funds through financing arrangements may not be possible at the required amounts or on sufficiently advantageous terms, including as the result of the current macroeconomic conditions or due to our continued losses. Any debt financing would increase our level of indebtedness and could negatively and materially affect our liquidity and restrict our operations, including increasing our vulnerability to general economic and industry conditions, limit our ability to plan and react to changes in our business and industry and place us at a disadvantage compared to competitors that have less indebtedness. We also can provide no assurance that the funds we raise will be sufficient to finance our indebtedness.

While we primarily have been financed by equity investments from our shareholders, the proceeds of our initial public offering in 2021 and cash flows from operations, we also have entered into short-term financing arrangements with several major Turkish banks (see Item 5.B. “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Current Sources of Liquidity and Capital Resources” and Item 4.B. “Information on the Company—Business Overview—Supplier and Merchant Financing”). Any breach of our financing arrangements or the inability to service our debt through internally generated cash flow or other sources of liquidity would lead to default, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Under the terms of our indebtedness, we may be limited from distributing dividends and changes in our share ownership could result in our inability to draw loans or cause acceleration or events of default under our indebtedness.

The terms and conditions of substantially all of our credit facility arrangements with Turkish banks, which include loans under our supplier and merchant financing where the Company is the borrower (see Item 4.B. “Information on the Company—Business Overview— Supplier and Merchant Financing”) and under which the total amount available was TRY 24.0 million and TRY 317.3 million as of December 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively (see Item 5.B. “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Current Sources of Liquidity and Capital Resources”), include clauses relating to the control or ownership of our issued ordinary shares. Under the terms of such credit facility arrangements, the exact terms of which vary, a transfer of our shares or change in our issued share capital structure, provide our lenders with the right to accelerate the repayment of outstanding debt facilities and may result in events of default that provide our lenders the right to terminate our arrangements. The terms of some of these credit facility arrangements with Turkish banks and the arrangement relating to the loans under our supplier and merchant financing, where the Company is the borrower, include our undertaking not to distribute dividends during the duration of the agreement, or not to distribute dividends in a manner to negatively impact our debt ratios such as debt to equity.

Although based on such banks’ prior practice, we do not believe it is likely that they would exercise their rights to acceleration or termination under such clauses or otherwise limit the Company’s ability to distribute dividends, any future sale of the Company’s shares or future distribution of dividends may result in the termination of our general loan agreements or acceleration of our outstanding debt thereunder, in which case the Company would have to rely on credit lines under its other loan agreements to maintain its liquidity position.

If one or more banks providing such credit lines were to terminate their agreements, or if all of such banks were to terminate their agreements, our access to debt financing may be limited, which would have a material impact on our ability to fund our business.

17

Table of Contents

A significant disruption in internet access, telecommunications networks or our IT platform may cause slow response times or otherwise impair our customers’ experience, which may in turn reduce traffic to our mobile apps and websites and significantly harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our e-commerce business is critically dependent on the performance and reliability of Türkiye’s internet infrastructure, accessibility of bandwidth and servers to our service providers’ networks and the continuing performance, reliability and availability of our platform.

We are heavily reliant on Türkiye’s internet infrastructure to operate our business. As our data centers and all of our backup centers, along with our headquarters, are located on the European and Asian sides of the city of Istanbul, our operations may also be negatively impacted by disruptions to the power grid, natural disasters, such as fires, floods, earthquakes, telecommunication failures, sabotage, vandalism, terrorist attacks, extreme weather or other events affecting the region. Similarly, if there were any system outages due to any internet delays, disruptions, natural disasters or any other issues with the infrastructure in Türkiye more generally, this would have a material adverse impact on our business and results of operations depending on the length and severity of the issue. For example, in early February 2023, the southeastern and southern regions of Türkiye were hit by two devastating earthquakes registering 7.7 and 7.6 in magnitude and numerous aftershocks that affected primarily 11 provinces, which caused significant disruptions in the telecommunications networks and internet access in the affected regions. The earthquakes resulted in a material temporary decline in overall customer demand on our platform and in the number of orders received, particularly during the first week of the disaster compared to the prior week as well as the same week of the prior year. We believe that the decline was in part caused by the lack of, or very poor, internet connection in the affected regions. As the overall situation stabilized by mid-March, traffic to our platform recovered to almost pre-earthquake levels. If the period of destabilization had been prolonged, or if the extent or the magnitude of the earthquakes had been more detrimental, the duration of traffic loss (and hence order loss) would have materially impacted our financial performance. See “-The effects of the earthquakes that hit southeastern region of Türkiye in February 2023 as well as potential similar earthquakes in the future may adversely affect our prospects, business, financial condition and results of operations.”

We may experience slow response times or system failures due to a failure of our information storage, retrieval, processing and management capabilities, human errors or capacity constraints. Slow response times or system failures may make our platform less attractive to merchants or customers. If we experience technical problems in delivering our services over the internet, we could experience reduced demand for our services and lower revenue. Also, when too many customers access our sites within a short period of time due to increased demand, such as during our seasonal sales, or any other reason, we have in the past experienced system interruptions that make our platform unavailable or prevent us from efficiently fulfilling orders, which reduces the volume of goods we sell and the attractiveness of our products and services. We cannot assure you that such events will not occur again in the future and while we have backup systems and contingency plans for certain aspects of our operations and business processes, our planning may not account for all possible scenarios.

Significant disruptions in internet access or in the internet generally could significantly harm our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

We may experience significant fluctuations in our results of operations and growth rate.

We have grown significantly in recent years, and we intend to continue to expand the scope and geographic reach of the services we provide. Revenue growth may slow down or decline for any number of reasons, including our inability to attract or retain merchants and customers, decreased customer order frequency and spending, increased competition, a slow-down in consumption particularly in discretionary goods, slowing overall growth of the e-commerce market, the emergence of alternative business models, changes in government policies or regulations and general economic conditions. We may also lose customers and merchants for other reasons, such as a failure to deliver a satisfactory customer or transaction experience or high-quality services at a level that our customers expect. If we are unable to properly and prudently manage our operations as they continue to grow, or if the quality of our services deteriorates due to mismanagement, our brand name and reputation could be significantly harmed, and our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

18

Table of Contents

In addition, a disproportionate amount of sales on our platform historically took place during our fourth quarter and we expect this trend to continue in 2023. Notably, the limitations introduced by amendments to the E-Commerce Law (as defined under Item 4.B. “Information on the Company-Business Overview-Regulatory Overview”) providing that capped annual marketing expenditures and customer discounts must be equally distributed among the four fiscal quarters do not apply to the Company as we expect to remain below the applicable statutory threshold of marketing expenditures for the year 2023 (see “Information on the Company-Business Overview-Regulatory Overview”).As a result of peak seasonal sales, as of December 31 of each year, our cash and cash equivalents balances typically reach an elevated level (other than as a result of cash flows provided by or used in investing and financing activities). As of December 31 each year, this operating cycle typically results in a corresponding increase in accounts payable, combined with a decrease in inventories. Our accounts payable balance generally declines during the first month of each year, resulting in a corresponding decline in our cash and cash equivalents balances. We typically experience our lowest sales during the months of July and August due to decreased frequency and traffic on our platform during the summer vacation months which may or may not continue in 2023. Our results of operations and cash flows may fluctuate significantly as a result of a variety of factors, including those described above. Additionally, we factor monthly inflation rates into our financial reporting under IAS 29. The distribution of our sales throughout the months and the level of inflation during each month have a material impact on our revenue growth calculated as per accounting standard IAS 29. See “-As a result of a trend of inflation in Türkiye, the Turkish economy is treated as hyperinflationary, which may adversely affect our business, profitability, results of operations and the value of our ADSs.”As a result, historical period-to-period comparisons of our results of operations and cash flows are not necessarily indicative of future period-to-period results of operations or cash flows. You should not rely on the results of a single quarterly period as an indication of our annual results of operations, cash flows or future performance.

The COVID-19 pandemic has negatively affected and may continue to negatively affect certain of our business activities and results. Any future occurrence of natural disasters, epidemics, pandemics or other outbreaks, or other catastrophic events could also materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations or financial condition.

The COVID-19 pandemic and the measures taken to limit its spread during 2020 and 2021 have impacted consumer behavior, including e-commerce shopping trends. During the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic, increased numbers of consumers in the Turkish market shifted to e-commerce as a result of social distancing and other government restrictions, which resulted in growing demand for our products and services. With the lifting of Türkiye’s lock down measures in July 2021, we observed a slow-down in online consumer activity which had a negative impact on our operational and financial performance and prospects, particularly in 2021.

There remain a number of risks which have arisen from operating our businesses during the pandemic, particularly regarding disrupted global supply chains. A significant number of industries have been and continue to be impacted by a global supply shortage of semiconductors, which has led to major delays in the production and delivery of some goods including consumer electronics and appliances that we sell on our platform. Some of our merchants and partners have reduced or suspended, or may in the future reduce or suspend, their selling activities due to operational constraints or global supply chain disruptions. In addition, the combined impact of COVID-19, the semiconductor crisis, the Russia-Ukraine conflict, tensions along the border of Türkiye and Syria, the hyperinflationary environment in Türkiye and the potential for any sudden and significant changes in the value of the Turkish Lira may generate further pressure on the supply to our Direct Sales operation and to our merchants. See “—Risks from events affecting Türkiye’s relationship with Russia and Ukraine”, “—Risks from events affecting Türkiye’s relationship with Syria and Iraq”, “—As a result of a trend of inflation in Türkiye, the Turkish economy is treated as hyperinflationary, which may adversely affect our business, profitability, results of operations and the value of our ADSs.” and “Foreign exchange rate risks could affect the Turkish macroeconomic environment, could affect your investment and could significantly affect our results of operation and financial position in future periods if hedging tools are not available at commercially reasonable terms.”

The above developments have materially affected, and may continue to materially and negatively affect, certain of our business activities and results.

19

Table of Contents

Similarly, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected by severe weather conditions, natural disasters, geopolitical events, wars, terrorist attacks, the occurrence or re-occurrence of other outbreaks of widespread health epidemics or pandemics, and other similar catastrophic events. The occurrence of a disaster or similar event could materially disrupt our business and operations, adversely affect our markets or the economy generally, or adversely affect our employees, third-party service providers, business partners or a significant portion of our users. For example, in early February 2023, the southeastern and southern regions of Türkiye were hit by two devastating earthquakes registering 7.7 and 7.6 in magnitude and numerous aftershocks that affected primarily eleven provinces. We observed a temporary decline in overall customer demand on our platform and in the number of orders received, particularly during the week of February 6, compared to the previous week and the same week of the prior year. See “—The effects of the earthquakes that hit southeastern region of Türkiye in February 2023 as well as potential similar earthquakes in the future may adversely affect our prospects, business, financial condition and results of operations.” These types of events could also cause us to close some or all of our operating facilities temporarily or disrupt our logistics and last-mile delivery capabilities, which would severely disrupt our operations and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, our sales could be materially reduced to the extent that a natural disaster, health epidemic or other major event harms the economy of the countries where we operate. Our operations could also be severely disrupted if our customers, merchants or other participants were affected by such natural disasters, health epidemics or other major events.

Undetected software errors and hacking may cause delays or interruptions on our systems and may reduce the use of our services and damage our brand reputation.

Our online systems, including our websites, mobile apps and our other software applications, products and systems, could contain undetected errors, or “bugs,” that could adversely affect their performance. While we regularly update and enhance our websites and IT platform and introduce new versions of our mobile apps, the occurrence of errors in any such updates or enhancements may cause disruptions in the provision of our services and may, as a result, cause us to lose market share, and our reputation and brand, business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

In addition, computer viruses and cyber security breaches may in the future cause delays or other service interruptions on our systems. We may also be subject to cybersecurity threats or attempts by malicious actors who seek to gain unauthorized access to our information or systems or to cause intentional malfunctions, loss or corruption of data or leakages of our customers’ and merchants’ sensitive or personal data. We cannot provide any assurance that the various antivirus and computer protection software that we employ in our operations will successfully prevent all cybersecurity incidents (whether through the use of “denial of service” attacks or otherwise) or the transmission of any computer viruses which, if not prevented, could significantly damage our software systems and databases, cause disruptions to our business activities (including to our e-mail, short message service (“SMS”), push and other communications systems), result in security breaches or inadvertent disclosure of confidential, sensitive or personal information and hinder access to our platform.

We may in the future use artificial intelligence solutions to inform our Direct Sales pricing and our prices for Direct Sales may be informed in real-time by machine learning algorithms, any of which may, as the result of a bug or other error, result in unforeseen or disadvantageous pricing for our goods.

We may incur significant costs to protect our systems and equipment against the threat of, and to repair any damage caused by, computer viruses, hacking or other cybersecurity incidents. These costs, which could be material, could adversely impact our results of operations in the period in which they are incurred and may not meaningfully limit the success of future attempts to breach our information technology systems. Moreover, if a computer virus or other compromise of our systems becomes publicized, or if we are perceived to have failed to respond to security breaches of our systems or networks, our business, reputation and brand could be materially damaged, resulting in a decrease in the use of our platform, products and services.

Such failure to properly respond to cybersecurity incidents could also result in private consumer, business partner, or securities litigation and governmental investigations and proceedings, any of which could result in our exposure to material civil or criminal liability, and may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

20

Table of Contents

Unauthorized disclosure of sensitive or confidential customer information or our failure, or the perception by our users that we failed, to comply with privacy laws or properly address privacy concerns could harm our business and reputation with customers, merchants and suppliers.

We collect, store, process, transmit and use certain personal information and other user data in our business. A significant risk associated with e-commerce, financial services and communications is the secure transmission of confidential information and personal data over public networks. The perception of privacy concerns, whether or not valid, may adversely affect our business and results of operations. We must ensure that any processing, collection, use, storage, dissemination, transfer and disposal of data for which we are responsible complies with relevant data protection and privacy laws, including Turkish data protection and privacy laws (along with the decisions, publications and good practice examples of the relevant authorities, such as the Turkish Personal Data Protection Authority) as well as other data protection and privacy laws, such as the European Union General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”) particularly due to the launch and development of cross-border sales through HepsiGlobal. The protection of our user, employee and company data is critical to us. Currently, a number of our users authorize us to bill their credit card accounts directly. We rely on commercially available systems, software, tools and monitoring to provide encryption, secure processing, transmission and storage of confidential customer information, such as credit card and other personal information. We collect and process personal data in connection with the services of Hepsiburada Seyahat and HepsiJet and began collecting and processing more such data with the launch of Hepsipay. We expect we will continue to do so following the launch of lending solutions through Hepsifinans and that the amount of personal data may further increase as Hepsipay and Hepsifinans launch new financial services and expand their coverage beyond Hepsiburada. Our facilities and systems, and those of our third-party service providers, may be vulnerable to security breaches, acts of vandalism, computer viruses, misplaced or lost data, programming or human errors, or other similar events. Any security breach, or any perceived failure involving the misappropriation, loss or other unauthorized disclosure of confidential information, as well as any failure or perceived failure to comply with laws, policies, legal obligations or industry standards regarding data privacy and protection, whether by us or our merchants, could damage our reputation, expose us to litigation risk, regulatory investigations and liability, subject us to negative publicity, disrupt our operations and harm our business. See “—We may be subject to administrative fines and our reputation may be harmed if the Turkish Competition Authority were to determine that we did not comply with Turkish competition laws and regulations.” We cannot assure you that our security measures will prevent security breaches or that failure to prevent them will not have a material adverse effect on our business. Further, we do not require our vendors to carry cybersecurity insurance to compensate for any losses that may result from any breach of security and our cybersecurity insurance does not cover any breach of security occurring at our vendors. Therefore, our results of operations or financial condition may be materially adversely affected if our existing general liability policies did not cover a security breach.

Hepsipay is subject to a number of risks that, if they were to occur, could materially and adversely affect our goal of leading the financial technologies market in Türkiye.

Hepsipay conducts a significant amount of payments on our platform. In the fourth quarter of 2022, customers with a Hepsipay wallet generated 84% of GMV compared to 66% in the fourth quarter of 2021, reflecting strong performance in migrating Hepsiburada clients to Hepsipay. The share of GMV generated by customers who used their Hepsipay wallet to settle their transactions was largely unchanged at 36% in the fourth quarter of 2022 compared to 37% in the fourth quarter of 2021. Hepsipay is subject to a number of risks that, if they were to occur, could materially and adversely affect our goal of leading the financial technologies market in Türkiye, including, but not limited to:

·

low penetration of Hepsipay to customers and merchants due to lack of value-add and/or new services compared to alternative payment methods;

·

increasing competition, including from other established companies, e-money companies, companies engaged in other financial technology services and potential new entrants;

·

changes to laws and regulations applicable to Hepsipay that may impact our Hepsipay operations’ feasibility or profitability, including increased KYC requirements or severe restrictions on digital banking, open banking and banking-as-a-service;

·

breach of customers’ privacy and concerns over the use and security of information collected from customers and any related negative publicity or liability relating thereto;

·

service outages, system failures, or failure to effectively scale the system to handle large and growing transaction volumes;

21

Table of Contents

·

increasing costs to Hepsipay, including fees charged by banks to process transactions through Hepsipay, which would also increase our related costs;

·

negative news about and social media coverage on Hepsipay, its business, its service offerings, or matters relating to Hepsipay’s data security and privacy; and

·

failure to manage customer funds accurately or loss of customer funds, whether due to employee fraud, security breaches, technical errors, or otherwise.

We are subject to credit risk of our borrowers and counterparties in relation to our Buy-Now-Pay-Later solution.

We launched our first “Buy-Now-Pay-Later” (“BNPL”) solution in early 2022, which provides customers the opportunity to complete their purchase and submit payment a month later or in up to twelve monthly installments. We expect to develop additional finance services, first by offering lending to our customers and potentially in the future to other third parties, in line with the scope of our consumer financing license held through Hepsi Finansman A.Ş. (former trade name “Doruk Finansman A.Ş.”). As we expand our financing activities, we anticipate we will be increasingly subject to inherent risks concerning the credit quality of borrowers and counterparties, which affects the value of our finance-related assets. Systemic risks and macroeconomic factors in Türkiye and surrounding markets, discussed under “-Risks Relating to Türkiye” below, can affect the credit quality of our customers, merchants and other counterparties and their ability to make payments on such financing. As this is a new service offering, we do not yet have a track-record of providing financial services and our credit review procedures may be insufficient at evaluating and measuring credit risks such that our costs and financial liabilities from borrowings used to fund our financing activities may exceed the value of our financing assets and returns from financing activities, which could negatively impact our financial condition. We are subject to the risk that customers using the BNPL solution may be unable or unwilling to provide payment when due and we may incur greater than expected financing costs or legal costs as a result.

Furthermore, we anticipate extending our financing activities over time, including our BNPL solution, to address new growth opportunities such as “underbanked” populations (i.e., persons with insufficient access to a bank). While we closely monitor non-performing loans, the credit risk of such “underbanked” population may increase and could place additional pressure on the quality of our financial assets.

We are subject to payment-related risks.

We accept payments using a variety of methods, including credit and debit cards, and money transfers. For certain payment methods, including credit and debit cards, we pay various fees to banks and payment companies. These fees may increase over time, which would increase our operating costs and adversely affect our results of operations. We use third parties to provide payment processing services, including the processing of credit and debit cards. Our business may be disrupted for an extended period of time if any of these companies becomes unwilling or unable to provide these services to us. We are also subject to payment card association operating rules, certification requirements, and rules governing electronic funds transfers, which could change or be reinterpreted to make it difficult or impossible for us to comply. If we fail to comply with these rules or requirements, we may be subject to fines and higher transaction fees and/or lose our ability to accept credit and debit card payments from customers and merchants or facilitate other types of online payments, and our business could be harmed. Moreover, although the payment gateways we use are contractually obligated to indemnify us with respect to liability arising from fraudulent payment transactions, if such fraudulent transactions are related to credit card transactions and become excessive, they could potentially result in our losing the right to accept credit cards for payment. If any of these events were to occur, our business, financial condition, and results of operations could be adversely affected.

22

Table of Contents

We, like our platforms, are susceptible to potentially illegal or improper uses, including fraudulent and illicit sales on the payment methods accepted by us and bank fraud. In addition, our services could be subject to unauthorized credit card use, identity theft, employee fraud or other internal security breaches. We may incur significant costs to protect against the threat of information security breaches or to respond to or alleviate problems caused by any breaches. Laws may require notification to regulators, users or employees and we may be required to reimburse customers, merchants or credit card companies for any funds stolen as a result of any breaches or to provide credit monitoring or identity theft protection in the event of a privacy breach. These requirements, as well as any additional restrictions that may be imposed by credit card companies, could raise our costs significantly and reduce our attractiveness. In addition to the direct costs of such losses, if they are related to credit card transactions and become excessive they could result in us losing the right to accept credit cards for payment. If we are unable to accept credit cards, our business will be adversely affected given that credit cards are the most widely used method for our customers to pay for the products we sell.

We may suffer losses relating to the products we sell through our Direct Sales business.

In connection with our Direct Sales, we purchase products from manufacturers and third parties and subsequently sell such products on our platform. This subjects us to risks relating to managing our inventory turnover. We depend on our forecasts of demand and popularity for a variety of products to make decisions regarding product purchases. Our customers may not order products at the levels expected by us due to our failure to forecast accurately unfavorable market conditions or changes in consumer trends or to anticipate and adequately respond to events such as adverse global or local economic conditions, including recessionary fears or rising inflation, natural or human-caused disasters (including public health crises) or extreme weather (including as a result of climate change), or geopolitical events. This may result in disruptions in our cash conversion cycle or we may suffer losses due to sales below inventory cost or lower than expected price levels. Furthermore, such disruptions may result in overstock and when we overstock products, we may be required to take significant inventory markdowns or write-offs and incur commitment costs, which could materially reduce our profitability. In addition, if the supply of products from manufacturers and third parties deteriorates, we may be unable to obtain the products that customers want to purchase. Manufacturers and third parties may discontinue selling products due to factors that may or may not be within our control. Our inability to secure timely and sufficient supplies of products would negatively affect inventory levels and may have an adverse effect on our financial performance and reputation.

We rely on many service providers in our business, and the nonperformance or loss of a significant third-party provider through bankruptcy, consolidation, or otherwise, could adversely affect our operations.

We are party to agreements with third-party companies in various aspects of our business model, including the lessors of our fulfillment centers and various logistics providers and IT and data center service providers (domestically and from outside of Türkiye). For example, if we are unable to maintain or renew leases, or lease other suitable premises on acceptable terms, or if our existing leases are terminated for any reason (including in connection with a lessor’s loss of its ownership rights to such premises), or if a lease’s terms (including rental charges) are revised to our detriment, such matters could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

If these third parties do not comply with applicable legal or administrative requirements, were to default on their obligations, or if we lose a significant provider through bankruptcy, consolidation or otherwise, we may be subject to litigation with these third-party providers, fail to renew the respective agreements on commercially acceptable terms, or at all, and, therefore, face the need of switching to new third-party providers, who may provide services to us at higher prices. Our backup systems and contingency planning may not account for all possible scenarios and we may have limited access to alternative sites for our fulfillment operations, logistics services, IT and data center services, or other services and may not be able to timely replace these third parties, or find a replacement on a cost-efficient basis, in the event of disruptions, failures to provide services or other issues with them that may adversely affect our business. In early 2023, we began the migration of one of our data centers in Istanbul to a new location. The migration is expected to be completed over the course of a few months. Any failure or loss of data during this migration may have a material adverse effect on our operations. Any of these consequences could have a material adverse effect on our business financial condition and results of operations.

23

Table of Contents

We operate platforms that include third parties over whose actions we have no control.

Our e-commerce services business, other than our Direct Sales, requires the participation of third parties such as merchants who own the products offered through our Marketplace. We cannot control the actions of these third parties and if they do not perform their functions to our satisfaction or the satisfaction of our users, it may damage the reputation of our platform. Our e-commerce business relies upon merchants to provide and post their products on our platform, and we cannot be certain that the products that they sell will all be legitimate, of a sufficiently high quality or that they will accurately represent the products in their postings. We cannot be certain that efforts to conduct security and know-your-customer procedures with respect to our merchants and screen the listings placed by our merchants periodically and upon receipt of complaints (see Item 4.B. “Information on the Company—Business Overview—Marketplace—Merchants”) will detect every improper third-party action before it reaches our users. Further, while we have no liability for the content provided by third parties or illegal or unlawful activity related to goods or services provided by such third parties on our website as a “hosting service provider” and “intermediary service provider” under Article 5 of the Law on Internet Crimes (as defined under Item 4.B. “Information on the Company—Business Overview—Regulatory Overview”) and Article 9 of the E-Commerce Law, respectively, we may nevertheless face compensation claims, administrative fines or even criminal complaints under Turkish laws for counterfeit products, content or products blocked or prohibited in Türkiye or content or products infringing trademarks or other intellectual property rights if we receive a notification of the unlawful or illegal content and do not take any action (including removing the unlawful content). While we have agreements with each of our merchants that obligate them to carry out their respective businesses in a professional manner and while we are not liable under Turkish law for such merchants’ content or products, except in the circumstances described above, any legal protections we might have could be insufficient to compensate us for our losses and would not be able to repair the damage to our reputation.

Our strategic acquisitions may result in operational challenges, and the failure of an acquisition or investment to produce the anticipated results or the inability to fully integrate an acquired company could have an adverse impact on our business, results of operation and financial condition.

We may decide to enter into strategic partnerships or to acquire complementary businesses or technologies in order to expand our operations, products and services and to adjust our business portfolio in response to changing market conditions. For example, in 2022, we completed the acquisition of Hepsifinans, through which we expect to enter the consumer finance sector. The success of acquisitions or investments is based on our ability to make accurate assumptions regarding the valuation of these operations, growth potential, integration and other factors related to the respective businesses. Our acquisitions or investments may not produce the results that we expect at the time we enter into or complete a given transaction. Such acquisitions and investments can be time-consuming and costly, could create unforeseen operational challenges and expenditures or may not meet our expectations. Furthermore, we may not be able to successfully integrate operations that we acquire, including their personnel, financial systems, distribution or operating procedures. If we fail to successfully integrate acquisitions, our business results of operation and financial condition could suffer. In addition, the integration of any acquired business and their financial results may adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.

24

Table of Contents

We may use open source code in a manner that could be harmful to our business.

We use open source code, which is subject to licensing, in connection with our technology and services. Original developers of open source code do not provide warranties for the use of their source code. The use of such open source code may ultimately require us to replace certain code used in our platform, pay a royalty to use certain open source code, disclose and freely license all or a portion of our proprietary software code, or discontinue certain aspects of our platform. As a result, the use of open source code could have a material adverse effect on our business financial condition and results of operations.

Our operating metrics and competitive information, both internally calculated and provided by third parties and included in this annual report, may be calculated differently from the metrics or competitive information published by our competitors or other third parties in our industry and any perceived inaccuracies or inadequate cross-company comparisons may harm our reputation.

Most of our operating metrics included in this annual report and which we regularly communicate to the market are calculated by us internally. We also provide industry, market and competitive information (including market share data) in this annual report based on studies and reports of third parties (see “Market and Industry Data”).

Our methods of calculating operating metrics such as Active Customers, number of orders and GMV and those of third parties in calculating industry, market and competitive information (including market share data) may differ from estimates published by third parties or from similarly titled metrics published by our competitors or other parties due to differences in methodology. For instance, we calculate GMV as the total value of orders/products sold through our platform over a given period of time (including VAT without deducting returns and cancellations), including cargo income (shipping fees related to the products sold through our platform) and excluding other service revenues and transaction fees charged to our merchants. Other companies or third parties may calculate GMV differently, for instance, by excluding returns and cancellations, VAT or cargo income, or including other service revenues. They may also calculate Active Customers or the number of orders differently based on differences in the technology used or technical methods used to record such metrics. We believe our calculation of GMV, as well as other metrics and third- party information, in this annual report provides investors with a useful tool to understand the value of transactions processed through our platforms. However, if customers, merchants or investors do not perceive our operating metrics or the information on our industry, market and competitive information (including market share data) included in this annual report to be accurate, our reputation could be materially and adversely affected.

For further information on our operating metrics, their calculation and assumptions relating thereto, see Item 5. “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Summary Consolidated Financial and Other Data—Key Indicators of Operating and Financial Performance and Non-IFRS Measures.

We may not be able to, or may choose not to, insure against all risks we face and may incur losses not covered by insurance, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We rely on insurance coverage to insure against damage and loss to our IT infrastructure and operational assets, including the server hardware, fulfillment centers, network, and storage devices and back-up facilities in our data centers. We maintain insurance coverage for our employees, executives and properties. We expect to continue to maintain our existing insurance coverage and to purchase any additional insurance coverage as necessary for our operations, including social security and health insurance coverage for our employees and executive officers and liability insurance for our directors and executive committee. However, we cannot assure you that our insurance coverage provides us with sufficient coverage for all losses, events or incidents. We also may choose not to insure against all risks we face. For example, we do not require our vendors to carry cybersecurity insurance to compensate for any losses that may result from any breach of security and our cybersecurity insurance does not cover any breach of security occurring at our vendors. See “—Unauthorized disclosure of sensitive or confidential customer information or our failure, or the perception by our users that we failed, to comply with privacy laws or properly address privacy concerns could harm our business and reputation with customers, merchants and suppliers.” Therefore, should an uninsured loss or a loss in excess of our insured limits occur, we would lose the capital invested in, and the anticipated revenue from, the affected assets, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

25

Table of Contents

We depend upon our Founder, our senior management, our IT specialists and other talented employees to grow, operate and improve our business; if we fail to retain our Founder as a result of ongoing litigation or if we fail to attract, retain and motivate key personnel or if we do not successfully manage the transition associated with our new CEO, our business could be adversely affected.

We depend upon the continued services and performance of our senior management team and other key personnel, many of whom have a level of experience and local knowledge that is difficult to replicate. The unexpected departure of any of them from the Company could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations, and there can be no assurance that we will be able to attract or retain suitable replacements for such personnel in a timely manner or at all.

We benefit from the input of our founder and chairwoman, Hanzade Vasfiye Doğan Boyner (our “Founder”). As discussed in Item 6. “Directors, Senior Management and Employees-Directors and Senior Management—Legal Proceedings Relating to Directors,” our Founder formerly served on the board of directors of Petrol Ofisi A.Ş., a major Turkish fuel company. In 2016, she was one of 47 executives subject to an indictment alleging that illegal activity was committed by Petrol Ofisi between 2004 and 2007. As of the date of this annual report, the criminal proceeding stemming from the 2016 indictment has not progressed beyond the initial stage. In the event of an adverse outcome to this legal proceeding, our Founder could be required to step down from her position as a board member of any entity, including the Company, which could have an adverse impact on our business. Further, although this lawsuit has been in the public domain over the past seven years and has received considerable publicity, any negative public opinion relating to the allegations forming the basis of the proceeding, regardless of the legal outcome, may affect our brand and reputation and therefore may have an adverse impact on our business in the future. As of the date of this annual report, we have not experienced any negative impact from these standing allegations. For more information, see Item 6. “Directors, Senior Management and Employees—Directors and Senior Management—Legal Proceedings Relating to Directors.”

Our success and growth strategy also depend on our continued ability to identify, hire, develop, motivate and retain talented employees. Our ability to execute and manage our operations efficiently is dependent upon contributions from all of our employees. Competition for senior management and key IT personnel is intense, and the pool of qualified candidates is relatively limited.

From time to time, some of our key personnel have chosen to leave our Company for various reasons, including personal career development plans or alternative compensation packages. An inability to retain the services of our key personnel or properly manage the working relationship among our management and employees may expose us to legal or administrative action or adverse publicity, which could adversely affect our reputation, business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations. For example, other leading technology platforms also operate in Türkiye and compete directly with us for the same talent pool, which has a limited number of skilled IT or other professionals.

We continue to focus on becoming a profitable company in the near term, which has involved, and may continue to involve, cuts to personnel costs, such as salary reductions and downsizing efforts. Additionally, our new CEO as of January 2, 2023 has made, and may continue to make, certain organizational changes, which may include changes to our management team, our structure, our business strategy and our strategic priorities. These efforts to manage costs and to effect other changes may not succeed or may result in disruption, which could adversely affect our business, employee morale and our ability to compete effectively, and in turn impact our revenues, operations, and results of operations.

If we lose key employees, training new ones with no prior relevant experience could be time consuming and require a significant amount of resources. We may also need to increase the compensation we pay to our employees from time to time in order to retain them. If competition in our industry intensifies, it may be increasingly difficult for us to hire, motivate and retain highly skilled personnel due to significant market demand. If we fail to attract additional highly skilled personnel or retain or motivate our existing personnel, we may be unable to pursue our targets, and our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

An inability to retain and replace existing personnel or to attract new personnel could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

26

Table of Contents

Employee misconduct or inadvertent mistakes are difficult to determine and detect and could harm our reputation and business.

We face risks that may arise out of our employees’ lack of knowledge or willful, negligent or involuntary violations of laws, rules and regulations or other misconduct. Misconduct by employees could involve, among other things, the improper use or disclosure of confidential information (including trade secrets and personal information), embezzlement or fraud, any of which could result in regulatory sanctions or fines imposed on us, as well as cause us serious reputational or financial harm. We have experienced fraudulent misconduct by employees in the past, which to date has not caused any material harm to our business. However, any such further misconduct may result in unknown and unmanaged risks and losses. Moreover, our employees may make inadvertent mistakes while carrying out their duties, including where data is compiled manually. There can be no assurance that our internal audits, compliance procedures, security departments, ethics hotline, codes of conduct and other procedures in place that are designed to monitor our employees’ conduct will allow us to discover employee misconduct or mistakes in a timely and effective manner, if at all. It is not always possible to guard against employee misconduct or mistakes and ensure full compliance with our risk management and information policies. The direct and indirect costs of employee misconduct or mistakes can be substantial, and our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

We face uncertainties relating to the growth and profitability of the e-commerce industry in our region and we may face challenges and uncertainties in implementing our e-commerce strategy.

Our future sales depend substantially on consumers’ widespread acceptance and use of e-commerce. While e-commerce has existed in our region for decades, only recently have certain regional e-commerce companies become sizeable. Our future results of operations will depend on numerous factors affecting the development of the e-commerce retail industry in our region, which may be beyond our control. These factors include:

the growth of the overall retail sector in a hyperinflationary environment where consumers may face pressure with respect to their purchasing power;
the growth rate of internet, broadband, personal computer, and smartphone penetration and usage in our region;
the trust and confidence level of e-commerce consumers, as well as changes in customer demographics and consumer tastes and preferences;
the selection, pricing and popularity of products that online merchants offer;
whether alternative retail channels or business models that better address the needs of consumers emerge;
regulatory changes that may hinder the development of the e-commerce sector; and
the development of logistics, payment and other ancillary services associated with e-commerce.

Low rates of growth and profitability in the local e-commerce industry as a result of any of these other factors could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Our business would be adversely affected if last mile delivery service carriers were classified as employees instead of independent contractors and we may incur significant additional expenses if the employees of subcontractors carrying out delivery services are considered our employees.

For our HepsiJet operations, we (i) retain the services of self-employed last mile delivery service carriers and (ii) subcontract last mile delivery services from third-party service providers.

The classification of self-employed last mile delivery service carriers as independent contractors has been challenged in courts and by government agencies in various non-Turkish jurisdictions. We believe that our carriers are independent contractors, as they decide for themselves how best to perform their services, they provide a vehicle to perform the delivery services, and they are under no exclusive commitment to us other than not providing delivery services to our competitors.

27

Table of Contents

We also subcontract last mile delivery services from third-party service providers, and such providers may or may not have employees of their own. Turkish law allows for employees of third-party subcontractors to bring certain claims against us directly, due to our indirect relationship. From time to time in the ordinary course of our operations we have been involved in legal proceedings initiated by employees of third-party subcontractors, such as employment related claims arising out of termination of our relationship with their employer. While we do not believe the employees of our subcontractors are our employees, several employment-related claims are pending against us before courts specializing in employment law. We do not currently believe that the outcome of these cases will have a material adverse impact to our financial position, either individually or in the aggregate.

If courts or government agencies of competent jurisdictions reclassify our self-employed carriers as our employees instead of independent contractors, or establish an employment relationship between us and the employees of subcontractors, or otherwise find us to be in violation of any Turkish labor law or regulation, we may incur significant additional expenses to compensate those carriers or employees of third-party subcontractors, potentially becoming liable for monetary obligations such as employee benefits, social security contributions, taxes, and penalties in addition to the costs associated with defending, settling, or resolving these matters. Moreover, the government or government agencies may introduce new legislations or regulations setting forth a minimum percentage of carriers as our employees and restricting the proportion of self-employed carriers used as subcontractors in our operations. Further, any such reclassification of our carriers as employees or such legislative or regulatory restrictions on our ability to contract with self-employed carriers may require us to make certain operational changes going forward, and as a result, our growth, operations, financial condition and operating results could be adversely and materially affected.

Legal and Regulatory Risks

We are subject to tax audits that may result in additional tax liabilities and are exposed to changes in tax laws and regulations as well as their interpretation and implementation, including Türkiye’s digital service tax and earthquake tax.

We are subject to a variety of taxes in Türkiye including but not limited to corporate income tax, withholding tax, value added tax (“VAT”), payroll taxes and social security taxes, among others. The estimated net results of our business are based on tax rates which are currently applicable, as well as current tax regulations and interpretations by tax authorities. A change in applicable corporate tax rates or in general of any tax rule or interpretation made by tax authorities may impact our net results of operations. From time to time, we may be subject to tax audits by the Turkish tax authority, which can result in additional charges or fines. For example, in July 2020, we received a request from the Turkish tax authority for the initiation of a tax audit for the years 2019 and 2018 with regards to corporate income tax and VAT. This tax audit resulted in the Company having to pay an additional TRY 305 thousand tax liability in September 2022. Audits may be time-consuming and divert efforts and resources of management and may sometimes result in material tax penalties that would have an adverse impact on our financial condition. In addition to our results of operations, any dividends or other distributions paid in respect of any of our ordinary shares may also be adversely affected in case of any changes to the applicable double taxation treaties or any increase in the level of withholding tax, which is currently 10%.

In March 2020, a digital service tax (the “DST”) took effect in Türkiye imposing a 7.5% tax on revenue generated from a broad range of digital services, including digital advertising, digital content sales, and digital platform services. The DST only applies to companies that generate revenues from covered digital services of at least: (i) TRY 20 million in Türkiye and (ii) €750 million globally. As of the date of this annual report, we are not subject to the DST as our global revenues are below the threshold. However, as a result of our growth, we may in the future exceed such threshold if it is not increased, or we may exceed such threshold if it is reduced, at which time our operations may become subject to the DST. In addition, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development has published proposals to advance international negotiations to ensure large and highly profitable multinational enterprises, including digital companies, pay tax wherever they have significant consumer-facing activities and generate their profits. Certain jurisdictions in the EU and Latin America have already enacted or are discussing new tax laws, rules and regulations directed at the digital economy and multi-national businesses.

28

Table of Contents

In February 2023, two earthquakes hit the southeastern region of Türkiye. In response to the effects of these earthquakes, in March 2023, an earthquake tax took effect as a one-time tax aimed at generating funds. It is introduced with Article 10(27) of the Law No. 7440 on Restructuring of Certain Receivables and Amendments to Certain Laws (the “Law No. 7440”). The rate of the earthquake tax is set at 10% on exemption and deduction amounts applied on income under the applicable laws, and on the tax base within the reduced corporate tax rate under Article 32/A of the Corporate Income Tax Law, without being associated with the business income of the period and at 5% on income subject to the participation income exemption under Article 5/1-a of the Corporate Income Tax Law and on exempt income obtained from abroad and certified to bear a tax burden of at least 15%. The earthquake tax pertains to the accounting period ended on December 31, 2022 as a one-time tax and excludes certain taxpayers, exemptions and deductions as specified in the Law No. 7440. We are not subject to this one-time earthquake tax. However, any amendments to the tax legislation or subsequent practice of tax authorities may require us to pay an earthquake tax in the future, including retroactively for the accounting period ended on December 31, 2022.

If existing tax laws, rules or regulations in our markets are amended, or if new tax laws, rules or regulations are enacted, including with respect to the DST, sales tax, value-added taxes, withholding taxes, revenue based taxes, earthquake tax or other similar taxes applicable to the digital economy or multi-national businesses, the results of these changes could increase our effective tax rate, tax liabilities and/or associated costs. Possible implications may include double taxation, multiple levels of taxation, additional obligations, prospectively or retrospectively, as well as imposition of interest and penalties if non-compliance is determined. Potential heightened tax law enforcement against us could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

29

Table of Contents

We may be subject to administrative fines and our reputation may be harmed if the Turkish Competition Authority were to determine that we did not comply with Turkish competition laws and regulations.

Our business is subject to Turkish competition laws and regulations. We have been, and may continue to be, subject to investigations by the Turkish Competition Authority (the “TCA”) for compliance with these laws and regulations. For example, in February 2019, the TCA initiated a preliminary inquiry against us and Anka Mobil Tedarik A.Ş., one of our suppliers, in response to a merchant’s complaint that we and Anka Mobil Tedarik A.Ş. violated Turkish competition laws, including the most favored customer clause that applies to all transactions performed with our merchants in our Marketplace operations, price discrimination, restriction of intra-brand competition, refusal to deal, and resale price maintenance in the mobile accessories business. In June 2019, the TCA decided to proceed with a full investigation of the matter. On April 15, 2021, the Competition Board, the executive body of the TCA, concluded its investigation and issued its decision in our favor, indicating that we do not hold a dominant position in the relevant market and that we did not breach the Turkish competition law. No fines were imposed on Hepsiburada as a result of this investigation. The TCA issued its reasoned decision on October 11, 2021 and no objections to the decision were received by the Ankara administrative courts within the 60-day statutory deadline. Although, we believe that our operations are in material compliance with Turkish competition laws, any investigations that may be conducted by the TCA in the future into our operations or transactions, and the imposition of related fines, sanctions or conditions on us, could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

In April 2021, the TCA initiated an investigation against 32 companies regarding anti-competitive agreements in the labor markets (including companies operating in the e-commerce, retail, broadcasting and fast-food industries, but excluding us) to determine whether those entities have violated the Law on the Protection of Competition (the “Competition Law”), which prohibits such anti-competitive agreements. The TCA’s public announcement makes it clear that the allegations that led to the investigation solely relate to direct or indirect agreements regarding non-solicitation of employees, thus potentially restricting the competition in the labor markets in Türkiye. On June 15, 2021, without notice, TCA officials visited our headquarters and reviewed the digital correspondence of a limited number of senior managers and human resources employees. On August 18, 2021, we received a notification from the TCA stating that the Competition Board had decided to initiate an investigation on August 5, 2021 against 11 companies including Hepsiburada the subject of which was the same as the existing April 2021 investigation, and to merge these two investigations. On April 18, 2022, we received notice that the rapporteurs completed an investigation report stating their opinion that we violated the Competition Law that prohibits anti-competitive agreements in the labor markets and an administrative fine should be imposed. However, the Competition Board must render the final decision. Although there is no certainty that a fine will be imposed at this stage, the investigation process may result in an administrative fine based on the report prepared by the rapporteurs. The investigation is at the oral defense stage. In this regard, the oral meeting was expected to occur in February 2023 but the Competition Board has postponed the oral meeting to an undetermined future date due to the earthquakes of February 6, 2023 in Türkiye.

We expect the Competition Board to make the final decision in 2023. If the Competition Board agrees with the rapporteurs that there is a violation, according to the “Regulation on Fines to Apply in Cases of Agreements, Concerted Practices and Decisions Limiting Competition, and Abuse of Dominant Position”, we expect that a ratio between 2% and 4% of our annual net revenue as per statutory financial statements of the previous year will be imposed as a penalty. We will have an opportunity to appeal an adverse decision of the Competition Board. We recognized a provision of TRY 209,484 thousand (as adjusted for inflation) in our consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2021, representing 2% of our annual net revenues as reported in our statutory financial statements for 2021.

In 2022, on the basis of a legal opinion which considered similar cases, the provision expense recorded in our consolidated financial statements was recalculated as TRY 95,643 thousand, representing 1.5% of our annual net revenues as reported in our statutory consolidated financial statements prepared in accordance with tax legislation for 2021.

In addition, with respect to the on-site inspection conducted by the Competition Board in June 2021 in connection with the abovementioned investigation, an administrative fine in the amount of TRY 35,278 thousand was imposed based on the conclusion that the on-site inspection was hindered. Subsequently TRY 26,459 thousand was paid by the Company on November 11, 2022 (reflecting a 25% discount due to an early payment), without prejudice to the Company’s right to file a lawsuit against the fine. The Company requested reconsideration of the decision from the Competition Board on December 9, 2022, but the Competition Board’s decision was not reversed. Thereafter, an administrative case was filed with the Ankara Administrative Courts for the reversal of the Competition Board’s decision on December 30, 2022, which is pending.

30

Table of Contents

The TCA from time to time may modify regulations or adopt new regulations in response to developments of new markets and market behaviors in different sectors or industries. In order to better understand these developing markets such as the emerging e-marketplace platform sector, the market forces and behaviors, as well as to ensure their operational efficiency and identify any potential competition problems, the TCA undertakes routine inquiries and information gathering processes with various stakeholders within these developing markets. For example, the TCA launched a sector inquiry in relation to the online advertisement market, which is a developing market in Türkiye. Similarly, in June 2020, the TCA commenced a sector inquiry on the e-marketplace platforms sector. The preliminary report relating to the inquiry process was published by the TCA in May 2021, which raised a number of findings related to (i) competition between platforms, (ii) competition with respect to products sold within a platform and (iii) certain privacy or data protection matters with respect to platform customers. We submitted an interested party opinion to provide the TCA further information about our business’ role and operations in the e-marketplace platform sector and our view about the operation and regulation of the sector in general. The TCA conducted a workshop in July 2021 to obtain the opinions of the market players and stakeholders, customers, lawyers and academics regarding the findings, assessments and proposed policies within the preliminary report. The TCA issued its final report on April 14, 2022, which may result in additional regulations for the e-marketplace platform sector with which we may be required to comply in the future. Such sector inquiries are not company specific investigations and do not result in company specific administrative fines and penalties. However, if the TCA adopts new rules and regulation which we may need to comply with in the future, the additional regulatory burden may have a negative impact on our operations and financial results.

We are subject to extensive laws and government regulations across our business, and changes to these laws or any actual or perceived failure by us to comply with such laws and regulations could materially and adversely affect our business.

Our business is impacted by laws and regulations in Türkiye that affect the industries our businesses operate in, and their scope has increased significantly in recent years. We are subject to a variety of regulations, including those relating to e-commerce, internet applications or content services, privacy and data protection, labor and employment laws, intellectual property, virtual items, national security, content restrictions, consumer protection, prevention of money laundering and financing criminal activity and terrorism, digital financial services regulation, electronic payment services regulation, consumer finance regulation, traffic and transportation regulation and travel regulations.

We are required under Turkish law to obtain a workplace opening and operation permit from the relevant authorities before beginning operations at each of our facilities. These permits are subject to examination or verification by the relevant authorities. We have not obtained, and in the future may fail to obtain, such permits for some of our facilities before beginning to operate them, which may result in administrative fines or penalties or even sanctions such as the temporary suspension of our operations at those facilities lacking valid permits, which could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. Although we have not been subject to any administrative fines, sanctions (such as the temporary suspension of our operations at such facilities) or investigations, or received any administrative warnings as of the date of this annual report, the absence of these permits could result in administrative fines or sanctions such as the temporary suspension of operations of such facilities until such permits are received, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Recent and future expansion in terms of our services and geographic coverage, including our ramp-up of Hepsipay and other payment solutions, our planned consumer finance loans through Hepsifinans, any future expansion into cross-border sales through HepsiGlobal and the expansion of our ticketing services through Hepsiburada Seyahat have recently subjected us to, and could further subject us to increased or new regulatory scrutiny and compliance requirements and other risks that may be costly or difficult to comply with, such as travel agencies regulations, payment services regulations, consumer finance services regulations, compliance with privacy laws and data security laws, including the GDPR, and compliance costs across different legal systems, including customs laws. We may have to come up with, adapt and implement different operating practices and protocols depending on the requirements of new regulators, which may require us to expend substantial resources. In certain cases, such regulatory changes may adversely affect our growth plans and we may not be able to achieve our targets in those areas.

We are required to hold, and do currently hold, licenses in order to offer such solutions, but since legislation around these offerings is continuously evolving and may be subject to different interpretation by the relevant regulatory authorities in the future, there can be no assurance that we will not be required to obtain any additional permits or licenses in the future with respect to any of our current or future solutions. If we fail to obtain such permits or licenses in the future, our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

31

Table of Contents

Regulators may periodically re-examine and increase enforcement of compliance obligations, which may require us or our business partners to further revise or expand the compliance program. Such compliance requirements may also make it more burdensome to use our services and products, which could potentially discourage users from using our services and products.

The provision of financial services through Hepsipay and Hepsifinans, such as e-wallet, e-money, payment facilitation services, and consumer lending, is highly regulated and subject to a broad range of complex laws and regulations that are rapidly changing. For example, after we obtained licenses from the Banking Regulation and Supervision Agency (“BRSA”) to operate financial services through Hepsipay, in 2019 an amendment to the relevant legislation changed the competent authority regulating payment companies to the Central Bank of the Republic of Türkiye (the “Central Bank”). The Central Bank has in the past and may in the future impose new or additional licensing requirements, capital commitments, governance standards, reporting obligations or other regulatory requirements, requiring us to devote substantial operational and financial resources to comply with such requirements. For example, in December 2021, the Central Bank published the Regulation on Payment Services and Electronic Money Issuance and Payment Service Providers (the “Payment Services Regulation”) and the Communiqué on Information Systems of Payment and Electronic Money Institutions and Data Sharing Services in the Field of Payment Services Providers (the “Payment Services Communiqué”), in Türkiye’s Official Gazette, requiring compliance within one year with the following new requirements, among others, on e-commerce payment services such as Hepsipay’s wallet service: (i) to keep collateral at the Central Bank, in accordance with the number of customers, volume of transactions and other conditions specified therein, (ii) to comply with higher minimum equity requirement, and (iii) to comply with additional obligations such as remote know-your-customer diligence. The one-year compliance period for the new requirements introduced in the Payment Services Communique was extended to February 28, 2023 (and subsequently to April 30, 2023 and June 30, 2023). While we are in compliance with the currently applicable requirements under the Payment Services Regulation and the Payment Services Communique and we expect to be compliant with the new requirements under these regulations by June 30, 2023, a failure to comply with these or other regulations may result in the limitation, suspension or termination of services or the imposition of penalties, including fines which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

In addition, on April 28, 2023, the Central Bank notified the Company that it had identified seven instances of non-compliance by the Company under the (Repealed) Communique on the Management and Supervision of IT Systems of Payment Institutions and Electronic Money Institutions relating to data security and authorization, ID verification and the creation of an audit trail. The Central Bank requested that the Company provide a written response, including an action plan to remedy the identified instances of non-compliance within one month. The Central Bank may in its discretion impose administrative fines on the Company ranging from TRY 129 thousand to TRY 2,913 thousand for each breach. If an administrative fine is imposed by the Central Bank, the Company has a right to appeal the decision to the Turkish Criminal Court of Peace.

Moreover, Hepsiburada acts as a commercial representative of merchants and funds are transferred to the merchants through Hepsiburada. According to the Payment Services Regulation and the Payment Services Communiqué, a report must be filed with the Central Bank in January of each year in which the amount of intermediary service provider activities exceeds TRY 50 million within the prior twelve-month period. As a consequence of this provision, intermediary service providers, including Hepsiburada, submitted reports in January 2022 and January 2023. The Central Bank, which is the competent authority to evaluate our reports to determine whether our reported activity qualifies as a payment service, within the scope of the Payment Services Regulation and the Payment Services Communiqué, has not yet responded. If the Central Bank were to conclude that our reported activity is a payment service, we expect to restructure our service such that we transfer funds to merchants through Hepsipay instead of Hepsiburada.

We are subject to the Turkish Regulation on Precautions regarding Prevention of the Money Laundering and the Financing of Terrorism (the “AMLCFT”) due to Hepsiburada being deemed (i) an “intermediary in the purchase and sale of precious metals, stones or jewels” because we conduct the sale of gold and (ii) as “operating in the field of gambling” because we offer digital products on our platform, including non-cash games, pursuant to an authorization obtained from the Turkish General Directorate of the National Lottery Administration (the “GDNL”). Accordingly, we are required to, among other things, carry out certain KYC checks, report suspicious transactions and monitor certain activities. Any failure to comply with the terms of the AMLCFT may result in the limitation, suspension or termination of our services and/or imposition of civil and criminal penalties, and fines. Additionally, we are subject to the rules and regulations of the GDNL regarding non-cash games offered on our platform. In case of any failure to comply with the rules and regulations of the GDNL, our authorization granted by the GDNL may be cancelled, and we may be subject to administrative fines.

32

Table of Contents

Our consumer finance company, Hepsifinans, is under the regulatory authority of the BRSA, and subject to regulations and audits by them, as well as regulations by the Financial Crimes Investigation Board (“MASAK”). While we have not yet started the operations of this company, the company was acquired with its existing customers, loans and associated data and contracts. Therefore, it is also subject to audit for its past business by the related parties. Although we carry indemnifications from the previous shareholders due to these past operations, any future findings might create regulatory fines as well as disruptions to daily business, some of which may not be covered by these indemnifications. We anticipate devoting substantial operational and financial resources to comply with the requirements of all the existing and new regulations and communique associated with our financial services businesses, and change our internal rules and procedures in accordance with any predefined and future changes. We have in the past, and may in the future face, additional audits and investigations by regulators or third parties appointed by the regulators for alleged violations of such requirements. As of the date of this annual report, our management believes that we conduct know-your-client procedures in compliance with MASAK regulations. However, any further investigations may require resources to respond to and could result in further penalties or fines if it is determined that we violated any regulatory requirements, which may impact our business and financial condition.

We may be subject to administrative fines and our reputation may be harmed if the Personal Data Protection Authority were to determine that we breached Turkish Data Protection Law No. 6698.

Our Company is subject to the Turkish Law on the Protection of Personal Data (the “LPPD”) and other relevant secondary legislation on the protection of personal data. The Personal Data Protection Board (the “PDP Board”) may request information and documents ex officio or upon complaint, and if it determines that there is a violation of the LPPD as a result of its investigation, it may decide to issue instructions and impose administrative fines. In addition, there is a risk that the decisions to be taken by the PDP Board in investigations may be published on the Authority’s website and will identify the subject company. If a decision against the Company is published on the Authority’s website, in addition to any sanctions that may be imposed with such a decision, our reputation may be negatively and materially affected.

Our Company has been subject to six investigations conducted by the Personal Data Protection Authority (“Authority”) in 2022 and 2023 and is likely to be subject to such investigations in the future. For example, on October 12, 2022, the Authority notified the Company of an ongoing investigation initiated by the Authority due to a complaint regarding the sending of electronic commercial messages in e-mail format to a total of 600 individuals. These electronic commercial messages contained an error wherein the e-mail addresses of the data subjects were mistakenly added to the “TO” section instead of the intended “BCC” section. This error resulted in the inadvertent disclosure of all recipients’ contact data (email addresses), to each other. The complaint also cited unauthorized data processing as well as unauthorized transfer of personal data abroad through the use of cookies. On March 16, 2023, the Authority determined that the Company, as the data controller, had failed to take the necessary technical and administrative measures to ensure the security of personal data. Therefore, the Authority imposed an administrative fine of TRY 500 thousand. The Company was notified of this decision on April 6, 2023. The Company has decided not to exercise its right to appeal to the Turkish Criminal Court of Peace.

With respect to the remaining five pending investigations, the Authority will assess the investigations, and it may conclude that Hepsiburada, as the data controller, has breached its obligations under the LPPD based on one or more of the following alleged failures: i) failure to take the necessary technical and administrative measures to ensure the level of security appropriate for the purpose of preventing unlawful processing of personal data, ii) failure to duly notify data subjects and the PDP Board of data breaches, iii) failure to meet the necessary disclosure requirements while obtaining consents for electronic commercial messages, and iv) failure to comply with the decisions made by the PDP Board. If the Authority concludes that Hepsiburada breached its obligations under the LPDD, Hepsiburada may be subject to administrative fines. The amount of the fines will depend on the nature and the timing of the breach as well as the Authority’s discretion. For each breach that occurred in 2022, the Authority may impose administrative fines ranging from TRY 13.4 thousand to TRY 2,678.9 thousand. If any sanction is imposed as a result of the investigations, the Company expects to exercise its right to appeal to the Turkish Criminal Court of Peace.

We have recognized a provision of TRY 2,370 thousand in our consolidated financial statements for the financial year ended December 31, 2022 in connection with the pending investigations.

33

Table of Contents

If we fail to obtain intellectual property rights protection or adequately protect our intellectual property rights, or if we infringe third-party intellectual property rights, our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

Our trademarks, service marks, copyrights, trade dress, trade secrets, proprietary technology, domain names and other intellectual property rights are valuable assets that are critical to our success. We principally rely on trademarks (including by applying to register our trademarks in respect of key jurisdictions based on our business assessment) and confidentiality agreements to protect our intellectual property rights. We have a portfolio of registered trademarks in Türkiye in respect of many of our core brands, such as our “hepsiburada” and “hepsiglobal” brands. However, we may in some circumstances be unable to (or may be delayed in our ability to) apply for or register our trademarks (including where third parties allege pre- existing rights or have made earlier applications) or acquire our desired domain names or prevent third parties from acquiring trademarks or domain names that are identical or similar to, infringe or diminish the value of our trademarks and other proprietary rights. There is also a risk that third parties will claim that our products, trademarks or brands infringe their intellectual property rights — for instance, if a third-party claims that it has obtained prior rights or a pre-existing trademark application or registration for an identical or similar trademark. These third parties may bring infringement claims against us or may oppose the registration and protection of our brands and/or trademark rights.

These risks are further exacerbated by our growth and the expansion of our business into new geographies, including the EU and the United States. For example, our application filed with the European Union Intellectual Property Office (“EUIPO”) in August 2020 for a figurative EU trademark for our “hepsiglobal” brand (EU trademark application no. 18292598) is currently opposed by PepsiCo, Inc. (“PepsiCo”), on the basis of certain claimed prior rights in respect of its “Pepsi” brand. Discussions with PepsiCo are ongoing and, as we regard the beverages business of PepsiCo as clearly distinct from our business under our brands, we believe that a negotiated resolution with PepsiCo will be achieved that should allow our foregoing EU trademark application to proceed in respect of certain classes of goods and services. There is, however, no certainty that a negotiated resolution will be achieved, or that it will be achieved without delay, or as to the final terms of any such outcome. Monetary damages or injunctive relief are not possible outcomes with respect to this matter.

Similarly, our application filed with the EUIPO in August 2018 for the word mark “hepsiburada.com” (EU trademark application no. 17941312) was opposed by Alpak B.V. (“Alpak”), on the basis of certain claimed prior rights in respect of the “hepsiburada” brand including its EU trademark for the word “hepsiburada” registered in December 2017 under trademark no. 17151796. We believe Alpak applied for and registered the foregoing trademark in bad faith in an effort to copy our well-known brands and/or to frustrate or delay (or extract compensation for) our protection of these brands in the EU. Accordingly, we applied for a declaration of invalidity against Alpak’s trademark so that the application with respect to our trademark “hepsiburada.com” may proceed. Alpak’s opposition was suspended until the Board gives a decision in respect of our request about declaration of invalidity of Alpak’s trademark. Our initial application for declaration of invalidity was rejected by the Cancellation Division of the EUIPO in March 2021 on grounds with which we do not agree, and we subsequently appealed this decision to the Board of Appeal.

On January 3, 2023, we were informed that our appeal had been allowed in its entirety. The appealed decision has been reversed and the European Union trademark No. 17151796 “hepsiburada” has been declared invalid in respect of all the registered goods and services. The Board of Appeal stated in its reasoning that the Cancellation Division was wrong to disregard the evidence submitted about the dishonest intention of Alpak B.V. Alpak B.V. appealed this decision before Luxembourg Courts on March 30, 2023 and was subsequently granted time to remedy certain procedural deficiencies in its appeal.

If we are unable to prevent third parties from acquiring trademarks or domain names that are identical or similar to ours or that infringe or diminish the value of our brands, trademarks and/or other proprietary rights, or if we are not able to defend our brands and/or trademarks from infringement claims or from oppositions to registration, our market recognition may be diluted, third-parties may be free to use our brands and/or trademarks in respect of the same or similar goods or services, our expansion into new markets could be stifled and our business, financial conditions, customer relationships, reputation and results of operation could be adversely affected.

We are not always able to discover or determine the extent of any unauthorized use of our proprietary rights. Actions taken by third parties that license our proprietary rights may materially diminish the value of our proprietary rights or reputation. The protection of our intellectual property may require the expenditure of significant financial and managerial resources. Moreover, the steps we take to protect our intellectual property may be unsuccessful, may not always adequately protect our rights or prevent third parties from infringing or misappropriating our proprietary rights. We also cannot be certain that others will not independently develop or otherwise acquire equivalent or superior technology or other intellectual property rights.

34

Table of Contents

The validity, application, enforceability and scope of protection of intellectual property rights for many internet-related activities, such as internet commercial methods patents, are uncertain and still evolving, which may make it more difficult for us to protect our intellectual property, and our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

We may be subject to intellectual property infringement claims brought against us by others, which are costly to defend and could result in significant damage awards.

We rely, to some extent, on third-party intellectual property, such as licenses to use software to operate our business and certain other copyrighted works. Due to the nature of our business operations, we may from time to time be subject to claims and legal proceedings regarding alleged infringement by us of the intellectual property of third parties. We also expect to be exposed to a greater risk of being subject to such claims in light of growing competition in the market. A number of internet, technology, media and patent-holding companies own or are actively developing patents covering e-commerce and other internet-related technologies, as well as a variety of online business models and methods. We believe that these parties will continue to take steps to protect these technologies, including, but not limited to, seeking patent protection in certain jurisdictions. As a result, disputes regarding the ownership of technologies and rights associated with e-commerce and other online activities are likely to arise in the future. In addition, we use certain open source code, and the use of open source code is often subject to compliance with certain license terms, which we may inadvertently breach. See “—We may use open source code in a manner that could be harmful to our business.”

Although our employees are instructed to avoid acts that would infringe the intellectual property of others, we cannot be certain that our products, services and brand identifiers do not or will not infringe on valid patents, trademarks, copyrights or other intellectual property rights held by third parties. We may incur substantial expenses in responding to and defending against infringement claims, regardless of their veracity. Such diversion of management time and expenses, and the potential liability associated with any lawsuit, may cause significant harm to our business, prospects, financial condition and operations. A successful infringement claim against us could result in significant monetary liability, such as being liable for license fees, royalty payments, lost profits or other damages, or material disruption of our business. Similarly, the owner of the intellectual property may obtain injunctive relief to prevent us from making further use of certain technology, software or brand identifiers. If the amount of such payments is significant or if we are prevented from incorporating certain technology or software into our products or services or using our brand identifiers without hindrance, our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

We have been and in the future may be involved in litigation, some of which is material.

We have been involved in litigation relating principally to contract disputes, employment, consumer, intellectual property, tax, securities law and other matters in the ordinary course of our business, which have also included legal proceedings initiated by employees of third-party subcontractors, such as employment related claims arising out of termination of our relationship with their employer. As our business expands, we may face an increasing number of such claims or claims relating to product liability, including those involving high amounts of damages. As we became a publicly listed company with a higher profile and as our public profile is expected to continue to grow in the future through any expansion of our cross-border business by HepsiGlobal, we may face additional exposure to claims and lawsuits inside and outside Türkiye.

For example, in September 2021 and October 2021, alleged holders of our ADSs filed putative class action lawsuits in the state and federal courts of the State of New York, respectively. After negotiations, the parties signed a binding term sheet for a settlement with no admission of liability on December 2, 2022, pursuant to which Hepsiburada agreed to pay $13.9 million to resolve both actions in their entirety. TurkCommerce B.V., currently a holder of the Company’s Class B Ordinary Shares, is expected to contribute $3,975,000 towards the settlement amount. However, since the contribution agreement has not been signed between the parties yet, management considered that the inflow of economic benefit was not virtually certain as at the balance sheet date, so a contingent asset is not recognized in the consolidated financial statements. We have recognized a provision expense of TRY 280.7 million in our consolidated financial statements for the financial year ended December 31, 2022 for the total liability of $13.9 million.

The settlement remains subject to final approval and/or entry of judgment by the respective courts, and there can be no assurance that the stipulation of settlement will be concluded by the parties or that the settlement will be approved by either court. For more information about such legal proceedings, see Item 8. “Financial Information—Consolidated Statements and Other Financial Information—Legal Proceedings”.

35

Table of Contents

We may also initiate proceedings from time to time. For example, we have initiated litigation for annulment of the Turkish Capital Markets Board (the “TCM Board”) decision regarding a fee imposed by the TCM Board on the Company. Following the IPO of the Company on the Nasdaq Stock Exchange, the TCM Board imposed a “Board registration fee” amounting to over TRY 23.7 million, including interest accruing on this fee, attorney’s fees and the costs of the proceedings. The TCM Board fee was calculated based upon the shares sold in our IPO, including the shares sold by TurkCommerce B.V. The Company applied to the TCM Board with an objection letter on July 30, 2021. A year later, on May 31, 2022, the Company received a reply letter from the TCM Board maintaining their initial decision. The Company has initiated proceedings for annulment of the decision. We filed the case on June 15, 2022. The court dismissed our request for suspension of execution of the decision of the TCM Board, and the Court of First Instance dismissed the case, which was notified to us on March 23, 2023. The Company appealed the decision on April 17, 2023.

The outcome of any claims, investigations and proceedings is inherently uncertain, and regardless of the outcome, defending against these claims could be both costly and time consuming, and could significantly divert the efforts and resources of our management and other personnel. An adverse determination in any such litigation or proceedings could result in damages as well as legal and other costs, limit our ability to conduct business or require us to change the manner in which we operate, which would have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

We may be impacted by fraudulent or unlawful activities of merchants, which could have a material adverse effect on our reputation and business and may result in civil or criminal liability.

Despite measures we have taken and continue to take, our e-commerce services remain susceptible to potentially illegal or improper uses, which could damage our reputation and subject us to liability. Our standard agreement with the merchants on our Marketplace provides for weekly payments to merchants, with payments due within an average 21 days rather than immediately after the sale of a product. Our standard form agreement with our merchants and suppliers provides that we will directly compensate a customer for the purchase price if a customer returns a product and the merchant or supplier must refund us the price of the returned product. These provisions are designed to prevent merchants or suppliers from collecting payments, fraudulently or otherwise, in the event that a customer does not receive the products they ordered or when the products received are materially different from the merchant’s or supplier’s descriptions, to prevent merchants on our Marketplace from selling unlawful, counterfeit, pirated, or stolen goods, selling goods in an unlawful or unethical manner, and to prevent our merchants or suppliers from violating the proprietary rights of others or otherwise violating our product requirements. If our merchants or suppliers circumvent or otherwise fail to comply with these provisions, it could harm our business or damage our reputation.

While we have no liability for the content provided by third parties on our website under the E-Commerce Law or the related E-Commerce Regulation, we may face compensation claims, administrative fines or even criminal complaints if we become aware of unlawful or illegal content and do not take any action. We are deemed to be aware of unlawful or illegal content in circumstances such as if the content is determined as unlawful within the scope of a regulatory compliance report or notified to us by a judicial decision, the Turkish Ministry of Trade or other public institutions and organizations in Türkiye. We are also required to remove or restrict access to content constituting certain crimes under Article 8 of the Law on Internet Crimes, if we are notified of an order of the president of the Information and Communication Technologies Authority of Türkiye to this effect. The scope of crimes under this provision was expanded with the amendment made to this provision on October 13, 2022.

In addition, if we receive from the relevant rights holder a complaint of infringement of intellectual and industrial property rights that complies with the requirements of Article 12 of the E-Commerce Regulation, we are required to remove products from our platform within 48 hours and inform the rights holder and the seller of the product accordingly. If we receive an objection from the seller that complies with the requirements of Article 13 of the E-Commerce Regulation, we are required to re-publish the product within 24 hours and inform the rights holder and the seller, provided that it can be clearly understood from the documents and information submitted by the seller that the objection is justified. Pursuant to Article 14 of the E-Commerce Regulation, our examination is limited with the information and documents obtained from the seller and we are not required to conduct a separate investigation to determine the ownership of relevant intellectual and industrial rights. We are also not required to process complaints regarding the same product and claim unless the rights holder submits new documents proving the infringement of intellectual and industrial property rights. Failure to comply with these provisions will result in an administrative penalty of TRY 10 thousand to TRY 1,000 thousand for each violation.

36

Table of Contents

We may be subject to product liability claims when people or property are harmed or damaged by the products that are sold on our platform.

We are exposed to product liability or food safety claims relating to personal injury or illness, death or environmental or property damage caused by the products that are sold by us or through our Marketplace or through our strategic assets, and we do not maintain any insurance with respect to such product liability. As the products offered by us or through our Marketplace are manufactured by third parties, we have only limited control over the quality of these products. In addition, we cannot always effectively prevent our merchants from selling harmful or defective products on our Marketplace, which could cause death, disease or injury to our customers or damage their property. We may be seen as having facilitated the sale of such products and may be forced to recall such products. Under our Direct Sales model, where we act directly as seller, we may also have to recall harmful products.

Although we require that our merchants only offer products that comply with the existing product safety rules and monitor such compliance, we may not be able to detect, enforce or collect sufficient damages for breaches of such agreements. In addition, any negative publicity resulting from product recalls or the assertion that we sold defective products could damage our brand and reputation. Any material product liability, food safety or other claim could have an adverse effect on our business, prospects, results of operations and financial condition.

We have identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting. If our remediation of material weaknesses is not effective, or if we experience additional material weaknesses in the future or otherwise fail to implement and maintain an effective internal control over financial reporting, we may be unable to accurately report our results of operations, meet our reporting obligations or prevent fraud and investor confidence in our company and the market price of our ADSs may decline.

Pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as amended (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”) our management is required to report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. Although Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires our Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm to issue an annual report that addresses the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting, we have opted to rely on the exemptions provided in the JOBS Act, and consequently will not be required to comply with SEC rules that implement Section 404(b) until such time as we are no longer an “emerging growth company”.  Under the current rules of the SEC, we are required to perform system and process evaluation and testing of our internal controls over financial reporting to allow management to assess the effectiveness of our internal controls. Our testing may reveal deficiencies in our internal controls that are deemed to be material weaknesses and render our internal controls over financial reporting ineffective or may reveal significant deficiencies. We have incurred and expect to continue to incur additional expenses and to spend significant management time in complying with these requirements.

In 2021, we identified two material weaknesses in our internal controls over financial reporting related to:

not effectively performing internal controls with respect to the review of complex and unusual transactions in accordance with IFRS, due to our having less experience in such complex and unusual applications of IFRS and our lack of a dedicated separate IFRS reporting team; and
not effectively performing information technology general controls (“ITGCs”) for one of our recently developed information technology products.

Management remediated the first material weakness identified in 2021 prior to the issuance of the consolidated financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2022. However, the material weakness related to ITGCs was not fully remediated as of December 31, 2022 and is included as part of the material weakness disclosed below.

As part of management’s assessment of its internal control over financial reporting for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022, we have identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting related to the design and operating effectiveness of ITGCs for information systems that are relevant to the preparation of our consolidated financial statements. As a result of the material weakness, management concluded that, as of December 31, 2022, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting was not effective based on the criteria for effective control over financial reporting described in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission.

37

Table of Contents

The material weakness relates to access rights to IT applications, IT program change-management controls and segregation of duties for IT applications. As a result of the overall impact of the ineffective ITGCs and information produced by those IT applications with respect to business processes, controls over such business processes were also deemed ineffective.

Under the supervision of management and the oversight of our Audit Committee, we are in the process of taking remedial actions to address these control deficiencies, which are designed to address the underlying causes of the material weakness, including:

improving controls over access rights management;
implementing new control procedures for managing changes in our information systems;
designing the information technology processes for compliance and security;
retaining consultants with specialized experience in providing advisory services with respect to segregation of duties; and
establishing information technology processes and control team (SOX ITGC) under the Technology Department.

If our remedial measures are insufficient to address material weaknesses, we may not be able to timely or accurately report our financial position, results of operations or cash flows or maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures. If additional material weaknesses are discovered, or if significant deficiencies are discovered, or if we otherwise fail to maintain an effective internal control environment, we could suffer material misstatements in our consolidated financial statements and fail to meet our reporting obligations, which could cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information. Investors’ loss of confidence in our reported financial information could in turn limit our access to capital markets, harm our results of operations, and lead to a reduction in the trading price of our ADSs. Additionally, ineffective internal control over financial reporting could expose us to increased risk of fraud or misuse of corporate assets and subject us to potential delisting from Nasdaq, regulatory investigations and civil or criminal sanctions.

The requirements of being a public company will continue to require significant resources and management attention, which could make it difficult to manage our business.

As a public company with ADSs traded on an exchange located in the United States, we are subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act and the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the listing requirements of Nasdaq and other applicable securities rules and regulations. Compliance with these rules and regulations has increased and may continue to increase our legal, financial and other compliance costs and increase the demands on our legal, compliance and financial reporting personnel as well as our systems and other resources, particularly after we are no longer an “emerging growth company”.

The Exchange Act requires that we file annual reports with respect to our business, financial condition and results of operations. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires, among other things, that we establish and maintain effective internal controls and procedures over our financial reporting. Furthermore, establishing and maintaining the corporate infrastructure demanded of a public company may divert our management’s time and attention from implementing our growth strategy, which could prevent us from improving our business, financial condition and results of operations. We have made, and will continue to make, changes to our internal controls and procedures over our financial reporting and accounting systems to meet our reporting obligations as a public company. However, we have previously relied on experts and the measures we take may not be sufficient to satisfy our obligations as a public company. These obligations could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flow.

As a public company with ADSs traded on an exchange located in the United States, we are subject to a broader scope of laws, regulations and standards, and therefore, potentially subject to a broader scope of fines, penalties and liability under U.S. securities laws. For example, in September 2021 and October 2021, alleged holders of our ADSs filed putative class action lawsuits in the state and federal courts of the State of New York, respectively. For more information about our legal proceedings, see Item 8. “Financial Information—Consolidated Statements and Other Financial Information—Legal Proceedings”. We may be named as a defendant in other legal actions, which could result in material costs and expenses.

In addition, changing laws, regulations and standards relating to corporate governance and public disclosure create uncertainty for public companies, increase legal and financial compliance costs and make some activities more time consuming.

38

Table of Contents

As a public company, these rules and regulations make it more difficult and expensive for us to maintain insurance, such as director and officer liability insurance, and we may be required to accept reduced policy limits and coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain the same, so our assets are at risk in the event of successful claims against us or our officers and directors. Our assets may not be sufficient to satisfy judgments against us and our officers and directors in the event of such successful claims. For these reasons, it may be more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified persons to serve on our Board of Directors or as executive officers, and to maintain insurance at reasonable rates, or at all.

For as long as we are an “emerging growth company”, our Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm will not be required to attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes Oxley Act. We could be an emerging growth company for up to five years following our IPO. See “—While we currently qualify as an “emerging growth company” under the JOBS Act, if we cease to be an emerging growth company, our costs and the demands placed upon our management will increase.” Furthermore, after the date we are no longer an “emerging growth company”, our Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm will be required to attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting only if our market capitalization is above a specified statutory threshold. Even if our management concludes that our internal controls over financial reporting are effective, our Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm may still decline to attest to our management’s assessment or may issue a report that is qualified if it is not satisfied with our controls or the level at which our controls are documented, designed, operated or reviewed, or if it interprets the relevant requirements differently from us. In addition, in connection with the implementation of the necessary procedures and practices related to internal control over financial reporting, we may identify deficiencies that we may not be able to remediate in time to meet the deadline imposed by the Sarbanes-Oxley Act for compliance with the requirements of Section 404.

Failure to comply with Section 404 could subject us to regulatory scrutiny and sanctions, impair our ability to raise revenue, cause investors to lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports and negatively affect the price of our ADSs.

We may be classified as a passive foreign investment company (“PFIC”), which could result in adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences to U.S. Holders of ADSs.

We will be classified as a passive foreign investment company, or PFIC, in any taxable year if either: (1) 50% or more of the fair market value of our gross assets (generally determined on the basis of a quarterly average) for the taxable year produce passive income or are held for the production of passive income, or (2) 75% or more of our gross income for the taxable year is passive income. Based on the market price of our ADSs and the composition of our Group’s income, assets and operations, we do not believe we were a PFIC for the 2022 taxable year or expect to be treated as a PFIC for the current taxable year or in the foreseeable future. This is a factual determination, however, that depends on, among other things the composition of the income and assets, and the market value of the assets, of us and our subsidiaries from time to time, and thus the determination can only be made annually after the close of each taxable year. Because the market value of the assets for the purposes of the asset test will generally be determined by reference to the aggregate value of our outstanding ADSs, our PFIC status will depend in large part on the market price of our ADSs, which may fluctuate significantly. Therefore there can be no assurances that we will not be classified as a PFIC for the current taxable year or for any future taxable year.

If contrary to our belief, we were characterized as a PFIC for any year, certain adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences could apply to a U.S. investor who holds ADSs with respect to any “excess distribution” received from us and any gain from a sale or other disposition of ADSs, and U.S. investors also may be subject to additional reporting obligations with respect to ADSs. In such case, we do not intend to provide the information necessary for a U.S. investor to make a qualified electing fund election with respect to the ADSs. See Item 10.E. “Additional Information—Taxation—Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations for U.S. Holders—Passive Foreign Investment Company Rules”.

Risks Relating to Türkiye

We are subject to risks associated with doing business in an emerging market.

We mainly operate in Türkiye and derive substantially all of our revenue from activities in Türkiye, which is an emerging market. As a result, our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects are significantly affected by the overall level of economic activity and political stability in Türkiye. External events and financial turmoil in any emerging market could disrupt the business environment in Türkiye. Moreover, financial turmoil in one or more emerging market(s) tends to adversely affect prices for

39

Table of Contents

securities in other emerging market countries. An increase in the perceived risks associated with investing in emerging economies could dampen capital flows to Türkiye and adversely affect the Turkish economy. Investors’ interest in Türkiye might be negatively affected by events in other emerging markets or the global economy in general, which could adversely affect the value of our business and/or stock price could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and prospects.

Our headquarters and other operations and facilities are located in Türkiye and, therefore, our prospects, business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected by political or economic instability in Türkiye.

Substantially all of our revenue is derived from our operations in Türkiye. Accordingly, political uncertainty, instability and economic conditions in Türkiye may directly affect our business.

Presidential and parliamentary elections are expected to be held in Türkiye on May 14, 2023. Voters will elect their representatives in the parliament and the country’s president for a five-year term. If no candidate receives a majority of valid votes in the first round of the presidential elections, a second-round ballot is expected to take place on May 28, 2023. The elections may result in political or economic instability and legislative changes in Türkiye as each party supports distinct political, economic and foreign policies.

Political uncertainty has affected certain investors’ perception of Türkiye and the attractiveness of the Turkish economy. If new developments that are considered to contribute to instability in Türkiye emerge, the value of our ADSs could decline.

As a result of a trend of inflation in Türkiye, the Turkish economy is treated as hyperinflationary, which may adversely affect our business, profitability, results of operations and the value of our ADSs.

Inflationary pressures affect our business and financial performance. The Turkish economy has experienced significant inflationary pressures with year-over-year consumer price inflation rates rising as high as 69.7% in the late 1990s and early 2000s. The annual consumer price index (“CPI”) increased by 14.6%, 36.1% and 64.3% in 2020, 2021 and 2022 respectively as published by Turkstat. The annual CPI inflation reached its highest level since June 1998, at 85.5%, in October 2022. Annual CPI inflation recorded a rapid decline in December due to the high base and became 64.3%.  In the first half of 2023, it is expected that inflation indicators will follow a downward trend due to the high base effect as well as the reduction in the prices of electricity and natural gas used in industrial production. Additionally, developments in the USD/TRY and global commodity prices materially impact the inflation outlook. As a result, the course of global economic activity, geopolitical developments and the impact of climate conditions on commodity prices must be closely monitored to understand and anticipate inflation developments in Türkiye. In the first Inflation Report of the year published on January 26, 2023, the Central Bank of Republic Türkiye (“CBRT”) kept its inflation forecast for the end of 2023 unchanged at 22.3%. According to the results of the CBRT’s Market Participants Survey dated March 2023, the markets’ inflation expectation for the end of 2023 was 37.7%.

40

Table of Contents

In the event of continued or rising inflation, we may not be able to and/or our merchants may not be able to adjust the prices we charge our customers to offset the effects of inflation on our cost structure, which may adversely affect our business, profitability and results of operations. Inflation and government measures to combat inflation that impact macroeconomic stability in Türkiye have affected and may continue to affect supply as well as general demand for our products and services. Inflation may impact consumer behavior and may lead to further reductions in purchasing power of our users, consumer confidence and consumer spending, which may have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations. For example, during 2022, we have observed the impact of inflation in the increased average price of products on our platform. We have also observed that pressure on consumer spending has caused a tendency for customers to substitute products with more affordable alternatives (i.e., towards lower-priced brands, regardless of whether sales are of essentials or non-essentials) and postponement of purchase decisions for certain categories of products. In addition, a continued rise in inflation could increase our costs of operation, particularly in payroll expenses and delivery costs. Moreover, we may not be able to keep wages and salaries at attractive levels in order to retain talent. These factors may negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operation.

If the high inflation environment worsens or if new economic developments arise that have a similar effect, the resulting impact on consumer behavior and on our expenses may continue to have an adverse effect on our GMV growth, revenue, profitability and financial position.

Following the categorization of Türkiye as a country with a three-year cumulative inflation rate greater than 100% in March 2022 by the International Practices Task Force of the Centre for Audit Quality, Türkiye has been considered as a hyperinflationary economy pursuant to IFRS rules (IAS 29 Financial Reporting in Hyperinflationary Economies), requiring companies in Türkiye reporting under IFRS, including us, to apply IAS 29 to their financial statements for periods ending on and after June 30, 2022.  As a result, we have had to allocate additional resources to the preparation of our IFRS financials, which has resulted in additional associated expenses. Our financial statements following the application of IAS 29 and related adjustments are no longer directly comparable to our historical financial statements. This may create a challenge for investors and security analysts who look at our past performance to analyze and make forecasts about our future performance, including with respect to comparisons of current and historical margins. Therefore, investors and security analysts would require additional detailed information about our business plan and our macroeconomic assumptions in order to make their own projections for the Company. We cannot guarantee that we will be disclosing such detailed information in relation to our business plans or macroeconomic assumptions. Even if we do so, we cannot predict whether our investors or security analysts will be able to or willing to make their own projections about our Company. See “—If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports or publish unfavorable research about our business, or we fail to meet the expectations of industry analysts, the price of our ADSs and trading volume could decline.”

Türkiye’s economy has been facing risks related to its current account deficit, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

Macroeconomic developments in Türkiye, including those related to Türkiye’s net trade and current account deficit, affect our business and financial performance.

Türkiye’s volatile current account deficit may reflect both Türkiye’s long-standing structural economic problems and current economic and market conditions. Structural economic problems include dependence on imported energy and a high proportion of imports for manufacturing and domestic consumption and a low savings rate. To date, Türkiye’s current account deficit has been funded largely through short-term foreign capital borrowings and foreign portfolio investments. Increased uncertainty in the global financial markets could make it more difficult for Türkiye to finance its current account deficit, leading to increased volatility in the Turkish economy, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

The effects of the earthquakes that hit southeastern region of Türkiye in February 2023 as well as potential similar earthquakes in the future may adversely affect our prospects, business, financial condition and results of operations.

On February 6, 2023, the southeastern region of Türkiye was hit by two devastating earthquakes registering 7.7 and 7.6 in magnitude and numerous aftershocks that affected primarily 11 provinces and approximately 14 million people. As a result, more than 50,000 people lost their lives in Türkiye and hundreds of thousands of people have been displaced due to moderate to severe damage to their buildings or complete building collapses.

41

Table of Contents

Eight out of HepsiJet’s network of 192 cross-dock points (i.e., parcel transfer centers) were directly impacted and require renovation. Our initial assessment indicated that it would be necessary to relocate all of these cross-dock points, but we now understand that with some renovation we are able to restore operations. As of the date of this annual report, nearly 1,950 of the approximately 6,500 Active Merchants on our Marketplace with a registered address in the affected region have requested for their stores to be temporarily suspended.

These earthquakes may have severe impacts on the Turkish economy and the business environment in Türkiye. According to the World Bank rapid damage assessment report of February 27, 2023, the earthquakes caused an estimated $34.2 billion in direct physical damages in Türkiye, the equivalent of 4% of the country’s GDP in 2021. On the basis of its initial forecasts released on February 15, 2023, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development estimated that the earthquakes may result in a loss of up to one per cent of Türkiye’s GDP in 2023.

The potential impacts of the 2023 earthquake on Türkiye’s economic conditions may adversely affect our business, results of operations and prospects. Given the size of the earthquake zone, the death toll, the number of displaced people and the resulting decrease in consumers’ discretionary shopping, we have suffered a decline in our customer demand on our platform during the first quarter of 2023 and a temporary disruption in our delivery services to and around the region.

More generally, Türkiye has been the site of devastating earthquakes in the past and may again be hit by serious earthquakes in the future. The country is covered by numerous fault lines including the North Anatolian Fault extending from eastern Türkiye across northern Türkiye and into the Aegean Sea for a length of 1200−1500 kilometers and the East Anatolian Fault extending from eastern Türkiye to south of the country. The fault lines covering the country may trigger future earthquakes in the country. These possible earthquakes may have severe impacts on the Turkish economy which may adversely affect our business and results of operations and prospects.  

In particular, considering Istanbul’s large population and economic importance for Türkiye, any major earthquake near Istanbul may cause substantial economic damage which may adversely affect our business and results of our operations and prospects. Most of our headquarters and offices are located in Istanbul and one of our fulfilment centers which also includes an office building is located in Gebze, a district of Kocaeli situated very close to Istanbul. Such an earthquake near Istanbul could therefore have a material adverse impact our business and results of our operations.

We are exposed to the risk of inadvertently violating anti-corruption, anti-money laundering, anti-terrorist financing and economic sanctions laws and regulations and other similar laws and regulations.

We have policies and procedures designed to assist with compliance with applicable laws and regulations in Türkiye, and as a public company in the United States, we are subject to U.S. anti-money laundering and anti-terrorist financing laws and regulations, including the U.S. Bank Secrecy Act of 1970, the U.S. Money Laundering Control Act of 1986, and the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001, and U.S. anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws and regulations, including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977 (the “FCPA”). The FCPA prohibits providing, offering, promising or authorizing, directly or indirectly, anything of value to government officials, political parties or political candidates for the purposes of obtaining or retaining business or securing any improper business advantage. In addition, our operations may be subject to economic sanctions laws and regulations imposed by the United States, the EU, the United Kingdom, or any other relevant jurisdiction. Such laws and regulations may prohibit transactions in, with, involving, or relating to certain countries or regions or certain persons or entities. For example, starting in February 2022, the United States and a number of other countries around the world have been imposing sanctions and export controls against Russia over its invasion of Ukraine including, regional trade bans, designations of entities (including Russian banks and state-owned entities) and individuals as Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Parties, and restrictions on access by Russia to financial systems.

42

Table of Contents

We maintain internal compliance policies and procedures, but we cannot provide any assurance that these policies and procedures will be complied with or that they will prevent all violations of the applicable laws and regulations and every instance of fraud, money laundering, terrorist financing, bribery and corruption. We also cannot provide any assurance that potential violations of our internal compliance procedures will be uncovered through our procedures or that violations of the applicable anti-bribery or money laundering, anti-terrorist financing and economic sanctions laws and regulations will not occur. We have internal audit, security and other procedures in place, which are designed to prevent instances of fraud, money laundering, terrorist financing, bribery and corruption. However, despite these controls and procedures, there can be no assurance that through these and other procedures we use we will timely and effectively catch any violations of our internal compliance procedures or any violations of laws and regulations, including those related to fraud, money laundering, terrorist financing, bribery, corruption and economic sanctions. Moreover, we may still be exposed to potential civil or criminal penalties or associated investigations under the relevant applicable laws and regulations which may, if not successfully avoided or defended, have an adverse impact on our business, prospects, financial condition or results of operations. Similarly, actual findings or mere allegations of such violations could negatively impact our reputation and limit our future business opportunities, which may cause our reputation, financial condition and results of operations to be materially and adversely affected.

Foreign exchange rate risks could affect the Turkish macroeconomic environment, could affect your investment and could significantly affect our results of operation and financial position in future periods if hedging tools are not available at commercially reasonable terms.

We are exposed to foreign exchange rate risks between Turkish Lira, U.S. dollars and Euros. Although our income, expenses, assets and liabilities are primarily denominated in Turkish Lira, we also maintain some non-Turkish Lira denominated assets and liabilities, primarily in U.S. dollars. As of December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020, we maintained Turkish Lira equivalent assets in U.S. dollars of TRY 2,860.1 million, TRY 8,068.5 million and TRY 626.8 million respectively, primarily consisting of cash, cash equivalents and financial investments. As of the same dates, we maintained Turkish Lira equivalent liabilities in U.S. dollars of TRY 1,110.7 million, TRY 1,067.2 million and TRY 551.4 million respectively, primarily consisting of trade payables, payables to merchants and due to related parties and short term provisions. The variety of currencies that we work with may increase if and when HepsiGlobal expands its cross-border operations.

As of December 31, 2022, if the U.S. dollar had strengthened or weakened by 10% against the Turkish Lira, with all other variables held constant, our loss before income taxes would have been TRY 174.9 million lower or higher, mainly as a result of foreign exchange gains or losses on the translation of U.S. dollar assets and liabilities. We do not currently undertake any currency hedging to manage our exposure in Türkiye to changes in foreign exchange rates. Consequently, any sudden and significant changes in foreign exchange rates may have an adverse impact on our financial condition, revenue and results of operations.

Because we are incorporated in Türkiye, and because we are subject to Turkish accounting rules, we are bound to calculate and declare dividends, if any, in Turkish Lira, which will then be payable in U.S. dollars to the holders of ADSs. The depreciation of Turkish Lira against the U.S. dollar could cause fewer U.S. dollars to be obtained from the conversion of Turkish Lira at any time dividend payments are made to ADS holders.

According to the Central Bank, the Turkish Lira depreciated by 44.1% against the U.S. dollar as of December 31, 2022, 76.8% in 2021 and 23.6% in 2020. Despite lower depreciation and reduced volatility in 2022 and in 2023 through the date of this annual report compared to the high volatility in 2021, negative real interest rates and limited foreign exchange reserves, among other factors, have continued to exert pressure on the Turkish Lira. Any further significant fluctuations in the value of the Turkish Lira relative to U.S. dollars could have a materially adverse effect on consumer demand, our business, and results of operations.

Türkiye is subject to internal and external unrest and the threat of future terrorist acts, which may adversely affect us.

Türkiye is located in a region that has been subject to ongoing political and security concerns. Türkiye has been subject to a number of terrorist attacks, resulting in a number of fatalities and casualties. Such incidents have had, and could continue to have, a material adverse effect on the Turkish economy. This, in turn, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

43

Table of Contents

Türkiye has been subject to a number of bombings, including in tourist-focused centers in Istanbul and the city center in Ankara, including most recently an incident in Istanbul in November 2022, which have resulted in a number of fatalities. Such incidents may continue to occur periodically. Such internal and external unrest and the threat of future terrorist acts may lead to reductions in purchasing power of our customers, consumer confidence, consumer spending, general demand for e-commerce goods and services, display advertising and marketing spending of our advertisers and, therefore, also a reduction in demand for our products and services, which would have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

Conflict and uncertainty in neighboring and nearby countries may have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects.

Türkiye is located in a region that has been subject to ongoing political and security concerns. Political uncertainty in and tensions regarding certain neighboring and nearby countries has from time to time had an impact on the political and economic environment in Türkiye and may affect investors’ perceptions of the risks of investing in the securities of Turkish companies. Any material adverse impact on the Turkish economy or political stability as a result of deteriorations of Türkiye’s international relations, especially resulting from the events which affect Türkiye’s relationship with the countries or regions described below, could result in a reduction in the purchasing power of our customers, consumer confidence, consumer spending, general demand for e-commerce goods and services, display advertising and marketing spending of our advertisers and, therefore, also a reduction in demand for our products and services, which would have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

Risks from events affecting Türkiye’s relationship with Syria and Iraq.

The impact on Türkiye of political instability in the Middle East is exemplified by the internal conflict in the region. Türkiye has conducted a number of cross-border operations in Iraq and Syria targeting organizations deemed to be terrorist organizations in order to prevent terrorist activities against Türkiye. Given the continuing hostilities in Syria and the number of parties involved, it is very difficult to predict the impact of the continuing tensions on the geopolitical stability in the broader region, including Türkiye.

Risks from events affecting Türkiye’s relationship with Russia and Ukraine.

Russia has become one of Türkiye’s most important trading partners and is the largest supplier of natural gas to Türkiye. Tourism from Russia to Türkiye constitutes another important aspect of Türkiye’s relationship with Russia. Türkiye also has important relations with Ukraine, a significant tourism and trading partner. On February 24, 2022, Russia commenced a full scale military invasion of Ukraine. Türkiye publicly opposed the Russian invasion and subsequently acted as a host to peace negotiations between Ukraine and Russia, and helped broker a deal between the two countries to allow maritime grain shipments from Ukraine. Türkiye’s position as a NATO member and a host to negotiations between Ukrainian and Russian negotiators may materially affect Türkiye’s global diplomatic position as well as its economic and financial condition.

Following the invasion of Ukraine, the United States, the EU, Canada, Japan and Australia have imposed sanctions on Russia, select Russian companies and select Russian nationals. Following these sanctions, thousands of Russians and Ukrainians have fled to Türkiye to stay, invest, and hold assets because Türkiye has not imposed any sanctions on Russia except for the closure of the Bosporus and Dardanelles straits to warships. Türkiye may reconsider its current sanction-free policy in light of international pressure and any further sanctions that may be imposed by the aforementioned countries, which in turn would require Türkiye to impose sanctions on Russia. If Türkiye were to impose such sanctions, they may have a material adverse effect on Türkiye’s economy and financial condition due to Türkiye’s significant trade, natural gas supply and tourism relationships with Russia. Sanctioning countries including the United States. and the EU may take measures against Türkiye if it fails to impose sanctions on Russia, which may inflict a material adverse effect on Türkiye’s economy. Heightened tensions, if any, between Türkiye and Russia, or Ukraine, or the sanctioning countries such as the U.S. could materially negatively affect global macroeconomic conditions and the Turkish economy, which would have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

44

Table of Contents

Risks from events affecting Türkiye’s relationship with the EU.

In recent years, several important natural gas reserves have been discovered in the eastern Mediterranean , where Türkiye has also been engaging in exploration activities.

The EU and Türkiye have supported conflicting claims to the gas in these waters. On November 11, 2019, the EU adopted a framework for imposing sanctions on individuals or entities responsible for, or involved in, drilling and exploration activities. In October 2020, both France and Greece asked the EU to consider suspending the bloc’s customs union agreement with Türkiye. Any decision by the EU to abolish the customs union with Türkiye, end Türkiye’s EU accession bid or impose additional sanctions on Türkiye might cause a deterioration of the relationship between Türkiye and the EU, impede Türkiye’s access to EU funding and have a material adverse impact on Türkiye’s economy. These actions could also increase duties for cross-border sales and therefore increase the effective price of products imported from, or exported to, the EU, including products sold on our platform, such as those imported (or, once outbound services are launched, exported) through HepsiGlobal.

Risks from events affecting Türkiye’s relationship with the United States.

The relationship between the United States and Türkiye has been strained by recent developments in the Turkish region, and also by Türkiye’s agreement to acquire an air and missile defense system from Russia in December 2017. In response to these events, the United States Congress has considered potential sanctions against Türkiye. In December 2020, the United States imposed sanctions that targeted the Presidency of Defense Industries (SSB) of Türkiye, its chairman and three other employees.

Moreover, certain legal proceedings in the United States against Turkish individuals and entities may impact Türkiye’s relationship with the United States. In 2018, a New York federal court found a former executive at Türkiye’s majority state-owned bank Türkiye Halk Bankası A.Ş. guilty on charges that included bank fraud and conspiracies to evade U.S. sanctions against Iran and sentenced him to prison. He was released in July 2019, but the U.S. Department of Justice brought similar allegations against Türkiye Halk Bankası A.Ş., which are ongoing as of the date of this annual report. As of the date of this annual report, the final outcome in relation to the judicial process, or whether any sanction, fine or penalty will be imposed by the Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”) or any other U.S. regulatory body on Türkiye Halk Bankası A.Ş. or any other Turkish bank or person in connection with those matters, as well as the possible reaction of the Turkish Government or the financial markets to any such events, is unknown.

Actual or perceived political instability in Türkiye, escalating diplomatic and political tensions with the United States or other countries, and/or other political circumstances could have a material adverse effect on the Group’s business, financial condition or results of operations or on the market price of the ADSs.

Türkiye’s economy has been undergoing a significant transformation and remains subject to ongoing structural and macroeconomic risks.

Since the mid-1980s, the Turkish economy has moved from a highly protected state-directed system to a market-oriented free enterprise system. Reforms have, among other things, largely removed price controls and reduced subsidies, reduced the role of the public sector in the economy, emphasized growth in the industrial and service sectors, liberalized foreign trade, reduced tariffs, promoted export growth, eased capital transfer and exchange controls, encouraged foreign investment, strengthened the independence of the Central Bank, led to full convertibility of the Turkish Lira by accepting Article VIII of the International Monetary Fund’s (the “IMF”) Articles of Agreement and overhauled the tax system.

However, the Turkish economy has also experienced a succession of financial crises and severe macroeconomic imbalances. These include substantial budget deficits, significant current account deficits, high rates of inflation and high real rates of interest.

According to Turkstat, the annual rate of change in the consumer price index was at 64.3% in December 2022 after having peaked at 85.5% in October 2022, as a result of the base effect. (See “—As a result of a trend of inflation in Türkiye, the Turkish economy is treated as hyperinflationary, which may adversely affect our business, profitability, results of operations and the value of our ADSs”). Türkiye had a current account deficit of USD 48.8 billion in 2022, an increase from USD 7.2 billion in 2021 and USD 31.9 billion in 2020. (See “—Türkiye’s economy has been facing risks related to its current account deficit, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.”).

45

Table of Contents

In March 2019, the United States announced that imports from Türkiye would no longer be eligible for tariff relief under the “Generalized System of Preferences” program, which seeks to promote economic growth in countries identified as developing countries. The United States cited Türkiye’s rapid economic development since its entry into the program and that it thus no longer qualified to benefit from these tariff preferences. Regulatory changes such as these reflect increasing challenges faced by some exporters, which might have a material adverse effect on Türkiye’s economy and/or the financial condition or one or more industries within Türkiye.

The Turkish Treasury and Finance Minister announces GDP growth estimates and inflation rate with a 3-year horizon on an annual basis. There can be no assurance that those targets indicated will be reached, that the Turkish government will continue to implement its current and proposed economic and fiscal policies successfully or that the economic growth achieved in recent years will continue considering external and internal circumstances, including the Central Bank’s efforts to curtail inflation and simplify monetary policy while maintaining a lower funding rate, the current account deficit and macroeconomic and political factors, such as changes in oil prices and uncertainty related with conflicts in Iraq and Syria (See “— Conflict and uncertainty in neighboring and nearby countries may have a material adverse effect on the Group’s business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects.”) and political developments in Türkiye (see “— Our headquarters and other operations and facilities are located in Türkiye and, therefore, our prospects, business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected by political or economic instability in Türkiye.”). Any of these developments might cause Türkiye’s economy to experience macroeconomic imbalances, which might impair our business strategies and/or have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and/or results of operations.

Internet and e-commerce regulation in Türkiye is recent, has undergone changes since its inception and is subject to further development.

In 2007, Türkiye enacted a law setting forth obligations and liabilities of content, access and hosting providers as well as certain requirements specific to online content (the “Internet Law”). A number of laws and regulations impacting e-commerce and digital businesses in Türkiye have been enacted since 2007, including amendments to the Internet Law, the E-Commerce Law (as defined under Item 4.B. “Information on the Company—Business Overview—Regulatory Overview”), various laws to protect personal data and laws on electronic payments, among others. However, unlike in the United States, little case law exists around the Internet Law and E-Commerce Law and existing jurisprudence has not been consistent and may not reflect the latest amendments or additional legislation. Legal uncertainty arising from the limited guidance provided by current laws in force allows for different judges or courts to decide very similar claims in different ways and establish contradictory jurisprudence. This allows for legal uncertainty and could set adverse precedents, which individually or in the aggregate could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. In addition, legal uncertainty may negatively affect our customers’ perception and use of our services.

In 2022, significant amendments were made to the E-Commerce Law, and the E-Commerce Regulation was adopted, which introduced new obligations for electronic commerce intermediary service providers and electronic commerce service providers, such as Hepsiburada, with the aim of preventing unfair competition, a harmful competitive environment and monopolistic commercial practices in the Turkish e-commerce market. We are required to comply with certain obligations set forth in the E-Commerce Law and the E-Commerce Regulation and may face administrative fines in case of any violations. See Item 4.B. “Information on the Company—Business Overview—Regulatory Overview”.

The E-Commerce Law and the E-Commerce Regulation provide for different obligations depending on the annual Net Transaction Volume and number of transactions pertaining to electronic commerce intermediary service providers and electronic commerce service providers. Depending on our annual Net Transaction Volume and number of transactions, the scope of our obligations under the E-Commerce Law and the E-Commerce Regulation may be subject to change, which may materially affect our business.

The provisions of the amendments to the E-Commerce Law and the E-Commerce Regulation that are most likely to be directly relevant to the Company include the following:

limits on the total amount of advertising and marketing expenditures and customer discounts with the goal to prevent e-commerce platforms from gaining an asymmetric market share through excessive discounts and excessive marketing by using disproportionate economic power. This provision went into effect on January 1, 2023. Currently, we are not subject to any restrictions with respect to advertisement and discount budgets as our Net Transaction Volume does not exceed TRY 45 billion. If our Net Transaction Volume exceeds this threshold and we become subject to advertisement and discount budget restrictions in the upcoming years, we may have to limit our advertisement and discount expenditures, which could directly or indirectly have an adverse impact on our business.

46

Table of Contents

restrictions on engaging in certain business operations, such as payments and financial services. The restrictions also limit specified listing activities within a platform and the provision of last-mile delivery services to third parties. This provision goes into effect on January 1, 2024. At this time, similarly to the above, we do not expect to be subject to restrictions concerning the provision of payments and financial services and last-mile delivery services to third parties as the restrictions apply only to companies whose Net Transaction Volume exceeds TRY 90 billion. However, it is expected that the applicable threshold will be adjusted next year, and our Net Transaction Volume will need to be assessed when the provision goes into effect.
a ban on the sale of private label products for all e-commerce companies. This provision goes into effect January 1, 2024. Although this ban will require us to discontinue our private label business in its current form, we are reviewing alternatives and do not, in any event, expect this to have a material adverse effect on our results of operations given the immaterial contribution of the private label business to our revenues.
a prohibition on unfair commercial practices in electronic commerce. Examples of unfair commercial practices under the E-Commerce Law include failing to make payment to the seller within the time specified in the E-Commerce Law, forcing the seller to sell goods or services with special offers, failing to determine the conditions of the commercial relationship with the seller through an intermediation contract and/or making unilateral amendments to such contract to the detriment of the seller, charging a fee from the seller when no service is provided or the type of service provided and the amount/rate of the service fee is not specified in the intermediation contract and, suspending or terminating the service provided to the seller in the absence of any objective criteria in the intermediation contract. In addition, Article 11(6) of the E-Commerce Regulation lists additional practices which would only constitute unfair commercial practices for large and very large-scale electronic commerce intermediary service providers (as defined in the E-Commerce Regulation). These provisions went into effect on January 1, 2023. We believe that our practices are currently in compliance with these provisions. In the future, in case of amendments to these provisions or emergence of certain common practices in the market as a result of application of these provisions or due to the decisions of judicial or regulatory authorities regarding these regulations or their interpretation, we may need to adjust our operations.  
a requirement to include mandatory elements of intermediation contracts concluded between electronic commerce intermediary service providers and electronic commerce service providers. The E-Commerce Regulation provides for additional mandatory elements for the intermediation contracts of medium, large and very large-scale electronic commerce intermediary service providers (as defined in the E-Commerce Regulation). These provisions went into effect on January 1, 2023. The relevant provisions of intermediation contracts concluded before January 1, 2023 that are not amended to comply with the E-Commerce Regulation within six months will be invalid. We believe we have made the necessary amendments to our contracts to ensure compliance with these provisions.
a new obligation for electronic commerce intermediary service providers operating in Türkiye whose Net Transaction Volume is over TRY 15 billion in a calendar year and the number of transactions (excluding cancellations and returns) is over one hundred thousand, to obtain and annually renew an e-commerce license upon payment of a license fee. The effective license fee will be calculated based on a graduated rate of a company’s Net Transaction Volume derived from within Türkiye for the prior calendar year such that the effective license fee applied would be the sum of progressively higher proportions of the electronic commerce intermediary service provider’s Net Transaction Volume exceeding the thresholds specified in the E-Commerce Law. Where the Net Transaction Volume is between TRY 15 billion and TRY 30 billion, the license fee is calculated as the three per ten thousand of the amount exceeding TRY 15 billion. In case Net Transaction Volume is between TRY 30 billion and TRY 45 billion, the license fee is the sum of the above amount, plus five per thousand of the part exceeding TRY 30 billion. This provision goes into effect January 1, 2025. In line with the above, if our Net Transaction Volume stays above TRY 15 billion and the number of our transactions (excluding cancellations and returns) stays over one hundred thousand until January 1, 2025, we will be subject to the obligation to obtain an e-commerce license and pay the relevant license fee. The license fee will materially increase if our Net Transaction Volume passes the threshold of TRY 45 billion.

In September 2022, the Turkish opposition party appealed to the Constitutional Court for the cancellation of certain provisions of the E-Commerce Law. As of the date of this annual report, the case remains pending before the Constitutional Court.

47

Table of Contents

Under Article 4 of the Tax Procedure Law General Communiqué No. 538 published in the Official Gazette on May 31, 2022, as a hosting service provider and intermediary service provider, we became subject to an obligation to provide continuous information to the Turkish Revenue Administration for tax purposes. This information may include web addresses where the service is provided, name, ID/tax number and workplace address of service receivers, amount and date of each collection or sale transaction, and bank account information regarding payments made to service receivers. We may be subject to penalties under Tax Procedure Law if we fail to comply with this reporting obligation.

In the future, the Company may face more stringent restrictions and higher compliance costs if we grow at a faster pace, which could have a material adverse effect on our competitiveness and on our business, financial condition and/or results of operations. For more detail on regulatory changes, see Item 4.B. “Information on the Company—Business Overview—Regulatory Overview”.

Risks Relating to Ownership of our ADSs

Our Founder and chairwoman has significant influence and voting control and, as a principal shareholder, her interests might conflict with or differ from your interests as a shareholder.

As of December 31, 2022, our Founder beneficially owned all of our issued Class A shares and 10.4% of our Class B ordinary shares, representing 71.1% of the voting power of all of our Class A shares and Class B ordinary shares when considered together as a single class. As a result, our Founder has a continuing ability to effectively control our affairs, including with respect to the nomination and election of directors, payment of dividends and consummation of significant corporate transactions.

In certain circumstances, the interests of our Founder may conflict with the interests of other shareholders, including interests of the holders of the ADSs. In addition, this concentration of ownership may negatively affect the market price of the ADSs by, among other things, as a result of any action:

delaying, defending or preventing a change of control, even at a per-share price that is in excess of the then-current price of the ADSs;
impeding a merger, consolidation, takeover or other business combination involving us, even at a per- share price that is in excess of the then-current price of the ADSs;
forcing a merger, consolidation, takeover or other business combination involving us that increases the amount of indebtedness or outstanding ordinary shares, or the sale of revenue-generating assets; or
discouraging a potential acquirer from making a tender offer or otherwise attempting to obtain control of us, even at a per-share price that is in excess of the then-current price of the ADSs.

The dual class structure of our ordinary shares concentrates voting control with certain shareholders, in particular our Founder, which limits your ability to influence corporate matters.

Our Class A shares have fifteen votes per share and our Class B ordinary shares have one vote per share. As of December 31, 2022, our Founder beneficially owned all of our issued Class A shares and 10.4% of our issued Class B ordinary shares, representing 71.1% of the voting power of all of our Class A shares and Class B ordinary shares when considered together as a single class.

Because of the fifteen-to-one voting ratio between our Class A and Class B ordinary shares, holders of our Class A shares (the “Class A Shareholders”), which, as of December 31, 2022, only includes our Founder, will continue to control a majority of the combined voting power of our ordinary shares, and therefore will have the ability to control the management and affairs of our company and materially all matters requiring shareholder approval, including election of directors and significant corporate transactions, such as a merger or sale of our company or its assets, so long as the Class A Shareholders hold the majority of the voting rights at any general assembly of shareholders. This concentrated control will limit or preclude your ability to influence corporate matters for the foreseeable future.

48

Table of Contents

We may lose our foreign private issuer status in the future, which could result in significant additional costs and expenses.

As discussed above, we are a foreign private issuer, and therefore, we are not required to comply with all of the periodic disclosure and current reporting requirements of the Exchange Act and certain other requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. The determination of foreign private issuer status is made annually on the last business day of an issuer’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, and, accordingly, the next determination will be made with respect to us on June 30, 2023. We would cease to be a foreign private issuer at such time if (i) more than 50% of our outstanding voting securities are held by U.S. residents and (ii) any of the following three circumstances applies: (1) the majority of our executive officers or members of our board of directors are U.S. citizens or residents, (2) more than 50% of our assets are located in the United States or (3) our business is administered principally in the United States. If we lose our foreign private issuer status on that date, we will be required to file with the SEC periodic reports and registration statements on U.S. domestic issuer forms beginning on January 1, 2024, which are more detailed and extensive than the forms available to a foreign private issuer. We will also have to mandatorily comply with U.S. federal proxy requirements, and our officers, directors and principal shareholders will become subject to the short-swing profit disclosure and recovery provisions of Section 16 of the Exchange Act. In addition, we will lose our ability to rely upon exemptions from certain corporate governance requirements under the listing rules of Nasdaq. As a U.S. listed public company that is not a foreign private issuer, we will incur significant additional legal, accounting and other expenses that we will not incur as a foreign private issuer, and accounting, reporting and other expenses in order to maintain a listing on a U.S. securities exchange. These expenses will relate to, among other things, the obligation to present our financial information in accordance with U.S. GAAP in the future.

We are a “controlled company” within the meaning of the Nasdaq listing rules. As a result, we qualify for, and intend to continue to rely on, exemptions from certain corporate governance requirements.

Our Founder controls a majority of our voting power. Under Nasdaq listing rules, a listed company of which more than 50% of the voting power for the election of directors is held by an individual, group or another company is a “controlled company,” and such a company may elect not to comply with certain Nasdaq corporate governance requirements, including (i) the requirement that a majority of the board of directors consist of independent directors, (ii) the requirement that the corporate governance and nominations committee making decisions on compensation and nominations be composed entirely of independent directors and (iii) the requirements to have a compensation committee and that such committee be composed entirely of independent directors. As a result, investors in our ADSs will not have the same protection as they would if we were not a controlled company.

We intend to continue to rely on these and other exemptions described in more detail under Item 16G. “Corporate Governance.” Accordingly, our board of directors and applicable committees will include fewer independent members than would be required if we were subject to all Nasdaq listing rules. As such, their approach may be different from that of a board with a majority of independent directors or a committee with only independent directors and, as a result, our management oversight may be more limited than if we were subject to all Nasdaq listing rules.

As a foreign private issuer we rely on exemptions from certain of the Nasdaq corporate governance standards, including the requirement that a majority of our board of directors consist of independent directors. Our reliance on such exemptions may afford less protection to holders of our ADSs.

The Nasdaq corporate governance rules require listed companies to have, among other things, a majority of independent board members and independent director oversight of executive compensation, nomination of directors and corporate governance matters. As a foreign private issuer, we are permitted to follow home country practice in lieu of the above requirements. Therefore, our Board of Directors approach to governance may be different from that of a board of directors consisting of a majority of independent directors, and, as a result, the management oversight of our Company may be more limited than if we were subject to all of the Nasdaq corporate governance standards.

We intend to continue to rely on these and other exemptions described in more detail under Item 16G. “Corporate Governance.” We may in the future elect to follow home country practices in Türkiye with regard to other matters. Accordingly, our shareholders will not have the same protection afforded to shareholders of companies that are subject to all of the Nasdaq corporate governance standards, and the ability of our independent directors to influence our business policies and affairs may be reduced.

49

Table of Contents

We are an “emerging growth company,” and we cannot be certain if the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies make our ADSs less attractive to investors.

We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the JOBS Act, and we take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not “emerging growth companies” including, but not limited to, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. We cannot predict if investors will find our ADSs less attractive because we rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our ADSs less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our ADSs, and the price of our ADSs may be more volatile.

While we currently qualify as an “emerging growth company” under the JOBS Act, if we cease to be an emerging growth company, our costs and the demands placed upon our management will increase.

We will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest of: (i) the last day of the first fiscal year in which our annual gross revenue exceeds $1,235 million; (ii) the last day of the fiscal year during which the fifth anniversary of the date of the IPO occurs, being December 31, 2026; (iii) the date that we become a “large accelerated filer” as defined in Rule 12b-2 under the Exchange Act, which would occur if the market value of our ADSs that are held by nonaffiliates exceeds $700 million as of the last business day of our most recently completed second fiscal quarter; or (iv) the date on which we have issued more than $1.00 billion in non-convertible debt securities during any three-year period. Once we lose emerging growth company status, we expect the costs and demands placed upon our management to increase, as we will be required to comply with additional disclosure and accounting requirements. In addition, management time and attention, as well as the engagement of our auditors and/or other consultants, will be required in order for us to prepare to comply with the increased disclosure and accounting standards required of companies who are not emerging growth companies, most notably compliance with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and related auditor attestation requirements.

An active trading market for our ADSs may not be sustained to provide adequate liquidity.

We cannot predict the extent to which investor interest in us will sustain an active trading market for our ADSs on Nasdaq or how liquid that market might remain. If an active trading market is not sustained, holders may have difficulty selling the ADSs that they purchase, and the value of such ADSs might be materially impaired.

We may need to raise additional funds to finance our future capital needs, which may dilute the value of our outstanding ADSs.

We may need to raise additional funds to finance our existing and future capital needs, including developing new services and technologies, and to fund ongoing operating expenses. If we raise additional funds through the sale of equity securities, these transactions may dilute the value of our outstanding ADSs. We may also decide to issue securities, including debt securities that have rights, preferences and privileges senior to our ADSs. Any debt financing would increase our level of indebtedness and could negatively affect our liquidity and restrict our operations. We also can provide no assurances that the funds we raise will be sufficient to finance our existing indebtedness. We may be unable to raise additional funds on terms favorable to us or at all. If financing is not available or is not available on acceptable terms, we may be unable to fund our future needs. This may prevent us from increasing our market share, capitalizing on new business opportunities or remaining competitive in our industry.

The price of our ADSs might fluctuate significantly, and you could lose all or part of your investment.

Volatility in the market price of our ADSs may prevent you from being able to sell your ADSs at or above the price you paid for such securities. The trading price of our ADSs has been and may continue to be volatile and subject to wide price fluctuations in response to various factors, including:

the overall performance of the equity markets;
issuance of new or changed securities analysts’ reports or recommendations;
negative market perception of our performance as compared to our competitors;
additions or departures of key personnel;

50

Table of Contents

sale of our ADSs by us or our principal shareholders;
litigation and regulatory allegations or proceedings that involve us or our subsidiaries;
general economic and geo-political conditions, both globally and in Türkiye;
ongoing or future occurrences of natural disasters, epidemics, other catastrophic events, including acts of war;
changes in interest rates; and
availability of capital.

These and other factors might cause the market price of our ADSs to fluctuate substantially, which might limit or prevent investors from readily selling their ADSs and may otherwise negatively affect the liquidity of our ADSs. In addition, in recent years, the stock market has experienced significant price and volume fluctuations. This volatility has had a significant impact on the market price of securities issued by many companies across many industries. The changes frequently appear to occur without regard to the operating performance of the affected companies. Accordingly, the price of our ADSs could fluctuate based upon factors that have little or nothing to do with our Company, and these fluctuations could materially reduce our share price. Securities class action litigation has often been instituted against companies following periods of volatility in the overall market and in the market price of a company’s securities. For example, we were named as a defendant in certain purported shareholder class action lawsuits, which have been settled, subject to court approval. See Item 8. “Financial Information—Consolidated Statements and Other Financial Information—Legal Proceedings”. We may be involved in future litigation which may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports or publish unfavorable research about our business, or we fail to meet the expectations of industry analysts, the price of our ADSs and trading volume could decline.

The trading market for our ADSs depends in part on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us, our business or our industry. If one or more of the analysts who covers us downgrades our stock, the price of our ADSs will likely decline. If one or more of these analysts, or those who currently cover us, ceases to cover us or fails to publish regular reports on us, interest in the purchase of our ADSs could decrease, which could cause the price of our ADSs or trading volume to decline.

You may not be able to exercise your right to vote the ordinary shares underlying your ADSs.

Holders of ADSs may exercise voting rights with respect to the ordinary shares represented by their ADSs only in accordance with the provisions of the deposit agreement. The deposit agreement provides that, upon receipt of notice of any meeting of holders of our ordinary shares, including any general meeting of our shareholders, if we so request, the depositary will, as soon as practicable thereafter, fix a record date for the determination of ADS holders who shall be entitled to give instructions for the exercise of voting rights and distribute to the holders as of the record date (i) the notice of the meeting or solicitation of consent or proxy sent by us, (ii) a statement that such holder will be entitled to give the depositary instructions and (iii) a statement as to the manner in which instructions may be given by the holders.

You may instruct the depositary of your ADSs to vote the ordinary shares underlying your ADSs. Otherwise, you will not be able to exercise your right to vote unless you withdraw our ordinary shares underlying the ADSs you hold. However, you may not know about the meeting far enough in advance to withdraw those ordinary shares. We cannot guarantee that you will receive the voting materials in time to ensure that you can instruct the depositary to vote the ordinary shares underlying your ADSs. In addition, the depositary and its agents are not responsible for failing to carry out voting instructions or for the manner of carrying out voting instructions. This means that you may not be able to exercise your right to vote, and there may be nothing you can do if the ordinary shares underlying your ADSs are not voted as you requested.

51

Table of Contents

Shareholders and ADS holders may not be able to exercise preemptive rights and, as a result, may experience substantial dilution upon future issuances of ordinary shares.

In the event of an issuance of ordinary shares, subject to certain exceptions, each shareholder will have a pro rata preemptive right in proportion to the aggregate nominal value of the ordinary shares held by such holder. These preemptive rights may be restricted or excluded by a resolution of a general meeting of shareholders or by the board of directors, which is authorized to restrict preemptive rights under a registered capital system. This could cause existing shareholders and ADS holders to experience substantial dilution of their interest in us. In the United States, we may be required to file a registration statement under the Securities Act to implement preemptive rights. We can give no assurances that an exemption from the registration requirements of the Securities Act would be available to enable U.S. holders of ordinary shares or holders of ADSs to exercise such preemptive rights and, if such exemption is available, we may not take the steps necessary to enable U.S. holders of ordinary shares or holders of ADSs to rely on it. Accordingly, you may not be able to exercise preemptive rights on future issuances of ordinary shares, and, as a result, your percentage ownership interest in us would be diluted. Furthermore, rights offerings are difficult to implement effectively under the current U.S. securities laws, and our ability to raise capital in the future may be compromised if we need to do so through a rights offering in the United States.

ADS holders may not be entitled to a jury trial with respect to claims arising under the deposit agreement, which could result in less favorable outcomes to the plaintiff(s) in any such action.

The deposit agreement governing the ADSs representing our ordinary shares provides that, to the fullest extent permitted by law, ADS holders waive the right to a jury trial for any claim they may have against us or the depositary arising out of or relating to our shares, the ADSs or the deposit agreement, including any claim under the U.S. federal securities laws.

If we or the depositary were to oppose a jury trial based on this waiver, the court would have to determine whether the waiver was enforceable based on the facts and circumstances of the case in accordance with applicable state and federal law. To our knowledge, the enforceability of a contractual pre-dispute jury trial waiver in connection with claims arising under the federal securities laws has not been finally adjudicated by the United States Supreme Court. However, we believe that a contractual pre-dispute jury trial waiver provision is generally enforceable, including under the laws of the State of New York, which govern the deposit agreement, or by a federal or state court in the City of New York, which has non-exclusive jurisdiction over matters arising under the deposit agreement. In determining whether to enforce a contractual pre-dispute jury trial waiver, courts will generally consider whether a party knowingly, intelligently and voluntarily waived the right to a jury trial. We believe that this would be the case with respect to the deposit agreement and the ADSs. It is advisable that you consult legal counsel regarding the jury waiver provision before investing in the ADSs.

If you or any other holders or beneficial owners of ADSs bring a claim against us or the depositary in connection with matters arising under the deposit agreement or the ADSs, including claims under federal securities laws, you or such other holder or beneficial owner may not be entitled to a jury trial with respect to such claims, which may have the effect of limiting and discouraging lawsuits against us or the depositary. If a lawsuit is brought against us or the depositary under the deposit agreement, it may be heard only by a judge or justice of the applicable trial court, which would be conducted according to different civil procedures and may result in different outcomes than a trial by jury would have, including outcomes that could be less favorable to the plaintiff(s) in any such action.

Nevertheless, if this jury trial waiver is not permitted by applicable law, an action could proceed under the terms of the deposit agreement with a jury trial. No condition, stipulation or provision of the deposit agreement or the ADSs serves as a waiver by any holder or beneficial owner of ADSs or by us or the depositary of compliance with any substantive provision of the U.S. federal securities laws and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

52

Table of Contents

It is unlikely that we will declare any dividends on our ordinary shares represented by our ADSs and therefore, you must rely on price appreciation of our ordinary shares for a return on your investment; also, to the extent that we declare dividends, we will pay those dividends solely in Turkish Lira.

We do not currently anticipate paying any dividends. Instead, we intend to retain earnings, if any, for future operations and expansion. Any decision to declare and pay dividends in the future will be made at the discretion of our general assembly of shareholders, acting pursuant to a proposal by our board of directors, and will depend on, among other things, our results of operations, cash requirements, financial condition, contractual restrictions and other factors that our general meeting of shareholders or board of directors may deem relevant. Accordingly, investors will most likely have to rely on sales of their ADSs, which may increase or decrease in value, as the only way to realize cash from their investment. There is no guarantee that the price of our ADSs will ever exceed the price that you paid.

Dividends may also be subject to limitations in the terms of our credit facility arrangements and any dividends paid may provide our lenders with the right to accelerate outstanding amounts thereunder or result in an event of default. See “—Under the terms of our indebtedness, we may be limited from distributing dividends and changes in our share ownership could result in our inability to draw loans or cause acceleration or events of default under our indebtedness.”

To the extent we declare cash dividends in the future, we will pay those dividends solely in Turkish Lira. As the value of the Turkish Lira fluctuates continuously, a holder of our ADSs will be exposed to currency fluctuations generally and particularly between the date on which a dividend is declared and the date on which dividends are paid.

You may not receive distributions on the ordinary shares represented by our ADSs or any value for them if it is illegal or impractical to make them available to holders of ADSs.

The depositary of our ADSs has agreed to pay to you the cash dividends or other distributions it receives on our ordinary shares after deducting its fees and expenses. You will receive these distributions in proportion to the number of our ordinary shares your ADSs represent. However, the depositary is not responsible if it decides that it is unlawful or impractical to make a distribution available to any holders of ADSs. We have no obligation to take any other action to permit the distribution to any holders of our ADSs or ordinary shares. This means that you may not receive the distributions we make on our ordinary shares or any value from them if it is illegal or impractical for us to make them available to you. These restrictions may have a material adverse effect on the value of your ADSs.

Dividends paid to holders of the ADSs who are not tax resident in Türkiye will be subject to a 10% withholding tax.

Dividends payable by a joint stock company that has its legal and/or business center in Türkiye to shareholders (both individual and corporate) who are not tax residents of Türkiye (i.e., non residents), and who do not have a permanent establishment constituted in Türkiye through a permanent representative or place of business therein are subject to a 10% withholding tax to be deducted by the Turkish corporation from the gross amount of dividend distribution to its shareholders. Dividends distributed to a legal entity in Türkiye (which should be already registered for corporate tax in Türkiye) are exempt from such withholding tax. There is a presumption that ADSs representing our Class B ordinary shares are being held by non-resident holders that do not have a taxable presence in Türkiye such as a permanent establishment constituted through a representative or place of business therein. Therefore, any dividends that we may decide to distribute in the future in respect of the ADSs will be subject to this 10% withholding tax based on the corresponding gross amount of distribution, which could adversely affect the value of your investment. Türkiye’s tax treaties with different countries may provide reduced dividend withholding taxes such as 5%; however such reduced tax rates are not usually applicable to portfolio type investments because of minimum shareholding ratio requirements stipulated in most of Türkiye’s tax treaties. Therefore, the final withholding tax burden for ADS holders should be determined by considering their tax residency status as well as other conditions in the respective tax treaties. See Item 10.E. “Additional Information—Taxation—Material Türkiye Tax Considerations.

You may be subject to limitations on the transfer of your ADSs.

Your ADSs, which may be evidenced by ADRs, are transferable on the books of the depositary.

53

Table of Contents

However, the depositary may close its books at any time or from time to time when it deems expedient in connection with the performance of its duties. The depositary may refuse to deliver, transfer or register transfers of your ADSs generally when our books or the books of the depositary are closed, or at any time if we or the depositary think it is advisable to do so because of any requirement of law, government or governmental body, or under any provision of the deposit agreement, or for any other reason.

You may experience difficulties in effecting service of legal process, enforcing foreign judgments or bringing original actions in Türkiye based on United States or other foreign laws against us and our management.

We are incorporated and conduct a substantial portion of our business and have substantial assets located in Türkiye. In addition, the majority of our directors and officers are nationals and residents of countries other than the United States. As a result, it may be difficult to effect service of process within the United States upon these persons. It may also be difficult to enforce in U.S. courts judgments obtained in U.S. courts based on the civil liability provisions of the U.S. federal or state securities laws against us and our officers and directors who are not resident in the United States and the substantial majority of whose assets are located outside of the United States. The liability of our directors and executives towards us and our shareholders will be governed by Turkish laws as well as the shareholding rights of investors before the Turkish courts. Further, it is unclear whether an original lawsuit against us or our directors or executive officers based on U.S. federal or state securities laws can be enforced in Turkish courts. Moreover, Türkiye does not have treaties with the United States providing for the reciprocal recognition and enforcement of judgments of courts. Therefore, even if a judgment were obtained against us or our management for matters arising under U.S. federal or state securities laws or other applicable U.S. federal or state law, it may not be possible to enforce such a judgment in Türkiye.

Furthermore, any claim against us which is denominated in a foreign currency would, upon pronouncement of our bankruptcy, only be payable in Turkish Lira, thereby shifting the currency exchange risk to you. The relevant exchange rate for determining the Turkish Lira amount of any such claim would be the Central Bank’s exchange rate for the purchase of the relevant currency, which is effective on the date when the relevant court’s decision on the bankruptcy is rendered in accordance with Turkish law. Such exchange rate may be less favorable to you than the rate of exchange prevailing at the relevant time.

We are a Turkish joint stock company. The rights of our shareholders under Turkish law may be different from the rights of shareholders under the laws of U.S. jurisdictions.

We are a Turkish joint stock company. Our corporate affairs are governed by our articles of association and by the Turkish Commercial Code No. 6102, (the “TCC”). The rights of shareholders and the responsibilities of members of our board of directors may be different from the rights of shareholders and responsibilities of directors in companies governed by the laws of U.S. jurisdictions. See Item 16G. “Corporate Governance.” The rights of our shareholders and the fiduciary responsibilities of our directors under Turkish law are not as clearly established as they would be under statutes or judicial precedent in some jurisdictions in the United States. In particular, Türkiye has a less exhaustive body of securities laws than the United States. In addition, some U.S. states, such as the State of Delaware, have more fulsome and judicially interpreted bodies of corporate law than Türkiye. For example, we are not aware of any reported class actions having been brought in Turkish courts. Such actions are ordinarily available in respect of United States corporations in United States courts. As a result, the holders of our ADSs could face different considerations in and have more difficulty protecting their interests in actions against our management, directors or controlling shareholder than would shareholders of a corporation incorporated in a jurisdiction in the United States, and our ability to protect our own interests may be limited if we are harmed in a manner that would otherwise give rise to jurisdiction in a United States federal or state court.

We may grant share based compensation to our management and employees, which may cause your interest in the Company to be diluted and our employees’ interests to become excessively tied to the trading price of our ADSs.

From time to time, we have and expect to continue to grant share-based compensation to our management and employees. We may introduce new share option plans for our senior management and employees in order to increase their efficiency, align their interests with the interests of our shareholders and retain executives who commit to long-term earnings and short-term performance. If our shareholders or board of directors approve the issuance of new share option plans, you may be diluted in the event that the exercise price under such share option plan is lower than the trading price of our ordinary shares. In addition, new share option plans may cause the interests of our management to become excessively tied to the trading price of our ordinary shares, which may have an adverse impact on our business and financial condition.

54

Table of Contents

On April 24, 2023, the board of directors adopted revisions to our Incentive Plan (as defined under Item 6.B. “Directors, Senior Management and Employees—Compensation—Incentive Plan”) pursuant to which grants may be made to a larger pool of Plan Participants (as defined under Item 6.B. “Directors, Senior Management and Employees—Compensation—Incentive Plan”). Certain Plan Participants have in the past been granted and will in the future be granted awards of restricted stock units and performance stock units. In the near-term, some Plan Participants will be delivered Class B ordinary shares following the vesting of restricted stock unit and performance stock unit awards that were conditional on meeting specified conditions. For more information about our Incentive Plan, see Item 6.B. “Directors, Senior Management and Employees—Compensation—Incentive Plan. and Note 27 to our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this annual report.

We may not maintain our listing on Nasdaq which could limit investors’ ability to make transactions in our ADSs and subject us to additional trading restrictions.

Our ADSs are listed on Nasdaq. We cannot assure you that our ADSs will continue to be listed on Nasdaq in the future. In order to continue listing our ADSs on Nasdaq, we must maintain certain financial, distribution and share price levels, including that our ADSs cannot have a bid price of less than US$1.00. In 2022, the trading price of our ADSs ranged from US$0.59 to US$2.81 per ADS. On July 22, 2022, on November 3, 2022, and on March 22, 2023, we received written notices from the Listing Qualifications Department of Nasdaq indicating that the bid price for our ADSs had closed below the minimum bid price requirement of US$1.00 per share under the Nasdaq Listing Rules (the “Listing Rules”) for 30 consecutive trading days. Pursuant to Listing Rule 5810(c)(3)(A), we had 180 calendar days from the date of this notice, or January 18, 2023, May 2, 2023, and September 18, 2023, respectively, to regain compliance (by achieving the minimum bid requirement for 10 consecutive trading days), during which time the ADSs would continue to trade on the Nasdaq Global Select Market. We regained compliance with the minimum bid requirement on August 17, 2022, January 31, 2023, and April 6, 2023, respectively.

If Nasdaq delists our ADSs from trading on its exchange and we are not able to list our ADSs on another national securities exchange, we expect our ADSs could be quoted on an over-the-counter market. However, if we were to be delisted from the Nasdaq, we could face significant material adverse consequences, including:

investors disposing of our ADSs;
a limited availability of market quotations for our ADSs;
reduced liquidity for our ADSs;
reduced availability of information concerning the trading prices and volume of our ADSs;
fewer broker-dealers willing to execute trades in our ADSs;
a determination that our ADSs represent a “penny stock” which will require brokers trading in our ADSs adhere to more stringent rules and possibly result in a reduced level of trading activity in the secondary trading market for our ADSs;
a limited amount of news and analyst coverage; and
a decreased ability to issue additional ADSs or obtain additional financing in the future.

We can provide no assurance that any action taken by us to restore compliance with listing requirements would be sufficient to maintain our listing or allow our ADSs to become listed again, stabilize the market price or improve the liquidity of our ADSs, prevent our ADSs from dropping below the Nasdaq minimum bid price requirement or prevent future non-compliance with Nasdaq’s listing requirements.

If we were no longer listed on Nasdaq, our ADSs may no longer qualify as “covered securities” for the purposes of Section 18(b) of the Securities Act and Rule 146 thereunder. As such, our ADSs would be subject to regulations in each state in which we may offer our securities which would add additional complexity, time and expense to ensure compliance with the applicable state’s securities laws

55

Table of Contents

with respect to ADRs being purchased or sold in that state, which may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and/or results of operations. An active, liquid trading market for our ADSs may not be maintained.

ITEM 4. INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY

A.      History and Development of the Company

Corporate Information

We were incorporated in İstanbul, Türkiye as a joint stock company on April 11, 2000 under the Turkish Commercial Code as D-MARKET Elektronik Hizmetler ve Ticaret A.Ş. and we operate primarily under our “Hepsiburada” brand name.

In July 2021, we completed our initial public offering and listed our ADSs on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “HEPS.”

Our registered office is located at Kuştepe Mahallesi Mecidiyeköy Yolu Cadde no: 12 Kule 2 K2 Şişli Istanbul, Türkiye. Our telephone number is +90 212 304 20 00. Our corporate website address is https://www.hepsiburada.com. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not a part of, and shall not be incorporated by reference into, this annual report. The SEC maintains a website at www.sec.gov that contains in electronic form, reports and other information that we have filed electronically with the SEC. Our agent for service of process in the United States for U.S. federal security law purposes is Cogency Global Inc. located at 122 East 42nd Street. 18th Floor, New York, NY 10168 and the telephone number at this address is +1 800-221-0102.

Company History and Brand Development

In 2000, Hanzade Vasfiye Doğan Boyner founded our company as a 1P-based e-commerce platform. We grew rapidly by adding new categories of products between 2000 and 2010.

In 2000, we became the first e-commerce platform in Türkiye to collect customers’ reviews, which enabled us to pursue a more customer-oriented approach. Although our story began with a focus on the sale of electronic devices, starting in 2010, we increased our offerings of non-electronics products (still through our 1P-based Direct Sales model) and started widening the range of products we offer by not only introducing new categories such as home textile, cosmetics and gardening, but also by increasing product range in non- electronics categories such as fast moving consumer goods (FMCG), fashion and home and garden. See Item 4.B. “—Business Overview—Our Business.” In the same year, we introduced the first “one click shopping” feature in Türkiye by becoming the first on-site audited and Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) certified firm in the Turkish e-commerce market.

At Hepsiburada, we have always followed new trends closely. We identified at an early stage the migration of Internet usage and e-commerce consumption to mobile platforms. In 2011, we launched a mobile application for Hepsiburada for iOS and Android platforms, which were among the first mobile applications in the Turkish e-commerce market.

In 2015, we launched our 3P-based Marketplace and established our fulfillment center in Gebze, Kocaeli, which became the main logistics hub of our operations as well as the first dedicated e-commerce fulfillment center operating 24/7 in Türkiye. Our Gebze fulfillment center has significantly expanded since 2015 to a total area of approximately 85 thousand square meters as of December 31, 2022. Following the launch of our Marketplace, we reached more than 4,000 Active Merchants in 2016. In order to maintain and improve the quality of our services and infrastructure, we established our first licensed technology research and development center, which became operational in 2017.

In 2017, we also launched HepsiJet, our own delivery service, after noticing the need to provide efficient, fast and reliable delivery services to our customers. From the outset, HepsiJet was established as a dedicated delivery service for e-commerce customers, which was one of the market firsts in Türkiye. With the launch of HepsiJet, we began providing last-mile delivery services (inclusive of scheduled same day and next day delivery). In the same year, Hepsiburada took leading steps in the Turkish e-commerce market to establish Türkiye’s first scalable customer financing services followed in 2018 by merchant and supplier financing services provided by an e-commerce platform. Along with these initiatives, in order to strengthen the place of women in business, Hepsiburada initiated the Women Entrepreneurs Program, through which we offer our experience and technology infrastructure to the service of women entrepreneurs by collaborating with non-governmental organizations to strengthen the standing of women in business.

56

Table of Contents

In 2018, we achieved in-house product search capability on our online platform. In the same year, to further our vision of expanding the e-commerce market, we launched our “click & collect” services enabling our customers to collect purchases from the collection points located throughout Türkiye, which was rebranded to “HepsiMat” in 2020.

We launched Hepsiburada Market (formerly known as HepsiExpress) and HepsiGlobal (only for inbound sales, i.e., from other countries into Türkiye) in 2020. In the same year, we also launched HepsiLojistik while expanding our logistics infrastructure with five new fulfillment centers in the provinces of Ankara, İzmir, Adana, Diyarbakır and Erzurum. In 2020, we also became the first shipment and sourcing partner of Apple products in Türkiye, which enables us to directly source Apple products and sell them on-line to our customers. This strategic partnership was followed by agreements with other leading global and local brands, suppliers and banks.

In 2021, we acquired the requisite travel agency license to launch Hepsiburada Seyahat (formerly known as HepsiFly) and began our efforts to leverage our online platform for enhanced advertisement capabilities by launching HepsiAd. In June 2021, we launched Hepsipay Cüzdanım (Hepsipay Wallet), an embedded digital wallet product on the Hepsiburada platform and also completed expansion of HepsiJet services across the 81 cities in Türkiye. Furthermore, HepsiJet rolled-out its two-man cargo handling service called HepsiJet XL, in 13 cities. As of December 31, 2022, we had seven fulfillment centers.

On July 1, 2021, we became the first-ever Nasdaq-listed Turkish company.

In December 2021, we signed a Share Purchase Agreement to acquire Doruk Finansman, a consumer finance company in Türkiye, to enable us to offer our customers diversified consumer financing solutions matching their needs, enhancing our value proposition by providing financial flexibility. The acquisition closed in February 2022 for a total transaction value of TRY 20 million in nominal terms. In January 2023, the company name of Doruk Finansman was changed to Hepsifinans (original trade name “Hepsi Finansman A.Ş.”).

In February 2022, we launched the first end-to-end digital “Buy-Now-Pay-Later” solution for e-commerce in the Turkish market embedded within Hepsipay Wallet. Additionally, in February 2022, HepsiJet XL completed expansion to all 81 cities in Türkiye.

In April 2022, we became a member of the United Nations Global Compact. By becoming a signatory, Hepsiburada has committed to adopting UNGC principles which outline the basic responsibilities of the global business community to the issues of human rights, labor rights, the environment and anti-corruption, and to aligning the company’s strategy and operations with these principles.  

In July 2022, we marked a first-in-the-market by introducing Türkiye’s first new generation smart physical store, Hepsiburada Smart Store. In Hepsiburada Smart Store, all shopping-related transactions are carried out using artificial intelligence, image processing and digital weight sensor technologies for an easy and convenient shopping experience. As of the date of this annual report, Hepsiburada Smart Store remains in its pilot phase.

In July 2022, we also launched our paid subscription service, Hepsiburada Premium, replacing our earlier loyalty club. Hepsiburada Premium subscribers have access to a range of benefits.

As of the date of this annual report, the principal market in which we operate is Türkiye and for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020, respectively, almost all of our revenue was generated from our e-commerce operations performed in Türkiye.

The operations of two subsidiaries, Altıncı Cadde Elektronik Ticaret A.Ş. (“Altıncı Cadde”) and Evimiz Dekorasyon İnternet Hizmetleri ve Danışmanlık Ticaret A.Ş. (“Evimiz”), were ended in 2018 and 2019, respectively, and the two entities were subsequently merged into our wholly owned subsidiary, D-Fast, in August 2021.

Capital Expenditures

Please refer to Item 5.B. “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Material Cash Requirements—Capital Expenditures” for a description of our capital expenditures. See Item 5. “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Key Factors Affecting Our Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Our Ability to Leverage our Growing Scale” and Item 4.B. “Information on the Company—Business Overview—Our Strategy” for principal projects recently developed, in progress and anticipated. See Item 5.B. “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Anticipated Sources of Funds” for our methods of financing.

57

Table of Contents

B.

Business Overview

We believe we are one of the leading commerce platforms in Türkiye and as of December 31, 2022, we connected 55.6 million members, 12.2 million Active Customers and approximately 99.7 thousand Active Merchants. We strive to provide high-quality customer experience by relentlessly focusing on selection, price and delivery:

Selection: As of December 31, 2022 we had over 163.6 million SKUs, including variants (color, size, etc.) across 32 different product categories offered through a hybrid model combining a first-party Direct Sales model (1P model) and a third-party Marketplace model (3P model);
Price: We seek to provide the best value for our customers by offering products at highly competitive prices; and
Delivery: We operate a large, fast and scalable in-house logistics network with robust last-mile delivery capabilities based on a proprietary technology platform.

Founded in 2000, Hepsiburada has been one of the early pioneers of digitalization of commerce in Türkiye and has become a household brand in the country. Our brand, which corresponds to “Everything is Here”, is synonymous with a seamless online shopping experience and benefits from very strong brand awareness, with Hepsiburada scoring 99% for aided brand awareness according to a FutureBright Research Brand Health Report in 2022 commissioned by Hepsiburada. Additionally, our brand had a market leading net promoter score (“NPS”) of 74 for the year ended December 31, 2022, according to the market research conducted by FutureBright on our behalf.

The five pillars of our business culture are:

customer-first mentality;
entrepreneurial business acumen;
meticulous execution;
relentless innovation; and
social consciousness, diversity and inclusion.

Our aim is for customers of Hepsiburada to come to the platform and be able to do the following:

Hepsiburada: Shop a wide range of products online;
Hepsiburada Market: Order groceries and essentials on-demand with slotted delivery options in a localized experience through a multi-store model;
HepsiGlobal: Discover and purchase products from international merchants online in Türkiye and, in the future, enable customers outside of Türkiye to access products sold by Turkish merchants;
Hepsipay: Benefit from Hepsipay Wallet, its BNPL product and other payment solutions, while still accessing payment options, such as debit and credit cards; and
Hepsiburada Seyahat: Buy airline tickets online.

58

Table of Contents

We have more than 20 years of e-commerce experience in Türkiye, and our local know-how allows us to better tackle the needs of our community of customers, merchants and suppliers across the country. Our leadership team’s commitment to our vision, mission and culture is one of our main differentiators and is the foundation on which our ecosystem continues to build in order to accelerate digitalization of Turkish commerce. We have grown together with our merchants located across the entire country and have contributed to the local economy and employment. Furthermore, Hepsiburada is one of the few female founded technology companies globally, and we have been actively promoting and empowering women entrepreneurship in Türkiye.

Since the launch of our Marketplace in 2015, Hepsiburada has become a trustworthy partner for merchants in Türkiye by providing access to 55.6 million members and 12.2 million Active Customers (as of December 31, 2022) and comprehensive end-to-end solutions to empower merchants to thrive digitally. In 2022, our 3P-based Marketplace model accounted for approximately 67% of our GMV, following the successful transformation of Hepsiburada from a 1P-based Direct Sales only business to its current hybrid 1P and 3P-based model. Our aim is for Hepsiburada’s merchants to enjoy a seamless set of integrated e-commerce value-added services which include:

HepsiLojistik: Fulfillment options across Türkiye;
HepsiJet: Last-mile delivery services including oversized products delivery under HepsiJet XL brand; and
HepsiAd: Advertising service and data driven insights.

We believe powerful network effects are created by our leading brand, hybrid commerce model rooted in a unified 1P and 3P-based catalogue, and strong customer and merchant value propositions. Our expanding selection of products and services, as well as price competitiveness, has allowed us to attract a growing Active Customer base of 12.2 million in 2022, compared to 11.3 million in 2021 and 9.0 million in 2020, and increase the frequency of orders on our platform to 6.6 in 2022, up from 4.7 in 2021 and 3.9 in 2020, which in turn draws more merchants and further enhances our customer value proposition. In addition, our proprietary data and insights collected over more than 20 years enable us to understand the needs of our customers and merchants and help us develop new services, expand into new verticals, and continuously innovate and strengthen our value proposition, reinforcing the network effect.

Our large, fast and scalable logistics network has been critical to our success and we have been continuously focusing on improving our logistics capabilities and offerings. We have a robust operational footprint enabling fast delivery and merchant integration. As of December 2022, we operate:

a nationwide infrastructure including seven fulfillment centers in strategic locations that encompass a total area of more than 143 thousand square meters;
one of the fastest growing logistics companies in Türkiye, HepsiJet, with an on-time delivery performance of 91.6% in 2022, operating in 81 cities with 192 cross-docks; and
a pick-up & drop-off (PUDO) network through HepsiMat, with 3,333 parcel lockers and pick-up points in partnership with gas stations, distributor networks of other retailers and service points of other delivery companies.

We are a technology-driven company and have invested heavily in developing our own highly scalable proprietary technology to support the large and rapidly growing order volumes generated on our platform. Our in-house developed IT infrastructure is central to our ability to execute our business strategy and provide a seamless experience for our merchants and customers with our single mobile app that connects our offerings and services.

Our revenues increased by 6.8% to TRY 16.1 billion in the year ended December 31, 2022 from TRY 15.0 billion in the year ended December 31, 2021 and our total GMV increased by 3.8% to TRY 53.9 billion in the year ended December 31, 2022 from TRY 52.0 billion in the year ended December 31, 2021 in an environment with an average inflation of 72%, fueled by increased order frequency, greater customer loyalty and an expanding pool of Active Customers of 12.2 million as of December 31, 2022, up from 11.3 million as of December 31, 2021 with a compound annual growth rate (“CAGR”) of 16.2% from 2020 to 2022. For the year ended December 31, 2022 our net loss increased by 43.9% to TRY 2,907.5 million from TRY 2,021.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2021. We had Free Cash Flow of negative TRY 416.0 million, negative TRY 417.5 million and TRY 852.5 million for fiscal years 2022, 2021 and 2020, respectively.

59

Table of Contents

Industry Overview

The Turkish e-commerce market has developed over the last twenty-five years with the adoption of online sales channels by traditional brick-and-mortar merchants, the establishment of new local e-commerce businesses, and the entrance of global e-commerce companies through organic growth or acquisitions. According to the most recent information published by the Turkish Ministry of Trade through the Electronic Commerce Information System, ETBİS, the e-commerce sector accounted for 18.6% of total retail in Türkiye as of 2022. The size of the e-commerce market in Türkiye increased by 109% in 2022 compared to 2021 and reached TRY 800.7 billion in nominal terms. In particular, the online retail market grew by 96%, attaining a market size of TRY458 billion. The growth of the e-commerce sector in Türkiye in 2022 was mainly attributable to: (i) an increase in the number of orders by 43% to 4,787 million in 2022 from 3,347 million in 2021, (ii) a 67% increase in the average order value to TRY 167 in 2022 from TRY 100 in 2021 for all payments in nominal terms, (iii) a 50% increase in average order value to TRY 273 in 2022 from TRY 182 in 2021 for credit card payments in nominal terms, and (iv) an increase in the percentage of women purchasing goods through online marketplaces to 58% in 2022 from 48% in 2021.

The strong historical and projected growth of the e-commerce sector in Türkiye is underpinned by: (1) a nationwide internet infrastructure with 85% internet penetration among the population between the ages of 16 and 74 in 2022, according to Turkstat, (2) high credit and debit card usage with 117% credit card penetration and 198% debit card penetration in 2022 according to BKM (where penetration is calculated by dividing the number of credit and debit cards, respectively, by the population of Türkiye) (3) well-established logistics infrastructure with high quality highways, railway networks, airports and seaports enabling nationwide delivery of orders, (4) an increase in the penetration rate of home internet access to 94.1% in 2022 from 92% in 2021, and (5) an increase in individuals purchasing or ordering goods or services for private use online to 46.2% in 2022 from 44.3% in 2021, according to Information and Communication Technologies Authority, ICTA.

Hepsiburada was among the first e-commerce businesses in Türkiye, starting operations in 2000. Since then, in the Company’s estimate, Hepsiburada has grown to become one of the leading players in the market, while its competitors either adopted alternative business models or were acquired. For example, Gittigidiyor was launched in 2001 and was subsequently acquired by eBay in 2011.

Hepsiburada’s main e-commerce competitors in Türkiye include Trendyol, N11 and Amazon. Trendyol was founded in 2010, initially as an online fashion web-store, but after Alibaba acquired a majority stake in the company in 2018, it has increasingly focused on expanding its product offering across a broader set of categories. In August 2021, Trendyol completed a round of fundraising activity. N11 (partially owned by SK Group) has operated a competing marketplace business model since its launch in 2012. In 2022, Getir, a Türkiye-based quick delivery player, became a shareholder of N11. Also in 2022, eBay shut down its Gittigidiyor operations in Türkiye. Amazon entered the Turkish market in 2018 and remains focused on implementing its global model. There are also several small-sized marketplaces such as Pasaj (of Turkcell), Her Şey Yanımda (of Vodafone) and Pazarama (of İşbank) serving the Turkish e-commerce retail market. The majority of the Turkish retail market, however, remains offline, which means that we continue to compete with offline retailers and omni-channel retailers for business.

The competitive landscape in the financial services sector in Türkiye is fragmented. Different companies are specialized in payments services, consumer financing, digital banking etc. While banks in the market are strategic partners for both Hepsiburada and Hepsipay, they also are competitors to Hepsipay and Hepsifinans with different capacities. Direct competitors to Hepsipay include wallet solutions of large banks (such as GarantiPay, WorldPay, Jüzdan), of telecom operators (such as Paycell, Vodafone Pay, TT Ödeme), solutions by payments companies (such as İyzico, Papara, Param), and direct payments with credit cards or debit cards. Most specialized consumer finance companies in the market focus on auto loans, so Hepsifinans primarily competes with banks in the financial services sector. However, there are emerging competitors such as Kredim that focus purely on point of sale lending other than auto loans.

Our Strategy

At Hepsiburada, our vision is to lead the digitalization of commerce and our mission is to be the reliable, innovative, sincere companion in people’s daily lives whereby each member of our community feels ‘I’m so happy to have Hepsiburada’.

60

Table of Contents

To achieve this, in 2023 and onwards, we aim to pursue a strategic plan built on the following four key priorities: a) nurturing loyalty, b) capitalizing on clear differentiation with affordability and lending solutions as well as high service levels on the platform and superior delivery services, c) promoting profitability by focusing on core operations, growth in non-electronics categories and a step change in operating expenses and d) offering payment, lending and last-mile delivery services to third parties. The discussion below elaborates on each of these priorities.

Nurturing loyalty

Our priority is to nurture customer loyalty within our core commerce operations. Central to this priority is our loyalty program, Hepsiburada Premium, given the higher frequency use of its members. Launched in July 2022, the program offers a wide range of benefits including free delivery, cashback, and free access to an on-demand streaming service in exchange for a fixed monthly fee. See “—Customers —Hepsiburada Premium”. Hepsiburada Premium members tend to shop more often on our platform. In December 2022, Hepsiburada Premium monthly order frequency was 1.7 times the frequency those customers had generated before joining the program. One of our targets is to expand this base of Hepsiburada Premium members throughout 2023. These members numbered 840,000 as of March 15, 2023. Our aim is to provide an exceptional customer experience on our platform that will keep our customers coming back.

Capitalizing on our clear differentiation with affordability and lending solutions as well as high service levels on the platform and superior delivery services

We are focused on leveraging our sustainable differentiators within our core commerce operations to remain ahead of the competition. These differentiators include our ability to offer a range of payment services and solutions such as payment with multiple credit cards, installment payments, instant shopping loans, and buy-now-pay-later services with Hepsipay. We believe these options provide our customers greater flexibility and convenience. As of December 31, 2022, we were the only e-commerce player in Türkiye with a payment services license to offer buy-now-pay-later services. Additionally, our last-mile delivery services through HepsiJet, enable us to provide our customers fast and reliable delivery across our extensive network of 81 cities, and with nearly 2,400 carriers. By focusing on these sustainable differentiators, we aim to deliver a high quality customer service to our customers, thereby maintaining our competitive edge in the market.

Promoting profitability by focusing on core operations

Another key focus is the promotion of profitability through a prioritized approach to core commercial operations in parallel with a considerable reduction in operational expenses (opex) as a percentage of GMV. In order to generate growth in our core platform operations, our approach is to increase our wallet share of the retail sector in Türkiye. In doing so, we have a particular focus on increasing our sales in non-electronic categories. In terms of operating expenses, we aim to adopt a Company-wide frugal approach, including for our subsidiaries. Our plan also includes automating several business processes and actions to optimize our operations, which is also expected to contribute to higher efficiency. We will consider stepping back from any business as we analyze its contribution to our overall performance should we consider it dilutive of our profitability target levels. Meanwhile, we believe a continued investment in our platform technology, particularly in search and navigation capabilities, as well as our merchant app will remain essential to improving our service level. Overall, our focus on improving profitability through core commercial operations and reducing operational expenses is designed to promote the long-term sustainability and success of our business.

Offering payment, lending and last-mile services to third parties

We believe we can offer our payment services, lending solutions, and last-mile delivery services to other retailers. This priority is based on the potential for us to leverage the assets of Hepsipay and HepsiJet and increase their revenue contribution to our group. Externalizing these services is expected to facilitate economies of scale and improved operational efficiency, as well as establishing market share in new businesses and advancing the digitalization of commerce in Türkiye. Through Hepsipay and Hepsifinans, our aim is to be able to serve the overall e-commerce industry in Türkiye and equip retailers with convenient payment methods and attractive affordability solutions, thereby creating incremental sales for them. We intend to test such services including one-click payment and easy check-out, our Buy-Now-Pay-Later solution, and consumer loan offerings on our platform to ensure their quality before extending them to third parties. Through HepsiJet, we aim to serve the overall e-commerce industry in Türkiye with high quality last-mile delivery services and a two-man handling delivery service for oversized products.

61

Table of Contents

Overall, we believe that executing on these priorities will facilitate further sustainable growth, drive margin improvement, and lead us into profitability. And as we execute, we intend to remain flexible enough to take any action required in response to macroeconomic volatility or change in market conditions.

Our Business

We operate on a hybrid business model which combines 3P and 1P models. Our core business, sales of products on our online platform, is primarily run on the “3P” or “third-party” model marketplace (the “Marketplace”) that we launched in late 2015 (see “—Marketplace”). Alongside the Marketplace, we list and sell products on our platform where “Hepsiburada” is the seller also known as “1P” or “first party” model, where suppliers (vendors) directly sell products to us on a wholesale basis, and we then store and sell such products to customers (“Direct Sales”) (see “—Direct Sales”). For the year ended December 31, 2022, we generated TRY 53.9 billion GMV of which 3P accounted for approximately 67%. For the year ended December 31, 2022, we generated a total of TRY 16.1 billion in revenue, up from TRY 15.0 billion and TRY 15.2 billion for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. Of our total revenues for the year ended December 31, 2022, TRY 12.6 billion (78.3% of total revenue) were derived from Direct Sales, TRY 1.7 billion (10.6% of total revenue) from Marketplace sales, TRY 1.5 billion (9.3% of total revenue) from delivery services and TRY 295.7 million (1.8% of total revenue) from other services, compared to TRY 12.2 billion and TRY 12.6 billion from Direct Sales, TRY 1.2 billion and TRY 1.4 billion from Marketplace sales, TRY 1.5 billion and TRY 1.1 billion from delivery services and TRY 159.5 million and TRY 59.0  million from other services, in the years ended December 31 2021 and 2020, respectively.

We believe we are one of the leading commerce platforms in Türkiye, with 99% aided brand awareness in 2022 (source: FutureBright Research Brand Health Report). Through our website and shopping app, as of December 31, 2022, we brought together 55.6 million members, 12.2 million Active Customers and approximately 99.7 thousand Active Merchants. In 2022, we had 300 million average monthly visits and as of December 31, 2022, offered a wide selection of over 163.6 million SKUs across 32 different product categories, combining 1P and 3P models. This is all enabled by our logistics network, which is one of the largest, fastest and most reliable in Türkiye supported by in-house last-mile delivery capabilities and a platform built on proprietary technology.

Marketplace

Overview

Our Marketplace enables us to connect users seeking to buy products with merchants offering a wide assortment of products. In our Marketplace, merchants who register on our online platform set up their own stores, list and sell their products. As of December 31, 2022, we had approximately 99.7 thousand Active Merchants operating in our Marketplace. As of December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020, our Marketplace GMV represented approximately 67%, 68% and 59% of our total GMV, respectively.

In our Marketplace operations, merchants remain the owners of the products that they list on our platform and are responsible for pricing and managing their inventory and sales and other activities. This model allows us to dedicate our resources to enrich our platform, enhance customer experience, increase customer lifecycle through customer relationship management activities and improve our logistics infrastructure capacity towards providing high quality fulfillment and delivery services to a larger number of merchants and managing our Direct Sales business, for which we maintain inventory and manage the geographical reach and customer experience for key product categories.

Merchants

We classify legal entities setting up their own stores, listing their products and selling through our marketplace platform as merchants, and further classify them as Active Merchants as described above. As of December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020 we had approximately 99.7 thousand, 75.0 thousand and 44.7 thousand Active Merchants, respectively. As of December 31, 2022, of our approximately 99.7 thousand Active Merchants, approximately four thousand were small and medium enterprises (“SMEs”) and the remaining approximately 95.7 thousand Active Merchants were key account merchants. Key account merchants enable us to provide products from top brands at high volumes and quality, while SMEs provide us with product assortment and variety.

62

Table of Contents

Under our merchant agreements, we collect payment from customers on behalf of our merchants, which is then payable by us to our merchants after deducting relevant commissions, fees and other charges within 21 days, on average as of December 31, 2022. See Item 5.B. “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Liquidity and Capital Resources.” Merchants may also elect to finance the amount payable by using our supplier and merchant financing services to receive payment in a shorter timeframe. See “—Supplier and Merchant Financing.

Legal entities seeking to set up a storefront in our Marketplace are required to follow a registration process that can be completed directly on our online platform (see “—Merchant Portal and Application”) with their official legal documents. Becoming a merchant on our Marketplace is designed to be as straightforward as possible, without compromising our security, or our standard terms and conditions typically applicable to our merchants as well as know your customer procedures regulated under the E-Commerce Law. Once the merchant’s application process is complete and approved, it can immediately start listing its products on our platform. Our typical engagements with merchants, subject to our standard terms and conditions (which can be negotiated by both parties to the engagement), are for indefinite periods. There is no obligation for a merchant to actually offer and sell products using our platform. Our typical agreements include customary representations and warranties from our merchants. From time to time in the ordinary course of our operations, we may negotiate deviations from, or we may enter into addendums to, our standard agreements with merchants that expand on or amend our standard terms and conditions. In the event that Hepsiburada amends the terms and conditions of the agreement unilaterally, merchants must be notified 15 days prior to the effective date of the amendment. However, if the unilateral amendment requires any technical development or comprises any increase in commission rates and service fees, imposes any penal sanction or causes limitations on, suspension of or cessation of the intermediary service and has any negative impact on the merchant’s rights, the merchants must be notified 30 days prior to the effective date of such amendment.

We may unilaterally suspend a merchant’s account under certain circumstances explicitly stated under the agreement, including when the merchant’s service quality (based on customer feedback and delivery performance) has fallen to a level stipulated under the agreement that warrants suspension, the merchant is in default in respect of its payments to us, or its product listings are found to be misleading or inaccurate. We detect misleading or inaccurate listings through our periodic reviews or receipt of complaints from our customers or trademark/brand owners, as well as through review requests from official authorities. We also examine and evaluate any claims that a merchant is engaged in unlawful or illegal activity or has posted unlawful or illegal content. If it appears that there has been a violation of law or our terms of services we stop the sale and remove the unlawful content or goods and services from our platform. We also have the right to immediately terminate our agreement with any merchant without giving any notice in case of violation of any relevant legislation, including infringements of third-party intellectual property rights and the sale of counterfeit products.

In our Marketplace, each merchant is individually rated, based on an algorithm combining customer feedback, timely dispatch of products sold, and fulfillment of the merchant’s obligations towards us. Each merchant’s ratings are displayed publicly along with the products they list. In addition, the merchant’s individual store can be viewed and all products listed by such merchant can be separately viewed by our users and customers, along with the complete tradename, Turkish central commercial registration system (MERSİS) number and the city where their headquarters are located.

We have taken steps to support women entrepreneurs in our Marketplace since 2017, and followed separate procedures, our Technology Empowerment for Women Entrepreneurs program, for legal entities with 51% or more ownership held by women to incentivize and promote participation and success. These incentives include, among others, (i) free online trainings, (ii) free studio shoots for marketing materials, and (iii) discounted rates, digital advertisement support and banner placement on our platform. Since the launch of our Technology Empowerment for Women Entrepreneurs program, we have reached 41,434 woman entrepreneurs from all across Türkiye (as of December 31, 2022) enabling more than 31,534 entities within the program to make sales through our platform. As of December 31, 2022, more than 24 million products had been listed on our platform within this program. Our Technology Empowerment for Women Entrepreneurs program was awarded two national awards (Women Friendly Companies) in 2022. Our “Women Entrepreneurs Breaking Financial Difficulties Project”, which was launched in August 2021 and aims to facilitate easier access to funding alternatives for women entrepreneurs in collaboration with seven major banks in Türkiye, had helped arrange funding totaling over TRY 10 million as of the end of 2022.

We also support our merchants that are non-governmental organizations (NGOs) with benefits including free shipping and a 75% commission discount indefinitely. As of December 31, 2022, we supported 40 of these NGOs.

63

Table of Contents

Following the devastating earthquake disaster of February 2023, we mobilized our resources to various aid efforts, delivering urgent relief supplies to the victims. We plan to continue to support the region with our technology, logistics, and sales and marketing power to get the local economy back on track. On March 6, 2023, we announced the launch of a two-year “Trade and Technology Empowerment for the Earthquake Region” program in order to contribute to the efforts of ensuring sustainable welfare in the earthquake region. With the program we pledge to support around ten thousand SMEs and merchants and over five thousand women entrepreneurs and women’s cooperatives, while boosting the region’s e-commerce and logistics capacity, shifting employment-enhancing services and activities to the region, and providing educational and social support to children and families. This program aims to boost regional GMV generation to TRY 10 billion in total over its duration. We also expect the program to establish e-commerce specialization centers in three cities, enabling the growth and development of the regional e-commerce ecosystem.

In addition to our online platform, Marketplace merchants benefit from our “integrated ecosystem”, which provides the merchants with a wide range of value-added services, namely,

(i)

economical and seamless last-mile delivery (i.e., HepsiJet), see “—Strategic Assets—HepsiJet”;

(ii)

fulfillment solutions (i.e., HepsiLojistik), see “—Complementary Businesses—HepsiLojistik.”;

(iii)

supplier and merchant financing options, see “—Supplier and Merchant Financing”; and

(iv)

advanced targeting and onsite advertisement solutions (i.e., HepsiAd), see “—Complementary Businesses—HepsiAd”.

In addition, merchants in our Marketplace have access to our “Merchant Portal,” which offers automated campaign management, a merchant support center, business intelligence and support, proprietary merchant store management, and online courses features as well as our merchant-specific application, Hepsiburada My Business Partner (formerly named as HepsiPartner). See “—Merchant Portal and Application” below.

Merchant Portal and Application

Our merchant portal is an interface through which our merchants control their listings and pricings, manage orders and sales, manage campaigns, track receivables, and benefit from online training courses on how to use our platform and increase their e-commerce sales (through our training portal, HepsiAkademi). During 2022, over 269 thousand training sessions were completed at HepsiAkademi and we believe those training programs were instrumental in accelerating the integration of our merchants to our platform. Our merchant portal is designed to provide our merchants with a fast and efficient tool to manage their operations on our Marketplace to ensure an improved merchant experience and promote a highly engaged merchant base.

Since 2021, we also have a merchant-specific application called Hepsiburada My Business Partner. With this application, we have enhanced our interaction with our merchants while enabling them to operate more efficiently. Through Hepsiburada My Business Partner, our merchants can view their transaction summary, handle inventory management, participate in our campaigns, respond to customer questions, review their financial summary, connect to customer services and access our training portal.

Direct Sales

We began our operations with 1P model Direct Sales in 2000. As of December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020, Direct Sales represented 33%, 32% and 41% of our total GMV, respectively.

For our Direct Sales business, we purchase, and usually hold, inventory for a selection of products in our fulfillment centers or suppliers’ warehouses to be sold directly to customers. We have dedicated sales teams that identify and track demand for products in each product category on our platform. As our platform offers a competitive market for products, the same products may be sold by us on a Direct Sales basis and by our merchants on the Marketplace at the same time on a single catalogue (Buy Box) basis. Our single catalogue operates on an impartial basis and it ranks both Hepsiburada (as a merchant) and third-party merchants using the same criteria.

64

Table of Contents

We source products in bulk and aim to leverage our bargaining power as a leading and trustworthy Turkish e-commerce platform to obtain competitive prices. We purchase inventory for our Direct Sales with one of three general types of payment terms: a purchase basis, consignment basis or “sell and pay” (i.e., similar to the consignment basis but with payment due within 15 to 90 days after the inventory is sold) basis. Generally, we pay for inventory purchased on a purchase basis within a period of time after the inventory arrives at our fulfillment centers. We pay for inventory purchased on a consignment basis or “sell and pay” basis only after the products have been sold on our platform. The acquisition of inventory on a consignment or “sell and pay” basis allows us to use the proceeds of the sale of products to pay for the inventory of the products. Having a mix of the purchase basis, consignment basis and “sell and pay” basis for acquiring inventory gives us additional financial headroom for better cash management. In our online platform, Hepsiburada appears as the merchant for products sold via Direct Sales.

We generally engage cargo companies in Türkiye to provide long-haul transportation of products between our seven fulfillment centers and our 18 sorting (transfer) hubs on an annual basis, which is renewable for further periods. Like all products sold through our Marketplace, products sold through Direct Sales are fulfilled at our fulfillment centers or suppliers’ warehouses and channeled to the relevant sorting hubs. From our seven fulfillment centers, parcels are delivered to customers through our various last-mile delivery channels (i.e., HepsiJet and other cargo firms).

Direct Sales Pricing Strategy

We aim to provide our customers with a strong value proposition by offering products at competitive prices on our platform. We track available pricing information to level our prices for products sold through Direct Sales, against the most competitive prices offered for the same or similar products that can be found in the wider Turkish e-commerce market. We also leverage our direct business relationship with our suppliers to ensure our competitive pricing.

Suppliers

In our Direct Sales business, we benefit from long-lasting relationships (i.e., more than three years of business relationship with approximately 53% of our suppliers as of December 31, 2022) that we have built with a wide range of our suppliers, who are either owners or distributors of global and local brands. We source directly from owners or licencees of these brands. These relationships enable us to offer a differentiated selection of products, including private label and exclusive products. We make strategic procurements based on seasonality and competition. In addition, we enjoy direct procurement from key brands such as Apple, Casper, Oppo, Tefal, Rowenta, Eczacıbaşı, Spigen, Delta, Ülker Group, Phillips and Vestel, both for new launches and existing products, enabling us to offer high-demand products through our Direct Sales simultaneously with the original equipment manufacturers as well as the ability to partner to offer value-added services, such as trade-in options for Apple and Samsung products, among others, delivery by appointment for Vestel products and chat support from live agents from over 40 well-known brands, including Colgate-Palmolive, Apple and L’Oréal.

In our Direct Sales business, we aim to maintain a cash generating and profitable inventory of products and use forecasting tools to ensure efficient demand planning.

65

Table of Contents

Supplier and Merchant Financing

We facilitate financing to our merchants (in the case of Marketplace) and suppliers (in the case of Direct Sales) enabling them to optimize their cash flow management. Through our supplier and merchant financing service, merchants and suppliers can collect their receivables on a discounted basis (i.e., reduced to account for commission and interest relating to the service) at a date earlier than their original collection date. To enable this, the suppliers and merchants use our service to access and collect funds equivalent to their receivables (with a discount subtracted), either from us, in which case we coordinate with our partner banks to borrow short-term financing, or directly from one of our partner banks under outstanding lines of credit. Concomitantly, our platform submits the respective suppliers’ or merchants’ invoices to the relevant bank as evidence of receivables. Until the due dates of the supplier/merchant receivables, we either incur a short-term borrowing liability or a trade payable, depending on whether we borrow funds on the supplier’s or merchant’s behalf or such supplier or merchant borrows directly from one of our partner banks, respectively. We then repay the principal amount pertaining to the short-term financing on their original collection date. We generate commission income from merchant and supplier financing transactions. Such commission is embedded in the interest rate that is charged by the bank to the relevant suppliers and/or the merchants. We receive our commission based on the amount of the loan from the banks once the loan is drawn by our suppliers or merchants. The program does not impose any financial risk on the Company’s financial statements. Neither we nor our subsidiaries provide any guarantee to the banks in respect of this supplier and merchant financing. We may choose from time to time to extend or to reduce the volume of this program in parallel with related regulations (see Item 10.D “Exchange Controls”) and/or depending on our net working capital requirements or our future plans.

The phases of merchant financing are illustrated in the graphics below.

Graphic

Product Assortment

We offer a wide assortment of products on our platform and intend to continue expanding our catalog to strengthen our position as a one-stop shop for all of our customers’ shopping needs. We organize the listings in our Marketplace in what we believe is an intuitive and easy-to-use directory that facilitates browsing and viewing of listings.

For our Direct Sales, our commercial team decides on the content of the Direct Sales inventory based on certain strategic and financial criteria including profitability, ease of procurement, competitiveness, seasonality, consumer demand as well as operational capability.

66

Table of Contents

As of December 31, 2022, there were over 163.6 million SKUs across 32 different product categories grouped under seven major domains on our platform. We categorize our GMV by domains.As of the date of this annual report, listings on our platform cover the following selection domains:

Mobile: This domain includes mobile phones.
Supermarket: This domain includes fast moving consumer goods (FMCG), health and beauty, pet shop, cosmetics and mother and baby products. Starting from 2023, this category also includes Hepsiburada Market. See “—Hepsiburada Market
Appliances: This domain includes consumer electronics (TV), major domestic appliances (MDA) and small domestic appliances (SDA).
Home and Garden: This domain includes home textile, furniture, kitchenware, and home improvement products.
Technology: This domain includes computers, camera and automobile accessories and parts.
Fashion and Lifestyle: This domain includes apparel, shoes and bags, outdoor wear, sports equipment, watches, accessories, sunglasses, perfumery and jewelry.
Books and Hobbies: This domain includes books, toys, stationery, mobile devices accessories, consumer electronics (non-TV) gaming consoles, games, musical instruments, digital products such as sweepstakes and gamified lotteries, and more.

The following table sets forth our GMV breakdown by product domain for the year ended December 31, 2022:

GMV

 

    

(TRY billion)

    

% to total

Mobile

 

11.4

 

21.1

%

Appliances

 

10.2

 

18.8

%

Technology

 

9.9

 

18.3

%

Supermarket

 

5.8

 

10.8

%

Home and Garden

 

5.7

 

10.6

%

Books and Hobbies