F-1/A 1 tm2035491-16_f1a.htm F-1/A tm2035491-16_f1a - none - 42.1545285s
As filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission on January 19, 2021.
Registration No. 333-251765
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Amendment No. 3 to
Form F-1
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
MYT NETHERLANDS PARENT B.V.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)
Not Applicable
(Translation of Registrant’s Name into English)
The Netherlands
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
5961
(Primary Standard Industrial
Classification Code Number)
Not Applicable
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
Einsteinring 9
85609 Aschheim/Munich
Germany
+49 89 127695-614
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)
Cogency Global Inc.
122 East 42nd Street, 18th Floor
New York, NY 10168
(800) 221-0102
(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)
Copies of all communications, including communications sent to agent for service, should be sent to:
Christopher M. Bartoli
Roger W. Bivans
Baker & McKenzie LLP
300 E Randolph St
Chicago, Illinois 60601
(312) 861-8000
Christoph Wolf
Baker & McKenzie
Partnerschaft von
Rechtsanwälten und
Steuerberatern mbB
Bethmannstrasse 50-54
60311 Frankfurt am Main
Germany
+ 49 69 2 99 08 245
Marc D. Jaffe
Adam J. Gelardi
Latham & Watkins LLP
885 Third Avenue
New York, New York 10022
(212) 906-1200
Oliver Seiler
Latham & Watkins LLP
Reuterweg 20,
60323 Frankfurt am Main
Germany
+49 69 6062 6000
Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: As soon as practicable after this Registration Statement becomes effective.
If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, check the following box: ☐
If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is an emerging growth company as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act of 1933.
Emerging growth company. ☒
If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act. ☐
CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE
Title of Each Class of Securities
to be Registered(1)
Amount to be
Registered
Proposed Maximum
Offering
Price Per Share
Proposed Maximum
Aggregate
Offering Price(2)(3)
Amount of
Registration Fee(4)
Ordinary shares, nominal value €0.000015 per share
17,994,117
$26.00
$467,847,042
$35,337
(1)
American depositary shares (“ADSs”) issuable upon deposit of the ordinary shares registered hereby will be registered under a separate registration statement on Form F-6. Each ADS represents one ordinary share.
(2)
Includes the aggregate offering price of additional ordinary shares, represented by ADSs, that the underwriters have the option to purchase.
(3)
Estimated solely for purpose of calculating the amount of registration fee pursuant to Rule 457(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.
(4)
Previously paid. Pursuant to Rule 457(a), no additional fee is payable as a result of the increase in the proposed maximum offering price per share reflected herein.
The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or until the registration statement shall become effective on such date as the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.

The information in this preliminary prospectus is not complete and may be changed. These securities may not be sold until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities nor does it seek an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.
PRELIMINARY PROSPECTUS (Subject to Completion)
Dated January 19, 2021
[MISSING IMAGE: lg_mytheresa-whit.gif]
MYT Netherlands Parent B.V.
15,647,059 American Depositary Shares
Representing 15,647,059 ordinary shares
This is the initial public offering of MYT Netherlands Parent B.V. We are offering 13,647,059 American Depositary Shares (the “ADSs”) and MYT Holding LLC (“MYT Holding” or the “Selling Shareholder”) is offering 2,000,000 ADSs in this offering, with each ADS representing one ordinary share. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of ADSs by the Selling Shareholder. Prior to this offering, there has been no public market for our ordinary shares or the ADSs. It is currently estimated that the initial public offering price per ADS will be between $24.00 and $26.00 per ADS.
We have applied to have the ADSs listed on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) under the symbol “MYTE.”
After giving effect to the sale of ADSs in this offering, our parent company will hold approximately 79.5% of the voting power of our outstanding shares following this offering (76.9% if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional ordinary shares, represented by ADSs, from us and the Selling Shareholder in full).
Investing in the ADSs involves risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 23.
We are both an “emerging growth company” and a “foreign private issuer” under applicable U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission rules and will be eligible for reduced public company disclosure requirements. See “Prospectus Summary—Implications of Being an ‘Emerging Growth Company’ and a ‘Foreign Private Issuer’” for additional information.
Price $       per ADS
Price to
Public
Underwriting
Discounts and
Commissions(1)
Proceeds, before
expenses, to us
Proceeds, before
expenses, to the
Selling Shareholder
Per ADS
$ $ $ $
Total $ $ $ $
(1)
We refer you to “Underwriters” for additional information regarding underwriting compensation.
To the extent that the underwriters sell more than 15,647,059 ADSs, the underwriters have the option to purchase up to an additional 586,764 ADSs from us and an additional 1,760,294 ADSs from the Selling Shareholder each at the initial public offering price, less underwriting discounts and commissions.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any other regulatory body has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
The underwriters expect to deliver the ADSs to purchasers against payment on           , 2021.
Morgan Stanley
J.P. Morgan
Credit Suisse
UBS Investment Bank
Jefferies
Cowen
Prospectus dated           , 2021

 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
ii
iii
v
1
16
18
23
66
68
69
CAPITALIZATION 70
DILUTION 71
73
76
BUSINESS 99
Page
MANAGEMENT 115
135
137
139
141
155
163
165
166
UNDERWRITERS 184
191
191
EXPERTS 191
191
192
F-1
For investors outside the United States: neither we, the Selling Shareholder nor the underwriters have done anything that would permit this offering or possession or distribution of this prospectus in any jurisdiction, other than the United States, where action for that purpose is required. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus must inform themselves about, and observe any restrictions relating to, the offering of the ADSs and the distribution of this prospectus outside the United States.
Neither we, the Selling Shareholder nor the underwriters have authorized anyone to provide you with any information or to make any representations other than those contained in this prospectus, any amendment or supplement to this prospectus, or in any free writing prospectus we have prepared, and neither we nor the underwriters take responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information others may give you. Neither we, Selling Shareholder nor the underwriters are making an offer to sell, or seeking offers to buy, these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. The information contained in this prospectus is accurate only as of the date on the cover page of this prospectus, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or the sale of ADSs. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since the date on the cover page of this prospectus.
 
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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
We have historically conducted our business through Mytheresa Group GmbH (formerly named: NMG Germany GmbH), a German limited liability company (Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung) with its statutory seat in Munich, registered with the commercial register of the local court of Munich under HRB 211727 (“MGG”), and its subsidiaries. MGG is a wholly owned subsidiary of the issuer, MYT Netherlands Parent B.V., a private company with limited liability under the laws of the Netherlands (besloten vennootschap met beperkte aansprakelijkheid) and registered with the Trade Register of the Chamber of Commerce in the Netherlands under number 74988441 (“MYT Netherlands”). Except where the context otherwise requires or where otherwise indicated, the terms “Mytheresa,” the “Company,” “we,” “us,” “our,” “our company” and “our business” refer to MYT Netherlands together with MGG and its other consolidated subsidiaries as a consolidated entity; the term “MYT Netherlands” or “the issuer” refers to MYT Netherlands as a stand-alone company; and each of the terms “MYT Holding” and “Selling Shareholder” refers to MYT Holding LLC, a Delaware limited liability company, as a stand-alone company and, prior to this offering, the sole shareholder of MYT Netherlands. The share and per share information in this prospectus reflects the 70,190.687 for one share split of our ordinary shares, which we effected on January 12, 2021.
MARKET AND INDUSTRY DATA
We obtained the industry, market and competitive position data in this prospectus from our own internal estimates, surveys and research as well as from publicly available information, industry and general publications and research, surveys and studies conducted by third parties, such as reports by Bain & Company and Capgemini. Note Bain & Company and Capgemini are not affiliated with Mytheresa, and the information contained in this report has not been reviewed or endorsed by Bain & Company or Capgemini, as applicable.
Industry publications, research, surveys, studies and forecasts generally state that the information they contain has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable but that the accuracy and completeness of such information is not guaranteed. Forecasts and other forward-looking information obtained from these sources are subject to the same qualifications and uncertainties as the other forward-looking statements in this prospectus. These forecasts and forward-looking information are subject to uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors, including those described under “Risk Factors.” These and other factors could cause results to differ materially from those expressed in the forecasts or estimates from independent third parties and us.
TRADEMARKS, SERVICE MARKS AND TRADENAMES
We have proprietary rights to trademarks used in this prospectus that are important to our business, many of which are registered under applicable intellectual property laws. Solely for convenience, the trademarks, service marks, logos and trade names referred to in this prospectus are without the ® and ™ symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights or the rights of the applicable licensors to these trademarks, service marks and trade names.
This prospectus contains additional trademarks, service marks and trade names of others, which are the property of their respective owners. All trademarks, service marks and trade names appearing in this prospectus are, to our knowledge, the property of their respective owners. We do not intend our use or display of other companies’ trademarks, service marks, copyrights or trade names to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, any other companies.
PRESENTATION OF FINANCIAL AND OTHER INFORMATION
We report under International Financial Reporting Standards (“IFRS”) as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (the “IASB”), which differ in certain significant respects from U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“U.S. GAAP”). None of our financial statements were prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. The consolidated financial statements and financial information included in this prospectus were prepared for MYT Netherlands, its accounting predecessor Mariposa I S.à r.l., and its subsidiaries, including MGG. Except where the context otherwise requires or where otherwise indicated, references to the financial information of MYT Netherlands includes the predecessor information of Mariposa I S.à r.l. and its consolidated subsidiaries.
 
ii

 
Our financial information is presented in Euros. For the convenience of the reader, we have translated some of our financial information into U.S. Dollars. Unless otherwise indicated, these translations were made at the rate of €1.00 to $1.1237 and €1.00 to $1.1723, the noon buying rate of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York on June 30, 2020 and September 30, 2020, respectively. Such U.S. Dollar amounts are not necessarily indicative of the amounts of U.S. Dollars that could actually have been purchased upon exchange of Euros at the dates indicated. All references in this prospectus to “dollar,” “USD” or “$” mean U.S. Dollars and all references to “€” or “euro” mean Euros.
Our fiscal year begins on July 1 and ends on June 30 of the following year. All references to (i) fiscal 2016 relate to the year ended June 30, 2016, (ii) fiscal 2017 relate to the year ended June 30, 2017, (iii) fiscal 2018 relate to the year ended June 30, 2018, (iv) fiscal 2019 relate to the year ended June 30, 2019, (v) fiscal 2020 relate to the year ended June 30, 2020, and (vi) fiscal 2021 relate to the year ending June 30, 2021.
We have made rounding adjustments to some of the figures contained in this prospectus. Accordingly, numerical figures shown as totals in some tables may not be exact arithmetic aggregations of the figures that preceded them.
KEY TERMS AND PERFORMANCE INDICATORS USED IN THIS PROSPECTUS
Throughout this prospectus, we use a number of key terms and provide a number of key performance indicators used by management. These key performance indicators are discussed in more detail in the sections entitled “Summary Consolidated Financial and Operating Data—Other Financial and Operating Data” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Key Operating and Financial Metrics.” We define these terms as follows:

“active customer” means a unique customer account from which an online purchase was made across our sites at least once in the preceding twelve-month period.

“Adjusted EBITDA” means net income before finance expense (net), income taxes, and depreciation and amortization, adjusted to exclude U.S. sales tax expenditures temporarily borne by us, strategic investor sale preparation costs, IPO preparation and transaction costs and share-based compensation expenses. Adjusted EBITDA is not calculated in accordance with IFRS. For an explanation of why we use Adjusted EBITDA and a reconciliation to the most directly comparable measure calculated in accordance with IFRS, please see “Summary Consolidated Financial and Operating Data—Other Financial and Operating Data.”

“Adjusted Net Income” means net income, adjusted for the impact of U.S. sales tax expenditures temporarily borne by us, strategic investor sale preparation costs, finance expenses on our Shareholder Loans and Retired Shareholder Loans, IPO preparation and transaction costs, share-based compensation expenses and related income tax effects. Adjusted Net Income is not calculated in accordance with IFRS. For an explanation of why we use Adjusted Net Income and a reconciliation to the most directly comparable measure calculated in accordance with IFRS, please see “Summary Consolidated Financial and Operating Data—Other Financial and Operating Data.”

“Adjusted Operating Income” means operating income, adjusted for the impact of U.S. sales tax expenditures temporarily borne by us, strategic investor sale preparation costs, IPO preparation and transaction costs and share-based compensation expenses. Adjusted Operating Income is not calculated in accordance with IFRS. For an explanation of why we use Adjusted Operating Income and a reconciliation to the most directly comparable measure calculated in accordance with IFRS, please see “Summary Consolidated Financial and Operating Data—Other Financial and Operating Data.”

“average order value” is an operating metric used by management calculated as the total gross sales from online orders shipped from our sites during the twelve months ended on the last day of the period presented divided by the total online orders shipped during the same twelve-month period.

“contribution profit” means gross profit less shipping, packaging, fulfillment (including personnel), payment expenses and the portion of marketing expenses attributable to retaining existing customers.

“customer acquisition cost” or “CAC” means our online marketing expenses, excluding software costs, which we attribute to acquiring new customers, divided by the number of customers who placed their first order in the relevant period.
 
iii

 

“full-time equivalents” or “FTEs” is presented to quantify the number of employees assuming each employee worked 40 hours per week. Full time employees, who are not conscripted to hours are assumed to work 40 hours per week.

“lifetime value” or “LTV” means the cumulative contribution profit attributable to a particular customer cohort, which we define as all of our customers who made their initial purchase between July 1 and June 30 in a given cohort year.

“net shipped revenue” is an operating metric used by management calculated using total orders shipped, net of returns, applying a fixed foreign exchange rate for each reporting period.

“Retired Shareholder Loans” means the convertible preferred equity certificates and variable interest shareholder loans, which were retired in fiscal 2020. For further information regarding our related party financing arrangements, refer to Note 20 of the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus.

“Shareholder Loans” means the $217.3 million aggregate principal amount of 6.00% Notes due October 9, 2025, and accrued but unpaid interest, of MGG held by a wholly owned U.S. subsidiary of MYT Holding.

“total gross sales” means all sales after cancellations, before returns, and includes associated shipping revenues and delivery duties collected.

“total orders shipped” means the total number of online customer orders shipped to our customers during the twelve months ended on the last day of the period presented.
 
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A LETTER FROM MICHAEL KLIGER, OUR CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER
Dear Prospective Shareholder:
Mytheresa has grown into one of the leading luxury e-commerce destinations for the global luxury fashion consumer. Our customers are high income luxury consumers that value quality and experience over price and curation over assortment breadth. We are fortunate to be a leader in a category that has been underserved by digital and is rapidly going online. We have a differentiated value proposition as well as profitable business model that has proven enduring and scalable.
At Mytheresa, we intend to continue to grow profitably by adhering to the following guiding principles:

Mytheresa delivers one of the finest edits in luxury fashion and is the partner of choice for the world’s most coveted luxury brands.    We believe our curated assortment makes us the preferred luxury destination for our customers. We assort the most coveted luxury brands and, from those brands, the most differentiated, relevant and luxurious pieces. We have a rich, 30-year heritage of working with more than 200 of these coveted brands, who trust us and often provide us access to exclusive products and collections. Our longstanding brand relationships include Alexander McQueen, Balenciaga, Balmain, Bottega Veneta, Burberry, Dries van Noten, Dolce & Gabbana, Fendi, Gucci, Loewe, Loro Piana, Moncler, Prada, Saint Laurent, Stella McCartney, and Valentino. We offer these leading luxury brands visibility to a highly valuable audience, aggregated customer and trend insights across multiple brands and categories and most importantly, control over brand image and pricing integrity.

Mytheresa offers a true luxury experience to a global customer base.    Mytheresa is a digital platform that allows our customers to shop on our sites anytime, anywhere. We create personalized digital experiences centered around our exclusive product. Our localized websites, which are available in eight languages and eight currencies, and our global in-house logistics capabilities provide the fast, efficient and frictionless shopping experience our global customers demand. Our personal shopping team members are available to serve our top customers 24 hours a day, seven days a week and in eight languages. We enhance our relationships with our top customers through once-in-a-lifetime events. In fiscal 2020, we offered 13 once-in-a-lifetime experiences, including events in Paris, Milan, Munich, Shanghai, Dubai and New York, featuring Moncler, Altuzarra, Boyy, Paco Rabanne, Gabriela Hearst, Stella McCartney, JW Anderson, Roger Vivier, Khaite, and Amina Muaddi. At almost all of these events our top customers had the opportunity to meet the designers themselves. One of the highlight collaborations in fiscal 2020 was the celebration of our exclusive capsule collection with Stella McCartney, which featured Stella McCartney herself as a Mytheresa Woman in an exclusive video campaign. We also held a physical event in Shanghai during Fashion Week consisting of a talk with students and customers in one of the city’s leading universities, and an intimate dinner at the Cha Maison where we hosted some of our top customers as well as members of the press and key opinion leaders. Stella McCartney herself was present at each of these events.

Mytheresa is at the beginning of its journey.    In fiscal 2020, we surpassed 486,000 active customers, generated €449.5 million in net sales and shipped over 1,092,000 orders to 133 countries. We achieved this scale and growth while maintaining our commitment to luxury with industry-leading average order values and robust and consistent customer economics, despite a difficult environment. We are building on our strong presence in women’s by entering new categories. We launched Mytheresa Kids in January 2019 and are pleased with the results in its first year. In January 2020, we launched Mytheresa Men with more than 100 curated brands to target the modern, affluent man.
I am proud to lead a team of experts in luxury, digital and service operations who are passionate about delivering an unparalleled personalized digital luxury shopping experience to discerning customers around the globe. We aim to exceed expectations for our customers, employees, stakeholders, and ultimately our investors. Welcome to Mytheresa.
Michael Kliger
Chief Executive Officer
 
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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY
This summary highlights information contained elsewhere in this prospectus. This summary does not contain all of the information you should consider before investing in the ADSs. Before you decide to invest in the ADSs, you should read the entire prospectus carefully, including the section entitled “Risk Factors” and the consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus.
Mytheresa
Our Vision
We aim to deliver an unparalleled personalized digital luxury shopping experience to discerning customers around the globe and inspire their loyalty through elevated curation, exclusive offerings, differentiated content and exceptional service.
Overview
Mytheresa is a leading luxury e-commerce platform for the global luxury fashion consumer. We offer one of the finest edits in luxury, curated from more than 200 of the world’s most coveted brands and presented through a customer-first, digital experience. Our story began over three decades ago with the opening of Theresa, in Munich, one of the first multi-brand luxury boutiques in Germany. Mytheresa, which launched online in 2006, represented 97% of net sales and reached customers in 133 countries in fiscal 2020. We provide our customers a highly curated selection of products, access to exclusive capsule collections, in-house produced content, memorable service and a personalized shopping experience. Our more than 30 years of market insights and long-standing relationships with the world’s leading luxury brands have established Mytheresa as a global authority in luxury fashion.
We acquire and retain customers who are predominantly working professionals with significant spending power and limited time, shop frequently, seek luxury products that are not easily found elsewhere and demand superior customer service. These customers are high income luxury consumers that value quality over price and curation over assortment breadth. To reward and engage our most valued customers, we offer a tiered Top Customer program: Inner Circle and Front Row. In fiscal 2020, members of our Top Customer program, on average, purchased from us 16 times, with an average order value in excess of €935. In fiscal 2020, we generated approximately 30% of our gross sales from the 2.6% of our customers who were part of the Top Customer program. This program offers a range of benefits, such as first access to runway and exclusive pieces, previews of new season styles, personal shopping services and invitations to exclusive events and fashion shows as well as other once-in-a-lifetime experiences. The exclusive events, collections and campaigns that we create with our luxury brand partners highlight the innovation and creativity we bring to the luxury fashion world, underpin the strong relationships we have with these brands, and enable us to deepen connections with our most valued customers.
We have longstanding relationships with the world’s most iconic luxury brands, including Alexander McQueen, Balenciaga, Balmain, Bottega Veneta, Burberry, Dries van Noten, Dolce & Gabbana, Fendi, Gucci, Loewe, Loro Piana, Moncler, Prada, Saint Laurent, Stella McCartney and Valentino. In fiscal 2020, our average order value was €600, one of the highest in the industry, and we generated approximately 68% of our net sales from our top 30 brands, reflecting our commitment to true luxury. We curate the most coveted luxury brands, and within those brands, the most on-trend and luxurious pieces. We use a combination of luxury fashion expertise and data insights to optimize our product assortment architecture. Since our inception, we have retained 100% of our brand partners, which is a testament to our strong, trusted brand relationships.
Our business model combines technology, luxury fashion and differentiated customer service on a global scale. The simplicity of our mobile-first website and app (“sites”) creates an efficient and user-friendly shopping experience for our time-constrained, global customers. Our sites offer advanced features, including the ability to personalize the customer experience, the option for our customers to personalize products, express checkout processes, and real-time push notification order tracking. We have an efficient, repeatable playbook for localizing the customer experience through local language, currencies, payment methods, shipping services and marketing. In fiscal 2020, we generated approximately 19.8%, 39.8%, 10.3% and 30.2% of net sales from Germany, Europe (excluding Germany), the United States and the rest of world, respectively.
 
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As of June 30, 2020, our mobile app install base reached approximately 2.6 million. Mobile devices represented 53% of gross merchandise sales and 78% of page views for fiscal 2020, underscoring the importance of our mobile-first approach.
We have rapidly scaled our global customer base and net sales over the past four years, while maintaining our high average order values.
[MISSING IMAGE: tm2035491d1-bc_overviewbw.jpg]
(1)
Fiscal 2016 and fiscal 2017 net sales were calculated on a basis consistent with the recognition and measurement principles stated in our consolidated financial statements. Fiscal 2018, fiscal 2019, and fiscal 2020 are prepared in accordance with IFRS.
From fiscal 2019 to fiscal 2020, we grew our active customers 21.7% to 486,000 customers. In fiscal 2020, we reported €449.5 million in net sales, representing growth of 18.6% from fiscal 2019. From September 30, 2019 to September 30, 2020, we grew our active customers 24.3% to 522,000 customers. In the three months ended September 30, 2020, we reported €126.4 million in net sales, representing growth of 27.5% from the three months ended September 30, 2019.
[MISSING IMAGE: tm2035491d1-bc_fiscalbw.jpg]
In fiscal 2020, we reported net income of €6.4 million compared to €1.7 million during fiscal 2019. In fiscal 2020, we reported Adjusted Net Income of €19.3 million, representing an improvement from €15.8 million in fiscal 2019. Additionally, in fiscal 2020, we generated €27.5 million of Adjusted Operating Income and €35.4 million of Adjusted EBITDA, representing year over year growth of €4.7 million and €4.9 million, respectively.
During the three months ended September 30, 2020, we reported net income of €9.6 million compared to a net loss of €4.3 million during the three months ended September 30, 2019. For the three months ended September 30, 2020, we reported Adjusted Net Income of €5.4 million, representing an increase from €3.5 million for the three months ended September 30, 2019. Additionally, during the three months ended September 30, 2020, we generated €8.4 million of Adjusted Operating Income and €10.4 million of Adjusted EBITDA, representing year over year growth of €5.9 million and €6.1 million, respectively.
Adjusted Net Income, Adjusted Operating Income and Adjusted EBITDA are measures that are not defined in IFRS. For further information about how we calculate Adjusted Net Income, Adjusted Operating Income and Adjusted EBITDA, limitations of their use and their reconciliations to the most comparable IFRS measures, see “Summary Consolidated Financial and Operating Data—Other Financial and Operating Data.
Our Industry
We operate at the intersection of luxury fashion, technology and service. Online personal luxury goods is a large and rapidly growing market, and we believe we are uniquely positioned to capture market share as a result of our exclusive, highly curated product assortment, leading service offering and advanced technology.
 
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Online Luxury Market is Expected to More Than Triple
The global online luxury market, inclusive of luxury apparel, accessories, beauty and hard goods, is expected to more than triple from €33 billion in 2019 to €105 - €115 billion in 2025, according to Bain & Company’s Luxury Goods Worldwide Market Study (November 2020) (the “2020 Bain Study”). Based on the 2020 Bain Study, the personal luxury goods market is expected to reach €330 to €370 billion by 2025, with online penetration expected to grow from 12% to over 30% from 2019 to 2025. We believe luxury is one of the last attractive categories to expand online and is relatively underpenetrated compared to traditional apparel and footwear.
The online personal luxury goods market is global with the Americas, Europe, and rest of world (including Asia) representing 30%, 31%, and 39%, respectively, of the market in 2019 according to the 2020 Bain Study. Consumers generally approach the market in a borderless manner, often purchasing luxury goods across multiple continents, seeking an elevated shopping experience and anytime access wherever their travels take them.
Online Multi-Brand Retail Taking Market Share
Global online luxury multi-brand retailers and online marketplaces are gaining market share over incumbent players, including department stores and luxury retailer’s websites, according to Bain & Company’s 2019 Worldwide Luxury Market Monitor (November 2019) (the “2019 Bain Study”). The online luxury retail market is highly fragmented, characterized by primarily regional department stores and boutiques, online marketplaces and only a limited number of global multi-brand retailers. We believe that global multi-branded online retail is a more compelling model than marketplaces for both consumers and brands: for consumers due to the desire for well-curated assortments offering a clear point of view that allows discovery as well as efficient product selection, and for brands to whom multi-brand retailers offer access to attractive customers, and most importantly, more control over brand image and pricing integrity. Additionally, online multi-brand retailers complement the brands’ own direct-to-consumer efforts with cross-category and cross-brand customer insights as well as the ability to ensure brands are presented consistently with the brand’s desired positioning.
Wealthiest Consumers are Driving Growth and Resilient Demand
The global luxury market continues to be driven by the growth of high net worth individuals (“HNWIs”), individuals with greater than $1 million in investable assets, a key and highly coveted customer demographic with large luxury spend. The wealth of HNWIs has increased at a CAGR of 7% from 2012 to 2019, reaching $74 trillion as of 2019, and is expected to exceed $100 trillion by 2025, according to the World Wealth Report 2019 and the World Wealth Report 2020 from Capgemini (the “Capgemini Reports”). According to the same studies, the global HNWIs population has more than doubled since 2008, reaching approximately 20 million individuals globally as of 2019. According to the 2019 Bain Study, ultra-high net worth individuals, individuals with over $30 million in net worth, represent approximately 30% of personal luxury goods market.
Luxury Brands Demand First-Class Service and Brand Protection
Luxury brands value brand image, pricing integrity and the perception of scarcity across their product portfolios. They are highly selective and seek retail partners who increase their visibility to the most affluent luxury consumers while adhering to these core values. Luxury brands are selective with whom they work, terminating relationships, especially with online retailers, if standards are not upheld. These brands only partner with online retailers who have full control over all aspects of the shopping experience and deliver exceptional service to protect and enhance their brand integrity.
The Luxury Consumer
The luxury market is comprised of several types of consumers, each with their own lifestyle, income and spending characteristics:

The intermittent luxury fashion consumer loves and follows fashion and saves for iconic pieces, which he or she buys occasionally.
 
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The everyday luxury fashion enthusiast has a passion for fashion, is typically a working professional who earns his or her own income and is often time-constrained. This consumer regularly invests in statement pieces and fashion items for special occasions.

The top luxury consumer leads a “jet-set” global lifestyle, has significant wealth, and is willing to spend a significant amount on luxury goods to stay ahead of the latest fashion trends. This consumer prefers newness, shops ready-to-wear clothing season after season, and demands a superior shopping experience, high-touch service and quick shipping. This consumer is a high-frequency shopper, making purchases several times a week or even daily and spends an average of €39,000 per year on personal and experiential luxury, according to third party research.
We target everyday luxury fashion enthusiasts and top luxury consumers as we believe these customers are the most loyal, value our differentiated service and represent the largest wallet share potential.
Differentiated Value Proposition of Mytheresa for Customers and Brand Partners
Mytheresa provides a vibrant shopping experience that brings together hundreds of thousands of luxury consumers with the world’s most exclusive brands. This creates a flywheel effect, attracting new customers and enhancing brand relationships, as illustrated below.
[MISSING IMAGE: tm2035491d1-ph_theresa4clr.jpg]
Our Value Proposition to Customers
Trusted discovery platform and curated assortment of the most coveted luxury brands.    We provide customers with one of the finest edits of the most coveted luxury brands. For example, of the over 7,000 stock-keeping units (“SKUs”) we curate from our top 30 selling luxury designer brands, less than 21% of those items overlapped with our multi-brand competitors as of December 2019 according to an ongoing internal pricing analysis comparison. Our content and brand stories, which are produced 100% in-house, inspire our customer and are integral to Mytheresa’s reputation as a trusted fashion authority for discovery. Our highly curated edit of luxury fashion is core to our DNA and allows us to translate fashion from the runway to the wardrobes of our customers. We encourage daily discovery through our “New Arrivals” section on our sites, as well as real-time product recommendations and inspirational content. For members of our Top Customer program we take our curation to a deeper level with personal shoppers, who know each customer’s specific fashion
 
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aesthetic and will recommend pieces via the preferred communication channel of the customer (phone, email, text message or other messaging platforms), or in some cases, hosting personal styling appointments.
Exclusive access to capsule collections.    Our deeply entrenched and long-term relationships with the most coveted luxury brands allow us to provide unique offerings to our customers, including exclusive capsule collections, product personalization and first access through exclusive pre-launches. For example, we were the first luxury retailer to launch Gucci’s DIY (“Do-It-Yourself”) service online by offering our customers the opportunity to personalize Ace leather sneakers, before this feature was even launched on Gucci.com. In fiscal 2020, we produced 37 capsules and campaigns with exclusive content from brands including Brunello Cucinelli, Christian Louboutin, Moncler, Prada, The Row, and Valentino.
Superior service drives differentiated shopping experience.    We are dedicated to providing our customers with superior service throughout their shopping experience and believe this sets us apart from our competitors. We have team members who are available to serve our customers 24 hours per day, seven days a week and in eight languages. Additionally, our localized websites, which are also available in eight languages and eight currencies, and our global in-house logistics capabilities provide the fast, efficient and frictionless shopping experience our global customers demand. We believe customers are loyal to Mytheresa because we provide excellent service every time they interact with us. Our emphasis on exceptional service is inherent throughout all customer touchpoints, including our sites, customer care, delivery and global personal shopping team. For example, we provide customers with personalized product recommendations, last-minute deliveries, and hand-signed notes with our delivered products to personally connect and provide the high-touch service our customers enjoy. Our customer satisfaction with our service and experience is evidenced by our best-in-class net promoter score (“NPS”) of 83, which is an annualized average of weekly measurements conducted by us in fiscal 2020. Through our distribution and fulfillment capabilities, we offer fast shipping to our customers in metropolitan areas globally in less than 72 hours, with one to two days shipping service in all of Europe where express shipping is available. Our customer service teams are experts in working with luxury customers. We received approximately 5,500 calls per week, on average, during fiscal 2020, with approximately 91% of calls answered within 20 seconds and email inquiries resolved within 36 hours, on average.
Special brand experiences for our top customers.    In fiscal 2020, we offered 13 once-in-a-lifetime experiences. For example, we hosted private parties in Cannes and Dubai to celebrate the launches of exclusive capsule collections with Gianvito Rossi and Roger Vivier, respectively. We have also hosted numerous other events in Paris, New York, Milan, Munich, and Shanghai featuring Moncler, Altuzarra, Boyy, Paco Rabanne, Gabriela Hearst, Stella McCartney, JW Anderson, Khaite, and Amina Muaddi. These events and brand experiences provide our top customers with “money-can’t-buy” experiences, including the opportunity to meet the designers personally, while also inspiring our worldwide customer base through social media and our content.
Our Value Proposition to Brand Partners
Online Visibility to Highly Coveted Global Luxury Customers.   In addition to brands appearing on our sites, we create exclusive experiences and collections that provide additional opportunities to engage with our customers and social media followers. For example, the event in Shanghai with Stella McCartney to celebrate the launch of an 11-piece exclusive capsule collection in October 2019 generated approximately 35 million social media impressions and extensive press coverage with over 200 press and social media articles.
Innovative and Engaging Content Across Media Formats.   We produce 100% proprietary content in-house across different media formats including films, music videos, games, magazines and photography shoots on behalf of, and in partnership with, our brand partners. We place this content across our consumer touchpoints, including our home page, app, mobile first newsletter, paid formats and social media that includes our own managed platforms ranging from Instagram and Pinterest to Weibo and WeChat. We take a product-focused and experiential approach to content creation, which has differentiated and strengthened our longstanding relationships with some of the world’s leading luxury brands. Our highly stylized production showcases our brand partners’ products at their best, and our brand partners often promote our content and edits on their own social media accounts. We also regularly achieve extensive global publicity for our brand partners and ourselves through features and exclusive stories, as well as through our approximately 2.3 million followers, as of September 30, 2020, across social media platforms.
 
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Established Reputation for Being Trusted Brand Stewards and Maintaining Brand Integrity.   We are viewed as an integral global partner and have consistently been recognized as such by leading luxury brands including Alexander McQueen, Balenciaga, Balmain, Bottega Veneta, Burberry, Dries van Noten, Dolce & Gabbana, Fendi, Gucci, Loewe, Loro Piana, Moncler, Prada, Saint Laurent, Stella McCartney, Valentino, and many more. Our focus only on the most valuable luxury customers, our ability to deliver a superior service experience and our strong full price sell-through highlight our commitment to maintaining brand integrity for our brand partners.
Data-Driven Analytics and Customer Insights.    We have developed significant data capabilities and insights across our platform. We regularly provide our brand partners with detailed aggregated data, analysis, and customer insights on metrics such as product performance, spending and trend patterns, brand affinity, product adjacencies, subcategory penetrations and geographic reach.
Our Competitive Strengths
We attribute our market success, rapid growth and strong profitability to the following competitive strengths:
Customer-First Approach with Deep Understanding and Analytical Insight.    We target, acquire and retain the most valuable luxury customers by pairing superior service with advanced technology. Our deep understanding of our customers enables us to provide a shopping experience tailored to them and drive loyalty. Our customer is time-constrained, requires efficient, personalized service, and favors our easy-to-use sites. Unlike online fashion marketplaces where customers go to price compare common luxury SKUs, we believe our customers shop our platform for discovery and access to exclusive products they cannot find elsewhere. To assist this shopping experience, we have invested in a robust technology platform that allows us to analyze data to produce actionable insights that we use to identify customers and personalize our site, emails, and brand recommendations for them. Our data-driven technology platform is integral to our merchandising and marketing functions and enables us to consistently deliver a superior shopping experience to several hundred thousand customers across 133 countries. A key component of our customer experience is a mobile and app-first approach. In fiscal 2020, mobile orders accounted for 53% of our net sales, of which 42% were app orders, and approximately 78% of page views were generated via mobile app, tablet, and mobile phone. We combine data-driven customer insights, decades of thought-leadership in fashion, and exceptional customer service to deliver an unparalleled customer experience.
Our Curated Product Assortment Offers One of The Finest Edits In Luxury Fashion.    We believe our curated assortment is the preferred platform for customers and brands compared to department stores, marketplaces and other online players. We offer leading luxury brands visibility to a highly valuable audience, customer trend insights across multiple brands and categories, and most importantly, more control over brand image and pricing integrity. We assort the most coveted brands and, from those brands, the most differentiated, relevant and luxurious pieces. Our edit features a meticulously curated, elevated assortment of luxury products that we display in an attractive way across our sites and content. Our platform facilitates discovery through personalized recommendations and convenient comparison features. Through our deep understanding of our customers’ needs, we are able to buy an optimal selection of curated inventory to consistently turn inventory with a high full price sell-through.
Highly Loyal and Engaged Global Luxury Customer Base.    We have deep relationships with a growing number of dedicated luxury and highly coveted, high net worth customers. In fiscal 2020, our average customer shopped approximately twice per year and spent approximately €900 with us, before returns. We have grown our active customer base at a 29.7% CAGR since fiscal 2016, with 65.6% of net sales in fiscal 2020 coming from existing customers. To reward and engage our most valued customers, we offer a tiered Top Customer program: Inner Circle and Front Row. In fiscal 2020, members of our Top Customer program, on average, purchased from us 16 times, with an average order value in excess of €935. Our emphasis on targeting and serving these top customers resulted in the top 2.6% of our customers accounting for approximately 30% of our gross sales in fiscal 2020. Given our value proposition, high average order value, and strong customer loyalty, we achieved a 2.6x 4-year LTV to CAC ratio for the 2016 cohort, which demonstrates the effectiveness of our marketing spend and long-term profitability of our business model. Further, once a customer commits to our platform, they spend more over time, as evidenced by our 80% net sales retention from prior year
 
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cohorts and our approximately 98% net sales retention for cohorts who have been with us for more than two fiscal years, representing our ability to retain customers and to increase active customers’ spend and frequency, in fiscal 2020.
Partner of Choice for the World’s Most Coveted Luxury Brands.    We have a rich, 30-year heritage of working with more than 200 of the most coveted luxury brands, who trust us for our commitment to full-price integrity, appreciate our innovative approach to targeting digital luxury consumers, and often provide us access to exclusive products and collections. Our brand partners include Alexander McQueen, Balenciaga, Balmain, Bottega Veneta, Burberry, Dries van Noten, Dolce & Gabbana, Fendi, Gucci, Loewe, Loro Piana, Moncler, Prada, Saint Laurent, Stella McCartney, Valentino, and many more. In fiscal 2020, we featured 37 exclusive capsule collections and campaigns from preeminent designers including Brunello Cucinelli, Christian Louboutin, Moncler, Prada, The Row and Valentino. This represents an increase from the one exclusive capsule collection we offered in fiscal 2015. Our average tenure with our top 30 brands is more than 10 years and we have retained 100% of our brand partners since our founding. This underscores the strength of our relationships and differentiates Mytheresa as one of the select online retailers that luxury brands prefer to partner with. Additionally, our top 30 brands’ share of overall net sales has remained stable as we have scaled the business.
Combination of Growth and Profitability with Attractive and Sustainable Unit Economics.    As a result of our top-of-funnel brand campaigns and our sophisticated performance marketing efforts, we acquire customers efficiently and profitably and attract high quality customers who have a high propensity to repeat. As we have scaled our customers and net sales, we have improved profitability through our commitment to price integrity, yielding a stable gross margin, as well as efficient marketing and leveraging of our fixed cost basis. Additionally, through improved attribution systems and investments in our marketing techniques, we decreased our customer acquisition costs from €226 in fiscal 2018 to €173 in fiscal 2020, a trend we believe is rare in our industry. In fiscal 2020, we grew our active customers 21.5%, while keeping our gross margin stable and successfully leveraging our shipping, marketing and administrative costs, and maintaining a stable operating income margin and Adjusted EBITDA margin of approximately 5% and 8%, respectively.
Experienced and Proven Management Team Combining Expertise From Luxury and Digital Worlds.    Our team is led by our Chief Executive Officer, Michael Kliger, who joined Mytheresa in 2015 from eBay Enterprise where he was a Vice President for all of Europe and Asia Pacific. His deep customer knowledge across geographies has helped accelerate growth and enhance profitability. Michael is complemented by our experienced senior management team with industry-leading expertise across luxury, technology and e-commerce operations. The business verticals are led by Dr. Martin Beer (Chief Financial Officer), Sebastian Dietzmann (Chief Operating Officer), Isabel May (Chief Customer Experience Officer), Gareth Locke (Chief Growth Officer) and Richard Johnson (Chief Commercial Officer). Like our customers, we are diverse, with employees representing more than 77 nationalities and 64% of whom were women as of September 30, 2020. Our culture is collaborative, confident, creative, accountable, performance driven and dedicated to delivering our customers the best digital experience and service in luxury.
Growth Strategies
We plan to drive our market leadership, growth and profitability through the following strategies:
Profitably Acquire New Customers.    We will focus our efforts on reaching the world’s most affluent luxury consumers. We believe we are less than 1.5% penetrated in the online personal luxury goods category. Given the strong projected growth of the luxury market, we believe we have a significant opportunity to expand our customer base in both our existing and new markets. We expect to attract new customers in all geographies including Europe, as well as the United States and Asia. Our demonstrated playbook for localizing new geographies is efficient, effective and repeatable. We leverage localized social media content and influencers, curation, languages and events to bring the Mytheresa brand to new markets. We believe our exclusive aspirational content and events resonate globally, providing a scalable marketing engine to efficiently acquire new customers across geographies. Through our more than 2.3 million followers as of September 30, 2020, across social media platforms and our luxury influencer relationships, we believe we will continue to reach new customers and raise brand awareness globally through this low cost medium. We intend to augment our core performance marketing strategy by pursuing in-app advertising, further optimizing bidding rules for paid
 
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search engines, scaling organic search content in several additional languages, introducing a new customer acquisition model, and accelerating social media channel growth.
Continue to Expand Share of Wallet and Retention for Existing Customer Base.    We plan to deepen our existing customer relationships to improve our strong revenue retention and increase our wallet share with customers. We believe we can increase purchase frequency and spend by improving our customer experience, Top Customer program and brand relationships. We will enhance our customer experience by continuing to refine our customer analytics, increasing personalization and product recommendations, improving the mobile experience and providing additional opportunities to pre-order exclusive products as well as expanding our team of personal shoppers across the globe. We will make selective improvements to our Top Customer program offerings and localization as we continue to expand globally. To supplement our top-tier offering for our most valued customers, we will continue to partner with brands to host our exclusive events while also improving service levels in key geographies through local support staff and distribution capability enhancements.
Access New Complementary Customer Categories.    We plan to increase our share of customer and household wallet share as well as attract new customers globally by investing in new categories to complement our strong women’s business.
Expand wallet share with the recent launch of Mytheresa Kids.    In January 2019, we officially launched our kidswear offering with 35 brands which we have now grown to an offering of 50 brands. Given the significant proportion of our top customers who have children and are looking to purchase luxury kidswear, many of our top brands such as Balmain, Burberry, Chloe, Dolce & Gabbana, Golden Goose, Gucci, Moncler, and Stella McCartney have collaborated with us on our launch of Mytheresa Kids. As many of our luxury brands continue to introduce separate kidswear lines, we have also been able to add kidswear even for brands like Loro Piana and Brunello Cucinelli recently. Like we do with womenswear we have also been able to introduce exclusive kidswear items only available at Mytheresa with brands like Dolce & Gabbana, Moncler, and Brunello Cucinelli in the last months. Our unique focus on luxury and our famous curation unlocks incremental wallet share from our customers who already know and trust our curated offering and wish to also purchase luxury products for the children in their lives. While 75% of kidswear items have been bought by existing customers, 25% of purchases have been by customers that have discovered Mytheresa through our luxury kidswear offering which presents an opportunity for additional growth. In a short time we have managed to become a significant player in the global luxury kidswear market. The synergies with our existing business are also evidenced by an average basket size with at least one kidswear item of approximately €392. This strengthens, of course, the unit economics of our kidswear offering.
Attract new customers through the recent launch of Mytheresa Men.    We launched Mytheresa Men in January 2020 with more than 100 curated brands to target the modern, affluent man with a curated, inspiring product offering reflecting the zeitgeist in men’s fashion. Our ambition is to become the global opinion leader and leading luxury online destination for luxury menswear. Our positioning is the white space between time-honored luxury and the post-streetwear era. We have dedicated men’s buying, creative, marketing, communication and merchandising teams to look after this new business. We have received tremendous support from our brand partners as evidenced by the fact that we offered exclusive capsule collections or pre-launches from Prada, Valentino, Thom Browne, Saint Laurent, Brunello Cuccinelli, Tom Ford, Gianvito Rossi, Gucci, and Christian Louboutin in our inaugural menswear seasons. We believe we are in a prime position to become an authority in the evolving menswear space given our ability to define menswear with a new positioning and the relationships we have with our current brand partners who have some of the top luxury menswear lines.
While we initially leveraged our existing site traffic and reputation as a luxury authority to grow our menswear business, we have already seen tremendous success in attracting new buyers through Mytheresa Men, with 44% of all menswear customers in fiscal 2020 consisting of first time Mytheresa customers. We believe that the success of Mytheresa Men since its launch demonstrates its potential to become a source of growth for our overall business and an opportunity to bring new customers to the Mytheresa platform.
Enhance Our Trusted Relationships with the World’s Most Coveted Brands.    We will continue to enhance our value proposition for both customers and brands to attract new high net worth customers globally and further increase our desirability with top brands. We will enhance our brand relationships by providing customer
 
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insights and ensuring that luxury brands come alive for our digital luxury customer through production of exclusive content. We expect to continue to increase our access to exclusive merchandise and capsule collections with the world’s most iconic luxury brands. To this end we are also continually exploring new partnership models with the world’s top luxury brands to provide our customers full access to product ranges and supply levels usually only available to the retail network of brands.
Continue To Innovate and Leverage Use of Proprietary Data Insights.    We plan to continue to identify ways to leverage our proprietary data to optimize the Mytheresa experience for both our customers and our brand partners. In addition, we plan to continue innovating and investing across our user interface, technology platform, supply chain and distribution, and localization capabilities to improve service levels and further enhance and personalize our customer’s experience. Our data helps inform the product assortment architecture which is pivotal in optimizing inventory for both our brand partners and us alike. As we scale, our global data repository grows turning the buying process into a data enhanced science. While we have been able to build our capabilities in house, we will evaluate partnerships, alliances and acquisition opportunities that enable new go-to-market strategies to further our reach and customer loyalty. Additionally, by leveraging advancements in artificial intelligence and machine learning, we will refine our merchandising and marketing capabilities to incorporate visual search capabilities and enhance our size and fit optimization.
Recent Developments
Preliminary Results for the Three Months Ended December 31, 2020 and Six Months Ended December 31, 2020
Our fiscal year begins on July 1 and ends on June 30. We have not yet completed our closing procedures for the second quarter of our fiscal year 2021, which starts on October 1, 2020 and ends on December 31, 2020 or the first half of our fiscal year 2021, which starts on July 1, 2020 and ends on December 31, 2020. We have not included preliminary results for net income as the measurement of our shareholder loans including foreign currency translation and the recognition and measurement of income taxes is not yet available as of the date of the prospectus. Presented below are certain estimated preliminary financial results and key operating metrics for the three months ended December 31, 2020 and the six months ended December 31, 2020.
These ranges are based on the information available to us at this time. We have provided ranges, rather than specific amounts, because these results are preliminary. As such, our actual results may vary from the estimated preliminary results presented here and will not be finalized until after we close this offering in conjunction with the completion of our normal quarter end accounting procedures including the execution of our internal control over financial reporting. These ranges reflect our management’s best estimate of the impact of events during the quarter.
These estimates should not be viewed as a substitute for our full interim or annual financial statements prepared in accordance with IFRS. Accordingly, you should not place undue reliance on these preliminary financial results and key operating metrics. These estimated preliminary results and key operating metrics should be read in conjunction with the “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and “Risk Factors” sections and our historical consolidated financial statements, including the notes thereto, included herein.
Preliminary financial results and key operating metrics included in this prospectus have been prepared by, and is the responsibility of, our management. KPMG AG Wirtschaftsprüfungsgesellschaft has not audited, reviewed, compiled, or applied agreed-upon procedures with respect to the preliminary financial results and key operating metrics. Accordingly, KPMG AG Wirtschaftsprüfungsgesellschaft does not express an opinion or any other form of assurance with respect thereto.
For the three months ended December 31, 2020, we expect our net sales to be between € 156.8 million to €158.8 million, an increase of €38.4 million or 32.2% from the mid-point of the estimated range, compared to €119.4 million for the three months ended December 31, 2019. For the six months ended December 31, 2020, we expect our net sales to be between €283.2 million to €285.2 million, an increase of €65.7 million or 30.1% from the mid-point of the estimated range, compared to €218.5 million for the six months ended December 31, 2019.
 
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For the three months ended December 31, 2020, we expect our gross profit to be between €77.2 million to €78.2 million, an increase of €19.3 million or 33.0% from the mid-point of the estimated range, compared to €58.4 million for the three months ended December 31, 2019. We expect our gross profit margin of net sales to be between 48.9% and 49.2%. This compares to a gross profit margin of net sales of 48.9% for the three months ended December 31, 2019. For the six months ended December 31, 2020, we expect our gross profit to be between €135.9 million to €136.9 million, an increase of €31.6 million or 30.2% from the mid-point of the estimated range, compared to €104.7 million for the six months ended December 31, 2019. We expect our gross profit margin of net sales to be between 47.8% and 48.0%. This compares to a gross profit margin of net sales of 47.9% for the six months ended December 31, 2019.
For the three months ended December 31, 2020, we expect our operating income to be between €15.4 million and €16.4 million. We expect the adjustment of operating income to be between €1.9 million to €2.9 million. For the six months ended December 31, 2020, we expect our operating income to be between €23.6 million to €24.6 million. We expect the adjustment of operating income to be between €2.2 million to €3.2 million.
For the three months ended December 31, 2020, we expect our adjusted operating income to be between €17.3 million to €19.3 million, an increase of €7.5 million or 68.6% from the mid-point of the estimated range, compared to €10.9 million for the three months ended December 31, 2019. We expect our adjusted operating income margin of net sales to be between 11.0% to 12.2%, an increase of 250 BPS from the mid-point of the estimated adjusted operating income margin compared to the adjusted operating income margin of net sales of 9.1% for the three months ended December 31, 2019, primarily due to continued marketing spend effectiveness and cost leverage. For the six months ended December 31, 2020, we expect our adjusted operating income to be between €25.8 million to €27.8 million, an increase of €13.4 million or 100.3% from the mid-point of the estimated range, compared to €13.4 million for the six months ended December 31, 2019. We expect our adjusted operating income margin of net sales to be between 9.1% to 9.7%, an increase of 330 BPS from the mid-point of the estimated adjusted operating income margin compared to the adjusted operating income margin of net sales of 6.1% for the six months ended December 31, 2019, primarily due to continued marketing spend effectiveness and cost leverage.
For the twelve months ended December 31, 2020, we expect our active customers to be between 568.0 thousand and 568.5 thousand. This is an increase of 28% compared to the twelve months ended December 31, 2019.
As more fully described in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations”, we grew our operating income by a significant increase in net sales as a result of an increase in total orders shipped together with an increase in active customers, and an increase in gross profit, while continuing the trend of a decrease in our expenses.
The following table sets forth our preliminary financial results and key operating metrics for the periods presented:
Three Months Ended
Six Months Ended
December 31, 2019
December 31, 2020
(estimated)
December 31, 2019
December 31, 2020
(estimated)
(in millions) (unaudited)
Actual
Low
High
Actual
Low
High
Net sales
119.4 156.8 158.8 218.5 283.2 285.2
Gross profit
58.4 77.2 78.2 104.7 135.9 136.9
Gross profit margin(1)
48.9% 48.9% 49.2% 47.9% 47.8% 48.0%
Operating income
7.4 15.4 16.4 8.9 23.6 24.6
Adjusted Operating Income(2)
10.9 17.3 19.3 13.4 25.8 27.8
Adjusted Operating Income margin(1)
9.1% 11.0% 12.2% 6.1% 9.1% 9.7%
Active customer (LTM in thousands)
444.1 568.0 568.5 444.1 568.0 568.5
(1)
As a percentage of net sales.
 
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(2)
Adjusted Operating Income is a measure not defined under IFRS. For further information about how we calculate Adjusted Operating Income and limitations of its use, see “Summary Consolidated Financial and Operating Data — Other Financial and Operating Data.”
The following table sets forth the preliminary reconciliations of operating income to adjusted operating income:
Three Months Ended
Six Months Ended
December 31, 2019
December 31, 2020
(estimated)
December 31, 2019
December 31, 2020
(estimated)
(in millions) (unaudited)
Actual
Low
High
Actual
Low
High
Operating income
7.3 15.4 16.4 8.9 23.6 24.6
U.S. sales tax(1)
0.8 1.7
IPO preparation and transaction
costs(2)
2.7 1.9 2.9 2.7 2.2 3.2
Share-based compensation expense(3)
0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0
Adjusted Operating Income
10.9 17.3 19.3 13.4 25.8 27.8
(1)
Represents expenses related to sales tax liabilities temporarily borne by us through the fourth quarter of fiscal 2020 in the United States. We temporarily incurred sales tax related liabilities on customer purchases in the United States because we were not able to charge our customers for these amounts at the point of sale under our previous IT configuration. Due to upgrades in our IT infrastructure during the fourth quarter of fiscal 2020, we no longer incur these expenses, as we charge the applicable U.S. sales tax directly to our customers.
(2)
Represents non-recurring professional fees, including consulting, legal and accounting fees, related to this offering, which are classified within selling, general and administrative expenses.
(3)
During the three and six months ended December 31, 2019 and 2020, respectively, certain key management personnel received share-based compensation from our ultimate parent. We do not consider these expenses to be indicative of our core operating performance.
Summary Risk Factors
Participating in this offering involves substantial risk. Our ability to execute our strategy is also subject to certain risks. You should carefully consider all of the information set forth in this prospectus and, in particular, should evaluate the specific factors set forth under the heading “Risk Factors” in deciding whether to invest in our securities. These risks include, but are not limited to, the following:

the highly competitive nature of our industry and our ability to compete effectively;

consumers of luxury products may not choose to shop online in sufficient numbers;

the luxury fashion industry can be volatile and difficult to predict;

any current or future health epidemic or other adverse public health development, such as the outbreak of novel coronavirus (“COVID-19”), could result in business disruption, sustained economic downturn, margin pressures and have an material adverse effect on our business and operating results;

our reliance on consumer discretionary spending, which may be adversely affected by economic downturns and other macroeconomic conditions or trends;

our ability to acquire new customers and retain existing customers in a cost-effective manner depends on the success of our advertising efforts;

our ability to maintain average order value levels;

our ability to accurately forecast net sales and appropriately plan our expenses in the future;

our recent growth rates may not be sustainable or indicative of our future growth;

our ability to effectively manage our inventory;

loss of, or disruption in, our only distribution facility;
 
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the imposition or increase of tariffs and the uncertainty regarding international economic relations could adversely affect our business;

changes in customs and international trade laws may result in increased costs which could limit our ability to operate our business and limit our ability to grow;

if sensitive information about our customers is disclosed, or if we or our third-party providers are subject to real or perceived cyberattacks, our customers may curtail use of our sites; and

the loss of senior management or attrition among our buyers or key employees could adversely affect our business.
Enforcement of Civil Liabilities
We are incorporated and currently existing under the laws of the Netherlands. Our registered offices and most of our assets are located outside of the United States. In addition, upon completion of the offering, all of the members of the board of managing directors of MYT Netherlands (the “Management Board”), a majority of the members of the supervisory board of MYT Netherlands (the “Supervisory Board”), other members of our senior management and any experts named herein will be residents of Germany or jurisdictions other than the United States. As a result, it may not be possible for you to effect service of process within the United States upon these individuals or upon us or to enforce judgments obtained in U.S. courts based on the civil liability provisions of the U.S. securities laws against us in the United States.
Awards of punitive damages in actions brought in the United States or elsewhere may not be enforceable in the Netherlands. In addition, actions brought in a Dutch court against MYT Netherlands or the members of our Supervisory Board and Management Board, our senior management and the experts named herein to enforce liabilities based on U.S. federal securities laws may be subject to certain restrictions; in particular, Dutch courts generally do not award punitive damages. An award for monetary damages under the U.S. securities laws would be considered punitive if it does not seek to compensate the claimant for loss or damage suffered and is intended to punish the defendant. The enforceability of any judgment in the Netherlands will depend on the particular facts of the case as well as the laws and treaties in effect at the time.
Litigation in the Netherlands is also subject to rules of procedure that differ from the U.S. rules, including with respect to the taking and admissibility of evidence, the conduct of the proceedings and the allocation of costs. Proceedings in the Netherlands are typically conducted in the Dutch language, and all documents submitted to the court would, in principle, have to be translated into Dutch. Evidentiary documents may be submitted in the English, French or German language, although courts in the Netherlands may request translations. Accordingly, it may be difficult for a U.S. investor to bring an original action in a Dutch court predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the U.S. federal securities laws against us, certain members of our Management and Supervisory Boards and senior management and the experts named in this prospectus. The United States and the Netherlands do not currently have a treaty providing for recognition and enforcement of judgments (other than the multi-party treaty with respect to arbitration awards) in civil and commercial matters, though recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments in the Netherlands is possible in accordance with applicable Dutch laws. Even if a judgment against our company, the members of our Management Board, Supervisory Board, senior management or the experts named in this prospectus based on the civil liability provisions of the U.S. federal securities laws is obtained, a U.S. investor may not be able to enforce it in U.S. or Dutch courts. See “Enforcement of Civil Liabilities.”
Share Split
We effected a 70,190.687 for one share split on January 12, 2021. All share and per share amounts presented in this prospectus gives effect to such share split of our ordinary shares.
Corporate Information
MYT Netherlands was incorporated on May 31, 2019 as a private company with limited liability under the laws of the Netherlands (besloten vennootschap met beperkte aansprakelijkheid). Subsequently from June through August 2019, NMG Parent, through a series of transactions, contributed 100% of the equity interests in MGG and its subsidiaries to the predecessor of MYT Holding, which in turn, contributed such interests to
 
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MYT Netherlands, whereby MYT Netherlands became the direct parent of MGG. As of September 7, 2020, MYT Netherlands has its place of effective management in Aschheim, Germany. We will take the position that MYT Netherlands is a tax resident of Germany under German law. For further discussion, see “Risk Factors—Risks Related to ADSs and this Offering—One or more taxing authorities could challenge the tax residency of MYT Netherlands, and if such challenge were to be successful, we could be subject to increased and/or different taxes than we expect.”
Our principal executive offices are located at Einsteinring 9, 85609 Aschheim/Munich, Germany. Our telephone number is +49 89 127695-614. Our website address is www.mytheresa.com. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus. We have included our website address as an inactive textual reference only.
The Reorganization Transactions
We have historically conducted our business through MGG and its subsidiaries. MGG was incorporated on March 18, 2014 as Blitz 14-88 GmbH, a German limited liability company (Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung). We changed its name to NMG Germany GmbH pursuant to a shareholder’s resolution dated September 10, 2014, which was registered with the commercial register on October 2, 2014. In 2010, Acton Capital Partners acquired a minority stake in Mytheresa through its wholly owned subsidiary, Acton GmbH & Co. Heureka KG and in October 2014, Neiman Marcus Group Ltd LLC (“Neiman Marcus Group”) acquired 100% of the equity interests in MGG through its wholly owned subsidiary, NMG International LLC (“NMG International”). In September 2018, substantially all of the holdings of NMG International, which consisted principally of the entities through which we conducted the operations of Mytheresa, were distributed up to the indirect parent of Neiman Marcus Group, then known as Neiman Marcus Group, Inc. (“NMG Parent”) (the “Distribution”). NMG Parent subsequently contributed 100% of the equity interests in MGG and its subsidiaries to the predecessor of MYT Holding, which in turn, contributed such interests to MYT Netherlands, whereby MYT Netherlands became the direct parent of MGG in July 2019. As a result of the Distribution, the Mytheresa entities were no longer subsidiaries of Neiman Marcus Group but rather subsidiaries of NMG Parent. We changed the name of NMG Germany GmbH to Mytheresa Group GmbH pursuant to a shareholder’s resolution dated, September 3, 2020, which was registered with the commercial register on September 15, 2020.
In May 2020, Neiman Marcus Group filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in the United State Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of Texas. On September 25, 2020, the holding company structure for MYT Netherlands underwent a restructuring in settlement of all outstanding claims associated with the Neiman Marcus Group bankruptcy and the Distribution, and MYT Netherlands became a wholly owned subsidiary of MYT Holding (the “Reorganization Transactions”). See “Matters Related to Our Current and Former Parent Entities—Neiman Marcus Group Bankruptcy.
MYT Holding controls a majority of the voting power of our ordinary shares, and we will thus be a “controlled company” under the NYSE corporate governance requirements. MYT Holding will exercise control over all matters requiring approval by our shareholders, including the appointment and removal of the members of our Supervisory Board. See “Risk Factors—Risks Related to ADSs and this Offering—MYT Holding controls the direction of our business, and MYT Holding’s concentrated ownership of our capital stock will prevent you and other shareholders from influencing significant decisions.”
Implications of Being an “Emerging Growth Company” and a “Foreign Private Issuer”
Emerging Growth Company
We are an “emerging growth company” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 (the “JOBS Act”). As such, we are eligible, for up to five years, to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other publicly traded entities that are not emerging growth companies. These exemptions include:

the ability to include only two years of audited financial statements and only two years of related Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations disclosure
 
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(although we have chosen not to avail ourselves of such exemption and have included three years of audited financial statements in this registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part);

exemptions from the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as amended (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”), in the assessment of our internal control over financial reporting;

to the extent that we no longer qualify as a foreign private issuer, (i) reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements and (ii) exemptions from the requirement to hold a non-binding advisory vote on executive compensation, including golden parachute compensation; and

not being required to comply with any requirement that has or may be adopted by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board regarding mandatory audit firm rotation or a supplement to the auditor’s report providing additional information about the audit and the financial statements.
We may take advantage of these provisions until the last day of our fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the consummation of this offering or such earlier time that we are no longer an emerging growth company. As a result, the information contained in this prospectus may be different from the information you receive from other public companies in which you hold shares. We do not know if some investors will find the ADSs less attractive because we may rely on these exemptions. The result may be a less active trading market for the ADSs, and the price of the ADSs may become more volatile.
We will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest of: (1) the last day of the first fiscal year in which our annual gross revenue exceeds $1.07 billion; (2) the last day of the fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the date of this offering; (3) the date that we become a “large accelerated filer” as defined in Rule 12b-2 under the Exchange Act, which would occur if the market value of the ADSs that is held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of the last business day of our most recently completed second fiscal quarter; or (4) the date on which we have issued more than $1.00 billion in non-convertible debt securities during any three-year period.
Section 107 of the JOBS Act also provides that an emerging growth company can take advantage of the extended transition period provided in Section 13(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), for complying with new or revised accounting standards. Given that we currently report and expect to continue to report under IFRS as issued by the IASB, we have irrevocably elected not to avail ourselves of this extended transition period and, as a result, we will adopt new or revised accounting standards on the relevant dates on which adoption of such standards is required by the IASB. Under federal securities laws, our decision to opt out of the extended transition period is irrevocable.
Foreign Private Issuer
Upon consummation of this offering, we will report under the Exchange Act as a non-U.S. company with foreign private issuer status. Even after we no longer qualify as an emerging growth company, as long as we qualify as a foreign private issuer under the Exchange Act, we will be exempt from certain provisions of the Exchange Act that are applicable to U.S. domestic public companies, including:

the rules under the Exchange Act requiring domestic filers to issue financial statements prepared under U.S. GAAP;

the sections of the Exchange Act regulating the solicitation of proxies, consents or authorizations in respect of a security registered under the Exchange Act;

the sections of the Exchange Act requiring insiders to file public reports of their stock ownership and trading activities and liability for insiders who profit from trades made in a short period of time; and

the rules under the Exchange Act requiring the filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) of quarterly reports on Form 10-Q containing unaudited financial and other specific information, or current reports on Form 8-K, upon the occurrence of specified significant events.
Notwithstanding these exemptions, we will file with the SEC, within four months after the end of each fiscal year, or such applicable time as required by the SEC, an annual report on Form 20-F containing financial statements audited by an independent registered public accounting firm.
 
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We may take advantage of these exemptions until such time as we are no longer a foreign private issuer. We would cease to be a foreign private issuer at such time as more than 50% of our outstanding voting securities are held by U.S. residents and any of the following three circumstances applies: (i) the majority of our executive officers or members of our Supervisory Board are U.S. citizens or residents, (ii) more than 50% of our assets are located in the United States, or (iii) our business is administered principally in the United States.
Both foreign private issuers and emerging growth companies are also exempt from certain more extensive executive compensation disclosure rules. Thus, even if we no longer qualify as an emerging growth company, but remain a foreign private issuer, we will continue to be exempt from the more extensive compensation disclosures required of companies that are neither an emerging growth company nor a foreign private issuer and will continue to be permitted to follow our home country practice on such matters.
 
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THE OFFERING
ADSs offered by us
13,647,059 ADSs, each representing one ordinary share.
ADSs offered by the Selling Shareholder
2,000,000 ADSs, each representing one ordinary share.
Ordinary shares to be outstanding immediately after this offering
85,783,883 ordinary shares (or 86,384,153 ordinary shares if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional ADSs within 30 days of the date of this prospectus from us and the Selling Shareholder in full).
Over-allotment option to purchase additional ADSs
We and the Selling Shareholder have granted the underwriters an option to purchase up to an aggregate of 2,347,058 additional ADSs (up to 586,764 from us and up to 1,760,294 from the Selling Shareholder) within 30 days of the date of this prospectus.
Selling Shareholder
MYT Holding will sell ADSs in this offering. See “Principal and Selling Shareholders.
American Depositary Shares
The underwriters will deliver ADSs representing our ordinary shares. Each ADS represents one of our ordinary shares.
As an ADS holder, we will not treat you as one of our shareholders. The depositary, The Bank of New York Mellon (the “depositary”), will be the holder of the ordinary shares underlying your ADSs. You will have rights as provided in the deposit agreement. You may surrender your ADSs and withdraw the underlying ordinary shares as provided, and pursuant to the limitations set forth in the deposit agreement. The depositary will charge you fees for, among other items, any such surrender for the purpose of withdrawal. As described in the deposit agreement, we may amend or terminate the deposit agreement without your consent. If you continue to hold your ADSs, you agree to be bound by the terms of the deposit agreement then in effect. To better understand the terms of the ADSs, you should carefully read the “Description of American Depositary Shares” section of this prospectus. You should also read the deposit agreement, which is an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.
Depositary
The Bank of New York Mellon
Custodian
ING Bank N.V. (the “custodian”)
Use of proceeds
We estimate that the net proceeds from this offering will be approximately $304.6 million after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, assuming an initial offering price of $25.00 per ADS, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of ADSs by the Selling Shareholder.
We intend to use up to $207 million of the net proceeds of this offering to cause MGG to repay all or a portion of the principal and accrued and unpaid interest outstanding under the 6.00% Shareholder Loans Due 2025, which will in turn be used to repay all or a portion of the principal and accrued and unpaid interest outstanding under certain 7.50% Senior Secured PIK Notes Due 2025
 
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(but not less than $125.0 million in principal amount) issued in the original principal amount of $200.0 million by MYT Holding in connection with the settlement of all claims against MYT Holding and MYT Netherlands related to the Neiman Marcus Bankruptcy and the Distribution. See the section captioned “Matters Related to Our Current and Former Parent Entities—Neiman Marcus Group Bankruptcy” for additional information on the Senior Secured PIK Notes. We intend to repay the remainder of the Shareholder Loans, if any, out of the net proceeds of one or more equity offerings in the future. The Shareholder Loans were originally incurred in 2014 as part of the acquisition financing for Mytheresa by the Neiman Marcus Group. See “Related Party Transactions—Shareholder Loans” for additional information on the Shareholder Loans.
We plan to use the remaining net proceeds, estimated to be approximately $97.6 million, for working capital and other general corporate purposes.
See the section captioned “Use of Proceeds” for a more complete description of the intended use of the proceeds from this offering.
Directed Share Program
At our request, the underwriters have reserved up to 782,353 ADSs, or 5.0% of the ADSs offered by this prospectus, for sale at the initial public offering price through a directed share program to certain individuals identified by our members of our Supervisory and Management Boards.
The number of ADSs available for sale to the general public will be reduced to the extent that such persons purchase such reserved ADSs. Any reserved ADSs not so purchased will be offered by the underwriters to the general public on the same basis as the other ADSs offered by this prospectus. Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC will administer our directed share program. See the sections titled “Related Party Transactions,” “Shares Eligible for Future Sale,” and “Underwriters—Directed Share Program.
Listing
We have applied to list the ADSs on the NYSE under the symbol “MYTE.”
Risk factors
See the section captioned “Risk Factors” beginning on page 23 and other information included in this prospectus for a discussion of factors you should carefully consider before deciding to invest in the ADSs.
The number of ordinary shares outstanding immediately after this offering is based on 72,136,824 ordinary shares outstanding as of the date of this prospectus (as adjusted to reflect the share split described herein and 1,946,317 shares (plus an additional 13,506 ordinary shares if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional ADSs in full) subject to share awards granted at the time of this offering under the MYT Netherlands Parent B.V. Omnibus Incentive Compensation Plan) and excludes 9,922,892 ordinary shares reserved for future issuance under our MYT Netherlands Parent B.V. 2020 Omnibus Incentive Compensation Plan, which is expected to become effective immediately prior to the effectiveness of the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.
Unless otherwise indicated, all information contained in this prospectus assumes or gives effect to:

the consummation of the Reorganization Transactions;

no exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase an additional 2,347,058 ADSs in aggregate in this offering; and

an initial public offering price of $25.00 per ADS, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus.
 
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SUMMARY CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL AND OPERATING DATA
We have historically conducted our business through MGG and its subsidiaries. The following consolidated financial and operating data are prepared for MYT Netherlands and its subsidiaries, including MGG. See “Prospectus Summary—The Reorganization Transactions.” Following the offering we will cause MGG to repay all or a portion of the Shareholder Loans, which will in turn be used repay all or a portion of the Senior Secured PIK Notes of MYT Holding as described under “Use of Proceeds.”
We prepare our consolidated financial statements in accordance with IFRS as issued by the IASB. Our summary consolidated statements of profit and cash flow data presented below for fiscal 2018, fiscal 2019, and fiscal 2020 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. Our summary consolidated balance sheet data presented below as of September 30, 2020 and our summary consolidated statements of profit and cash flow data presented below for the three months ended September 30, 2019 and 2020 have been derived from our unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus.
The following table also contains translations of Euro amounts into U.S. Dollars for fiscal 2020 and as of and for the three months ended September 30, 2020. These translations are solely for the convenience of the reader and were calculated at the noon buying rate in New York City for cable transfers in foreign currencies as certified for customs purposes by the Federal Reserve Bank in New York on the period-end date for the applicable period, which as of June 30, 2020 was €1.00 = $1.1237 and as of September 30, 2020 was €1.00 = $1.1723. You should not assume that, on that or any other date, one could have converted these amounts of Euros into U.S. Dollars at this or any other exchange rate.
Certain amounts presented in tables are subject to rounding adjustments and, as a result, the totals in such tables may not sum.
Our historical results presented below are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for any future period. The summary consolidated financial and operating data presented below should be read in conjunction with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our audited consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus.
Years Ended June 30,
Three Months Ended September 30,
2018
2019
2020
2020
(unaudited)
2019
(unaudited)
2020
(unaudited)
2020
(unaudited)
(in thousands, except share and per share data)
Consolidated Statement
of Operations Data:
Net sales
303,520 379,086 449,487 $ 505,089 99,112 126,359 $ 148,130
Cost of sales, exclusive
of depreciation and
amortization
(160,469) (201,410) (239,546) (269,178) (52,766) (67,678) (79,339)
Gross profit
143,051 177,676 209,941 235,911 46,346 58,681 68,791
Shipping and payment
costs
(36,163) (44,104) (52,857) (59,395) (13,141) (14,833) (17,389)
Marketing expenses
(47,671) (55,767) (62,507) (70,239) (15,816) (17,441) (20,446)
Selling, general and administrative expenses
(40,114) (52,038) (66,427) (74,644) (13,955) (15,556) (18,236)
Depreciation and amortization
(6,796) (7,686) (7,885) (8,860) (1,877) (2,021) (2,369)
Other income (expense), net
1,499 995 645 725 (40) (621) (728)
Operating income
13,806 19,076 20,910 23,498 1,517 8,209 9,623
Finance (expense) income,
net
(4,835) (13,986) (11,119) (12,494) (9,373) 5,182 6,075
Income (loss) before income taxes
8,971 5,090 9,791 11,004 (7,856) 13,391 15,698
Income tax (expense) benefit
(3,468) (3,439) (3,441) (3,867) (3,545) (3,762) (4,410)
 
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Years Ended June 30,
Three Months Ended September 30,
2018
2019
2020
2020
(unaudited)
2019
(unaudited)
2020
(unaudited)
2020
(unaudited)
(in thousands, except share and per share data)
Net income (loss)
5,503 1,651 6,350 $ 7,137 (4,311) 9,629 $ 11,288
Basic and diluted earnings (loss) per ordinary share
0.08 0.02 0.09 $ 0.10 (0.06) 0.14 $ 0.16
Weighted average ordinary shares outstanding (basic and diluted):
70,190,687 70,190,687 70,190,687 70,190,687 70,190,687 70,190,687 70,190,687
Consolidated Statement
of Cash Flow Data:
Net cash (outflow) inflow from operating activities
(4,862) 2,367 10,559 $ 11,865 (21,996) (33,378) $ (39,129)
Net cash (outflow) from investing activities
(5,431) (1,845) (2,420) (2,719) (619) (904) (1,060)
Net cash (outflow) inflow from financing activities
(4,410) (2,092) (878) (987) 25,127 30,834 36,147
As of September 30, 2020
Actual
(unaudited)
Actual
(unaudited)
Pro
Forma as
Adjusted(1)
Pro
Forma as
Adjusted(1)
(in thousands)
Consolidated Statement of Financial Position Data:
Total non-current assets
182,424 $ 213,856 182,424 $ 213,856
Total current assets
231,114 270,935 305,609 358,266
Total assets
413,538 484,791 488,033 572,121
Total current liabilities
124,568 146,031 124,568 146,031
Total non-current liabilities
214,328 251,257 28,952 33,940
Total liabilities
338,896 397,288 153,520 179,971
Accumulated deficit
(18,605) (21,811) (18,605) (21,811)
Total shareholders’ equity
74,642 $ 87,503 334,513 $ 392,150
(1)
Pro forma as adjusted amounts for the consolidated statement of financial position data give effect to (i) the issuance of 13,647,059 ADSs in this offering at an initial public offering price of $25.00 per ADS, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover of this prospectus, after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us and (ii) the use of proceeds to partially repay the Shareholder Loans. See “Use of Proceeds.” A $1.00 increase or decrease in the assumed initial public offering price of $25.00, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, would increase or decrease the as adjusted amount of each of total current assets and total shareholders’ equity by approximately $12.7 million from this offering, assuming the number of ADSs offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same and after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions. An increase or decrease of 1,000,000 shares in the number of ADSs offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, would increase or decrease the as adjusted amount of each of total current assets and total shareholders’ equity by approximately $23.3 million, assuming no change in the assumed initial public offering price of $25.00 per ADS, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, and after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions.
Other Financial and Operating Data
We review a number of operating and financial metrics, including the following business and non-IFRS metrics, to evaluate our business, measure our performance, identify trends affecting our business, formulate business plans and make strategic decisions.
 
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Years Ended June 30,
Three Months Ended September 30,
2018
2019
2020
2020
(unaudited)
2019
(unaudited)
2020
(unaudited)
2020
(unaudited)
(in thousands, except average order value, average selling price)
Active customers(1)
299 400 486 N/A 420 522 N/A
Average order value(2)
632 614 600 $ 674 614 594 $ 696
Total orders shipped(3)
704 905 1,092 N/A 955 1,168 N/A
Adjusted EBITDA(4)
20,922 30,513 35,400 $ 39,780 4,359 10,438 $ 12,236
Adjusted Operating
Income(4)
14,126 22,827 27,515 $ 30,920 2,482 8,417 $ 9,867
Adjusted Net Income(4)
9,068 15,810 19,294 $ 21,682 3,520 5,438 $ 6,375
(1)
In any particular period, we determine our number of active customers by counting the total number of unique customers who have made at least one online purchase across our sites in the preceding twelve-month period, measured from the last date of such period.
(2)
Average order value may fluctuate due to a number of factors including merchandise mix as well as new product categories. Average order value is calculated based on total gross sales from online orders shipped from our sites during the twelve months ended on the last day of the period presented.
(3)
Total orders shipped and total orders recognized as net sales in any given period may differ slightly due to orders that are in transit at the end of any particular period. Total orders shipped reflects total number of online customer orders shipped to our customers during the twelve months ended on the last day of the period presented.
(4)
Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted Operating Income, and Adjusted Net Income are measures that are not defined under IFRS. We use these financial measures to evaluate the performance of our business.
We present Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted Operating Income, and Adjusted Net Income because they are frequently used by analysts, investors and other interested parties to evaluate companies in our industry. Further, we believe these measures are helpful in highlighting trends in our operating results, because they exclude the impact of items that are outside the control of management or not reflective of our ongoing operations and performance.
Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted Operating Income, and Adjusted Net Income have limitations, because they exclude certain types of expenses and they do not reflect changes in our working capital needs. Furthermore, other companies in our industry may calculate similarly titled measures differently than we do, limiting their usefulness as comparative measures.
We use Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted Operating Income, and Adjusted Net Income as supplemental information only. You are encouraged to evaluate each adjustment and the reasons we consider it appropriate for supplemental analysis. The following are reconciliations of Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted Operating Income, and Adjusted Net Income to their most directly comparable IFRS measures.
 
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Years Ended June 30,
Three Months Ended September 30,
2018
2019
2020
2020
(unaudited)
2019
(unaudited)
2020
(unaudited)
2020
(unaudited)
(in thousands)
Net income
5,503 1,651 6,350 $ 7,137 (4,311) 9,629 $ 11,288
Finance expenses, net
4,835 13,986 11,119 12,494 9,373 (5,182) (6,075)
Income tax expense
3,468 3,439 3,441 3,867 (3,545) 3,762 4,410
Depreciation and amortization
6,796 7,686 7,885 8,860 1,877 2,021 2,369
thereof depreciation of right-of use
assets(a)
5,143 5,133 5,116 5,749 1,201 1,308 1,533
EBITDA
20,602 26,762 28,795 32,358 3,394 10,230 11,992
U.S. sales tax(b)
1,540 1,334 1,499 936
Strategic investor sale preparation costs(c)
2,059
IPO preparation and transaction costs(d)
5,206 5,850 201 236
Share-based compensation expense(e)
320 152 65 73 29 7 8
Adjusted EBITDA
20,922 30,513 35,400 $ 39,780 4,359 10,438 $ 12,236
Years Ended June 30,
Three Months Ended September 30,
2018
2019
2020
2020
(unaudited)
2019
(unaudited)
2020
(unaudited)
2020
(unaudited)
(in thousands)
Operating income
13,806 19,076 20,910 $ 23,498 1,517 8,209 $ 9,623
U.S. sales tax(b)
1,540 1,334 1,499 936
Strategic investor sale preparation costs(c)
2,059
IPO preparation and transaction costs(d)
5,206 5,850 201 236
Share-based compensation expense(e)
320 152 65 73 29 7 8
Adjusted Operating Income
14,126 22,827 27,515 $ 30,920 2,482 8,417 $ 9,867
 
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Years Ended June 30,
Three Months Ended September 30,
2018
2019
2020
2020
(unaudited)
2019
(unaudited)
2020
(unaudited)
2020
(unaudited)
(in thousands)
Net income
5,503 1,651 6,350 $ 7,137 (4,311) 9,629 $ 11,288
U.S. sales tax(b)
1,540 1,334 1,499 936
Strategic investor sale preparation costs(c)
2,059
IPO preparation and transaction costs(d)
5,206 5,850 201 236
Share-based compensation
expense(e)
320 152 65 73 29 7 8
Finance expenses on
loans(f)
4,247 13,315 9,645 10,838 9,215 (5,450) (6,389)
Income tax effect(g)
(1,002) (2,907) (3,306) (3,715) (2,349) 1,051 1,232
Adjusted Net Income
9,068 15,810 19,294 $ 21,682 3,520 5,438 $ 6,375
(a)
We adopted IFRS 16 “Leases” effective July 1, 2017 under the full retrospective method. Under IFRS 16, right of use assets are depreciated over their estimated useful life. Total depreciation expense for right of use assets capitalized under IFRS 16 was €5.1 million in each of fiscal 2018, fiscal 2019 and fiscal 2020. Cash payments for lease liabilities recorded under IFRS 16 were €4.4 million, €5.6 million and €4.3 million in fiscal 2018, fiscal 2019 and fiscal 2020, respectively. Total depreciation expense for right of use assets capitalized under IFRS 16 was €1.2 million and €1.3 million for the three months ended September 30, 2019 and 2020, respectively. Cash payments for lease liabilities recorded under IFRS 16 were €1.3 million and €1.8 million for the three months ended September 30, 2019 and 2020, respectively.
(b)
Represents expenses related to sales tax liabilities temporarily borne by us through the fourth quarter of fiscal 2020 in the United States. We temporarily incurred sales tax related liabilities on customer purchases in the United States because we were not able to charge our customers for these amounts at the point of sale under our previous IT configuration. Due to upgrades in our IT infrastructure during the fourth quarter of fiscal 2020, we no longer incur these expenses, as we charge the applicable U.S. sales tax directly to our customers.
(c)
Represents non-recurring professional fees, including advisory and accounting fees, associated with our consideration of a trade sale of the business to a strategic investor during fiscal 2019, which are classified within selling, general and administrative expenses. We ultimately decided against a trade sale in favor of an initial public offering.
(d)
Represents non-recurring professional fees, including consulting, legal and accounting fees, related to this offering, which are classified within selling, general and administrative expenses.
(e)
During fiscal 2018, fiscal 2019 and fiscal 2020 and the three months ended September 30, 2019 and 2020, certain key management personnel received share-based compensation from our ultimate parent. We do not consider these expenses to be indicative of our core operating performance.
(f)
Our Adjusted Net Income excludes finance expenses associated with our Shareholder Loans and Retired Shareholder Loans, which we do not consider to be indicative of our core performance. We did not receive any cash proceeds under these loans, which originated as part of the Neiman Marcus acquisition in 2014. Further, we do not have any financial covenants associated with the Shareholder Loans, which do not have any required interest or principal payments until their respective maturities in October 2025. We expect to repay all or a portion of our Shareholder Loans using a portion of the net proceeds of this offering. Interest expense and foreign exchange gains and losses on these loans amounted to €4.2 million, €13.3 million and €9.6 million during fiscal 2018, fiscal 2019, and fiscal 2020, respectively. Interest expense and foreign exchange gains and losses on these loans amounted to €9.2 million during the three months ended September 30, 2019, while interest expense and foreign exchange gains created financial income of €5.5 million during the three months ended September 30, 2020.

For further information regarding our related party financing arrangements, refer to the consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus.
(g)
Reflects adjustments to historical income tax expense to reflect changes in income tax expense due changes in taxable income for each of the periods presented resulting from the decrease in expenses related to U.S. sales tax, finance expenses on our Shareholder Loans and Retired Shareholder Loans, IPO preparation and transaction costs, and share-based compensation expense, assuming a statutory tax rate of 27.8%.
 
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RISK FACTORS
Investing in the ADSs involves a high degree of risk. Before making an investment decision, you should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below, which we believe are material risks of our business and this offering. Our business, financial condition, results of operations or growth prospects could be harmed by any of these risks. In such an event, the trading price of ADSs could decline, and you may lose all or part of your investment. In assessing these risks, you should also refer to all of the other information contained in this prospectus, including our consolidated financial statements and related notes. Please also see “Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”
Risks Related to Our Business and Industry
The online luxury sector is highly competitive and if we do not compete effectively, our results of operations could be adversely affected.
The online luxury sector is highly competitive and fragmented. We compete for customers primarily with other global multi-brand online luxury retailers and online marketplaces, luxury mono-brand retailers and luxury multi-brand retailers, and to a lesser extent specialty retailers, department stores, apparel chains, stand-alone boutiques, traffic aggregators, luxury pre-owned and consignment stores, off-price retailers and flash sale websites. We believe our ability to compete depends on many factors within and beyond our control, including:

attracting new customers and retaining existing customers;

enhancing our relationships with existing customers;

attracting customers from our brand partners’ increasing online offerings and capabilities;

converting online viewing to online purchases;

further developing our data analytics capabilities;

maintaining favorable brand recognition and effectively marketing our services to customers;

the amount, diversity and quality of brands and merchandise that we or our competitors offer;

the price at which we are able to offer our merchandise;

maintaining and growing our market share;

price fluctuations or demand disruptions of our brand partners or other third-party vendors;

inventory management;

the speed and cost at which we can deliver merchandise to our customers and the ease with which they can use our services to return merchandise; and

anticipating and quickly responding to changing fashion trends and customer shopping preferences.
Competition may increase as other established and emerging companies, including Amazon.com Inc., enter the markets in which we compete, as customer requirements evolve and as new products and technologies are introduced.
Many of our current competitors have, and potential competitors may have, longer operating histories, larger fulfillment infrastructures, greater technical capabilities, faster shipping times, lower-cost shipping, larger databases, greater financial, marketing, institutional and other resources and larger customer bases than we do. These factors may allow our competitors to derive greater net sales and profits from their existing customer bases, acquire customers at lower costs or respond more quickly than we can to new or emerging technologies and changes in fashion trends and customer shopping behavior. These competitors may engage in extensive research and development efforts, enter or expand their presence in the online luxury market, undertake more far-reaching marketing campaigns, build stronger relationships with our brand partners, more effectively address our customers’ needs or adopt more aggressive pricing policies. In addition, as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, retailers and brands that have not typically participated in e-commerce may establish
 
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an online presence on their own or with our existing competitors, which may create new or strengthen existing competitors. In September 2020, Amazon.com, Inc. launched “Amazon Luxury Stores,” an invitation-only marketplace that offers high-end ready-to-wear clothing from luxury brand partners to eligible customers. Any of the foregoing may allow our competitors to acquire a larger and more lucrative customer base or generate net sales from their existing customer bases more effectively than we do and, as a result, may have an adverse impact on our results of operations.
Competition, along with other factors such as consolidation within the luxury retail industry and changes in customer spending patterns, could also result in significant pricing pressure. Such factors may result in the loss of brand partners or customers. If we lose customers, our brand partners could reduce or terminate their relationships with us and our results of operations and profitability could decline.
If we are unable to anticipate and respond to changing customer preferences and shifts in fashion and industry trends in a timely manner, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be harmed.
The online personal goods luxury sector is driven in part by fashion and beauty trends, which may shift quickly. Our continued success depends on our ability to anticipate, gauge and react in a timely and cost-effective manner to the latest fashion trends, changes in customer preferences for products, customer attitudes toward our industry and brands and where and how customers shop for those products. We must continually work to develop, produce and market new and highly curated content to our sites, provide customers with products from coveted luxury brands, offer unique products, maintain and enhance the recognition of our brand and develop our approach as to how and where we market and sell products. We typically enter into agreements to purchase our merchandise in advance of the applicable selling season and our failure to anticipate, identify or react appropriately, or in a timely manner to changes in customer preferences, tastes and trends or economic conditions could lead to, among other things, missed opportunities, excess inventory or inventory shortages or delays, markdowns and write-offs, any of which could negatively impact our profitability and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Failure to respond to changing customer preferences and to gauge and anticipate upcoming fashion trends could also negatively impact our brand image with our customers and result in diminished customer loyalty.
There is no assurance that customers will continue to purchase goods from us in the future. Customers may purchase fewer or lower-priced products if their discretionary income decreases. During periods of economic uncertainty, we may need to reduce prices in response to competitive pressures or otherwise to maintain sales, which could adversely affect relationships with our brand partners and consequently our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Any current or future health epidemic or other adverse public health development, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, could result in business disruption, sustained economic downturn, margin pressures and have a material adverse effect on our business and operating results.
Our business has been and could continue to be adversely affected by infectious disease outbreaks, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, which has spread rapidly across the globe, including in all major countries in which we operate, resulting in adverse economic conditions and business disruptions. Governments worldwide have imposed varying degrees of preventative and protective actions, such as temporary travel bans, forced business closures, and stay-at-home orders, all in an effort to reduce the spread of the virus, which has resulted in supply shortages and other business disruptions in many regions, initially in particular China and Italy, but with increasing and rapid effect to other countries as well, and has also adversely affected demand. It is impossible to predict the effect and ultimate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic as the situation is rapidly evolving. Accordingly, we cannot predict for how long and to what extent this crisis will impact our business operations or the global economy as a whole.
A substantial majority of our brand partners, offices and employees are located in Europe, and we ship all our products from our distribution center in Munich. As a result, the effects of this virus could disrupt our supply chain and distribution and fulfillment capabilities, including the delivery of merchandise from our brand partners and shipments of our merchandise to impacted regions or from our distribution center in Munich. Furthermore, many of our brand partners temporarily closed their retail stores, warehouses and/or distribution centers and may do so again in the future in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, which could
 
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interrupt our supply chain. Our offices, logistics and operations centers and employees more generally have also been affected. We have instituted many health and safety protective measures for our employees and customers, and as a consequence, our capacity for processing items has been reduced. With the majority of our employees working from home as a result, our information technologies and systems may be strained.
Restrictions on travel, quarantines and other measures imposed in response to the outbreak, as well as ongoing concern regarding its potential impact, have had and will likely continue to have a negative effect on the economies, financial markets and business activities of the countries in which outbreaks occur. Global financial markets have experienced significant losses and volatility as a result of these conditions. A continued economic downturn resulting from these measures could negatively impact customer demand and spending in the impacted regions, and cause an oversupply of inventory that could lead to markdowns or promotional sales to dispose of excess inventory, which could force us to follow suit and have an adverse effect on our gross margins and results of operations. In addition, in response to anticipated liquidity pressures stemming from a potential downturn, many companies are exploring liquidity options, including drawing on revolving facilities. Should any of these factors worsen, customer demand and our results of operations could be negatively affected in the current or future fiscal periods.
The luxury fashion industry can be volatile and difficult to predict.
In the luxury fashion industry, customer demand can quickly change depending on many factors, including the behavior of both online and brick and mortar competitors, promotional activities of competitors, rapidly changing tastes and preferences, frequent introductions of new products and services, advances in technology and the internet and macroeconomic factors, many of which are beyond our control, especially in light of the COVID-19 pandemic. With this constantly changing environment, our future business strategies, practices and results may not meet expectations or respond quickly enough to customer demand, and we may face operational difficulties in adjusting to any changes. Any of these developments could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Our continued success is substantially dependent on positive perceptions of our brand which, if eroded, could adversely affect our customer, employee and brand partner relationships.
We offer products from over 200 established brands through our sites. Our ability to identify new brands and maintain and enhance our relationships with our existing brands is critical to maintaining and expanding our base of customers. A significant portion of our customers’ experience depends on third parties outside of our control, including brand partners, third-party vendors, logistics providers such as DHL, FedEx and UPS and social media providers, distributors and influencers. If these third parties do not meet our or our customers’ expectations or if they increase their prices or materially reduce or terminate their relationship with us, our brand may suffer irreparable damage and/or our costs may increase.
Customer complaints or negative publicity about our sites, products, product delivery times, customer support, customer data handling or security practices, especially on blogs and social media platforms, could rapidly and severely diminish use of our sites and current and potential customers’ and brand partners’ confidence in us, which could result in harm to our brand and our business. We believe that some of the growth in our customer base to date has originated from social media, influencer marketing and affiliate marketing. If we are not able to develop and maintain positive relationships with our influencer and affiliate marketing partners, or if we or such partners are targets of negative publicity, including in connection with reactions to social or political events, such as the Black Lives Matter movement or protests against the use of fur, on social media, our ability to promote and maintain awareness of our sites and brands and leverage social media platforms to drive customers to our sites may be adversely affected, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
We depend on the success of our advertising efforts. If we fail to acquire new customers through our marketing effort in a cost-effective manner or at all we may not be able to increase net sales or maintain profitability.
Our success depends on the success of our marketing efforts in acquiring customers in a cost-effective manner. Our advertising efforts primarily comprise brand and performance-based advertising, public relations and events. In order to expand our customer base, we must appeal to and acquire customers who have historically used other means of shopping for luxury goods and may prefer alternatives to our offerings, such as traditional
 
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brick-and-mortar retailers and the websites of our competitors. We make significant investments related to customer acquisition and expect to continue to spend significant amounts to acquire additional customers. For example, our performance-based advertising includes paid search/product listing ads, affiliate networks, display prospecting and retargeting and other digital channels.
In addition to our performance-based advertising, we may use third-party social media platforms as, among other things, marketing tools. For example, we currently maintain Instagram, Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest, YouTube, Weibo, WeChat, and Naver accounts. As existing e-commerce and social media platforms continue to rapidly evolve and new platforms develop, we must continue to maintain a presence on these platforms and establish a presence on new or emerging popular social media platforms. If we are unable to cost-effectively use some of our social media platforms as marketing tools or if the social media platforms we use do not evolve quickly enough for us to optimize our use of such platforms, our ability to attract new customers and our financial condition may suffer. Furthermore, as laws and regulations rapidly evolve to govern the use of these platforms, the failure by us or our employees to abide by applicable laws and regulations in the use of these platforms or otherwise could subject us to regulatory investigations, class action lawsuits, liability, fines or other penalties and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We are also subject to certain risks due to our reliance on digital channels in our advertising efforts. Digital channels change their algorithms periodically, and our rankings in organic searches and visibility in social media feeds could be adversely affected by those changes. This has occurred in the past and required us to increase our spending on paid marketing to offset the loss in traffic. Search engine companies may also determine that we are not in compliance with their guidelines and penalize us in their algorithms. Even with an increase in marketing spend to offset any loss in search engine optimization traffic as a result of algorithm changes, the recovery period in organic traffic may span multiple quarters or years. If digital platforms change or penalize us with their algorithms, terms of service, display and featuring of search results, or if competition increases for advertisements, we may be unable to cost-effectively attract customers. Our relationships with digital platforms are not covered by long-term contractual agreements and do not require any specific performance commitments. In addition, many of the platforms and agencies with whom we have advertising arrangements provide advertising services to other companies, including retailers with whom we compete. As competition for online advertising has increased, the cost for some of these services has also increased.
In addition, we partner with influential figures and social media and celebrity influencers within the fashion and entertainment industry in order to promote our sites. Such campaigns are expensive and may not result in the cost-effective acquisition of new customers. Further, the competition for relationships with influencers is increasing, and the cost of maintaining such relationships will likely increase. In addition, we do not prescribe what our influencers post, and if we were held responsible for the content of their posts or their actions, we could be forced to alter our practices, which could have an adverse impact on our business. Influencers, designers and celebrities with whom we maintain relationships could engage in behavior or use their platforms to communicate directly with our customers in a manner that reflects poorly on our brand and may be attributed to us or otherwise adversely affect us. The harm may be immediate, without affording us an opportunity for redress or correction.
The net profit from new customers we acquire may not ultimately exceed the cost of acquiring those customers. If we fail to deliver an exclusive shopping experience, or if customers do not perceive the products we offer as unique luxury pieces reflecting the latest fashion trends, we may not be able to acquire new customers. If we are unable to acquire new customers who purchase an amount of merchandise sufficient to grow our business, we may not be able to generate the necessary growth to drive beneficial network effects with our brand partners, our net sales may decrease, and our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected. Additionally, if our marketing efforts are not successful in promoting awareness of our brand, driving customer engagement or attracting new customers, or if we are not able to cost-effectively manage our marketing expenses, our results of operations could be adversely affected.
Our failure to retain existing customers or to maintain average order value or customer spending levels may impair our net sales growth, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
A significant portion of our net sales are generated from sales to existing customers, particularly those existing customers who are highly engaged and make frequent and/or large purchases of the merchandise we offer. In
 
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fiscal 2020, the top 2.6% of our customers accounted for approximately 30% of our gross sales. If existing customers no longer find our offerings appealing, or if we are unable to timely update our offerings to meet current trends and customer demands, our existing customers may make fewer or smaller purchases in the future. A decrease in the number of our existing customers who make repeat purchases or a decrease in their spending on the merchandise we offer could negatively impact our results of operations. Further, we believe that our future success will depend in part on our ability to increase sales to our existing customers over time, and if we are unable to do so, our business may suffer. If we fail to generate repeat purchases or maintain high levels of customer engagement and average spend, our financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects could be adversely affected.
In addition, for our most valued customers, we invest in hosting exclusive events, personal shoppers and in-person styling sessions in various international locations, which has become challenging during the COVID-19 pandemic. If we are unable to retain our most valued customers or if they do not purchase an amount of merchandise sufficient to grow our business, we may not be able to generate the necessary growth to drive beneficial network effects with our brand partners, our net sales may decrease and our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.
Our failure to maintain strong relationships with our brand partners could limit our ability to provide differentiated luxury merchandise and harm our business and prospects.
Our relationships with established brand partners is a key factor in our success. Many of our brand partners limit the number of retail and wholesale channels that they use to sell their merchandise, and we have no guaranteed supply arrangements with our brand partners. Nearly all of our luxury brands are sold by competing retailers and have their own proprietary retail stores and/or websites that compete with us. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that any of our brand partners will continue to sell to us or to meet our quality, style and volume requirements. Some of our brand partners also impose geographical restrictions where we are allowed to sell their products. Other brand partners may, in the future, also restrict our ability to sell their products in certain regions. Our failure to offer our brand partners the ability to present their products in a manner that preserves brand integrity could have an adverse impact on our relationships with such brand partners. Our distribution model may also evolve over time and could include, among other distribution models, arrangements where a vendor retains inventory ownership. Any such distribution model could result in changes to our future revenue composition, inventory levels and margins, with a possible negative effect on our future revenue growth rate, and our brand and reputation could be adversely affected if we are not able to continue controlling the full customer experience associated with shopping on our site. Brand partner relationships could also be adversely impacted if we are not able to sell our brand partners’ products at full price and instead offer such products at discounted prices, thereby undermining their pricing strategies and in turn indirectly reducing their net sales. Losing brand partners or being restricted by them may cause us to lose customers and hinder our ability to acquire new customers. Any terminations, reductions or limitations by brand partners may adversely affect our business and prospects.
During periods of adverse change in general economic, industry or competitive conditions, some of our brand partners may experience cash flow issues, reductions in available credit from banks, factors or other financial institutions, or increases in the cost of capital. In response to those conditions or to concerns about the financial condition of us or our affiliates, such brand partners may attempt to increase their prices, alter historical credit and payment terms available to us or take other actions. Certain of our brand partners use third party trade credits on the basis of orders placed by us to subsidize a portion of their production costs. In certain cases, this has prompted brand partners to alter historical credit and payment terms available to us. If this were to recur in the future, it could disrupt our merchandise sourcing and order fulfilment and adversely affect our liquidity.
Any of these actions could have an adverse impact on our relationships with our brand partners, or constrain the amounts or timing of our purchases from such brand partners, which could ultimately have an adverse effect on our business and prospects.
Our failure to maintain a relevant, enjoyable and reliable experience for our customers and to meet our customers’ evolving shopping preferences could adversely affect our customer relationships.
We seek to provide a relevant, enjoyable and reliable experience for our customers and to meet our customers’ evolving shopping preferences. To do so, we must continuously offer differentiated merchandise and brands,
 
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anticipate evolving fashion trends and offer access to exclusive merchandise. We must also provide our customers with superior service throughout their shopping experience and keep up-to-date with current technology trends, including the proliferation of mobile usage, evolving creative user interfaces and other e-commerce marketing trends related to customer acquisition and engagement, among others, which may increase our costs and may not yield higher sales or more customers. We must also keep up with evolving shopping preferences, including convenient and low-cost or free shipping options. Although we continually analyze trends in the way our customers shop, in an effort to maximize incremental sales, we may not gather accurate and relevant data or effectively utilize that data to accurately predict our customers’ shopping preferences, which may impact our strategic planning and decision making. If for any reason we are not successful at developing and providing a convenient, consistent and enjoyable shopping experience for our customers or providing our customers the products they want, when and where they want them, our business, financial condition, results of operation and prospects could be adversely affected.
We rely on customer discretionary spending, which may be adversely affected by economic downturns and other macroeconomic conditions or trends.
We sell luxury fashion merchandise. Although the market for luxury goods is less sensitive to economic downturns than markets for ordinary goods, purchases of merchandise by our customers are nonetheless discretionary, and therefore dependent upon the level of customer spending, particularly among affluent customers. As a result, our business and results of operations are subject to global economic conditions and their impact on customer discretionary spending. Some factors that may negatively influence customer spending include high levels of unemployment, higher customer debt levels, reductions in net worth, decreased demand resulting from significantly reduced opportunity to wear luxury fashion merchandise in public or social situations due to stay-at-home orders or preferences as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, declines in asset values and related market uncertainty, home foreclosures and reductions in home values, fluctuating interest rates and credit availability, fluctuating fuel and other energy costs, fluctuating commodity prices and national and global geo-political and economic uncertainty, including in connection with tariffs or trade laws. Economic conditions in certain regions may also be affected by natural disasters, such as earthquakes, hurricanes, tropical storms and wildfires, public health crises, political crises, such as terrorist attacks, war and other political instability or other unexpected events, and such events could also disrupt our operations, internet or mobile networks or the operations of one or more of our third-party service providers. For example, if any such disaster were to impact our flagship store or distribution center in Munich, our results of operations could be adversely affected. Customer purchases of discretionary items, including the merchandise that we offer, may decline during periods of economic uncertainty, when disposable income is reduced or when there is a reduction in customer confidence.
Adverse economic changes could reduce customer confidence, and thereby could negatively affect our results of operations. A reduction in customer spending or disposable income may affect us more significantly than companies in other industries and companies with a more diversified product offering. In addition, negative national or global economic conditions may adversely affect our brand partners’ financial performance, liquidity and access to capital, which may affect their production levels and/or product quality and could cause them to raise prices, lower production levels or cease their operations. In challenging and uncertain economic environments, we cannot predict when macroeconomic uncertainty may arise, whether or when such circumstances may improve or worsen or what impact such circumstances could have on our business.
Any adverse impact on our relationship with the limited number of brand partners from whom we generate a significant portion of our net sales could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
In fiscal 2020, approximately 68% of our net sales were derived from our top 30 brand partners. If one or more of these brand partners were to (i) limit the supply of merchandise made available to us, (ii) increase the supply of merchandise made available to our competitors, (iii) increase the supply of merchandise made available to their own proprietary retail stores and websites or significantly increase the number of their proprietary retail stores, or (iv) cease the distribution of their merchandise to us, our business, net sales, earnings and profitability could be adversely affected. Any decline in the quality or popularity of our top designer brands could also adversely affect our business.
 
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The failure of one or more of these brand partners to supply their products to us on a timely basis, or at all, or at the prices we expect, may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Further, our brand partners may:

have economic or business interests or goals that are inconsistent with ours;

take actions contrary to our requests, policies or objectives;

be unable or unwilling to fulfill their obligations under relevant purchase orders, including obligations to meet certain production deadlines, quality standards, pricing guidelines and product specifications, and to comply with applicable regulations, including those regarding the safety and quality of products;

have financial difficulties;

encounter raw material or labor shortages;

encounter increases in raw material or labor costs which may affect their procurement costs, potentially resulting in an increase in their prices;

engage in activities or employ practices that may harm our reputation; or

work with, be acquired by, or come under the control of, our competitors.
Any of these factors could have an adverse impact on our relationships with such brand partners and the volume or timing of our purchases from such brand partners and could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
If our brand partners do not continue to produce products that are consistent with our standards or applicable regulatory requirements, this could adversely affect the quality of our collections, cause customer dissatisfaction and harm our reputation.
We do not own or operate any manufacturing facilities or design the merchandise we sell. The ability of our brand partners to design, manufacture and supply us with their products may be affected by competing orders placed by other retailers and the demands of those retailers. If we experience significant increases in demand, or need to replace a significant amount of merchandise, there can be no assurance that additional supply will be available when required on terms that are acceptable to us, or at all, or that any brand supplier will allocate sufficient capacity to us in order to meet our requirements.
In addition, quality control problems, such as the use of materials and delivery of products that do not meet our quality control standards and specifications or comply with applicable laws or regulations, could harm our business. We do not regularly inspect the merchandise supplied by our brand partners and quality control problems could result in regulatory action, such as restrictions on importation, products of inferior quality or product stock outages or shortages, which could harm our sales and create inventory write-downs for unusable products. We have also outsourced portions of our distribution process, as well as certain technology-related functions, to third-party service providers. Specifically, we rely on third parties in a number of foreign countries and territories, and we rely on third parties for credit card processing, hosting and networking for our sites. The failure of one or more of these entities to provide the expected services on a timely basis, or at all, or at the prices we expect, or the costs and disruption incurred in moving these outsourced functions under our management and direct control or that of another third party, may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our failure to successfully introduce new product categories could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
As part of our ongoing business strategy we expect to introduce new products in our traditional product categories of clothing, shoes, bags and accessories, while also expanding our product launches into adjacent categories in which we may have little to no operating experience. In 2019, we launched Mytheresa Kids and, in January 2020, we launched Mytheresa Men, to expand our curated offering to these large and underserved categories. If we are unable to effectively market these categories to new and existing customers, the launch of these product lines may not be as successful as we anticipate. Our inability to successfully introduce new
 
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products in our traditional categories or in adjacent categories could limit our future growth and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Any disruptions at our flagship store could negatively affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.
We generate a portion of our net sales (approximately 3% in fiscal 2020) from our Munich flagship store and, since its opening in April 2020, our new men’s store, which is also located in Munich. As a result, we are more vulnerable to economic and other conditions affecting the metropolitan region surrounding Munich than our more geographically diversified competitors. Factors that may affect our results of operations include, among other things, the COVID-19 pandemic and resulting lock-downs or shelter-at-home orders, changes in demographics, population and employee bases, wage increases, future changes in economic conditions, severe weather conditions and winter storms. Any events or circumstances that negatively affect the region could adversely affect our net sales and profitability. Such conditions may result in reduced customer traffic and spending in our store, physical damage to our store, loss of inventory or closure of our store. Any of these factors may disrupt our business and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may be unable to accurately forecast net sales and appropriately plan our expenses in the future.
We base our current and future expense levels on our operating forecasts and estimates of future net sales, gross margins and bottom-up estimates of functional cost increases. Net sales and results of operations are difficult to forecast because the purchasing behavior of our existing customers as well as our success in acquiring new customers may vary and is subject to global economic and health conditions. In addition, our historical growth rates, trends and other key performance metrics may not be meaningful predictors of future growth. Our business is affected by general economic and business conditions in the European Union and in the other international markets in which we operate. In addition, we experience shifts in overall sale seasons in our business, and our mix of product offerings is variable from day-to-day and quarter-to-quarter. This variability makes it difficult to predict sales and could result in significant fluctuations in our net sales, margins and profitability. Some of our expenses are fixed, and as a result, we may be unable to adjust our spending in a timely manner to compensate for any unexpected shortfall in net sales. Any failure to accurately predict net sales could cause our results of operations to be lower than expected, which could adversely affect our financial condition and the price of ADSs.
Our recent growth rates may not be sustainable or indicative of our future growth.
Our historical net sales and profitability may not be indicative of our future performance. We may not be successful in executing our growth strategy, and even if we achieve our strategic plan, we may not be able to sustain profitability. In future periods, our net sales and profitability could decline or grow more slowly than we expect.
We believe that our continued growth will depend upon, among other factors, our ability to:

identify new and emerging brands and maintain relationships with our established brand partners;

acquire new customers and retain existing customers;

develop new features to enhance the customer experience on our sites;

increase the frequency with which new and existing customers purchase products on our sites through merchandising, data analytics and technology;

invest in our online infrastructure to enhance and scale the systems our customers use to interact with our site;

access new complementary customer categories; and

expand internationally.
We cannot assure you we will be able to achieve any of the foregoing. Our customer base may not continue to grow or may decline as a result of increased competition and the maturation of our business. Failure to
 
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sustain our growth could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations and on the trading price of ADSs.
Additionally, we expect our costs to increase in future periods due to, among other items, inflation, regulatory requirements, competitive pressures, commodity price increases and increased labor costs, which could negatively affect our future results of operations and ability to sustain profitability. We expect to continue to expend substantial financial and other resources on acquiring and retaining customers, our technology infrastructure and the development of new features, sales and marketing, international expansion, and expenses related to being a public company. These investments may not result in increased net sales or growth in our business. If we cannot successfully earn net sales at a rate that exceeds the costs associated with our business, we will not be able to sustain profitability or generate positive cash flow on a sustained basis and our net sales growth rate may decline. If we fail to continue to increase our net sales and grow our overall business, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be adversely affected.
We are also required to manage numerous relationships with various brand partners and other third parties. Further growth of our operations, fulfillment infrastructure, information technology systems or internal controls and procedures may not be adequate to support our operations. If we are unable to manage the growth of our organization effectively, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.
Our quarterly results of operations may fluctuate, which could cause the ADS price to decline.
Our quarterly results of operations may fluctuate for a variety of reasons, many of which are beyond our control. These reasons include those described in these risk factors as well as the following:

fluctuations in net sales generated from the brands on our sites, including as a result of shifts in overall sale seasons, changes in regional mix and changes in brand delivery patterns and timing;

fluctuations in product mix;

our ability to effectively manage our sites and new and existing brands;

fluctuations in the levels of inventory;

fluctuations in capacity as we expand our operations;

our success in engaging existing customers and attracting new customers;

the amount and timing of our operating expenses;

the timing and success of new products and brands we introduce;

the impact of competitive developments and our response to those developments;

our ability to manage our existing business and future growth;

disruptions or defects in our sites, such as privacy or data security breaches; and

economic and market conditions, particularly those affecting our industry.
Fluctuations in our quarterly results of operations may cause those results to fall below the expectations of analysts or investors, which could cause the price of ADSs to decline. Fluctuations in our results could also cause a number of other difficulties. For example, analysts or investors might change their models for valuing ADSs, we could experience short-term liquidity issues, our ability to retain or attract key personnel may diminish and other unanticipated issues may arise.
In addition, we believe that our quarterly results of operations may vary in the future and that period-to-period comparisons of our results of operations may not be meaningful. For example, our historical growth may have overshadowed the shifts in the overall effect of sale seasons on our historical results of operations. These shifts in the overall effect of sale seasons may become more pronounced over time, which could also cause our results of operations to fluctuate. You should not rely on the results of one quarter as an indication of future performance.
 
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Fluctuations in exchange rates may adversely affect our results of operations.
We are exposed to market risk from fluctuations in foreign currencies. Material portions of our net sales and expenses have been generated by our operations outside the European Union, and we expect that these operations will account for a material portion of our net sales and expenses in the future. We use foreign service vendors whose costs are affected by the fluctuation of their local currency against the Euro or who price their services in currencies other than the Euro, including the British Pound, U.S. Dollar and Swiss Franc. We have also generated significant sales in foreign locations, principally the United Kingdom, the United States, China, South Korea, and the Middle East. Our brand partners may also be impacted by currency exchange rate fluctuations with respect to the purchase of fabric and other raw materials and could pass any such increased costs on to us. We may not be able to pass increased prices on to customers, which could adversely affect our business and financial condition.
Certain of our key operating metrics are subject to inherent challenges in measurement, and real or perceived inaccuracies in such metrics may harm our reputation and negatively affect our business.
We track certain key operating metrics using internal data analytics tools, which have certain limitations. In addition, we rely on data received from third parties, including third-party platforms, to track certain performance indicators. Data from such sources may include information relating to fraudulent accounts and interactions with our sites (including as a result of the use of bots, or other automated or manual mechanisms to generate false impressions that are delivered through our sites or their accounts). We have only a limited ability to verify data from our sites or third parties, and perpetrators of fraudulent impressions may change their tactics and may become more sophisticated, which would make it more difficult to detect such activity.
Our methodologies for tracking metrics may also change over time, which could result in changes to the metrics we report. If we under or over count performance due to the internal data analytics tools we use or issues with the operating data received from third parties, or if our internal data analytics tools contain algorithmic or other technical errors, the operating data we report may not be accurate or comparable with prior periods. In addition, limitations, changes or errors with respect to how we measure operating data may affect our understanding of certain details of our business, which could affect our longer-term strategies.
If our operating metrics are not accurate representations of the reach or monetization of our offerings and network, if we discover material inaccuracies in our metrics or the operating data on which such metrics are based, or if we can no longer calculate any of our key operating metrics with a sufficient degree of accuracy and cannot find an adequate replacement for such metrics, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
If we are unable to manage our inventory effectively, our results of operations could be adversely affected.
Our business requires us to manage a large volume of inventory effectively. We add a total of approximately 800 new apparel, footwear, accessories and fine jewelry to our sites in a typical week, and we depend on our forecasts of demand for and popularity of various products to make purchase decisions and to manage our inventory of SKUs. Demand for products, however, can change significantly between the time inventory is ordered and the date of sale. Demand may be affected by shifts in overall sale seasons, new product launches, rapid changes in product cycles and pricing, product defects, promotions, changes in customer spending patterns, changes in customer tastes with respect to the products we offer and other factors, and our customers may not purchase products in the quantities that we expect.
Seasonality in our business does not follow that of traditional retailers, such as typical concentration of net sales in the holiday quarter since our business is worldwide. Given shifts in overall sale seasons, it may be difficult to accurately forecast demand and determine appropriate levels of product. We generally do not have the right to return unsold products to our brand partners. If we fail to manage our inventory effectively or negotiate favorable credit terms with third-party suppliers, we may be subject to a heightened risk of inventory obsolescence, a decline in inventory values, and inventory write-downs or write-offs. In addition, if we are required to lower sale prices in order to reduce inventory levels, our profit margins might be negatively affected, and such price reductions may harm our relationships with our brand partners. Any of the above, including as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
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Increased merchandise returns above current levels could harm our business.
We allow our customers to return products, subject to our return policy. If the rate of merchandise returns increases significantly or if merchandise return economics become less efficient, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be harmed. Further, we modify our policies relating to returns from time to time, which may result in customer dissatisfaction or an increase in the number of product returns. From time to time, our products are damaged in transit, and any increase in the occurrence of such damages can increase return rates and harm our business.
Our ability to timely deliver merchandise to customers is dependent on a single distribution facility. If we suffer a loss of, or disruption in, our only distribution facility, our business and operations could be adversely affected.
Our ability to timely deliver merchandise to customers is dependent on a single distribution facility in Munich and certain brand partners. If we do not have sufficient fulfillment capacity, experience disruptions to order fulfillment or deliveries by our brand partners are not timely, our customers may experience delivery delays, which could harm our reputation and our relationship with our customers.
If we are unable to adequately staff our fulfillment center to meet demand or if the cost of such staffing is higher than historical or projected costs due to mandated wage increases, regulatory changes, international expansion or other factors, our results of operations could be harmed. In addition, operating our fulfillment center comes with potential risks, such as workplace safety issues and employment claims for the failure or alleged failure to comply with labor laws or laws respecting union organizing activities. Any such issues may result in delays in shipping times or packing quality, and our reputation and results of operations may be harmed.
We have designed and built our own fulfillment infrastructure, which is tailored to meet the specific needs of our business. If we continue to add fulfillment and warehouse capabilities, add new businesses or categories with different fulfillment requirements or change the mix of products that we sell, our fulfillment network will become increasingly complex and operating it will become more challenging. Failure to successfully address such challenges in a cost-effective and timely manner could impair our ability to timely deliver our customers’ purchases and could harm our reputation and ultimately, our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We expect that our current capacity will support our near-term growth plans. Over the long term, we may be unable to locate suitable facilities on commercially acceptable terms in accordance with our expansion plans and to recruit qualified managerial and operational personnel to support our expansion plans. If we grow faster than we anticipate, we may exceed our fulfillment center capacity sooner than we anticipate, we may experience problems fulfilling orders in a timely manner or our customers may experience delays in receiving their purchases, and we would need to increase our capital expenditures more than anticipated. Many of the expenses and investments with respect to our fulfillment center are fixed, and any expansion of our fulfillment center infrastructure will require additional investment of capital. We expect to incur higher capital expenditures in the future for our fulfillment center operations in the future. We may incur such expenses or make such investments in advance of expected sales, and such expected sales may not occur. If we are unable to secure new facilities for the expansion of our fulfillment operations or to effectively control expansion-related expenses, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be adversely affected.
Our results of operations could be adversely affected by natural disasters, public health crises, political crises or other catastrophic events.
Natural disasters, unforeseen public health crises, political crises or other catastrophic events, whether occurring in the European Union or internationally, could disrupt our operations in any of our offices and logistics centers or the operations of one or more of our brand partners or other third parties we do business with. In particular, these types of events could impact our merchandise supply chain, including our ability to ship merchandise to customers from or to the impacted region, and could impact our ability or the ability of third parties to operate our sites and ship merchandise. In addition, these types of events could negatively impact customer spending in the impacted regions. To the extent any of these events occur, our business and results of operations could be adversely affected.
 
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Any changes in our shipping arrangements or any interruptions in shipping could adversely affect our results of operations.
We primarily rely on three major vendors for our shipping, DHL, FedEx, and UPS. If we are not able to negotiate acceptable pricing and other terms with these entities, if they significantly increase their shipping charges or they experience performance problems, including as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, or other difficulties, it could negatively impact our results of operations and our customer experience. In addition, our ability to receive inbound inventory efficiently and ship merchandise to customers may be negatively affected by the COVID-19 pandemic and related response measures, inclement weather, fire, flood, power loss, earthquakes, labor disputes, acts of war or terrorism, trade embargoes and similar factors. For example, strikes at major international shipping ports may in the future impact our supply of inventory from our brand partners, and the escalating trade disputes between the United States, the European Union, China and certain other regions could lead to increased tariffs on our goods and restrict the flow of the goods between the United States the European Union. We are also subject to risks of damage or loss during delivery by our shipping vendors. Any of these factors could result in reduced sales or canceled orders, which may limit our growth and damage our reputation. If our merchandise is not delivered in a timely fashion or is damaged or lost during the delivery process, our customers could become dissatisfied and cease shopping on our sites, which would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Our business, including our costs and supply chain, is subject to risks associated with sourcing and warehousing.
All the merchandise we offer on our sites is sourced directly from our brand partners, and as a result we may be subject to price fluctuations or supply disruptions. Our results of operations would be negatively impacted by increases in the prices of our merchandise, and we have no guarantees that prices will not rise. In addition, as we expand into new categories and product types, it is possible that we may not have strong purchasing power in these new areas, which could lead to higher prices than we have historically seen in our current categories. We may not be able to pass increased prices on to customers, which could adversely affect our results of operations. Moreover, in the event of a significant disruption in the supply of the fabrics or raw materials used in the manufacture of the merchandise we offer, our brand partners may not be able to locate alternative suppliers of materials of comparable quality at an acceptable price.
In addition, the merchandise we receive from brand partners may not be of sufficient quality or free from damage, or such merchandise may be damaged during shipping, while stored in our fulfillment center or when returned by customers. We may incur additional expenses and our reputation could be harmed if customers or potential customers believe that our merchandise does not meet their expectations, is not properly labeled or is damaged.
We are subject to payment-related risks.
We accept payments using a variety of methods, including credit card, Mytheresa gift cards, debit card, PayPal, Alipay, and WeChat Pay, in addition to cash in our store, which subjects us to certain regulations and the risk of fraud, and we may in the future offer new payment options to customers that would be subject to additional regulations and risks. We pay interchange and other fees in connection with credit card payments, which may increase over time and adversely affect our operating results. We primarily rely on Adyen as payment processor. If this third party payment processor were to experience an interruption, delay or service unavailability, we may not be able to process payments on a timely basis. Although we use third parties to process payments, our processes must comply with payment card association operating rules and certification requirements, including the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (“PCI-DSS”) and rules governing electronic funds transfers, the EU Regulation on regulatory technical standards for strong customer authentication and common and secure open standards of communication and the EU Directive on payment services in the internal market. If we fail to comply with applicable rules and regulations of any provider of a payment method we accept, if the volume of fraud in our transactions triggers limits or terminates our rights to use payment methods we currently accept, or if a data breach occurs relating to our payment systems, we may be subject to fines or higher transaction fees and may lose our ability to accept online payments or other payment card transactions. If services of our payment providers are interrupted, harmed or such payment providers are subject to fraud or cyber security attacks, this may result in the data protection of our customers being
 
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compromised and the access, public disclosure, loss or theft of their personal information, as well as an inability to process their payments. Further, we occasionally receive orders placed with fraudulent data. Under current credit and debit card practices, we may be liable for fraudulent transactions. As a result, we may suffer losses as a result of orders placed with fraudulent data even if the associated financial institution approved payment of the orders. If any of these events were to occur, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
We may incur significant losses from fraud.
We have in the past incurred and may in the future incur losses from various types of fraud, including stolen credit card numbers, claims that a customer did not authorize a purchase, merchant fraud and customers who have closed bank accounts or have insufficient funds in bank accounts to satisfy payments. Although we have measures in place to detect and reduce the occurrence of fraudulent activity on our sites and in our store, those measures may not always be effective. In addition to the direct costs of such losses, if the fraud is related to credit card transactions and becomes excessive, it could potentially result in us paying higher fees or losing the right to accept credit cards for payment. In addition, under current credit card practices, we are liable for fraudulent credit card transactions because we do not obtain a cardholder’s signature. Our failure to adequately prevent fraudulent transactions could damage our reputation, result in litigation or regulatory action and lead to expenses that could substantially impact our results of operations.
The United Kingdom’s exit from the European Union may have a negative effect on global economic conditions, financial markets and our business.
We are a multinational company with worldwide operations, including significant business operations in Europe. The U.K.’s exit from the European Union, as well as the possibility of initiatives by other European countries to withdraw from the European Union, has created significant uncertainty about the future relationships between the United Kingdom, the European Union and other member states within the European Union.
These developments, or the perception that other European countries could withdraw from the European Union, have had and may continue to have a material adverse effect on global economic conditions and the stability of global financial markets, and could significantly reduce global market liquidity and restrict the ability of key market participants to operate in certain financial markets. Asset valuations, currency exchange rates and credit ratings may be especially subject to increased market volatility. Lack of clarity about future U.K. laws and regulations, including financial laws and regulations, tax and free trade agreements, immigration laws and employment laws, could increase costs, depress economic activity, impair our ability to attract and retain qualified personnel. Any of these factors may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.
Parties with whom we do business may be subject to insolvency risks or may otherwise become unable or unwilling to perform their obligations with us.
In addition to our brand partners, we are party to contracts, transactions and business relationships with third parties, including with respect to shipping, payment processing and data hosting, pursuant to which such third parties have performance, payment and other obligations. If any of these third parties were to become subject to bankruptcy, receivership or similar proceedings, our rights and benefits in relation to our contracts, transactions and business relationships with such third parties could be terminated, modified in a manner adverse to us, or otherwise impaired.
We may be unable to arrange for alternate or replacement contracts, transactions or business relationships on terms as favorable as our existing contracts, transactions or business relationships, if at all. Any inability on our part to do so could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
We may expand our business through acquisitions of other businesses, which may divert management’s attention and/or prove to be unsuccessful.
We may acquire additional businesses or technologies in the future. Acquisitions may divert management’s time and focus from operating our business. Acquisitions also may require us to spend a substantial portion of
 
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our available cash, incur debt or other liabilities, amortize expenses related to intangible assets or incur write-offs of goodwill or other assets. In addition, integrating an acquired business or technology is risky. Completed and future acquisitions may result in unforeseen operational difficulties and expenditures associated with:

incorporating new businesses and technologies into our infrastructure;

consolidating operational and administrative functions;

coordinating outreach to our community;

maintaining morale and culture and retaining and integrating key employees;

maintaining or developing controls, procedures and policies (including effective internal control over financial reporting and disclosure controls and procedures); and

identifying assumed liabilities related to the activities of the acquired business before the acquisition, including liabilities for violations of laws and regulations, intellectual property issues, commercial disputes, taxes and other matters.
Moreover, we may not benefit from our acquisitions in the manner or time frame we expect. We also may issue additional ADSs, ordinary shares or other equity securities in connection with an acquisition, which could cause dilution to our shareholders. Finally, acquisitions could be viewed negatively by analysts, investors or our customers.
Due to our global business we are exposed to different local cultures, standards and policies.
Given that we operate globally, with customers in 133 countries, we are exposed to many different local cultures, standards and policies. The business model we employ and the merchandise we currently offer may not have the same appeal to our various international customers, and purchasing behaviors may vary region to region. Due to the international nature of our business, our success in the international markets may depend on a variety of factors, including:

localization of our merchandise offerings, including translation into foreign languages and adaptation for local practices;

navigating shipping and returns in a more fragmented geography;

different customer demand dynamics, which may make our model and the merchandise we offer less successful elsewhere compared to the European Union;

competition from local incumbents that understand the local market and may operate more effectively;

regulatory requirements, taxes, trade laws, trade sanctions and economic embargoes, tariffs, export quotas, custom duties or other trade restrictions or any unexpected changes thereto;

laws and regulations regarding anti-bribery, anti-corruption, anti-trust and fair competition compliance or any changes to such laws or regulations;

changes in a specific country’s or region’s political or economic conditions; and

risks resulting from changes in currency exchange rates.
If we invest substantial time and resources to establish and expand our operations in various international markets and are unable to do so successfully and in a timely manner, our results of operations would suffer. In addition, if we are not able to attract new customers and retain existing customers in such markets, we might not be able to grow our business, which may have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
We conduct business in China, and we and our brand partners may be subject to negative publicity in China, which could damage our reputation and have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
We sell goods and ship products into China. Conducting business in China exposes us to political, legal and economic risks. In particular, the political, legal and economic climate in China, both nationally and regionally,
 
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is fluid and unpredictable. Our brand could be subject to adverse publicity if incidents related to our image or the products we sell occur or are perceived to have occurred, whether or not we are at fault. In particular, given the popularity of social media, including WeChat and Weibo in China, any negative publicity, regardless of its truthfulness, could quickly proliferate and harm consumer perceptions of and confidence in our company. Furthermore, our ability to successfully position our brand could be adversely affected by perceptions of the quality of our brand partners’ products and services. We may also be affected by adverse publicity related to our brand partners or our marketing partners, whether or not such publicity is related to their collaboration with us. In recent years, luxury fashion brands have experienced Chinese boycotts of their products as a result of politically or racially offensive products, ads and statements made by individuals associated with the brands. Incidents such as these may have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Climate change and related regulatory responses as well as customer awareness may adversely impact our business.
There is increasing concern that a gradual increase in global average temperatures due to increased concentration of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will cause significant changes in weather patterns around the globe and an increase in the frequency and severity of natural disasters. Changes in weather patterns and an increased frequency, intensity and duration of extreme weather conditions could, among other things, adversely impact the cultivation of cotton, which is a key resource our brand partners use to make the products that we sell, disrupt our brand partners’ supply chain operations, increase the cost of our brand partners’ products and impact the types of products that customers purchase. As a result, the effects of climate change could have an adverse impact on our business and results of operations.
In many countries, governmental bodies are increasingly enacting legislation and regulations in response to the potential impacts of climate change. These laws and regulations, which may be mandatory, have the potential to impact our operations indirectly as a result of required compliance by our brand partners and the manufacturers of their products. In addition, we are active in an industry that is not considered to be environmentally sustainable and we depend on shipping logistics, which lead to a high output of carbon dioxide. As a result, our customers might refuse to acquire merchandise from us and turn to more sustainable competitors or refrain from acquiring luxury products at all. If we take steps to voluntarily mitigate our impact on climate change, we may experience increases in energy and transportation costs, capital expenditures or insurance premiums and deductibles. Inconsistency of legislation and regulations among jurisdictions may also affect the costs of compliance with such laws and regulations. Any assessment of the potential impact of future climate change legislation, regulations or industry standards, as well as any international treaties and accords, is uncertain given the wide scope of potential regulatory change in the countries in which we operate or conduct business.
System interruptions that impair customer access to our sites or other performance failures in our technology infrastructure could damage our business, reputation and brand and substantially harm our business and results of operations.
Approximately 97% of our consolidated net sales for fiscal 2020 were generated from sales on our sites. The satisfactory performance, reliability and availability of our sites, transaction-processing systems and technology infrastructure are critical to our reputation and our ability to acquire and retain customers, as well as maintain adequate customer service levels.
We outsource the vast majority of our cloud infrastructure to Amazon Web Services (“AWS”), which hosts our sites and products. In addition, we use Akamai Technologies, Inc. as our primary content delivery network vendor, which focuses on delivering point-cloud solutions (together with AWS, our “Hosting Providers”). Our customers must have the ability to access our sites at any time, without interruption or degradation of performance. Our Hosting Providers run their own platforms upon which our sites and products depend, and we are, therefore, vulnerable to service interruptions at each Hosting Provider. We have experienced, and in the future we may experience interruptions, delays and outages in service and availability from time to time due to a variety of factors, including infrastructure changes, human or software errors, website hosting disruptions and capacity constraints, particularly in light of the COVID-19 pandemic. Capacity constraints could be due to a number of potential causes including technical failures, natural disasters, fraud or security attacks. In
 
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addition, if our security, or that of one of our Hosting Providers, is compromised, our sites or products are unavailable or our users are unable to access our products within a reasonable amount of time or at all, then our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected. We note that our ability to conduct security audits on our Hosting Providers is limited. In some instances, we may not be able to identify and/or remedy the cause or causes of these performance problems within a period of time acceptable to our customers. It may become increasingly difficult to maintain and improve our sites performance, especially during peak usage times. To the extent that we do not effectively address capacity constraints, either through our Hosting Providers or alternative providers of cloud infrastructure, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected. In addition, any changes in service levels from our Hosting Providers may adversely affect our ability to meet our customers’ requirements.
Our increased reliance on cloud-based services may subject us to increased risk of slowdown or interruption as a result of integration with such services or failures by such third parties, which are out of our control. Our net sales depend on the number of visitors who shop on our sites and the volume of orders we can handle. Unavailability of our sites or reduced order fulfillment performance would reduce the volume of goods sold and could also adversely affect customer perception of our brand. In particular, we have in the past and may in the future experience slowdowns or interruptions on our sites during updates. Currently, our sites are typically unavailable for a short period of time while software updates are being installed. We expect to no longer experience such update-related interruptions after we update our infrastructure, which we aim to complete in 2020. We may also experience other periodic system interruptions from time to time. In addition, continued growth in our transaction volume, as well as surges in online traffic and orders associated with promotional activities or shifts in overall sale seasons in our business, place additional demands on our third-party cloud-based services and technology infrastructure and could cause or increase the frequency or magnitude of slowdowns or interruptions. We may not be able to accurately project the rate or timing of increases, if any, in the use of our sites or expand, scale and upgrade our technology, systems, infrastructure and third-party cloud-based services to accommodate such increases on a timely basis. In order to remain competitive, we must continue to enhance and improve the responsiveness, functionality and features of our sites, which is particularly challenging given the rapid rate at which new technologies, customer preferences and expectations, industry standards and practices are evolving in the e-commerce industry.
Any slowdown or failure of our sites and the underlying third-party cloud-based services could harm our business, reputation and our ability to acquire, retain and serve our customers, which could adversely affect our results of operations and our business interruption insurance may not be sufficient to compensate us for the losses that could occur. Furthermore, compensation for, or indemnification from, damages resulting from capacity constraints or other limitations of our contractual partners might be limited due to contractual exclusions, limitations of liability or warranty provisions.
If sensitive information about our customers is disclosed, or if we or our third-party providers are subject to real or perceived cyberattacks, our customers may curtail use of our sites, we may be exposed to liability and our reputation would suffer.
We collect, transmit, and store personal and financial information provided by our customers, such as names, email addresses, the details of transactions and credit card and other financial information. Some of our third-party service providers, such as identity verification and payment processing providers, also regularly have access to customer data. In an effort to protect sensitive information, we rely on a variety of security measures, including encryption and authentication technology licensed from third parties. However, advances in computer capabilities, increasingly sophisticated tools and methods used by hackers and cyber terrorists, new discoveries in the field of cryptography or other developments may result in our failure or inability to adequately protect sensitive information.
Like other online services, we are also vulnerable to computer viruses, unauthorized access, phishing or social engineering attacks, ransomware attacks, denial-of-service attacks and other real or perceived cyberattacks. Any of these incidents could lead to interruptions or shutdowns of our sites, loss or corruption of data, or unauthorized access to or disclosure of personal data or other sensitive information. Cyberattacks could also result in the theft of our intellectual property. We have been subject to attempted cyber, phishing or social engineering attacks in the past and may continue to be subject to such attacks in the future. As we gain greater visibility, we may face a higher risk of being targeted by cyberattacks. Advances in computer capabilities, new
 
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technological discoveries or other developments may result in cyberattacks becoming more sophisticated and more difficult to detect. We and our third-party service providers may not have the resources or technical sophistication to anticipate or prevent all such cyberattacks. Moreover, techniques used to obtain unauthorized access to systems change frequently and may not be known until launched against us or our third-party service providers. Security breaches can also occur as a result of non-technical issues, including intentional or inadvertent actions by our employees, our third-party service providers, or their personnel.
We and our third-party service providers regularly experience cyberattacks aimed at disrupting our and their services. If we or our third party service providers experience, or are believed to have experienced, security breaches that result in our sites’ performance or availability problems or the loss or corruption of, or unauthorized access to or disclosure of, personal data or confidential information, people may become unwilling to provide us the information necessary make purchases on our sites. Existing customers may also decrease their purchases or close their accounts altogether. We could also face potential liability and litigation, which may not be adequately covered by insurance. Any of these results could harm our growth prospects, our business and our reputation.
The loss or corruption (or other unauthorized access or disclosure) of personal data may constitute a personal data breach under the General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”). In the event of such a personal data breach, we could be required to notify applicable government authorities and/or potential victims and could face continued governmental investigations, fines and private claims for compensation from individuals whose personal data was involved.
Customer growth and activity on mobile devices depends upon effective use of mobile operating systems, networks and standards that we do not control.
Purchases using mobile devices by customers generally, and by our customers specifically, have increased significantly, and we expect this trend to continue. In fiscal 2020, mobile orders accounted for 53% of our net sales, of which 42% were app orders, and approximately 78% of page views were generated via mobile app, tablet and mobile phone. To optimize the mobile shopping experience, we are dependent on our customers downloading our specific mobile applications for their particular device or accessing our sites from an internet browser on their mobile device. As new mobile devices and operating systems are released, it is difficult to predict the problems we may encounter in developing applications for these alternative devices and operating systems, and we may need to devote significant resources to the creation, support and maintenance of such applications. In addition, our future growth and our results of operations could suffer if we experience difficulties in the future in integrating our mobile applications into mobile devices, if problems arise with our relationships with providers of mobile operating systems or mobile application stores, such as those of the Apple App Store or Google Play, if our applications receive unfavorable treatment compared to competing applications, such as the order of our products within application stores, or if we face increased costs to distribute or have customers use our mobile applications. We are further dependent on the interoperability of our sites with popular mobile operating systems that we do not control, such as iOS and Android, and any changes in such systems that degrade the functionality of our sites or give preferential treatment to competitive products could adversely affect the usage of our sites on mobile devices. In the event that it is more difficult for our customers to access and use our sites on their mobile devices, or if our customers choose not to access or to use our sites on their mobile devices or to use mobile products that do not offer access to our sites, our customer growth could be harmed and our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.
Further, we continually upgrade existing technologies and business applications, and we may be required to implement new technologies or business applications in the future. The implementation of upgrades and changes requires significant investments. Our results of operations may be affected by the timing, effectiveness and costs associated with the successful implementation of any upgrades or changes to our systems and infrastructure.
A failure to comply with current laws, rules and regulations related to internet, ecommerce and trade sanctions or changes to such laws, rules and regulations and other legal uncertainties may adversely affect our business, financial performance, results of operations or business growth.
Our business and financial performance could be adversely affected by unfavorable changes in or interpretations of existing laws, rules and regulations or the promulgation of new laws, rules and regulations
 
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applicable to us and our businesses, including those relating to the internet and ecommerce, such as geo-blocking and other geographically based restrictions, internet advertising and price display, economic and trade sanctions and financial transactions. As a result, regulatory authorities could prevent or temporarily suspend us from carrying on some or all of our activities or otherwise penalize us if our practices were found not to comply with applicable regulatory requirements or any binding interpretation of such requirements. Unfavorable changes or interpretations could decrease demand for our services, limit marketing methods and capabilities, affect our margins, increase costs or subject us to additional liabilities.
For example, the U.S., the U.K., and other foreign regulatory authorities continue to enforce economic and trade regulations and anti-corruption laws, across industries. U.S. trade sanctions relate to transactions with designated foreign countries and territories, including Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Syria, and the Crimea region of Ukraine as well as specifically targeted individuals and entities that are identified on U.S. and other blacklists, and those owned by them or those acting on their behalf. Anti-corruption laws, including FCPA and the U.K. Bribery Act, generally prohibit direct or indirect corrupt payments to government officials and, under certain laws, private persons to obtain or retain business or an improper business advantage.
Although we have policies and procedures in place designed to promote compliance with such laws and regulations, which we review and update as we expand our operations, our employees, partners, or agents could take actions in contravention of our policies and procedures or violate applicable laws or regulations, for example, by unknowingly shipping merchandise to customers who are themselves or are family members of specifically targeted individuals subject to U.S. or EU economic sanctions. As regulations continue to develop and regulatory oversight continues to focus on these areas, we cannot guarantee that our policies and procedures will ensure compliance at all times with all applicable laws or regulations. In the event our controls should fail or we are found to be not in compliance for other reasons, we could be subject to monetary damages, civil and criminal monetary penalties, withdrawal of business licenses or permits, litigation, and damage to our reputation and the value of our brand.
Compliance with current and future laws and regulations and our contractual obligations relating to privacy, data protection and customer protection increases our operating costs. Failure to comply with such laws or regulations could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We collect and maintain significant amounts of personal data and other data relating to our customers and employees. A variety of European and international laws and regulations, and certain industry standards, govern or apply to our collection, use, retention, sharing and security of customer data. We are subject to certain laws, regulations, contractual obligations and industry standards (including, for example, the PCI-DSS the GDPR and the Federal Data Protection Act) relating to privacy, data protection, information security and customer protection. These requirements increase our operating costs and may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent from one jurisdiction to another or may conflict with other rules or our practices. As a result, our practices likely have not complied or may not comply in the future with all such laws, regulations, requirements and obligations. Any failure, or perceived failure, by us to comply with our privacy policies or with any Dutch, German, European, or international laws, regulations, industry self-regulatory principles, industry standards or codes of conduct, regulatory guidance, orders to which we may be subject or other legal or contractual obligations relating to privacy, data protection, information security or customer protection could adversely affect our reputation, brand and business, and may result in claims, proceedings or actions against us by governmental entities or others or other liabilities or require us to change our operations and/or cease or modify our use of certain data sets. Any such claim, proceeding or action could hurt our reputation, brand and business, force us to incur significant expenses in defense of such proceedings, distract our senior management, increase our costs of doing business, result in a loss of customers and suppliers or an inability to process credit card payments and may result in the imposition of monetary penalties. For example, under the GDPR, a personal data breach may result in monetary penalties of up to €20.0 million or 4% of our worldwide turnover of the preceding fiscal year, whichever is higher. We may also be contractually required to indemnify and hold harmless third parties from the costs or consequences of non-compliance with any laws, regulations or other legal obligations relating to privacy or customer protection or any inadvertent or unauthorized use or disclosure of data that we store or handle as part of operating our business.
 
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Changes in governmental regulation, court decisions or precedent and statutory laws might restrict or even prevent us from processing personal data in particular for marketing or advertising purposes and using our proprietary data insights, which might adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
European and international governmental authorities continue to evaluate the data protection and privacy implications inherent in the use of “cookies” and similar (tracking) technologies (in the following together “cookies”) in particular where these are used for behavioral advertising and other tracking and analytics purposes. In a judgment released on October 1, 2019, the European Court of Justice decided that website users must give active consent to the storage of, and access to, cookies on their devices, meaning that consent is not validly constituted by way of a pre-checked checkbox or other ways of implied consent (such as further browsing on the website after having been informed of the use of cookies). The website operator must amongst others also provide information about the duration of the operation of cookies and whether or not third parties may have access to those cookies. Merely cookies that are deemed “necessary,” such as those for the storage of login data or shopping baskets, are not subject to obligatory explicit consent by the users of the website. The specific consent requirements in connection with the use of cookies is also subject to applicable laws and interpretation in each EU Member State under the current Directive on privacy and electronic communications (the “ePrivacy Directive”) and the GDPR which may to some extent vary across EU Members States (in Germany for example, the Federal Court of Justice recently issued a landmark decision on the use of consent for cookies based on the aforementioned European Court of Justice decision). The main findings of the aforementioned European Court of Justice judgment are also part of the discussions about a current proposal by the European Commission for an EU ePrivacy Regulation, which would be repealing the current ePrivacy Directive. The discussions on the proposal are still ongoing and yet the adoption and the entry into force of the planned ePrivacy Regulations is not foreseeable. The current proposal also contains provisions on penalties for non-compliance, which may result in monetary penalties of up to €20.0 million or 4% of a company’s worldwide turnover of the preceding fiscal year, whichever is higher. Additionally, some providers of customer devices and web browsers have implemented, or announced plans to implement, means to make it easier for internet users to prevent the placement of cookies or to block other tracking technologies, which could if widely adopted result in the use of (third-party) cookies and other methods of online tracking becoming significantly less effective. Regulation of the use of cookies in particular for online tracking and advertising practices, or a loss in our ability to make effective use of services that employ such technologies, could increase our costs of operations and limit our ability to track trends, optimize our product assortment or acquire new customers on cost-effective terms and consequently, adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The European Union traditionally has imposed stricter obligations under its laws and regulations relating to privacy, data protection and customer protection than the United States. In May 2018, the GDPR became effective and substantially replaced the data protection laws of the individual European Union member states implementing the previous EU Data Protection Directive from 1995. The GDPR requires companies to meet more stringent requirements regarding the handling of personal data of individuals in the European Union than were required under predecessor European Union requirements and also extended its territorial applicability to controllers located outside the European Economic Area (in particular when offering of goods or services to customers located in the European Union or when monitoring of behavior of data subjects in the European Union). The GDPR also increases the penalties for non-compliance, which may result in monetary penalties of up to €20.0 million or 4% of a company’s worldwide turnover of the preceding financial year, whichever is higher. The GDPR and other similar regulations require companies to give specific types of notice on the data processing activities and in some cases seek consent from customers and other data subjects before collecting or processing their personal data for certain purposes, including some marketing activities. In addition, the GDPR stipulates strict accounting obligations requiring controllers to be able to demonstrate compliance with its obligations under the GDPR. Outside of the European Economic Area, many countries and territories have laws, regulations, or other requirements relating to privacy, data protection, information security, and customer protection, and new countries and territories are adopting such legislation or other obligations with increasing frequency. Many of these laws may require consent from customers for the use of data for various purposes, including marketing, which may reduce our ability to market our products. There is no harmonized approach to these laws and regulations globally. Consequently, we would increase our risk of non-compliance with applicable foreign data protection laws by expanding internationally. We may need to change and limit the way we use personal information in operating our business and may have difficulty maintaining a single operating model that is compliant. In addition, various federal, state and foreign
 
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legislative and regulatory bodies, or self-regulatory organizations, may expand current laws or regulations, enact new laws or regulations or issue revised rules or guidance regarding privacy, data protection, information security and customer protection.
Additionally, in connection with our global market and operations, we routinely perform international transfers of personal data to countries outside of the European Economic Area. On July 16, the European Court of Justice issued its opinion in Data Protection Commission v. Facebook Ireland, Schrems (the “Schrems Decision”), which invalidated the EU-U.S. Privacy Shield Framework for data transfers to the United States and greatly increased the legal requirements imposed on data exporters for transfers of personal data to countries, including the United States, deemed to have an inadequate data protection level compared to the standards imposed in the European Economic Area. The Schrems Decision has immediate effect, and accordingly, there is a risk that our current methods for performing international transfers of personal data could be considered non-compliant. Ensuring continued compliance will require time and resources to review and, as necessary, replace or amend, the current international data transfer mechanisms on which we currently rely, including our privacy shield certification and standard contractual clauses. Moreover, the resulting mechanisms and procedures may increase the expenses associated with our overall compliance with personal data protection requirements. These expenses will be applicable not only to consumer data but to all forms of personal data that we transfer internationally, including employee data which may be transferred from us to our affiliates or to certain third parties, such as service providers or vendors located outside of the European Union.
Our failure to invest in and adapt to technological developments and industry trends could harm our business.
We have identified the need to expand, scale and improve our information technology systems and personnel to support recent and expected future growth. In this regard, we are investing in and establishing a modular e-commerce platform to enhance our online customer experience and to allow us react faster and independently across our front- and back-ends. We are targeting the platform transition to be completed by December 31, 2021. To minimize the risk of disruption during this upgrade, we instituted a modular approach that allows us to migrate one capability at a time. As of the date of this prospectus, the transition to our upgraded mobile app is nearly complete, with the new app already receiving and fulfilling orders. We also continuously invest in and implement, significant modifications and upgrades to our information technology systems and procedures, including replacing legacy systems with successor systems, making changes to legacy systems or acquiring new systems with new functionality, hiring employees with information technology expertise and building new policies, procedures, training programs and monitoring tools. These types of activities, and in particular the transition to a new platform, subject us to inherent costs and risks associated with replacing and changing these systems, including impairment of our ability to leverage our e-commerce channels, fulfill customer orders, potential disruption of our internal control structure, substantial capital expenditures, additional administration and operating expenses, acquisition and retention of sufficiently skilled personnel to implement and operate the new systems, demands on management time, the introduction of errors or vulnerabilities and other risks and costs of delays or difficulties in transitioning to or integrating new systems into our current systems. These implementations, modifications and upgrades may not result in productivity improvements at a level that outweighs the costs of implementation, or at all. Additionally, difficulties with implementing new technology systems, delays in our timeline for planned improvements, significant system failures, or our inability to successfully modify our information systems to respond to changes in our business needs may cause disruptions in our business operations and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Some of our software and systems contain open source software, which may pose particular risks to our proprietary applications.
We use open source software in the applications we have developed to operate our business and will continue to use open source software in the future. We may face claims from third parties demanding the release or license of the open source software or derivative works that we developed from such software (which could include our proprietary source code) or otherwise seeking to enforce the terms of the applicable open source license. These claims could result in litigation and could require us to purchase a costly license, publicly release the affected portions of our source code, or cease offering the implicated solutions unless and until we can re-engineer them to avoid infringement. In addition, our use of open source software may present additional
 
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security risks because the source code for open source software is publicly available, which may make it easier for hackers and other third parties to determine how to breach our sites and systems that rely on open source software. Any of these risks could be difficult to eliminate or manage and, if not addressed, could have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
Our software is highly complex and may contain undetected errors.
The software underlying our sites is highly complex and may contain undetected errors or vulnerabilities, some of which may only be discovered after the code has been released. In the future, we expect to rely heavily on a software engineering practice known as “continuous deployment,” meaning that we will typically release software code multiple times per day. This practice may result in the more frequent introduction of errors or vulnerabilities into the software underlying our sites. Any errors or vulnerabilities discovered in our code after release could result in damage to our reputation, loss of customers, disruption to our operations, decline of net sales or liability for damages, any of which could adversely affect our business, financial conditions, result of operations and prospects.
Any failure to enforce our intellectual property rights could adversely affect our business or results of operations.
We rely on trademark, copyright, trade secrets, confidentiality agreements and other practices to protect our proprietary information, technologies and processes. Our principal trademark assets include the registered trademark “MYTHERESA,” in addition to our logo. Our trademarks are valuable assets that support our brand and customers’ perception of our services and merchandise. We also hold the rights to the “mytheresa.com” internet domain name and various other related domain names, which are subject to internet regulatory bodies and trademark and other related laws of each applicable jurisdiction. For example, we are required to register our trademark in China and have been and are currently subject to trademark infringement claims in China. Although we believe that these and similar claims are without merit, they may result in additional costs. As a result of the international nature of our business, we may be required to register our trademarks in the countries in which we operate or conduct business.
We currently have no registered copyrights, applications for copyright registrations, patents issued or applications pending in any jurisdiction. Any registered copyrights or patents that may be issued in the future may not provide us with any competitive advantages or may be challenged by third parties, and future registered copyrights or patent applications may never be granted. Even if issued, there can be no assurance that registered copyrights or patents will adequately protect our intellectual property or survive a legal challenge, as the legal standards relating to the validity, enforceability and scope of protection of registered copyright, patent and other intellectual property rights are uncertain. Our limited registered copyright and patent protection may restrict our ability to protect our technologies and processes from competition.
We may be required to spend significant resources to monitor and protect our intellectual property rights, and the efforts we take to protect our proprietary rights may not be sufficient.
We may be accused of infringing intellectual property or other proprietary rights of third parties.
We are also at risk of claims by others that we have infringed their copyrights, trademarks or patents, or improperly used or disclosed their trade secrets, or otherwise infringed or violated their proprietary rights, such as the right of publicity. The costs of supporting any litigation or disputes related to these claims can be considerable, and we cannot assure you that we will achieve a favorable outcome of any such claim. If any such claim is valid, we may be compelled to cease our use of such intellectual property or other proprietary rights and pay damages, which could adversely affect our business. Even if such claims were not valid, defending them could be expensive and distracting, adversely affecting our results of operations. In addition, certain merchandise we purchase from brand partners has in the past been, and may in the future be, alleged to have infringed a third-party’s intellectual property rights. Although the respective brand partner typically address all claims relating to such infringement, but our business or results of operations could be adversely affected as a result of such claims.
As an online luxury retailer, our success depends on the accuracy of our authentication process, particularly with respect to returned merchandise, and any failure by us to identify counterfeit goods could adversely affect our reputation, customer acceptance and relationships with brand partners.
Our success as an online luxury retailer depends on our ability to accurately and cost-effectively determine whether an item offered for sale or submitted for a return is an authentic product. While we have invested
 
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heavily in our authentication processes and we reject any merchandise we believe to be counterfeit, we cannot be certain that we will identify every counterfeit item delivered or returned to us. As the sophistication of counterfeiters increases, it may be increasingly difficult to identify counterfeit products. The sale or return of any counterfeit goods may damage our reputation as a trusted online luxury retailer, which may adversely affect our reputation, customer acceptance and relationships with brand partners.
The inability to acquire, use or maintain our marks and domain names for our sites could substantially harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We currently are the registrant of marks for our brand in numerous jurisdictions and are the registrant of the internet domain name for our sites, as well as various related domain names. However, we have not registered our marks or domain names in all major international jurisdictions. Domain names generally are regulated by internet regulatory bodies. As our business grows we may incur material costs in connection with the registration, maintenance, and protection of our marks. If we do not have or cannot obtain on reasonable terms the ability to use our marks in a particular country, or to use or register our domain name in a particular country, we could be forced either to incur significant additional expenses to market our offerings within that country, including the development of a new brand and the creation of new promotional materials and packaging, or to elect not to sell products in that country. Either result could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Furthermore, the regulations governing domain names and laws protecting marks and similar proprietary rights could change in ways that block or interfere with our ability to use relevant domains or our current brand. Also, we might not be able to prevent third parties from registering, using or retaining domain names that interfere with our customer communications or infringe or otherwise decrease the value of our marks, domain names and other proprietary rights. Regulatory bodies also may establish additional generic or country-code top-level domains or may allow modifications of the requirements for registering, holding or using domain names. As a result, we might not be able to register, use or maintain the domain names that use the name Mytheresa in all of the countries and territories in which we currently or intend to conduct business.
The loss of senior management or attrition among our buyers or key employees could adversely affect our business.
Our success in the global luxury fashion industry, including our ability to anticipate and effectively respond to changing fashion trends, is dependent on our ability to attract and retain qualified personnel, including, but not limited to, our executive team, particularly our chief executive officer, chief commercial officer and chief financial officer, specialized information technology personnel, our buyers and members of our merchandising customer experience, marketing and creative and content production teams as well as our customer care, processing and personal shopper teams. Competition for qualified personnel is strong, and we cannot be sure that we will be able to attract and retain a sufficient number of qualified personnel in the future, or that the compensation costs of doing so will not adversely affect our results of operations. If we are unable to retain, attract and motivate talented employees with the appropriate skills, particularly specialists in information technology, at cost-effective compensation levels, or if changes to our business adversely affect morale or retention, our ability to benefit from long-standing relationships with qualified brand partners or to provide relationship-based customer service could suffer.
In addition, the loss of one or more of our qualified personnel or the inability to promptly identify a suitable successor to a key role or the loss of any of our technicians could have an adverse effect on our business. For example, our chief executive officer and chief financial officer have unique and valuable experiences leading our company. Our managing director contracts provide for only a six-month notice period, which may be an insufficient amount of time to identify and recruit a qualified replacement. In addition, our fashion buying director for menswear, Christopher Kyvetos, is a freelance contractor under a consulting agreement with an annual term. If any of the foregoing were to depart or otherwise reduce their focus on our company, our business may be disrupted. We do not currently maintain key-person life insurance policies on any member of our senior management team or other key employees.
If we fail to effectively manage our employees and hiring needs in connection with our growth, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be harmed.
We have grown rapidly, with our net sales increasing from €379.1 million in fiscal 2019 to €449.5 million in fiscal 2020. To effectively manage our growth, we must continue to implement our operational plans and
 
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strategies, improve and expand our infrastructure of people and information systems and expand, train and manage our employee base. Since our inception, we have rapidly increased our employee headcount to support the growth of our business. As of September 30, 2020, we had a total of 860 employees, representing 828.5 FTEs, an increase from 649 FTEs as of June 30, 2019, and we have expanded across all areas of our business. To support continued growth, we must effectively integrate, develop and motivate a large number of new employees while maintaining our corporate culture. We face significant competition for personnel, particularly in Munich, where our principal offices and fulfillment center and the majority of our employees are located. To attract top talent, we have had to offer, and expect to continue to offer, competitive compensation and benefits packages before we can validate the productivity of new employees. We may also need to increase our employee compensation levels to remain competitive in attracting and retaining talented employees. The risks associated with a rapidly growing workforce will be particularly acute if we choose to expand into new merchandise categories and internationally. Additionally, we may not be able to hire new employees quickly enough to meet our needs. If we fail to effectively manage our hiring needs or successfully integrate new hires, our efficiency, our ability to meet forecasts and our employee morale, productivity and retention could suffer, which may adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Increases in labor costs, including wages, or other developments in labor and employment law, including any unionizing efforts by employees, could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Labor is a significant portion of our cost structure and is subject to many external factors, including unemployment levels, prevailing wage rates, minimum wage laws, potential collective bargaining arrangements, health insurance costs and other insurance costs and changes in employment and labor legislation or other workplace regulation. A significant portion of our workforce is in Germany. From time to time, legislative proposals are made to increase the minimum wage in the Federal Republic of Germany and to reform entitlement programs, such as health insurance and paid leave programs. As minimum wage rates increase or related laws and regulations change, we may need to increase not only the wage rates of our minimum wage employees, but also the wages paid to our other hourly or salaried employees. The minimum wage is set nationwide every two years for the following two years. Since its last increase effective as from January 1, 2020 the minimum wage is currently €9.35 per hour. The Minimum Wage Commission has recommended an increase in four steps every 6 months from the current level to €10.45 by July 1, 2022. The Minimum Wage Commission’s recommendation is subject to Government approval. Several German political parties are calling for a significant increase, which may be decided after the 2021 federal elections or earlier. Any increase in the cost of our labor could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations or if we fail to pay such higher wages we could suffer increased employee turnover. Increases in labor costs could force us to increase prices, which could adversely impact our sales. If competitive pressures or other factors prevent us from offsetting increased labor costs by increases in prices, our profitability may decline and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In particular, the job market in Munich, Germany, where our principal offices and fulfillment center as well as the majority of our employees are located, is very competitive.
We also face the risk that the European Union or the German legislature could approve legislation or regulations and respond to rulings of higher courts that significantly affect our businesses and our relationship with our employees. None of our employees are currently covered by a collective bargaining agreement, but any attempt by our employees to organize a labor union could result in increased legal and other associated costs. If we enter into a collective bargaining agreement with our employees, the terms could adversely affect our costs, efficiency and ability to generate acceptable returns on the affected operations.
Adverse litigation judgments or settlements resulting from legal proceedings in which we may be involved could expose us to monetary damages or limit our ability to operate our business.
We have in the past and may in the future become involved in private actions, collective actions, investigations and various other legal proceedings by customers, employees, brand partners, third-party suppliers, competitors, government agencies or others. The results of any such litigation, investigations and other legal proceedings are inherently unpredictable and expensive. Any claims against us, whether meritorious or not, could be time-consuming, result in costly litigation, damage our reputation, require significant amounts of management time and divert significant resources. If any of these legal proceedings were to be determined adversely to us, or we were to enter into a settlement arrangement, we could be exposed to monetary damages
 
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or limits on our ability to operate our business, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our reliance on brand partners located in jurisdictions presenting an increased risk of bribery and corruption, exposes us to legal, reputational, and supply chain risk through the potential for violations of federal and international anti-corruption law.
We are subject to certain provisions of the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977 (“FCPA”). The FCPA prohibits providing, offering, promising, or authorizing, directly or indirectly, anything of value to government officials, political parties, or political candidates for the purposes of obtaining or retaining business or securing any improper business advantage. We conduct business in, or may expand our business to, certain countries where there is a high risk of corruption and extortion and in some cases, where corruption and extortion are considered to be widespread and where our companies may have to obtain approvals, licenses, permits, or other regulatory approvals from public officials. Therefore, we are exposed to the risk that our employees, consultants, agents, or other third parties working on our behalf, could make, offer, promise or authorize payments or other benefits in violation of anti-corruption laws and regulations, especially in response to demands or attempts at extortion. If we or our brand partners were determined to have violated the FCPA, the U.K. Bribery Act of 2010, or any of the anti-corruption and anti-bribery laws in the countries and territories where we and our brand partners do business, we could suffer severe fines and penalties, profit disgorgement, injunctions on future conduct, securities litigation, bans on transacting certain business, and other consequences that may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, the costs we may incur in defending against any anti-corruption investigations stemming from our or our brand partners’ actions could be significant. Moreover, any actual or alleged corruption in our supply chain could carry significant reputational harms, including negative publicity, loss of goodwill, and decline in share price.
Any actual or perceived violation or breach of these anti-corruption laws and regulations, including any potential governmental or internal investigations of perceived or actual misconduct, could affect our overall reputation and, depending on the case, expose us to administrative or judicial proceedings, which could result in criminal and civil judgments, including fines and monetary penalties, a possible prohibition on maintaining business relationships with brand partners or customers in certain countries, and other negative consequences which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
We are subject to customs and international trade laws that could require us to modify our current business practices and incur increased costs or could result in a delay in getting products through customs and port operations, which may limit our growth and cause us to suffer reputational damage.
Our business is conducted worldwide, with goods imported from and exported to a substantial number of countries. A significant portion of the products we sell are shipped internationally. We are subject to numerous regulations, including customs and international trade laws that govern the importation and sale of luxury goods. Therefore, we are exposed to the risk that we are in non-compliance with some of these regulations and laws (the non-compliance of which could result in administrative proceedings initiated by competent authorities against us). Further, these regulations and laws may change unpredictably, and have done so recently in view of the global pandemic, economic pressures and potential trade wars.
Legal requirements are frequently changed and subject to interpretation, and we are unable to predict the ultimate cost of compliance with these requirements or their effects on our operations. We may be required to make significant expenditures or modify our business practices to comply with existing or future laws and regulations, which may increase our costs and materially limit our ability to operate our business.
Our business depends on our ability to source and distribute products in a timely manner. As a result, we rely on the free flow of goods through open and operational ports worldwide. Labor disputes or other disruptions at ports create significant risks for our business, particularly if work slowdowns, lockouts, strikes or other disruptions occur. Any of these factors could result in reduced sales or canceled orders, which may limit our growth and damage our reputation and may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.
 
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The imposition or increase of tariffs and the current uncertainty regarding international economic relations could have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
Our customers in certain countries, such as China and Russia, are also subject to limitations and regulations governing the import of luxury goods. In addition, we face risks associated with trade protection laws, policies and measures and other regulatory requirements affecting trade and investment, including loss or modification of exemptions for taxes and tariffs and potential delays in obtaining refunds or drawbacks of tariffs and duties in respect of returned merchandise, imposition of new tariffs and duties and import and export licensing requirements in the countries in which we operate or conduct business. Our failure to comply with import or export rules and restrictions, to properly classify items under tariff regulations and pay the appropriate duties or to satisfy the regulatory requirements for claiming refunds or drawbacks of tariffs and duties in respect of returned merchandise could expose us to fines and penalties. If these laws or regulations were to change or were violated by our management, employees or brand partners, we could experience delays in shipments of our goods, be subject to fines or penalties, or suffer reputational harm, which could reduce demand for our services and negatively impact our results of operations.
The United States, European Union and the other regions in which our products are manufactured or sold have imposed and may impose additional quotas, duties, tariffs, retaliatory or trade protection measures, or other restrictions or regulations, which can affect the sale of our products. For example, in 2018 the European Union imposed tariffs on certain luxury products imported from the United States. In September 2019, the United States imposed duties on approximately $7.5 billion worth of European goods, including British-made apparel and accessories, and in December 2019 imposed additional tariffs on $2.4 billion of French goods such as handbags, cosmetics, wine, and other key exports. In 2020, the United States imposed more duties on certain European goods in retaliation for a WTO finding with respect to subsidies to Airbus and the imposition of a French digital services tax, which would include a 25% duty on specified French goods, including handbags and cosmetics, which are scheduled to go into effect in January 2021, which may have an adverse impact on the sale of French manufactured products in the United States On November 7, 2020, the EU imposed additional retaliatory penalties on up to $4 billion of U.S. imports, including luxury bags, and cases, which may have an adverse impact on the sale of U.S. manufactured products in the EU. These tariffs have had, and are expected to continue to have, an adverse impact on luxury brand conglomerates and U.K. and French-based brands whose products we sell. The imposition of additional tariffs by the United States could result in the adoption of tariffs by other countries as well, leading to a global trade war. Chinese trade regulations, for example, are in a state of flux, in part as a result of economic tensions with the United States. Such tensions may result in us becoming subject to other forms of taxation, tariffs, and duties and could have a significant impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Other governmental action related to tariffs or international trade agreements may adversely impact demand for our products, our costs, customers, suppliers and global economic conditions and cause higher volatility in financial markets. The luxury industry has been impacted by ongoing uncertainty surrounding tariffs and import duties, and international trade relations generally. While we actively review existing and proposed measures to seek to assess the impact of them on our business, changes in tariff rates, import duties and other new or augmented trade restrictions could have a number of negative impacts on our business, including higher consumer prices and reduced demand for our products and higher input costs. The imposition or increase of tariffs might cause us to consider increasing prices to our end customers. However, this could reduce the competitiveness of our merchandise and customers might refrain from purchasing products from us, and/or might switch to competitors, which could adversely affect net sales. If we fail to manage these dynamics successfully, gross margins and profitability could be adversely affected. As of the date of this prospectus, tariffs have not had a significant impact on our business, but increased tariffs or trade restrictions implemented by the United States or other countries in connection with a global trade war could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Any failure by us or our brand partners to comply with product safety, labor or other laws, or to provide safe conditions for our or their workers may damage our reputation and brand and harm our business.
The merchandise we sell to our customers is subject to regulation by the Federal Customer Product Safety Commission, the Federal Trade Commission, the European Commission and similar national and international regulatory authorities. Products marketed in the European Union are subject to several European
 
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Union legislative acts regulating products such as the EU Regulation on requirements for accreditation and market surveillance relating to the marketing of products ((EC) No 765/2008), the EU Directive on general product safety (2001/95/EC) and the EU Directive concerning liability for defective products (85/374/EEC). As a result, such merchandise could be subject to market surveillance and accreditation measures by European and national authorities, as well as recalls and other remedial actions. Product safety, labeling and licensing concerns, including customer disclosure and warning regarding chemical exposure, may require us to voluntarily remove selected merchandise from our inventory. Such recalls or voluntary removal of merchandise can result in, among other things, lost sales, diverted resources, potential harm to our reputation and increased customer service costs and legal expenses, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
We purchase our merchandise from numerous international and European brand partners. Failure of our brand partners to comply with applicable laws and regulations and contractual requirements could lead to litigation against us, resulting in increased legal expenses and costs. In addition, the failure of any such brand partners or their manufacturers to provide safe and humane factory conditions and oversight at their facilities could damage our reputation with customers or result in legal claims against us, any of which could have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
We could be required to collect U.S. sales and use taxes or be subject to other tax liabilities (including penalties and interest) that may increase the costs our customers would have to pay and adversely affect our results of operations.
On June 21, 2018, the U.S. Supreme Court held in South Dakota v. Wayfair, Inc. that states could impose sales and use tax (collectively “sales tax”) collection obligations on out-of-state retailers even if those retailers lack any physical presence within the states imposing sales taxes. Under Wayfair, a person’s economic and virtual contacts with a state may be sufficient to create the “substantial nexus” that is required with a taxing state before the state may subject the person to sales tax collection obligations therein. An increasing number of U.S. states, both before and after the Supreme Court’s ruling, have considered or adopted laws that attempt to impose sales tax collection obligations on out-of-state retailers. Nearly every state now imposes sales tax collection obligations on companies engaging in a certain number and/or dollar value of sales to customers in the state, even when such companies lack a physical presence. The Supreme Court’s Wayfair decision has removed a significant impediment to the enactment of these laws, and it is possible that U.S. states may seek to tax out-of-state retailers, including for prior tax years. A successful assertion by one or more U.S. states requiring us to collect sales taxes where we presently do not do so could result in tax liabilities, including taxes on past sales, as well as penalties and interest. The imposition by U.S. state governments of sales tax collection obligations on out-of-state retailers in U.S. jurisdictions where we do not currently collect sales taxes, whether for prior years or prospectively, could also create additional administrative burdens for us, put us at a competitive disadvantage if they do not impose similar obligations on our competitors and decrease our future sales, which could have a material adverse impact on our business and results of operations. Although we believe that we currently collect sales taxes in all U.S. states that have adopted laws imposing sales tax collection obligations on out-of-state retailers since Wayfair was decided, a new imposition or a successful assertion by one or more U.S. states requiring us to collect sales taxes where we presently do not do so, or to collect more taxes in a jurisdiction in which we currently do collect some sales taxes, could result in substantial tax liabilities, including taxes on past sales, as well as penalties and interest.
We may experience fluctuations in our tax obligations and effective tax rate, which could adversely affect our results of operations.
As a global company, we are subject to taxation in certain other countries. Significant judgment is required to determine and estimate worldwide tax liabilities. Our future annual and quarterly effective tax rates could be affected by numerous factors, including changes in applicable tax laws, the amount and composition of pre-tax income in countries with differing tax rates or valuation of our deferred tax assets and liabilities. Changes in applicable tax laws in the jurisdictions in which we (or our subsidiaries) are organized or operate, as well as certain changes currently proposed by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development and their action plan on Base Erosion and Profit Shifting, including, without limitation, the recent Pillar I and Pillar II proposals to introduce customer base taxes and a global minimum tax (and the possibility of a unified approach not being agreed upon while a significant number of countries enact new unilateral tax measures
 
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without mechanisms to avoid double taxation), could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, there are, and will likely continue to be, an increasing number of tax laws and regulations pertaining to the internet and online commerce that could have a material impact on our financial condition and results of operations.
Our actual effective tax rate may vary from our expectation and that variance may be material. A number of factors may increase our future effective tax rates, including:

the jurisdictions in which profits are determined to be earned and taxed;

the resolution of issues arising from any future tax audits with various tax authorities;

changes in the valuation of our deferred tax assets and liabilities;

increases in expenses not deductible for tax purposes, including transaction costs and impairments of goodwill in connection with acquisitions;

changes in the taxation of share-based compensation;

changes in tax laws or the interpretation of such tax laws, and changes in generally accepted accounting principles; and

changes to the transfer pricing policies related to our structure.
From time to time we initiate amendments to previously filed tax returns. We regularly assess the likelihood of favorable or unfavorable outcomes resulting from these amendments and audits conducted by tax authorities to determine the adequacy of our provision for income taxes, which requires estimates and judgments. Although we believe our tax estimates are reasonable, we cannot assure you that the tax authorities will agree with such estimates. We may have to engage in litigation to achieve the results reflected in the estimates, which may be time-consuming and expensive. We cannot assure you that we will be successful or that any final determination will not be materially different from the treatment reflected in our historical income tax provisions and accruals, which could materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
Taxing authorities could reallocate our taxable income among any current or future affiliates, which could increase our overall tax liability.
If we succeed in growing our business, we may conduct increased operations through subsidiaries in various tax jurisdictions other than Germany pursuant to transfer pricing arrangements between us and such various subsidiaries. If two or more affiliated companies are located in different countries, the tax laws or regulations of each country generally will require that transfer prices be the same as those between unrelated companies dealing at arms’ length and that appropriate documentation is maintained to support the transfer prices. While we believe that we currently operate in compliance with applicable domestic and international transfer pricing laws (to the extent relevant) and intend to continue to do so, we cannot exclude the possibility that one or more foreign tax authorities may not agree with, and thus may challenge, any transfer pricing practices or procedures we implement now or in the future, and that applicable transfer pricing laws may change adversely to our business.
If any tax authorities were to successfully challenge our transfer prices as not reflecting arms’ length transactions, they could require us to adjust our transfer prices and thereby reallocate our income to reflect these revised transfer prices, which could result in higher tax liabilities, penalties or double taxation in two countries. In addition, our documentation may be considered to be insufficient by the relevant tax authorities which may also result in penalties and additional tax payments. If tax authorities were to allocate income to a tax jurisdiction with a higher aggregated tax burden, subject our income to double taxation or assess interest and penalties, it would increase our consolidated tax liability, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Our tax burden could increase due to changes in tax laws, tax rates, tax practice, tax treaties, or tax regulations, their application or interpretation, or as a result of future tax audits.
The tax treatment of us and our subsidiaries depends in some instances on determinations of fact and interpretations of complex provisions of applicable tax law for which no clear precedent or authority may be
 
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available. Relevant tax rules are consistently under review by persons involved in the legislative process and taxing authorities, which may result in revised interpretations of established concepts, statutory changes, new reporting obligations, revisions to regulations and other modifications and interpretations. The present tax treatment of us and our subsidiaries may be modified by administrative, legislative or judicial interpretation at any time, and any such action may apply on a retroactive or retrospective basis. Changes to applicable tax laws and interpretations thereof could affect or cause us to change the structure of our business and operations or change the character or treatment of portions of our income, among other results. For example, the German ministry of finance issued a new draft bill on the implementation of the EU anti-tax avoidance directive. Amongst others, the draft bill intends to broaden the existing rules on corresponding inclusions and deductions of income and expenses and introduces provisions to counter tax shortfalls due to mismatches from the use of hybrid financial instruments or hybrid entities or due to dual tax residency and, furthermore, introduces new arm’s length provisions on intercompany financing that may ultimately limit the deduction of interest expenses on intercompany loans. If the draft bill is enacted and depending on the final wording of the new legislation, the introduction of aforesaid rules could result in higher taxable income of the Company’s operating subsidiaries and a higher tax burden for corporate income tax and trade tax purposes of the Company’s operating subsidiaries in the current and future tax periods.
The original treatment of a tax-relevant matter in a tax return, tax assessment or otherwise could later be found incorrect and as a result, we may be subject to additional taxes, interest, penalty payments and/or social security payments. Such reassessment may be due to an interpretation or view of laws and/or facts by tax authorities in a manner that deviates from our view and may emerge as a result of tax audits or other review actions by the relevant financial or tax authorities. For example, certain predecessors in interest were incorporated in Luxembourg, and the Luxembourg tax authorities may disagree with tax positions taken by those entities, including with regards to the transactions pursuant to which MYT Netherlands obtained ownership of MGG. Our subsidiaries and we are subject to tax audits by the respective tax authorities on a regular basis. As a result of future tax audits or other reviews by the tax authorities, additional taxes could be imposed on us and our subsidiaries exceeding the provisions reflected in our financial statements. This could lead to an increase in our tax obligations, either as a result of the relevant tax payment being assessed directly against us or as a result of us becoming liable for the relevant tax as a secondary obligor due to the primary obligor’s failure to pay.
We could in the future have considerable tax loss carry-forwards, or other tax carry-forwards, including as pertaining to interest or expense deductions. The utilization of these tax carry-forwards may be restricted under applicable tax laws, for instance, if they cannot be carried forward indefinitely or if they forfeit upon occurrence of certain events (e.g., a direct or indirect transfer of shares or a change of control). In addition, any such restriction may require a write-down of the deferred tax assets in our consolidated financial statements to the extent we have any future tax loss carry-forwards. This could negatively affect our financial position and results of operations. Furthermore, applicable tax laws may limit or restrict the ability to take current tax deductions for certain expenses.
Due to changes in tax laws, tax rates, tax practice, tax treaties, or tax regulations, we could be required to collect additional sales taxes or be subject to other tax liabilities. As a result this may increase the costs our customers would have to pay for our offering or us reducing our margin we generate with our offerings, which would adversely affect our results of operations.
We may require additional capital to support business growth, and this capital might not be available or may be available only by diluting existing shareholders.
We intend to continue making investments to support our business growth and may require additional funds to support this growth and respond to business challenges, including the need to develop our services, expand our inventory, enhance our operating infrastructure, expand the markets in which we operate and potentially acquire complementary businesses and technologies. Accordingly, we may seek to engage in equity or debt financings to secure additional funds. If we raise additional funds through further issuances of equity or convertible debt securities, our existing shareholders could suffer significant dilution. In addition, any debt financing secured by us in the future could involve restrictive covenants relating to our capital-raising activities and other financial and operational matters, which may make it more difficult for us to obtain additional capital and to pursue business opportunities.
 
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We may not be able to obtain additional financing on terms favorable to us, if at all. If we are unable to obtain adequate financing or financing on terms satisfactory to us, when we require it, our ability to continue to support our business growth and to respond to business challenges could be significantly limited, and our business and prospects could be adversely affected.
If our internal control over financial reporting or our disclosure controls and procedures are not effective, we may not be able to accurately report our financial results, prevent fraud or file our periodic reports in a timely manner, which may cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information and may lead to a decline in the ADS price.
We have been a private company since our inception, and as such, we have not had the internal control and financial reporting requirements that are required of a publicly traded company. Upon becoming a publicly traded company, we will be required to comply with the SEC’s rules implementing Sections 302 and 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, which require that we maintain effective internal control over financial reporting and disclosure controls and procedures. In particular, we must perform system and process evaluation, document our controls and perform testing of our key controls over financial reporting to allow management and, once we are no longer an “emerging growth company,” our independent registered public accounting firm to report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting, as required by Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. Our testing, or the subsequent testing by our independent registered public accounting firm in the future, may reveal deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting that are deemed to be material weaknesses. If we are not able to comply with the requirements of Section 404 in a timely manner, or if we or our independent registered public accounting firm identify deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting that are deemed to be material weaknesses, the market price of ADSs would likely decline, and we could be subject to lawsuits, sanctions or investigations by regulatory authorities, which would require additional financial and management resources. For additional information regarding our status as an emerging growth company, please see “—We are an emerging growth company, and any decision on our part to comply only with certain reduced reporting and disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies could make the ADSs less attractive to investors.”
We continue to invest in more robust technology and in more resources in order to manage our reporting requirements. Implementing the appropriate changes to our internal controls and remediating any material weakness may distract our senior management and employees, result in substantial costs to implement new processes or modify our existing processes and require significant time to complete. Any difficulties or delays in implementing the system could impact our ability to timely report our financial results. In addition, we currently rely on a manual process in some areas which increases our exposure to human error or intervention in reporting our financial results. For these reasons, we may encounter difficulties in the timely and accurate reporting of our financial results, which would impact our ability to provide our investors with information in a timely manner. As a result, our investors could lose confidence in our reported consolidated financial information, and the ADS price could decline.
In addition, any such changes do not guarantee that we will be effective in maintaining the adequacy of our internal controls, and any failure to maintain that adequacy could prevent us from accurately reporting our financial results.
Failure to maintain proper and effective internal control over financial reporting could impair our ability to produce accurate and timely consolidated financial statements and harm our operating results, our ability to operate our business and investors’ views of us.
As a public company, we will be required to report, among other things, control deficiencies that constitute a “material weakness” or changes in internal controls that, or that are reasonably likely to, materially affect internal controls over financial reporting. A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of the company’s annual or interim consolidated financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. Ensuring that we have adequate internal financial and accounting controls and procedures in place so that we can produce accurate consolidated financial statements on a timely basis is a costly and time-consuming effort that needs to be evaluated frequently. In the past, we have not prepared public company financial statements.
 
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In connection with the audit of our fiscal 2020 consolidated financial statements, we identified material weaknesses in our internal controls related to (1) the sufficiency of resources with an appropriate level of technical accounting and SEC reporting experience and clearly defined roles within our finance and accounting functions and (2) the design and operating effectiveness of IT general controls for information systems that are relevant to the preparation of our consolidated financial statements.
We have developed and are in the process of implementing a remediation plan to address these control deficiencies, which we believe will address the underlying causes of our material weaknesses. As part of our remediation plan, we intend to hire additional qualified personnel within our finance and accounting functions who have working experience in IFRS and SEC reporting, in addition to establishing more robust processes to support our internal control over financial reporting, including clearly defined roles and responsibilities and appropriate segregation of duties over key financial reporting controls and processes. Furthermore, with respect to the effectiveness of our IT general controls, we are in the process of establishing formal processes and controls for information systems that are key to the preparation of our consolidated financial statements, including access and change controls. In the near term, we have engaged external advisors who are providing financial accounting assistance, in addition to evaluating the design, implementation and operating effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting. If these measures are ineffective, we may be unable to remediate these issues in the anticipated timeframe, which could have an adverse effect on our operating results, our ability to operate our business and investors’ views of us.
Operating as a publicly traded company in the United States will subject us to additional rules and regulations, require us to incur substantial costs and require substantial management attention. In addition, our management team has limited experience managing a public company.
As a publicly traded company in the United States, we will incur substantial legal, accounting, director and officer insurance and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company. For example, we will be subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, the applicable requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, and the rules and regulations of the SEC. The NYSE listing requirements and the Dutch regulations applicable to private companies with limited liability under the laws of the Netherlands and the Dutch Corporate Governance Code, as well as other applicable securities rules and regulations, will also apply to us following this offering. As part of these new requirements, we will need to establish and maintain effective disclosure and financial controls and make changes to our corporate governance practices. We expect that compliance with these requirements will increase our legal and financial compliance costs and will make some activities more time consuming.
Most of our management and other personnel have little experience managing a public company and preparing public filings. In addition, we expect that our management and other personnel will need to divert attention from other business matters to devote substantial time to the reporting and other requirements of being a public company. In particular, we expect to incur significant expense and devote substantial management effort to complying with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. We may need to hire additional accounting and financial staff with appropriate public company experience and technical accounting knowledge.
In addition, changing laws, regulations and standards relating to corporate governance and public disclosure are creating uncertainty for public companies, increasing legal and financial compliance costs and making some activities more time consuming. These laws, regulations and standards are subject to varying interpretations, in many cases due to their lack of specificity, and, as a result, their application in practice may evolve over time as new guidance is provided by regulatory and governing bodies. This could result in continuing uncertainty regarding compliance matters and higher costs necessitated by ongoing revisions to disclosure and governance practices. We intend to invest resources to comply with evolving laws, regulations and standards, and this investment may result in increased general and administrative expenses and a diversion of management’s time and attention from revenue-generating activities to compliance activities. If our efforts to comply with new laws, regulations and standards differ from the activities intended by regulatory or governing bodies due to ambiguities related to their application and practice, regulatory authorities may initiate legal proceedings against us and our business may be adversely affected.
These new rules and regulations may make it more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance, and in the future, we may be required to accept reduced coverage or incur substantially higher costs
 
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to obtain coverage. These factors could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified members of our Supervisory Board, particularly to serve on our Audit Committee and Nominating, Governance and Compensation Committee, and qualified senior management.
By disclosing information in this prospectus and in filings required of a public company, our business and financial condition will become more visible, which we believe may result in threatened or actual litigation, including by competitors and other third parties. If those claims are successful, our business could be seriously harmed. Even if the claims do not result in litigation or are resolved in our favor, the time and resources needed to resolve them could divert our management’s resources and seriously harm our business.
Our credit facilities contain restrictive covenants that may limit our operating flexibility.
Our credit facilities contain restrictive covenants that limit the ability of our subsidiaries to pay dividends to MYT Netherlands and our ability to transfer or dispose of assets, merge with other companies or consummate certain changes of control, acquire other companies, incur additional indebtedness and liens and enter into new businesses. We therefore may not be able to engage in any of the foregoing transactions unless we obtain the consent of the lender or terminate the credit facility, which may limit our operating flexibility. In addition, our credit facilities are secured by most of our assets and require us to satisfy certain financial covenants. There is no guarantee that we will be able to generate sufficient cash flow or sales to meet these financial covenants or pay the principal and interest on any debt under our facilities. Furthermore, there is no guarantee that future working capital, borrowings or equity financing will be available to repay or refinance any such debt. Any inability to make scheduled payments or meet the financial covenants on our credit facilities would adversely affect our business.
Risks Related to ADSs and this Offering
The market price of ADSs may be volatile or may decline steeply or suddenly regardless of our operating performance, and we may not be able to meet investor or analyst expectations. You may not be able to resell your ADSs at or above the initial public offering price and may lose all or part of your investment.
The initial public offering price for the ADSs was determined through negotiations between the underwriters and us, and may vary from the market price of ADSs following this offering. If you purchase ADSs in this offering, you may not be able to resell those ADSs at or above the initial public offering price. We cannot assure you that the market price following this offering will equal or exceed prices in privately negotiated transactions of ADSs that have occurred from time to time before this offering. The market price of ADSs may fluctuate or decline significantly in response to numerous factors, many of which are beyond our control, including:

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our customer base, the level of customer engagement, net sales or other results of operations;

variations between our actual results of operations and the expectations of securities analysts, investors and the financial community;

any forward-looking financial or operating information we may provide to the public or securities analysts, any changes in this information or our failure to meet expectations based on this information;

any forward-looking financial or operating information we may provide to the public or securities analysts, any changes in this information or our failure to meet expectations based on this information;

any current or future health epidemic or other adverse public health development, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, could result in business disruption, sustained economic downturn, margin pressures and have an material adverse effect on our business and operating results;

whether investors or securities analysts view the significant voting control of our parent company, MYT Holding, unfavorably;

any negative publicity or negative market perception around the Company’s former association with Neiman Marcus and the Neiman Marcus brand;
 
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additional ADSs being sold into the market by us or our existing shareholders, or the anticipation of such sales, including if existing shareholders sell shares into the market when applicable “lock-up” periods end;

announcements by us or our competitors of significant products or features, technical innovations, acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures or capital commitments;

changes in operating performance and stock market valuations of companies in our industry, including our brand partners and competitors;

price and volume fluctuations in the overall stock market, including as a result of trends in the economy as a whole;

lawsuits threatened or filed against us;

developments in new legislation and pending lawsuits or regulatory actions, including interim or final rulings by judicial or regulatory bodies; and

other events or factors, including those resulting from war or incidents of terrorism, or responses to these events.
In addition, extreme price and volume fluctuations in the stock markets have affected and continue to affect many e-commerce and other technology companies’ stock prices. Often, their stock prices have fluctuated in ways unrelated or disproportionate to the companies’ operating performance. In the past, shareholders have filed securities class action litigation following periods of market volatility. If we were to become involved in securities litigation, it could subject us to substantial costs, divert resources and the attention of management and materially harm our business. While we have procured a director and officer insurance policy to mitigate the costs of any securities litigation, we could nonetheless incur substantial costs due to the deductible, various policy exclusions and the limits of coverage, and there can be no assurance that such costs could not have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
Moreover, because of these fluctuations, comparing our results of operations on a period-to-period basis may not be meaningful. You should not rely on our past results as an indication of our future performance. This variability and unpredictability could also result in our failing to meet the expectations of industry or financial analysts or investors for any period. If our net sales or results of operations fall below the expectations of analysts or investors or below any forecasts we may provide to the market, or if the forecasts we provide to the market are below the expectations of analysts or investors, the price of ADSs could decline substantially. Such a decline could occur even when we have met any previously publicly stated net sales or earnings forecasts that we may provide.
An active trading market for the ADSs may never develop or be sustained.
We have applied to list the ADSs on the NYSE, under the symbol “MYTE.” However, we cannot assure you that an active trading market for ADSs will develop on that exchange or elsewhere or, if developed, that any market will be sustained. Accordingly, we cannot assure you of the liquidity of any trading market, your ability to sell your ADSs when desired, or the prices that you may obtain for your ADSs.
We may invest or spend the proceeds of this offering in ways with which you may not agree or in ways that may not yield a return.
We intend to use up to $207 million of the net proceeds from this offering to cause MGG to repay all or a portion of the principal and accrued and unpaid interest outstanding under the 6.00% Shareholder Loans Due 2025, which will in turn be used to repay all or a portion of the principal and accrued and unpaid interest outstanding under certain 7.50% Senior Secured PIK Notes Due 2025 (but not less than $125.0 million in principal amount) issued in the original principal amount of $200.0 million by MYT Holding in connection with the settlement of all claims against MYT Holding and MYT Netherlands related to the Neiman Marcus Bankruptcy and the Distribution. See “Matters Related to Our Current and Former Parent Entities—Neiman Marcus Bankruptcy” for additional information on the Senior Secured PIK Notes. We intend to repay the remainder of the Shareholder Loans, if any, out of the net proceeds of one or more equity offerings in the future. The Shareholder Loans were originally incurred in 2014 as part of the acquisition financing for
 
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Mytheresa by the Neiman Marcus Group. See “Related Party Transactions—Shareholder Loans” for additional information on the Shareholder Loans. We are a guarantor of such notes until the completion of this offering. The remainder of the net proceeds from this offering will be primarily used for general corporate purposes. We may also use a portion of the remaining net proceeds from this offering for the acquisition of, or investment in, brands or businesses that complement our business, although we have no present commitments or agreements to enter into any such acquisition or investment. Our management will have considerable discretion in the application of the net proceeds, and you will not have the opportunity, as part of your investment decision, to assess whether the proceeds are being used appropriately. The net proceeds may be used for purposes that do not increase the value of our business or increase the risks to you, which could cause the price of ADSs to decline. Until net proceeds are used, they may be placed in investments that do not produce significant income or that may lose value. See “Matters Related to Our Current and Former Parent Entities—Neiman Marcus Group Bankruptcy” for additional information on the Senior PIK Notes.
If securities or industry analysts either do not publish research about us or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about us, our business or our market, or if they adversely change their recommendations regarding ADSs, the trading price or trading volume of ADSs could decline.
The trading market for ADSs will be influenced in part by the research and reports that securities or industry analysts may publish about us, our business, our market or our competitors. If one or more of the securities or industry analysts who cover us or may cover us in the future change their recommendation regarding ADSs, provide a more favorable recommendation about our competitors or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, the ADS price would likely decline. If any securities or industry analyst who covers us or may cover us in the future were to cease coverage of us or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause the trading price or trading volume of ADSs to decline.
We are an emerging growth company, and any decision on our part to comply only with certain reduced reporting and disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies could make the ADSs less attractive to investors.
We are an emerging growth company, and for as long as we continue to be an emerging growth company, we may choose to take advantage of exemptions from various reporting requirements applicable to other public companies but not to “emerging growth companies,” including:

the ability to present more limited financial data in the registration statement on Form F-1 of which this prospectus is a part;

not being required to have our independent registered public accounting firm audit our internal control over financial reporting under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act;

reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our annual report on Form 20-F; and

exemptions from the requirements of holding non-binding advisory votes on executive compensation and shareholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved.
We could be an emerging growth company for up to five years following the completion of this offering. Our status as an emerging growth company will end as soon as any of the following takes place:

the last day of the fiscal year in which we have more than $1.07 billion in annual net sales;

the date we qualify as a “large accelerated filer,” with at least $700.0 million of equity securities held by non-affiliates;

the date on which we have issued, in any three-year period, more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt securities; or

the last day of the fiscal year ending after the fifth anniversary of the completion of this offering.
We cannot predict if investors will find ADSs less attractive if we choose to rely on any of the exemptions afforded emerging growth companies. If some investors find ADSs less attractive because we rely on any of these exemptions, there may be a less active trading market for ADSs and the market price of ADSs may be more volatile.
 
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We have elected to take advantage of the “controlled company” exemption to the corporate governance requirements for NYSE-listed companies, which could make the ADSs less attractive to some investors or otherwise harm the price of ADSs.
A “controlled company” under the NYSE corporate governance requirements is a company of which more than 50% of the voting power is held by an individual, group or another company. Following this offering, MYT Holding will control a majority of the voting power of our outstanding ordinary shares, making us a “controlled company” within the meaning of the NYSE corporate governance requirements. Because we qualify as a “controlled company” under the corporate governance requirements for NYSE-listed companies, we are not required to have a majority of our Supervisory Board be independent (except as contemplated by the Dutch Corporate Governance Code on a comply or explain basis), nor are we required to have a compensation committee or an independent nominating function. In light of our status as a “controlled company,” in the future, we could elect not to have a majority of our Supervisory Board be independent or not to have a compensation committee or nominating and corporate governance committee. Our status as a “controlled company” could make the ADSs less attractive to some investors or otherwise harm the price of ADSs.
MYT Holding controls the direction of our business, and its concentrated ownership of our capital stock will prevent you and other shareholders from influencing significant decisions.
Upon completion of this offering, MYT Holding will control 79.5% (or 76.9% if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional ADSs from us and the Selling Shareholder in full) of the voting power in our ordinary shares. For so long as MYT Holding continues to control a majority of the voting power, it will generally be able to determine the outcome of all corporate actions requiring shareholder approval.
As a controlling shareholder, MYT Holding will be able to independently elect the members of our Supervisory Board, which only requires the vote of a simple majority of the votes cast at a general meeting. Further, MYT Holding will be able to independently elect the members of our Management Board on the basis of a binding nomination of the Supervisory Board. This will allow MYT Holding to indirectly influence the composition of our Management Board as well as certain corporate actions that require the approval of the Supervisory Board. Such actions, unless approved in the business plan or annual budget of the Company previously approved by the Supervisory Board for the relevant year or if it is part of the ordinary business of the Company, may include, inter alia, any material changes to our business strategy, the purchase, sale, creation or termination of business units, the incurrence or guarantee of certain indebtedness, the hiring, dismissal or modification of employment agreements for executive employees of subsidiaries of the Company as well as any related party transactions.
As a result, MYT Holding and its affiliates may engage in activities where their interests may not be the same as, or may conflict with, the interests of our other shareholders or our interests. Investors in this offering will not be able to affect the outcome of a shareholder vote while MYT Holding controls the majority of the voting power in the shareholders’ meeting. Because MYT Holding’s interests may differ from those of our other shareholders, actions that MYT Holding takes with respect to us, as our controlling shareholder, may not be favorable to us or to our other shareholders.
As a foreign private issuer we will not be subject to U.S. proxy rules and will be subject to Exchange Act reporting obligations that, to some extent, are more lenient and less frequent than those of a U.S. domestic public company.
Upon consummation of this offering, we will report under the Exchange Act as a non-U.S. company with foreign private issuer status. Because we qualify as a foreign private issuer under the Exchange Act and although we are subject to Dutch laws and regulations with regard to such matters, we are exempt from certain provisions of the Exchange Act that are applicable to U.S. domestic public companies, including (1) the sections of the Exchange Act regulating the solicitation of proxies, consents or authorizations in respect of a security registered under the Exchange Act, (2) the sections of the Exchange Act requiring insiders to file public reports of their share ownership and trading activities and liability for insiders who profit from trades made in a short period of time and (3) the rules under the Exchange Act requiring the filing with the SEC of quarterly reports on Form 10-Q containing unaudited financial and other specified information. In addition, foreign private issuers are not required to file their annual report on Form 20-F until 120 days after the end of each fiscal year, while U.S. domestic issuers that are accelerated filers are required to file their annual report on
 
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Form 10-K within 75 days after the end of each fiscal year and U.S. domestic issuers that are large accelerated filers are required to file their annual report on Form 10-K within 60 days after the end of each fiscal year. Foreign private issuers are also exempt from Regulation FD, which is intended to prevent issuers from making selective disclosures of material information. As a result of all of the above, you may not have the same protections afforded to shareholders of a company that is not a foreign private issuer, some investors may find the ADSs less attractive, and there may be a less active trading market for the ADSs.
We may lose our foreign private issuer status in the future, which could result in significant additional costs and expenses.
As a foreign private issuer we are not required to comply with all of the periodic disclosure and current reporting requirements of the Exchange Act. In the future, we would lose our foreign private issuer status if (1) more than 50% of our outstanding voting securities are owned by U.S. residents and (2) a majority of the members of our Supervisory Board or executive officers are U.S. citizens or residents, or we fail to meet additional requirements necessary to avoid loss of foreign private issuer status. If we lose our foreign private issuer status, we will be required to file with the SEC periodic reports and registration statements on U.S. domestic issuer forms, which are more detailed and extensive than the forms available to a foreign private issuer. We will also be required to comply with U.S. federal proxy requirements, and the members of our Management and Supervisory Boards, senior management and our principal shareholders will become subject to the short-swing profit disclosure and recovery provisions of Section 16 of the Exchange Act. In addition, we will lose our ability to rely upon exemptions from certain corporate governance requirements under the listing rules of the NYSE. As a U.S. listed public company that is not a foreign private issuer, we will incur significant additional legal, accounting and other expenses that we will not incur as a foreign private issuer, and accounting, reporting and other expenses in order to maintain a listing on a U.S. securities exchange. These expenses will relate to, among other things, the obligation to present our financial information in accordance with U.S. GAAP in the future.
As we are a foreign private issuer and intend to follow certain home country corporate governance practices, our shareholders may not have the same protections afforded to shareholders of companies that are subject to all NYSE corporate governance listing requirements.
As a foreign private issuer, we will have the option to follow certain home country corporate governance practices rather than those of the NYSE, provided that we disclose the requirements we are not following and describe the home country practices we are following. We intend to rely on this “foreign private issuer exemption” with respect to the NYSE requirements to have the Audit Committee appoint our external auditors, the NYSE rules for shareholder meeting quorums and record dates and the NYSE rules requiring shareholders to approve equity compensation plans and material revisions thereto. We may in the future elect to follow home country practices with regard to other matters. As a result, our shareholders may not have the same protections afforded to shareholders of companies that are subject to all NYSE corporate governance requirements.
Future securities issuances could result in significant dilution to our shareholders and impair the market price of ADSs.
You will suffer immediate and substantial dilution in the net tangible book value of the ADSs if you purchase ADSs in this offering. Based on an assumed initial public offering price of $25.00 per ADS, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, after giving effect to this offering, purchasers of ADSs in this offering will experience immediate dilution in net tangible book value of $22.58 per ADS. In addition, after giving effect to this offering, investors purchasing ADSs in this offering will contribute 56.4% of the total amount invested by shareholders since inception but will only own 18.2% of the ordinary shares outstanding. See “Dilution” for a more detailed description of the dilution to new investors in the offering.
Future issuances of ADSs, or the perception that these sales may occur, could depress the market price of ADSs and result in dilution to existing holders of ADSs. We intend to adopt the MYT Netherlands Parent B.V. 2020 Omnibus Incentive Compensation Plan (the “2020 Plan”), under which we expect to grant equity or cash- and/or equity-based awards in order to attract, motivate and retain employees and other service
 
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providers. To the extent we grant awards under the 2020 Plan, such awards may subject ADSs to further dilution. The amount of dilution could be substantial depending upon the size of the issuances or exercises. As a result, purchasers of ADSs in this offering bear the risk that future issuances of debt or equity securities may dilute their ownership interest.
We may from time to time offer additional ADSs at a discount from the current trading price of ADSs. As a result, holders of ADSs would experience further immediate dilution upon the purchase of any ADSs sold at such discount. In addition, as opportunities present themselves, we may enter into financing or similar arrangements in the future, including the issuance of debt securities, ordinary shares or ADSs. If we issue ordinary shares or securities convertible or exchangeable into ordinary shares, holders of the ADSs would experience additional dilution and, as a result, the price of the ADSs may decline.
A significant portion of our total outstanding ordinary shares after this offering will be restricted from immediate resale but may be sold in the near future. The large number of shares eligible for sale or subject to rights requiring us to register them for sale could cause the market price of the ADSs to drop significantly, even if our business is performing well.
Sales of a substantial number of ordinary shares or ADSs could occur at any time, subject to certain restrictions described below. These sales, or the perception in the market that holders of a large number of ordinary shares or ADSs intend to sell ordinary shares or ADSs, could reduce the market price of the ADSs. Based on the number of our ordinary shares outstanding as of the date of this prospectus (as adjusted to reflect the share split described herein) we will have 85,783,883 ordinary shares outstanding after this offering (or 86,384,153 ordinary shares if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional ADSs in full).
Future sales of ADSs issued in connection with this offering could cause our share price to decline.
If our shareholders, including employees and service providers who obtain equity, sell or indicate an intention to sell, substantial amounts of ADSs in the public market after the lock-up and legal restrictions on resale discussed in this prospectus lapse, the trading price of ADSs could decline. Based on shares outstanding as of the date of this prospectus (as adjusted to reflect the share split described herein), upon the completion of this offering, we will have outstanding a total of 85,783,883 ADSs eligible for sale on the market. Each of the members of our Management or Supervisory Boards, our senior management and the Selling Shareholder have entered into lock-up agreements with the underwriters that restrict their ability to sell or transfer their ADSs or ordinary shares for a period of 180 days after the date of this prospectus. However, Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC and J.P. Morgan Securities LLC may, in their sole discretion, waive the contractual lock-up before the lock-up agreements expire. After the lock-up agreements expire, 68,044,154 ADSs outstanding as of the date of this prospectus (assuming the closing of this offering) will be eligible for sale in the public market, all of which are held by members of our Management or Supervisory Boards, senior management and other affiliates and will be subject to volume limitations under Rule 144 of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and various vesting agreements. Sales of a substantial number of such ADSs upon expiration of the lock-up agreements, the perception that such sales may occur or early release of these agreements, could cause our market price to fall or make it more difficult for you to sell your ADSs at a time and price that you deem appropriate.
We intend to file a registration statement on Form S-8 under the Securities Act covering all the ADSs subject to share awards outstanding and reserved for issuance under our share plans. That registration statement will become effective immediately on filing, and ADSs covered by that registration statement will be eligible for sale in the public markets, subject to Rule 144 limitations applicable to affiliates and the lock-up agreements described above. If these additional ADSs are sold, or if it is perceived that they will be sold in the public market, the trading price of ADSs could decline.
Changes in IFRS could have an adverse effect on our previously reported results of operations.
The standards comprising IFRS are subject to revision and interpretation by the IASB and by various bodies formed to promulgate and to interpret appropriate accounting principles including the International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee and the Standard Interpretations Committee. A change in these standards or interpretations could have a significant effect on our previously reported results of operations and could affect the reporting of transactions completed before the announcement of a change.
 
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Additionally, our assumptions, estimates and judgments related to complex accounting matters could significantly affect our financial results. IFRS and related accounting pronouncements, implementation guidelines and interpretations with regard to a wide range of matters that are relevant to our business, including, but not limited to, revenue recognition, impairment of long-lived assets, leases and related economic transactions, intangibles, self-insurance, income taxes, property and equipment, litigation and equity-based compensation are highly complex and involve many subjective assumptions, estimates and judgments by us. Changes in these rules or their interpretation or changes in underlying assumptions, estimates or judgments by us could require us to make changes to our accounting systems to implement these changes that could increase our operating costs and could significantly change our reported or expected financial performance.
The value of goodwill, brand names or other intangible assets reported in our consolidated financial statements may need to be partially or fully impaired as a result of revaluations
As of September 30, 2020, our carrying amount of goodwill, brand names and other intangible assets recorded on our consolidated balance sheet was €155.0 million. Under IFRS, we are required to annually test our recorded goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets, such as brand names, and to assess the carrying values of other intangible assets when impairment indicators exist. As a result of such tests, we could be required to recognize impairment losses in our income statement if the carrying value is in excess of the fair value. Certain of our intangible assets include acquired customers that we amortize over several years. If we are required to book losses with respect to such intangibles, we may need to shorten the amortization period, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The exclusive forum provisions set forth under Dutch law, our Articles of Association and the deposit agreement may limit our shareholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers, or employees.
Dutch law provides that the courts at the corporate seat of the issuer are the exclusive forum for, inter alia, any legal challenge by a shareholder of a resolution of the general meeting. Similarly, our Articles of Association provide that, unless we consent in writing to an alternative forum, the competent court in Amsterdam, the Netherlands shall be the sole and exclusive forum for (i) any action asserting a claim for breach of a fiduciary or other duty owed by any member of our Management Board and Supervisory Board, any executive officer or any other agent to the company; (ii) any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the Dutch Civil Code, the Articles of Association of the company or the rules of procedure of the Supervisory Board or the Management Board; (iii) any action asserting a claim pertaining to our internal affairs or (iv) any action asserting a claim under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act or the rules and regulations promulgated pursuant to such statutes.
Also, as set forth in the deposit agreement, and to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the federal district courts of the United States of America shall be the exclusive forum for the resolution of any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act or the rules or regulations promulgated pursuant to such statutes. Notwithstanding the foregoing, we note that holders of our securities cannot waive compliance with the federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder. Section 27 of the Exchange Act creates exclusive federal jurisdiction over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or the rules and regulations thereunder, and Section 22 of the Securities Act creates concurrent jurisdiction for federal and state courts over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Securities Act or the rules and regulations thereunder. As a result, the exclusive jurisdiction provision may not preclude or contract the scope of exclusive federal or concurrent jurisdiction for actions brought under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act, or the respective rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.
The preceding exclusive forum provisions described in this risk factor may limit a shareholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with MYT Netherlands or members of our Management or Supervisory Boards, senior management or other employees, which may discourage lawsuits against MYT Netherlands and members of our Management or Supervisory Boards, senior management and other employees. In addition, the enforceability of exclusive forum provisions in our Articles of Association and deposit agreement is uncertain. If a court were to find any of the exclusive forum provisions described in this risk factor to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with
 
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resolving the dispute in other jurisdictions, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The rights of shareholders in a Dutch private company with limited liability (besloten vennootschap met beperkte aansprakelijkheid) differ in material respects from the rights of shareholders of corporations incorporated in the United States.
MYT Netherlands is a Dutch private company with limited liability (besloten vennootschap met beperkte aansprakelijkheid) with its registered office in the Netherlands. Its corporate affairs are governed by the laws governing private companies with limited liability formed in the Netherlands set forth in the Dutch Civil Code, the Dutch Corporate Governance Code, its Articles of Association, the Rules of Procedure of its Supervisory Board and the Rules of Procedure of its Management Board. The rights of our shareholders may be different from the rights and obligations of shareholders in companies governed by the laws of U.S. jurisdictions.
In addition, rights of shareholders and the responsibilities of members of our Management Board and Supervisory Board may differ from the rights of shareholders and the duties of directors of U.S. corporations. In the performance of their duties, our Management Board and Supervisory Board are required by Dutch law to consider our interests and the interests of our shareholders, employees and other stakeholders, in all cases with due observation of the principles of reasonableness and fairness. It is possible that some of these parties will have interests that are different from, or in addition to, your interests as a holder of ADSs.
For more information, we have provided summaries of relevant Dutch law governing private companies with limited liability and of our Articles of Association under “Management” and “Description of Share Capital and Articles of Association.”
Dutch and European insolvency laws are substantially different from U.S. insolvency laws and may offer our shareholders less protection than they would have under U.S. insolvency laws.
As a private company with limited liability under the laws of the Netherlands (besloten vennootschap met beperkte aansprakelijkheid), MYT Netherlands is subject to Dutch insolvency laws in the event any insolvency proceedings are initiated against us including, among other things, Regulation (EU) 2015/848 of the European Parliament and of the Council of May 20, 2015 on insolvency proceedings as of June 2017. Further, our principal operating subsidiaries have their registered offices in Germany and are subject to German insolvency laws and EU regulations in the event any insolvency proceedings are initiated against such subsidiaries. Should courts in another European country determine that the insolvency laws of that country apply to us or our principal operating subsidiaries in accordance with and subject to such EU regulations, the courts in that country could have jurisdiction over the insolvency proceedings initiated against us. Insolvency laws in the Netherlands, Germany or the relevant other European country, if any, may offer our shareholders less protection than they would have under U.S. insolvency laws and make it more difficult for them to recover the amount they could expect to recover in a liquidation under U.S. insolvency laws.
Conflicts of interest may arise because of our shareholder structure at the time of the IPO and because some members of our Supervisory Boards are employed by our Sponsors.
After the closing of this offering, due to the size of their shareholding, Ares Management Corp. (“Ares”) and Canada Pension Plan Investment Board (“CPPIB” and, together with Ares, the “Sponsors”), through MYT Holding, will be able to adopt any resolution in the general meeting regardless of how other shareholders vote, including, but not limited to, resolutions on the appointment of Supervisory Board members, on capital measures and on the allocation of profits and, hence, our dividend policy. In this context, the interests of Ares and affiliates of CPPIB, for example with respect to the allocation of profits and the distribution of dividends, may differ from the interests of some or all of our other shareholders.
Entities affiliated with Ares and affiliates of CPPIB may hold equity interests in entities that directly or indirectly compete with us, and companies in which they currently invest may begin competing with us. In addition, certain members of our Supervisory Board are affiliated with Ares and CPPIB. As a result of these relationships, when conflicts arise between the interests of Ares and CPPIB and their affiliates, on the one hand, and the interests of the Company and our other shareholders, on the other hand, these members of our
 
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Supervisory Board may have an interest in the matter different from the interests of the Company and our other shareholders. Dutch law provides that a member of the management board of a Dutch private company with limited liability (besloten vennootschap met beperkte aansprakelijkheid), such as the Company, may not participate in the adoption of resolutions (including deliberations in respect of these) if he or she has a direct or indirect personal interest conflicting with the interests of the company. Such a conflict of interest only exists if in the situation at hand the member of our Management Board is deemed to be unable to serve the interests of the Company and the business connected with it with the required level of integrity and objectivity. Pursuant to the Management Board Rules, each member of our Management Board shall immediately report any (potential) personal conflict of interest concerning a member of our Management Board to the chairperson of the Supervisory Board and to the other members of our Management Board and shall provide all information relevant to the conflict.
If no resolution can be adopted by our Management Board as a consequence of such a personal conflict of interest, the resolution concerned will be adopted by our Supervisory Board. All transactions in which there are conflicts of interests with members of our Management Board will be agreed on terms that are customary in the sector concerned and disclosed in the Company’s annual report. The existence of an actual or potential conflict of interest does not affect the authority of our Management Board and Supervisory Board and their respective members to represent the Company.
We are not obligated to and do not comply with all the best practice provisions of the Dutch Corporate Governance Code. This may affect your rights as a shareholder.
As we are a company under the laws of the Netherlands and will have our ADSs listed on an equivalent third (non-EU) country market to a regulated market (e.g., the NYSE), we are subject to the Dutch Corporate Governance Code. The Dutch Corporate Governance Code contains both principles and best practice provisions for our Management Board, our Supervisory Board, our shareholders and our general meeting, financial reporting, auditors, disclosure compliance and enforcement standards.
The Dutch Corporate Governance Code is based on a “comply or explain” principle. Accordingly, we will be required to disclose in our management report publicly filed in the Netherlands, whether or not we comply with the various provisions of the Dutch Corporate Governance Code. If we do not comply with one or more of those provisions (e.g., because of a conflicting NYSE requirement or U.S. market practice), we are required to explain the reasons for such non-compliance in our management report.
We acknowledge the importance of good corporate governance. However, we do not intend to comply with all the provisions of the Dutch Corporate Governance Code because such provisions conflict with or are inconsistent with the corporate governance rules of the NYSE and U.S. securities laws that will apply to us upon the completion of this offering, or because we believe such provisions do not reflect customary governance practices of global companies listed on the NYSE. This could affect your rights as an ADS holder and you may not have the same level of protection as a shareholder in a Dutch company that fully complies with the Dutch Corporate Governance Code. See “Management — Dutch Corporate Governance Code.”
We may not pay dividends on our ordinary shares in the future and, consequently, your ability to achieve a return on your investment will depend on the appreciation in the price of ADSs.
We may not pay any cash dividends on our ordinary shares in the future. Any decision to declare and pay dividends in the future will depend on, among other things, our results of operations, financial condition, cash requirements, contractual restrictions. In addition, our ability to pay dividends is, and may be, limited by covenants of existing and any future outstanding indebtedness we or our subsidiaries incur. Therefore, any return on investment in ADSs is solely dependent upon the appreciation of the price of ADSs on the open market, which may not occur. In addition, withholding taxes, if applicable, could reduce the amount of the dividend that you will receive. See “If MYT Netherlands pays dividends, it may need to withhold tax on such dividends payable to holders of its ADSs in both Germany and the Netherlands.” and “Dividend Policy.”
MYT Netherlands is a holding company with no external revenue generating activities of its own and, as such, it depends on its subsidiaries for cash to fund its operations and expenses, including future dividend payments, if any.
As a holding company, our principal source of cash flow will be distributions or payments from our operating subsidiaries. Therefore, our ability to fund and conduct our business, service our debt and pay dividends, if
 
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any, in the future will depend on the ability of our subsidiaries and intermediate holding companies to make upstream cash distributions or payments to us, which may be impacted, for example, by their ability to generate sufficient cash flow or limitations on the ability to repatriate funds whether as a result of currency liquidity restrictions, monetary or exchange controls or otherwise. Our operating subsidiaries and intermediate holding companies are separate legal entities, and although they are directly or indirectly wholly owned and controlled by us, they have no obligation to make any funds available to us, whether in the form of loans, dividends or otherwise, except as may be provided through intercompany agreements from time to time. Furthermore, the ability of our operating subsidiaries to make any funds available to MYT Holding, whether in the form of loans, dividends or otherwise is restricted by the terms of their revolving credit facilities while these are in place. To the extent the ability of any of our subsidiaries to distribute dividends or other payments to us is limited in any way, our ability to fund and conduct our business, service our debt and pay dividends, if any, could be harmed.
Investors may have difficulty enforcing civil liabilities against us or the members of our Management or Supervisory Board.
We are incorporated in the Netherlands and conduct substantially all of our operations in the European Union through our subsidiaries. Both members of our Management Board and four members of our Supervisory Board are non-residents of the United States. The majority of our assets and a significant portion of the assets of the members of our Management Board and Supervisory Board are located outside the United States. As a result, it may not be possible, or may be very difficult, to serve process on company representatives or the company in the United States, or to enforce judgments obtained in U.S. courts against company representatives or the company based on civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the United States. As set forth in the deposit agreement and to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the federal district courts of the United States of America shall be the exclusive forum for the resolution of any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act or the rules or regulations promulgated pursuant to such statutes.
There is no treaty between the United States and the Netherlands for the mutual recognition and enforcement of judgments (other than arbitration awards) in civil and commercial matters. Therefore, a final judgment for the payment of money rendered by any federal or state court in the United States based on civil liability, whether or not predicated solely upon the U.S. federal securities laws, would not be enforceable in the Netherlands unless the underlying claim is re-litigated before a Dutch court of competent jurisdiction. However, if a person has obtained a final judgment without appeal in such a matter rendered by a court in the United States that is enforceable in the United States and files his claim with the competent Dutch court, the Dutch court will recognize and give effect to such foreign judgment insofar as it finds that (i) the jurisdiction of the U.S. court has been based on grounds which are internationally acceptable, (ii) proper legal procedures have been observed, (iii) the judgment does not contravene Dutch public policy and, (iv) the judgment is not irreconcilable with a judgment of a Dutch court or an earlier judgment of a foreign court that is capable of being recognized in the Netherlands.
Based on the foregoing, there can be no assurance that U.S. investors will be able to enforce any judgments obtained in U.S. courts in civil and commercial matters, including judgments under the U.S. federal securities laws, against us, members of our Management Board and Supervisory Board, or our senior management. In addition, there is doubt as to whether a Dutch court would impose civil liability on us, the members of our Management and Supervisory Board or our senior management in an original action predicated solely upon the U.S. federal securities laws brought in a court of competent jurisdiction in the Netherlands against us or such members, respectively.
ADS holders may not be entitled to a jury trial with respect to claims arising under the deposit agreement, which could result in less favorable outcomes to the plaintiffs in an action of that kind.
The deposit agreement governing the ADSs representing our ordinary shares provides that, to the fullest extent permitted by law, ADS holders waive the right to a jury trial of any claim they may have against us or the depositary arising out of or relating to our ordinary shares, the ADSs or the deposit agreement, including any claim under U.S. federal securities laws.