EX-2.1 2 f20f2022ex2-1_lytustech.htm DESCRIPTION OF REGISTERED SECURITIES

Exhibit 2.1


Description of Securities


We were incorporated as a BVI business company under the BVI Business Companies Act, 2004 as amended, in the BVI on March 16, 2020, under the name “Lytus Technologies Holdings PTV. Ltd.” We were originally authorized to issue up to 50,000 common shares of $1.00 par value each and on March 17, 2020, the Board of Directors passed the resolution to change the originally authorized shares from 50,000 common shares to 30,000 common shares, of $0.10 par value each. Effective May 15, 2020, we amended our Memorandum of Association to increase the number of our authorized shares to 230,000,000, with a par value of $0.01 per share. The following are summaries of the material provisions of our Memorandum and Articles of Association; a copy of these documents are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part of.


Common Shares




All of our issued common shares are fully paid and non-assessable. Certificates evidencing the common shares are issued in registered form. Our shareholders who are non-residents of the BVI may freely hold and vote their common shares.




The holders of our common shares are entitled to such dividends as may be declared by our Board of Directors subject to the BVI Act.


Voting rights


Any action required or permitted to be taken by the shareholders must be effected at a duly called meeting of the shareholders entitled to vote on such action or may be effected by a resolution in writing. At each meeting of shareholders, each shareholder who is present in person or by proxy (or, in the case of a shareholder being a corporation, by its duly authorized representative) will have one vote for each common share that such shareholder holds.


Election of directors


Delaware law permits cumulative voting for the election of directors only if expressly authorized in the certificate of incorporation. The laws of the BVI, however, do not specifically prohibit or restrict the creation of cumulative voting rights for the election of our directors. Cumulative voting is not a concept that is accepted as a common practice in the BVI, and we have made no provisions in our Memorandum and Articles of Association to allow cumulative voting for elections of directors.




We must provide written notice of all meetings of shareholders, stating the time and place at least 7 days before the date of the proposed meeting to those persons whose names appear as shareholders in the register of members on the date of the notice and are entitled to vote at the meeting. Our Board of Directors shall call a meeting of shareholders upon the written request of shareholders holding at least 30% of our outstanding voting common shares. In addition, our Board of Directors may call a meeting of shareholders on its own motion. A meeting of shareholders may be called on short notice if at least 90% of the common shares entitled to vote on the matters to be considered at the meeting have waived notice of the meeting, and presence at the meeting shall be deemed to constitute waiver for this purpose.




At any meeting of shareholders, a quorum will be present if there are shareholders present in person or by proxy representing not less than 50% of the issued common shares entitled to vote on the resolutions to be considered at the meeting. Such quorum may be represented by only a single shareholder or proxy. If no quorum is present within two hours of the start time of the meeting, the meeting shall be dissolved if it was requested by shareholders. In any other case, the meeting shall be adjourned to the next business day, and if shareholders representing not less than one-third of the votes of the common shares or each class of securities entitled to vote on the matters to be considered at the meeting are present within one hour of the start time of the adjourned meeting, a quorum will be present. If not, the meeting will be dissolved. No business may be transacted at any meeting of shareholders unless a quorum is present at the commencement of business. If present, the chair of our Board of Directors shall be the chair presiding at any meeting of the shareholders. If the chair of our board is not present, then the shareholders present shall choose to chair the meeting of the shareholders.


A corporation that is a shareholder shall be deemed for the purpose of our Memorandum and Association to be present in person if represented by its duly authorized representative. This duly authorized representative shall be entitled to exercise the same powers on behalf of the corporation which he represents as that corporation could exercise if it were our individual shareholder.


Protection of minority shareholders


The BVI Act offers some limited protection of minority shareholders. The principal protection under statutory law is that shareholders may apply to the BVI court for an order directing the company or its director(s) to comply with, or restraining the company or a director from engaging in conduct that contravenes, the BVI Act or the company’s Memorandum and Articles of Association. Under the BVI Act, the minority shareholders have a statutory right to bring a derivative action in the name of and on behalf of the company in circumstances where a company has a cause of action against its directors. This remedy is available at the discretion of the BVI court. A shareholder may also bring an action against the company for breach of duty owed to him as a member. A shareholder who considers that the affairs of the company have been, are being or likely to be, conducted in a manner that is, or any act or acts of the company have been, or are, likely to be oppressive, unfairly discriminatory, or unfairly prejudicial to him in that capacity, may apply to the BVI court for an order to remedy the situation.


There are common law rights for the protection of shareholders that may be invoked, largely dependent on English company law. Under the general rule pursuant to English company law known as the rule in Foss v. Harbottle, a court will generally refuse to interfere with the management of a company at the insistence of a minority of its shareholders who express dissatisfaction with the conduct of the company’s affairs by the majority or the Board of Directors. However, every shareholder is entitled to have the affairs of the company conducted properly according to BVI law and the constituent documents of the company. As such, if those who control the company have persistently disregarded the requirements of company law or the provisions of the company’s Memorandum and Articles of Association, then the courts may grant relief. Generally, the areas in which the courts will intervene are the following: (1) an act complained of which is outside the scope of the authorized business or is illegal or not capable of ratification by the majority; (2) acts that constitute fraud on the minority where the wrongdoers control the company; (3) acts that infringe or are about to infringe on the personal rights of the shareholders, such as the right to vote; and (4) where the company has not complied with provisions requiring approval of a special or extraordinary majority of shareholders.




Pre-emptive rights


There are no pre-emptive rights applicable to the issue by us of new common shares under either BVI law or our Memorandum and Articles of Association.


Transfer of common shares


Subject to the restrictions in our Memorandum and Articles of Association, the lock-up agreements with our underwriters described in “Common Shares Eligible for Future Sale — Lock-Up Agreements” and applicable securities laws, any of our shareholders may transfer all or any of his or her common shares by written instrument of transfer signed by the transferor and containing the name and address of the transferee. Our Board of Directors may resolve by resolution to refuse or delay the registration of the transfer of any common share. If our Board of Directors resolves to refuse or delay any transfer, it shall specify the reasons for such refusal in the resolution. Our directors may not resolve or refuse or delay the transfer of a common share unless: (a) the person transferring the common shares has failed to pay any amount due in respect of any of those common shares; or (b) such refusal or delay is deemed necessary or advisable in our view or that of our legal counsel in order to avoid violation of, or in order to ensure compliance with, any applicable, corporate, securities and other laws and regulations.




As permitted by BVI law and our Memorandum and Articles of Association, the company may be voluntarily liquidated by a resolution of members or, if permitted under section 199(2) of the BVI Act, by a resolution of directors if we have no liabilities or we are able to pay our debts as they fall due and the value of our assets equals or exceeds our liabilities by resolution of directors and resolution of shareholders.


Calls on common shares and forfeiture of common shares


Our Board of Directors may, on the terms established at the time of the issuance of such common shares or as otherwise agreed, make calls upon shareholders for any amounts unpaid on their common shares in a notice served to such shareholders at least 14 days prior to the specified time of payment. The common shares that have been called upon and remain unpaid are subject to forfeiture. For the avoidance of doubt, if the issued common shares have been fully paid in accordance with the terms of its issuance and subscription, the Board of Directors shall not have the right to make calls on such fully paid common shares and such fully paid common shares shall not be subject to forfeiture.




Redemption of common shares


Subject to the provisions of the BVI Act, we may issue common shares on terms that are subject to redemption, at our option or at the option of the holders, on such terms and in such manner as may be determined by our Memorandum and Articles of Association and subject to any applicable requirements imposed from time to time by, the BVI Act, the SEC, the NASDAQ Capital Market, or by any recognized stock exchange on which our securities are listed.


Modifications of rights


If at any time, the company is authorized to issue more than one class of common shares, all or any of the rights attached to any class of shares may be amended only with the consent in writing of or by a resolution passed at a meeting of not less than 50 percent of the shares of the class to be affected.


Changes in the number of common shares we are authorized to issue and those in issue


We may from time to time by a resolution of shareholders or resolution of our Board of Directors:


amend our Memorandum of Association to increase or decrease the maximum number of common shares we are authorized to issue,


subject to our Memorandum of Association, subdivide our authorized and issued common shares into a larger number of common shares then our existing number of common shares, and


subject to our Memorandum of Association, consolidate our authorized and issued shares into a smaller number of common shares.


Inspection of books and records


Under BVI Law, holders of our common shares are entitled, upon giving written notice to us, to inspect (i) our Memorandum and Articles of Association, (ii) the register of members, (iii) the register of directors and (iv)minutes of meetings and resolutions of members, and to make copies and take extracts from the documents and records. However, our directors can refuse access if they are satisfied that to allow such access would be contrary to our interests. See “Where You Can Find More Information.”


Rights of non-resident or foreign shareholders


There are no limitations imposed by our Memorandum and Articles of Association on the rights of non-resident or foreign shareholders to hold or exercise voting rights on our common shares. In addition, there are no provisions in our Memorandum and Articles of Association governing the ownership threshold above which shareholder ownership must be disclosed.


Issuance of additional common shares


Our Memorandum and Articles of Association authorizes our Board of Directors to issue additional common shares from authorized but unissued common shares, to the extent available, from time to time as our Board of Directors shall determine.