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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C.  20549
 cat-20201231_g1.jpg
FORM 10-K
 
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020
 
OR
 
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the transition period from                      to                     .
 
Commission File No. 1-768
 
CATERPILLAR INC.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
 
Delaware37-0602744
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation)(IRS Employer I.D. No.)
510 Lake Cook Road,Suite 100,Deerfield,Illinois60015
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
 
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code:  (224) 551-4000
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
Title of each classTrading Symbol (s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock ($1.00 par value)CATNew York Stock Exchange
 (1)
9 3/8% Debentures due March 15, 2021CAT21New York Stock Exchange
8% Debentures due February 15, 2023CAT23New York Stock Exchange
5.3% Debentures due September 15, 2035CAT35New York Stock Exchange

(1)     In addition to the New York Stock Exchange, Caterpillar common stock is also listed on stock exchanges in France and Switzerland.
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:  None
 
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ý  No o
 
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes o  No ý
 
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes ý  No o
 
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes ý  No o
 
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.  (Check one):
 


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Large accelerated filerxAccelerated filero
Non-accelerated fileroSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.s.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.ý
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes   No ý
 
As of June 30, 2020, there were 541,506,575 shares of common stock of the Registrant outstanding, and the aggregate market value of the voting stock held by non-affiliates of the Registrant (assuming only for purposes of this computation that directors and executive officers may be affiliates) was approximately $67.9 billion.
 
As of December 31, 2020, there were 545,303,847 shares of common stock of the Registrant outstanding.
 
Documents Incorporated by Reference
 
Portions of the documents listed below have been incorporated by reference into the indicated parts of this Form 10-K, as specified in the responses to the item numbers involved.
 
Part III2021 Annual Meeting Proxy Statement (Proxy Statement) to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) within 120 days after the end of the fiscal year.











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PART I

Item 1.Business.

General
 
Originally organized as Caterpillar Tractor Co. in 1925 in the State of California, our company was reorganized as Caterpillar Inc. in 1986 in the State of Delaware.  As used herein, the term “Caterpillar,” “we,” “us,” “our” or “the company” refers to Caterpillar Inc. and its subsidiaries unless designated or identified otherwise.
 
Overview
 
With 2020 sales and revenues of $41.748 billion, Caterpillar is the world’s leading manufacturer of construction and mining equipment, diesel and natural gas engines, industrial gas turbines and diesel-electric locomotives.  The company principally operates through its three primary segments - Construction Industries, Resource Industries and Energy & Transportation - and also provides financing and related services through its Financial Products segment. Caterpillar is also a leading U.S. exporter.  Through a global network of independent dealers and direct sales of certain products, Caterpillar builds long-term relationships with customers around the world.
 
Currently, we have five operating segments, of which four are reportable segments and are described below. 
 
Categories of Business Organization
 
1.               Machinery, Energy & Transportation — Caterpillar Inc. and its subsidiaries, excluding Financial Products. Machinery, Energy & Transportation information relates to the design, manufacturing and marketing of our products.
 
 
2.               Financial Products — Our finance and insurance subsidiaries, primarily Caterpillar Financial Services Corporation (Cat Financial) and Caterpillar Insurance Holdings Inc. (Insurance Services). Financial Products information relates to the financing to customers and dealers for the purchase and lease of Caterpillar and other equipment.
 
Other information about our operations in 2020, including certain risks associated with our operations, is included in Part II, Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”
 
Construction Industries
 
Our Construction Industries segment is primarily responsible for supporting customers using machinery in infrastructure, forestry and building construction.  The majority of machine sales in this segment are made in the heavy and general construction, rental, quarry and aggregates markets and mining.
The nature of customer demand for construction machinery varies around the world.  Customers in developing economies often prioritize purchase price in making their investment decisions, while customers in developed economies generally weigh productivity and other performance criteria that contribute to lower owning and operating costs over the lifetime of the machine.  To meet customer expectations in developing economies, Caterpillar developed differentiated product offerings that target customers in those markets, including our SEM brand machines.  We believe that these customer-driven product innovations enable us to compete more effectively in developing economies. The majority of Construction Industries' research and development spending in 2020 focused on the next generation of construction machines.
 
The competitive environment for construction machinery is characterized by some global competitors and many regional and specialized local competitors. Examples of global competitors include CASE (part of CNH Industrial N.V.), Deere Construction & Forestry (part of Deere & Company), Doosan Infracore Co., Ltd., Hitachi Construction Machinery Co., Ltd., Hyundai Construction Equipment Co., Ltd., J.C. Bamford Excavators Ltd., Kobelco Construction Machinery (part of Kobe Steel, Ltd), Komatsu Ltd., Kubota Farm & Industrial Machinery (part of Kubota Corporation), and Volvo Construction Equipment (part of the Volvo Group). As an example of regional and local competitors, our competitors in China also include Guangxi LiuGong Machinery Co., Ltd., Longking Holdings Ltd., Sany Heavy Industry Co., Ltd., XCMG Construction Machinery Co., Ltd., Shandong Lingong Construction Machinery Co., Ltd. (SDLG, part of the Volvo Group) and Shantui Construction Machinery Co., Ltd., (part of Shandong Heavy Industry Group Co.). Each of these companies has varying product lines that compete with Caterpillar products, and each has varying degrees of regional focus.
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The Construction Industries product portfolio includes the following machines and related parts and work tools:
 
·                  asphalt pavers
·     forestry excavators·      small and medium
·                  backhoe loaders
·                 motorgraders
                     track-type tractors
·                  compactors
·                 pipelayers
·                  track-type loaders
·                 cold planers
·                 road reclaimers
·                  wheel excavators
·      compact track and·     site prep tractors·      compact, small and
                  multi-terrain loaders
·     skid steer loaders       medium wheel loaders
·               mini, small, medium
·     telehandlers 
·                  utility vehicles
                and large excavators

Resource Industries
 
The Resource Industries segment is primarily responsible for supporting customers using machinery in mining, heavy construction, and quarry and aggregates.  Caterpillar offers a broad product range and services to deliver comprehensive solutions for our customers. We develop and manufacture high productivity equipment for both surface and underground mining operations around the world, as well as provide drivetrains, hydraulic systems, electronics and software for Cat machines and engines. Our equipment is used to extract and haul copper, iron ore, coal, oil sands, aggregates, gold and other minerals and ores. In addition to equipment, Resource Industries also develops and sells technology products and services to provide customers fleet management systems, equipment management analytics and autonomous machine capabilities.

Customers in most markets place an emphasis on equipment that is highly productive, reliable and provides the lowest total cost of ownership over the life of the equipment. In some developing markets, customers often prioritize purchase price in making their investment decisions.  We believe our ability to control the integration and design of key machine components represents a competitive advantage. Our research and development efforts remain focused on providing customers the lowest total cost of ownership enabled through the highest quality, most productive products and services in the industry.
The competitive environment for Resource Industries consists of a few larger global competitors that compete in several of the markets that we serve and a substantial number of smaller companies that compete in a more limited range of products, applications, and regional markets. Our global surface competitors include Deere Construction & Forestry (part of Deere & Company), Epiroc AB, Hitachi Construction Machinery Co., Ltd., Komatsu Ltd., Liebherr-International AG, Sandvik AB, and Volvo Construction Equipment. Our global underground competitors include Epiroc AB, Komatsu Ltd., and Sandvik AB.

The Resource Industries product portfolio includes the following machines and related parts:
 
·                  electric rope shovels
·                  large mining trucks
·                  wheel dozers
·                  draglines
·                  longwall miners
·                  landfill compactors
·                  hydraulic shovels
·                  large wheel loaders
·                  soil compactors
·                  rotary drills
·                  off-highway trucks
·                machinery components
·                  hard rock vehicles
·                  articulated trucks
·                  autonomous ready vehicles and solutions
·                  large track-type tractors
·                  wheel tractor scrapers
·                  select work tools
 
Energy & Transportation
 
Our Energy & Transportation segment supports customers in oil and gas, power generation, marine, rail and industrial applications, including Cat® machines. The product and services portfolio includes reciprocating engines, generator sets, gas turbines and turbine-related services, the remanufacturing of Caterpillar engines and components and remanufacturing services for other companies, diesel-electric locomotives and other rail-related products and services and product support of on-highway vocational trucks for North America.
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Regulatory emissions standards require us to continue to make investments as new products and new regulations are introduced.  Ongoing compliance with these regulations remains a focus.  Emissions compliance in developing markets is complex due to rapidly evolving and unique requirements where enforcement processes can often vary.  We employ robust product development and manufacturing processes to help us comply with these regulations. 
 
The competitive environment for reciprocating engines in marine, oil and gas, industrial and electric power generation systems along with turbines in oil and gas and electric power generation consists of a few larger global competitors that compete in a variety of markets that Caterpillar serves, and a substantial number of smaller companies that compete in a limited-size product range, geographic region and/or application. Principal global competitors include Cummins Inc., Deutz AG, INNIO, Rolls-Royce Power Systems and Wärtsilä Corp. Other competitors, such as Fiat Industrial SpA (CNHI), GE Power, Kawasaki Heavy Industries Energy System & Plant Engineering, MAN Energy Solutions (VW), Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Siemens Power and Gas,Volvo Penta AB, Weichai Power Co., Ltd., and other emerging market competitors compete in certain markets in which Caterpillar competes. An additional set of competitors, including Aggreko plc, Baker Hughes Co., Generac Holdings, Kohler Power Systems, and others, are primarily packagers who source engines and/or other components from domestic and international suppliers and market products regionally and internationally through a variety of distribution channels. In rail-related businesses, our global competitors include Alstom SA, CRRC Corp., LTD., The Greenbrier Companies, Siemens Mobility, Voestalpine AG, Vossloh AG and Wabtec Freight. We also compete with other companies on a more limited range of products, services and/or geographic regions.

The Energy & Transportation portfolio includes the following products and related parts:

Reciprocating engine powered generator sets
Reciprocating engines supplied to the industrial industry as well as Caterpillar machinery
Integrated systems used in the electric power generation industry
Turbines, centrifugal gas compressors and related services
Reciprocating engines and integrated systems and solutions for the marine and oil and gas industries
Remanufactured reciprocating engines and components
Diesel-electric locomotives and components and other rail-related products and services

Financial Products Segment
 
The business of our Financial Products Segment is primarily conducted by Cat Financial, Insurance Services and their respective subsidiaries and affiliates.  Cat Financial is a wholly owned finance subsidiary of Caterpillar Inc. and it provides retail and wholesale financing to customers and dealers around the world for Caterpillar products, as well as financing for vehicles, power generation facilities and marine vessels that, in most cases, incorporate Caterpillar products.  Retail financing is primarily comprised of installment sale contracts and other equipment-related loans, working capital loans, finance leases and operating leases. Wholesale financing to Caterpillar dealers consists primarily of inventory and rental fleet financing. In addition, we purchase short-term wholesale trade receivables from Caterpillar. The various financing plans offered by Cat Financial are designed to support sales of Caterpillar products and generate financing income for Cat Financial.  A significant portion of Cat Financial’s activity is conducted in North America, with additional offices and subsidiaries in Latin America, Asia/Pacific, Europe, Africa and the Middle East.
 
For almost 40 years, Cat Financial has been providing financing in the various markets in which it participates, contributing to its knowledge of asset values, industry trends, product structuring and customer needs.
 
In certain instances, Cat Financial’s operations are subject to supervision and regulation by state, federal and various foreign governmental authorities, and may be subject to various laws and judicial and administrative decisions imposing various requirements and restrictions which, among other things, (i) regulate credit granting activities and the administration of loans, (ii) establish maximum interest rates, finance charges and other charges, (iii) require disclosures to customers and investors, (iv) govern secured transactions, (v) set collection, foreclosure, repossession and other trade practices and (vi) regulate the use and reporting of information related to a borrower’s credit experience.  Cat Financial’s ability to comply with these and other governmental and legal requirements and restrictions affects its operations.

Cat Financial’s retail loans (totaling 49 percent*) include:

Loans that allow customers and dealers to use their Caterpillar equipment or other assets as collateral to obtain financing.

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Installment sale contracts, which are equipment loans that enable customers to purchase equipment with a down payment or trade-in and structure payments over time.

Cat Financial's retail leases (totaling 37 percent*) include:

Finance (non-tax) leases, where the lessee for tax purposes is considered to be the owner of the equipment during the term of the lease, that either require or allow the customer to purchase the equipment for a fixed price at the end of the term.

Tax leases that are classified as either operating or finance leases for financial accounting purposes, depending on the characteristics of the lease.  For tax purposes, Cat Financial is considered the owner of the equipment.

Governmental lease-purchase plans in the U.S. that offer low interest rates and flexible terms to qualified non-federal government agencies.

Cat Financial also purchases short-term receivables from Caterpillar (12 percent*).
 
Cat Financial’s wholesale loans and leases (2 percent*) include inventory/rental programs, which provide assistance to dealers by financing their new Caterpillar inventory and rental fleets.
 

*Indicates the percentage of Cat Financial’s total portfolio at December 31, 2020.  We define total portfolio as total finance receivables (net of unearned income and allowance for credit losses) plus equipment on operating leases, less accumulated depreciation. For more information on the above and Cat Financial’s concentration of credit risk, please refer to Note 7 — “Cat Financial Financing Activities” of Part II, Item 8 "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data."
_____________________________
 
Cat Financial operates in a highly competitive environment, with financing for users of Caterpillar equipment available through a variety of sources, principally commercial banks and finance and leasing companies. Cat Financial’s competitors include, Australia and New Zealand Banking Group Limited, Banc of America Leasing & Capital LLC, BNP Paribas Leasing Solutions Limited, Wells Fargo Equipment Finance Inc., Societe General and various other banks and finance companies.  In addition, many of our manufacturing competitors own financial subsidiaries, such as John Deere Capital Corporation, Komatsu Financial L.P., Kubota Credit Corporation and Volvo Financial Services, which utilize many below-market interest rate programs (funded by the manufacturer) to assist machine sales.  Caterpillar and Cat Financial work together to provide a broad array of financial merchandising programs around the world to meet these competitive offers.
 
Cat Financial’s financial results are largely dependent upon the ability of Caterpillar dealers to sell equipment and customers’ willingness to enter into financing or leasing agreements.  Cat Financial is also affected by, among other things, the availability of funds from its financing sources, its cost of funds relative to its competitors and general economic conditions such as inflation and market interest rates.
 
Cat Financial has a match-funding policy that addresses interest rate risk by aligning the interest rate profile (fixed or floating rate) of its debt portfolio with the interest rate profile of its receivables portfolio within predetermined ranges on an ongoing basis.  In connection with that policy, Cat Financial uses interest rate derivative instruments to modify the debt structure to match assets within the receivables portfolio. This matched funding reduces the volatility of margins between interest-bearing assets and interest-bearing liabilities, regardless of which direction interest rates move. For more information regarding match funding, please see Note 4 — “Derivative financial instruments and risk management” of Part II, Item 8 "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data."  See also the risk factors associated with our financial products business included in Item 1 A. of this Form 10-K.

In managing foreign currency risk for Cat Financial’s operations, the objective is to minimize earnings volatility resulting from conversion and the remeasurement of net foreign currency balance sheet positions, and future transactions denominated in foreign currencies.  This policy allows the use of foreign currency forward, option and cross currency contracts to offset the risk of currency mismatch between the assets and liabilities, and exchange rate risk associated with future transactions denominated in foreign currencies.
 
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Cat Financial provides financing only when certain criteria are met. Credit decisions are based on a variety of credit quality factors including prior payment experience, customer financial information, credit ratings, loan-to-value ratios and other internal metrics. Cat Financial typically maintains a security interest in retail-financed equipment and requires physical damage insurance coverage on financed equipment.  Cat Financial finances a significant portion of Caterpillar dealers’ sales and inventory of Caterpillar equipment throughout the world.  Cat Financial’s competitive position is improved by marketing programs offered in conjunction with Caterpillar and/or Caterpillar dealers.  Under these programs, Caterpillar, or the dealer, funds an amount at the outset of the transaction, which Cat Financial then recognizes as revenue over the term of the financing.  We believe that these marketing programs provide Cat Financial a significant competitive advantage in financing Caterpillar products.
 
Caterpillar Insurance Company, a wholly owned subsidiary of Caterpillar Insurance Holdings Inc., is a U.S. insurance company domiciled in Missouri and primarily regulated by the Missouri Department of Insurance.  Caterpillar Insurance Company is licensed to conduct property and casualty insurance business in 50 states, the District of Columbia and Guam, and as such, is also regulated in those jurisdictions.  The State of Missouri acts as the lead regulatory authority and monitors Caterpillar Insurance Company’s financial status to ensure that it is in compliance with minimum solvency requirements, as well as other financial ratios prescribed by the National Association of Insurance Commissioners.  Caterpillar Insurance Company is also licensed to conduct insurance business through a branch in Zurich, Switzerland and, as such, is regulated by the Swiss Financial Market Supervisory Authority.
 
Caterpillar Life Insurance Company, a wholly owned subsidiary of Caterpillar, is a U.S. insurance company domiciled in Missouri and primarily regulated by the Missouri Department of Insurance.  Caterpillar Life Insurance Company is licensed to conduct life and accident and health insurance business in 26 states and the District of Columbia and, as such, is also regulated in those jurisdictions. The State of Missouri acts as the lead regulatory authority and it monitors the financial status to ensure that it is in compliance with minimum solvency requirements, as well as other financial ratios prescribed by the National Association of Insurance Commissioners.  Caterpillar Life Insurance Company provides reinsurance coverage to Caterpillar Insurance Company. Specifically, Caterpillar Life Insurance Company has entered into a reinsurance agreement with Caterpillar Insurance Company, assuming 100% of the risk of an Accident and Health Stop Loss Insurance Policy to cover a Caterpillar Voluntary Employees' Benefits Association (VEBA) Trust for medical losses sustained by a select group of Caterpillar retirees and dependents.
 
Caterpillar Insurance Co. Ltd., a wholly owned subsidiary of Caterpillar Insurance Holdings Inc., is a captive insurance company domiciled in Bermuda and regulated by the Bermuda Monetary Authority.  Caterpillar Insurance Co. Ltd. holds a Class 2 license (as defined by the Bermuda Insurance Amendment Act of 1995), which primarily insures its parent and affiliates. Caterpillar Insurance Co.Ltd. also provides reinsurance to Caterpillar Insurance Company under quota share reinsurance agreements for contractual liability and contractors' equipment programs in the United States. Finally, Caterpillar Insurance Co. Ltd. holds a Class B license to provide life and disability reinsurance covering Caterpillar Inc.'s International employee benefits program. The Bermuda Monetary Authority is responsible for monitoring Caterpillar Insurance Co. Ltd.'s compliance with solvency requirements, and requires an Annual Financial Filing for this purpose.
 
Caterpillar Product Services Corporation (CPSC), a wholly owned subsidiary of Caterpillar, is a warranty company domiciled in Missouri.  CPSC previously conducted a machine extended service contract program in Germany and France by providing machine extended warranty reimbursement protection to dealers in Germany and France. The program was discontinued effective January 1, 2013, though CPSC continues to provide extended warranty reimbursement protection under existing contracts.
 
Caterpillar Insurance Services Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Caterpillar Insurance Holdings Inc., is a Tennessee insurance agency licensed in all 50 states, the District of Columbia and Guam. It provides insurance services for all property and casualty and life and health lines of business.
 
Caterpillar’s insurance group provides protection and service for claims under the following programs:
 
Contractual Liability Insurance to insure certain service contract obligations of Caterpillar and its affiliates, Caterpillar dealers and original equipment manufacturers (OEMs).

Cargo reinsurance for the worldwide cargo risks of Caterpillar products.

Contractors’ Equipment Physical Damage Insurance for equipment manufactured by Caterpillar or OEMs, which is leased, rented or sold by third party dealers to customers.

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General liability, employer’s liability, auto liability and property insurance for Caterpillar.

Life, health and disability reinsurance for Caterpillar's international employee benefits program (non-U.S.).

Reinsurance to cover VEBA Trust for medical claims of certain Caterpillar retirees and dependents.

Brokerage and insurance services for property and casualty and life and health business.

Competitive Environment
 
Caterpillar products and product support services are sold worldwide into a variety of highly competitive markets.  In all markets, we compete on the basis of product performance, customer service, quality and price.  From time to time, the intensity of competition results in price discounting in a particular industry or region.  Such price discounting puts pressure on margins and can negatively impact operating profit. Outside the United States, certain competitors enjoy competitive advantages inherent to operating in their home countries or regions.
 
Raw Materials and Component Products
 
We source our raw materials and manufactured components from suppliers both domestically and internationally. These purchases include unformed materials and rough and finished parts.  Unformed materials include a variety of steel products, which are then cut or formed to shape and machined in our facilities. Rough parts include various sized steel and iron castings and forgings, which are machined to final specification levels inside our facilities. Finished parts are ready to assemble components, which are made either to Caterpillar specifications or to supplier developed specifications.  We machine and assemble some of the components used in our machines, engines and power generation units and to support our after-market dealer parts sales. We also purchase various goods and services used in production, logistics, offices and product development processes.  We maintain global strategic sourcing models to meet our global facilities’ production needs while building long-term supplier relationships and leveraging enterprise spend.  We expect our suppliers to maintain, at all times, industry-leading levels of quality and the ability to timely deliver raw materials and component products for our machine and engine products. However, in some cases, increases in demand or supply chain disruptions have led to parts and components constraints across some products. We use a variety of agreements with suppliers to protect our intellectual property and processes to monitor and mitigate risks of the supply base causing a business disruption.  The risks monitored include supplier financial viability, the ability to increase or decrease production levels, business continuity, quality and delivery.
 
Patents and Trademarks
 
We own a number of patents and trademarks, which have been obtained over a period of years and relate to the products we manufacture and the services we provide. These patents and trademarks are generally considered beneficial to our business. We do not regard our business as being dependent upon any single patent or group of patents.

Order Backlog
 
The dollar amount of backlog believed to be firm was approximately $14.2 billion at December 31, 2020 and $13.7 billion at December 31, 2019. Compared with year-end 2019, the order backlog increased in Construction Industries, partially offset by decreases in Energy & Transportation and Resource Industries. Of the total backlog at December 31, 2020, approximately $3.6 billion was not expected to be filled in 2021. 

Dealers and Distributors
 
We distribute our machines principally through a worldwide organization of dealers (dealer network), 45 located in the United States and 116 located outside the United States, serving 192 countries.  We sell reciprocating engines principally through the dealer network and to other manufacturers for use in products. We also sell some of the reciprocating engines manufactured by our subsidiary Perkins Engines Company Limited through its worldwide network of 92 distributors covering 183 countries. We sell the FG Wilson branded electric power generation systems primarily manufactured by our subsidiary Caterpillar Northern Ireland Limited through its worldwide network of 150 distributors covering 109 countries.  We also sell some of the large, medium speed reciprocating engines under the MaK brand through a worldwide network of 20 distributors covering 130 countries. 
 
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Our dealers do not deal exclusively with our products; however, in most cases sales and servicing of our products are the dealers’ principal business.  We sell some products, primarily turbines and locomotives, directly to end customers through sales forces employed by the company.  At times, these employees are assisted by independent sales representatives.

While the large majority of our worldwide dealers are independently owned and operated, we own and operate a dealership in Japan that covers approximately 80% of the Japanese market: Nippon Caterpillar Division. We are currently operating this Japanese dealer directly and we report its results in the All Other operating segment. There are also three independent dealers in the Southern Region of Japan.
 
For Caterpillar branded products, the company’s relationship with each of its independent dealers is memorialized in standard sales and service agreements.  Pursuant to these agreements, the company grants the dealer the right to purchase and sell its products and to service the products in a specified geographic service territory.  The company establishes prices to dealers after receiving input from dealers on transactional pricing in the marketplace.  The company also agrees to defend its intellectual property and to provide warranty and technical support to the dealer.  The agreement further grants the dealer a non-exclusive license to use the company’s trademarks, service marks and brand names.  In some instances, a separate trademark agreement exists between the company and a dealer.
 
In exchange for these rights, the agreement obligates the dealer to develop and promote the sale of the company’s products to current and prospective customers in the dealer’s service territory.  Each dealer agrees to employ adequate sales and support personnel to market, sell and promote the company’s products, demonstrate and exhibit the products, perform the company’s product improvement programs, inform the company concerning any features that might affect the safe operation of any of the company’s products and maintain detailed books and records of the dealer’s financial condition, sales and inventories and make these books and records available at the company’s reasonable request.
 
These sales and service agreements are terminable at will by either party primarily upon 90 days written notice.
 
Human Capital

Core Values

Caterpillar’s global workforce is united by Our Values In Action, Caterpillar’s Code of Conduct. Integrity, Excellence, Teamwork, Commitment and Sustainability provide the foundation for our values-based culture. Our diversity and inclusion principles are embedded in our values. Our values unite us, and reflect our diverse cultures, languages, geographies, and businesses, as one Caterpillar team.

Health and Safety

The health and safety of our employees is an important focus at Caterpillar, and we strive to continually reduce our recordable injuries. As part of this focus on health and safety, Caterpillar has established a peer to peer safety mentorship and education program for manufacturing new hires to accelerate acclimation to our safety culture in many global locations. In 2020, the Company achieved a recordable injury frequency rate of 0.42, compared to the 2019 recordable injury frequency rate of 0.43.

The COVID-19 pandemic has further reinforced the importance of a safe and healthy workforce. In response to the pandemic, the Company implemented safeguards to protect our essential employees, including increased frequency of cleaning and disinfecting, social distancing practices, face coverings, temperature screening and other measures consistent with specific regulatory requirements and guidance from health authorities. We also instituted travel restrictions and remote work, for employees who were able to work from home.

Talent Development and Training

In addition to our focus on values and safety, we strive to continually attract, develop, engage, and retain a high-performing diverse global team that executes our enterprise strategy of long-term profitable growth.

We are committed to employee development and helping them reach their full potential, by making on-going investments in our team. Our global internships, engineering co-ops, and career programs for engineering, marketing, and manufacturing provide development opportunities for early career employees. We also have a continual focus on strengthening technical, professional and leadership capabilities at every level. Strategic talent reviews and succession planning occur at a minimum, annually, across our businesses.

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Our leadership development programs and focus on encouraging a variety of experiences help employees broaden understanding and increase perspective. For example, in Africa and the Middle East, we have established a program designed to upskill our existing talent pipeline and prepare them for future leadership in the region. A diverse team of professionals representing 26 different nationalities participated in the inaugural program.

Additionally, skill-based programs to upskill our manufacturing employees are developed locally and tailored to the specific needs of the business. In China, we continue to invest in programs that encourage women to pursue engineering management and leadership roles. In India, we tailored recruiting campaigns and on-site benefits to attract female employees. In 2020, Caterpillar, along with other companies across industries formed the OneTen coalition. The coalition is committed to upskill, hire and advance Black Americans over the next 10 years into family-sustaining careers.

Diversity and Inclusion

We are committed to fostering a diverse workforce and an inclusive environment. Our 14 Employee Resource Groups (ERGs), sponsored and supported by leadership, are integral to ensuring different voices and perspectives contribute to our strategy for long term profitable growth. Our ERGs partner with recruiters to help build relationships and recruit diverse talent through National Society of Black Engineers, Society of Hispanic Professional Engineers, Society of Women Engineers and Thurgood Marshall College Fund.

Our ERGs further engage our employees, helping contribute to development and retention. For example, Caterpillar’s Latino Connection sponsors a mentoring program that connects diverse employees with senior leaders who can support their career goals through on-the-job project experience and leadership development. Additionally, WE Lead, Women Enabling Leadership, sponsored by our Women’s Initiative Network engages female employees in early to mid-level management to help strengthen our female leader pipeline.

Compensation, Benefits and Employee Insights

Providing competitive benefits and compensation underpins our commitment to our engaged and productive employees. Our pay-for-performance philosophy aligns employee’s individual contributions, behaviors and business results with individual rewards. Our comprehensive Total Health programs focus on purpose, as well as physical, emotional, financial, and social health. The annual Employee Insights Survey provides all employees the opportunity to confidentially share their perspectives and engages leaders to listen, learn and respond to employee feedback.

Employment

Management aligns employment levels with the needs of the business. We believe we have the appropriate human capital resources to successfully operate and deliver our enterprise strategy. As of December 31, 2020, we employed about 97,300 full-time persons of whom approximately 57,000 were located outside the United States. In the United States, we employed approximately 40,300 full-time persons, most of whom are at-will employees and, therefore, not subject to any type of employment contract or agreement.  At select business units, we have hired certain highly specialized employees under employment contracts that specify a term of employment, pay and other benefits.
 
Full-Time Employees at Year-End
 20202019
Inside U.S.40,300 43,600 
Outside U.S.57,000 58,700 
Total97,300 102,300 
By Region:  
North America40,500 43,900 
EAME17,700 18,400 
Latin America15,900 16,400 
Asia/Pacific23,200 23,600 
Total97,300 102,300 


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As of December 31, 2020, there were approximately 6,900 U.S. hourly production employees who were covered by collective bargaining agreements with various labor unions, including The United Automobile, Aerospace and Agricultural Implement Workers of America (UAW), The International Association of Machinists and The United Steelworkers. Outside the United States, the company enters into employment contracts and agreements in those countries in which such relationships are mandatory or customary. The provisions of these agreements generally correspond in each case with the required or customary terms in the subject jurisdiction.
 


Environmental Matters
 
The company is regulated by federal, state and international environmental laws governing our use, transport and disposal of substances and control of emissions. In addition to governing our manufacturing and other operations, these laws often impact the development of our products, including, but not limited to, required compliance with air emissions standards applicable to internal combustion engines. We have made, and will continue to make, significant research and development and capital expenditures to comply with these emissions standards.
 
We are engaged in remedial activities at a number of locations, often with other companies, pursuant to federal and state laws.  When it is probable we will pay remedial costs at a site, and those costs can be reasonably estimated, the investigation, remediation, and operating and maintenance costs of the remedial action are accrued against our earnings.  Costs are accrued based on consideration of currently available data and information with respect to each individual site, including available technologies, current applicable laws and regulations, and prior remediation experience. Where no amount within a range of estimates is more likely, we accrue the minimum. Where multiple potentially responsible parties are involved, we consider our proportionate share of the probable costs. In formulating the estimate of probable costs, we do not consider amounts expected to be recovered from insurance companies or others.  We reassess these accrued amounts on a quarterly basis. The amount recorded for environmental remediation is not material and is included in the line item "Accrued expenses" in Statement 3 — "Consolidated Financial Position at December 31" of Part II, Item 8 "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data." There is no more than a remote chance that a material amount for remedial activities at any individual site, or at all the sites in the aggregate, will be required.

Available Information

The company files electronically with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) required reports on Form 8-K, Form 10-Q, Form 10-K and Form 11-K; proxy materials; ownership reports for insiders as required by Section 16 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (Exchange Act); registration statements on Forms S-3 and S-8, as necessary; and other forms or reports as required.  The SEC maintains a website (www.sec.gov) that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC. The company maintains a website (www.Caterpillar.com) and copies of our annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and any amendments to these reports filed or furnished with the SEC are available free of charge through our website (www.Caterpillar.com/secfilings) as soon as reasonably practicable after filing with the SEC.  Copies of our board committee charters, our board’s Guidelines on Corporate Governance Issues, Worldwide Code of Conduct and other corporate governance information are available on our website (www.Caterpillar.com/governance).  The information contained on the company’s website is not included in, or incorporated by reference into, this annual report on Form 10-K.
 
Additional company information may be obtained as follows:
 
Current information -
 
view additional financial information on-line at www.Caterpillar.com/en/investors/financial-information.html

request, view or download materials on-line or register for email alerts at www.Caterpillar.com/materialsrequest
 
Historical information -
 
view/download on-line at www.Caterpillar.com/historical

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Item 1A.Risk Factors.
 
The statements in this section describe the most significant risks to our business and should be considered carefully in conjunction with Part II, Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” of Part II, Item 8 “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” to this Form 10-K.  In addition, the statements in this section and other sections of this Form 10-K, including in Part II, Item 7 “Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” include “forward-looking statements” as that term is defined in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 and involve uncertainties that could significantly impact results.  Forward-looking statements give current expectations or forecasts of future events about the company or our outlook.  You can identify forward-looking statements by the fact they do not relate to historical or current facts and by the use of words such as “believe,” “expect,” “estimate,” “anticipate,” “will be,” “should,” “plan,” “forecast,” “target,” “guide,” “project,” “intend,” “could” and similar words or expressions.
 
Forward-looking statements are based on assumptions and on known risks and uncertainties. Although we believe we have been prudent in our assumptions, any or all of our forward-looking statements may prove to be inaccurate, and we can make no guarantees about our future performance.  Should known or unknown risks or uncertainties materialize or underlying assumptions prove inaccurate, actual results could materially differ from past results and/or those anticipated, estimated or projected.

We undertake no obligation to publicly update forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. You should, however, consult any subsequent disclosures we make in our filings with the SEC on Form 10-Q or Form 8-K.
 
The following is a cautionary discussion of risks, uncertainties and assumptions that we believe are material to our business. In addition to the factors discussed elsewhere in this report, the following are some of the important factors that, individually or in the aggregate, we believe could make our actual results differ materially from those described in any forward-looking statements. It is impossible to predict or identify all such factors and, as a result, you should not consider the following factors to be a complete discussion of risks, uncertainties and assumptions.

RISKS RELATED TO THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC

The COVID-19 pandemic could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and/or financial condition.

COVID-19 was identified in late 2019 and has spread globally. The rapid spread has resulted in weaker demand and constrained supply and the implementation of numerous measures to try to contain the virus, such as travel bans and restrictions, quarantines, shelter in place orders and shutdowns. These factors have impacted and may continue to impact all or portions of our workforce and operations.

The COVID-19 pandemic caused a global recession and it is uncertain when a sustained economic recovery may occur. The COVID-19 pandemic has also significantly increased economic and demand uncertainty and has led to a decrease in demand for the Company’s products and services and caused supply chain disruptions. Economic uncertainties could continue to affect dem