424B3 1 dp168172_424b3.htm FORM 424B3

 

Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3)
 Registration No. 333-260528

 

Prospectus Supplement No. 6
(to prospectus dated November 4, 2021)

 

Mirion Technologies, Inc.

 

Up to 8,560,540 Shares of our Class A Common Stock Issuable upon Redemption of Shares of IntermediateCo Class B Common Stock
Up to 27,249,979 Shares of our Class A Common Stock Issuable upon Exercise of Warrants
152,157,565 Shares of our Class A Common Stock for Resale by the Selling Holders

 

This prospectus supplement is being filed to update and supplement the information contained in the prospectus dated November 4, 2021 (the “Prospectus”), which forms part of our registration statement on Form S-1 (No. 333-260528) with the information contained in our Annual Report on Form 10-K, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) on February 28, 2022 (the “Annual Report”). Accordingly, we have attached the Annual Report to this prospectus supplement.

 

The Prospectus and this prospectus supplement relate to: (1) the issuance by us of up to an aggregate of 35,810,519 shares of Class A common stock, par value $0.0001 per share (“Class A common stock”), of Mirion Technologies, Inc. (the “Company”) that may be issued upon (i) the exercise of 27,249,979 warrants to purchase Class A common stock at an exercise price of $11.50 per share of Class A common stock, including the public warrants and the private placement warrants (each as defined in the Prospectus), and (ii) the redemption of up to 8,560,540 shares of Class B common stock, par value $0.0001 per share (the “IntermediateCo Class B common stock”), of Mirion IntermediateCo, Inc. (“IntermediateCo”); and (2) the offer and sale, from time to time, by the selling holders identified in the Prospectus (the “Selling Holders”), or their permitted transferees, of up to 152,157,565 shares of Class A common stock.

 

This prospectus supplement updates and supplements the information in the Prospectus and is not complete without, and may not be delivered or utilized except in combination with, the Prospectus, including any amendments or supplements thereto. This prospectus supplement should be read in conjunction with the Prospectus and if there is any inconsistency between the information in the Prospectus and this prospectus supplement, you should rely on the information in this prospectus supplement. Terms used in this prospectus supplement but not defined herein shall have the meanings given to such terms in the Prospectus.

 

You should read the Prospectus, this prospectus supplement and any additional prospectus supplement or amendment carefully before you invest in our securities. Our Class A common stock and public warrants are listed on The New York Stock Exchange under the symbols “MIR” and “MIR WS,” respectively. On February 25, 2022, the closing price of our Class A common stock was $8.65 per share and the closing price for our public warrants was $1.89 per warrant.

 

 

 

Investing in our Class A common stock and warrants involves a high degree of risk. See the section titled “Risk Factors” beginning on page 10 of the Prospectus and in any applicable prospectus supplement.

 

Neither the SEC nor any other state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed on the adequacy or accuracy of the Prospectus or this prospectus supplement. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

February 28, 2022

 

 

 

 


UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
    ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021
OR
    TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from __________ to __________

Commission File Number: 001-39352
Mirion Technologies, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware 83-0974996
(State or other jurisdiction of
 incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
1218 Menlo Drive
Atlanta, Georgia 30318
(Address of Principal Executive Office)
(770) 432-2744
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
Trading symbol(s)
Name of each exchange on which registered
Class A Common Stock, $0.0001 par value per share
MIR
New York Stock Exchange
Redeemable warrants, each exercisable for one share of Class A common stock at an exercise price of $11.50
MIR WS
New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. ☐ Yes No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. ☐ Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☐ No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☐ No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large Accelerated Filer Accelerated Filer
Non-accelerated Filer Smaller Reporting Company
    Emerging Growth Company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act). o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. x

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). o Yes x No
The aggregate market value of voting and non-voting common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant (for this purpose, executive officers and directors of the registrant are considered affiliates) as of June 30, 2021 (the last business day of the most recently completed second quarter) was approximately $780,000,000.

Number of shares of the registrant’s Class A common stock outstanding at February 22, 2022: 199,523,292.
Number of shares of the registrant’s Class B common stock outstanding at February 22, 2022: 8,560,540.



CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the "safe-harbor" provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 that reflect future plans, estimates, beliefs, and expected performance. All statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K other than statements of historical fact, including statements regarding our future operating results and financial position, our business strategy and plans and our objectives for future operations, are forward-looking statements. This includes, without limitation, statements under “Part II, Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” regarding our financial position, capital structure, indebtedness, business strategy and the plans and objectives of management for future operations, market share and products sales, future market opportunities, future manufacturing capabilities and facilities, future sales channels and strategies. These statements constitute projections, forecasts and forward-looking statements, and are not guarantees of performance. When used in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “might,” “plan,” “possible,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “strive,” “seeks,” “plans,” “scheduled,” “would” and similar expressions may identify forward-looking statements, but the absence of these words does not mean that a statement is not forward-looking. When we discuss our strategies or plans we are making projections, forecasts or forward-looking statements. Such statements are based on the beliefs of, as well as assumptions made by and information currently available to, our management.

The forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are based on our current expectations and beliefs concerning future developments and their potential effects on us. There can be no assurance that future developments affecting us will be those that we have anticipated. These forward-looking statements involve a number of risks, uncertainties (some of which are beyond our control) or other assumptions that may cause actual results or performance to be materially different from those expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. These risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, the following risks, uncertainties and other factors:

changes in domestic and foreign business, market, economic, financial, political and legal conditions;
risks related to the continued growth of our end markets;
our ability to win new customers and retain existing customers;
our ability to realize sales expected from our backlog of orders and contracts;
risks related to governmental contracts;
our ability to mitigate risks associated with long-term fixed price contracts, including risks related to inflation;
risks related to information technology disruption or security;
risks related to the implementation and enhancement of information systems;
our ability to manage our supply chain or difficulties with third-party manufacturers;
risks related to competition;
our ability to manage disruptions of, or changes in, our independent sales representatives, distributors and original equipment manufacturers;
our ability to realize the expected benefit from any synergies from acquisitions or internal restructuring and improvement efforts;
our ability to issue equity or equity-linked securities in the future;
risks related to changes in tax law and ongoing tax audits;
risks related to future legislation and regulation both in the United States and abroad;
risks related to the costs or liabilities associated with product liability claims;
our ability to attract, train and retain key members of its leadership team and other qualified personnel;
risks related to the adequacy of our insurance coverage;
our ability to benefit from future acquisitions; including our ability to realize the value of goodwill and intangible assets;
risks related to the global scope of our operations, including operations in international and emerging markets;
risks related to our exposure to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates;
our ability to comply with various laws and regulations and the costs associated with legal compliance;
risks related to the outcome of any litigation, government and regulatory proceedings, investigations and inquiries;
risks related to our ability to protect or enforce our proprietary rights on which our business depends or third-party intellectual property infringement claims;
liabilities associated with environmental, health and safety matters;
our ability to predict our future operational results;
risks associated with our limited history of operating as an independent company;
the impact of the global COVID-19 pandemic, including the availability, acceptance and efficacy of vaccinations and laws and regulations with respect to vaccinations, on our projected results of operations, financial performance or other financial metrics, or on any of the foregoing risks; and
other risks and uncertainties indicated in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including those under the heading “Risk Factors,” and other documents filed or to be filed with the SEC by us.

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There can be no assurance that future developments affecting us will be those that we have anticipated. These forward-looking statements involve a number of risks, uncertainties (some of which are beyond our control) or other assumptions that may cause actual results or performance to be materially different from those expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. Should one or more of these risks or uncertainties materialize, or should any of our assumptions prove incorrect, actual results may vary in material respects from those projected in these forward-looking statements.

Forward-looking statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K speak only as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K or any earlier date specified for such statements. We undertake no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as may be required under applicable securities laws.

We intend to announce material information to the public through the Mirion Investor Relations website, available at ir.mirion.com, SEC filings, press releases, public conference calls and public webcasts. We use these channels, as well as social media, to communicate with our investors, customers and the public about our company, our offerings and other issues. It is possible that the information we post on our website or social media could be deemed to be material information. As such, we encourage investors, the media, and others to follow the channels listed above, including the social media channels listed on our investor relations website, and to review the information disclosed through such channels. Any updates to the list of disclosure channels through which we will announce information will be posted on the investor relations website.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

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CERTAIN DEFINED TERMS

Unless the context otherwise requires, all references in this Annual Report on Form 10-K to “Mirion,” the “Company,” “we,” “us” or “our” refer to Mirion Technologies, Inc. following the Business Combination, other than certain historical information which refers to the business of Mirion Technologies (TopCo), Ltd. (“Mirion TopCo”) prior to the consummation of the business combination (the “Business Combination”) of GS Acquisition Holdings Corp II (“GSAH”) with Mirion TopCo on October 20, 2021, pursuant to that certain Business Combination Agreement, dated June 17, 2021 (as amended, the “Business Combination Agreement”), by and among GSAH, Mirion and the other parties thereto. See “Part I, Item 1. Business—Business Combination Overview” for more information. In addition, as a result of the Business Combination, our financial statement presentation distinguishes Mirion TopCo as the “Predecessor” for periods prior to the closing of the Business Combination. Mirion, which includes consolidation of Mirion’s subsidiaries, is the “Successor” for periods after the closing of the Business Combination.

Unless otherwise stated in this Annual Report on Form 10-K or the context otherwise requires, references to:

“ASC” are to the Accounting Standards Codification;

“Board” and “Board of Directors” are to the board of directors of Mirion Technologies, Inc. following the closing of the Business Combination;

“Bylaws” are to the bylaws of Mirion Technologies, Inc. in effect as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K;

“Charter” are to the certificate of incorporation of Mirion Technologies, Inc. in effect as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K;

“Class A common stock” are to shares of Mirion’s common stock, par value $0.0001 per share;

“Class B common stock” are to shares of Mirion’s common stock, par value $0.0001 per share;

“common stock” are to the Class A common stock and Class B common stock;

“COVID-19” are to SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19, and any evolutions thereof or any other epidemics, pandemics or disease outbreaks;

“DGCL” are to the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware;

“Exchange Act” are to the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended;

“fiscal 2021” are to the twelve months ended June 30, 2021;

“fiscal 2020” are to the twelve months ended June 30, 2020;

“fiscal 2019” are to the twelve months ended June 30, 2019;

“founder shares” are to the Founder Shares (as defined under Note 15, Related Party Transactions, in the notes to the financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K);

“GSAH” are to GS Acquisition Holdings Corp II, prior to the consummation of the Business Combination;

“IntermediateCo” are to Mirion IntermediateCo, Inc., a Delaware corporation direct subsidiary of Mirion;

“IntermediateCo Class A common stock” are to the shares of Class A common stock of IntermediateCo, par value $0.0001 per share;

“IntermediateCo Class B common stock” are to the shares of Class B common stock of IntermediateCo, par value $0.0001 per share;

“Mirion TopCo” are to Mirion Technologies (TopCo), Ltd;

"Predecessor Period" refers to all reported financial periods prior to the Business Combination Closing Date on October 20, 2021;

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“Predecessor Stub Period” means the transition period preceding the Business Combination from July 1, 2021 through October 19, 2021;

“private placement warrants” are to the Private Placement Warrants (as defined under Note 15, Related Party Transactions in the notes to the financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K);

“public warrants” are to the Public Warrants (as defined under Note 15, Related Party Transactions, in the notes to the financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K);

“Sarbanes-Oxley Act” are to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002;

“Securities Act” are to the Securities Act of 1933, as amended;

“Sponsor” are to GS Sponsor II LLC, a Delaware limited liability company;

“Sponsor Agreement” are to the Second Amended and Restated Sponsor Agreement, dated as of October 20, 2021, by and among us, the Sponsor and the other parties thereto;

"Successor Period" refers to the period from the Closing Date, October 20, 2021, and ended on December 31, 2021; and

“warrants” are to the public warrants and private placement warrants.
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PART I
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
Business Overview
Mirion provides products, services and software that allow our customers to safely leverage the power of ionizing radiation for the greater good of humanity. Our solutions have critical applications in the medical, nuclear energy and defense markets, as well as in laboratories and scientific research, analysis and space exploration. Many of our markets are characterized by the need to meet rigorous regulatory standards, design qualifications and operating requirements. Throughout our history, we have successfully leveraged the strength of our expertise in ionizing radiation to continually drive innovation and expand the commercial applications of our core technology competencies. Through our facilities in 13 countries, we supply our solutions in the Americas, Europe, Africa, the Middle East and Asia Pacific regions.

We are headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia and have operations in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Finland, China, Belgium, Netherlands, Estonia, Japan, and South Korea.

We have two reportable business segments: Medical and Industrial. Our Medical segment supports applications in medical diagnostics, cancer treatment, practitioner safety and rehabilitation. Our products in these fields are focused on enhancing the effectiveness and safety of life-saving procedures. Our Industrial segment is focused on addressing critical radiation safety, measurement and analysis applications across nuclear energy, defense, laboratories and research and other industrial markets. Products and solutions of our Medical segment and of our Industrial segment include: dosimetry services (environmental radiation monitoring dose of records services), cancer diagnostics and therapy quality assurance, or "QA", nuclear medicine, dosimeters (wearable devices that measure exposure to ionizing radiation), contamination and clearance monitors, detection and identification instruments, radiation monitoring systems, electrical penetrations, reactor instrumentation and control equipment and systems, medical and industrial imaging systems and related accessories, software and services, alpha spectroscopy instruments (instruments that quantify and identify alpha-emitting nuclides), alpha/beta counting instruments (instruments for quantification of alpha and beta radiation) and gamma spectroscopy detector systems (instruments for qualification and quantification of gamma emitting nuclides) and software (related software to support our product and solution offerings).

For more than 60 years, we and our predecessor companies have delivered products and services that enable our customer to harness ionizing radiation for applications that benefit the health, safety, vitality and technological progress of humanity. We believe the breadth and proven performance of our solutions support our longstanding strategic customer partnerships across diverse end markets. Our products, software and services have been sold directly and indirectly to a variety of end-use customers, including, medical service providers, the vast majority of the U.S. nuclear power producers and the addressable global installed base of active nuclear power reactors, many of the leading nuclear reactor design firms, universities, numerous international government and supranational agencies, 19 of the 28 NATO militaries, national laboratories, environmental laboratories, research institutes and industrial companies.

Our broad product and services portfolio of medical, search, measurement, scientific analysis and reactor safety and control systems are supported by our engineering and research and development organization of 356 scientists, engineers and technicians, who represented approximately 14% of our workforce as of December 31, 2021. We possess numerous product qualifications, trade secrets and patents that support our market position and our ability to deliver next generation products and services. In addition, we maintain design, manufacturing and sales capabilities across 12 countries in America, Europe and Asia, enabling us to capitalize on growth opportunities, including the ongoing growth in spending for medical, defense and homeland security and the ongoing growth for nuclear power.

Our financial performance is driven by the replacement of products and the recurring provision of services into our core end markets, as well as the construction of new facilities like nuclear power plants, or NPPs, globally.

Business Combination Overview

On October 20, 2021 (the “Closing Date”), Mirion Technologies, Inc. (formerly known as GS Acquisition Holdings Corp II) consummated its previously announced Business Combination pursuant to the Business Combination Agreement. In connection with the Business Combination, stockholders of GSAH elected to redeem 14,628,610 shares of GSAH's Class A common stock, representing approximately 19.5% of GSAH's issued and outstanding Class A common stock before giving effect to the Business Combination.

In order to implement a structure similar to that of an “Up-C,” the Company formed IntermediateCo, and a newly-formed subsidiary of IntermediateCo merged with and into Mirion TopCo with Mirion TopCo surviving as a wholly-owned
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subsidiary of IntermediateCo. The Company holds 100% of the shares of IntermediateCo Class A common stock, and greater than 80% of the shares of IntermediateCo Class B common stock. The shares of IntermediateCo Class B common stock not held by the Company are held by certain pre-Business Combination stockholders of Mirion TopCo, as described below.

The aggregate business combination consideration (the “Business Combination Consideration”) paid by the Company to the pre-Business Combination stockholders of Mirion TopCo (collectively, the "Mirion Sellers") in connection with the consummation of the Business Combination was approximately $1.3 billion in cash, 30,401,902 newly issued shares of Class A common stock and 8,560,540 newly issued shares of the Class B common stock. The Mirion Sellers receiving shares of Class B common stock also received one share of IntermediateCo Class B common stock per share of Class B common stock as a paired interest (the “paired interests”). Each share of Class A common stock and each paired interest were valued at $10.00 per share for purposes of determining the aggregate number of shares issued to the Mirion Sellers.

The holders of the founder shares agreed to waive the anti-dilution adjustments provided for in GSAH’s Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, which were applicable to the Class B common stock. As a result of such waiver, the 18,750,000 founder shares automatically converted into shares of Class A common stock on a one-for-one basis upon the consummation of the Business Combination. Pursuant to the Sponsor Agreement, the founder shares also became subject to vesting in three equal tranches, based on the volume-weighted average price of the Class A common stock being greater than or equal to $12.00, $14.00 and $16.00 (each, a “Founder Share Vesting Event”) per share for any 20 trading days in any 30 consecutive trading day period. Vesting of the founder shares will be accelerated upon certain sale events based on the per share price of the Class A common stock in such sale event. Holders of the founder shares are entitled to vote such founder shares and receive dividends and other distributions with respect to such founder shares prior to vesting, but such dividends and other distributions with respect to unvested founder shares will be set aside and shall only be paid to the holders of the founder shares upon the vesting of such founder shares. The founder shares will be forfeited to us for no consideration if they fail to vest within five years of the Closing Date.

Concurrently with the execution of the Business Combination Agreement, GSAH entered into subscription agreements (the “Subscription Agreements”) with certain investors (collectively, the “PIPE Investors”), pursuant to, and on the terms and subject to the conditions of which, the PIPE Investors collectively subscribed for 90,000,000 shares of Class A common stock for an aggregate purchase price equal to $900,000,000 (the “PIPE Investment” and, such shares, the “PIPE Shares”). The PIPE Investment was consummated substantially concurrently with the Closing.

A subsidiary of Mirion TopCo, Mirion Technologies (HoldingSub1), Ltd. (“UKTopCo”), previously issued certain PIK Notes to certain Mirion TopCo stockholders and members of Mirion management (collectively, the “PIK Notes”). Substantially concurrent with the Closing, a portion of the Business Combination Consideration was used to extinguish the PIK Notes in full.

On October 20, 2021, the Board of Directors determined to change Mirion TopCo's fiscal year end from June 30 of each year to December 31 of each year in order to align Mirion’s fiscal year end with GSAH’s fiscal year end.


Industry Overview

We have two reportable business segments: Medical and Industrial. Our Medical segment is based around our sales, products and services to customers in the medical market. The Industrial segment is primarily based around the nuclear energy, defense, laboratories and scientific research markets as well as other industrial markets.

Medical

Our medical market is comprised of rapidly growing product applications in cancer diagnostics and therapeutics, nuclear medicine, dosimetry services and rehabilitation. We offer products, software and services in each of these areas that enhance the effectiveness and safety of life-saving procedures in these areas. According to the World Nuclear Association, or WNA, as of October 2021, there are over 10,000 hospitals worldwide using radioisotopes in medicine, with about 90% of the procedures for diagnostics, and more than 40 million procedures are performed globally every year, 20 million being in the United States and 10 million in Europe. The WNA also estimates that, as of April 2021, the use of radioactive substances, or radiopharmaceuticals, in diagnosis is growing at over 10% per year. In the radiotherapy market, demand is driven by replacement of the underlying linear accelerator, or Linac, installed base. As of 2019 there were approximately 14,000 Linacs deployed worldwide, and it is estimated that this will grow to approximately 16,500 Linacs worldwide by 2024, according to a global consulting firm.

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Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that uses radiopharmaceuticals to diagnose, monitor and treat disease. Our products address the complicated lifecycle of radiopharmaceuticals from radiopharmaceutical production and handling through patient dosing, imaging, diagnosis and therapy with our line of dose calibrators, thyroid uptake systems, shielding systems, management software and supporting accessories.

Radiotherapy (also known as radiation therapy or radiation oncology), uses radiation in the form of X-rays, protons and electrons to destroy cancer cells and shrink tumors. We provide both hardware and software products, as well as services to accomplish the critical task of performing independent quality management in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Our suite of patient, machine and diagnostic QA solutions are relied on in the field to mitigate errors, reduce inefficiencies, validate technologies and techniques, and elevate the quality of clinical care.

Medical imaging encompasses a number of technologies (MRI, Ultrasound, X-ray) that are used to view the human body to diagnose, monitor or treat medical conditions. We provide support for these imaging techniques through our array of C-Arm and ultrasound tables, MRI accessories, positioners and radiation protection accessories.

As a result of the proliferation of radiological medical technologies, hospitals, clinics, and small dental and veterinary facilities rely on occupational dosimetry systems and services to ensure the safety of both medical personnel and patients. Our dosimetry services products like Instadose, provide instant dose measurement results when connected to any computer or mobile device via Bluetooth and ensure that radiation safety programs run smoothly and are easy to administrate.

Laboratories and Research

The laboratory and research market includes different types of facilities like environmental radiochemistry laboratories, research laboratories, research reactors and education laboratories. All these facilities analyze nuclear samples or monitor experiments to identify the chemical composition of the material involved or understand the basic structure of matter.
The environmental radiochemistry laboratories, or counting labs, monitor the environment by analyzing samples, measuring their radiation and identifying the source and the nature of contamination, if any. The laboratories can be governmental (e.g., health or environment institutions, safety authorities) or private (e.g., facility bio assay, process labs). We believe there are over 500 environmental laboratories worldwide based on our estimates as of December 2021.

Research centers include national laboratories and research institutions conducting research in the areas of space, underground studies, physics around synchrotrons and accelerators. Radiation measurement systems are used in research for the discovery of elements, to study the formation of matter after the big bang or in the deepest underground laboratories in the world to perform dark matter experiments. They are also used in space, mounted in satellites or robots, landing on planets (Mars Rover) or orbiting around Earth (STEREO), Saturn (Cassini), Venus and Mercury (Messenger), Pluto (New Horizons), Mars (MSL-Rad), and Jupiter (JUNO).

Research reactors are used for research and training, materials testing, medicine (like the production of radioisotopes) and industrial functions. According to the WNA, there were 220 operational nuclear research reactors in 53 countries, with 11 more under construction and 16 planned to be built, as of June 2021.

Education laboratories are located in universities and offer programs in nuclear engineering, health physics, radioprotection, nuclear physics or nuclear science and technology. We believe there are more than 600 colleges worldwide, universities and degree-granting institutions that are equipped with nuclear measurement products.

Nuclear

The nuclear end market spans the entire nuclear fuel cycle, including mining, enrichment, fuel manufacturing, nuclear power generation, waste management and fuel reprocessing. Key nuclear installations include mines, fuel fabrication facilities, commercial nuclear power reactors, reprocessing facilities, research facilities, military facilities and ships, weapons facilities and waste storage facilities.

We sell products and services for use in each of these types of installations at any stage of their life (construction, operation, decommissioning and dismantling), with commercial nuclear power reactors representing the majority of our sales into the nuclear end market. This market is segmented between new builds, installed base requesting upgrades/uprates/relicensing, and decommissioning and dismantling.

Driven by increasing demand for electricity and reliable and carbon-free energy, the nuclear power market is forecasted to grow in the near and long term, which presents opportunities for us. These trends are further driven by global decarbonization goals, which are likely to increase the demand for nuclear power.

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Despite some challenges in certain regions of the world (e.g., Germany, Sweden, Japan), the new build market is expected to be very dynamic. According to the WNA, in January 2022 there were 57 reactors in construction and 423 planned or proposed. The installed base market presents opportunities while nuclear power plants, or NPPs, are being relicensed with extended life time and upgraded. Meanwhile, we believe that more than 50 reactors will be shut down by 2030, growing the demand for radiation equipment used in decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear facilities.

Defense

Our global defense end market is driven by a combination of military, civil defense and event-driven security spending. The proliferation of global security threats has reached an unprecedented level, driven by an unstable geopolitical climate, the emergence and expansion of terrorist organizations, the development of nuclear weapons in non-nuclear countries and the proliferation of radiological and nuclear technologies. Taken together, these threats have the potential to cause significant human casualties and economic loss. As a result, militaries, civil defense and other security organizations have bolstered investment in the prevention and detection of radiological threats as well as in technologies capable of detecting and monitoring radiation levels in the aftermath of radiological attack.

Militaries throughout the world utilize radiation detection technologies for troop security. Spending on personnel protection and detection of radiological threats is a priority for both NATO and non-NATO militaries and, as such, has led many countries to provide dosimeters to military personnel on a standard-issue basis. We believe that spending on these technologies will remain a high priority among armed forces globally.

Spending within the global civil defense, or homeland security, market has rapidly expanded in recent years based on increased threats presented by terrorist organizations. As a result, civil defense, first responder and other security organizations are investing in technologies and services designed both to protect civil defense personnel, civilians and domestic infrastructure from radiological threats and to detect and monitor radiation levels following a radiological incident, such as the release of a nuclear or other radiological device.

In addition, homeland security organizations are increasingly focused on enhancing radiological detection capabilities at critical points of entry, such as airports, ports and borders. Large-scale public meeting events have also greatly increased security measures at facilities, including rapid adoption of radiological detection technologies to address the increased threat of radiological attacks, due to their profile as high visibility targets.

Industrial

Other end markets include industrial facilities such as cement kilns, pulp and paper mills and coal/gas fired power boilers that utilize high-temperature industrial processes. These high-temperature processes are critical to plant operation and must be accurately monitored to ensure optimal operating conditions. Imaging equipment capable of withstanding the high temperatures and environmental conditions found in these facilities is employed to monitor and optimize process efficiency. These imaging systems require routine replacement or upgrades.

Other end markets also include original equipment manufacturers, or OEMs for general industrial market or medical applications, using radiation measurement detectors to sort material or precisely locate some radioisotopes.

Our Market Opportunity

We believe that significant opportunities for growth exist within each of our primary end markets.

Medical

Radiological procedure growth. The use of radiodiagnostic and radiotherapeutic procedures is expanding globally due to aging population demographics, technological advancements and emerging middle classes in developing economies. As the use of radiological procedures increases in the medical industry, so does our associated market opportunity. According to a global consulting firm, we believe the global nuclear medicine market is expected to grow approximately 7% per year from 2020 through 2030, primarily driven by the increase in the prevalence and incidences of cancer worldwide. Likewise, the global radiotherapy market is expected to grow approximately 6% per year from 2020 through 2030, primarily driven by factors including growing awareness about the benefits of radiotherapy for cancer control and eradication, increasing incidence and prevalence of cancer, and technological advancements in the field of radiotherapy. We play in select sub-segments of the global nuclear medicine and radiotherapy markets. The growth trajectories in these markets represent significant market opportunities for our products that are deployed in hospitals, clinics, and other diagnostic and therapeutic centers around the world.
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Dosimetry outsourcing. In some regions outside the United States, dosimetry services for health care practitioners historically have been provided by government agencies. We believe that more government agencies are outsourcing dosimetry services to private providers due to favorable cost dynamics in some regions. This provides a market opportunity where we can leverage our technical expertise and North American service experience to expand into other regions as we have done through our acquisitions of state-owned dosimetry services businesses in the Netherlands and Germany. According to a global leading consulting firm, we believe our core dosimetry market is expected to grow 3 to 4% per year from 2020 through 2026, primarily driven by volume increase in number of healthcare workers exposed to radiation and standard annual price increases. In addition, through the differentiating factors behind the innovative Instadose product line, we believe that we have the right product ecosystem to maximize this opportunity.

Laboratories and Research
Customer loyalty. Loyalty is driven by long standing relationships, customer hesitancy to switch suppliers, high switching costs and limited competition globally. We believe we can benefit from price growth in most of our markets. In addition, our business is well protected by consistent replacement cycles on installed base.

Nuclear
Our legacy in the nuclear industry positions us to capitalize on the growth in demand for radiation detection, measurement, analysis and monitoring products and services in each phase of the nuclear life cycle, as outlined in the chart below.

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We provide essential products and services to NPPs throughout the entire life cycle of a plant: from construction and operation to decommissioning and decontamination. For example, we provide:
    
Radiation measurement and monitoring solutions, such as detection portals, environmental monitors and dosimetry systems that are typically installed in nuclear facilities during construction and are replaced or upgraded during the entire lifetime of the reactors, in particular upon life extensions. This provides recurring revenue opportunities as customers must replace and upgrade components and services during this timeframe,
    
Reactor instrumentation and control detectors that are typically installed in nuclear facilities during construction and are replaced or upgraded regularly. In addition, there are opportunities to provide more comprehensive upgrades of reactor instrumentation and control detector systems in certain existing reactors to facilitate up-rating,
    
Measurement and expertise services including technical expertise and experienced staff to help customers address their nuclear measurement needs in every step of the measurement process from planning to operation to wind-down,
    
Imaging systems and cameras for all stages of the nuclear lifecycle, from construction through operation, to decommissioning and waste management, and

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Waste management systems that are used during the lifetime of the reactors and are essential, in particular, in any decontamination and decommissioning project.

We believe the following dynamics support the sustainability of our existing business and will drive new sources of organic growth.

Predictable upgrade, replacement and retirement cycles. Our radiation detection, measurement, analysis and monitoring products and systems have predictable life spans, typically ranging from four to twenty-five years. Our complex monitoring systems typically require at least one comprehensive upgrade during their useful life to optimize their functionality. In addition, many of our products require replacement parts, components and service due to normal wear during their useful lives.

Aging installed base. The existing global installed base of nuclear reactors has a median age of 34 years. This aging installed base requires frequent product replacements and upgrades over an operating life cycle that generally ranges from 40 to 80 years. Furthermore, as reactors reach the end of their useful lives, the onset of a multi-year “decommissioning” process represents a further revenue opportunity in the reactor life cycle for our products.

Increased decontamination and decommissioning activity and stricter environmental regulation. The total number of NPP shutdowns under decontamination and decommissioning is expected to increase over the next decade, with largest amount of expected plant shutdowns potentially in the U.S. market. In Europe, the UK represents the highest share of expected shutdowns as the operating fleet ages and passes the license extension period.

Large installed base of “orphaned” products and systems. Most currently operating reactors were commissioned prior to 1990. Operators of many aging NPPs often must consider new suppliers to meet their detection needs as many of the suppliers of legacy radiation detection, measurement, analysis and monitoring systems no longer service the nuclear industry.

Dosimetry outsourcing. NPPs have historically managed the majority of their dosimetry service requirements internally. However, the cost benefits of outsourcing these services have become increasingly attractive to NPP operators as they focus on improving profitability and enhancing service.

New build opportunity. We expect the construction of new nuclear reactors worldwide to provide opportunities across our product and service offerings. The nuclear industry is experiencing robust growth in activity related to new reactor builds. According to the WNA, in January 2022, there were 57 reactors under construction and 423 planned or proposed. This growth is occurring internationally and our global footprint positions us to capitalize on these opportunities. Since the early stages of reactor development generally represent a material share of our revenue opportunity over the life cycle of a reactor, we are positioned to benefit from increased global reactor construction. In addition, as new plants are added to the global nuclear fleet, we believe our recurring revenue opportunity associated with replacements, spares, software, services and system upgrades will continue to increase as we are well-positioned with customers due to our incumbent position.

Defense

Focus on military personnel. Global militaries must contend with radiological threats and the difficulties of protecting soldiers and monitoring areas of enemy engagement. The combination of our active dosimeters and telemetry technology provides a differentiated solution that addresses the radiation detection needs of modern militaries.

Increased civil defense spending on radiation detection. Civil defense and homeland security organizations are focused on preventing the illicit transportation of radiological materials across borders. The commercial application of our radiation detection expertise positions us to benefit from government spending on detection technologies.

Enhanced event specific security. The visibility of high profile events and venues has increased their value as targets of terrorist activity. In response, security spending at events, such as the Olympic Games, has increased, as has the utilization of radiation detection technology, providing an expanding market opportunity for our products.

Our Competitive Strengths

We believe that the following competitive strengths will enable us to maintain our position and capitalize on growth opportunities in our end markets:

Trusted ionizing radiation detection and measurement provider. Our end markets, including the medical, defense and nuclear industries, are highly regulated and require compliance with strict product specifications. Our track record enables
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us to gain market share across our product and service offerings. We and our predecessor companies have served the radiation detection measurement, analysis and monitoring needs of our customers for over 60 years, having developed trusted, recognized brands supported by our tradition of technical excellence, product reliability and customer service. We believe we have a leadership position in 14 of the 17 market segments we serve. In addition, we have leveraged our ionizing detection expertise to develop new applications for our core historical markets and to expand into adjacent markets through acquisitions.

Broad and complementary product and service portfolio. We are one of relatively few companies to offer ionizing radiation detection and measurement products and services to satisfy customer requirements throughout the medical and industrial markets. Our comprehensive product line supports virtually all radiation detection and monitoring needs associated with these markets. As a result, we believe that we have consistently gained market share as some of our key customers rationalize their supply chain. Furthermore, our portfolio provides us with a natural opportunity to cross-sell our products and services to our customers. As a result, we have a diversified portfolio across end markets and geographies.

Large installed base driving recurring revenue. We possess longstanding customer relationships in all of our end markets. We believe our QA products are used by the vast majority of cancer treatment centers in the United States and in the majority of such centers globally. This drives recurring revenue and opportunities for cross sales from our other activities. Our products were also installed at the vast majority of the addressable installed base of active nuclear power reactors globally, which have a median age of about 34 years. This installed base drives recurring revenue through replacement and service cycles associated with our offerings and the typical 40 to 80 year operating life cycle of an NPP. The length and quality of supplier relationships are important customer buying criteria due to high switching costs and the importance of proven product reliability. In addition, we maintain relationships with global military and government organizations that value operating longevity and technological expertise. For example, our products have been sold to 19 of the 28 NATO militaries as well as the U.S. Departments of Energy, State, Defense and Homeland Security. Our customers’ focus on personnel protection drives their recurring expenditures on service, recalibration and product upgrades in our defense end market. In the laboratories and research markets, we have developed relationships with certain customers over the past 50 years, gaining their loyalty based on product performance and customer services. Such relationships provide us with recurrent revenues when our customers upgrade and replace their existing installed base.

Technical complexity creates high barriers to entry. Across our end markets, we design our products to meet demanding customer specifications, qualifications and regulatory requirements. In many circumstances, we design our products to be compatible with highly complex facilities and operate effectively in harsh environments. Replicating our products is difficult given underlying technical specifications. In addition, customers generally work with their incumbent suppliers to service, maintain and replace equipment over product lifetime resulting in a natural barrier to entry.

Global footprint designed to meet local customer needs. Our global footprint, augmented by our established network of suppliers and distributors, enables us to be responsive to our customers and provide locally customized solutions. We operate facilities in 12 countries, accommodating the desire of certain of our customers to procure products and services from local providers. Sales to customers outside of the United States and Canada accounted for approximately 45% of total revenue for fiscal 2021. We believe that our established global infrastructure provides a scalable platform to meet the growing worldwide demand for our products and services.

Proven M&A strategy and track record of integrating acquisitions. We have been built through successive mergers and acquisitions. Since 2016, we have acquired and integrated fourteen companies. Through these acquisitions, we have developed tools and experience across deal sourcing, modeling and integrating acquired companies. We have a business ecosystem in place to identify and act upon cost saving opportunities as well as the ability to leverage our scale platform to capture cross-selling opportunities. Historically, we have consistently exceeded our synergy targets and improved profitability of acquired businesses.

Seasoned management team complemented by highly skilled engineers. We are led by an experienced management team with a mix of private sector and government experience across different industries and functions. Our segment and divisional presidents have an average tenure of over 15 years. Our senior management team is complemented by an engineering and research and development organization of 356 scientists, engineers and technicians as of December 31, 2021. A number of our employees are participants in international and U.S. standards setting organizations related to radiation detection in the nuclear, defense and medical end markets. Through these activities, we help define the setting of standards and preview changes that impact our products, customers and end markets.

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Our Strategy

Our objective is to continue enhancing our position as a global provider of radiation detection, measurement, analysis and monitoring products and services for the global medical and industrial end markets. We intend to achieve this through the following strategies:

Exploit under-penetrated market opportunities. We believe that we can exploit historically under-penetrated segments of our end markets by leveraging our existing positions across our major product categories. For example, we have leveraged our technical expertise to develop and commercialize innovative products to increase sales in the U.S. dosimetry services market and in the radiotherapy quality assurance market, and we have expanded our radiation monitoring solutions offering by leading integrated offers with other key suppliers for some nuclear new build projects in Europe to increase our scope of supply and gain share in the nuclear market.

Expand addressable market. We believe that substantial opportunities exist for us to expand our addressable market by marketing our products and services to customers in new geographic regions; providing products and services to customers moving to an outsource model; entering markets where the government is privatizing services; introducing new applications for existing technologies and pursuing strategic acquisitions.
    
Geographic expansion. Although we have sold products and services to customers in 120 countries historically, we believe we have additional opportunities in certain international markets. For example, in India, a market we currently serve through local partners, we intend to leverage our relationships with leading reactor design firms to capitalize on the opening of the nuclear end market to U.S. and European firms. Another such market is the European dosimetry services market. Through acquisitions, we have developed our presence in the Netherlands and Germany, and we plan to continue expanding into other European countries. Other markets for expansion include the Middle East, Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, where we intend to increase our presence by leveraging relationships with local partners.
    
Customer outsourcing. We believe we will continue to capitalize on customer outsourcing within the nuclear end market. Within the United States, several NPP operators have recently outsourced their dosimetry services in order to reduce costs. We have been able to benefit from economies of scale as well as advantages in materials procurement and processing technology to provide enhanced dosimetry services to many of these NPPs at a lower cost.
    
Service privatization. In regions outside the United States, dosimetry services have historically been provided by government agencies. However, privatization of dosimetry services is occurring in some regions, such as Europe. As illustrated by our acquisitions in the Netherlands and Germany, providers seek to reduce costs and benefit from enhanced service offerings. This provides us with an opportunity to leverage our expertise and North American service experience, where we have demonstrated a strong track record of success, to expand market share in other geographies.
    
Expand into new end markets. We periodically review our adjacent markets and identify opportunities for expansion. For example, we have developed a new personal radiation detector, or PRD, called Accurad to expand our presence in the civil services markets such as the police and fire departments. We have also entered in the nuclear imaging and radiotherapy markets through the acquisitions of Capintec, Biodex and Sun Nuclear, and, most recently in December 2021, CIRS.
    
New applications for existing technologies. A portion of our development effort is focused on adapting existing technologies to alternative applications. For example, we have adapted the technology used for the medical and nuclear markets to develop the Mirion Battlefield Dosimeter which is currently being deployed by the U.S. Army and the U.S. Navy.

Develop new products and services. We believe that significant near-term opportunities exist for us to develop new products and services by capitalizing on our understanding of our customers’ needs and requirements. Cross pollination of technologies between end markets also drives new growth opportunities. For example, we created a new product called evrCAM to meet the needs of the radiation oncology market by leveraging our core technology from decades of experience in radiation tolerant cameras for the nuclear power industry.

Continuously improve our cost structure and productivity. As we continue to grow our business, we have implemented a coordinated program of ongoing operating improvements, such as optimizing our manufacturing footprint, rationalizing excess costs and minimizing working capital requirements. We are continuously implementing our business system principles to challenge our practices and improve our performance across all our businesses. For example, we have
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optimized and simplified our footprint by transferring the activities from our facilities in Loche, France, certain activities in our Irvine, California facility and certain activities in our Shirley, New York facility to other Company sites. Our global procurement team also delivers value across the business from sourcing of key materials and services to supply chain design.

Pursue strategic acquisitions. We have successfully integrated acquisitions to augment our organic growth. We were formed by the merger of Global Dosimetry Solutions, or GDS, Imaging and Sensing Technologies, or IST, and Synodys in 2005. In 2016, we acquired Canberra Industries. Between October 2018 and December 2021, we acquired twelve companies, with the objective of complementing our portfolio, reinforcing our supply chain and expanding into new markets such as nuclear imaging and radiotherapy. Since then, we have effectively integrated these businesses, creating a global platform of ionizing radiation detection and measurement solutions. We continuously monitor potential acquisitions and intend to further complement our organic growth with selective acquisitions that enhance our existing products and services, strengthen our position with existing customers and enable us to expand into new markets.

Our Segments

Medical

Our Medical segment encompasses five major product categories focused on supporting applications in medical diagnostics, cancer treatment, practitioner safety and rehabilitation. Our products in these fields are focused on enhancing the effectiveness and safety of life-saving procedures.
         
Cancer Diagnostics and Therapeutics QA: we provide integrated solutions for independent quality management in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Our suite of patient, machine, and diagnostic QA solutions are relied on in the field to mitigate errors, reduce inefficiencies, validate technologies/techniques and elevate the quality of clinical care. Our products include arrays for machine and patient QA solutions, software platforms for centralized analysis and data storage, lasers to align Linacs to patient or QA devices, and phantoms (devices to simulate the imaging and radiation dose absorption characteristics of human tissue) for machine and patient QA.
    
Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging: we provide solutions for patient dosing, imaging, diagnosis and radiopharma production and handling as well as specialized medical imaging tables and accessories that support imaging techniques and procedures. Our products include our range of dose calibrators, radiation shielding, phantoms for quality assurance, phantoms, thyroid uptake systems, lung scan ventilation systems, ultrasound tables, C-Arm tables and accessories.
        
Medical Imaging: we provide specialized medical imaging tables and accessories that support imaging techniques and procedures, including ultrasound tables, C-Arm tables and accessories.

Dosimetry Services: our product offering is an information service, which provides environmental radiation monitoring services, as well as an official dose of record to employers and occupationally exposed employees, enhancing the effectiveness and efficiency of radiation safety programs at practitioner sites. Key product lines include the innovative Instadose dosimetry platform, optically stimulated luminescence, or OSL, dosimeters, and our range of eye, finger, and extremity dosimeters that integrate with our Dose Central data platform.
    
Rehabilitation: we provide neuromuscular assessment and rehabilitation technology solutions. Our products are used to manage and rehabilitate the physical and performance deficits that cause functional limitations. Our technology safely progresses a patient through the physical rehabilitation progress. Our rehabilitation products are used in patients throughout the continuum of life – from injuries requiring sports medicine and orthopedics to interventions for our aging population such as fall prevention and all ages with neurologic conditions due to strokes, Parkinson’s Disease, spinal cord and traumatic brain injury. Our products include isokinetic testing and rehabilitation systems, balance assessment and rehabilitation, specialized gait training treadmills, body weight support training systems and upper, lower and total body ergometers.

Industrial

Our Industrial segment is focused on addressing critical radiation safety, measurement and analysis applications across defense, nuclear energy, laboratories and research and other industrial markets.

Reactor Safety and Control Systems: we provide radiation monitoring systems and reactor instrumentation and control systems that ensure the safe operation of nuclear reactors and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Product lines include, but
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are not limited to, a range of areas such as effluent release and operational process monitors, as well as in-core and ex-core detector systems, electrical penetrations, boron meters, and nuclear containment seals. Select product categories include:
         
Radiation Monitoring Systems: sensors, displays, control electronics and software used for barrier leak control, effluent release monitoring, operational process monitoring and “post event” monitoring in NPPs, nuclear fuel cycle industry, research reactors and laboratories, military reactors and installations.
Reactor Instrumentation and Control Equipment and Systems: sensors, cables and electronics designed to monitor radiation and temperature within a reactor core and in surrounding areas.
    
Neutron Flux Measurement Systems: sensors, displays, control electronics and software used to control the core of a reactor in NPPs, research reactors, and military reactors.

Radiological Search, Measurement and Analysis Systems: we provide solutions to locate, measure and perform in-depth scientific analysis of radioactive sources for radiation safety, security, and scientific applications. Product portfolios include but are not limited to our laboratory and scientific analysis systems (gamma/alpha spectroscopy, alpha/beta counting, specialty detectors, spectroscopy software), radiation measurement and health physics instrumentation (contamination and clearance monitors, portable radiation measurement, electronic dosimetry, telemetry, waste measurement) and search and radiological security systems (Military CBRNE, or Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear and high-yield Explosives, security and search). We also provide a wide range of on-site managed and professional services to our end market customers. Select product categories include:
    
Dosimeters: active and passive dosimeters which monitor radiation dose rate and cumulative dose, along with readers, calibrators, telemetry, software and other accessories.
    
Contamination and Clearance Monitors: stationary systems designed to detect radioactive contamination of people, waste, tools, laundry, vehicles and cargo.
    
Detection & Identification Devices: hand-held and fixed devices to detect and locate ionizing radiation.


Customized Research Detectors: highly customized detectors for scientific research, including nuclear physics research, space and synchrotron applications, and ruggedized detectors.

Environmental Monitoring Systems: sensors, displays, control electronics and software used for environmental monitoring in NPPs, nuclear fuel cycle industry, research reactors and laboratories, military reactors and installations.
         
Radiochemistry: high precision instruments for detection and analysis of sample radioactivity, identification of radionuclide and quantification of activity used in laboratories, research, education, defense and NPPs.
    
Imaging Systems: radiation-hardened imaging systems for nuclear fuel handling, control, monitoring and inspection; reactor vessel maintenance; underwater surveillance; tank and vessel inspection; and cameras for remotely operated vehicles.
    
Waste measurement systems: systems to measure the radioactivity content of waste such as gamma neutron counting systems, non-destructive assay systems and neutron counting systems
    
Services: we offer services to measure and analyze nuclear material more efficiently, calibration services, customer training programs, installation of instruments and software, technical support and repairs for our products, as well as local operational support, technical support, and a wide range of consulting services

Backlog and Deferred Contract Revenue

Total backlog represents committed but undelivered contracts and purchase orders at period end. Backlog excludes maintenance-related activity and agreements that do not represent firm purchase orders. Customer agreements that contain cancellation for convenience terms are generally not reflected in backlog until firm purchase orders are received. Backlog is not a complete measure of our future business due to these customer agreements. Our customers may experience project or funding delays or cancel orders due to factors beyond our control. If customers terminate, reduce or defer firm orders, whether due to fluctuations in their business needs or purchasing budgets or other reasons, our sales will be adversely affected and we may not realize the revenue we expect to generate from our backlog or, if realized, the revenue may not
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translate into profit. We estimate approximately 10%-15% of our backlog at any point in time is related to contracts that are unfunded and may be at risk for cancellation if funding is not appropriated. Backlog can fluctuate significantly due to the timing of large project awards. In addition, annual or multi-year contracts are subject to rescheduling and cancellation by customers due to the long-term nature of the contracts.

Deferred contract revenue represents prepayments from customers, including milestone or installment payments, on projects for which services have commenced, as well as unbilled amounts attributable to services rendered and products constructed associated with customer contracts for which revenue is not able to be recognized.
Information on backlog and deferred contract revenue follows (in millions):
Successor Predecessor
December 31, 2021 June 30, 2021
Backlog $ 747.5  $ 715.8 
Deferred contract revenue $ 73.0  $ 50.4 

Approximately 45% of our backlog is expected to be recognized in calendar year 2022.
Competition

The global markets for our products and services are competitive and continually evolving. Within each of our operating segments, we encounter a variety of competitors, ranging from small independent companies providing niche solutions to larger multi-national corporations providing a broader set of products and services to our targeted end markets. We believe that the principal bases upon which we compete in our target end markets include product quality and reliability, technical capability and product qualification, strength of customer relationships, customer service and price. In particular, customers in the defense and nuclear end markets tend to emphasize product quality and reliability, technical capability and strength of supplier relationships, while customers in the medical end markets, in particular for passive dosimetry products and services, tend to make purchasing decisions based on a combination of brand recognition, price, service and reliability.

We believe the primary competitors in each of our segments are as follows:
Medical: Landauer (Fortive), PTW, IBA, Standard Imaging, Comecer and LAP
    
Industrial: Thermo Fisher Scientific, Ortek (Ametek), FLIR (Teledyne), Framatome, Ludlum, Fuji Electric, Caen System, Fluke (Fortive) and Berthold Technologies


Research and Development

Our research and development efforts allow us to introduce new products to the marketplace, fulfill specific customer needs and continue to meet qualification requirements and other evolving regulatory standards. Our Medical and Industrial segments are committed to both technology research and product development to fulfill their strategic objectives and are supported by our engineering and research and development organization consisting of 356 scientists, technicians and engineers, representing approximately 14% of our total workforce, as of December 31, 2021. A number of these individuals participate in international standards setting organizations and committees. We engage in research and development activities at most of our facilities worldwide.

Our research and development expenses were $6.7 million for the Successor Period from October 20, 2021 through December 31, 2021, $10.3 million for the Predecessor Stub Period from July 1, 2021 through October 19, 2021, and $29.4 million, $15.9 million and $14.0 million for fiscal 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively. We conduct these efforts through a mix of in-house research, collaboration with academia, customers and regulatory authorities as well as selected outsourcing through external vendors. The scope and extent of the outsourced portion of research and development activities vary by segment but typically, critical hardware design, software development and project management activities are conducted in-house while specialized services such as consulting services, algorithm design, thermal analysis, complex modeling and calculations and testing services are provided by third parties.

Sales and Marketing

We sell our products and services through our direct sales organization and indirectly through our global network of independent, third-party sales representatives and distributors. Our internal sales team is organized by operating segment and end market to provide a higher level of service and understanding of our customers’ unique needs. We have 30 sales
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offices throughout North America, Europe and Asia, and as of December 31, 2021, our sales and marketing personnel consisted of 248 employees, which represents approximately 9% of our total workforce.

We derive a portion of our revenue from sales of our products and services through channel partners, such as independent sales representatives and distributors. In particular, our independent sales representatives are an important source of sales leads for us and augment our internal resources in remote geographies. We sell through distributors in situations in which our customers prefer to purchase from a local business entity or purchase in smaller volume.

Our marketing activities include participation in many trade shows worldwide across our defense, medical and nuclear end markets. We advertise in technical journals, publish articles in leading industry periodicals and utilize direct mail campaigns.

Except when prevented by exceptional circumstances (for example, the COVID-19 crisis), we periodically host seminars and participate in trade shows. For example, we host the annual Mirion Connect Seminar, where customers participate in a variety of programs designed to exchange ideas and discuss occupational challenges. The event also brings together key channel partners and vendors to strengthen our sales and marketing network. Attendees gain insight into our product plans and participate in interactive sessions that give them the opportunity to better understand our current suite of products and services as well as provide feedback on our product roadmap.

Our Customers

Our principal customers include hospitals, clinics and urgent care facilities, dental offices, veterinary offices, radiation treatment facilities, OEMs for radiation therapy, laboratories, military organizations, government agencies, industrial companies, power and utility companies, reactor design firms and NPPs. We have long-standing relationships with our customers. For the Predecessor Stub Period from July 1, 2021 through October 19, 2021 and the Successor Period from October 20, 2021 through December 31, 2021 no customer accounted for greater than 6% of our consolidated revenue, our top five customers together accounted for approximately 14% and 13% of our consolidated revenue, respectively, and our top ten customers represented approximately 20% and 19% of our consolidated revenue, respectively.

Manufacturing and Supply Chain

Given the diversity of our products, we employ numerous manufacturing techniques, including high-volume process manufacturing, discrete manufacturing, cellular manufacturing and hybrid approaches. Our production personnel engage in manufacturing, procurement and logistics activities. Our production activities are located in the United States, Canada, France, Germany, Belgium, Estonia, Finland and the United Kingdom. As of December 31, 2021, our production personnel consisted of 1,176 employees, which represents approximately 45% of our total workforce.

Our manufacturing activities are focused mainly on the production of the core value-add devices and components of our products, while non-core components and sub-assemblies are generally outsourced. This strategy enables us to protect important intellectual property and trade secrets while minimizing the time, cost and effort to produce commoditized components. Most of the time, the design, assembly and integration of the components are performed in-house, allowing our engineers to customize the products according to customer specifications. For highly engineered nuclear products, production volumes are typically low. For other product lines, such as, the DMC 3000 Electronic Dosimeter, the Mirion Battlefield Dosimeter, Accurad PRD and the Instadose dosimeter, production volumes tend to be higher. We apply rigorous quality control processes and calibrate radiation detection devices internally, leading to high quality standards and customization capabilities. Most of our production sites are certified to production quality standards such as those of ISO 9001, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (10 C.F.R. 50 Appendix B) and the American Society of Engineers (ASME NQA-1).

The principal materials used in our manufacturing processes are commodities that are available from a variety of sources. The key metal materials used in our manufacturing processes include precious metals, tungsten, copper, aluminum, magnesium products, steel, stainless steel and various alloys, which are formed into parts such as detectors, sensors, metal housings and frames, and cable assemblies. The key non-metal materials used in our manufacturing processes include amorphous and crystalline scintillator materials, ceramics, epoxies, silicon and fused silica, polyethylene, polyurethane and injection molded plastic parts and components such as lenses, monitors, sensors, dosimeters, electronic boards, detectors and cables.

Human Capital Resources

As of December 31, 2021, we employed 2,630 full-time and part-time employees. We also use temporary or contract workers who totaled approximately 115 as of December 31, 2021, on a full-time equivalent basis.
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Diversity and Inclusion

We are committed to fostering a diverse and inclusive workplace that attracts and retains exceptional talent. We value teamwork, practicing intellectual honesty and candor, with a clear focus on the situation, not the individual. We support a diversity of backgrounds, experiences and perspectives in our workforce and promote an engaging workplace that
encourages participation and inclusion of all employees.

Total Rewards Compensation Philosophy

We require a talented workforce and are committed to providing total rewards that are market-competitive and performance-based, driving innovation and operational excellence. Our compensation programs, practices and policies reflect our commitment to reward short- and long-term performance that aligns with, and drives, stockholder value. Total direct compensation is generally positioned within a competitive range of the relevant market median, with differentiation based on tenure, skills, proficiency, and performance.

Employee Engagement

We regularly collect employee feedback to better understand and improve employees' experience and identify opportunities to continually strengthen our culture and communicate through town halls, emails and other communication platforms. We mandate quarterly check-ins between employees and their managers as key human capital measures and objectives. We want to know what is working well, what we can do better and how well our employees understand and are practicing our cultural values.

Training and Development

Human capital development underpins our efforts to execute our strategy and continue to design, manufacture and market innovative products and services. We continually invest in our employees’ career growth and provide employees with a wide range of development opportunities, including but not limited to mentoring, product and sales training, and compliance training.

Intellectual Property

The success of our business depends, in part, on our ability to maintain and protect our proprietary technologies, information, processes and know-how. We rely on a combination of intellectual property rights, including trade secrets, patents, copyrights and trademarks, as well as contractual protections, to protect our proprietary products, methods, documentation and other technology.

As of December 31, 2021, we own approximately 75 issued U.S. utility patents, 66 issued foreign utility patents (including in Canada, the European Union, Russia, China and Japan), 10 pending U.S. utility non-provisional patent applications, 26 pending foreign utility patent applications (including in the European Union and France) including pending Patent Cooperation Treaty, or PCT, patent applications. These issued patents are expected to expire between 2022 to 2038 and these pending applications, if issued, are expected to expire between 2039 to 2040, in each case without taking into account any possible patent term adjustment or extensions and assuming payment of all appropriate maintenance, renewal, annuity, or other governmental fees. We do not expect the expiration of any of the patents that are scheduled to expire in 2022 to have a material impact on its business. These patents include one co-owned issued U.S. patent and three co-owned issued foreign patents. We also hold exclusive and non-exclusive licenses related to patents and other intellectual property of third parties. We also own trademark registrations or registration applications in the United States and in certain foreign jurisdictions.

Medical Segment

As of December 31, 2021, we own approximately 38 issued U.S. utility patents, 23 issued foreign utility patents (including in the European Union, China, Japan and Canada), 8 pending U.S. non-provisional utility patent applications and 6 pending foreign utility patent application in the European Union that include claims directed to products in our medical segment, including our cancer diagnostics and therapeutics QA, occupational dosimetry, medical imaging and nuclear medicine equipment products. These issued patents are expected to expire between 2022 to 2038 and these pending applications, if issued, are expected to expire between 2039 to 2040, in each case without taking into account any possible patent term adjustment or extensions and assuming payment of all appropriate maintenance, renewal, annuity, or other governmental fees.
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Industrial Segment

As of December 31, 2021, we own approximately 37 issued U.S. utility patents, 43 issued foreign utility patents (including in the European Union, Canada, Russia and Japan), 2 pending U.S. non-provisional utility patent application and 20 pending foreign utility patent applications (including pending PCT patent applications) that contain claims directed to products in our industrial segment, including our alpha/beta counting instruments, contamination and clearance monitors, gamma spectroscopy software and detector systems, NDA and waste measurement systems, portable radiation measurement instruments, radiation monitoring systems and reactor instrumentation and controls products. Our issued patents are expected to expire between 2022 to 2037 and our pending applications, if issued, are expected to expire between 2032 to 2040, in each case without taking into account any possible patent term adjustment or extensions and assuming payment of all appropriate maintenance, renewal, annuity, or other governmental fees. These patents include one co-owned issued U.S. patent and three co-owned issued foreign patents.

In many instances (for both the Medical and Industrial Segments), we rely on trade secret protection and confidentiality agreements to safeguard our interests. Due to the long useful life of certain aspects of our technology, we believe that the patent registration process, which requires public disclosure of patented claims and inventions, could harm our competitive position. We differentiate our products and technologies primarily through our proprietary know-how, technology or data that are not covered by patents or patent applications, including technical processes, equipment designs, testing and other procedures. Our employees are generally required to assign to us all of the inventions, designs and technologies they develop during the course of employment with us, either through written agreements or by operation of law, depending on the jurisdiction. Where appropriate, we require third parties with whom we deal to enter into agreements with us that address issues of confidentiality and intellectual property. For a discussion of the risks and uncertainties affecting our business related to our protection of intellectual property and other proprietary information, please see “Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors—Legal and Regulatory Risks.”

Seasonality

General economic conditions impact our business and financial results, and our business experiences seasonal and other trends related to the industries and end markets that we serve. While we believe that we are poised for growth from governmental customers in both of our segments, our revenues and cash flows from government customers are influenced, particularly in the short-term, by budgetary cycles. This impact can be either positive or negative. However, as a whole, we believe we are not subject to significant seasonality. For more information about the trends that impact our business and financial results, see “Part I, Item 1A—Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business and Industry—Our results of operations may fluctuate significantly, which could make our future results difficult to predict and could cause our results of operations to fall below expectations."

Environmental Matters

We are subject to a variety of environmental, health and safety and pollution-control laws and regulations in the jurisdictions in which we operate. We use, generate, discharge and dispose of hazardous substances, chemicals and wastes at some of our facilities in connection with our product development, testing and manufacturing activities. In addition, some of our facilities are located on properties with a history of use involving hazardous substances, chemicals and wastes and may be contaminated.

Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980, or CERCLA (also known as the Superfund Law) and its state analogues, we may be subject to joint and several liability for environmental investigations and cleanups, including at properties that we currently or previously owned or operated, or at sites at which waste we generated was disposed, even if the contamination was not caused by us or was legal at the time it occurred. Although we have not incurred any material liabilities in connection with contamination, we may be required to make expenditures for environmental remediation in the future with respect to contamination at our or our predecessors’ former or current facilities or at third-party waste disposal sites under these laws. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 as amended by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984, or RCRA, provides a comprehensive framework for the regulation of hazardous and solid waste which applies to our operations. RCRA prohibits improper hazardous waste disposal and imposes criminal and civil liability for failure to comply with its requirements. The Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976, or, TSCA provides a comprehensive framework for the management by the EPA of over 60,000 commercially produced chemical substances, some of which are used by our operations. The Clean Water Act regulates the discharge of pollutants into certain waters and may require us to apply for and obtain discharge permits, conduct sampling and monitoring and, under certain circumstances, reduce the quantity of pollutants in those discharges. The Occupational Safety and Health Act, or OSHA provides for the establishment of standards governing workplace safety and health requirements, including setting permissible exposure levels for hazardous chemicals. We must follow OSHA
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standards, including the preparation of material safety data sheets, hazardous response training and process safety management, as well as various record-keeping, disclosure and procedural requirements.

Our operations outside the United States are subject to similar, and sometimes more stringent, laws and regulations. For example, an EU directive relating to the restriction of hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment, or RoHS directive, and a directive relating to waste electrical and electronic equipment, or WEEE directive, have been implemented in EU member states. Among other things, the RoHS directive restricts the use of certain hazardous substances in the manufacture of electrical and electronic equipment and the WEEE directive requires producers of electrical goods to be responsible for the collection, recycling, treatment and disposal of these goods. China and South Korea and certain other jurisdictions have laws similar to the RoHS and WEEE directives. In addition, the EU has a regulation regarding the registration, authorization and restriction of chemical substances in industrial products, or REACH. REACH and other regulations requires us or our suppliers to substitute certain chemicals contained in our products with substances the EU considers less dangerous. See “Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors—Legal and Regulatory Risks—We could incur substantial costs as a result of violations of, or liabilities under, environmental laws.”

Regulation

We are subject to a variety of laws and regulations, including but not limited to those of the United States, Canada, the EU, the EU member states and the People’s Republic of China, that impose regulatory systems that govern many aspects of our operations. In addition, these jurisdictions impose trade controls requirements that restrict trade to comply with applicable export controls and economic sanctions laws and requirements, and legal requirements that are intended to curtail bribery and corruption. These laws and regulations apply by virtue of the nature of our industry, end markets and products, as well as the range of potential uses of our products, the origin of the technology incorporated into our products, and the jurisdictions in which we produce and sell our products.

The multi-jurisdictional legal and regulatory environments in which we operate are subject to extensive and changing laws and regulations administered by various national, regional and local governmental agencies both within and outside the United States.

We are a federal government contractor and, as such, we are subject to Executive Order 11246 and other relevant laws and regulations. As part of our compliance obligations, we implement on an annual basis an affirmative action plan and program which, in part, include our good faith efforts to achieve in our workforce full utilization of qualified women and minorities. In addition, we have in place an affirmative action plan with respect to disabled individuals, as well as Vietnam era, disabled or other veterans.

Some of the U.S. laws affecting our operations include, but are not limited to, the Atomic Energy Act, or "AEA", the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, or "ERA", as well as the state laws governing radiation control in the states of New York, Georgia, California, Connecticut, Tennessee, New Jersey, Florida and Wisconsin, each as from time to time amended. We are also subject to a variety of U.S. federal and state employment and labor laws and regulations, including the Americans with Disabilities Act, the Federal Fair Labor Standards Act, the Worker Adjustment and Restructuring Notification Act, or "WARN Act", which requires employers to give affected employees at least 60 days’ notice of a plant closing or mass layoff, and other regulations related to working conditions, wage-hour pay, overtime pay, employee benefits, anti-discrimination and termination of employment. We are also subject to the employment and labor laws and regulations of the foreign jurisdictions where many of our employees are located. The classified work that we currently perform at one of our U.S. facilities subjects us to the industrial security regulations of the Department of Defense and other federal agencies that are designed to safeguard against unauthorized access by foreigners and others to classified and other sensitive information.

In the United States, the AEA and ERA authorize the Nuclear Regulatory Commission or "NRC", and state authorities where applicable, to regulate the receipt, possession, use and transfer of radioactive materials. The NRC, and state authorities where applicable, sets regulatory standards for worker protection and public exposure to radioactive materials or wastes to which we are required to adhere in our operations that use radioactive materials in research and development, product manufacture, testing and calibration.

Certain of our products require the use of radioactive sources. For certain of our products, these radioactive sources are often obtained by our customers directly from third-party providers, and for others, we directly incorporate these radioactive sources into our products. Certain of our reactor instrumentation and control equipment and systems for NPPs incorporate radioactive materials. In all such cases, licenses for radioactive sources and materials are provided by the appropriate regulatory authority in the relevant jurisdiction and such authorities may be at the state or national level. For example, at our sites in the United States that handle radioactive sources or materials, the appropriate licenses are issued by state-level authorities which are, respectively, the New York State Department of Health, Georgia Department of Natural
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Resources, California Department of Public Health, Connecticut Department of Energy & Environmental Protection, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Florida Department of Health and Wisconsin Department of Health Services. Similarly, licenses for radioactive sources and materials are maintained at each of our international sites where such licenses are required, including in Belgium, China, Canada, Estonia, Finland, Germany, France, Japan and the Netherlands.

While the specific process and criteria for receiving a license differ from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, it generally involves an application process in which we: identify a person or persons who have appropriate training and experience to be a health physics/radiation safety officer; specify the radioactive sources or materials sought to be licensed, their physical form (i.e., sealed or unsealed) and maximum possession limits on the amount of each type of radioactive element or compound sought under the license; specify their intended use (e.g., calibration, testing, quality assurance, manufacturing); and, set forth written policies and procedures to ensure that we have adequate measures in place to ensure health and safety. These policies and procedures typically must be designed to ensure worker, workplace, and public safety, including emergency plans; set forth the proper handling, control and security of radioactive sources or materials on site; detail any disposal or decommissioning considerations; and adequately train personnel at the site in proper access to, and handling of, radioactive sources or materials.

The particular license requirements in a given jurisdiction are normally tailored to the specific radioactive elements or compounds involved, their physical form, and possession limits. Once authorities complete their application review and any required follow-up, the authority issues the site a license which imposes specific on-going compliance obligations that typically include requirements for us to pay periodic licensing fees, submit periodic written compliance reports, and agree to periodic site inspections by regulators, which may be announced or unannounced. Once a site has an existing license, the process for expanding or reducing the licensing scope generally is simpler than applying for a new license.

We have numerous licenses in effect at our various facilities in the United States, Canada, Finland, Germany, France, China, Japan, the Netherlands, Belgium and Estonia and the expiration dates of individual licenses differ by their term and effective date. Typical license terms range from two to five years, with authorities in some jurisdictions (e.g., Finland and Bavaria, Germany) issuing licenses that are perpetual subject to our on-going license compliance. For radioactive materials licenses in the United States, preapproval is generally required from the NRC or a U.S. State that has signed an agreement with the NRC authorizing such State to regulate certain radioactive materials within such State (an "Agreement State") before a direct or indirect transfer of a license, whether done through a sale or acquisition, restructuring, or other method. While specific regulations vary by jurisdiction, generally a license may be terminated by the regulatory authority immediately upon a finding of a substantial safety violation or other material violation of licensing requirements. For more minor violations, regulatory authorities typically provide the licensee with a written statement of deficiency or notice of violation stating required remediation steps, or requesting the licensee to identify corrective actions, and a demand for proof of remediation; depending on the severity of the violation, a re-inspection of the site may be performed by the authority to ensure adequate remedial steps have been completed.

In most cases, our various sites (including our predecessors) have held, maintained and (where required) renewed their licenses for a decade or more. In all cases, the licenses we require related to radioactive sources or materials are current and in force and, to the best of our knowledge, we are not aware of any basis to expect that any existing licenses subject to periodic renewals will not be renewed.

As a supplier of equipment and systems to the nuclear power industry, we are subject to regulations promulgated by the NRC that are applicable to vendors. Owners of nuclear power plants in the United States are licensed to build, operate, and maintain those plants by the NRC. Their license and applicable NRC regulations require that they qualify their suppliers and contractors to ensure that the suppliers and contractors comply with NRC regulations. The NRC has a robust inspection regime for commercial nuclear plants, which includes verification that, for example, design, procurement, maintenance, and radiation protection programs comply with NRC safety and quality assurance regulations and requirements.

Inspections of nuclear materials licensees are conducted frequently, in areas such as personnel training, radiation protection, and security of nuclear materials. Parts of the NRC’s inspection regime—including portions of 10 C.F.R. Part 21 on reporting of defects and noncompliance and Appendix B of 10 C.F.R. Part 50 related to Quality Assurance—are also directly applicable to contractors, suppliers, and other non-licensees. The NRC routinely conducts inspections at vendor sites on these matters and others. As a supplier to the nuclear power industry, we must demonstrate to our customers that we comply with NRC regulations related to quality assurance, reporting of defects and safety issues, security and control of personnel access and conduct. Section 170 of the AEA, which is also known as the Price-Anderson Act, supports the nuclear services industry by offering broad nuclear liability and insurance coverage and indemnification to commercial NPP operators and their suppliers, as well as Department of Energy, or DOE, contractors, for liabilities arising out of nuclear incidents at power plants licensed by the NRC and at DOE nuclear facilities. The indemnification authority of the NRC and DOE under the Price-Anderson Act was extended through 2025 by the Energy Policy Act of 2005. Our nuclear
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power plant customers are covered by the nuclear liability insurance and indemnification provisions of the Price-Anderson Act. In addition, other jurisdictions have similar nuclear liability protection and indemnification regimes for nuclear facilities.

We deal with numerous U.S. and non-U.S. government agencies and entities, including the U.S. military, the armed forces of many NATO countries, the U.S. Department of Defense, the U.S. Department of State, the U.S. Department of Treasury, the NRC, the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and the corresponding governmental agencies and entities in the European Union and Canada. When working with these and other government agencies and entities, we must comply with, and are affected by, laws and regulations relating to the formation, administration and performance of contracts. These laws and regulations, among other things require certification and disclosure of all cost or pricing data in connection with various contract negotiations; impose acquisition regulations that define allowable and unallowable costs and otherwise govern our right to reimbursement under various cost-based U.S. government contracts; and restrict the use and dissemination of information classified for national security purposes and the exportation of certain products and technical data.

Export Controls

Our products and technologies are subject to export controls under the laws of the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom and the member states of the European Union. Depending on a number of factors, including the specific product or technology, the origin of that product or technology, the destination, the end-user and the end-use, exports of our products and technologies may require export licenses, permits or other authorizations from government export control authorities. Whether we will be able to conclude proposed transactions involving products or technologies that are subject to those export licensing requirements will depend on the relevant government agency’s determination on whether the proposed transaction is consistent with the exporting country’s national security and foreign policy interests.

As examples of export control laws and regulations potentially applicable to our products and technologies, our products, when manufactured in or exported from the United States, are subject to export controls under the U.S. Department of Energy’s Part 810 regulations (10 C.F.R. Part 810) governing transfer of commercial nuclear technology and assistance, the U.S. Commerce Department’s Export Administration Regulations ("EAR"), the U.S. State Department’s International Traffic in Arms Regulations ("ITAR"), or the Nuclear Regulatory Commission ("NRC"), export licensing regulations in 10 C.F.R. Part 110 governing exports of nuclear materials and equipment. Canadian and EU export control regimes have separate, sometimes overlapping requirements, which must also be considered for a proper export compliance system.

We have implemented detailed export control compliance procedures, in the form of our Export Management and Control Program ("EMCP"), to identify those products, technologies and transactions for which export licenses, permits or other authorizations are required, and to assure that all transactions are handled in accordance with all applicable export control laws and regulations. Among other things, the Mirion EMCP includes (i) third party service provider screening of all parties against the various governments’ lists of prohibited, restricted and sanctioned parties; (ii) end-use reviews and certification procedures; (iii) monitoring regulatory announcements; and (iv) periodic reviews of applicable export control regulations in order to assure that the compliance procedures are up to date and properly maintained. See “Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors—Legal and Regulatory Risks—Legal compliance with import and export controls, as well as with sanctions, in the United States and other countries, is complex, and compliance restrictions and expenses could materially and adversely impact our revenue and supply chain.”

Economic Sanctions

Various United States laws and regulations implemented by the U.S. Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control ("OFAC"), impose economic sanctions on certain countries, business entities and individuals. Those OFAC economic sanctions regulations: (i) impose comprehensive commercial and financial embargoes on transactions directly and indirectly with Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Syria or the Crimean Region, and Russia or certain regions of Ukraine more recently, including any entity or person located in those jurisdictions; and (ii) include a substantial list of persons and entities that have been determined to be closely affiliated with the government of an embargoed country, engaged in or supporting international terrorism, trafficking in narcotics, engaged in activities related to the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, or otherwise acting in a manner contrary to United States foreign policy interests. United States persons (i.e., United States citizens, permanent residents and companies) are generally prohibited from engaging in any transaction which involves any property or any interest in property in which an embargoed country, a person in an embargoed country or a person on the OFAC list of sanctioned parties has an interest. The prohibitions on engaging in transactions with Cuba and Iran also extend to foreign subsidiaries of United States companies. Moreover, no United States person may approve, ratify, participate in, or otherwise “facilitate” any offshore transaction between a foreign company and any country, entity or person that is sanctioned under the OFAC economic sanctions regulations. The Department of Commerce’s Bureau of
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Industry and Security ("BIS"), keeps an Entity List and other sanctions-related lists that are separate from the OFAC requirements.

Violations of United States export control regulations or the OFAC economic sanctions regulations are punishable by criminal and civil fines, imprisonment, loss of export privileges, debarment from United States Government contracts and, in extreme cases, listing on the OFAC list of sanctioned parties. See “Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors—Legal and Regulatory Risks—Legal compliance with import and export controls, as well as with sanctions, in the United States and other countries, is complex, and compliance restrictions and expenses could materially and adversely impact our revenue and supply chain.”

Anti-Corruption Laws

We are subject to anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws, including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (the "FCPA"), the United Kingdom Bribery Act (the "UKBA"), and anti-corruption laws enacted in various other countries which implement the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (the "OECD"), Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Officials in International Business. Those laws generally prohibit any person or company from making payments to any “foreign official” for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business or obtaining any other unfair or improper advantage.

In particular, the FCPA prohibits any publicly traded company, or issuer, and any domestic concern from paying or giving, or promising or offering to pay or give, any money or any other thing of value directly or indirectly to a foreign official for the purpose of obtaining or retaining any business or obtaining any other unfair advantage. An issuer or domestic concern may be liable for penalties for violation of the FCPA if it make a payment, or provides any other thing of value, to a third party, such as a distributor, sales representative or other third party with knowledge that some or all of that money or thing of value will be paid or given to a foreign official for an improper purpose. In addition, the FCPA imposes upon issuers obligations to maintain complete and accurate books and records of account and to establish internal accounting controls, in order to prevent the diversion of corporate funds to the payment of bribes and other improper payments, and to prevent the establishment of “off books” accounts that might be used to fund improper payments to foreign officials.

Violations of the FCPA are punishable by criminal and civil fines and imprisonment and disgorgement of revenues derived from improper conduct. Any investigation or proceeding involving allegations of improper payments under the FCPA could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition, standing with customers, particularly government customers, and/or our business reputation. See “Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors—Legal and Regulatory Risks—We must comply with the FCPA and analogous non-U.S. anti-bribery and anti-corruption statutes including the UKBA. Our or our sales representatives’ or distributors’ failure to comply with such laws could subject us to, among other things, penalties and legal expenses that could harm our reputation and materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.”

Compliance Procedures

To address the compliance challenges presented by the foregoing laws and regulations, we have adopted and implemented compliance policies and detailed compliance procedures. Our commitment to compliance with anti-corruption laws and regulations is memorialized in the Mirion Code of Ethics and Conduct, which sets forth our overall compliance policies and informs all of our employees of their compliance responsibilities. Our export controls and economic sanctions compliance policies are set forth in our EMCP and implemented at each of our sites via local procedures. Our compliance programs are reinforced with (i) ethics and compliance training for all employees; (ii) due diligence reviews of all prospective distributors, sales representatives and other third party intermediaries; (iii) detailed anti-corruption compliance contractual covenants in third-party agreements; (iv) detailed recordkeeping procedures; and (v) auditing of third parties’ business practices as needed.

Medical Device Regulation

We are required to register for permits and/or licenses with, obtain approvals from and comply with operating standards of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (the "FDA"), the NRC, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (the "HHS"), the European Medicines Agency (the "EMA"), the U.K. Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (the "MHRA"), and other foreign agencies, and accrediting bodies depending upon the type of operations we are conducting and the location of product distribution, manufacturing and sale.

Many of our products in the medical end market, for instance our nuclear medicine products for cardiology, oncology, endocrinology, diagnostic radiology and radiation therapy; imaging products in the form of positioning devices, ultrasound tables and MRI stretchers; and our energy measurement products, including radiation monitoring and measuring instruments, are classified as medical devices and are subject to restrictions under domestic and foreign laws, rules,
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regulations, self-regulatory codes, circulars, and orders, including, but not limited to, the U.S. Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the "FDCA"). We incur a number of costs associated with obtaining and maintaining the approval to market our products. Furthermore, the FDA conducts detailed inspections of and controls over our manufacturing, marketing, distribution, import and export, record keeping and storage and disposal practices, together with various post-marketing requirements.

Specifically, the FDCA requires these products, when sold in the United States, to be safe and effective for their intended uses and to comply with the regulations promulgated and enforced by the FDA. The FDA regulates the design, development, research, preclinical and clinical testing, introduction, manufacture, advertising, labeling, packaging, marketing, distribution, import and export, and record keeping for such products.

Medical devices can be marketed only for the indications for which they are cleared or approved. After a device has received 510(k) clearance (a pathway for the FDA to approve a new medical device for marketing) for a specific intended use, any change or modification that significantly affects its safety or effectiveness, such as a significant change in the design, materials, method of manufacture, or intended use, may require a new 510(k) clearance and payment of an FDA user fee.

Any medical devices we manufacture and distribute are subject to pervasive and continuing regulation by the FDA, state and certain other comparable foreign authorities. As a medical device manufacturer, our manufacturing facilities are subject to inspection on a routine basis by the FDA and other comparable foreign authorities, as well as audits by our notified body in the European Economic Area, or EEA, as described below. We are required to adhere to the Current Good Manufacturing Practices requirements, as set forth in the Quality Systems Regulation, which require manufacturers, including third-party manufacturers, to follow stringent design, testing, control, documentation and other quality assurance procedures during all phases of the design and manufacturing process.

We must also comply with post-market surveillance regulations, including adverse event reporting requirements, which require that we review and report to the FDA and other comparable foreign authorities any incident in which our products may have caused or contributed to a death or serious injury. Further, we are required to report any incident in which our product has malfunctioned if that malfunction would likely cause or contribute to a death or serious injury if it were to recur.

Labeling, advertising and promotional activities are subject to scrutiny by the FDA and other comparable foreign authorities and, in certain circumstances, by the Federal Trade Commission and other foreign counterparts. Medical devices approved or cleared by the FDA, foreign regulators, or our notified bodies may not be promoted for undocumented, unapproved or uncleared uses, otherwise known as “off-label” promotion. The FDA, other U.S. agencies and other comparable foreign authorities actively enforce the laws and regulations prohibiting the promotion of off-label uses.
The FDA can withdraw marketing authorization for a medical device product if compliance with regulatory standards is not maintained or if problems occur after the product reaches the market. Later discovery of previously unknown problems with a product may result in restrictions on the product or complete withdrawal of the product from the market. Because our operations include the manufacture and distribution of nuclear medical products, we are also subject to regulation by the NRC and the departments of health of each state in which we operate, which leaves us with a complex collection of requirements to navigate.

Market access, sales and marketing of medical devices in non-U.S. countries are subject to foreign regulatory requirements that vary widely from country to country. The time required to obtain approval for marketing a medical device in a foreign country could be longer or shorter than the time required by the FDA. Furthermore, the requirements are different in each country. For example in the EEA, a medical device must meet the Medical Devices Directive’s (the "MDD"), Essential Requirements or the Medical Devices Regulation’s (the "MDR"), General Safety and Performance Requirements, if certified from May 26, 2021. Before placing a medical device on the EEA market, the manufacturer must prepare a declaration of conformity, certifying that the device complies with the MDD/MDR, and must then affix the CE mark. The notified body typically audits and examines the device’s technical documentation, and the quality system for the manufacture, design and final inspection of the relevant device before issuing a CE certificate. Following the issuance of this CE certificate, manufacturers may prepare the declaration of conformity and affix the CE mark to the devices covered by this CE certificate. Similar requirements apply in the UK. For access to the UK market, manufacturers must obtain a UKCA Certificate and affix a UKCA mark to their medical devices. However, the CE mark will be accepted in the UK until July 1, 2023.

The standard by which conformity with applicable standards and directives is measured is dependent upon the type and class of the product, but normally involves a combination of self-assessment by the manufacturer and a third party assessment by a notified body. In the European Union, or EU, the third party assessment may consist of an audit of the manufacturer’s quality system (currently ISO 13485), provisions of the MDD and specific testing of the manufacturer’s
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device. Further, the MDR came into effect in the European Union on May 26, 2021, which requires us to obtain certification against the MDR to include a CE mark on new products, or make significant changes to existing products.
We are subject to additional regulations in other foreign countries, including, but not limited to, the United Kingdom and the EU to sell our products. We intend that either we or our distributors will receive any necessary approvals or clearance prior to marketing our products in those international markets.

We are subject to various healthcare related laws regulating fraud and abuse, research and development, pricing and sales and marketing practices, and the privacy and security of health information. In particular, the U.S. Federal Anti-Kickback Statute prohibits persons from knowingly and willfully soliciting, offering, receiving, or providing remuneration (including any kickback or bribe), directly or indirectly, in exchange for or to induce either the referral of an individual, or the furnishing or arranging for a good or service, for which payment may be made in whole or in part under a federal healthcare program, such as Medicare or Medicaid. A person or entity does not need to have actual knowledge of the statute or specific intent to violate it in order to have committed a violation. Similar laws and regulations apply in many foreign countries.

The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 ("HIPAA"), prohibits knowingly and willfully (1) executing, or attempting to execute, a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program, including private payors, or (2) falsifying, concealing, or covering up a material fact or making any materially false, fictitious, or fraudulent statement in connection with the delivery of or payment for healthcare benefits, items, or services. In addition, HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act of 2009, also restricts the use and disclosure of patient identifiable health information, mandates the adoption of standards relating to the privacy and security of patient identifiable health information, and requires the reporting of certain security breaches with respect to such information. Similar to the U.S. Federal Anti-Kickback Statute, a person or entity does not need to have actual knowledge of the healthcare fraud statute implemented under HIPAA or specific intent to violate it in order to have committed a violation. Similar laws and regulations apply in many foreign countries.

The False Claims Act imposes liability on any person or entity that, among other things, knowingly presents, or causes to be presented, a false or fraudulent claim for payment by a federal healthcare program, knowingly makes, uses, or causes to be made or used, a false record or statement material to a false or fraudulent claim, or knowingly makes a false statement to avoid, decrease, or conceal an obligation to pay money to the U.S. federal government. The qui tam provisions of the False Claims Act allow a private individual to bring actions on behalf of the federal government alleging that the defendant has submitted a false claim to the federal government, and to share in any monetary recovery. In addition, the government may assert that a claim including items and services resulting from a violation of the U.S. Federal Anti-Kickback Statute constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the civil False Claims Act. Similar laws and regulations apply in many foreign countries.

Federal consumer protection and unfair competition laws broadly regulate marketplace activities and activities that potentially harm consumers. Analogous U.S. state laws and regulations, such as state anti-kickback and false claims laws, also may apply to our business practices, including but not limited to, research, distribution, sales and marketing arrangements, and claims involving healthcare items or services reimbursed by any third-party payor, including private insurers. Further, there are state laws that require medical device manufacturers to comply with the voluntary compliance guidelines and the relevant compliance guidance promulgated by the U.S. federal government, or otherwise restrict payments that may be made to healthcare providers and other potential referral sources; state laws and regulations that require manufacturers to file reports relating to pricing and marketing information, which requires tracking gifts and other remuneration and items of value provided to healthcare professionals and entities; state and local laws requiring the registration of sales representatives; and state laws governing the privacy and security of health information in certain circumstances, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and often are not preempted by HIPAA. Similar laws and regulations apply in many non-U.S. countries.

Privacy and Information Security Laws

In the ordinary course of our business, we collect, store, use transmit and otherwise process certain types of data, including personal information, which subjects us to certain privacy and information security laws in the United States and internationally, including, for example and depending on the particular activity, the EU General Data Protection Regulation ("GDPR") and the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018 ("CCPA"), and other laws, rules and regulations designed to regulate the processing of personal information and for example reduce risks of identity theft. These laws impose obligations with respect to the collection, processing, storage, disposal, use, transfer, retention and disclosure of personal information. In addition, under certain of these laws, we must provide notice to individuals of our policies and practices for sharing personal information with third parties, provide advance notice of any changes to our policies and in some cases give individuals the right to prevent processing of their personal information and disclosure of it to third parties. Further, all 50 states in the United States have laws including obligations to provide notification of unauthorized acquisition of
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personal information to affected individuals, state officers and others. Some laws may also impose physical and electronic security requirements regarding the safeguarding of personal information. In order to comply with privacy and information security laws, we have confidentiality and information security standards and procedures in place for our business activities. Privacy and information security laws evolve regularly, and complying with these various laws, rules, regulations and standards, and with any new laws or regulations or changes to existing laws, could cause us to incur substantial costs that are likely to increase over time, requiring us to adjust our compliance program on an ongoing basis and presenting compliance challenges, change our business practices in a manner adverse to our business, divert resources from other initiatives and projects, and restrict the way products and services involving data are offered. See “Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors—Legal and Regulatory Risks—Any actual or perceived failure to comply with evolving data privacy and data security laws and regulations in the jurisdictions where we operate, both inside and outside of the United States, could lead to government enforcement actions (which could include civil or criminal penalties), private litigation or adverse publicity and could materially and adversely affect our business.”

Available Information

Our website is www.mirion.com. The information found on, or that can be accessed from or that is hyperlinked to, our website is not part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. We file or furnish annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). You may obtain a copy of any of these reports, free of charge, from the Investors Relations section of our website as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC. The SEC maintains an Internet site that also contains these reports at: www.sec.gov.


ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
An investment in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the following risk factors, together with all of the other information included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, before making an investment decision. The occurrence of one or more of the events or circumstances described in these risk factors, alone or in combination with other events or circumstances may have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. You should also carefully consider the following risk factors in addition to the other information contained in this Annual Report on form 10-K, including Part II, Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” of Part II, Item 8 “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.” However, the selected risks described below are not the only risks we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or those we currently view to be immaterial may also materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations or financial condition. In such a case, the trading price of our securities could decline and you may lose all or part of your investment.



Summary of Principal Risk Factors

Below is a summary of some of the risks that we face. This summary is not complete, and should be read together with the entire section titled “Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, as well as the other information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and the other filings that we make with the SEC.
Our global operations expose us to risks associated with public health crises and epidemics/pandemics, such as COVID-19. The global spread of COVID-19 has created significant volatility, uncertainty and worldwide economic disruption, resulting in an economic slowdown of potentially extended duration.

We have incurred operating losses in the past and expect to incur operating losses in the future.

Our results of operations may fluctuate significantly, which could make our future results difficult to predict and could cause our results of operations to fall below expectations.

If we are unable to develop new products or enhance existing products to meet our customers’ needs and compete favorably in the market, we may be unable to attract or retain customers.
We operate in highly competitive markets and in some cases compete against larger companies with greater financial resources.
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Our customers may reduce or halt their spending on our products and services.
Our sales cycles in certain end markets can be long and unpredictable.

Our growth plans depend in part on growth through acquisitions, and these plans involve numerous risks. If we are unable to make acquisitions, or if we are not successful in integrating the technologies, operations and personnel of acquired businesses or fail to realize the anticipated benefits of an acquisition, our business, results of operations and financial condition may be materially and adversely affected.

Certain of our products require the use of radioactive sources or incorporate radioactive materials, which subject us and our customers to regulations, related costs and delays and potential liabilities for injuries or violation of environmental, health and safety laws.

Accidents involving nuclear power facilities, including but not limited to events similar to Fukushima, or terrorist acts or other high profile events involving radioactive materials could materially and adversely affect our customers and the markets in which we operate and increase regulatory requirements and costs that could in turn materially and adversely affect our business.
We have, and we intend to continue pursuing, fixed-price contracts. Our failure to mitigate certain risks associated with such contracts, such as inflation, may result in reduced margins.
A failure to expand our manufacturing capacity if required, and scale our capabilities to manufacture new products could constrain our ability to grow our business.
We rely on third-party manufacturers to produce sub-components for certain of our products and services. If our manufacturers are unable to meet our requirements, or are subject to unanticipated disruptions, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected.
We rely on third-party sales representatives to assist in selling our products and services, and the failure of these representatives to perform as expected or to secure regulatory approvals in jurisdictions where they are required to do so could reduce our future sales.

If we or our suppliers experience supply shortages, such as the ongoing shortage of semiconductors, or prices of commodities or components that we use in our operations increase, our results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

We derive a material portion of our revenue from contracts with governmental customers or their contractors and such customers may be subject to increased pressures to reduce expenses, require unusual or more onerous contractual terms and conditions or require that we undergo audits and investigations with an increased risk of sanctions and penalties.

A failure or breach of our or our vendors’ information technology, or IT, data security infrastructure, or the security infrastructure of our products, or the discovery or exploitation of defects or vulnerabilities in the same, has subjected us in the past and may in the future subject us and our products to increased vulnerability to unauthorized access and other forms of cyberattacks and could materially and adversely impact our or our customers’ business, reputation, results of operations and financial condition.

We and our customers operate in highly regulated industries that require us and them to obtain, and comply with, federal, state, local and foreign government permits and approvals.
We operate in a highly litigious industry and adverse outcomes in any litigation may materially harm our business.

We must comply with the FCPA, and analogous non-U.S. anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws statutes, including the UKBA. The failure by us or our third-party sales representatives’ or distributors’ to comply with such laws could subject us to, among other things, penalties and legal expenses that could harm our reputation and materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Legal compliance with import and export controls, as well as with sanctions laws and regulations, in the United States and other countries, is complex, and compliance restrictions and expenses could materially and adversely impact our business, results of operations and financial condition.
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Certain of our products and software are subject to ongoing regulatory oversight by the FDA or equivalent regulatory agencies in international markets and if we are not able to obtain or maintain the necessary regulatory approvals we may not be able to continue to market and sell such products which may materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Our ability to compete successfully and achieve future growth will depend on our ability to obtain, maintain, protect, defend and enforce our intellectual property and to operate without infringing, misappropriating or otherwise violating the intellectual property of others.
The price of our Class A common stock and warrants may be volatile.

Risks Related to Our Business and Industry

Our global operations expose us to risks associated with public health crises and epidemics/pandemics, such as COVID-19. The global spread of COVID-19 has created significant volatility, uncertainty and worldwide economic disruption, resulting in an economic slowdown of potentially extended duration.

COVID-19 has had and may continue to have an adverse impact on our operations and supply chains, including as a result of impacts associated with preventive and precautionary measures that we, other businesses and governments are taking. More recently, the Delta and Omicron variants of the virus have contributed to a surge in COVID-19 cases globally and the full impact of the newly emerged Omicron variant has yet to be determined. The United States and other governments have reacted with an array of disparate laws and regulations, some of which have been challenged, which makes implementation and enforcement difficult and creates uncertainties for our and other businesses. Due to these impacts and measures, we have experienced unpredictable reductions in demand for certain of our products and services. Many employers in the United States and Europe, including us, are continuing to require some of their employees to work from home or not go into their offices or customers’ facilities. In addition to existing travel restrictions, countries may continue to close or decline to reopen borders, impose prolonged quarantines, and further restrict travel, which significantly impacts our ability to support our sites and customers in those locations and the ability of our employees to get to their places of work to produce products, or significantly hampers our products from moving through the supply chain. As a result, COVID-19 may materially adversely affect revenue growth in certain of our businesses, primarily those serving our medical end markets, and it is uncertain how materially COVID-19 will affect our global operations generally if these impacts were to persist or worsen over an extended period of time. The extent and duration of the impacts are uncertain and dependent in part on customers returning to work and economic activity ramping up.

The impact of COVID-19 on our customers has adversely affected our sales operations in certain ways. For example, we have experienced increased customer disputes regarding orders, delayed customer notices to proceed with production, delayed payment from customers and, on rare occasions, customers have refused to pay for their orders entirely.

Our ability to continue to manufacture products is highly dependent on our ability to retain, continue to hire and maintain the safety and health of our factory employees. COVID-19 has had and may continue to have an adverse impact on employees’ willingness to work onsite in our offices, including as a result of vaccine mandates in the United States and other countries, and we have experienced COVID-19 related attrition and have not been able to backfill certain employee roles or hire for open positions at certain sites. In addition, the ability of employees to work may be impacted by contracting or being exposed to COVID-19. While we are following the requirements of governmental authorities and taking preventative and protective measures to prioritize the safety of our employees, these measures may not be successful, and we may be required to temporarily close facilities or take other measures. For example, many of our facilities have undergone brief closures and/or severe limitations of onsite activities due to the COVID-19 pandemic. While we are staying in close communication with our sites, employees, customers and suppliers and acting to mitigate the impact of this dynamic and evolving situation, the duration and extent of the effect of COVID-19 on us is not determinable.

The duration and extent of the impact from the COVID-19 pandemic depends on future developments that cannot be accurately predicted at this time, such as the severity and transmission rate of the virus, the existence of any additional waves of the pandemic, the extent and effectiveness of containment actions, treatment and prevention measures, including vaccines, and the impact of these and other factors on our customers, employees, suppliers and other business partners. Moreover, to the extent the COVID-19 pandemic or any worsening of the global business and economic environment as a result thereof, continues to adversely affect our business and financial results, it may also have the effect of heightening or exacerbating many of the other risks described under “—Risks Related to Our Business Operations.”

We have incurred operating losses in the past and expect to incur operating losses in the future.

As of December 31, 2021, we had an accumulated deficit of $131.6 million. For the Successor Period from October 20, 2021 through December 31, 2021, the Predecessor Stub Period from July 1, 2021 through October 19, 2021, and fiscal
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2021, we experienced net losses of $23.0 million, $105.7 million, $158.4 million, respectively. We cannot assure you that we will achieve positive net income in any future period. We expect our operating expenses to increase in the future as we expand our operations. Furthermore, as a public company, we are incurring additional legal, accounting and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company. If our revenue and gross profit do not grow at a greater rate than our operating expenses, we will not be able to achieve and maintain profitability. We expect to incur significant losses in the future for a number of reasons, including without limitation the other risks and uncertainties described herein. Additionally, we may encounter unforeseen operating or legal expenses, difficulties, complications, delays and other factors that may result in losses in future periods. If our expenses exceed our revenue, we may never achieve or maintain profitability and our business may be harmed.

Our results of operations may fluctuate significantly, which could make our future results difficult to predict and could cause our results of operations to fall below expectations.

Our business depends on the demand for our radiation detection, measurement, analysis and monitoring products, our nuclear medicine and related quality management products, and services in the nuclear, defense, medical and other end markets. In the past, the demand for our products in these markets has fluctuated due to a variety of factors, many of which are beyond our control. This has caused our results of operations to fluctuate. Among the factors affecting our results of operations are:
general economic conditions, both domestically and internationally, including inflation, recession and interest rate fluctuations;

the timing, number and size of orders from, and shipments to, our customers, as well as the relative mix of those orders;

the timing of revenue recognition, which often requires customer acceptance of the delivered products;
    
delays, postponements or cancellations of construction or decommissioning of NPPs caused by, for example, financing difficulties or regulatory delays;
         
NPP outages, which are typically higher in the spring and fall due to reduced electricity demands

adverse economic, financial and/or political conditions, as well as manmade or natural disasters, such as pandemics, in one or more of our target end markets;
         
variations in the volume of orders for a particular product or product line in a particular quarter;
    
the size and timing of new contract awards;
    
the timing of the release of government funds for procurement of our products;
         
the degree to which new end markets emerge for our products;
         
seasonal customer purchasing patterns due to the budget cycles of U.S. and foreign governments and commercial enterprises that affect timing of order placement for or delivery of our products;
         
the tendency of commercial enterprises to fully utilize annual capital budgets prior to expiration;
    
international trade conditions, such as the tariffs imposed by both the United States and China on the import of certain goods; and
         
changes in laws or regulations affecting our target end markets, in particular the medical market.

In addition, our operating results may be difficult to compare with our results for prior periods due to our recent change in fiscal year end from June 30 to December 31. As a result of these and other factors, you should not rely on the results of any prior quarterly or annual periods, or any historical trends reflected in such results, as indications of our future revenue or operating performance.

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If we are unable to develop new products or enhance existing products to meet our customers’ needs and compete favorably in the market, we may be unable to attract or retain customers

The markets in which we compete are subject to technological changes, product obsolescence and evolving industry standards. Our ability to successfully compete in these markets and to continue to grow our business depends in significant part upon our ability to develop, introduce and sell new and enhanced products in a timely and cost-effective manner, and to anticipate and respond to changing customer requirements. We have experienced, and may in the future experience, delays in the development and introduction of new products.

These delays could provide a competitor a first-to-market advantage or greater market share. Defects or errors found in our products after commencement of commercial shipment could result in delays in market acceptance of these products. Our nuclear medicine and imaging products may become obsolete or unmarketable if new technologies are introduced to the market, or if new industry standards emerge. We may not be able to leverage our assets to diversify our products and services fast enough to generate revenue beyond our current markets in a timely manner. If we are unable to diversify our product and service offerings quickly enough to respond to market changes, our financial viability may worsen.

Our ability to successfully develop and introduce new products and product enhancements, and the revenues and costs associated with these efforts, will be affected by our ability to:
         
properly identify and address customer needs;
         
in the case of our medical end market, educate medical providers about the use of new products and services;
         
comply with internal quality assurance systems and processes in a timely and efficient manner;
         
manage regulatory approvals and clearances including their timing and costs;
         
accurately predict and control costs associated with inventory overruns caused by phase-in of new products and phase-out of old products;
         
manufacture and deliver our products in sufficient volumes on time and accurately predict and control costs associated with manufacturing, installation, warranty and maintenance of the products;
         
meet our product development plan and launch timelines;
         
improve manufacturing yields of components; and

manage customer demands for retrofits of both old and new products.

Lack of market acceptance for our new products will jeopardize our ability to recoup research and development expenditures, hurt our reputation and harm our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Accordingly, we cannot assure you that our future product development efforts will be successful.

We operate in highly competitive markets and in some cases compete against larger companies with greater financial resources.

The market for our products and services is fragmented, with a variety of small and large competitors, where the degree of fragmentation and the identities of our competitors vary among our target end markets. Some of our competitors have greater financial resources than do we, and they may be able to focus those resources on developing products or services that are more attractive to potential customers than those that we offer, or on lobbying efforts to enhance their prospects of obtaining government contracts. Some of our competitors, for example, are substantially larger and better capitalized than we are and have the ability to combine solutions into an integrated offering at attractive prices. Our competitors may offer these solutions at prices below cost in order to improve their competitive positions. Any of these competitive factors could make it more difficult for us to attract and retain customers, cause us to lower our prices to compete, and reduce our market share and revenue, any of which could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

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Supply shortages and continuing cost increases could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

During 2020 and 2021, we experienced a significantly stressed supply of labor, materials and freight, and we expect this to continue. The costs of materials and components of our products and the costs of labor and freight have been rising. In particular, some of our products incorporate microchips and other semiconductor components for which there is a global supply shortage. We also continue to operate in a labor constrained market and cannot predict future inflationary pressures or increases in tariffs on imported materials. Any inability to pass on future increased costs to customers would put downward pressure on our operating margins and materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Our customers may reduce or halt their spending on our products and services.

A variety of factors may cause our existing or future customers to reduce or halt their spending on our products and services. These factors include:
    
unfavorable financial conditions and strategies of our customers;
         
for the nuclear end market, civic opposition to or changes in government policies regarding nuclear operations or a reduction in demand for nuclear generating capacity;
         
accidents, terrorism, natural disasters or other incidents occurring at our facilities, the facilities of our customers or at any other place; and
         
the decision by one or more of our customers to acquire one of our competitors or otherwise insource the services we provide.

Our sales cycles in certain end markets can be long and unpredictable.

Our sales efforts for many of our products involve substantial discussion with customers regarding product configuration and deployment. This process can be extremely lengthy and time consuming and typically involves a significant product evaluation process. For example, the typical sales cycle for products whose procurement relates to the construction of new, or the refurbishment of existing, NPPs ranges from 12 to 36 months and has, in some cases, extended up to 60 months or more. In the medical end market, the typical sales cycle depends upon the type of product and whether the sales are international or within the United States, and can range from 1 to 18 months. In addition, these customers generally make a significant commitment of resources to test and evaluate our products prior to purchase. As a result, our sales process is often subject to delays associated with the lengthy approval processes that typically accompany the design, testing and adoption of new, technologically complex products. This results in us investing significant resources prior to orders being placed for our products, with no assurances that we will secure a sale.

In addition, a significant amount of time can pass before we recognize the revenue associated with an order once it has been placed. We may need a notice to proceed with an order from the customer before starting to execute the customer’s order, which may delay revenue recognition. We may also not recognize revenue for sales of certain of our products until the customer certifies the successful installation and operation of the product, which can be many months or, particularly with regard to our Sensing Systems and Radiation Monitoring Systems products, years following the receipt of a customer order. The installation of our equipment may also be subject to construction or scheduled outage delays unrelated to our products, which can further defer the recognition of revenue.

We exercise judgment in determining the timing of revenue by analyzing the point in time or the period over which the customer has the ability to direct the use of and obtain substantially all of the remaining benefits of the performance obligation. Revenue recognized on an over-time basis for the Predecessor Stub Period from July 1, 2021 to October 19, 2021 and the Successor Period from October 20, 2021 to December 31, 2021 accounted for approximately 26% and 22%, respectively, of total net sales. Typically, overtime revenue recognition is based on the utilization of an input measure used to measure progress, such as costs incurred to date relative to total estimated costs. Changes in total estimated costs are recognized using the cumulative catch-up method of accounting which recognizes the cumulative effect of the changes on current and prior periods in the current period. Accordingly, the effect of the changes on future periods of contract performance is recognized as if the revised estimate had been the original estimate. A significant change in an estimate on one or more contracts could have a material effect on our consolidated financial position, results from operations, or cash flows.

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Our long and uncertain sales cycle and the unpredictable period of time between the placement of an order and our ability to recognize the revenue associated with the order makes revenue predictions difficult, particularly on a quarterly basis, and can cause our operating results to fluctuate significantly.

Our acquisition plans involve numerous risks. If we are unable to make acquisitions, or if we are not successful in integrating the technologies, operations and personnel of acquired businesses or fail to realize the anticipated benefits of an acquisition, our operations may be materially and adversely affected.

As part of our business and growth strategy, we have made and plan to continue to make acquisitions of, or significant investments, in businesses, products or technologies that allow us to complement our existing product offerings, expand our market coverage, increase our engineering workforce, reinforce our supply chain or enhance our technological capabilities.

For example, in fiscal 2020, we acquired Premium Analyse, a key player in the radioactive gas detection market and measurement of tritium, Selmic, an electronic component manufacturer of sensors, modules, and devices serving in automotive, transportation, medical, security, defense, and telecom industries, and Capintec, a leading supplier of calibration and measurement technologies for nuclear medicine applications. We also acquired the Personal Radiation Dosimeter facility from the Helmholtz Zentrum of Munich. From June 30, 2020 through the end of 2021 we acquired Biodex, a provider of nuclear instruments, imaging equipment and rehabilitation systems, DOSImetrics, a provider of personnel dosimetry systems, Sun Nuclear, a provider of radiation oncology quality assurance, and CIRS, a provider of medical imaging and radiation therapy phantoms, as well as a number of smaller dosimetry services businesses. We plan to continue exploring additional acquisition opportunities in the future but we are unable to predict whether or when any prospective acquisition candidate will become available or the likelihood that any acquisition will be completed. If our expected returns on these transactions are not achieved, it could adversely impact our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Even if we do find suitable acquisition opportunities, we may not be able to consummate the acquisitions on commercially acceptable terms or realize the anticipated benefits of any acquisitions we do undertake. Our ability to grow our business through acquisitions is subject to numerous risks, including competition for the acquisition of attractive or promising businesses or assets, the need to finance such acquisitions through cash on hand or debt or equity financing, and the need to secure required governmental approvals under antitrust and competition laws in the United States and worldwide. The sale of equity or equity-linked securities or issuance of debt to finance any such acquisitions could result in dilution to our stockholders. The incurrence of indebtedness would result in increased fixed obligations and could also include covenants or other restrictions that would impede our ability to manage our operations.

Where we succeed in acquiring a business or assets, we are exposed to many risks, including:
    
problems integrating the new personnel or the purchased operations, technologies or products;
         
difficulty securing adequate working capital;

unanticipated costs associated with the acquisition;
    
negative effects on our ability to generate excess free cash flow;
negative effects on profitability;
    
adverse effects on existing business relationships with suppliers and customers;
    
risks associated with entering markets in which we have no or limited prior experience;
         
loss of key employees of the acquired business;
    
our assumption of legal or regulatory risks, particularly with respect to smaller businesses that have immature business processes and compliance programs;
         
litigation arising from the operations before they were acquired by us; and

difficulty completing financial statements and audits.

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Our inability to overcome problems encountered in connection with any acquisition could divert the attention of management, consume scarce corporate resources and otherwise harm our business. If our expected returns on these transactions are not achieved, it could adversely impact our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Many of our products and services involve the detection, identification, measurement or monitoring of radiation and the failure of our products or services to perform to specification could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Our products and services involve the detection and monitoring of radiation and are crucial components of the safety measures employed with respect to ionizing radiation. In the medical end market, our products and services are often used, for example, to ensure that radiation oncology patients receive accurate doses of radiation. In order to ensure the safety of such patients, we are committed to upholding high standards of precision and accuracy for our products. The failure of our products to perform to specification could result in personal injury or death and property damage (including environmental contamination), or the incorrect treatment being administered to patients. Legal and regulatory actions taken in response to product failure could result in significant costs to us. Additionally, the failure of our products to perform to specification could adversely affect market perception of the quality and effectiveness of our products and services, which would harm our ability to attract new customers and could cause our existing customers to cease doing business with us.

While we have attempted to secure appropriate insurance coverage at a reasonable cost, we do not insure against all risks and a claim can exceed the limits of our policies. We cannot assure you that our insurers will pay a particular claim, or that we will be able to maintain coverage at reasonable rates in the future, or at all. We may also be subject to significant deductibles.

Our contracts with customers generally seek to limit our liability in connection with product failure, but we cannot assure you that these contractual limitations on liability will be effective or sufficient in scope in all cases or that our insurance will cover the liabilities we have assumed under these contracts. The costs of defending against a claim arising out of such failure, and any damages awarded as a result of such a claim, could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Certain of our products require the use of radioactive sources or incorporate radioactive materials, which subject us and our customers to regulations, related costs and delays and potential liabilities for injuries or violation of environmental, health and safety laws.

The majority of our products designed to detect, quantify and analyze ionizing radiation require the use of radioactive sources for testing and calibration. The required radioactive sources, or other sources of ionizing radiation, e.g., X-ray machines, are held by our facilities performing these tests and calibrations. Our customers hold equivalent sources for ongoing testing and re-calibration. Customers often acquire the radioactive sources directly from third party providers but may also purchase the sources from us as accessory to the product.

Certain of our reactor instrumentation and control equipment and systems in our Industrial segment incorporate radioactive materials. In all such cases, licenses for radioactive sources and materials or other sources of ionizing radiation are provided by the appropriate regulatory authority in the relevant jurisdiction and such authorities may be at the state or national level. Our failure or any customer’s failure to obtain the necessary license for radioactive sources or materials required by or incorporated into our products could result in the cancellation or delay of purchases by our customers, or remedial action by the relevant regulators.

While the specific process and criteria for receiving a license differ from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, it generally involves policies and procedures designed to ensure worker, workplace and public safety, including emergency plans; setting forth the proper handling, control and security of radioactive sources or materials on site; detailing any disposal or decommissioning considerations; and adequately training personnel at the site in proper access to, and handling of, radioactive sources or materials.

Our noncompliance with, or failure to properly implement, such policies and procedures could delay or otherwise preclude us from obtaining the necessary license for radioactive sources or materials required by or incorporated into our products, which could result in the cancellation or delay of purchases by our customers. See “Part I, Item 1. Business—Regulation” for more information.

The particular license requirements in a given jurisdiction are normally tailored to the specific radioactive elements or compounds involved, their physical form and possession limits. Once authorities complete their application review and any required follow-up, the authority issues the site a license which imposes specific on-going compliance obligations that typically include requirements for us to pay periodic licensing fees, submit periodic written compliance reports, and agree
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to periodic site inspections by regulators, which may be announced or unannounced. Our failure to comply with any of these on-going obligations could result in the revocation of the necessary license for radioactive sources or materials required by or incorporated into our products, which could result in the cancellation or delay of purchases by our customers.

We are subject to federal, state and local regulations governing storage, handling and disposal of these radioactive materials and waste products. Outside of the United States, we are also subject to radiation regulations that vary from country to country. The improper storage, use and disposal of such materials by us and/or our customers could result in direct or secondary liability, including penalties and fines, to us in the event of environmental contamination or physical injury. We cannot eliminate the risk of accidental contamination or injury from those radioactive materials nor can we control the practices of our customers. The sale and use of our products with radioactive sources or materials could also lead to the filing of claims if someone were to allege injury from the use of one of our products or allege that one of our products was defective. Such a claim could result in substantial damages, be costly and time-consuming to defend and adversely affect the marketability of our products and our reputation.

We and many of our customers operate in a politically sensitive environment, and the public perception of nuclear energy or nuclear medicine can affect our customers and us.

We and our customers operate in a politically sensitive environment. The risks associated with radioactive materials and the public perception of those risks can affect our business. Opposition by third parties can delay or prevent the construction of new nuclear power plants and can limit the operation of nuclear reactors. Adverse public reaction to developments in the use of nuclear power could directly affect our customers and indirectly affect our business. In the past, adverse public reaction, increased regulatory scrutiny and litigation have contributed to extended construction periods for new nuclear reactors, sometimes delaying construction schedules by decades or more or even shutting down operations. In addition, anti-nuclear groups in Germany successfully lobbied for the adoption of the Nuclear Exit Law in 2002, which requires the shutdown of all German NPPs by 2022. Adverse public reaction could also lead to increased regulation or limitations on the activities of our customers, more onerous operating requirements or other conditions that could have a material adverse impact on our customers and our business.

Accidents involving nuclear power facilities, including but not limited to events similar to Fukushima, or terrorist acts or other high profile events involving radioactive materials could materially and adversely affect our customers and the markets in which we operate and increase regulatory requirements and costs that could in turn materially and adversely affect our business.

Successful execution of our business model in the nuclear power end market is dependent upon a certain level of public support for nuclear power. Nuclear power faces strong opposition from certain competitive energy sources, individuals, and organizations. The accident that occurred at the Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan beginning on March 11, 2011 increased public opposition to nuclear power in some countries, resulting in a slowdown in, or, in some cases, a complete halt to new construction of nuclear power plants, an early shut down of existing power plants, or a dampening of the favorable regulatory climate needed to introduce new nuclear technologies. As a result of the Fukushima accident, some countries that were considering launching new domestic nuclear power programs have delayed or cancelled the preparatory activities they were planning to undertake as part of such programs. If accidents similar to the Fukushima disaster or other events, such as terrorist attacks involving nuclear facilities, occur, public opposition to nuclear power may increase, regulatory requirements and costs could become more onerous and customer demand for our products in the nuclear end market could suffer, which could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

We enter into fixed-price contracts with our customers and our failure to mitigate certain risks associated with such contracts may result in reduced operating margins.

We estimate that approximately a quarter of our revenue was associated with contracts with a duration of 12 months or longer and approximately 60% of such revenue was associated with contracts with fixed-price arrangements which do not provide for price escalation in the event of unanticipated cost overruns, in each case for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2021. Under these contracts, we perform our services and provide our products at a fixed price. Fixed-price contracts carry inherent risks, including risks of losses from underestimating costs, operational difficulties and other changes that may occur over the contract period. We have in the past experienced unanticipated cost overruns on some of our fixed-price contracts. If our cost estimates for a contract are inaccurate or if we do not execute the contract within our cost estimates, we may incur losses or the contract may not be as profitable as we expected. In addition, even though some of our longer-term contracts contain price escalation provisions, such provisions may not fully provide for cost increases, whether from inflation, the cost of goods and services to be delivered under such contracts or otherwise. In addition, we are sometimes required to incur costs in connection with modifications to a contract that may not be approved by the customer as to scope or price, or to incur unanticipated costs, including costs for customer-caused delays, errors in specifications or designs or
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contract termination, that we may not be able to recover. These, in turn, could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

The revenue, cost and gross profit realized on such contracts can vary, sometimes substantially, from the original projections due to changes in a variety of factors, such as:
         
failure to properly estimate, or changes in, the costs of material, components or labor;

inflation and currency exchange rate fluctuations;

unanticipated technical problems with the products or services being supplied by us, which may require that we spend our own money to remedy the problem;
    
our suppliers’ or subcontractors’ failure to perform;
difficulties of our customers in obtaining required governmental permits or approvals;
    
changes in local laws and regulations;
         
unanticipated delays in construction of new NPPs and decommissioning of existing NPPs; and
         
limited history with new products and new customers.

Furthermore, we intend to continue pursuing longer-term contracts which may continue to contain fixed-price arrangements, and the amount of revenue associated with such contracts may change in future periods. As a result of one or more of these factors, we may incur losses or contracts may not be as profitable as we expect, and this could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

We may not realize all of the sales expected from our backlog of orders and contracts, and amounts included in our order backlog may not result in actual revenue or translate into profits.

Although the amount of our backlog is based on signed purchase orders or other written contractual commitments, we cannot guarantee that our order backlog will result in actual revenue in the originally anticipated period or at all. As of December 31, 2021 and June 30, 2021 our estimated combined order backlog was $747.5 million and $715.8 million, respectively. The majority of our combined backlog is considered firm and expected to be delivered within two years. In addition, the mix of contracts included in our order backlog can greatly affect our margins in future periods, which may not be comparable to our historical product mix and operating results. Our customers may experience project or funding delays or cancel orders due to factors beyond our control. If customers terminate, reduce or defer firm orders, whether due to fluctuations in their business needs or purchasing budgets or other reasons, our sales will be adversely affected and we may not realize the revenue we expect to generate from our backlog or, if realized, the revenue may not translate into profit. We estimate approximately 10%-15% of our backlog at any point in time is related to contracts that are unfunded and may be at risk for cancellation if funding is not appropriated. If our order backlog fails to result in revenue in a timely manner or at all, we could experience an overall reduction in revenue and liquidity.

Risks Related to Our Business Operations

We operate as an entrepreneurial, decentralized company, which presents both benefits and certain risks. In particular, significant growth in a decentralized operating model may put strain on certain business group resources and our corporate functions, which could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

The business is organized in two reportable business segments: Medical and Industrial. Our Medical segment is based around our sales, products and services to customers in the medical market. The Industrial segment is primarily based around the nuclear energy, defense, laboratories and scientific research markets as well as other industrial markets.

The decentralization of our organization structure necessarily places significant control and decision-making powers in the hands of local management, which presents certain risks, including the risk that we may be slower to detect or react to compliance-related matters, that “company-wide” business initiatives may be more challenging or costly to implement, and the risk of noncompliance or failures is higher than they may be in a more centralized operating environment. In addition, key business group resources and our corporate functions, which are leanly staffed but responsible for supporting our decentralized operations, may also not be able to detect or resolve financial, operational, and compliance matters on a
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timely basis. Our failure to adapt our financial, operational and compliance controls and systems to effectively manage our decentralized business and comply with our obligations as a public company could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

A failure to expand our manufacturing capacity if required, and scale our capabilities to manufacture new products could constrain our ability to grow our business.

While we currently have sufficient capacity, the future growth of our business may depend on our ability to successfully expand our manufacturing capacity. For example, we experienced manufacturing delays with one of our suppliers, Selmic, in connection with ramping up production of our Mirion Battlefield Dosimeter. To ensure on-time deliveries going forward, we acquired Selmic and invested resources in resolving the manufacturing issues that caused delays. Expansion of our manufacturing capacity may also require us to obtain regulatory approvals or additional financing. Delay in the expansion of our manufacturing capacity could constrain our ability to grow our business, which would materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Similarly, we could have substantial difficulty in dealing with rapid growth in markets for new products that we may introduce. If demand for our new products increases rapidly, we will need to expand internal production capacity or implement additional outsourcing. Success in developing, manufacturing and supporting products manufactured in small volumes does not guarantee comparable success in operations conducted on a larger scale. Manufacturing yields and product quality may decline as production volumes increase. If we are unable to deliver products quickly and cost effectively and in the requisite volumes, our customers may decline to purchase our new products or may purchase substitute products offered by our competitors. The costs associated with implementing new manufacturing technologies, methods, and processes, including the purchase of new equipment, and any resulting delays, inefficiencies and loss of sales, could harm our results of operations.

We rely on third-party manufacturers to produce sub-components for certain of our products and services. If our manufacturers are unable to meet our requirements, or are subject to unanticipated disruptions, our business could be harmed.

We use third-party manufacturers to produce sub-components for certain of our products. From time to time demand for our products has grown faster than the supply capabilities of these vendors. For example, significant growth in our Instadose product line required additional inventory purchasing to meet demand. In many cases, these manufacturers have no obligation to supply products to us for any specific period, in any specific quantity or at any specific price, except as set forth in a particular purchase order. Our requirements represent a small portion of the total production capacities for many of our manufacturers, and our manufacturers may reallocate capacity to other customers, even during periods of high demand for our products or services. We have in the past experienced, and may in the future experience, quality control issues and delivery delays with our manufacturers due to factors such as materials shortages, outages of specialized manufacturing equipment, high industry demand, inability of our manufacturers to consistently meet our quality or delivery requirements, or long lead times for components that could delay deliveries. Component manufacturers that sell to our suppliers may decide to stop producing certain components, declaring end-of-life for critical components and limiting supply of these components. In such cases, we would need to identify component alternatives, redesign electronic components or requalify electronic designs, which would require time and resources. In addition, third-party manufacturers may have financial difficulties and face the risk of bankruptcy, especially in light of the current worldwide economic downturn. If one of our suppliers was to cancel or materially change a commitment with us or fail to meet the quality or delivery requirements needed to satisfy customer orders for our products, we could lose time-sensitive customer orders, be unable to develop or sell our products or services cost effectively or on a timely basis, if at all, and have significantly decreased revenue, which would harm our business, results of operations and financial condition. We may qualify additional suppliers in the future which would require time and resources. If we do not qualify additional suppliers, we may be exposed to increased risk of capacity shortages due to our dependence on our current suppliers.

In addition, our suppliers (and those they depend upon for materials and services) are subject to risks, including COVID-19-related supplier plant shutdowns or slowdowns, labor disputes or constraints, union organizing activities, intellectual property claims, financial liquidity, information technology failures, inclement weather, natural disasters, significant public health and safety events, supply constraints, and general economic and political conditions that could limit their ability to provide us with materials. Insurance for certain disruptions may not be available, affordable or adequate. The effects of climate change, including extreme epidemics and pandemics, weather events, long-term changes in temperature levels, sea level rise and water availability may exacerbate these risks. Such disruption has in the past and could in the future interrupt our ability to manufacture certain products.

We derive a significant portion of our revenue from international sales and our operations in foreign countries are subject to political, economic, legal and other risks, which could materially and adversely affect us.
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Revenue generated from outside of North America accounted for approximately 40%, 36%, and 45% of our net sales for the Successor Period from October 20, 2021 through December 31, 2021, the Predecessor Stub Period from July 1, 2021 through October 19, 2021, and in fiscal 2021, respectively, and approximately 48% of our net sales in both fiscal 2020 and 2019. We anticipate that international sales will continue to constitute a material percentage of our total net sales in future periods. As a result, our operations are subject to risks associated with global operations and sales, including:
    
foreign currency exchange fluctuations;
    
changes in regulatory requirements;
    
tariffs and other barriers;
    
timing and availability of export licenses;
    
difficulties in accounts receivable collections;
         
difficulties in protecting and enforcing our intellectual property;
    
difficulties in staffing and managing international operations;
         
difficulties in managing sales agents, distributors and other third parties;
         
coordination regarding, and difficulties in obtaining, governmental approvals for products that may require certification;
         
rescission or termination of contracts by governmental parties without penalty and regardless of the terms of the contract;
         
restrictions on transfers of funds and other assets of our subsidiaries between jurisdictions;
         
the burden of complying with a wide variety of complex foreign laws and treaties;
         
potentially adverse tax consequences; and
         
uncertainties relative to regional political and economic circumstances.

We are also subject to risks associated with the imposition of legislation and regulations relating to the import or export of our products. Furthermore, the failure to comply with export control regulations and to obtain required approvals could result in loss of the ability to continue to export products, fines and penalties.

We cannot predict whether quotas, duties, taxes or other charges or restrictions upon the importation or exportation of our products will be implemented by the United States or other countries. Some of our customers’ purchase orders and agreements are governed by foreign laws, which often differ significantly from the laws of the United States. Therefore, we may be limited in our ability to enforce our rights under such agreements and to collect damages, if awarded. These factors may materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

We rely on third-party sales representatives to assist in selling our products and services, and the failure of these representatives to perform as expected or to secure regulatory approvals in jurisdictions where they are required to do so could reduce our future sales.

We derive a significant portion of our revenue from sales through third-party sales representatives. We have established relationships with some of our third-party sales representatives recently, and we are unable to predict the extent to which our third-party sales representatives will be successful in marketing and selling our products and services. Moreover, many of our third-party sales representatives also market and sell competing products and services, which may affect the extent to which our third-party sales representatives promote our products and services. If our third party sales representatives advertise or promote or characterize our products in a manner inconsistent with our (or their) messaging, as approved by our regulatory affairs professionals, such acts could be imputed to us and we could become subject to risk or liability from government regulatory bodies or agencies for criminal or civil claims, including false claims, and we could become susceptible to individual consumer actions or class actions based on false or improper advertising and promotion, off-label promotion, failure to warn defects in our products and unfair competition or unfair trade practices claims, all of which
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could lead to adverse publicity, fines, penalties, judgments, money damages and other significant losses. Our future performance will also depend, in part, on our ability to attract additional third-party sales representatives who will be able to market and support our products and services effectively and accurately, especially in markets in which we have not previously sold our products and services. If we cannot retain our current third-party sales representatives or recruit additional or replacement third-party sales representatives, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be harmed.

If our suppliers experience supply shortages and prices of commodities or components that we use in our operations increase, our results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

We are dependent upon certain sole or limited source suppliers for critical raw materials or components of some of our products. For example, we rely on limited source suppliers for certain precious metals used in some of our radiation oncology and reactor instrumentation, scintillator materials used in our detection and identification equipment, analog sensor tubes used in certain of our imaging products, and detectors used in our dosimetry line of products.

Most of our suppliers are not required to supply us with any minimum quantities, and we cannot assure you that we will receive adequate quantities of components on a timely basis in the future. For example, a single source supplier informed us that its supplier was discontinuing the manufacture of an on-board computer module component of one of our multi-channel analyzers used by our Industrial segment to interpret signals from our detectors allowing our customers to understand levels of detectable radiation. The notification prompted us to secure a final end-of-life order in an amount sufficient to meet our anticipated production requirements at least through April 2022, the exact duration depending on sales of this particular device. Qualification and redesign efforts are underway to meet this timeline.

Our suppliers could have financial or other issues that could cause a disruption in the supply or increase the cost of components to us. Such disruptions or delays could impact our obligations to other parties. In addition, were we to change suppliers of components in some of our products, we may be required to seek new qualifications for such products, which can be a time-consuming and costly process. As a result of interruption of supply or increased component costs, we may not be able to obtain the raw materials or components that we need to fill customer orders. The inability to fill these orders could cause delays, disruptions or reductions in product shipments, require us to negotiate alternate supply arrangements with replacement suppliers where available or require product redesigns which could, in turn, damage relationships with current or prospective customers, increase costs or prices and materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition, including through litigation.

Our reliance upon sole or limited sources of supply for certain materials or components could cause production interruptions, delays and inefficiencies.

We purchase materials, components, and equipment from third parties for use in our manufacturing operations. For example, we purchase cryogenic cooling equipment to support our spectroscopy line of products. There is a limited supply market for this type of equipment, and these products are designed specifically for use in our products. Qualification and design of new equipment will require time and resources to complete. Our income could be adversely impacted if we are unable to adjust our purchases to reflect changes in customer demand and market fluctuations, including those caused by seasonality or cyclicality. During a market upturn, suppliers may extend lead times, limit supplies, or increase prices. If we cannot purchase sufficient products at competitive prices and quality and on a timely enough basis to meet increasing demand, we may not be able to satisfy market demand, product shipments may be delayed, our costs may increase, or we may breach our contractual commitments and incur liabilities. Conversely, in order to secure supplies for the production of products, we sometimes enter into non-cancelable purchase commitments with vendors, which could impact our ability to adjust our inventory to reflect declining market demands. If demand for our products is less than we expect, we may experience additional excess and obsolete inventories and be forced to incur additional charges and our profitability may suffer.

In addition, some of our businesses purchase certain requirements from sole or limited source suppliers for reasons of quality assurance, cost effectiveness, availability, contractual obligations or uniqueness of design or technology. If these or other suppliers encounter financial, operating, quality, or other issues or if our relationship with them changes, including as a result of contractual disputes, we might not be able to quickly establish or qualify replacement sources of supply. The supply chains for our businesses could also be disrupted by supplier capacity constraints, operational or quality issues, bankruptcy or exiting of the business for other reasons, decreased availability of key raw materials or commodities, and external events such as natural disasters, pandemic health issues, war, terrorist actions, governmental actions, and legislative or regulatory changes. Any of these factors could result in production interruptions, delays, extended lead times, and inefficiencies. As discussed above, such disruptions could also result in liability from litigation.

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Because we cannot always immediately adapt our production capacity and related cost structures to changing market conditions, our manufacturing capacity may at times exceed or fall short of our production requirements. Any or all of these issues could result in the loss of customers, provide an opportunity for competing products to gain market acceptance, and otherwise adversely affect our profitability. If we are not able to mitigate the impact of any disruptions in our supply chain, then our business, results of operations and financial condition may be materially and adversely impacted.

Because we compete directly with certain of our customers and suppliers, our results of operations could be materially and adversely affected in the short term if these customers or suppliers abruptly discontinue or significantly modify their relationship with us.

Some of our competitors are also our suppliers and customers. For example, we had an arrangement with a supplier of components used to manufacture our Cryo-Cycle product. That supplier was acquired by one of our competitors, after which time the supplier ceased supplying us with the components used to manufacture the Cryo-Cycle. As with our other suppliers, our competitor suppliers are not required to supply us with any minimum quantities, and we cannot assure you that we will receive adequate quantities of components on a timely basis in the future. The loss of orders stemming from the actions of our supplier or customer competitors could cause delays, disruptions or reductions in product shipments or require product redesigns that could, in turn, damage relationships with current or prospective customers, increase costs or prices, result in litigation or otherwise materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

We derive a material portion of our revenue from contracts with governmental customers or their contractors, and such customers may be subject to increased pressures to reduce expenses, require unusual or more onerous contractual terms and conditions or require that we undergo audits and investigations with an increased risk of sanctions and penalties.

U.S. government contractors and subcontractors must comply with specific procurement regulations and other requirements, including without limitation those related to ethics and business conduct, cost accounting, pricing, intellectual property, employment, cybersecurity, and supply chain issues. Accordingly, we are subject to routine audits and investigations by U.S. government agencies and held to strict compliance standards. If we fail to comply and demonstrate our compliance with these rules and regulations, we could be subject to reductions in the value of our government contracts, contract modification or termination, loss of valuable intellectual property rights, the assessment of criminal and civil penalties and fines, and/or suspension or debarment from government contracting and subcontracting for a period of time or permanently.

Furthermore, we have bid, and may in the future submit bids, for U.S. government contracts that require our employees to maintain various levels of security clearances and require us or our subsidiaries to maintain certain facility security clearances in compliance with Department of Defense or Department of Energy requirements. Obtaining and maintaining security clearances for employees involves a lengthy process, and it can be difficult to identify, recruit and retain employees who already hold security clearances. If our employees are unable to obtain or retain security clearances, or if our employees who hold security clearances stop working for us, we may face delays in fulfilling contracts, or be unable to fulfill or secure new contracts, with any customer involved in classified work. Any breach of security for which we are responsible could seriously harm our business, damage our reputation and make us ineligible to work on any classified programs.

The classified work that we currently perform at one of our facilities subjects us to the industrial security regulations of the Department of Defense that are designed to safeguard against unauthorized access by foreigners and others to classified and other sensitive information. We may be subject to penalties for violations of these regulations and the U.S. government could terminate our contracts with it or decide not to renew them and such a situation could also impair our ability to obtain new contracts and subcontracts. The government may also change its procurement practices or adopt new contracting rules and regulations that could be costly to satisfy or that could impair our ability to obtain new contracts. See “Legal and Regulatory Risks—We must comply with the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and analogous non-U.S. anti-bribery and anti-corruption statutes including the UK Anti-Bribery Act. Our third-party sales representatives’ or distributors’ failure to comply with such laws could subject us to, among other things, penalties and legal expenses that could harm our reputation and materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.”

Any reduction in the capital resources or government funding of our customers could reduce our sales and impede our ability to generate revenue.

A significant portion of our sales are capital purchases by our customers. The spending policies of our customers could have a significant effect on the demand for our products. These policies are based on a wide variety of factors, including the resources available to make purchases, the spending priorities among various types of equipment, policies regarding spending during recessionary periods and changes in the political climate. In particular, certain customers can come under significant budgetary pressure and resort to cost-cutting measures.
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Any changes in capital spending or changes in the capital budgets of our customers could significantly reduce demand for our products. The capital resources of our customers may be limited by the availability of equity or debt financing. In addition, a portion of our sales are to governmental and non-profit entities such as universities and hospitals, which are subject to unique budgetary pressures. Any reduction in spending or budget austerity measures could inhibit the ability of these customers to purchase our products.

Many of our large contracts have penalties for late deliveries.

In some cases, including through many of our fixed-price contracts, we have agreed to deliver a project by a scheduled date. If we fail to deliver the project as scheduled, we may be held responsible for costs associated with the delay, generally in the form of liquidated damages, in some cases up to the full value of the contract. We have in the past incurred penalties associated with late delivery on some of our contracts. In the event that a project is delayed, the total costs of the project could exceed our original estimates, and we could experience reduced profits or a loss for that project.

A failure or breach of our or our vendors’ information technology (“IT”) data security infrastructure, or the security infrastructure of our products, or the discovery or exploitation of defects or vulnerabilities in the same, has subjected us in the past and may in the future subject us and our products to increased vulnerability to unauthorized access and other forms of cyberattacks and could materially and adversely impact our or our customers’ business, reputation, results of operations and financial condition.

We rely upon the capacity, reliability and security of our and our vendors’ IT and data security infrastructure and our and our vendor’s ability to expand and continually update this infrastructure in response to the changing needs of our business. As we implement new systems or integrate existing systems, they may not perform as expected, which may result in liability or incurred costs, including litigation. We also face the challenge of supporting our older systems and implementing necessary upgrades. If we experience an issue with the functioning of an important IT system or a security breach of our IT systems, including during system upgrades and/or new system implementations, the resulting disruptions, including because of investigations or litigation, could have a material and adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. We are indirectly exposed to the same risks in our supply chain. Furthermore, we collect and maintain information in digital form that is necessary to conduct our business, and we are increasingly dependent on our IT and data security infrastructure to operate our business. In the ordinary course of our business, we collect, store and transmit large amounts of confidential information, including intellectual property, proprietary business information and personal information. It is critical that we do so in a secure manner to maintain the confidentiality and integrity and privacy of such confidential information. We have established physical, electronic and organizational measures to safeguard and secure our systems to prevent data compromise and rely on commercially available systems, software, tools, and monitoring to provide security for our IT systems and the processing, transmission and storage of digital information. We have also outsourced elements of our IT systems and, as a result, a number of third-party vendors may or could have access to our confidential information.

Despite our implementation of security measures, our IT systems, like those of other companies, are vulnerable to damage or interruption from a variety of sources, including physical damage, telecommunications or network failures or interruptions, system malfunction, natural disasters, malicious human acts, terrorism and war. Such IT systems, including our servers, are additionally vulnerable to physical or electronic break-ins, security breaches from inadvertent or intentional actions by our employees, third-party service providers, contractors, consultants, business partners, and/or other third parties, or from cyber-attacks by malicious third parties (including the deployment of harmful malware, ransomware, denial-of-service attacks, social engineering, and other means to affect service reliability and threaten the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of information). For example, in February 2021, we experienced a ransomware attack that involved the unauthorized access to certain of our servers. While we were able to detect and stop the unauthorized access before any substantial amount of information was accessed and before the attacker was able to encrypt our systems, the attacker misappropriated certain personal and proprietary information and publicly published certain of such information. We reported the incident to the applicable government authorities in France, Germany and the United States. Additionally, one of our acquired subsidiaries experienced a ransomware attack in February 2020, prior to our acquisition of such subsidiary. The acquired subsidiary did not make any ransom payments and was able to restore its systems from backups. Although we have implemented additional security measures to prevent future ransomware attacks, we can provide no assurance that our IT systems, or those of the third parties upon which we rely, will not experience cybersecurity incidents in the future. The risk of a security breach or disruption, particularly through cyber-attacks or cyber intrusion, including by computer hackers, foreign governments, and cyber terrorists, has generally increased as the number, intensity, and sophistication of attempted attacks and intrusions from around the world have increased. We may not be able to anticipate all types of security threats, and we may not be able to implement preventive measures effective against all such security threats. The techniques used by cyber criminals change frequently, may not be recognized until launched, and can originate from a wide variety of sources, including outside groups such as external service providers, organized crime affiliates, terrorist organizations, or hostile foreign governments or agencies. It is possible that we or our third-party vendors may
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experience cybersecurity and other breach incidents that remain undetected for an extended period. Even when a security breach is detected, the full extent of the breach may not be determined immediately. The costs to us to mitigate network security issues, bugs, viruses, worms, malicious software programs and security vulnerabilities could be significant and, while we have implemented security measures to protect our IT and data security infrastructure, our efforts to address these issues may not be successful. There is also the potential for class action or other litigation as the result of such issues and the dissemination of personal information.

Any system failure, accident or security breach could result in disruptions to our operations or those of our customers. A material network breach in the security of our IT systems could include the theft of our intellectual property (including our trade secrets), customer information, human resources information or other confidential matter or the theft of the confidential information of our customers. To the extent that any disruption or security breach results in a loss or damage to our or our customers’ data, or an inappropriate disclosure of confidential, proprietary or customer information, it could cause significant damage to our reputation, affect our relationships with our customers, lead to claims against us, including civil litigation, and ultimately harm our business. In addition, we may be required to incur significant costs to protect against damage caused by these disruptions or security breaches in the future. If our IT systems fail and our redundant systems or disaster recovery plans are not adequate to address such failures, or if our business interruption insurance does not sufficiently compensate us for any losses that we may incur, our revenues and profits could be reduced and the reputation of our brand and our business could be materially and adversely affected.

We are also reliant on the security practices of our third-party service providers, which may be outside of our direct control. The services provided by these third parties are subject to the same risk of outages, other failures and security breaches described above. If these third parties fail to adhere to adequate security practices, or experience a breach of their systems, the data of our employees, customers and business associates may be improperly accessed, used or disclosed. In addition, our providers have broad discretion to change and interpret the terms of service and other policies with respect to us, and those actions may be unfavorable to our business operations. Our providers may also take actions beyond our control that could harm our business, including discontinuing or limiting our access to one or more services, increasing pricing terms, terminating or seeking to terminate our contractual relationship altogether, or altering how we are able to process data in a way that is unfavorable or costly to us. Although we expect that we could obtain similar services from other third parties, if our arrangements with our current providers were terminated, we could experience interruptions in our business, as well as delays and additional expenses in arranging for alternative cloud infrastructure services. Any loss or interruption to our systems or the services provided by third parties would adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Failure to secure and protect our trade secrets or other confidential or proprietary information from disclosure or misappropriation could materially and adversely affect our business, competitiveness, results of operations and financial condition.

We rely on trade secrets and confidentiality agreements to protect our unpatented know-how, technology, and other proprietary information, including unpatented proprietary radiation detection expertise, continuing technological innovation and other trade secrets some of which is licensed from third parties, and to develop and maintain our competitive position. With respect to our products, we consider trade secrets and know-how to be one of our primary sources of intellectual property rights. However, trade secrets and know-how can be difficult to protect. We seek to protect these trade secrets and other proprietary technology, in part, by entering into non-disclosure and confidentiality agreements with parties who have access to them, such as our employees, corporate collaborators, outside contractors, consultants, advisors, and other third parties. We also enter into confidentiality and invention or patent assignment agreements with our employees and consultants. We cannot guarantee that we have entered into such agreements with each party that may have or have had access to our trade secrets or proprietary information, including our technology and processes. Despite these efforts, any of these parties may breach the agreements and disclose our proprietary information, including our trade secrets, and we may not be able to obtain adequate remedies for such breaches. Enforcing a claim that a party illegally disclosed or misappropriated a trade secret is difficult, expensive, and time-consuming, and the outcome is unpredictable. In addition, some courts inside and outside the U.S. are less willing or unwilling to protect trade secrets. If any of our trade secrets were to be lawfully obtained or independently developed by a competitor or other third party, we would have no right to prevent them from using that technology or information to compete with us. If any of our trade secrets were to be disclosed to or independently developed by a competitor or other third party, it could materially and adversely affect our competitive position, business, results of operations and financial condition.

Our future success is dependent on our ability to retain key personnel, including our executive officers, and attract qualified personnel. If we lose the services of these individuals or are unable to attract new talent, our business will be materially and adversely affected.

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Our future operating results depend in significant part upon the continued contributions of our key technical and senior management personnel, many of whom would be difficult to replace. We are particularly dependent on the continued service of Thomas D. Logan, our Chief Executive Officer and Brian Schopfer, our Chief Financial Officer.

Our future operating results also depend in significant part upon our ability to attract, train and retain qualified management, manufacturing and quality assurance, engineering, marketing, sales and support personnel. In particular, engineers skilled in the analog technologies used in certain of our products are in high demand and competition to attract such personnel is intense. In addition, the expected increase in construction of new NPPs may exacerbate the shortage of radiation engineers and other qualified personnel. We are continually recruiting such personnel; however, we cannot assure you that we will be successful in attracting, training or retaining such personnel now or in the future. There may be only a limited number of persons with the requisite skills to serve in these positions, and it may be increasingly difficult for us to hire such persons over time. The high demand for such personnel may increase the costs to us to recruit and retain employees.

The loss of any key employee, the failure of any key employee to perform in his or her current position, our inability to attract, train and retain skilled employees as needed or the inability of our officers and key employees to expand, train and manage our employee base could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

If we encounter manufacturing problems, or if our manufacturing facilities do not continue to meet federal, state or foreign manufacturing standards, we may be required to temporarily cease all or part of our manufacturing operations, which would result in delays and lost revenue.

Many of our products are complex and require the integration of a number of components from several sources of supply. We must manufacture and assemble these complex systems in commercial quantities in compliance with regulatory requirements and at an acceptable cost. In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic may impact the supply of key components such that we may not receive them in a timely manner, in sufficient quantities, or at reasonable cost. We may also experience limitations in the availability of qualified personnel as a result of shelter-in-place rules, quarantine requirements, or illness. If our manufacturing capacity does not keep pace with product demand, we will not be able to fulfill orders in a timely manner, which in turn may breach our obligations to our business partners or otherwise have a negative effect on our financial results and overall business, including as a result of litigation. Conversely, if demand for our products decreases, the fixed costs associated with excess manufacturing capacity may adversely affect our financial results.

Our manufacturing processes and the manufacturing processes of our third-party suppliers are required to comply with the FDA’s Quality System Regulations (“QSR”), which are medical device good manufacturing practices for any products imported into, or sold within, the United States. The QSR is a complex regulatory scheme that covers all aspects of medical device manufacture, from pre-production design validation and servicing, as such aspects bear upon the safe and effective use of the device and whether the device otherwise meets the U.S. Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (“FDCA”). Other jurisdictions where our medical device products are distributed and sold have their own regulatory requirements that include quality and manufacturing requirements and controls. Furthermore, we are required to verify that our suppliers maintain facilities, procedures and operations that comply with our quality requirements. We are also subject to state licensing and other requirements and licenses applicable to manufacturers of medical devices, and we are required to comply with International Organization for Standardization, or ISO, quality system standards in order to produce products for sale in Europe and Canada, as well as various other foreign laws and regulations. Because our manufacturing processes include the production of diagnostic and therapeutic X-ray equipment and laser equipment, we are subject to the electronic product radiation control provisions of the FDCA, which requires that we file reports with the FDA, applicable states and our customers regarding the distribution, manufacturing and installation of these types of equipment. The FDA enforces the QSR and the electronic product radiation control provisions through inspections, both periodic and for cause. We have been, and will continue being subject to such inspections. FDA inspections usually occur every two to three years. During such inspections, the FDA may issue Inspectional Observations on Form FDA 483, listing instances where a manufacturer has failed to comply with the FDCA, applicable regulations and procedures, or previous warning letters.

Sometimes inspections result in warning letters which are publicly available and can result in adverse publicity. Our failure to take prompt and satisfactory corrective action in response to an adverse inspection or our failure to comply with applicable regulatory requirements and standards could result in enforcement actions, including a shutdown of our manufacturing operations, a recall of our products, civil or criminal penalties, or other sanctions, which would cause our sales and business to suffer. Any inspection or government action based on alleged violations of law could require us to expend significant time and resources in response and could generate negative publicity. The occurrence of any event or penalty described above may inhibit our ability to keep our products on the market and generate revenue. In addition, because some foreign regulatory approvals require approvals or clearances from the FDA, any failure to comply with FDA requirements may also disrupt our sales of products in other countries. We cannot assure you that the FDA or other
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governmental authorities would agree with our interpretation of applicable regulatory requirements, or that we, or our third-party suppliers, have in all instances fully complied with all applicable requirements. If any of these events occur, our reputation could be harmed, we could lose customers and our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected, including as the result of litigation.

If we cannot achieve the required level and quality of production, we may need to outsource production or rely on licensing and other arrangements with third parties who possess sufficient manufacturing facilities and capabilities in compliance with regulatory requirements. Even if we could outsource needed production or enter into licensing or other third-party arrangements, this could reduce our gross margin and expose us to the risks inherent in relying on others. We also cannot assure you that our suppliers will deliver an adequate supply of required components on a timely basis, or that they will adequately comply with the QSR. Failure to obtain these components on a timely basis would disrupt our manufacturing processes and increase our costs, which would harm our operating results.

The localization requirements in certain of our markets, in particular in Russia, China, India and South Korea, could limit our ability to sell our products.

Many emerging markets, including Russia, China, India and South Korea, impose localization requirements sometimes as a condition to funding contracts, which favor locally based component manufacturers and which require some degree of technology transfer to local manufacturers. Over time, such localization requirements could limit our ability to sell into such markets and could affect our ability to maintain our trade secrets. If our ability to sell our products in these markets is restricted, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected.

Our operations, and the operations of our suppliers, distributors or customers, could be subject to natural and manmade disasters and other business disruptions, which could materially and adversely affect our business and increase our expenses.

Our operations could be subject to natural disasters and other business disruptions, which could lead to reductions of revenue and increases in costs and expenses. For example, some of our facilities are located in areas with earthquake fault lines or in hurricane zones. In the event of a major earthquake or other natural or manmade disaster, we could experience business interruptions, destruction of or damage to facilities and/or loss of life, any of which could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Our management has limited experience in operating a public company. The requirements of being a public company may strain our resources and divert management’s attention, and the increases in legal, accounting and compliance expenses may be greater than we anticipate.

We are a public company, and as such we incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company. We are subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, and are required to comply with the applicable requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the Dodd-Frank Act, as well as the rules and regulations subsequently implemented by the SEC and the listing standards of the NYSE, including changes in corporate governance practices and the establishment and maintenance of effective disclosure and financial controls.

Compliance with these rules and regulations can be burdensome. Our management and other personnel need to devote a substantial amount of time to these compliance initiatives. Moreover, these rules and regulations have increased, and will continue to increase, our historical legal and financial compliance costs and will make some activities more time-consuming and costly. For example, we expect that these rules and regulations may make it more difficult and more expensive for us to attract and retain qualified members of our board of directors as compared to a private company. In particular, we incur significant expenses and devote substantial management effort toward ensuring compliance with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. We have hired additional accounting and financial staff, and engaged outside consultants, all with appropriate public company experience and technical accounting knowledge and maintain an internal audit function, which increased our operating expenses.

Our executive officers have limited experience in the management of a publicly traded company. Their limited experience in dealing with the increasingly complex laws pertaining to public companies could be a significant disadvantage in that it is likely that an increasing amount of their time may be devoted to these activities, which will result in less time being devoted to the management and growth of the post-combination company. We may not have adequate personnel with the appropriate level of knowledge, experience and training in the accounting policies, practices or internal control over financial reporting required of public companies. Our management will need to continually assess our staffing and training procedures to improve our internal control over financial reporting. Further, the development, implementation, documentation and assessment of appropriate processes, in addition to the need to remediate any potential deficiencies, will require substantial time and attention from management. The development and implementation of the standards and controls necessary for us to achieve the level of accounting standards required of a public company may require costs
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greater than expected. It is possible that we will be required to expand our employee base and hire additional employees to support our operations as a public company which will increase its operating costs in future periods.

As a private company, we were not required to document and test our internal controls over financial reporting, our management was not required to certify the effectiveness of our internal controls and our auditors were not required to opine on the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting. Failure to maintain adequate financial, information technology and management processes and controls could result in material weaknesses which could lead to errors in our financial reporting, which could adversely affect our business.

We were not required to document and test our internal controls over financial reporting, our management was not required to certify the effectiveness of our internal controls and our auditors were not required to opine on the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting. As a large accelerated filer we are now subject to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. However, we are required to provide management’s attestation on internal controls commencing with our annual report for the year ending December 31, 2022, and our auditors will be required to opine on the effectiveness of internal controls for this period. We may not be able to complete our evaluation, testing and any required remediation in a timely fashion. In addition, our current controls and any new controls that we develop may become inadequate because of poor design and changes in our business, including increased complexity resulting from our international operations and our contemplated international expansion. Any failure to implement and maintain effective internal controls over financial reporting could adversely affect the results of assessments by our independent registered public accounting firm and their attestation reports.

If we are unable to certify the effectiveness of our internal controls, or if our internal controls have a material weakness, we may not detect errors timely, our financial statements could be misstated, we could be subject to regulatory scrutiny and a loss of confidence by stakeholders, which could harm our business and adversely affect the trading price of our Class A common stock.

We identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting, and we may experience additional material weaknesses or otherwise fail to design and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting, our ability to timely and accurately report our results of operations and financial condition in compliance with reporting requirements applicable for public companies in the United States could be impaired, which may adversely affect investor confidence in us and, as a result, the value of our Class A common stock or our warrants.

As previously disclosed in the GSAH Annual Report on Form 10-K/A filed on May 17, 2021, GSAH identified a material weakness in internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020. A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of the Company’s annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. Specifically, we concluded that our control around the interpretation and accounting for certain complex features of the Class A common stock and warrants issued by us was not effectively designed or maintained. This material weakness resulted in the restatement of our financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2020, our balance sheet as of July 2, 2020, and our interim financial statements for the quarter ended September 30, 2020. Additionally, this material weakness could result in a misstatement of the warrant liability, Class A common stock and related accounts and disclosures that would result in a material misstatement of the financial statements that would not be prevented or detected on a timely basis.

Subsequent to the Business Combination on October 20, 2021, and upon filing of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for the period ended December 31, 2021, the internal controls over financial reporting of Mirion Technologies, Inc. replaced the internal controls over financial reporting of GSAH. As a result, the internal control structure of GSAH is no longer in operation. Instead, the relevant internal control structure after completion of the Business Combination is that of Mirion Technologies, Inc.

During the Successor Period ended December 31, 2021, we implemented the below changes to our processes to improve our internal control over financial reporting to remediate the control deficiency that gave rise to the material weakness:

While we have processes to properly identify and evaluate the appropriate accounting technical pronouncements and other literature for all significant or unusual transactions, we have enhanced these processes to ensure that the nuances of such transactions are effectively evaluated in the context of the increasingly complex accounting standards. We require the formalized consideration of obtaining additional technical guidance prior to concluding on all significant or unusual transactions.
We acquired enhanced access to accounting literature, research materials and documents and increased communication among our personnel and third-party professionals with whom we consult regarding the application of temporary and permanent equity and complex accounting transactions.

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After completion of the above changes, our management believes the previously identified material weakness has been remediated. See "Part II. Item 9A. Controls and Procedures."

Effective internal controls are necessary for us to provide reliable financial reports and prevent fraud. If we are unable to develop and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting we may not be able to accurately report our financial results in a timely manner, which may cause us to be unable to comply with securities law or applicable stock exchange requirements, adversely affect investor confidence in us and/or materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition, and our stock price may decline as a result. Any required remediation measures may be time consuming and costly and there is no assurance that any measures taken to date or any such measures taken in the future will ultimately have the intended effects, including to avoid potential future material weaknesses.

Our reported financial results may be affected by changes in accounting principles generally accepted in the United States.

Generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“GAAP” or “U.S. GAAP”) are subject to interpretation by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) the SEC and various bodies formed to promulgate and interpret appropriate accounting principles. A change in these principles or interpretations could have a significant effect on our reported financial results, and could affect the reporting of transactions completed before the announcement of a change. Any difficulties in implementing any future changes to accounting principles could cause us to fail to meet our financial reporting obligations, which could result in regulatory discipline and harm investors’ confidence in us.

Legal and Regulatory Risks

We are subject to, or may otherwise be impacted by, a variety of federal, state, local and foreign laws and regulatory regimes. Failure to comply with such laws and regulations could subject us to, among other things, penalties and legal expenses which could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Our business is subject to regulation by various federal, state, local and foreign governmental agencies. In the United States, such regulation includes the radioactive material exposure and nuclear facilities regulatory activities of the NRC, the anti-trust regulatory activities of the Federal Trade Commission and Department of Justice, the import/export regulatory activities of the Department of Commerce, the Department of State and the Department of Treasury, the regulatory activities of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, the regulations of the FDA, the environmental regulatory activities of the Environmental Protection Agency, the labor regulatory activities of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and tax and other regulations by a variety of regulatory authorities in each of the areas in which we conduct business. We are also subject to regulation in other countries where we conduct business. In certain jurisdictions, such regulatory requirements may be more stringent than in the United States. We are also subject to a variety of U.S. federal and state employment and labor laws and regulations, including the Americans with Disabilities Act, the Federal Fair Labor Standards Act, the Worker Adjustment and Restructuring Notification Act, which requires employers to give affected employees at least 60 days’ notice of a plant closing or mass layoff, and other regulations related to working conditions, wage-hour pay, overtime pay, employee benefits, anti-discrimination and termination of employment. We are also subject to the employment and labor laws and regulations of the foreign jurisdictions, including France and Germany, where many of our employees are located.

Noncompliance with applicable regulations or requirements could subject us to investigations, sanctions, enforcement actions, disgorgement of profits, fines, damages, civil and criminal penalties, injunctions or debarment from government contracting or subcontracting. In addition, from time to time we have received, and may in the future receive, correspondence from former employees terminated by us who threaten to bring claims against us alleging that we have violated one or more labor or employment regulations. An adverse outcome in any such litigation could require us to pay damages.

Governmental enforcement actions could harm our business, results of operations and financial condition. If any governmental sanctions are imposed, or if we do not prevail in any civil or criminal litigation, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected. In addition, responding to any action could be costly and result in a significant diversion of management’s attention and resources.

We and our customers operate in highly regulated industries that require us and them to obtain, and comply with, federal, state, local and foreign government permits and approvals.

We and our customers operate in a highly regulated environment. Many of our products and services must comply with various domestic and international standards that are used by regulatory and accreditation bodies for approving such
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services and products. Many of our products, particularly those offered by our Industrial segment, are subject to an array of product testing under extreme temperature, pressure, radiation and seismic conditions, known collectively as a qualification, for any given nuclear reactor design. The qualification is typically owned by the party who pays for the testing and so, in certain cases, we license such qualifications from a third party. In addition, many of our products and services, particularly those offered by our Medical segment, must be certified by the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program in the United States and by other governmental agencies in international markets. The termination of any such accreditation or our failure to obtain and maintain required qualification or accreditation for our products and services may adversely affect our revenue and results of operations.

Changes in these standards and accreditation requirements may also result in our having to incur substantial costs to adapt our products. Such adaptations may introduce quality assurance issues following such adaptation as new features and products may not perform as expected. Additionally, changes affecting radiation protection practices, including new understandings of the hazards of radiation exposure and corresponding changes in regulations, may impact how our services are used by our customers and may, in some circumstances, cause us to alter our products and services.

Our subsidiary Sun Nuclear offers oncology quality assurance products for diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy. These products may be relied upon by customers as part of their quality assurance programs for regulatory compliance, and thus could subject the company to potential risk of regulatory noncompliance or enforcement action by state or federal regulatory agencies, including but not limited to the NRC, Agreement State radiation safety agencies, the FDA, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (“CDC”) and other agencies.

In addition, our customers are required to obtain, and to comply with, federal, state, local and foreign government licenses, permits and approvals with respect to either their facilities or possession and use of radioactive sources or other radioactive materials. For example, federal agencies such as the NRC and FDA, Agreement State agencies, and others have certain regulatory responsibilities regarding medical devices, radiopharmaceuticals, and other medical products that utilize radioactive material. Any of these licenses, permits or approvals may be subject to denial, revocation or modification under various circumstances. Failure to obtain or comply with the conditions of licenses, permits or approvals may adversely affect our customers’ operations by suspending their activities or delaying or preventing the receipt of radioactive sources or other radioactive materials, and may subject them to penalties and other sanctions. Although existing licenses, permits or approvals are routinely renewed by various regulators, renewal could be denied or jeopardized by various factors, including but not limited to:
         
failure to comply with environmental and safety laws and regulations;
         
failure to comply with permit conditions or violations found during inspections or otherwise;
local community, political or other opposition;
executive action; and
legislative action.

Furthermore, if new environmental legislation or regulations are enacted or existing laws or regulations are amended or are interpreted or enforced differently, our customers may be required to obtain additional operating licenses, permits or approvals. Regulatory issues experienced by our customers may lead to delay or cancellation of their orders for our products and services or the discontinuance of future orders. We cannot assure you that we or our customers will be able to meet all potential regulatory challenges.

Changes in industry standards and governmental regulations may increase our expenses or reduce demand for our products or services.

We compete in markets in which we and our customers must comply with supranational, federal, state, local, and other jurisdictional regulations, such as regulations governing health and safety, the environment, and electronic communications, and market standardizations. We develop, configure, and market our products and services to meet customer needs created by these regulations and standards. These regulations and standards are complex, change frequently, have tended to become more stringent over time, and may be inconsistent or conflicting across jurisdictions. Any significant change or delay in implementation in any of these regulations or standards (or in the interpretation, application, or enforcement thereof) could reduce or delay demand for our products and services, increase our costs of producing or delay the introduction of new or modified products and services, or could restrict our existing activities, products, and services. In addition, in certain of our markets our growth depends in part upon the introduction of new regulations or implementation of industry standards on the timeline we expect. In these markets, the delay or failure of
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governmental and other entities to adopt or enforce new regulations or industry standards, or the adoption of new regulations or industry standards which our products and services are not positioned to address, could adversely affect demand. In addition, regulatory deadlines or industry standard implementation timelines may result in substantially different levels of demand for our products and services from period to period.

Changes in global or regional environmental conditions and governmental actions in response to climate changes may materially and adversely affect us.

There is growing concern from many members of the scientific community and the general public that an increase in global average temperatures due to emissions of greenhouse gases and other human activities have caused, and will continue to cause, significant changes in weather patterns and increases in the frequency and severity of natural disasters. Government mandates, standards or regulations intended to reduce greenhouse gas emissions or projected climate change impacts have resulted, and are likely to continue to result, in operational constraints and cause us to incur expenses that will place pressure on margins or that will require us to increase the price of our products and services to the point that it affects demand for those products and services.

We operate in a highly litigious industry and are subject to risks related to legal claims and proceedings filed by or against us, and adverse outcomes in these matters may materially harm our business.

We are subject to various claims, disputes, investigations, demands, arbitration, litigation, or other legal proceedings. Legal claims and proceedings may relate to labor and employment, commercial arrangements, intellectual property, disputes with customers or business partners, breach of contract, environmental, health and safety, property damage, theft, consumer protection, class action, mass tort and product liability, personal injury, false advertising, unfair competition or unfair trade practices, public or private nuisance, “whistleblower” litigation, fiduciary duties of our directors and officers, securities, Medicare and Medicaid reimbursement claims, false claims, radioactive contamination, indemnity, insurance and various other matters. Legal matters are inherently uncertain and we cannot predict the duration, scope, cost, outcome or consequences of such matters.

Legal matters are expensive and time-consuming to defend, settle, and/or resolve, even if successfully, and may require us to implement certain remedial measures that could prove costly or disruptive to our business and operations and could result in civil or criminal fines, penalties, consent decrees, changes in business practices and exclusion from participation in various government healthcare-related programs. The unfavorable resolution of one or more of these matters could have an adverse impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

We may incur material losses and expenses as a result of products liability claims brought against us.

We face an inherent business risk of exposure to products liability claims, with or without merit. This includes where our products are found to be defective in design or manufacture, a misstatement is found on product labels or marketing materials, including (but not limited to) in product warnings and instructions, or where our or our agents’ conduct is found to fall below the standard of care for a similarly situated medical device company.

Accordingly, we should expect, in the ordinary course of business, to encounter class actions, mass tort actions, claims that allege our marketed products or products in development are mislabeled, mischaracterized or defective and violate applicable consumer protection statutes or FDA regulations or have caused, or could cause, serious adverse events or injury, including latent injury, and claims that our products have been, or should be recalled due to safety or warning defects. As discussed above, if our insurance coverage is inadequate to cover such claims or actions, we must pay the amount of any settlement or judgment in excess of the policy limits. Our failure to maintain adequate insurance coverage or failure to successfully defend against such claims, lawsuits and issues could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Legal, political and economic uncertainty surrounding the exit of the United Kingdom from the European Union and the implementation of the trade and cooperation agreement between the United Kingdom and the European Union could materially and adversely affect our business.

In June 2016, voters in the United Kingdom approved a referendum to withdraw the United Kingdom’s membership from the European Union, which is commonly referred to as “Brexit.” The United Kingdom’s withdrawal from the European Union occurred on January 31, 2020, but the United Kingdom remained in the European Union’s customs union and single market for a transition period that expired on December 31, 2020. On December 30, 2020, the United Kingdom and the European Union entered into the Trade and Cooperation Agreement, which was applied on a provisional basis from January 1, 2021. While the economic integration does not reach the level that existed during the time the United Kingdom was a member state of the European Union, the Trade and Cooperation Agreement sets out preferential arrangements in areas such as trade in goods and in services, digital trade and intellectual property. Negotiations between the United
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Kingdom and the European Union are expected to continue in certain other areas which are not covered by the Trade and Cooperation Agreement. The long-term effects of Brexit will depend on the effects of the implementation and application of the Trade and Cooperation Agreement and any other relevant agreements between the United Kingdom and the European Union.
We have operations in the United Kingdom and the European Union and, as a result, we face risks associated with the potential uncertainty and disruptions that may follow Brexit and the implementation and application of the Trade and Cooperation Agreement, including with respect to volatility in exchange rates and interest rates, disruptions to the free movement of data, goods, services, people and capital between the United Kingdom and the European Union and potential material changes to the regulatory regime applicable to our operations in the United Kingdom. The uncertainty concerning the United Kingdom’s future legal, political and economic relationship with the European Union could adversely affect political, regulatory, economic or market conditions in the European Union, the United Kingdom and worldwide and could contribute to instability in global political institutions, regulatory agencies and financial markets. These developments, or the perception that any of them could occur, have had and may continue to materially and adversely affect global economic conditions and the stability of global financial markets and could significantly reduce global market liquidity and limit the ability of key market participants to operate in certain financial markets. In particular, it could also lead to a period of considerable uncertainty in relation to the United Kingdom financial and banking markets, as well as to the regulatory process in Europe. Asset valuations, currency exchange rates and credit ratings may also be subject to increased market volatility.

We may also face new regulatory costs and challenges as a result of Brexit that could materially and adversely affect our operations. For example, as of January 1, 2021, the United Kingdom lost the benefits of global trade agreements negotiated by the European Union on behalf of its members, which may result in increased trade barriers that could make our business activities in areas that are subject to such global trade agreements more difficult. In addition, Brexit could lead to legal uncertainty and potentially divergent national laws and regulations as the United Kingdom determines which laws of the European Union to replace or replicate. There may continue to be economic uncertainty surrounding the consequences of Brexit that adversely impact customer confidence resulting in customers reducing their spending budgets on our services, which could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

The ongoing instability and uncertainty surrounding Brexit and the implementation and application of the Trade and Cooperation Agreement, could require us to restructure our business operations in the United Kingdom and the European Union and could have an adverse impact on our business and employees in the United Kingdom and European Union.

Enhanced international tariffs, including tariffs that affect our products or components within our products, other trade barriers or global trade wars or domestic preferences could increase our costs and materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Our global business could be negatively affected by trade barriers and other governmental protectionist measures, any of which can be imposed suddenly and unpredictably. There is currently significant uncertainty about the future trade relationships between the United States and various other countries, most significantly China, with respect to trade policies, treaties, government regulations and tariffs. Since the beginning of 2018, there have been increasing public threats and, in some cases, legislative or executive action, from United States and foreign leaders regarding instituting tariffs against foreign imports of certain materials. During the last half of calendar year 2018, the federal government imposed a series of tariffs ranging from 7.5% to 25% on a variety of imports from China (the “Section 301 Duties”). These tariffs affect certain components that we import into the United States from our suppliers. China has responded to these Section 301 Duties with retaliatory tariffs ranging from 5% to 25% on a wide range of products from the United States, which include certain of our products. Higher duties on existing tariffs and further rounds of tariffs have been announced or threatened by the United States and Chinese leaders. Although the United States and China signed an initial trade deal in January 2020 and China announced a one year tariff exemption for medical linear accelerators in September 2019, there is no assurance that the trade deal will be signed or that the exemption on medical linear accelerators will continue beyond one year or that we will continue to qualify for such exemption.

These tariffs are subject to a number of uncertainties as they are implemented, including future adjustments and changes. Section 301 Duties on certain categories of imported Chinese products have been challenged in a case currently pending before the United States Court of International Trade. The outcome of that judicial challenge to the Section 301 Duties is uncertain. Moreover, even if the Court of International Trade determines that the imposition of the Section 301 Duties on those Chinese products was unauthorized and outside the scope of the U.S. Trade Representative’s statutory authority under Section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974, it is uncertain how the Chinese Government will respond with respect to continued application of Chinese retaliatory duties on United States origin products.

In 2020 and 2021, the United States Government threatened to impose additional duties under section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974 on various categories of products imported from a number of countries, including particularly the United Kingdom
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and certain European Union member states, in response to the imposition or proposed imposition by those countries of a digital services tax. That Section 301 proceeding was terminated by the United States Trade Representative in November, 2021, as the parties agreed to negotiate a comprehensive agreement on digital services taxation under the auspices of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development’s Inclusive Framework on Base Erosion and Profit Shifting. In the event that no agreement is reached, however, or if various countries proceed with the unilateral imposition of a digital services tax or its equivalent, the United States Trade Representative could restart those Section 301 proceedings, which could result in increased customs duties on products that we import into the United States from our suppliers and our affiliated companies in the United Kingdom and in European Union member states.

Additionally, the United States has threatened to impose tariffs on goods imported from other countries, which could also impact our or our customers’ operations. If these tariffs continue, if additional tariffs are placed on certain of our components or products, or if any related counter-measures are taken by China, the United States or other countries, our business, results of operations and financial condition may be materially harmed. The ultimate reaction of other countries and the impact of these tariffs or other actions on the United States, China, the global economy and our business, results of operations and financial condition, cannot be predicted at this time, nor can we predict the impact of any other developments with respect to global trade. The imposition of tariffs could also increase our costs and require us to raise prices on our products, which may negatively impact the demand for our products in the affected market. If we are not successful in offsetting the impact of any such tariffs, our revenue, gross margins and operating results may be adversely affected.

These developments may materially and adversely affect global economic conditions and the stability of global financial markets, and they may significantly reduce global trade and, in particular, trade between China and the United States. Any of these factors could depress economic activity, restrict our access to customers and materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

We must comply with the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and analogous non-U.S. anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws including the UK Bribery Act. Our third-party sales representatives’ or distributors’ failure to comply with such laws could subject us to, among other things, penalties and legal expenses that could harm our reputation and materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

We are required to comply with the United States Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”) which makes it unlawful to engage in bribery or to make any payments or provide any other benefits, directly or indirectly, to foreign officials for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business or to secure any other improper advantage. The FCPA also requires us, as a publicly traded company, to keep accurate books, records and accounts, and to maintain an effective system of internal accounting controls.

We operate, directly or indirectly, in more than one hundred countries around the world, many of which pose a high risk of corruption. In many countries, we also have government customers, and we utilize a network of third-party sales representatives and distributors. Based on these factors and others, our business involves a significant risk of potential FCPA violations.

All Mirion employees are informed of our responsibilities under the FCPA in the Mirion Code of Ethics and Conduct, and compliance with the FCPA is specifically mandated in detailed provisions of our agreements with third-party sales representatives and distributors. In addition, we provide live training on FCPA compliance on a regular basis for our employees who are involved in functions that necessitate such knowledge and training. Before we became a public company, we were not subject to the accounting provisions of the FCPA. Nevertheless, as a matter of course, we continuously review and, when warranted, update and enhance our systems, procedures, contracting processes, third-party due diligence, auditing and recordkeeping to address our FCPA compliance obligations and mitigate FCPA compliance risk. In spite of this, based on the jurisdictions where we operate, the fact that we have government customers, and our use of a network of third-party sales representatives and distributors, there remains a risk that one or more employees or third parties, acting on behalf of Mirion, might engage in conduct for which we might be held responsible under the FCPA. On occasion, we may terminate distribution or other agreements with sales channel partners operating in certain non-U.S. jurisdictions based on our ongoing compliance program. This could materially impact our ability to do business in jurisdictions where we are unable to enter into agreements with alternative partners that meet our compliance standards, which could materially and adversely impact our competitive position in such jurisdictions, as well as our business, results of operations and financial condition.

If our employees, third-party sales representatives and distributors or other agents are found to have engaged in such practices, we could suffer (i) severe penalties, including criminal and civil penalties, disgorgement, temporary or permanent debarment from public contracts, and (ii) other remedial measures, including compliance policy and procedural enhancements, improved internal controls, audits, improved compliance training and potentially employee discipline, any of which could have an adverse impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition including our
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liquidity. Any investigation of any potential violations of the FCPA or other anti-corruption laws by U.S. or foreign authorities also could have an adverse impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Certain foreign companies, including some of our competitors, are not subject to prohibitions as strict as those under the FCPA or, even if subjected to strict prohibitions, such prohibitions may be laxly enforced in practice. If our competitors engage in corruption, extortion, bribery, pay-offs, theft or other fraudulent practices, they may receive preferential treatment from personnel of some companies, giving our competitors an advantage in securing business, or from government officials, who might give them priority in obtaining new licenses, which would put us at a disadvantage.

Legal compliance with import and export controls, as well as with sanctions, in the United States and other countries, is complex, and compliance restrictions and expenses could materially and adversely impact our revenue and supply chain.

We are subject to a variety of import laws, export controls and economic sanctions laws and regulations, including rule changes, and evolving enforcement practices. Changes in import and export control or trade sanctions laws may restrict our business practices and affect our ability to supply our products to various countries and/or to various customers, including cessation of business activities in sanctioned countries or with sanctioned entities, and may result in claims for breach of existing contracts and modifications to existing compliance programs and training schedules. Violations of the applicable export or import control, or economic sanctions laws and regulations, such as an export to an embargoed country, or to a denied party, or the export of a product without the appropriate governmental license, may result in penalties, including fines, debarments from export privileges, and loss of authorizations needed to conduct aspects of our international business, and may harm our ability to enter into contracts with our customers who have contracts with the U.S. government. A violation of the laws and regulations enumerated above could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. Additionally, we require our sales channel partners in certain non-U.S. jurisdictions to comply with certain standards as part of our trade compliance program and regularly review our partners’ performance of their compliance obligations. As part of these reviews, it is possible we may discover that certain partners do not meet our standards, and we may be required to terminate agreements with any non-compliant partners. Any such actions could materially and adversely impact our ability to do business in jurisdictions where we are unable to enter into agreements with alternative partners that meet our compliance standards. This in turn could materially and adversely impact our competitive position in such jurisdictions, as well as on our business, results of operations and financial condition, including our cash flows.

Without limiting the generality of the preceding paragraph, political and diplomatic developments between the United States and the People’s Republic of China could have a significant impact on our sales and business operations in China and with our Chinese customers, including projects outside of China for which Chinese customers are prime contractors or sub-contractors. In the past four years, the United States Government has imposed new export control restrictions and special export licensing requirements on many major Chinese companies, including certain Chinese companies that have previously been our customers. Further actions by the United States Government to restrict exports to China and Chinese entities could significantly affect our continuing ability to do business in China.

Our business may also be affected by new sanctions and export controls targeting Russia and other responses to Russia's invasion of Ukraine.

As a result of Russia's invasion of Ukraine, the United States, the United Kingdom and the European Union governments, among others, have developed coordinated sanctions and export-control measure packages.

Based on the public statements to date, these packages include:

comprehensive financial sanctions against major Russian banks (including SWIFT cut off);

additional designations of Russian individuals with significant business interests and government connections;

designations of individuals and entities involved in Russian military activities; and

enhanced export controls and trade sanctions targeting Russia's imports of technological goods as a whole, including potentially tighter controls on exports and reexports of dual-use items, stricter licensing policy with respect to issuing export licenses, and/or increased use of "end-use" controls to block or impose licensing requirements on exports.

We currently have existing contracts and an order backlog with Russian customers and customers in other countries whose contracts with us may be financed by, or involve, Russian entities. The imposition of enhanced export controls and economic sanctions on transactions with Russia and Russian entities by the United States, the United Kingdom, and/or the European Union could prevent us from performing existing contracts, recognize revenue from our backlog, pursuing new
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business opportunities and/or receiving payment for products already supplied and services already performed with Russian and other customers. In addition, even if a Russian entity is not formally subject to sanctions, customers of such Russian entity may decide to reevaluate, or cancel projects with such entity, and such actions could have a similar impact on us as if sanctions were applied directly as described above. Depending on the extent and breadth of new sanctions or export controls that may be imposed against Russia, it is possible that our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected.

Any actual or perceived failure to comply with evolving data privacy and data security laws and regulations in the jurisdictions where we operate, both inside and outside of the United States, could lead to government enforcement actions (which could include civil or criminal penalties), private litigation or adverse publicity and could materially and adversely affect our business.

Privacy and data security have become significant issues in the United States, Europe and in many other jurisdictions where we conduct our operations. Our collection, processing, distribution, and storage of personal information is subject to a variety of laws and regulations both in the United States and abroad, which could limit the way we market and provide our products and services. Compliance with these privacy and data security requirements is rigorous and time-intensive and may increase our cost of doing business and, despite these efforts, there is a risk that we fail to comply and may become subject to government enforcement actions, fines and penalties, litigation and reputational harm, which could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. In addition, the regulatory framework for the handling of personal and confidential information is rapidly evolving and is likely to remain uncertain for the foreseeable future as new privacy laws are being enacted globally and existing laws are being updated and strengthened.

For example, in May 2018, the General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”) superseded prior European Union data protection legislation, and it imposes more stringent European Union data protection requirements, and provides for greater penalties for noncompliance. Under the GDPR, fines of up to 20 million euro or up to 4% of the annual global turnover of the infringer, whichever is greater, could be imposed. The GDPR is wide-ranging in scope and imposes numerous additional requirements on companies that process personal data, including imposing special requirements in respect of the processing of personal data, requiring that consent of individuals to whom the personal data relates is obtained in certain circumstances, requiring additional disclosures to individuals regarding data processing activities, requiring that safeguards are implemented to protect the security and confidentiality of personal data, creating mandatory data breach notification requirements in certain circumstances, and requiring that certain measures (including contractual requirements) are put in place when engaging third-party processors. The GDPR also provides individuals with various rights in respect of their personal data, including rights of access, erasure, portability, rectification, restriction and objection.

Further, the United Kingdom’s vote in favor of exiting the European Union, often referred to as Brexit, and ongoing developments in the United Kingdom have created uncertainty with regard to data protection regulation in the United Kingdom. As of January 1, 2021, and the expiry of transitional arrangements agreed to between the United Kingdom and the European Union, data processing in the United Kingdom is governed by a United Kingdom version of the GDPR (combining the GDPR and the Data Protection Act 2018), exposing us to two parallel regimes, each of which potentially authorizes similar fines and other potentially divergent enforcement actions for certain violations. With respect to transfers of personal data from the European Economic Area (“EEA”) to the United Kingdom, the European Commission adopted an adequacy decision for the United Kingdom on June 28, 2021, finding the United Kingdom ensures an adequate level of data protection. Following the adoption of the adequacy decision, there will be increasing scope for divergence in application, interpretation and enforcement of the data protection law as between the United Kingdom and EEA. Other countries have also passed or are considering passing laws requiring local data residency or restricting the international transfer of data.

Other jurisdictions outside the European Union are similarly introducing or enhancing privacy and data security laws, rules and regulations, which could increase our compliance costs and the risks associated with noncompliance. For example, California recently enacted the California Consumer Privacy Act (“CCPA”) which creates new individual privacy rights for California consumers (as defined in the law) and places increased privacy and security obligations on companies handling personal information of consumers or households. The CCPA, which went into effect on January 1, 2020, requires covered companies to provide new disclosure to consumers about such companies’ data collection, use and sharing practices, provide methods for such consumers to access and delete their personal information, with exceptions, as well as allowing consumers to opt-out of certain sales or transfers of their personal information. The CCPA provides for civil penalties for violations and further provides consumers with a new private right of action in the event of a data breach involving certain sensitive information as a result of the business’ failure to implement reasonable security measures. This private right of action may increase the likelihood of, and risks associated with, data breach litigation. The California Attorney General’s enforcement authority under the CCPA became effective July 1, 2020, and it remains unclear how various provisions of the CCPA will be interpreted and enforced. As currently written, the CCPA impacts certain of our business activities and exemplifies the vulnerability of our business to the evolving regulatory environment related to personal information. A
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ballot initiative from privacy rights advocates intended to augment and expand the CCPA called the California Privacy Rights Act (“CPRA”) was passed in November 2020 and will take effect in January 2023 (with a look back to January 2022). The CPRA significantly modifies the CCPA, including by imposing additional obligations on covered companies and expanding consumers’ rights with respect to certain sensitive personal information, potentially resulting in further uncertainty and requiring us to incur additional costs and expenses in an effort to comply. The CPRA also creates a new state agency that will be vested with authority to implement and enforce the CCPA and the CPRA. In addition, all 50 states have laws including obligations to provide notification of security breaches of computer databases that contain personal information to affected individuals, state officers and others. Aspects of the CCPA, the CPRA, and other laws and regulations relating to data protection, privacy, and information security, as well as their enforcement, remain unclear, and we may be required to modify our practices in an effort to comply with them.

We cannot yet fully determine the impact these or future laws, rules, and regulations concerning data privacy and security may have on our business or operations. These laws, rules and regulations may be inconsistent from one jurisdiction to another, subject to differing interpretations and may be interpreted to conflict with our practices. Additionally, we may be bound by contractual requirements applicable to our collection, use, processing and disclosure of various types of data, including personal information, and may be bound by, or voluntarily comply with, self-regulatory or other industry standards relating to these matters. Compliance with U.S. and international privacy and data security laws and regulations could require us to take on more onerous obligations in our contracts and restrict our ability to collect, use and disclose data. Because the interpretation and application of data protection laws, regulations, standards and other obligations are still uncertain, and often contradictory and in flux, it is possible that the scope and requirements of these laws may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent with our practices and our efforts to comply with the evolving data protection rules may be unsuccessful. Failure to comply with U.S. and international privacy and data security laws and regulations could result in government enforcement actions (which could include civil or criminal penalties), private litigation or adverse publicity and could negatively affect our results of operations and business. Claims that we have violated individuals’ privacy rights, failed to comply with privacy and data security laws, or breached our contractual obligations, even if we are not found liable, could be expensive and time consuming to defend and could result in adverse publicity that could increase our operation costs, impact our financial performance and adversely affect enrollments.

Our ability to compete successfully and achieve future growth will depend on our ability to obtain, maintain, protect, defend and enforce our intellectual property and to operate without infringing, misappropriating or otherwise violating the intellectual property of others.

Our intellectual property, including our design, engineering, manufacturing and testing know-how, is an essential asset of our business. Failure to adequately protect our intellectual property rights could result in our competitors or other third parties offering similar products and services, potentially resulting in the loss of our competitive advantage and a decrease in our revenue, which would adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. We attempt to protect our intellectual property rights through patents, trademarks, copyrights, trade secret laws, non-disclosure agreements, confidentiality procedures, employee disclosure and invention assignment agreements and other contractual provisions. We cannot guarantee that any of our pending patent applications or other applications for intellectual property registrations will be issued or granted or that our existing and future intellectual property rights will be sufficiently broad to protect our proprietary technology.

While a presumption of validity exists with respect to United States patents issued to us, there can be no assurance that any of our patents, patent applications, or other intellectual property rights will not be, in whole or in part, opposed, contested, challenged, invalidated, circumvented, designed around, or rendered unenforceable. If we fail to obtain issuance of patents or registration of other intellectual property, or our patent claims or other intellectual property rights are rendered invalid or unenforceable, or narrowed in scope, pursuant to, for example, judicial or administrative proceedings including re-examination, post-grant review, inter partes, interference, opposition, or derivation proceedings, the coverage of patents and other intellectual property rights afforded our products could be impaired. Even if we are to obtain issuance of further patents or registration of other intellectual property, such intellectual property could be subjected to attacks on ownership, validity, enforceability, or other legal attacks. Any such impairment or other failure to obtain sufficient intellectual property protection could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition, including forcing us to, among other things, rebrand or re-design our affected products. Moreover, our patents and patent applications may only cover particular aspects of our products, and competitors and other third parties may be able to circumvent or design around our patents. Competitors may develop and obtain patent protection for more effective technologies, designs or methods. There can be no assurance that third parties will not create new products or methods that achieve similar or better results without infringing upon patents we own. If these developments were to occur, it could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

While we generally seek or apply for patent protection as and if we deem appropriate, based on the then-current facts and circumstances, we also rely upon unpatented proprietary radiation detection expertise, continuing technological innovation
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and other trade secrets some of which is licensed from third parties, to develop and maintain our competitive position. We seek to enter into confidentiality agreements with our employees and third parties who have access to our confidential or proprietary information; however, we may fail to enter into such agreements with all parties who have access to our confidential information, such agreements are often limited in duration and such agreements could be breached, and therefore they may not provide meaningful protection for our trade secrets, including our proprietary radiation detection and measurement expertise. Similarly, while we seek to enter into agreements with all of our employees and contractors who develop intellectual property during their engagement with us to assign the rights in such intellectual property to us, we may fail to enter into such agreements with all relevant employees and contractors, such agreements may be breached or may not be self-executing, and we may be subject to claims that such employees or contractors misappropriated relevant rights from their previous employers.

We cannot guarantee that the steps we have taken to protect our intellectual property will be adequate to prevent infringement of our intellectual property rights or misappropriation of our technology, trade secrets or know-how. It is possible that our efforts to protect our intellectual property rights may not:
    
prevent others from obtaining knowledge of our trade secrets through independent development or other access by legal means;
         
prevent our competitors or other third parties from independently developing similar products, duplicating our products or designing around the patents owned by us;
         
prevent third-party patents from having an adverse effect on our ability to do business;
         
provide adequate protection for our intellectual property rights;
         
prevent disputes with third parties regarding ownership of, or exclusive rights to, our intellectual property;
         
prevent disclosure of our trade secrets and know-how to third parties or into the public domain;
         
prevent the challenge, invalidation or circumvention of our existing patents;
         
result in patents that lead to commercially viable products or provide competitive advantages for our products; and
         
result in issued patents and registered trademarks from any of our pending applications.

The laws of foreign countries also may not adequately protect our intellectual property rights. Many U.S. companies have encountered substantial infringement, misappropriation or other violations of their intellectual property rights in foreign countries. Furthermore, because filing, prosecuting, maintaining, and defending our intellectual property in all countries throughout the world would be prohibitively expensive we have not applied for patent protection or trademark or other intellectual property registrations in all jurisdictions in which we currently, or may in the future, operate. Because we conduct a substantial portion of our operations and a majority of our sales have been outside of the United States, we have significant exposure to foreign intellectual property risks.

Others have in the past attempted, and may in the future attempt, to copy or otherwise obtain and use our intellectual property without our consent. For example, our customers or their end users’ customers may attempt to copy or otherwise obtain and use our intellectual property without our consent. Monitoring the unauthorized use of our intellectual property is difficult and we may fail to identify instances where a third party is infringing, misappropriating or otherwise violating our intellectual property. If we fail to protect our intellectual property rights adequately, we may lose an important advantage in the markets in which we compete.

We are currently party to, and may in the future initiate, litigation against one or more third parties to preserve or enforce our intellectual property rights or to challenge the validity and scope of proprietary rights asserted by others, and we could face counterclaims. Such efforts may be insufficient or ineffective, and any of our intellectual property rights may be challenged, which could result in them being narrowed in scope or declared invalid or unenforceable. Furthermore, any such legal disputes we may initiate with our customers or companies with whom we have manufacturing relationships could substantially harm our relationships and sales. An adverse outcome in any such proceeding could subject us to significant liability for damages or invalidate our proprietary rights. Such litigation could result in significant expense to us and divert the efforts of our technical and management personnel, whether or not such litigation is ultimately determined in our favor. Further, adequate remedies may not be available in the event of an unauthorized use or disclosure of our trade secrets and manufacturing expertise. Any of the foregoing could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
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We may need to defend ourselves against third-party claims that we are infringing, misappropriating or otherwise violating others’ intellectual property rights, which could divert management’s attention, cause us to incur significant costs and prevent us from selling or using the technology to which such rights relate.

Our commercial success depends in part on avoiding infringement, misappropriation or other violations of the intellectual property and proprietary rights of third parties and other intellectual property-related disputes. There may be intellectual property rights held by others, including issued or pending patents and registered trademarks, that cover significant aspects of our technologies, products or services, and we cannot be sure that we are not infringing or violating, and have not infringed or violated, any third-party intellectual property rights. From time to time, third parties have claimed and may claim in the future that we have infringed upon, misappropriated or misused their proprietary rights, and we may be unaware of existing third-party intellectual property rights that we may be infringing.

Any of these events or claims could result in litigation. Such litigation could result in significant expense to us and divert the efforts of our technical and management personnel, whether or not such litigation is ultimately determined in our favor. In the event of an adverse result in such litigation, we could be required to pay substantial damages, cease the manufacture, use and sale of certain products, expend significant resources to develop or acquire non-infringing technology, discontinue the use of certain processes, obtain licenses to use the infringed technology or indemnify our customers. Product development or obtaining a license would likely result in significant expense to us and divert the efforts of our technical and management personnel. We cannot assure you that we would be successful in such development or acquisition or that such licenses would be available on reasonable terms, or at all. If we cannot license or develop a non-violating alternative, we would be forced to limit or stop sales of our offerings and may be unable to effectively compete. Moreover, there could be public announcements of the results of hearings, motions or other interim proceedings or developments and if securities analysts or investors perceive these results to be negative, it could have a substantial adverse effect on the price of our stock. Any of these results would materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Our use of “open source” software could negatively affect our ability to sell our products and subject us to possible litigation.

A portion of our products incorporate so-called “open source” software, and we may incorporate additional open source software in the future. Open source software is generally licensed by its authors or other third parties under open source licenses. If we fail to comply with these licenses, we may be subject to certain conditions, including requirements that we offer our products that incorporate the open source software for no cost, that we make available source code for modifications or derivative works we create based upon, incorporating or using the open source software and/or that we license such modifications or derivative works under the terms of the particular open source license. If an author or other third party that distributes such open source software were to allege that we had not complied with the conditions of one or more of these licenses, we could be required to incur significant legal expenses defending against such allegations and could be subject to significant damages, enjoined from the sale of our products that contained the open source software and required to comply with the foregoing conditions, which could disrupt the distribution and sale of some of our products and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Our obligations to indemnify our customers for the infringement, misappropriation or other violation by our products of the intellectual property rights of others could require us to pay substantial damages and impose other costs and fees.

We currently have in effect, and may in the future enter into, agreements in which we agree to defend, indemnify and hold harmless our customers or suppliers from damages and costs that may arise from the infringement, misappropriation or other violation by our products of third-party patents, trademarks or other proprietary rights. We may periodically have to respond to claims and initiate or participate in litigation in connection with these indemnification obligations, which may result in our paying substantial damages. Such litigation could result in significant expense to us and divert the efforts of our technical and management personnel, whether or not such litigation is ultimately determined in our favor. Our insurance does not cover intellectual property infringement. Any of the foregoing could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

We could incur substantial costs as a result of violations of, or liabilities under, environmental laws.

Our operations and properties are subject to a variety of federal, state, local and foreign environmental, health and safety laws and regulations governing, among other things, air emissions, wastewater discharges, management and disposal of hazardous, non-hazardous and radioactive materials and waste and remediation of releases of hazardous materials. Compliance with environmental requirements could require us to incur significant operating or capital expenditures or result in significant restrictions on our operations. Our failure to comply with these environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, including failing to obtain any necessary permits, could cause us to incur substantial civil or criminal fines
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or penalties or enforcement actions, including regulatory or judicial orders enjoining or curtailing our operations or requiring us to conduct or fund remedial or corrective measures, install pollution control equipment or perform other actions. Under certain of these laws and regulations, we may be subject to joint and several liability for environmental investigations and cleanups, including at properties that we currently or previously owned or operated, or at sites at which waste we generated was disposed, even if the contamination was not caused by us or was legal at the time it occurred. The future identification of presently unidentified environmental conditions, more vigorous enforcement by regulatory agencies, enactment of more stringent laws, regulations or permit requirements, including relating to climate change, or other unanticipated events may arise in the future and give rise to material environmental liabilities and related costs or adversely impact the market for our products, which could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

A European Union (“EU”) directive relating to the restriction of hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment (“RoHS Directive”) and an EU directive relating to waste electrical and electronic equipment (“WEEE Directive”) have been and are being implemented in EU member states. Among other things, the RoHS directive restricts the use of certain hazardous substances in the manufacture of electrical and electronic equipment and the WEEE directive requires producers of electrical goods to be responsible for the collection, recycling, treatment and disposal of these goods. In addition, laws similar to the RoHS and WEEE directives were passed in China in 2006 and South Korea in 2007. Governments in other countries and states, including the United States, have implemented or are considering implementing similar laws or regulations.

In addition, a regulation regarding the registration, authorization and restriction of chemical substances in industrial products (“REACH”) became effective in the EU in 2007. REACH and other regulations require us or our suppliers to substitute certain chemicals contained in our products with substances the EU considers less dangerous. We cannot assure you that REACH or similar regulations will not materially affect us in the future.

The costs associated with complying with future laws and regulations could include costs associated with modifying, requalifying or reformulating our products, recycling and other waste processing costs, or legal and regulatory costs and insurance costs. We have recorded in the past and may be required to record in the future additional expenses for costs associated with compliance with regulations. The costs of complying with future environmental and worker health and safety laws and regulations could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

We do not control our suppliers, customers or business partners, and facts or circumstances that may occur as a result of their actions or omissions could harm our reputation and sales.

We do not control our suppliers, customers or partners, or their environmental or other practices. A violation of environmental or other laws by our suppliers, other customers or partners, or an environmental or public health incident at customer locations, including, for example, a nuclear incident at a facility to which we supplied equipment or that we serviced, or any failure of these third parties to follow generally accepted ethical business practices, could create negative publicity and harm our reputation. In addition, we may be required to seek alternative suppliers or partners if these violations or failures were to occur. We do not inspect or audit compliance of our suppliers, customers or partners with these laws or practices, and we do not require our suppliers, customers or partners to comply with a formal code of conduct. Any conduct or actions that our suppliers could take could reduce demand for our products, harm our ability to meet demand or harm our reputation, brand image, business, results of operations and financial condition.

Some of our workforce is represented by labor unions in the United States and by works councils and trade unions in the EU, and are covered by collective bargaining agreements in connection with such representations. Labor group representation may lead to work stoppages that could materially and adversely affect our business, including as a result of a failure to renegotiate a collective bargaining agreement.

As of December 31, 2021, approximately 36 of our U.S. employees were unionized, or 1.4% of our employees globally, and the majority of our EU employees are members of, or are represented by, works councils or trade unions and are covered by collective bargaining agreements. In addition, employees who are not currently members of, or otherwise represented by, labor organizations may seek such membership or representation, as applicable, in the future. Since 1988, we have experienced only two work stoppages, each time at our facility in Lamanon, France that lasted less than half a day. We may experience work stoppages or other labor disturbances in the future, including in connection with the renegotiation of collective bargaining agreements as they expire, which could adversely affect our business. We cannot predict how stable our relationships will be or whether we will be able to satisfy union or works council requirements without impacting our business, results of operations and financial condition. Union and works council rules may limit our flexibility to respond to changing market conditions and the application of these rules could harm our business. The unions and works councils may also limit our flexibility in dealing with our workforce. Work stoppages and instability in our relationships could negatively impact the timely production of our products, which could strain relationships with
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customers and cause a loss of revenue that would adversely affect our results of operations. Additionally, any renegotiation of current collective bargaining agreements may result in terms that are less favorable to us.

The elimination or any modification of the Price-Anderson Act’s indemnification authority could have adverse consequences for our business.

In the United States, the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended (“AEA”), comprehensively regulates the manufacture, use and storage of radioactive materials. Section 170 of the AEA, which is known as the Price-Anderson Act, supports the nuclear services industry by offering broad indemnification for third-party public liability claims arising from a nuclear accident occurring at any commercial NPP in the United States. The Act channels the nuclear liability to the licensee plant operator and provides omnibus coverage for all firms that contribute in any way to the design, construction or operation of a licensed reactor, including vendors, contractors, suppliers, engineers, consulting firms, and transporters. The indemnification authority of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (“NRC”), and Department of Energy (“DOE”) under the Price-Anderson Act has been extended by Congress numerous times since enactment in 1957, including most recently through 2025 by the Energy Policy Act of 2005. Extension is often largely uncontroversial, although it has met opposition at times due primarily to the view that the Act is a subsidy for the nuclear energy industry. Some of our customers are covered by the DOE indemnification provisions of the Price-Anderson Act for contractors. In addition, other jurisdictions have similar nuclear liability laws with indemnification authority to protect suppliers. If the nuclear liability and indemnification authority in the United States or other countries is eliminated or adversely modified in the future, our business could be adversely affected if the owners and operators of NPPs cancel or delay plans to build new plants or curtail the operations of existing plants. Although it is unlikely that the nuclear liability financial protection authority under the Price-Anderson Act would be completely abolished, some aspects of the Act could be changed during future reauthorizations.

Certain of our products and software are subject to ongoing regulatory oversight by the FDA or equivalent regulatory agencies in international markets and if we are not able to obtain or maintain the necessary regulatory approvals we may not be able to continue to market and sell such products which may materially and adversely affect our business.

The FDA regulates virtually all aspects of a medical device design, development, testing, manufacturing, labeling, storage, record keeping, adverse event reporting, sale, promotion, distribution and shipping. Before a new medical device, including a new intended use, indication, or claim for an existing product, can be marketed in the United States, it must first receive either premarket approval or 510(k) clearance from the FDA, unless an exemption exists. Either process can be expensive, lengthy and unpredictable. The FDA’s 510(k) clearance process generally takes from three to twelve months, but it can last longer. The process of obtaining premarket approval is much more costly and uncertain than the 510(k) clearance process and it generally takes from one to three years, or even longer, from the time the application is filed with the FDA. Additionally, outside of the United States, our products are subject to clearances and approvals by foreign FDA counterparts. In order to market our products internationally, we must obtain licenses or approvals from these governmental agencies, which could include local requirements, safety standards, testing or certifications, and can be time consuming, burdensome and uncertain. Despite the time, effort and cost, there can be no assurance that a particular device or a modification of a device will be approved or cleared by the FDA, or any foreign governmental agency in a timely fashion, if at all. Even if we are granted regulatory clearances or approvals, they may include significant limitations on the indicated uses of the product, which may limit the market for those products, and how those products can be promoted.

Medical devices may only be marketed for the indications for which they are approved or cleared. The FDA and other foreign governments also may change their policies, adopt additional regulations, or revise existing regulations, each of which could prevent or delay approval or clearance of our device, or could impact our ability to market our currently approved or cleared devices. We are also subject to medical device reporting regulations, which require us to report to the FDA and other international governmental agencies if our products cause or contribute to a death or a serious injury, or malfunction in a way that would likely cause or contribute to a death or a serious injury. Further, we are subject to the QSR in the United States and ISO 13485 certification in many international markets, compliance with which is necessary to receive FDA and other international clearances or approvals to market new products, and is necessary for us to be able to continue to market a cleared or approved product in the United States or globally. After a product is placed in the market, we are also subject to oversight by the FDA and Federal Trade Commission related to the advertising and promotion of our products to ensure our claims are consistent with our regulatory clearances, that there is scientific data to substantiate our claims, and that our advertising is not false or misleading. Our products are also subject to state regulations and various international laws and regulations.

A component of our strategy is to continue to upgrade products such as SunCHECK, SunScan 3D or Lynx. Our previous upgrades required 510(k) clearance and international registration before we were able to offer them for sale. We expect our future upgrades will similarly require 510(k) clearance or approval; however, future upgrades may be subject to substantially more time consuming data generation requirements and uncertain premarket approval or clearance processes.
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If we were required to use the premarket approval process for future products or product modifications, it could delay or prevent release of the proposed products or modifications, which could harm our business.

The FDA requires device manufacturers to make their own determination of whether or not a modification requires an approval or clearance; however, the FDA can review a manufacturer’s decision not to submit for additional approvals or clearances. Any modification to an FDA approved or cleared device that would significantly affect its safety or efficacy or that would constitute a major change in its intended use would require a new premarket approval or 510(k) clearance. We cannot ensure that the FDA will agree with our decisions not to seek approvals or clearances for particular device modifications or that we will be successful in obtaining premarket approvals or 510(k) clearances for modifications in a timely fashion, if at all.

We have obtained 510(k) clearance for SunCHECK to be used as an integrated patient quality assurance, machine quality assurance and data management workflow management application for radiation therapy professionals. We have made modifications to SunCHECK in the past and may make additional modifications in the future that we believe do not or will not require additional approvals or clearances. If the FDA disagrees, based on new finalized guidance and requires us to obtain additional premarket approvals or 510(k) clearances for any modifications to SunCHECK and we fail to obtain such approvals or clearances or fail to secure approvals or clearances in a timely manner, we may be required to cease manufacturing and marketing the modified device or to recall such modified device until we obtain FDA approval or clearance and we may be subject to significant regulatory fines or penalties.

The FDA and similar governmental authorities in other countries in which we market and sell our products have the authority to require the recall of our products in the event of material deficiencies or defects in design, manufacture or labeling, and from time to time we have conducted and may in the future conduct such recalls.

For example, in August 2021, Mirion Technologies (Biodex), Inc. initiated a voluntary recall of certain versions of AtomLab 500 and AtomLab500 Plus, which was reported to the FDA. The AtomLab 500 is a radioisotope dose calibrator used to measure radiopharmaceuticals prior to administration to a patient and versions 2.0.00 through 2.0.08 contained a software error affecting only the custom isotope list (the 99 commonly used default isotopes were not affected). The recall affected 1,256 units. The software error was corrected in Version 2.0.10 of the software released in June 2021.

A government mandated recall, or a voluntary recall by us, could occur as a result of component failures, manufacturing errors or design defects, including defects in labeling and user manuals. Any recall could divert management’s attention, cause us to incur significant expenses, generate negative publicity, harm our reputation with customers, negatively affect our future sales and business, require redesign of our products, and harm our operating results. In these circumstances, we may also be subject to significant enforcement action. If any of these events were to occur, our ability to introduce new or enhanced products in a timely manner would be adversely affected, which in turn would harm our future growth.

We are subject to federal, state, local and international laws and regulations related to healthcare, the violation of which could result in substantial penalties and harm our business in the medical end market.

Our operations are subject to several laws and regulations governing interactions with healthcare providers. The Medicare and Medicaid “anti-kickback” laws, and similar state laws, prohibit soliciting, offering, paying or accepting any payments or other remuneration that is intended to induce any individual or entity to either refer patients to or purchase, lease or order, or arrange for or recommend the purchase, lease or order of, healthcare products or services for which payment may be made under federal and state healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid. Such laws impact our sales, marketing and other promotional activities by reducing the types of financial arrangements we may have with our customers, potential customers, marketing consultants and other service providers. They particularly impact how we structure our sales offerings, including discount practices, customer support, product loans, education and training programs, physician consulting, research grants and other service arrangements. Many of these laws are broadly drafted and are open to a variety of interpretations, making it difficult to determine with any certainty whether certain arrangements violate such laws, even if statutory safe harbors are available.

In addition to such anti-kickback laws, federal and state “false claims” laws generally prohibit the knowing filing or causing the filing of a false claim, or the knowing use of false statements to obtain payment from government payors. Although we do not submit claims directly to payors, manufacturers can be held liable under these laws if they are deemed to “cause” the submission of false or fraudulent claims by providing inaccurate billing or coding information to customers, or through certain other activities, including promoting products for uses or indications that are not approved by the FDA.

We are also subject to federal and state physician self-referral laws. The federal Ethics in Patient Referrals Act of 1989, commonly known as the Stark Law, prohibits, subject to certain exceptions, physician referrals of Medicare and Medicaid patients to an entity providing certain “designated health services” if the physician or an immediate family member has any
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financial relationship with the entity. The Stark Law also prohibits the entity receiving the referral from billing any good or service furnished pursuant to an unlawful referral. Various states have corollary laws to the Stark Law, including laws that require physicians to disclose any financial interest they may have with a healthcare provider to their patients when referring patients to that provider. Both the scope and exceptions for such laws vary from state to state.

If our past or present operations are found to be in violation of any of these “anti-kickback,” “false claims,” “self-referral” or other similar laws in foreign jurisdictions, we may be subject to the applicable penalty associated with the violation, which may include significant civil and criminal penalties, damages, fines, imprisonment and exclusion from healthcare programs. The impact of any such violations may lead to curtailment or restructuring of our operations, which could adversely affect our ability to operate our business and our financial results.

There are a number of federal and state laws protecting the confidentiality of certain patient health information, including patient records, and restricting the use and disclosure of that protected information. In particular, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (“HHS”), has promulgated patient privacy rules under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (“HIPAA”). These privacy rules protect medical records and other personal health information of patients by limiting their use and disclosure, giving patients the right to access, amend and seek accounting of their own health information and limiting most uses and disclosures of health information to the minimum amount reasonably necessary to accomplish the intended purpose. The HIPAA privacy standard was amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act, enacted as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. Although we are not a “covered entity” under HIPAA, we are considered a “business associate” of certain covered entities and, as such, we are directly subject to HIPAA, including its enforcement scheme and inspection requirements, and are required to implement policies, procedures as well as reasonable and appropriate physical, technical and administrative security measures to protect individually identifiable health information we receive from covered entities. Our failure to protect health information received from customers in compliance with HIPAA or other laws could subject us to civil and criminal liability to the government and civil liability to the covered entity, could result in adverse publicity, and could harm our business and impair our ability to attract new customers.

The Sunshine Act, which was enacted by Congress as part of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act on December 14, 2011, requires each applicable manufacturer, which includes medical device companies, to track and report to the federal government on an annual basis all payments and other transfers of value from such applicable manufacturer to U.S. licensed physicians and teaching hospitals as well as physician ownership of such applicable manufacturer’s equity, in each case subject to certain statutory exceptions. Furthermore, on October 25, 2018, President Trump signed into law the “Substance Use-Disorder Prevention that Promoted Opioid Recovery and Treatment for Patients and Communities Act” which in part (under a provision entitled “Fighting the Opioid Epidemic with Sunshine”) extends the reporting and transparency requirements for physicians in the Physician Payments Sunshine Act to physician assistants, nurse practitioners, clinical nurse specialists, certified registered nurse anesthetists, and certified nurse midwives (with reporting requirements going into effect in 2022 for payments made in 2021). Such data will be made available by the government on a publicly searchable website. Failure to comply with the data collection and reporting obligations imposed by the Sunshine Act can result in civil monetary penalties ranging from $1,000 to $10,000 for each payment or other transfer of value that is not reported (up to a maximum of $150,000 per reporting period) and from $10,000 to $100,000 for each knowing failure to report (up to a maximum of $1 million per reporting period). In addition, we are subject to similar state and foreign laws related to the tracking and reporting of payments and other transfers of value to healthcare professionals, the violation of which could, among other things, result in civil monetary penalties and adversely impact our reputation and business.

Healthcare reform legislation could materially and adversely affect demand for our products, our revenue and our financial condition.

In March 2010, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act, collectively referred to as the ACA were signed into law. The ACA includes a large number of health related provisions, including expanding Medicaid eligibility, requiring most individuals to have health insurance, establishing new regulations on health plans, establishing health insurance exchanges, requiring manufacturers to report payments or other transfers of value made to physicians and teaching hospitals, modifying certain payment systems to encourage more cost-effective care and a reduction of inefficiencies and waste and including new tools to address fraud and abuse. The laws also include a decrease in the annual rate of inflation for Medicare payments to hospitals and the establishment of an independent payment advisory board to suggest methods of reducing the rate of growth in Medicare spending. The expansion in the government’s role in the U.S. healthcare industry may result in decreased profits to us, lower reimbursement by third-party payors for our products, or reduced volume of medical procedures conducted with our products, all of which could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. The federal government may take further action regarding the ACA, including, but not limited to, repeal or replacement action. Most recently, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act was signed into law in December 2017, which, among other things, removed
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penalties for not complying with the individual mandate to carry health insurance. Additionally, all or a portion of the ACA and related subsequent legislation may be modified, repealed or otherwise invalidated through judicial challenge, which could result in lower numbers of insured individuals, reduced coverage for insured individuals and adversely affect our business. We continue to monitor the impact that the ACA may have on our business.

In addition, since the adoption of the Affordable Care Act, other legislation designed to keep federal healthcare costs down has been proposed or passed. For example, under the sequestration required by the Budget Control Act of 2011, as amended by the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012, Medicare payments for all items and services under Parts A and B incurred on or after April 1, 2013 have been reduced by up to 2%. Future federal legislation may impose further limitations on the coverage or amounts of reimbursement available for our products from governmental agencies or third-party payors. These limitations could have a negative impact on the demand for our products and services, and therefore on our financial position and results of operations.

Since the enactment of the ACA, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (“CMS”) continues its efforts to move away from fee-for-service payments for furnishing items and services in Medicare. In the past several rulemaking cycles, CMS has increased packaging policies and created larger payment bundles across the Medicare Hospital Outpatient Prospective Payment System (“OPPS”). One example is CMS’s expansion of Comprehensive Ambulatory Payment Classifications, under which payment for adjunctive and secondary items, services and procedures are packaged into the most costly primary procedure at the claim level. Beyond the OPPS, CMS’s Innovation Center has launched a number of alternative payment model (“APM”) demonstrations that involve episode-based (i.e. bundled) payment. Since 2011, for example, Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation (“CMMI”) has created and is in the process of creating major federal initiatives to test episode-based payments, such as the Bundled Payments for Care Improvement, Oncology Care Model, Specialty Practitioners Payment Model Opportunities. More recently, CMMI proposed a Radiation Oncology Model, which would mandate selected radiotherapy providers to participate in a prospective, episode-based payments model where payment is based on a patient’s diagnosis as opposed to the traditional volume-based fee-for service payment model. It is unclear what impact, if any, such initiatives will have on our business and operating results, but uncertainties surrounding the implementation of these payment models could pause or otherwise delay the purchase of our products by our customers and any resulting decrease in reimbursement to our customers may result in reduced demand for our services.

Furthermore, the Patient Access and Medicare Protection Act of 2015 froze payment for some radiation therapy delivery and related services, and requires CMS to provide a report to the U.S. Congress on the development of an APM for radiation therapy services provided in non-facility settings. While these types of payment packaging policies and episode-based payments may impact reimbursement for overall patient care, including items and services furnished to patients, they also create incentives for providers to carefully assess the value proposition of technology purchases and uses. The impacts of these payment and delivery system changes are in their infancy and their overall effects remain under review.

Future legislative or policy initiatives directed at reducing costs could be introduced at either the federal or state level. We cannot predict what healthcare reform legislation or regulations, if any, including any potential repeal or amendment of the ACA, will be enacted in the United States or elsewhere, what impact any legislation or regulations related to the healthcare system that may be enacted or adopted in the future might have on our business, or the effect of ongoing uncertainty or public perception about these matters will have on the purchasing decisions of our customers. However, the implementation of new legislation and regulation may materially lower reimbursements for our products, materially reduce medical procedure volumes and significantly and adversely affect our business.

If third-party payors do not provide sufficient coverage and reimbursement to healthcare providers or if there is a reduction in the number of patients with health insurance, demand for our products and our revenue could be materially and adversely affected.

Our customers rely significantly on reimbursement from public and private third-party payors procedures utilizing our radiation oncology and other medical products. Our ability to commercialize our products successfully and increase market acceptance of our products will depend in significant part on the extent to which public and private third-party payors provide adequate coverage and reimbursement for procedures that are performed with our products and the extent to which patients that are treated by our products continue to be covered by health insurance. Third-party payors may establish or change the reimbursement for medical products and services that could significantly influence the purchase of medical products and services. In addition, actions by the government, downturns in the economy and other factors outside of our control could negatively affect the number of individuals covered by health insurance. For example, in connection with COVID-19-related layoffs, many individuals have lost their employer-covered health insurance and there is uncertainty as to when or if such coverage will be re-established. If reimbursement policies or other cost containment measures are instituted in a manner that significantly reduces the coverage or payment for the procedures that are performed with our products or if there is a prolonged reduction in the number of patients eligible to be treated by our products that are covered
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by health insurance, our revenue may decline, our existing customers may not continue using our products or may decrease their use of our products, and we may have difficulty obtaining new customers. Such actions would likely materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

In addition, the CMS reviews reimbursement rates annually and may implement significant changes in future years, which could discourage existing and potential customers from purchasing or using our products. Further, outside of the United States, reimbursement practices vary significantly by country. Market acceptance of our products may depend on the availability and level of coverage and reimbursement in any country within a particular time.

Some of our products depend on our ability to source data from third parties who could take steps to block our access to such data. Such blocking could limit the effectiveness of these products, increase our expenses or materially and adversely impact our business.

Our SunCHECK software requires access to data such as electronic health information (“EHI”) from other third-party vendors of our customers, typically original equipment manufacturers, in order to perform quality assessments. The functioning of our analytics applications and our ability to perform analytics services is predicated on our ability to establish interfaces that download the relevant data from these third party source systems on a repeated basis and in a reliable manner. The 21st Century Cures Act, often referred to simply as the Cures Act, which was enacted in 2016, contains, among other things, incentives and penalties to promote the use and efficient exchange of EHI and prevent “information blocking” (that is, activity that is likely to interfere with, prevent, or materially discourage access, exchange, or use of EHI, where a health information technology developer, health information network or health information exchange knows or should know that a practice is likely to interfere with access to, exchange or use of EHI). While the information sharing incentives created by the Cures Act are generally beneficial to our business, the implementing regulations also contain certain exceptions which would allow a market actor to block access to EHI without liability. Consequently, we may encounter vendors that engage in information blocking practices that may inhibit our ability to access the relevant data on behalf of customers and any steps we take to enforce the anti-information blocking provisions of the 21st Century Cures Act could be costly, could distract management attention from the business, and could have uncertain results.

The impact of the 21 Century Cures Act on our business is unclear at this time, due to, among other things, uncertainty regarding the interpretation of safe harbors and exceptions to the 21 Century Cures Act by industry participants and regulators. It is unclear whether the 21 Century Cures Act may benefit us in that certain electronic health records vendors will no longer be permitted to interfere with our attempts at integration, but the rules may also make it easier for other similar companies to enter the market, creating increased competition, and reducing our market share.

Regulations related to “conflict minerals” may force us to incur additional expenses, may result in damage to our business reputation and may materially and adversely impact our ability to conduct our business.

As a public company, we will be subject to the requirements under the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (the “Dodd-Frank Act”) that requires us to diligence, disclose and report whether or not our devices contain conflict minerals. The implementation of these requirements could adversely affect the sourcing, availability and pricing of the materials used in the manufacture of components used in our devices. In addition, we will incur additional costs to comply with the disclosure requirements, including costs related to conducting diligence procedures to determine the sources of conflict minerals that may be used or necessary to the production of our devices and, if applicable, potential changes to devices, processes or sources of supply as a consequence of such verification activities. It is also possible that we may face reputational harm if we determine that certain of our devices contain minerals not determined to be conflict-free or if we are unable to alter our devices, processes or sources of supply to avoid such materials.

Risks Related to Our Liquidity and Capital Resources

If we cannot generate sufficient operating cash flow and obtain external financing, we may be unable to make all of our planned capital expenditures and other expenses.

Our ability to fund anticipated capital expenditures and other expenses depends on generating sufficient cash flow from operations and the availability of external financing.

Our debt service obligations and our capital expenditures, together with on-going operating expenses, are expected to be a substantial drain on our cash flow and may decrease our cash balances. The timing and amount of our capital requirements cannot be precisely determined at this moment and will depend on a number of factors, including demand for our products, product mix, changes in industry conditions and market competition. We intend to regularly assess markets for external financing opportunities, including debt and equity. Such financing may not be available when needed or, if available, may
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not be available on satisfactory terms, particularly in light of the limited financing available as a result of the recent global financial crisis. Any equity financing would cause further dilution to our stockholders. Our inability to obtain needed financing or to generate sufficient cash from operations may require us to abandon projects or curtail capital expenditures, and we could be materially adversely affected. If we are not able to independently generate excess free cash flow and obtain third party debt or equity financing, our ability to grow our business may be materially and adversely affected.

On October 20, 2021, certain subsidiaries of the Company entered into a credit agreement (the “Credit Agreement”) among Mirion Technologies (HoldingSub2), Ltd., a limited liability company incorporated in England and Wales, as Holdings, Mirion Technologies (US Holdings), Inc., as the Parent Borrower, Mirion Technologies (US), Inc., as the Subsidiary Borrower, the lending institutions party thereto, Citibank, N.A., as the Administrative Agent and Collateral Agent and Goldman Sachs Lending Partners, Citigroup Global Markets Inc., Jefferies Finance LLC and JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A., as the Joint Lead Arrangers and Bookrunners. The Credit Agreement provides for an $830 million senior secured first lien term loan facility (the “Term Facility”) and a $90 million senior secured revolving facility (the “Revolving Facility” and, together with the Term Facility, the “Credit Facilities”).

Our indebtedness may have important consequences, including, but not limited to, the following:
         
increasing our vulnerability to general economic downturns and adverse industry conditions;
    
requiring us to dedicate a significant portion of our cash flows from operations to the payment of interest and principal on our debt, which would reduce the funds available to us for our working capital, capital expenditures or other general corporate requirements;
         
limiting our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and industry;
         
placing us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors with less indebtedness or more liquidity;
         
limiting our ability to obtain additional financing in the future for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions, general corporate purposes or other purposes; and

exposure to market conditions impact on our variable interest rate debt.
For more information, see “Part II, Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Debt Profile.”

Despite our levels of indebtedness, we have the ability to incur more indebtedness. Incurring additional debt could further intensify the risks described above.

We may incur additional debt in the future and the terms of the Credit Agreement permit us to do so subject to certain limitations. We have the ability to draw upon our $90 million Revolving Facility. We also have the ability to utilize the uncommitted “accordion” under the Credit Facilities (subject to the receipt of commitments and satisfaction of certain other conditions), which permits the incurrence of additional debt if certain incurrence and leverage ratio tests in the Credit Agreement are satisfied, and the Credit Agreement contains other provisions allowing us to incur significant amounts of additional debt. If additional debt is added to the debt that is originally incurred under the Credit Facilities, the related risks could intensify and we may not be able to meet all our respective debt obligations. In addition, the Credit Agreement does not prevent us from incurring obligations that do not constitute indebtedness as defined therein.

Restrictive covenants in the Credit Agreement and any future debt agreements, could restrict our operating flexibility.

The Credit Agreement contains restrictive covenants that limit our ability to engage in specified transactions and prohibit us from voluntarily prepaying certain of our other indebtedness. These covenants limit our ability to, among other things:
incur additional indebtedness;
    
pay dividends on, or repurchase or make distributions in respect of, our capital stock or make other restricted payments;
    
make certain investments, including acquisitions of other companies;
         
sell or transfer assets;
         
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prepay, redeem, repurchase, defease or amend the terms of certain junior indebtedness;
    
create or incur liens on our assets or enter into contractual obligations that restrict our ability to grant liens on assets or capital stock; and
         
consolidate, merge, sell or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of our assets.

Under the Credit Agreement, in certain circumstances we also are required to satisfy and maintain a certain “First Lien Net Leverage Ratio” (as defined in the Credit Agreement). Our ability to meet this financial ratio could be affected by events beyond our control, and there can be no assurance that we will meet that ratio.

The failure to comply with any of these covenants or any other term of the Credit Agreement could cause a default under the Credit Agreement. A default, if not waived, could result in acceleration of the outstanding indebtedness under the Credit Agreement, in which case such indebtedness would become immediately due and payable, and could also cause the acceleration of other indebtedness outstanding at such time. If any default occurs, we may not be able to pay our debt or borrow sufficient funds to refinance it. Even if new financing is available, it may not be available on terms that are acceptable to us. Complying with these covenants may cause us to take actions that we otherwise would not take or not take actions that we otherwise would take.

The expected replacement of the LIBOR benchmark interest rate and other interbank offered rates with new benchmark rate indices may have an impact on our financing costs.

LIBOR, the interest rate benchmark used as a reference rate on our variable rate debt, including our Credit Agreement is being phased out. As of December 31, 2021, we had approximately $828 million of debt outstanding under the Credit Agreement with interest rates based on LIBOR. The Credit Agreement includes fallback language that seeks to either facilitate an agreement with our lenders on a replacement rate for LIBOR in the event of its discontinuance or that automatically replaces LIBOR with benchmark rates based on the Secured Overnight Financing Rate ("SOFR") or other benchmark replacement rates upon certain triggering events. There are many uncertainties regarding a transition from LIBOR and we cannot predict what the impact of any such replacement rate would be to our interest expense. The discontinuation, reform, or replacement of LIBOR or any other benchmark rates may result in the need to amend all contracts with LIBOR or such other benchmark rates, and this may have a negative impact on our interest expense and our profitability. The consequences of these developments with respect to LIBOR cannot be entirely predicted and span multiple future periods. Potential changes to the underlying floating-rate indices and reference rates may have an adverse impact on our liabilities indexed to LIBOR and could have a negative impact on our profitability and cash flows. Furthermore, we cannot predict or quantify the time, effort and cost required to transition to the use of SOFR or new benchmark rates, including with respect to negotiating and implementing any necessary changes to existing contractual agreements, and implementing changes to our systems and processes. We continue to evaluate the operational and other effects of such changes, including possible impacts on our accounting for interest rate hedging agreements.

Unfavorable currency exchange rate fluctuations could materially and adversely affect our financial results.

Our international sales and our operations in countries other than the United States expose us to risks associated with fluctuating currency values and exchange rates. A significant amount of our international sales, costs, assets and liabilities are denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. For example, in fiscal 2021, approximately 39% of our sales were denominated in euros, 3% in pounds sterling, 2% in Japanese yen and 2% in Canadian dollars. Gains and losses on the conversion of accounts receivable, accounts payable and other monetary assets and liabilities to U.S. dollars may contribute to fluctuations in our results of operations. In addition, increases in the value of the U.S. dollar relative to the euro could have an adverse effect on our results of operations. We do not currently purchase forward contracts to hedge against the risks associated with fluctuations in exchange rates.

Changes in our effective tax rate, including as a result of changes in law or recent changes in our organizational structure occurring, or adverse outcomes resulting from examination of our income tax returns, could materially and adversely affect our results of operations.

Our effective tax rate could be adversely affected by several factors, many of which are outside of our control, including:
    
earnings being lower than anticipated in countries where we are taxed at lower rates or other shifts in the mix of pre-tax profits and losses from one jurisdiction to another;
    
our inability to use tax credits;
         
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changing tax laws or related interpretations, accounting standards and regulations and interpretations in multiple tax jurisdictions in which we operate;
         
an increase in expenses not deductible for tax purposes, including certain share-based compensation expense and impairment of goodwill;
         
the tax effects of purchase accounting for acquisitions and restructuring charges and other discrete recognition of taxable events and exposures that may cause fluctuations between reporting periods;
         
changes related to our ability to ultimately realize future benefits attributed to net operating loss and other carryforwards included in our deferred tax assets;
         
tax assessments resulting from income tax audits or any related tax interest or penalties that would affect our income tax expense for the period in which the settlements take place; and
         
a change in our decision to indefinitely reinvest foreign earnings.

For example, on October 28, 2021, the Biden administration proposed changes to the U.S. tax system. The proposals under discussion include changes to the U.S. corporate tax system that would impose a corporate minimum book tax and increase the tax rate on and make other tax changes to GILTI earned by foreign subsidiaries. Many aspects of the current proposals are unclear or undeveloped, and we are unable to predict which, if any, U.S. tax reform proposals will be enacted into law, and what effects any enacted legislation might have on our liability for U.S. federal income taxes. However, it is possible that the enactment of changes in the U.S. corporate tax system could materially and adversely affect our liability for U.S. corporate tax and our consolidated effective tax rate.

Changes in our organizational structure occurring in connection with the Business Combination may also impact our tax rate. For example, prior to the Business Combination, income derived by many of our non-U.S. subsidiaries was not subject to U.S. federal income tax but, after the Business Combination, we will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on our worldwide income, including in certain cases dividends from, or income earned by, our non-U.S. subsidiaries, which may adversely impact our overall effective tax rate. In addition, we expect to have significantly reduced non-deductible interest expense in periods following the Business Combination, which may impact our effective tax rate. As a result, we can provide no assurances as to how our effective tax rate is expected to be impacted by our post-Business Combination organizational structure. If our effective tax rate were to increase, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected.

In addition, we may be subject to examination of our income tax returns by the U.S. Internal Revenue Service or other tax authorities. If any tax authority challenges the relative mix of our U.S. and international income, our future effective income tax rates could be adversely affected. While we regularly assess the likelihood of adverse outcomes from such examinations and the adequacy of our provision for income taxes, we cannot assure you that such provision is sufficient and that a determination by a tax authority will not have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Risks Related to Ownership of our Securities

The price of our Class A common stock and warrants may be volatile.

The price of our Class A common stock and our warrants may fluctuate due to a variety of factors, including:

changes in the industries in which we and our customers operate;

developments involving our competitors;

changes in laws and regulations affecting our business;

variations in our operating performance and the performance of our competitors in general;

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly or annual operating results;

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publication of research reports by securities analysts about us or our competitors or our industry;

the public’s reaction to our press releases, our other public announcements and our filings with the SEC;

actions by stockholders, including the sale by the PIPE Investors of any of their shares of our Class A common stock;

the potential sales of 18,750,000 founder shares upon the satisfaction of certain vesting requirements;

the issuance and potential sales of 8,560,540 shares of Class A common stock upon the redemption of shares of IntermediateCo Class B common stock;

the issuance and potential sales of 27,249,979 shares of Class A common stock upon the exercise of the public warrants and private placement warrants;

the sales of shares of our common stock after the expiration of applicable lockup restrictions;

additions and departures of key personnel;

commencement of, or involvement in, litigation involving the combined company;

changes in our capital structure, such as future issuances of securities or the incurrence of additional debt;

the volume of shares of our Class A common stock available for public sale; and

general economic and political conditions, such as the effects of the COVID-19 outbreak, recessions, interest rates, local and national elections, fuel prices, international currency fluctuations, corruption, political instability and acts of war or terrorism.

In addition, the stock market in general has experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of listed companies. Broad market and industry factors may significantly impact the market price of our Class A common stock and warrants, regardless of our actual operating performance. In addition, in the past, following periods of volatility in the overall market and the market prices of a particular company’s securities, securities class action litigation has often been instituted against that company. Securities litigation, if instituted against us, could result in substantial costs and divert our management’s attention and resources from our business. Any of the factors listed above could materially and adversely affect your investment in our securities, and our securities may trade at prices significantly below the price you paid for them. In such circumstances, the trading price of our securities may not recover and may experience a further decline.

The coverage of our business or our securities by securities or industry analysts or the absence thereof could adversely affect the price of our securities and trading volume.

The trading market for our securities will be influenced in part by the research and other reports that industry or securities analysts may publish about us or our business or industry from time to time. We do not control these analysts or the content and opinions included in their reports. As a former special purpose acquisition company, we may be slow to attract equity research coverage, and the analysts who publish information about our securities will have had relatively little experience with our company, which could affect their ability to accurately forecast our results and make it more likely that we fail to meet their estimates. If no or few analysts commence equity research coverage of us, the trading price and volume of our securities would likely be negatively impacted. If analysts do cover us and one or more of them downgrade our securities, or if they issue other unfavorable commentary about us or our industry or inaccurate research, our stock price would likely decline. Furthermore, if one or more of these analysts cease coverage or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets. Any of the foregoing would likely cause our stock price and trading volume to decline.

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Even if we are actively covered by analysts, we do not have any control over the analysts or the measures that analysts or investors may rely upon to forecast our future results. Overreliance by analysts or investors on any particular metric to forecast our future results may lead to forecasts that differ significantly from our own.

We may require additional capital to support our growth plans, and such capital may not be available on terms acceptable to us, if at all. This could hamper our growth and adversely affect our business.

We intend to continue to make significant investments to support our business growth and may require additional funds to respond to business challenges, improve our operating infrastructure or acquire complementary businesses, personnel and technologies. Accordingly, we may need to engage in equity or debt financings to secure additional funds, including for possible use in acquisitions. If we raise additional funds through future issuances of equity or convertible debt securities, our existing stockholders could suffer significant dilution, and any new equity securities we issue could have rights, preferences and privileges superior to those of holders of our Class A common stock.

Any additional debt financing that we secure in the future could involve offering additional security interests and undertaking restrictive covenants relating to our capital raising activities and other financial and operational matters, which may make it more difficult for us to obtain additional capital and to pursue business opportunities, including potential acquisitions. Additionally, the COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted capital markets, and if we seek to access additional capital or increase our borrowing, there can be no assurance that debt or equity financing may be available to us on favorable terms, if at all. If we are unable to obtain adequate financing or financing on terms satisfactory to us when we require it, our ability to continue to support our business growth and to respond to business challenges could be significantly impaired, and our business, results of operations and financial condition may be harmed.

Our warrants are exercisable for our Class A common stock, we may elect to issue shares of our Class A common stock in connection with the redemption of shares of IntermediateCo Class B common stock and the founder shares may vest, each of which would increase the number of shares eligible for future resale in the public market and result in dilution to our stockholders.

Outstanding warrants to purchase an aggregate of 27,249,979 shares of our Class A common stock (including 18,749,979 public warrants and 8,500,000 private placement warrants) are exercisable. The exercise price of these warrants is $11.50 per share. In addition, up to 8,560,540 shares of Class A common stock may be issued in connection with the redemption of IntermediateCo Class B common stock and up to 18,750,000 founder shares may vest and become unrestricted upon the occurrence of certain vesting requirements. To the extent such warrants are exercised and such shares are issued or become unrestricted, additional shares of our Class A common stock will be issued or become eligible for resale, which will result in dilution to the holders of our common stock and increase the number of shares eligible for resale in the public market. Sales of substantial numbers of such shares in the public market or the fact that such warrants may be exercised could adversely affect the market price of our Class A common stock.

The public warrants may never be in the money, and they may expire worthless and the terms of the warrants may be amended in a manner adverse to a holder if holders of at least 50% of the then outstanding public warrants approve of such amendment.

The warrants were issued in registered form under a warrant agreement with Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company, N.A., as warrant agent, and us. The warrant agreement provides that the terms of the warrants may be amended without the consent of any holder to cure any ambiguity or correct any defective provision, but requires the approval by the holders of at least 50% of the then outstanding public warrants to make any change that adversely affects the interests of the registered holders of public warrants. Accordingly, we may amend the terms of the public warrants in a manner adverse to a holder if holders of at least 50% of the then outstanding public warrants approve of such amendment. Although our ability to amend the terms of the public warrants with the consent of at least 50% of the then outstanding public warrants is unlimited, examples of such amendments could be amendments to, among other things, increase the exercise price of the warrants, convert the warrants into cash or stock (at a ratio different than initially provided), shorten the exercise period or decrease the number of shares of our Class A common stock purchasable upon exercise of a warrant.

We may redeem your unexpired warrants prior to their exercise at a time that is disadvantageous to you, thereby making your warrants worthless.

We have the ability to redeem outstanding warrants, in whole and not in part, at any time prior to their expiration, at a price of $0.01 per warrant, provided that the last reported sales price of our Class A common stock equals or exceeds $18.00 per share (as adjusted for stock splits, stock dividends, reorganizations, recapitalizations and the like) for any 20 trading days within a 30 trading-day period ending on the third trading day prior to the date we send the notice of redemption to the
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warrant holders. If and when the warrants become redeemable by us, we may exercise our redemption right even if we are unable to register or qualify the underlying securities for sale under all applicable state securities laws.

In addition, we may redeem the outstanding warrants, in whole and not in part at a price of $0.10 per warrant provided that:
         
holders will be able to exercise their warrants on a cashless basis prior to redemption and receive that number of shares of Class A common stock provided for in the warrant agreement;
         
if, and only if, the last reported sale price of our Class A common stock equals or exceeds $10.00 per share (as adjusted for stock splits, stock dividends, reorganizations, recapitalizations and the like) on the trading day prior to the date on which we send the notice of redemption to the warrant holders; and
         
if, and only if, there is an effective registration statement covering the issuance of the shares of Class A common stock issuable upon exercise of the warrants and a current prospectus relating thereto available throughout the 30-day period after written notice of redemption is given.

Such redemption may occur at a time when the warrants are “out-of-the-money,” in which case you would lose any potential embedded value from a subsequent increase in the value of the Class A common stock had your warrants remained outstanding.

Redemption of the outstanding warrants could force you to: (1) exercise your warrants and pay the exercise price therefor at a time when it may be disadvantageous for you to do so; (2) sell your warrants at the then-current market price when you might otherwise wish to hold your warrants; or (3) accept the nominal redemption price which, at the time the outstanding warrants are called for redemption, is likely to be substantially less than the market value of your warrants.

None of the private placement warrants will be redeemable by us so long as they are held by the Sponsor or its permitted transferees.

Our warrants are accounted for as derivative liabilities and the changes in the value of our warrants have had and may continue to have a material effect on our financial results.

Our warrants are included on our balance sheet as of December 31, 2021 as derivative liabilities. ASC 815 provides for the remeasurement of the fair value of such derivatives at each balance sheet date, with a resulting non-cash gain or loss related to the change in the fair value being recognized in earnings in the statement of operations. As a result of the recurring fair value measurement, our financial statements and results of operations have fluctuated and may continue to fluctuate quarterly, based on factors which are outside of our control. Due to the recurring fair value measurement, we expect that we will recognize non-cash gains or losses on our warrants each reporting period and that the amount of such gains or losses could be material.

There is no guarantee that our warrants will be in the money, and they may expire worthless and the terms of our warrants may be amended.

The exercise price for our warrants is $11.50 per share of Class A common stock. There is no guarantee that the warrants will be in the money at any given time prior to their expiration on October 20, 2026. If the trading price of our common stock declines, the warrants may expire worthless.

We have not and may not pay cash dividends for the foreseeable future.

We currently intend to retain our future earnings, if any, to finance the further development and expansion of our business and does not intend to pay cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Any future determination to pay dividends will be at the discretion of our Board and will depend on our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, restrictions contained in future agreements and financing instruments, business prospects and such other factors as our Board deems relevant.

We will have broad discretion over the use of proceeds from the exercise of the warrants, and we may invest or spend the proceeds in ways with which investors do not agree and in ways that may not yield a return.

We will have broad discretion over the use of proceeds from the exercise of warrants. Investors may not agree with our decisions, and our use of the proceeds may not yield a return on investment. We intend to use these net proceeds for general corporate purposes, which may include capital expenditures, investments and working capital. In addition, from time to time in the past we have considered, and we continue to consider, acquisitions and strategic transactions, and we
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also may use such net proceeds for such purposes. Our use of these proceeds may differ substantially from our current plans. Our failure to apply the net proceeds from the exercises of warrants and options effectively could impair our ability to pursue our growth strategy or could require us to raise additional capital.

We are subject to certain ownership and voting power laws and regulations which may limit the ability of stockholders to acquire our Class A common stock and therefore limit demand for our Class A common stock.

Under foreign direct investment and public interest laws, including in Germany, Finland, France, and the UK, and potentially other jurisdictions, certain acquisitions of our Class A common stock by investors are subject to government approval requirements. For example, in Germany, German foreign direct investment law require foreign investors to obtain approval from the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy for the direct or indirect acquisition of shares of a German company if the acquirer directly or indirectly holds at least 10% of the voting rights of the company following the acquisition. Any acquisition in violation of the aforementioned provisions of German foreign direct investment law may be void. Any violation of the prohibition to consummate an acquisition without approval of the Ministry may be subject to sanctions. Similar foreign direct investment laws exist in other jurisdictions in which we have substantial operations. In Finland, government approvals are required if an investor holds at least 10% of the voting rights of the company following the investment. In France, the prior approval from the French Minister of Economy is required if a non-EU investor exceeds, directly or indirectly, 25% of the voting rights of the French entities of the company following the investment or, for an EU non-French investor, in case of acquisition of control, direct or indirect, of the French entities. The U.K. has a 25% voting rights threshold for mandatory filings under the National Security and Investment Act 2021 which became operational on January 4, 2022. Accordingly, these restrictions on and approval requirements for the acquisition of a substantial shareholding in our share capital may restrict certain investments and limit demand for shares of our Class A common stock.

Anti-takeover provisions contained in our Charter and Bylaws, as well as provisions of Delaware law, could impair a takeover attempt.

Our Charter and Bylaws contain provisions that may discourage unsolicited takeover proposals that stockholders may consider to be in their best interests. We are also subject to anti-takeover provisions under Delaware law, which could delay or prevent a change of control. Together, these provisions may make more difficult the removal of management and may discourage transactions that otherwise could involve payment of a premium over prevailing market prices for our securities. Certain of these provisions provide:
         
no cumulative voting in the election of directors, which limits the ability of minority stockholders to elect director candidates;
         
the right of our Board to elect a director to fill a vacancy created by the expansion of our Board or the resignation, death or removal of a director in certain circumstances, which prevents stockholders from being able to fill vacancies on our Board;
         
a prohibition on stockholder action by written consent, which forces stockholder action to be taken at an annual or special meeting of our stockholders;

a prohibition on stockholders calling a special meeting and the requirement that a meeting of stockholders may only be called by members of our Board or our Chief Executive Officer, which may delay the ability of our stockholders to force consideration of a proposal or to take action, including the removal of directors; and
         
advance notice procedures that stockholders must comply with in order to nominate candidates to our Board or to propose matters to be acted upon at a meeting of stockholders, which may discourage or deter a potential acquirer from conducting a solicitation of proxies to elect the acquirer’s own slate of directors or otherwise attempting to obtain control of us.

Our Charter includes forum selection clauses, which could discourage claims or limit stockholders’ ability to make a claim against us, our directors, officers, other employees or stockholders.

Our Charter provides that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery in the State of Delaware shall be the sole and exclusive forum for any stockholder (including a beneficial owner) to bring: (a) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of the Company; (b) any claim or cause of action for breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any current or former director, officer or other employee of the Company, to the Company or the Company’s stockholders; (c) any claim or cause of action against the Company or any current or former director, officer or other employee of the Company, arising out of or pursuant to any provision of the DGCL or our certificate of incorporation
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or bylaws; (d) any claim or cause of action seeking to interpret, apply, enforce or determine the validity of our certificate of incorporation or bylaws (as each may be amended from time to time, including any right, obligation, or remedy thereunder), (e) any claim or cause of action as to which the DGCL confers jurisdiction on the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware; and (f) any claim or cause of action against the Company or any current or former director, officer or other employee of the Company, governed by the internal- affairs doctrine, in all cases to the fullest extent permitted by law and subject to the court having personal jurisdiction over the indispensable parties named as defendants. In addition, our Charter provides that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the federal district courts of the United States will be the exclusive forum for resolving any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Securities Act forum selection clause will not apply to suits brought to enforce any liability or duty created by the Exchange Act or any other claim for which the federal district courts of the United States of America shall be the sole and exclusive forum. These forum selection clauses may discourage claims or limit stockholders’ ability to submit claims in a judicial forum that they find favorable and may result in additional costs for a stockholder seeking to bring a claim. While we believe the risk of a court declining to enforce these forum selection clauses is low, if a court were to determine a forum selection clause to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs in conjunction with our efforts to resolve the dispute in an alternative jurisdiction, which could have a negative impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

We may be subject to securities litigation, which is expensive and could divert management attention and result in significant legal expenses and settlement or damage awards.

The market price of our Class A common stock may be volatile and, in the past, companies that have experienced volatility in the market price of their stock have been subject to securities class action litigation. We have and may in the future become subject to claims and litigation alleging violations of the securities laws or other related claims, which could harm our business and require us to incur significant costs. We are generally obliged, to the extent permitted by law, to indemnify our current and former directors and officers who are named as defendants in these types of lawsuits. Regardless of the outcome, litigation may require significant attention from management and could result in significant legal expenses, settlement costs or damage awards that could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.
ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
The Company's principal executive offices are located at 1218 Menlo Drive, Atlanta, Georgia. Our headquarters facilities consist of two buildings, which we have leased through 2031. The buildings contain approximately 31,000 square feet of floor space. The Company also leases administrative offices, as well as engineering, production and warehouse space in various locations in the United States, Canada, France, Germany, the United Kingdom, Finland, Estonia, The Netherlands, China, Japan, and South Korea. In addition to these leased properties, we also own facilities in Belgium, France, Canada and the United States. We believe that these facilities are suitable and adequate to meet our current operating needs.

ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
Due to the nature of our activities, we are at times subject to pending and threatened legal actions that arise out of the ordinary course of business. For information regarding legal proceedings and other claims in which we are involved, see “Note 10. Commitments and Contingencies” in the notes to the financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The disposition of any such currently pending or threatened matters is not expected to have a material effect on our business, results of operations or financial condition. However, the results of legal actions cannot be predicted with certainty. Therefore, it is possible that our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially adversely affected in any particular period by the unfavorable resolution of one or more legal actions. Regardless of the outcome, litigation can have an adverse impact on our business because of defense and settlement costs, diversion of management resources and other factors. In addition, the expense of litigation and the timing of this expense from period to period are difficult to estimate, subject to change and could adversely affect our consolidated financial statements.
ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
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Not applicable.
PART II
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Market Information
Prior to the consummation of the Business Combination, our publicly-traded Class A common stock, units and warrants were listed on the NYSE under the symbols “GSAH,” “GSAH.U” and “GSAH WS,” respectively. Since the consummation of the Business Combination, our Class A common stock and warrants are listed on the NYSE under the symbols “MIR” and “MIR WS,” respectively. Since the consummation of the Business Combination, our outstanding units that were not previously separated into the underlying shares of Class A common stock and one-fourth of a warrant were cancelled and each unit holder received one share of Class A common stock and one-fourth of a warrant, provided that no fractional warrants were issued upon separation of our units. Such units no longer trade as a separate security and were delisted from the NYSE.

Holders

As of February 22, 2022, the company had 199,523,292 shares of Class A common stock, including 18,750,000 founder shares subject to vesting requirements, outstanding held of record by approximately 75 holders, 8,560,540 shares of Class B common stock outstanding held of record by approximately 17 holders, outstanding warrants to purchase 27,249,979 shares of Class A common stock held of record by approximately 2 holders and no shares of preferred stock outstanding. Such amounts do not include DTC participants or beneficial owners holding shares through nominee names.

Dividends

We have not paid any cash dividends on common stock to date. Our ability to pay dividends is limited by restrictions on our ability to pay dividends or make distributions under the terms of the Credit Facilities. Any future determination to declare dividends will be made at the discretion of our board of directors, subject to applicable laws, and will depend on a number of factors, including our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, contractual restrictions, general business conditions and other factors that our board of directors may deem relevant.

Securities Authorized for Issuance under Equity Compensation Plans

The following table provides information as of December 31, 2021 with respect to our shares of Class A common stock issuable under our equity compensation plans.

Equity Compensation Plan Information

Plan Category Number of Securities to be issued upon exercise of outstanding options, warrants and rights Weighted-average exercise price of outstanding options, warrants and rights Number of securities remaining available for issuance under equity compensation plans (excluding securities reflected in column (a))
Equity compensation plans approved by security holders(1)
1,238,683 (2)
— 
18,713,646 (3)
Equity compensation plans not approved by security holders
Total 1,238,683  18,713,646 

(1) Includes the 2021 Omnibus Incentive Plan (the “Omnibus Plan”).

(2) Represents 1,238,683 shares of Class A common stock subject to restricted stock units (“RSUs”) and performance stock units (“PSUs”) outstanding as of December 31, 2021. RSUs and PSUs do not have an exercise price.

(3) As of December 31, 2021, an aggregate of 18,713,646 shares of Class A common stock were available for issuance under the Omnibus Plan. The number of shares of Class A common stock reserved for issuance under the Omnibus Plan will automatically increase on the first day of each fiscal year by the lesser of (i) 3% of the total number of outstanding shares of Class A common stock on the last day of the immediately preceding fiscal year, (ii) 9,976,164 shares of the Class
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A common stock and (iii) such smaller number of shares of Class A common stock as determined by the compensation committee of our board of directors.


Performance Graph

The graph below compares the cumulative total return for our shares of Class A common stock from August 20, 2020 through December 31, 2021 with the comparable cumulative return of three indices: the S&P 500 Index (“S&P 500”), Nasdaq and the Dow Jones Industrial Average Index (“DJIA”). The graph assumes $100 invested on August 20, 2020 in each of our Class A common stock and the three indices presented. The stock price performance included in the below graph is not necessarily indicative of future stock performance. The Business Combination closed on October 20, 2021 and GSAH was renamed Mirion Technologies, Inc. and, pursuant to the terms of the Business Combination Agreement, Mirion TopCo combined with a subsidiary of GSAH. Our Class A common stock is listed on the NYSE under the ticker symbol “MIR.” The graph below represents GSAH until October 20, 2021 and MIR from October 20, 2021 to December 31, 2021.

mir-20211231_g2.gif

This performance graph shall not be deemed “soliciting material” or to be “filed” with the SEC for purposes of Section 18 of the Exchange Act, or otherwise subject to the liabilities under that Section, and shall not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any our filings under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act.

Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities; Use of Proceeds from Registered Offerings

The information required has been previously disclosed in our Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on October 25, 2021.

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

None.
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ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
You should read the following discussion and analysis of Mirion’s financial condition and results of operations together with the consolidated financial statements and related notes of Mirion Technologies, Inc. that are included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. This discussion contains forward-looking statements based upon current expectations that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including those set forth under the section entitled “Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors” or in other parts of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Please also see the section entitled “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.” Unless the context otherwise requires, references in this section to “we,” “us,” “our,” “Mirion” and “the Company” refer to the business and operations of Mirion Technologies TopCo, Ltd. and its consolidated subsidiaries prior to the Business Combination and to Mirion and its consolidated subsidiaries, following the consummation of the Business Combination. Unless the context otherwise requires or unless otherwise specified, all dollar amounts in this section are in millions.
Overview
We are a global provider of products, services, and software that allow our customers to safely leverage the power of ionizing radiation for the greater good of humanity through critical applications in the medical, nuclear and defense markets, as well as laboratories, scientific research, analysis, and exploration.
We provide dosimetry solutions for monitoring the total amount of radiation medical staff members are exposed to over time, radiation therapy quality assurance solutions for calibrating and verifying imaging and treatment accuracy, and radionuclide therapy products for nuclear medicine applications such as shielding, product handling, medical imaging furniture, and rehabilitation products. We provide robust, field-ready personal radiation detection and identification equipment for defense applications and radiation detection and analysis tools for power plants, labs, and research applications. Nuclear power plant product offerings are used for the full nuclear power plant lifecycle including core detectors, essential measurement devices for new build, maintenance, decontamination and decommission, and equipment for monitoring and control during fuel dismantling and remote environmental monitoring.
We manage and report results of operations in two business segments: Medical and Industrial.
Our revenues were $154.1 million for the Successor Period and $168.0 million for the Predecessor Stub Period, of which 31.9% and 35.9% was generated in the Medical segment for the Successor and Predecessor Stub Periods, respectively, and 68.1% and 64.1% was generated in the Industrial segment for the Successor and Predecessor Periods, respectively. Revenues for the six months ended December 31, 2020 were $265.4 million, with 19.6% and 80.4% generated in the Medical and Industrial segments, respectively.
Backlog (representing committed but undelivered contracts and purchase orders, including funded and unfunded government contracts) was $747.5 million and $715.8 million as of December 31, 2021, and June 30, 2021, respectively.
The Mirion Business Combination

The Business Combination closed on October 20, 2021 (the “Closing Date”), and GSAH was renamed Mirion Technologies, Inc. Our Class A common stock is listed on the NYSE under the ticker symbol “MIR.”
The Business Combination is being accounted for under ASC 805, Business Combinations. GSAH has been determined to be the accounting acquirer. Mirion constitutes a business in accordance with ASC 805 and the Business Combination constitutes a change in control. Accordingly, the Business Combination is being accounted for using the acquisition method. Under this method of accounting, Mirion is treated as the “acquired” company for financial reporting purposes and our net assets are stated at fair value, with goodwill or other intangible assets recorded.
On October 20, 2021, the Board of Directors determined to change Mirion TopCo's fiscal year end from June 30 of each year to December 31 of each year. The determination was made to align Mirion’s fiscal year end with GSAH’s fiscal year end. See the "Basis of Presentation" section below for further details regarding the impact of the Business Combination and the change in fiscal year-end on the presentation of our financial statements.
As a result of the Business Combination, Mirion’s financial statement presentation distinguishes Mirion TopCo as the “Predecessor” for periods prior to the closing of the Business Combination and Mirion Technologies, Inc. as the “Successor” for periods after the closing of the Business Combination. As a result of the application of the acquisition method of accounting in the Successor Period, the financial statements for the Successor Period are presented on a full
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step-up basis as a result of the Business Combination, and are therefore not comparable to the financial statements of the Predecessor Period that are not presented on the same full step-up basis due to the Business Combination.
Key Factors Affecting Our Performance
We believe that our business and results of operations and financial condition may be impacted in the future by various trends and conditions, including the following:
Global risk—Our business depends in part on operations and sales outside the United States. Risks related to those international operations and sales include new foreign investment laws, new export/import regulations, and additional trade restrictions (such as sanctions and embargoes). New laws that favor local competitors could prevent our ability to compete outside the United States. Additional potential issues are associated with the impact of these same risks on our suppliers and customers. If our customers or suppliers are impacted by these risk factors, we may see the reduction or cancellation of customer orders, or interruptions in raw materials and components.

Tariffs or Sanctions—The United States imposes tariffs on imports from China and other countries, which has resulted in retaliatory tariffs and restrictions implemented by China and other countries. There are, at any given time, a multitude of ongoing or threatened armed conflicts around the world. As one example, United States and other countries sanctions against Russian entities or individuals related to developments in Ukraine, along with any Russian retaliatory measures could increase our costs, adversely affect our operations, or impact our ability to meet existing contractual obligations.
Medical end market trends—Growth and operating results in our Medical segment are impacted by:
Increased or changes to global regulatory standards;
Increased focus on healthcare safety;
Changes to healthcare reimbursement;
Potential budget constraints in hospitals and other healthcare providers;
Medical/lab dosimetry growth supported by growing and aging demographics, increased number of healthcare professionals, and penetration of radiation therapy/diagnostics; and
Medical radiation therapy quality assurance (“RT QA”) growth driven by growing and aging population demographics, low penetration of RT QA technology in emerging markets, and increased adoption of advanced software and hardware solutions for improved outcomes and administrative and labor efficiencies.
Business combinations—A large driver of our historical growth has been the acquisition and integration of related businesses. Our ability to integrate, restructure, and leverage synergies of these businesses will impact our operating results over time.
Environmental objectives of governments—Growth and operating results in our Industrial segment are impacted by environmental policy decisions made by governments in the countries where we operate. Our nuclear power customers may benefit from decarbonization efforts given the relatively low carbon footprint of nuclear power to other existing energy sources. In addition, decisions by governments to build new power plants or decommission existing plants can positively and negatively impact our customer base.
Government budgets—While we believe that we are poised for growth from governmental customers in both of our segments, our revenues and cash flows from government customers are influenced, particularly in the short-term, by budgetary cycles. This impact can be either positive or negative.
Nuclear new build projects—A portion of our backlog is driven by contracts associated with the construction of new nuclear power plants. These contracts can be long-term in nature and provide us with a strong pipeline for the recognition of future revenues in our Industrial segment. We perform our services and provide our products at a fixed price for certain contracts. Fixed-price contracts carry inherent risks, including risks of losses from underestimating costs, operational difficulties and other changes that may occur over the contract period. If our cost estimates for a contract are inaccurate or if we do not execute the contract within our cost estimates, we may incur losses or the contract may not be as profitable as we expected. In addition, even though some of our longer-term contracts contain price escalation provisions, such provisions may not fully provide for cost increases, whether from inflation, the cost of goods and services to be delivered under such contracts or otherwise.
Research and developments—A portion of our operating expenses is associated with research and development activities associated with the design of new products. Given the specific design and application of certain of these products, there is some risk that these costs will not result in successful products in the market. Further, the timing of these products can move and be challenging to predict.
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COVID-19—COVID-19 may affect revenue growth in certain of our businesses, primarily those serving our medical end markets, and it is uncertain how materially COVID-19 will affect our global operations generally if these impacts were to persist or worsen over an extended period of time. The extent and duration of the impacts are uncertain and dependent in part on customers returning to work and economic activity ramping up. The impact of COVID-19 on our customers has affected our sales operations in certain ways, including increased customer disputes regarding orders, delayed customer notices to proceed with production, delayed payment from customers and, on rare occasions, customers have refused to pay for their orders entirely. Further, access to customer sites for sales was limited in some cases.
Non-GAAP Financial Measures
We report our financial results in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States. (“GAAP”). However, management believes certain non-GAAP financial measures provide investors and other users with additional meaningful information that should be considered when assessing our ongoing performance. Management also uses these non-GAAP financial measures in making financial, operating, and planning decisions, and in evaluating our performance. Non-GAAP financial measures should be viewed in addition to, and not as an alternative for, our GAAP results. The non-GAAP financial measures we present may differ from similarly captioned measures presented by other companies. Investors are encouraged to review the related GAAP financial measures and the reconciliation of these non-GAAP financial measures to their most directly comparable GAAP financial measures, and not to rely on any single financial measure to evaluate our business.
We use the non-GAAP financial measures “Adjusted revenues,” “Adjusted net (loss) income,” "Adjusted EPS," “EBITDA,” “EBITA,” “Adjusted EBITDA, “Free Cash Flow,” and “Adjusted Free Cash Flow.” See the “Quarterly Results of Operations” and “Cash flows” sections below for definitions of our non-GAAP financial measures and reconciliation to their most directly comparable GAAP measures.
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See the "Basis of Presentation" section below regarding the Successor and Predecessor periods. The following tables present a reconciliation of certain non-GAAP financial measures for the Successor Period from October 20, 2021 through December 31, 2021 and the Predecessor Periods from July 1, 2021 through October 19, 2021, and for the fiscal years ended June 30, 2021, June 30, 2020, and June 30, 2019.
Successor Predecessor
From
October 20, 2021
through
From July 1, 2021
through
Year Ended Year Ended Year Ended
December 31, 2021 October 19, 2021 June 30, 2021 June 30, 2020 June 30, 2019
($ in millions) Revenues Net Loss Revenues Net Loss Revenues Net Loss Revenues Net Loss Revenues Net Loss
Total GAAP $ 154.1  $ (23.0) $ 168.0  $ (105.7) $ 611.6  $ (158.4) $ 478.2  $ (119.1) $ 440.1  $ (122.0)
Revenue reduction from purchase accounting 2.3  2.3  4.5  4.5  8.0  8.0  0.2  0.2  —  — 
Cost of revenues impact from inventory valuation purchase accounting 15.8  —  5.2  1.6  0.1 
Foreign currency (gain) loss, net 1.6  (0.6) 13.4  (0.6) (3.2)
Amortization of acquired intangibles 32.0  19.7  62.8  50.6  53.0 
Stock based compensation 5.3  9.3  —  0.2  0.1 
Change in fair value of warrant liabilities (1.2) —  —  —  — 
Debt extinguishment —  15.9  —  —  12.8 
Non-operating expenses(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)
7.0  34.7  43.1  20.1  14.7 
Tax impact of adjustments above (14.2) (11.7) (28.9) (16.1) (19.9)
Adjusted $ 156.4  $ 25.6  $ 172.5  $ (33.9) $ 619.6  $ (54.8) $ 478.4  $ (63.1) $ 440.1  $ (64.4)
Weighted average common shares outstanding — basic and diluted 180.773  N/A N/A N/A N/A
Dilutive Potential Common Shares - RSU's 0.003  N/A N/A N/A N/A
Adjusted weighted average common shares — diluted 180.776  N/A N/A N/A N/A
Adjusted EPS $ 0.14  N/A N/A N/A N/A

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Successor Predecessor
($ in millions) From
October 20, 2021
through
December 31, 2021
From July 1, 2021 through October 19, 2021 Year Ended June 30, 2021 Year Ended June 30, 2020 Year Ended June 30, 2019
Net loss $ (23.0) $ (105.7) $ (158.4) $ (119.1) $ (122.0)
Interest expense, net 6.2  52.8  163.2  149.2  143.5 
Income tax (benefit) provision (6.8) (5.6) (5.9) (5.5) (4.2)
Amortization 32.0  19.7  62.8  50.6  53.0 
EBITA $ 8.4  $ (38.8) $ 61.7  $ 75.2  $ 70.3 
Depreciation - Mirion Business Combination step-up 1.3  —  —  —  — 
Depreciation - all other 4.0  6.2  20.8  17.9  16.5 
EBITDA $ 13.7  $ (32.6) $ 82.5  $ 93.1  $ 86.8 
Stock compensation expense 5.3  9.3  —  0.2  0.1 
Change in fair value of warrant liabilities (1.2) —  —  —  — 
Debt extinguishment —  15.9  —  —  12.8 
Foreign currency (gain) loss, net 1.6  (0.6) 13.4  (0.6) (3.2)
Revenue reduction from purchase accounting 2.3  4.5  8.0  0.2  — 
Cost of revenues impact from inventory valuation purchase accounting 15.8  —  5.2  1.6  0.1 
Non-operating expenses(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)
7.0  34.7  43.1  20.1  14.7 
Adjusted EBITDA $ 44.5  $ 31.2  $ 152.2  $ 114.6  $ 111.3 
(1)Pre-tax non-operating expenses of $7.0 million for the Successor Period from October 20, 2021 through December 31, 2021 includes $1.9 million in costs to achieve integration and operational synergies, $2.2 million related to the Business Combination and costs to prepare for becoming a public company, $1.4 million of restructuring costs, and $1.0 million of costs to achieve information technology system integration and efficiency.
(2)Pre-tax non-operating expenses of $34.7 million for the Predecessor Stub Period from July 1, 2021 through October 19, 2021 includes $26.2 million related to the Business Combination and costs to prepare for becoming a public company, $4.1 million in costs to achieve integration and operational synergies, $1.5 million of restructuring costs, and $1.5 million of costs to achieve information technology system integration and efficiency.
(3)Pre-tax non-operating expenses of $43.1 million for the Predecessor Period fiscal year ended June 30, 2021 includes $14.2 million of legal and professional fees related to the Business Combination and costs to prepare for becoming a public company, $13.1 million in costs to achieve integration and operational synergies, $5.9 million of mergers and acquisition expenses, $5.5 million of restructuring costs, and $4.5 million of costs to achieve information technology system integration and efficiency.
(4)Pre-tax non-operating expenses of $20.1 million for the Predecessor Period fiscal year ended June 30, 2020 includes $10.8 million of mergers and acquisition expenses, $3.8 million of costs to achieve operational synergies, $3.4 million of costs to achieve information technology system integration and efficiency, and $1.6 million of expenses related to debt refinancing.
(5)Pre-tax non-operating expenses of $14.7 million for the Predecessor Period fiscal year ended June 30, 2019 includes $6.5 million of mergers and acquisition expenses, $2.8 million of costs to achieve information technology system integration and efficiency, $2.8 million of costs to achieve operational synergies, and $0.5 million of expenses related to debt refinancing.
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The following tables present a reconciliation of non-GAAP Adjusted Revenue and Adjusted EBITDA by segment for the Successor and Predecessor Stub Period:
From October 20, 2021 through December 31, 2021 (Successor)
(in millions) Medical Industrial Corporate & Other Consolidated
Revenues $ 49.2  $ 104.9  $   $ 154.1 
Revenue reduction from purchase accounting 2.3  —  —  2.3 
Adjusted Revenues $ 51.5  $ 104.9  $   $ 156.4 
Income from operations $ (4.3) $ 1.1  $ (19.7) $ (22.9)
Amortization 13.8  18.2  —  32.0 
Depreciation - core 2.3  1.5  0.2  4.0 
Depreciation - Mirion Business Combination step-up 0.9  0.4  —  1.3 
Revenue reduction from purchase accounting 2.3  —  —  2.3 
Cost of revenues impact from inventory valuation purchase accounting 3.3  12.5  —  15.8 
Stock based compensation —  —  5.3  5.3 
Non-operating expenses —  —  6.6  6.6 
Other Income / Expense —  —  0.1  0.1 
Adjusted EBITDA $ 18.3  $ 33.7  $ (7.5) $ 44.5 

From July 1, 2021 through October 19, 2021 (Predecessor)
(in millions) Medical Industrial Corporate & Other Consolidated
Revenues $ 60.3  $ 107.7  $   $ 168.0 
Revenue reduction from purchase accounting 4.5  —  —  4.5 
Adjusted Revenues $ 64.8  $ 107.7  $   $ 172.5 
Income from operations $ 0.7  $ 11.7  $ (54.0) $ (41.6)
Amortization 9.8  9.9  —  19.7 
Depreciation - core 3.5  2.5  0.2  6.2 
Depreciation - Mirion Business Combination step-up —  —  —  — 
Revenue reduction from purchase accounting 4.5  —  —  4.5 
Cost of revenues impact from inventory valuation purchase accounting —  —  —  — 
Stock based compensation —  —  9.3  9.3 
Non-operating expenses —  —  33.5  33.5 
Other Income / Expense —  —  (0.4) (0.4)
Adjusted EBITDA $ 18.5  $ 24.1  $ (11.4) $ 31.2 
Our Business Segments
We manage and report our business in two business segments: Medical and Industrial.
Medical includes products and services for radiation therapy and personal dosimetry. This segment’s principal offerings are:
Radiation Therapy Quality Assurance Solutions for calibrating and/or verifying imaging, treatment machine, patient treatment plan, and patient treatment accuracy (hardware and software);
Dosimetry Solutions for monitoring the total amount of radiation medical staff members are exposed to over time; and
Radionuclide Therapy Solutions, which includes products for nuclear medicine in radiation measurement, shielding, product handling, medical imaging furniture and rehabilitation.
Industrial includes products and services for defense, nuclear energy, laboratories and research and other industrial markets. This segment’s principal offerings are:
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Reactor Safety and Control Systems, which includes radiation monitoring systems and reactor instrumentation and control systems that ensure the safe operation of nuclear reactors and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities; and
Radiological Search, Measurement and Analysis Systems, which includes solutions to locate, measure and perform in-depth scientific analysis of radioactive sources for radiation safety, security, and scientific applications
Recent Developments
Credit Agreement
On October 20, 2021, certain subsidiaries of the Company entered into a credit agreement (the “2021 Credit Agreement”) among Mirion Technologies (HoldingSub2), Ltd., a limited liability company incorporated in England and Wales, as Holdings, Mirion Technologies (US Holdings), Inc., as the Parent Borrower, Mirion Technologies (US), Inc., as the Subsidiary Borrower, the lending institutions party thereto, Citibank, N.A., as the Administrative Agent and Collateral Agent and Goldman Sachs Lending Partners, Citigroup Global Markets Inc., Jefferies Finance LLC and JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A., as the Joint Lead Arrangers and Bookrunners. The 2021 Credit Agreement provides for an $830.0 million senior secured first lien term loan facility and a $90.0 million senior secured revolving facility (collectively, the “Credit Facilities”). For more information, see “—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Debt Profile.” The 2021 Credit Agreement refinanced and replaced that certain credit agreement from March 2019, by and between, among others, Mirion Technologies (HoldingRep), Ltd., its subsidiaries and Morgan Stanley Senior Funding Inc., as administrative agent, certain other revolving lenders and a syndicate of institutional lenders (the “2019 Credit Facility”). The 2021 Credit Agreement was amended by Amendment No. 1 to Credit Agreement on November 22, 2021 which permitted Holdings, Parent Borrower and its Restricted Subsidiaries (as defined in the 2021 Credit Agreement) to change their fiscal year from June 30 to December 31.
Profits Interests
In conjunction with the Business Combination Agreement, on June 17, 2021 the Sponsor issued membership interests to certain Mirion employees and the Chairman of the Board of Mirion (collectively, the "Profits Interests"). The Profits Interests are subject to service and performance vesting conditions and do not fully vest until all of the applicable conditions are satisfied. In addition, the Profits Interests are subject to certain forfeiture conditions. Accordingly, these awards have been treated as stock-based compensation under ASC Topic 718. The grant date fair value of the profits interests is based upon a valuation model using Monte Carlo simulations. As the Profits Interests included the completion of the Business Combination as a vesting condition, the expense that accumulated prior to the Business Combination was recorded on the last day of the Predecessor Stub Period and the remainder is recorded over the future vesting period.
CIRS Acquisition
On December 1, 2021, the Company purchased 100% of the issued and outstanding shares of Computerized Imaging Reference Systems, Inc. (“CIRS”) for an aggregate of $54 million, net of cash acquired of $1.0 million. CIRS is a leading provider of medical imaging and radiation therapy phantoms serving the medical industry located in the United States. The acquisition is included in our Medical segment and will advance the Company’s strategy to further expand into the medical treatment markets globally.
Other Acquisitions
During the periods presented we completed three acquisitions of U.S.-based providers of dosimetry services which we believe will increase the U.S. footprint of Mirion's industry-leading dosimetry product offering. On December 1, 2021 we acquired Safeline Monitors Systems LLC, for $1.5 million plus contingent consideration of $0.5 million. On November 1, 2021, we acquired CHP Dosimetry, for $2.5 million. On September 1, 2021 we acquired Dosimetry Badge for $1.8 million plus contingent consideration of $0.8 million.
SNC Acquisition
On December 18, 2020, we purchased 100% of the issued and outstanding shares of Sun Nuclear Corporation (“SNC”) for an aggregate of $258.1 million, net of cash acquired of $18.8 million. SNC is a global leader in radiation therapy quality assurance, delivering patient safety solutions for diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy providers in multiple countries around the world. The acquisition is included in our Medical segment and will advance the Company’s strategy to further expand into the radiation therapy markets globally.
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Biodex Acquisition
On September 1, 2020, the Company purchased 100% of the issued and outstanding shares of Biodex Medical Systems, Inc. (“Biodex”) for an aggregate of $26.9 million, net of cash acquired of $4.1 million. Biodex is a manufacturer and distributor of medical devices and related replacement parts for physical and nuclear medicine, as well as medical imaging applications located in the United States. The acquisition is included in our Medical segment and will advance the Company’s strategy to further expand into the medical treatment markets globally.
Public Company Costs
We expect to continue as an SEC-registered and NYSE-listed company. We expect to hire additional staff and implement new processes and procedures to address public company requirements. We have incurred substantial additional expenses for, among other things, directors’ and officers’ liability insurance, director fees, and additional internal and external costs for investor relations, accounting, audit, legal and other functions.
Basis of Presentation
Financial information presented was derived from our historical consolidated financial statements and accounting records, and they reflect the historical financial position, results of operations and cash flows of the business in conformity with U.S. GAAP for financial statements and pursuant to the accounting and disclosure rules and regulations of the SEC. The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly owned and majority-owned or controlled subsidiaries. For consolidated subsidiaries where our ownership is less than 100%, the portion of the net income or loss allocable to noncontrolling interests is reported as “Income (Loss) attributable to noncontrolling interests” in the consolidated statements of operations. All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. See the notes to the financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information.

As a result of the Business Combination, the Company’s financial statement presentation distinguishes Mirion TopCo as the “Predecessor” through the Closing Date. The Company, which includes the combination of GSAH and Mirion subsequent to the Business Combination, is the “Successor” for periods after the Closing Date. As a result of the application of the acquisition method of accounting in the Successor Period, the financial statements for the Successor Period are presented on a full step-up basis as a result of the Business Combination, and are therefore not comparable to the financial statements of the Predecessor Periods that are not presented on the same full step-up basis due to the Business Combination.

Certain Factors Affecting Comparability to Prior Period Financial Results

Prior to the Business Combination, GSAH operated as a special purpose acquisition company formed for the purpose of effecting a merger, capital stock exchange, asset acquisition, stock purchase, reorganization or similar business combination with one or more businesses or assets. As a result, operations were minimal before the Business Combination and are not presented in the Predecessor Periods presented prior to the Business Combination. After the Business Combination our results of operations are not directly comparable to historical results of the operations for the periods presented, primarily because:

Mirion TopCo's fiscal year-end was changed from June 30 to December 31 to align with GSAH's fiscal year end. As a result of this change, the consolidated financial statements presented include the Predecessor Stub Period from July 1, 2021 through October 19, 2021, and the Successor Period from October 20, 2021 through December 31, 2021.

In connection with the Business Combination, certain assets and liabilities had fair value adjustments applied to the Predecessor’s consolidated financial statements on the Closing Date, most notably:
Inventory;
Property, plant, and equipment;
Goodwill;
Intangible assets; and
Taxes.

The Successor Period ended December 31, 2021 only includes Mirion's operating activity since the consummation of the Business Combination on October 20, 2021.

As a result of the factors listed above, historical results of operations and other financial data, as well as period-to-period comparisons of these results, may not be comparable or indicative of future operating results or future financial condition.
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Results of Operations

The following tables set forth the Company’s results of operations for the Successor Period and the Predecessor Stub Period compared to the unaudited 4six months ended December 31, 2020 (in millions).

Periods from October 20, 2021 through December 31, 2021 (Successor) and July 1, 2021 through October 19, 2021 (Predecessor Stub Period) Compared to unaudited Six Months Ended December 31, 2020 (Predecessor)
Successor Predecessor Predecessor
(Dollars in millions) From
October 20, 2021
through
December 31, 2021
From July 1, 2021 through October 19, 2021 Six Months Ended December 31, 2020 (unaudited)
Revenues $ 154.1  $ 168.0  $ 265.4 
Cost of revenues 100.2  97.7  155.8 
Gross profit 53.9  70.3  109.6 
Selling, general and administrative expenses 70.1  101.6  84.0 
Research and development 6.7  10.3  10.3 
Income (loss) from operations (22.9) (41.6) 15.3 
Interest expense, net 6.2  52.8  76.4 
Foreign currency loss (gain), net 1.6  (0.6) 16.3 
Change in fair value of warrant liabilities (1.2) —  — 
Other expense (income), net 0.3  1.6  (0.3)
Loss on debt extinguishment —  15.9  — 
Loss before benefit from income taxes (29.8) (111.3) (77.1)
Benefit from income taxes (6.8) (5.6) (17.4)
Net loss (23.0) (105.7) (59.7)
Loss attributable to noncontrolling interests (0.8) —  — 
Net loss attributable to stockholders $ (22.2) $ (105.7) $ (59.7)
Overview
Revenues were $154.1 million for the Successor Period from October 20, 2021 through December 31, 2021 and $168.0 million for the Predecessor Stub Period from July 1, 2021 through October 19, 2021. The increase of $56.7 million from the six months ended December 31, 2020 was primarily driven by acquisitions in the Medical segment and organic growth in the Medical segment. Cost of revenues was $100.2 million for the Successor Period and $97.7 million in the Predecessor Stub Period which increased 27.0% compared to the unaudited six months ended December 31, 2020, reflecting the increase in revenues. Gross profit increased by $14.6 million from the unaudited six months ended December 31, 2020. There was a net loss attributable to stockholders of $22.2 million for the Successor Period and $105.7 million for the Predecessor Stub Period. Net loss for the unaudited six months ended December 31, 2020 was $59.7 million. There was a $68.2 million increase in net loss as a result of the increase in gross profit, more than offset by higher SG&A expenses of $87.7 million, primarily driven by the impact of acquisitions in the Medical segment, increased non-operational legal and professional fees incurred to prepare for being a public company, and stock-based compensation expense. Offsetting the increase in net loss period over period was decreased net interest expense of $17.4 million, the positive impact of foreign currency exchange of $15.3 million, a gain recognized on the change in fair value of warrant liabilities of $1.2 million, offset by a net increase in income tax benefit of $5.0 million and a net increase in other expense (income), net of $2.3 million. The impact of purchase accounting related to the fair value adjustment of deferred revenue for the SNC acquisition reduced revenue for the Successor and Predecessor Stub Periods by $6.8 million. The impact of purchase accounting related to the fair value of inventory increased cost of revenues by $15.8 million for the Successor Period and $0.5 million for the unaudited six months ended December 31, 2020. The impact of purchase accounting related to the fair values of intangible assets and property, plant, and equipment for the Business Combination resulted in increased amortization and depreciation expense and increased net loss by $18.7 million and $1.3 million, respectively.
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Revenues
Revenues were $154.1 million for the Successor Period and $168.0 million for the Predecessor Stub Period. Revenues increased $56.7 million from the unaudited six months ended December 31, 2020. The majority of the increase was a result of the acquisitions in the Medical segment contributing $61.3 million (of which $53.9 million was generated by SNC, $5.1 million by Biodex, $1.5 million by CIRS, and $0.8 million by other acquisitions) and a $3.2 million increase due to organic growth. Industrial segment revenues decreased $0.7 million, primarily driven by foreign exchange rate fluctuations of $2.5 million offset by a $1.8 million increase due to organic growth. The impact of purchase accounting related to the fair value adjustment of deferred revenue for the SNC acquisition reduced Medical segment revenues for the Successor and Predecessor Stub Periods by $2.3 million and $4.5 million, respectively.
By segment, revenues for the Successor and Predecessor Period were $49.2 million and $60.3 million in the Medical segment, respectively, and $104.9 million and $107.7 million in the Industrial segment for the Successor and Predecessor Periods, respectively. Movements in revenues by segment are detailed in the “Business Segments” section below.
Cost of revenues
Cost of revenues was $100.2 million for the Successor Period and $97.7 million for the Predecessor Stub Period. Cost of Revenues for the unaudited six months ended December 31, 2020 were $155.8 million. Cost of revenues as a percentage of revenues was 65.0% for the Successor Period, 58.2% for the Predecessor Stub Period, and 58.7% for the six months ended December 31, 2020. The increase in the Successor Period was driven by purchase accounting related to the fair value of inventory from the Business Combination. In addition, cost of revenues increased over the unaudited six months ended December 31, 2020 due to acquisitions in our Medical segment ($25.9 million combined from SNC, Biodex, CIRS, and other acquisitions) and an increase in our Industrial segment cost of revenues of $0.7 million offset by a decrease due to the impacts from foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations of $1.9 million. Cost of revenues for the Successor Period includes $15.8 million due to purchase accounting related to the fair value of inventory from the Business Combination, $0.9 million of increased amortization expense resulting from increased intangible assets from the Business Combination, and $1.1 million of increased depreciation expense resulting from increased fair values of property, plant, and equipment from the Business Combination. Cost of revenues for the unaudited six months ended December 31, 2020 includes $0.5 million due to purchase accounting related to the fair value of inventory from previous acquisitions.
Selling, general and administrative expenses
Selling, general and administrative (“SG&A”) expenses were $70.1 million for the Successor Period and $101.6 million for the Predecessor Stub Period. SG&A expenses were $84.0 million for the unaudited six months ended December 31, 2020, resulting in an increase of $87.7 million. The primary drivers behind the increase in SG&A expenses were the impact of acquisitions in the Medical segment ($20.8 million combined from SNC, Biodex, and CIRS), a $28.4 million increase related to the Business Combination and costs to prepare for becoming a public company, and a $14.6 million increase in stock based compensation expense related to the Profits Interests (see Note 14, Stock-based compensation). SG&A for the Successor Period includes $17.8 million of increased amortization expense resulting from increased intangible assets from the Business Combination and $0.2 million of increased depreciation expense resulting from increased fair values of property, plant, and equipment from the Business Combination.
Research and development
Research and development (“R&D”) expenses were $6.7 million for the Successor Period and $10.3 million for the Predecessor Stub Period. R&D expenses were $10.3 million for the unaudited six months ended December 3, 2020, resulting in an increase of $6.7 million. The increase in R&D expense was primarily a result of the prior period acquisitions in our Medical segment ($9.7 million combined from SNC, Biodex, and CIRS), partially offset by a decrease in R&D activity expensed in our Industrial segment of $2.2 million.
Income (loss) from operations
Loss from operations was $22.9 million for the Successor Period and $41.6 million for the Predecessor Stub Period. Income from operation was $15.3 million during the unaudited six months ended December 31, 2020 which resulted in an increased loss of $79.8 million. On a segment basis, income (loss) from operations in the Medical segment for the Successor Period and Predecessor Stub Period was $(4.3) million and $0.7 million, respectively, which includes $16.2 million and $4.5 million, respectively, in purchase accounting impacts described in revenues, cost of revenues, and SG&A above. Income from operations in the Industrial segment for the Successor Period and Predecessor Stub Period was $1.1 million and $11.7 million, respectively, which includes $21.4 million in purchase accounting impacts described in cost of
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revenues and SG&A above in the Successor Period. Corporate expenses were $19.7 million and $54.0 million for the Successor Period and Predecessor Stub Period, respectively. See “Business segments” and “Corporate and other” below for further details.
Interest expense, net
Interest expense, net, was $6.2 million for the Successor Period and $52.8 million for the Predecessor Stub Period. Interest expense, net, was $76.4 million for the unaudited six months ended December 31, 2020. The $17.4 million change is a non-cash decrease in interest related to the Shareholder Notes which were paid in full in connection with the closing of the Business Combination. See Note 8, Borrowings, to the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Loss on debt extinguishment

Loss on debt extinguishment in the Predecessor Stub Period of $15.9 million is the result of the write-off of previously deferred financing costs related to the 2019 Credit Facility that was extinguished in connection with the Business Combination. See Note 8, Borrowings, to the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Foreign currency (gain) loss, net
The Company recorded a loss of $1.6 million for the Successor Period and a gain of $0.6 million for the Predecessor Stub Period from foreign currency exchange. The Company recorded a loss of $16.3 million for the unaudited six months ended December 31, 2020, from foreign currency exchange. The change in net foreign currency losses is due to appreciation in European and Canadian local currencies in relation to the U.S. dollar and primarily related to our Euro debt in the prior year comparable period.
Change in fair value of warrant liabilities
The Company recognized an unrealized gain of $1.2 million resulting from an increase in the fair value of the Public Warrant and Private Placement Warrant liabilities during the Successor Period. See Note 17, Fair Value Measurements, to the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Income taxes
Income tax benefit was $6.8 million for the Successor Period and $5.6 million for the Predecessor Stub Period. Income tax benefit was $17.4 million for the unaudited six months ended December 31, 2020. Income tax benefit in the Successor Period differed from income tax benefit in the Predecessor Stub Period and the unaudited six months ended December 31, 2020, primarily due to changes in valuation allowances.
Business segments
The following provides detail for business segment results for the Successor Period, the Predecessor Stub Period, and the unaudited six months ended December 31, 2020. Segment income from operations includes revenues of the segment less expenses that are directly related to those revenues but excludes certain charges to cost of revenues and SG&A expenses predominantly related to corporate costs, shared overhead and other costs related to restructuring activities and costs to achieve operational initiatives, which are included in Corporate and Other in the table below. Interest expense, loss on debt extinguishment, foreign currency loss (gain), net, and other expense (income), net, are not allocated to segments.

For reconciliations of segment revenues and operating income to our consolidated results, see Note 16, Segment Information, to the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
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Medical