N-2/A 1 d905567dn2a.htm AMENDMENT NO. 2 TO FORM N-2 Amendment No. 2 to Form N-2
Table of Contents

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on May 4, 2021

Securities Act Registration No. 333-238753

Investment Company Registration No. 811-23575

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM N-2

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

   THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933  
   Pre-Effective Amendment No. 2  
   Post-Effective Amendment No.       

and/or

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

   THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940  

Amendment No. 2

 

 

KKR REAL ESTATE SELECT TRUST INC.

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Charter)

 

 

30 Hudson Yards

New York, NY 10001

(Address of Principal Executive Offices)

(212) 750-8300

(Registrant’s Telephone Number, Including Area Code)

Lori Hoffman, Esq.

KKR Registered Advisor LLC

30 Hudson Yards

New York, NY 10001

(Name and Address of Agent for Service)

 

 

Copies to:

Rajib Chanda, Esq.

Benjamin C. Wells, Esq.

Simpson Thacher & Bartlett LLP

900 G Street, N.W.

Washington, DC 20001

 

 

Approximate Date of Proposed Public Offering:

As soon as practicable after the effective date of this Registration Statement.

 

Check box if the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans.

 

Check box if any securities being registered on this Form will be offered on a delayed or continuous basis in reliance on Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933 (“Securities Act”), other than securities offered in connection with a dividend reinvestment plan.

 

Check box if this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction A.2 or a post-effective amendment thereto.

 

Check box if this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction B or a post-effective amendment thereto that will become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act.

 

Check box if this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction B to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act.

It is proposed that this filing will become effective (check appropriate box):

 

when declared effective pursuant to Section 8(c) of the Securities Act.

If appropriate, check the following box:

 

This [post-effective] amendment designates a new effective date for a previously filed [post-effective amendment] [registration statement].

 

This Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, and the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering is:                 .

 

This Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, and the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering is:                 .

 

This Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, and the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering is:                 .

Check each box that appropriately characterizes the Registrant:

 

Registered Closed-End Fund (closed-end company that is registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940 (“Investment Company Act”)).

 

Business Development Company (closed-end company that intends or has elected to be regulated as a business development company under the Investment Company Act).

 

Interval Fund (Registered Closed-End Fund or a Business Development Company that makes periodic repurchase offers under Rule 23c-3 under the Investment Company Act).

 

A.2 Qualified (qualified to register securities pursuant to General Instruction A.2 of this Form).

 

Well-Known Seasoned Issuer (as defined by Rule 405 under the Securities Act).

 

Emerging Growth Company (as defined by Rule 12b-2 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (“Exchange Act”)).

 

If an Emerging Growth Company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of Securities Act.

 

New Registrant (registered or regulated under the Investment Company Act for less than 12 calendar months preceding this filing).

 

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

Title of

Securities Being Registered

  Amount Being
Registered
 

Proposed

Maximum
Offering Price

per Unit(1)

 

Proposed

Maximum
Aggregate
Offering Price(2)

  Amount of
Registration Fee(3)

Common Stock, $0.001 par value

  80,000,000   $25.00   $2,000,000,000   $259,600

 

 

(1)

Estimated solely for purpose of calculating the registration fee. Each class of Common Stock will be continuously offered at net asset value per share.

(2)

Estimated solely for purpose of calculating the registration fee.

(3)

Previously paid.

 

 

The Registrant hereby amends this Registration Statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that the Registration Statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until the Registration Statement shall become effective on such dates as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 

 


Table of Contents

The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION

PRELIMINARY PROSPECTUS DATED MAY 4, 2021

PROSPECTUS

 

LOGO

KKR REAL ESTATE SELECT TRUST INC.

CLASS S COMMON SHARES

CLASS D COMMON SHARES

CLASS U COMMON SHARES

CLASS I COMMON SHARES

 

 

The Fund. KKR Real Estate Select Trust Inc. (the “Fund”) is a newly organized, non-diversified, closed-end management investment company that invests primarily in commercial real estate in the United States. KKR Registered Advisor LLC (the “Adviser”) will serve as the investment adviser to the Fund. The Adviser is part of the real estate group of Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co. L.P. (together with its affiliates, “KKR”), a leading global investment firm. The Fund seeks to provide investors with access to KKR’s leading real estate investment platform with an institutional fee structure and the transparency of a fund registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “Investment Company Act”). The Fund is a Maryland corporation and intends to elect to be taxed as a real estate investment trust for U.S. federal income tax purposes under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”).

Securities Offered. The Fund currently intends to offer four classes of its shares of common stock on a continuous basis: Class S Common Stock (“Class S Shares”), Class D Common Stock (“Class D Shares”), Class U Common Stock (“Class U Shares”) and Class I Common Stock (“Class I Shares” and, together with the Class S Shares, Class D Shares and Class U Shares, the “Common Stock”). The Fund may offer additional classes of its Common Stock in the future.

Investment Adviser. KKR Registered Advisor LLC will serve as the investment adviser to the Fund pursuant to the terms of an investment advisory agreement with the Fund. The Adviser is a subsidiary of our sponsor, KKR, a leading global investment firm that manages multiple alternative asset classes, including private equity, real estate, energy, infrastructure, and credit. As of December 31, 2020, KKR had aggregate assets under management of approximately $252 billion.

Investment Objectives. The Fund’s primary investment objective is to provide attractive current income and with a secondary objective of long-term capital appreciation. There can be no assurance that the Fund will achieve its investment objectives.

Investment Strategies. The Fund intends, under normal circumstances, to invest at least 80% of its net assets (plus the amount of its borrowings for investment purposes) in a portfolio of real estate, including in the form of property investments and debt interests and to a lesser extent in traded real estate-related securities. The Fund will target investments in three primary investment strategies: (i) thematically-driven stabilized, income-generating commercial real estate, (ii) prime single tenant real estate and (iii) private real estate debt and preferred equity interests. The Fund’s property investments in each primary strategy are expected to be structured through privately-owned operating entities that hold whole or partial interests in real properties. To a lesser extent, the Fund may also make investments in traded real estate-related securities such as mortgage-backed securities and equity or debt securities issued by REITs or real estate-related investment companies for the purposes of liquidity management or on an opportunistic basis, for example during periods of dislocation in the trading of such securities.

 

 

Investing in the Common Stock involves certain risks. See “Risks” beginning on page 53 of this prospectus.

 

     Offering Price(1)      Maximum
Sales Load
    Dealer
Manager Fees
    Proceeds to
Fund(2)
 

Class S Common Stock, per share

   $ 30.11        3.0     0.5   $ 29.06  

Class D Common Stock, per share

   $ 29.06        None       None     $ 29.06  

Class U Common Stock, per share

   $ 29.06        None       None     $ 29.06  

Class I Common Stock, per share

   $ 29.06        None       None     $ 29.06  

Maximum Offering(3)

   $ 2,000,000,000      $ 60,000,000     $ 10,000,000     $ 1,930,000,000

 

(1)

Class D Shares, Class U Shares and Class I Shares will be continuously offered at our net asset value (“NAV”) per share, plus, in the case of Class S Shares, a maximum sales load of up to 3.0% of the offering price and a dealer manager fee of 0.5%. Certain participating broker-dealers may offer Class S Shares subject to a dealer manager fee of up to 1.50%, provided that the sum of the sales load and dealer manager fee will not exceed 3.5% of the offering price. As of April 30, 2021, our NAV per share was $29.06. Class D Shares, Class U Shares and Class I Shares are each not subject to a sales load; however, investors could be required to pay brokerage commissions on purchases and sales of Class D, Class U or Class I Shares to their selling agents. Investors should consult with their selling agents about the sales load and any additional fees or charges their selling agents might impose on each class of Shares. Information in the table reflects the initial offering price.

(2)

Offering and organizational expenses prior to the Fund commencing its offering of the Common Stock are estimated to be approximately $3,315,957. The Adviser has agreed to fund the Fund’s organizational and offering expenses until the initial sale of Common Stock in this offering. Through December 31, 2022, the Adviser has agreed to waive its fees and/or reimburse expenses of the Fund so that certain of the Fund’s expenses (“Specified Expenses”) will not exceed 0.50% of net assets (annualized). The Fund has agreed to repay these amounts, when and if requested by the Adviser, but only if and to the extent that Specified Expenses are less than 0.50% of net assets (annualized) (or, if a lower expense limit is then in effect, such lower limit) within the three-year period after the Adviser waived or reimbursed such fees or expenses; provided, however, that the Adviser is entitled to recapture a Specified Expense in the same year it is incurred.

(3)

Assumes an offering of 100% Class S shares at the maximum sales load and dealer manager fee.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

Prospectus dated                     , 2021.


Table of Contents

Repurchases. The Fund intends, but is not obligated, to conduct quarterly tender offers for up to 5.0% of the aggregate NAV of its outstanding Common Stock at the applicable NAV per share as of the applicable valuation date. Repurchases will be made at such times and on such terms as may be determined by the board of directors of the Fund, in its sole discretion. However, no assurance can be given that repurchases will occur or that any Common Stock properly tendered will be repurchased by the Fund.

Leverage. The Fund may use leverage to provide additional funds to support its investment activities. The Fund itself expects to use entity level debt (non-mortgage debt at the Fund level) and expects its investments will utilize property level debt financing (mortgages on the Fund’s properties that are not recourse to the Fund except in extremely limited circumstances). Property level debt will be incurred by operating entities held by the Fund and secured by real estate owned by such operating entities. If an operating entity were to default on a loan, the lender’s recourse would be to the mortgaged property and the lender would typically not have a claim to other assets of the Fund or its subsidiaries. The Fund may also incur entity level debt, including unsecured and secured credit facilities from certain financial institutions and other forms of borrowing (collectively, “Borrowings”) and is limited to 33 1/3% of the Fund’s total assets (less all liabilities and indebtedness not represented by Investment Company Act leverage) immediately after such Borrowings. See “Leverage” and “Risks—Leverage Risk.”

Risks. Investing in the Fund involves a high degree of risk. In particular:

 

   

An investment in the Fund is suitable only for investors who can bear the risks associated with private market investments with potential limited liquidity. The Common Stock should be viewed as a long-term investment within a multi-asset personal portfolio and should not be viewed individually as a complete investment program.

 

   

The Fund expects to ordinarily pay stable distributions at an attractive distribution yield on a monthly basis; however, the Fund cannot guarantee that it will make distributions and the amount of distributions that the Fund may pay, if any, is uncertain.

 

   

The Fund may pay distributions from sources other than cash flow from operations, including, without limitation, the sale of assets, borrowings, return of capital, or offering proceeds.

 

   

Investors will pay offering and organizational expenses and, with regard to Class S Shares, a front-end sales load of up to 3.0% and a dealer manager fee of 0.5% of the offering price. Investors in Class I Shares, Class D Shares and Class U shares may be charged transaction or other fees directly by financial intermediaries. You will have to receive a total return at least in excess of these expenses to receive an actual return on your investment.

 

   

The Common Stock has no history of public trading, nor is it currently intended that the Common Stock will be listed on a public exchange or any other trading market in the near future. No organized secondary market is expected to develop for the Fund’s shares, liquidity for the Fund’s Common Stock is expected to be provided only through quarterly tender offers of Common Stock at NAV per share of Common Stock.

 

   

There is no guarantee that repurchases will occur or that an investor will be able to sell all the Common Stock that the investor desires to sell in a tender offer. Due to these restrictions, an investor should consider an investment in the Fund to be illiquid. Investing in the Common Stock may be speculative and involves a high degree of risk, including the risks associated with leverage. See “Risks” below in this prospectus.

You should read this prospectus, which contains important information about the Fund that you should know, before deciding whether to invest, and retain it for future reference. A Statement of Additional Information, dated                    , 2021, as it may be amended (the “SAI”), containing additional information about the Fund, has been filed with the SEC and is incorporated by reference in its entirety into this prospectus. You may request a free copy of the SAI, annual and semi-annual reports to stockholders (when available), and additional information about the Fund by calling (855) 844-8655, by writing to the Fund at 30 Hudson Yards, New York, NY 10001 or visiting the Fund’s website                    . The information contained in, or accessed through, the Fund’s website is not part of this prospectus. You may also obtain a copy of the SAI (and other information regarding the Fund) from the SEC’s website (http://www.sec.gov). You may also e-mail requests for these documents to publicinfo@sec.gov.

The Fund’s Common Stock does not represent a deposit or obligation of and is not guaranteed or endorsed by, any bank or other insured depository institution, and is not federally insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the Federal Reserve Board or any other government agency.

As permitted by regulations adopted by the SEC, paper copies of the Fund’s annual and semi-annual stockholder reports will not be sent by mail, unless you specifically request paper copies of the reports from the Fund or from your financial intermediary, such as a broker-dealer or bank. Instead, the reports will be made available on the Fund’s website                    , and you will be notified by mail each time a report is posted and provided with a website link to access the report. If you already elected to receive stockholder reports electronically, you will not be affected by this change and you need not take any action. You may elect to receive stockholder reports and other communications from the Fund electronically by visiting the Fund’s website or by contacting your financial intermediary, such as a broker-dealer or bank. You may elect to receive all future reports in paper free of charge. If you own these Shares through a financial intermediary, such as a broker-dealer or bank, you may contact your financial intermediary to request that you continue to receive paper copies of your stockholder reports. If you invest directly with the Fund, you can inform the Fund that you wish to continue receiving paper copies of your stockholder reports by calling (855) 844-8655. Your election to receive reports in paper will apply to all funds held with the fund complex if you invest directly with the Fund or to all funds held in your account if you invest through your financial intermediary.


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

     1  

SUMMARY OF FUND EXPENSES

     29  

FINANCIAL HIGHLIGHTS

     33  

THE FUND

     34  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     35  

INVESTMENT OBJECTIVES AND STRATEGIES

     36  

THE FUND’S INVESTMENTS

     47  

LEVERAGE

     49  

RISKS

     53  

CONFLICTS OF INTEREST

     78  

MANAGEMENT OF THE FUND

     85  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     92  

REPURCHASES

     101  

NET ASSET VALUE

     105  

DISTRIBUTIONS

     109  

DISTRIBUTION REINVESTMENT PLAN

     111  

DESCRIPTION OF SHARES

     112  

CERTAIN PROVISIONS IN THE CHARTER AND BYLAWS

     115  

CERTAIN U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

     119  

CUSTODIAN AND TRANSFER AGENT

     144  

LEGAL MATTERS

     144  

INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

     145  

EXPERTS

     146  

 

 

You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference into this Prospectus. The Fund has not authorized anyone to provide you with different information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. The Fund is not making an offer of these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer is not permitted.

Website Disclosure

The Fund’s website at                      will contain additional information about the Fund, but the contents of the website are not incorporated by reference in or otherwise a part of this prospectus. From time to time, the Fund may use its website as a distribution channel for material Fund information.


Table of Contents

 

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

 

This is only a summary. This summary may not contain all of the information that you should consider before investing in the Fund. You should review the more detailed information contained in this prospectus and in the Statement of Additional Information (the “SAI”), specially the information under the heading “Risks.”

 

The Fund   

KKR Real Estate Select Trust Inc. (the “Fund”) is a newly organized, non-diversified, closed-end management investment company registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “Investment Company Act”), that invests primarily in commercial real estate in the United States. KKR Registered Advisor LLC (the “Adviser”) will serve as the investment adviser to the Fund. The Adviser is part of the real estate group of Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co. L.P. (together with its affiliates, “KKR”), a leading global investment firm. The Fund seeks to provide investors with access to KKR’s leading real estate investment platform with an institutional fee structure and the transparency of a fund registered under the Investment Company Act. The Fund is a Maryland corporation and intends to elect to be taxed as a real estate investment trust for U.S. federal income tax purposes under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”). The words “we,” “us” and “our” refer to KKR Real Estate Select Trust Inc. and its subsidiaries, unless the context requires otherwise. See “The Fund.”

 

Benefits of Investing in Real Estate

  

Allocating a portion of your investment portfolio to real estate may provide you with a steady source of income, portfolio diversification, a hedge against inflation and attractive risk-adjusted returns.

 

Investors may benefit from adding a diversified real estate component to their investment portfolios for the following reasons:

 

•  Stabilized real estate combined with proactive investment management and asset management may create an attractive return profile.

 

•  Real estate as an inflation protected, yielding asset class is well positioned to benefit in a low interest rate environment.

 

Market Opportunity   

We believe that real estate investments with growth potential and a defensive cash flow base in the largest and most active real estate markets can provide income and sustain growth over the long term. We expect to hold investments in this strategy through economic cycles. By focusing on assets and markets with attractive long-term fundamentals that can support attractively-priced long-term capital structures, we believe that we can generate attractive absolute and relative total returns with a substantial income component.

 

We believe our investment strategies are attractive for the following reasons:

 

•  Investors are intensifying their search for yield amid declining interest rates, which is leading to increased asset allocation to real estate.1

 

1 

Source: Cornell University Baker Program in Real Estate, Hodes Weill & Associates, May 9, 2019.



 

1


Table of Contents
  

 

•  Continued demographic, technological and preference changes are accelerating urbanization, and we believe certain real estate markets are poised to be the outsized beneficiaries of future economic growth. The Fund anticipates focusing on opportunities within these population centers.

 

•  Secular growth trends may benefit our target asset classes, including multifamily, industrial, office in innovation markets, and select specialty sectors. KKR has historical experience acquiring and operating each of these asset classes in several markets.

 

Who May Want to Invest   

Investors should consider their financial situations and needs, other investments, investment goals, investment experience, time horizons, liquidity needs and risk tolerance before investing in the Fund. An investment in the Fund is not appropriate for all investors, and the Fund is not intended to be a complete investment program.

 

Barriers to investing in real estate can be high, which has in the past curbed broad-based participation in the asset class. These include high capital requirements and complex, relatively illiquid transactions. The Fund may be an appropriate investment for long-term investors who are seeking:

 

•  a portfolio of high quality commercial real estate and real estate debt with the transparency of registered investment company;

 

•  the operating cash flow, capital appreciation and portfolio diversification benefits that real estate can offer; and

 

•  the opportunity for attractive current distributions through a tax-efficient structure and the potential for long-term capital appreciation.

 

Investment Objectives   

The Fund’s primary investment objective is to provide attractive current income with a secondary objective of long-term capital appreciation. There can be no assurance that the Fund will achieve its investment objectives.

 

Investment Strategies   

The Fund intends, under normal circumstances, to invest at least 80% of its net assets (plus the amount of its borrowings for investment purposes) in a portfolio of real estate, including in the form of property investments and real estate-related debt interests and to a lesser extent in traded real estate-related securities.

 

The Fund will target investments in three primary investment strategies:

 

1.  Thematically-Driven Stabilized Real Estate: Stabilized, income-oriented commercial real estate equity investments in asset classes that we expect to benefit from secular growth trends, including multifamily, industrial, office in innovation markets, and select specialty sectors such as student housing, primarily in U.S. markets that offer the potential to generate high current income and, to a lesser extent, long-term capital appreciation.



 

2


Table of Contents
  

 

2.  Prime Single Tenant: High quality commercial real estate primarily located in or in close proximity to major metropolitan statistical areas and growth markets in the United States with favorable economic and demographic conditions and leased for long durations (typically greater than 10 years at acquisition) to single tenants with favorable credit profiles and/or performance attributes supporting highly visible long-term cash flows.

 

3.  Private Real Estate Debt and Preferred Equity: Privately sourced debt and preferred equity interests that offer current income secured or backed by high quality real estate. The Fund intends to originate and selectively acquire mezzanine loans, which are structurally subordinate to senior loans but senior to equity in the borrower and preferred equity, which is subordinated to debt. To a lesser extent, the Fund may also originate and selectively acquire senior mortgage loans, which are generally loans secured by a first mortgage lien on a commercial property.

 

We plan to own all or substantially all of our property investments through our wholly-owned operating partnership. The property investments of each primary strategy are expected to be structured through privately-owned operating entities or private real estate operating companies which hold whole or partial interests in real properties. We expect to pursue these investments through various transaction types, such as large single asset purchases, portfolio purchases, platform build-ups and public to private transactions.

 

To a lesser extent, the Fund may also make investments in traded real estate-related securities such as mortgage-backed securities (“MBS”) and equity or debt securities issued by REITs or real estate-related investment companies for the purposes of (i) making investments that provide current income to the Fund and provide a source of liquidity for tender offers or other liquidity requirements and (ii) to opportunistically exploit periods of market dislocation where the trading value of such securities sufficiently exceeds the relative value of private opportunities available in the Fund’s three primary investment strategies.

 

It is expected that the Fund’s portfolio will primarily be comprised of equity or debt interests in commercial properties located in the United States, although the Fund may also make investments in equity or debt interests in properties outside of the United States, with a focus on developed markets in Asia and Europe.

 

On a long-term basis, under normal circumstances, KKR expects to allocate the Fund’s portfolio among the Fund’s three primary investment strategies. Since real estate markets are often cyclical in nature, we do not target specific allocations by investment strategy or geography. The Fund will deploy capital into the primary investment strategy that the Adviser believes provides the best opportunities to meet our investment objectives. For the purpose of providing liquidity for periodic share repurchases, we intend to, subject to any limitations and requirements



 

3


Table of Contents
  

relating to our intention to qualify as a REIT, generally maintain under normal circumstances an allocation to securities, cash, cash equivalents and other short-term investments, which may be up to 20% of our assets. In addition, we may seek to make opportunistic purchases of securities and other real estate-related short-term investments for investment purposes.

 

The Fund has applied for on exemptive relief from the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) that permits it to, among other things, co-invest with certain other persons, including certain affiliates of the Adviser and certain public or private funds managed by the Adviser and its affiliates, subject to certain terms and conditions. However, there is no assurance that such relief will be granted.

 

For a more complete discussion of the Fund’s portfolio composition, see “Investment Objectives and Strategies.”

 

The Offering   

The Fund currently intends to offer four classes of its shares of common stock: Class S Common Stock (“Class S Shares”), Class D Common Stock (“Class D Shares”), Class U Common Stock (“Class U Shares”) and Class I Common Stock (“Class I Shares” and together with the Class S, Class U Shares and Class D Shares, the “Common Stock”). The Fund may offer additional classes of its Common Stock in the future. The Fund intends to rely on exemptive relief from the SEC granted to an affiliate of the Fund permitting the Fund to issue multiple classes of shares with varying sales loads and asset based service and/or distribution fees.

 

Class D Shares, Class U Shares and Class I Shares will be offered on a continuous basis at net asset value (“NAV”) per share. Class S shares will be offered on a continuous basis at NAV per shares, plus a maximum sales load of up to 3.0% of the offering price and a dealer manager fee of 0.5% of the offering price. Certain participating broker-dealers may offer Class S Shares subject to a dealer manager fee of up to 1.50%, provided that the sum of the sales load and dealer manager fee will not exceed 3.5% of the offering price. As of April 30, 2021, our NAV per share was $29.06. Holders of Class S Shares, Class D Shares, Class U Shares and Class I Shares have equal rights and privileges with each other, except that Class I Shares, Class D Shares and Class U Shares do not pay a sales load or dealer manager fees and the Fund does not pay any servicing or distribution fees with respect to Class I Shares. See “—Ongoing Distribution and Servicing Fees” and “Summary of Fund Expenses” for information on servicing and distribution fees. Class D Shares, Class U Shares and Class I Shares are each not subject to a sales load; however, investors could be required to pay brokerage commissions on purchases and sales of Class D, Class U or Class I Shares to their selling agents. Investors should consult with their selling agents about the sales load and any additional fees or charges their selling agents might impose on each class of Shares.

 

Proceeds from the offering will be held by the Fund’s custodian and available to fund investments. No arrangements have been made to place



 

4


Table of Contents
  

such proceeds in an escrow, trust or similar account. The Fund generally expects to invest the proceeds from the offering within three months from receipt thereof.

 

The Fund reserves the right to reject a purchase order for any reason.

 

Investment Adviser   

KKR Registered Advisor LLC, a registered investment adviser under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, as amended (the “Advisers Act”), will serve as the investment adviser to the Fund pursuant to the terms of an investment advisory agreement with the Fund. The Adviser is a subsidiary of our sponsor, Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co. L.P. KKR was established in 1976, pioneered the leveraged buyout industry and has remained one of the world’s largest and most successful investment firms through the past four decades of economic cycles and market changes.

 

KKR is a leading global investment firm that manages multiple alternative asset classes, including private equity, energy, infrastructure, real estate and credit. As of December 31, 2020, KKR had aggregate assets under management of approximately $252 billion.

 

KKR founded KKR Real Estate in 2011 believing that a dedicated real estate team (“KKR Real Estate” or the “Real Estate Team”) with access to KKR’s global investment platform, and the support of the KKR balance sheet capital, could create differentiated deal flow and generate compelling risk-adjusted returns for investors. The primary mandate of KKR Real Estate is to leverage the KKR brand, relationships, industry expertise, proprietary knowledge of the firm and the real estate expertise of the team to create differentiated deal flow for investors. As of February 2021, KKR Real Estate has approximately 100 dedicated investment and asset management professionals. Since the formation of the business, KKR Real Estate has grown to approximately $28 billion of assets under management, including approximately $23 billion in the U.S. across equity and credit vehicles,2 which translates into owning or lending on approximately $86 billion of real estate assets across all property types, including multifamily, industrial, office, and select specialty sectors.

Investment Advisory Agreement

   The Fund and the Adviser have entered into an investment advisory agreement pursuant to which the Adviser is entitled to receive a base management fee and an incentive fee.

 

2 

Figures represent assets under management (“AUM”) across all KKR real estate transactions since 2011; strategies include Real Estate Partners Americas, Real Estate Partners Europe, Asia Real Estate Partners, Property Partners Americas, Real Estate Credit, estimated value of Global Atlantic assets, Real Estate nonbanking financial companies, Private Equity funds, Special Situations, trophy single tenant investments in KKR Credit accounts, KKR Balance Sheet investments and a pro rata portion of the AUM of Drawbridge Realty Management LLC. KKR does not act as an investment adviser to Drawbridge or any of its portfolio investments. Inclusive of estimated Global Atlantic assets. Based on preliminary financial results of Global Atlantic as of December 31, 2020. The estimated value of the Global Atlantic assets to be managed by KKR Real Estate as of the Global Atlantic acquisition closing is approximately $12 billion.



 

5


Table of Contents
  

 

The base management fee (the “Management Fee”) is payable monthly in arrears at the annual rate of 1.25% of the average daily value of the Fund’s net assets. The Adviser has voluntarily agreed to waive its Management Fee from effectiveness of the Fund’s registration statement until December 31, 2021. Effective January 1, 2022, the Adviser’s agreement to temporarily waive its Management Fee will terminate and the Adviser will receive a Management Fee at an annual rate of 1.25% of the average daily value of the Fund’s net assets. The longer an investor holds shares of the Fund’s common stock during this period, the longer such investor will receive the benefit of this Management Fee waiver period.

 

The incentive fee (the “Incentive Fee”) is calculated and payable quarterly in arrears in an amount equal to 12.5% of the Fund’s Portfolio Operating Income for the immediately preceding quarter.

 

“Portfolio Operating Income” means (1) the Fund’s share of Net Operating Income from the Fund’s real estate equity investments; plus (2) the Fund’s net investment income (or loss) from debt, preferred equity investments and traded real estate-related securities; minus (3) the Fund’s expenses (excluding the incentive fee and distribution and servicing fees).

 

“Net Operating Income” means operating revenue net of operating expenses (inclusive of interest on investment level debt) for the Fund’s operating entities that invest in real estate and excludes (i) gains or losses from sales of depreciable real property, (ii) impairment write-downs on depreciable real property, (iii) real estate-related depreciation and amortization for each real estate operating venture and (iv) adjustments for recognizing straight line rent.

 

Portfolio Operating Income does not include any component of capital gains or capital appreciation. The Adviser is not entitled to any incentive fee based on the capital gains or capital appreciation of the Fund or its investments.

 

The Fund intends to rely on exemptive relief from the SEC that permits the Fund to pay the Adviser all or a portion of its management and incentive fees in shares of Common Stock in lieu of paying the Adviser an equivalent amount of such fees in cash. As a condition of this exemptive relief, the Adviser has committed not to sell any shares of Common Stock received in lieu of a cash payment of its management and incentive fees for at least 12 months from the date of issuance, except in exceptional circumstances.

 

See “Management of the Fund—Investment Advisory Agreements and Fees.”

 

Investment Process    KKR’s investment approach is rooted in the belief that real estate fundamentals, values and returns are highly dependent on macroeconomic conditions, business and consumer preferences and demographic trends. KKR believes that real estate valuations have diverged significantly across different asset classes, markets and


 

6


Table of Contents
  

geographies, making theme identification, market selection, asset selection and portfolio construction key to generating attractive real estate returns over the long term.

 

KKR takes a thematic approach to investing, seeking to identify high-conviction themes and investing strategies that we believe benefit from a combination of cyclical and/or secular demand trends or market features and may result in attractive risk-adjusted returns. KKR’s research-driven approach to theme and strategy development leverages the broader KKR ecosystem, including KKR Private Equity, KKR Credit and the KKR Global Macro and Asset Allocation (“GMAA”) to develop and refine its investment themes. KKR believes that its access to differentiated industry expertise and deep global relationships and networks positions KKR to identify attractive demographic and industry trends that affect real estate fundamentals.

 

KKR has a research-intensive approach to developing investment themes and strategies, utilizing KKR resources and data, industry research and its deep industry relationships. Proactively identifying these themes and strategies allows KKR to develop in-depth industry expertise, establish deep industry relationships and guide intermediary relationships to opportunities where KKR is most convicted and can move expediently. This approach is designed to result in a highly selective and targeted method to investing and allows the Real Estate Team to develop a competitive advantage in sourcing transactions.

 

KKR’s theme development process includes the following three steps:

 

1.  Opportunity Identification

 

•  Leverage KKR resources (Private Equity and GMAA)

 

•  Identify economic and demographic trends that impact real estate fundamentals

 

•  Identify markets and asset classes that benefit from trends

 

•  Determine whether current valuations present an attractive investment opportunity

 

•  Understand key risks and opportunities within thesis

 

2.  Investment Approach

•  Discuss with market participants to refine thesis

 

•  Develop conviction around thesis with KKR Real Estate, investment committee and GMAA

 

•  Refine target strategy (i.e., target markets and target asset classes)

 

•  Establish target investment approach (i.e., joint venture, platform, etc.)

 

•  Identify potential operating partners and management teams

 

•  Develop view on size of opportunity, portfolio construction and ability to scale



 

7


Table of Contents
  

 

3.  Execution

 

•  Establish deep relationships with key intermediaries within target markets and asset classes

 

•  Determine if scale can create a competitive advantage

 

•  Work with top operators, where relevant, in aligned structure, creating a differentiated operating model

 

•  Develop differentiated financing approach

 

Upon the establishment of the top down targeted investment themes and strategies, KKR then seeks to source actionable investment opportunities within the parameters of each theme or strategy to perform a detailed bottoms up fundamental due diligence review of each investment opportunity, including:

 

•  understanding the underlying macro and micro economic fundamentals that drive the cash flow generating capacity of the opportunity, including a stringent evaluation of the market in which a property is located, such as local supply constraints, the quality and nature of the local workforce and prevailing local real estate values;

 

•  performing a fundamental analysis of the property and its operating performance, including tenant rosters, lease terms, zoning, operating costs and the asset’s overall competitive position in its market;

 

•  understanding leasing market conditions affecting the underlying real estate;

 

•  completing physical inspections of the property and/or commissioning/review of third-party reports, including appraisals, engineering reports and environmental reports;

 

•  evaluating the appropriateness of estimated costs and timing associated with capital improvements of the property where applicable;

 

•  completing detailed modeling of the cash flow in place and projected to be in place over the term of the investment;

 

•  in the case of single-tenant investments, evaluating the criticality of the real estate to the tenant’s operations and the ability to release upon a tenant departure;

 

•  performing detailed credit analysis on the financial health of key tenants;

 

•  completing legal review of all leases and major contracts, including terms of expense reimbursements where applicable and identifying any legal risks and potential mitigants;

 

•  identifying the appropriate capital structure to support the investment thesis and business plans;



 

8


Table of Contents
  

 

•  in the case of equity investments, structuring the proper incentives and governance structure with our operating partners and management teams or, in the case of debt investments, evaluating the operating expertise and financial strength of the sponsor and borrower;

 

•  completing a valuation of the investment, including the investment basis relative to its value and the ability to liquidate the investment through a sale or refinancing of the underlying asset;

 

•  in the case of debt investments, reviewing the overall structure of the investment and rights in the collateral documentation;

 

•  assessing any stakeholder issues affecting the real estate; and

 

•  for directly originated loan investments, considering the quality of the underlying property, the location and geographic market of the underlying property, the cash flow of the underlying property, the reputation, experience and financial health of the sponsor that owns the equity of the underlying property, the loan-to-value ratio, the structure of the loan and the contractual rights and remedies available to the Fund.

 

Each investment opportunity is thoroughly screened and discussed throughout the evaluation process with the KKR Real Estate Investment Committee, represented by the most senior members of the Real Estate Team, who are required to approve each transaction.

 

KKR strives to maintain robust processes and accountability to ensure it makes well-informed investment decisions, allocates capital effectively, actively engages in key decisions impacting operational value creation, rigorously monitors investments, and, when relevant, exits prudently. Success requires sophisticated internal processes that continuously test KKR’s performance and leverages the collective skills, experience, and resources across the firm. In addition to a dedicated team whose members have honed their track records in sourcing, executing and managing real estate opportunities, KKR’s Real Estate Team is also supported by the firm’s broader capabilities and experience globally.

Competitive Advantages   

In pursuing the Fund’s investment objectives and strategies, the Fund is expected to benefit from the experience, relationships and operational capabilities that KKR has developed over four decades of investing to provide what KKR views as the cornerstone of KKR Real Estate’s competitive advantage in investing. This firm-wide integration is core to KKR’s real estate investment strategy and KKR believes it provides the opportunity for differentiated insights and access to deal flow relative to many standalone real estate investors.

 

KKR believes that the Fund will benefit from the following key competitive advantages:

 

   Differentiated “One-Firm Approach”—The experience, relationships and operational capabilities that KKR has



 

9


Table of Contents
  

developed over four decades of investing combine to provide what KKR views as the cornerstone of KKR Real Estate’s competitive advantage in the asset class. This integration across KKR is core to its real estate investment strategy and provides what KKR believes to be differentiated insights and access to deal flow relative to many standalone real estate investors. KKR’s “One-Firm” approach is based on the following four pillars:

 

•  Proprietary sourcing channels;

 

•  Differentiated due diligence and analytic capabilities;

 

•  Execution capabilities; and

 

•  Trusted partnerships with key intermediaries.

 

   Integrated Real Estate Platform Across Equity and Credit—KKR has an integrated U.S. equity and credit investment platform to broaden its sourcing channels and access information about the real estate capital markets. Since the formation of the business, KKR Real Estate has grown to approximately $28 billion of assets under management, including approximately $23 billion in the U.S. across equity and credit vehicles,3 which translates into owning or lending on approximately $86 billion of real estate assets across all property types, including multifamily, industrial, office, and select specialty sectors such as student housing. KKR believes its existing portfolio provides it with a growing network of proprietary market intelligence and data on valuations, operating fundamentals, liquidity and trends across the real estate industry, leading to sourcing and underwriting advantages.

 

   Established Real Estate Platform—The Fund will benefit from a deep and seasoned team of approximately 100 investment and asset management professionals with a leadership team that has worked together for over eight years. The Adviser believes the Fund will benefit from KKR Real Estate’s existing relationships, sourcing channels, market knowledge and operating expertise.

 

   De Novo Portfolio Construction—KKR’s strategy is designed to construct a portfolio of investments targeting asset classes, markets and geographies that KKR believes have attractive long-term secular demand and growth trends. KKR believes that

 

3 

Figures represent AUM across all KKR real estate transactions since 2011; strategies include Real Estate Partners Americas, Real Estate Partners Europe, Asia Real Estate Partners, Property Partners Americas, Real Estate Credit, estimated value of Global Atlantic assets, Real Estate nonbanking financial companies, Private Equity funds, Special Situations, trophy single tenant investments in KKR Credit accounts, KKR Balance Sheet investments and a pro rata portion of the AUM of Drawbridge Realty Management LLC. KKR does not act as an investment adviser to Drawbridge or any of its portfolio investments. Inclusive of estimated Global Atlantic assets. Based on preliminary financial results of Global Atlantic as of December 31, 2020. The estimated value of the Global Atlantic assets to be managed by KKR Real Estate as of the Global Atlantic acquisition closing is approximately $12 billion.



 

10


Table of Contents
  

having a team that is both (i) unburdened with the management of legacy underperforming assets that have challenging business plans and limited liquidity and (ii) already transacting across the aforementioned target investment themes will be provide the Fund a competitive advantage.

 

   Alignment of Interests with Investors—KKR believes that alignment of interests with investors is a fundamental tenet of investing. In the simplest of terms, KKR is one of its own largest investors. KKR has purchased $159 million of Class I Shares to facilitate the acquisition of the Fund’s initial assets. We believe this investment creates a significant alignment of interests with our investors and demonstrates a strong commitment to the Fund’s strategy. Additionally, the Fund intends to rely on exemptive relief from the SEC that permits the Fund to pay the Adviser all or a portion of its management and incentive fees in shares of Common Stock in lieu of paying the Adviser an equivalent amount of such fees in cash. As a condition of this exemptive relief, the Adviser has committed not to sell any shares of Common Stock received in lieu of a cash payment of its management and incentive fees for at least 12 months from the date of issuance, except in exceptional circumstances.

Repurchases   

The Fund does not currently intend to list its Common Stock for trading on any securities exchange or any other trading market in the near future. The Fund intends, but is not obligated, to conduct quarterly tender offers for up to 5.0% of the aggregate NAV of its outstanding Common Stock at the applicable NAV per share as of the applicable valuation date in the sole discretion of the board of directors of the Fund (the “Board”). In the event a tender offer is oversubscribed and in accordance with rules promulgated by the SEC, the Fund may accept for purchase additional outstanding shares of Common Stock representing up to 2.0% of the aggregate NAV of its outstanding Common Stock without amending or extending the tender offer.

 

Repurchases will be made at such times and on such terms as may be determined by the Board, in its sole discretion. However, no assurance can be given that repurchases will occur or that any Common Stock properly tendered will be repurchased by the Fund.

 

The Fund may but does not expect to make a tender offer for its Common Stock during the first six months of operations following effectiveness of the Fund’s registration statement.

 

In any given quarter, the Adviser may or may not recommend to the Board that the Fund conduct a tender offer. For example, if adverse market conditions cause the Fund’s investments to become more illiquid or trade at depressed prices or if the Adviser believes that conducting a tender offer for 5.0% of the aggregate NAV of the Fund’s outstanding Common Stock would impose an undue burden on stockholders who do not tender compared to the benefits of giving stockholders the opportunity to sell all or a portion of their Common Stock at NAV, the Fund may choose not to conduct a tender offer or may choose to conduct a tender offer for less than



 

11


Table of Contents
  

5.0% of the aggregate NAV of its outstanding Common Stock. Regardless of the recommendation of the Adviser, the Board may or may not determine to cause the Fund to conduct a tender offer for any given quarter.

 

The Fund intends to comply with an exemption under FINRA Rule 5110 that requires the Fund to make at least two tender offers per calendar year. However, there may be quarters in which no tender offer is made, and it is possible that no tender offers will be conducted by the Fund at all. If a tender offer is not made, stockholders may not be able to sell their Common Stock as it is unlikely that a secondary market for the Common Stock will develop or, if a secondary market does develop, stockholders may be able to sell their Common Stock only at substantial discounts from NAV. If the Fund does conduct tender offers, it may be required to sell its more liquid, higher quality portfolio securities to fund the purchase of shares of Common Stock that are tendered, which may increase risks for remaining stockholders and increase fund expenses as a percent of assets. The Fund is designed primarily for long-term investors and an investment in the Fund’s Common Stock should be considered illiquid. For more information concerning repurchases, see “Risks—Liquidity Risk” and “Repurchases.”

Leverage    The Fund may use leverage to provide additional funds to support its investment activities. The Fund itself expects to use entity level debt (non-mortgage debt at the Fund level) and expects its investments will utilize property level debt financing (mortgages on the Fund’s properties that are not recourse to the Fund except in extremely limited circumstances). See “Risks—Recourse Financings Risk.” Property level debt will be incurred by operating entities held by the Fund and secured by real estate owned by such operating entities. If an operating entity were to default on a loan, the lender’s recourse would be to the


 

12


Table of Contents
  

mortgaged property and the lender would typically not have a claim to other assets of the Fund or its subsidiaries. The Fund may also incur entity level debt, including unsecured and secured credit facilities from certain financial institutions and other forms of borrowing (collectively, “Borrowings”) and is limited to 33 1/3% of the Fund’s total assets (less all liabilities and indebtedness not represented by Investment Company Act leverage) immediately after such Borrowings. In addition, the Fund may enter into investment management techniques (including reverse repurchase agreements and derivative transactions) that have similar effects as leverage, but which are not subject to the foregoing 33 1/3% limitation if effected in compliance with applicable SEC rules and guidance. Furthermore, the Fund may add leverage to its portfolio through the issuance of preferred stock (“Preferred Stock”) in an aggregate amount of up to 50% of the Fund’s total assets (less all liabilities and indebtedness not represented by Investment Company Act leverage) immediately after such issuance. On January 27, 2021, the Fund issued $125,000 total liquidation preference of Preferred Stock entitled to cumulative preferential dividends of 12% per annum. See “Leverage” and “Risks—Leverage Risk.”

 

Borrowings (and any Preferred Stock) have seniority over Common Stock. Any Borrowings and Preferred Stock (if issued) leverage investments in Common Stock. Holders of Common Stock bear the costs associated with any Borrowings, and if the Fund issues Preferred Stock, holders of Common Stock bear the offering costs of the Preferred Stock issuance. The Board may authorize the use of leverage through Borrowings and Preferred Stock without the approval of the holders of Common Stock.

 

The Fund may not use leverage at all times and the amount of leverage may vary depending upon a number of factors, including the Adviser’s outlook for the market and the costs that the Fund would incur as a result of such leverage. There is no assurance that the Fund’s leveraging strategy will be successful.

Distributions   

Beginning with the end of the Fund’s first full calendar month of operations after the date of this prospectus, the Fund will seek to pay consistent monthly distributions at an attractive distribution yield to stockholders of record. The Fund intends to accrue and declare distributions daily and distribute them on a monthly basis. In addition, the Fund intends to distribute any net capital gains it earns from the sale of portfolio securities to stockholders no less frequently than annually. Net short-term capital gain distributions may be paid more frequently. The Fund intends to make distributions necessary to maintain its qualification as a REIT. See “Distributions.”

 

Cash distributions to holders of our Common Stock will automatically be reinvested under our Distribution Reinvestment Plan (the “DRIP”) in additional whole and fractional shares unless you elect to receive your distributions in cash. Investors may terminate their participation in the DRIP with prior written notice to us. Under the DRIP, stockholders’ distributions are reinvested in Common Stock of the same class of Common Stock owned by the stockholder for a purchase price equal to the



 

13


Table of Contents
   NAV per share (for the class of Common Stock being purchased) on the date that the distribution is paid. See “Distribution Reinvestment Plan.”
Expenses and Reimbursement   

Subject to the terms and conditions outlined in this prospectus, the Fund will reimburse the Adviser for any actual third-party expenses incurred on behalf of the Fund. Such expenses will include, but are not limited to, costs related to valuation, audit, reporting, regulatory, administration, compliance and financing as well as legal services. The Fund will also reimburse the Adviser for actual operating and property expenses incurred on behalf of the Fund for property management, acquisitions, dispositions and financings. KKR has and expects in the future to hire third-party or affiliated property managers (who could also be joint venture partners for an investment) at prevailing market rates to perform management and specialized services for the Fund’s commercial real estate investments.

 

KKR has agreed to fund the Fund’s organizational and offering expenses until the initial sale of Common Stock in this offering. The Fund will reimburse these expenses, subject to a specified expense cap and reimbursement limitations (as detailed below).

 

Pursuant to an Expense Limitation and Reimbursement Agreement, through December 31, 2022, the Adviser has agreed to waive its fees and/or reimburse expenses of the Fund so that certain of the Fund’s expenses (“Specified Expenses”) will not exceed 0.50% of net assets (annualized). The Fund has agreed to repay these amounts, when and if requested by the Adviser, but only if and to the extent that Specified Expenses are less than 0.50% of net assets (annualized) (or, if a lower expense limit is then in effect, such lower limit) within three years after the date the Adviser waived or reimbursed such fees or expenses; provided, however, that the Adviser may recapture a Specified Expense in the same year it is incurred. This arrangement cannot be terminated prior to December 31, 2022 without the Board’s consent. “Specified Expenses” is defined to include all expenses incurred in the business of the Fund, including organizational and offering costs, with the exception of (i) the Management Fee, (ii) the Incentive Fee, (iii) the servicing fee, (iv) the distribution fee, (v) property level expenses, (vi) brokerage costs or other investment-related out-of-pocket expenses, including with respect to unconsummated investments, (vii) dividend/interest payments (including any dividend payments, interest expenses, commitment fees, or other expenses related to any leverage incurred by the Fund), (viii) taxes, and (ix) extraordinary expenses (as determined in the sole discretion of the Adviser).

 

For a more complete discussion of the Fund’s expenses and reimbursement arrangements, see “Summary of Fund Expenses.”

Administrator    KKR (the “Administrator”) will serve as the Fund’s administrator and accounting agent. The Administrator will provide, or oversee the performance of, administrative and compliance services, including, but not limited to, maintaining financial records, overseeing the calculation of NAV, compliance monitoring (including diligence and oversight of our other service providers), preparing reports to stockholders and


 

14


Table of Contents
  

reports filed with the SEC, preparing materials and coordinating meetings of the Board, managing the payment of expenses and the performance of administrative and professional services rendered by others and providing office space, equipment and office services. The Administrator has entered into a sub-administration agreement with The Bank of New York Mellon.

 

The Fund will bear all other costs and expenses of its operations, administration and transactions, including, the Fund’s allocable portion of compensation, overhead (including rent, office equipment and utilities) and other expenses incurred by the Administrator in performing its duties, including the allocable portion of the compensation paid by the Administrator (or its affiliates) to the Fund’s chief compliance officer and chief financial officer and their respective staffs as well as investor relations, legal, operations and other non-investment professionals at the Administrator that perform duties for the Fund.

Independent Valuation Advisor    Altus Group U.S. Inc., an independent valuation services firm, will periodically review third-party appraisal reports and update valuations with respect to each of our properties in accordance with valuation guidelines approved by the Board. Altus Group U.S. Inc. will assist the Adviser in determining the estimated values of our real estate investments and the Administrator will use the estimated values provided as well as inputs from other sources in its calculation of our daily NAV per share.
Custodian and Transfer Agent    The Bank of New York Mellon will serve as the Fund’s custodian. DST Asset Manager Solutions, Inc. will serve as the Fund’s transfer agent. See “Custodian and Transfer Agent.”
Distributor    KKR Capital Markets LLC (the “Distributor”) is the principal underwriter and distributor of the Class S Shares, Class D Shares, Class U Shares and Class I Shares and serves in that capacity on a best efforts basis, subject to various conditions. Other broker-dealers (“Selling Agents”) may be appointed by the Distributor to assist in the sale of the Fund’s Common Stock on a best efforts basis. See “Plan of Distribution.”

Sales Load and Dealer Manager Fees

  

Class S Shares are subject to a sales load of up to 3.0% and a dealer manager fee of 0.5%, in each case, of the total purchase price per Class S Share (including sales load and dealer manager fees).

 

Sales loads may be reduced for certain categories of purchasers and for volume discounts, as disclosed in this prospectus. The Selling Agents may, in their sole discretion, reduce or waive the sales load on a non-scheduled basis in individual cases.

 

The Distributor may reallow sales loads and dealer manager fees to participating broker-dealers. No sales load or dealer manager fee will be paid with respect to purchases of Class D, Class U or Class I Shares or any Common Stock sold pursuant to the DRIP. Selling Agents typically receive the sales load with respect to the Class S Shares purchased by



 

15


Table of Contents
   their stockholders. Investors should consult with their Selling Agent about the sales load and any additional fees or charges their Selling Agent might impose on each class of shares.

Ongoing Distribution and Servicing Fees

   Participating broker dealers will receive ongoing distribution and servicing fees (a) of 0.85% of NAV per annum for Class S Shares and Class U Shares only (consisting of a 0.60% distribution fee (the “Distribution Fee”) and a 0.25% stockholder servicing fee (the “Servicing Fee”)), accrued daily and payable monthly and (b) of 0.25% for Class D Shares only (all of which constitutes payment for stockholder services, with no payment for distribution services) in each case as accrued daily, and payable monthly. Class I Shares do not incur Distribution or Servicing Fees.

Unlisted Closed-End Fund Structure; Limited Liquidity

   The Fund does not currently intend to list its Common Stock for trading on any securities exchange or any other trading market in the near future. There is currently no secondary market for its Common Stock and the Fund does not expect any secondary market to develop for its Common Stock. Stockholders of the Fund are not able to have their Common Stock redeemed or otherwise sell their Common Stock on a daily basis because the Fund is an unlisted closed-end fund. An investment in the Fund is suitable only for investors who can bear the risks associated with private market investments with potential limited liquidity of the Common Stock as described in “Repurchases” above.
Minimum Investment    Generally, the minimum initial investment is $10,000 for Class S Shares, Class D Shares and Class U Shares and $1,000,000 for Class I Shares. The minimum subsequent investment is $500 for each class of Common Stock, except for additional purchases pursuant to the DRIP, which are not subject to a minimum purchase amount. The minimum investment for each class of Shares can be modified or waived in the sole discretion of the Fund or the Distributor (defined below), including for certain financial firms that submit orders on behalf of their customers, the Fund’s officers and directors and certain employees of KKR, including its affiliates, vehicles controlled by such employees and their extended family members. See “Plan of Distribution—How to Purchase Common Stock.”
Investor Suitability   

An investment in the Common Stock is most suitable for investors who seek to diversify their personal portfolios with a real estate-based investment and seek to receive current income and obtain the benefits of potential long-term capital appreciation from real estate as an asset class. An investment in the Common Stock is least suitable for persons who require liquidity or guaranteed income.

 

Before making your investment decision, you should (i) consider the suitability of this investment with respect to your investment objective and personal financial situation and (ii) consider factors such as your personal net worth, income, age, risk tolerance and liquidity needs. An investment in the Fund should not be viewed as a complete investment program.



 

16


Table of Contents
  

 

An investment in the Fund involves a considerable amount of risk. It is possible that you may lose part or all of your investment in the Fund. An investment in the Fund is suitable only for investors who can bear the risks associated with private market investments with potential limited liquidity of the Common Stock. Common Stock should be viewed as a long-term investment within a multi-asset personal portfolio and should not be viewed individually as a complete investment program.

 

Class S Shares and Class U Shares are available to the general public through Selling Agents and other financial intermediaries that offer such share class. Class D Shares are generally available for purchase only (1) through fee-based programs, also known as wrap accounts, that provide access to Class D shares, (2) through participating broker-dealers that have alternative fee arrangements with their clients to provide access to Class D shares, (3) through investment advisers that are registered under the Advisers Act or applicable state law and direct clients to trade with a broker-dealer that offers Class D shares, (4) through bank trust departments or any other organization or person authorized to act in a fiduciary capacity for its clients or customers or (5) other categories of investors that we name in an amendment or supplement to this prospectus. Class I Shares are available only (1) through fee-based programs, known as wrap accounts, of investment dealers that provide access to Class I Shares, (2) through participating broker-dealers that have alternative fee arrangements with their clients, (3) through certain registered investment advisers, (4) through bank trust departments or any other organization or person authorized to act in a fiduciary capacity for its clients or customers, (5) to endowments, foundations, pension funds and other institutional investors for purchase in this offering, (6) to other categories of investors that we name in an amendment or supplement to this prospectus or (7) to the Fund’s officers and directors and their immediate family members, as well as officers and employees of KKR or other affiliates and their immediate family members, and, if approved by the Board, joint venture partners, consultants and other service providers.

KKR Commitment    We believe that alignment of interests with investors is a fundamental tenet of investing. In the simplest of terms, KKR is one of its own largest investors. KKR has purchased $159 million of Class I Shares to facilitate the acquisition of the Fund’s initial assets. In addition, we believe this investment creates a significant alignment of interests with our investors and demonstrates a strong commitment to the Fund’s strategy.
KKR Line of Credit    On April 1, 2021, the Fund entered into an unsecured line of credit with KKR Financial Holdings LLC, an affiliate of KKR, pursuant to which the Fund may borrow up to $100 million (consisting of a $50 million committed portion and a $50 million uncommitted portion) at an interest rate equal to the then-current interest rate offered by an unaffiliated third-party lender or, if no such rate is available, LIBOR plus 3.00%. Although its terms were structured to be fair and reasonable to the Fund, this line of credit is with an affiliate of KKR and the terms of the agreement were not negotiated


 

17


Table of Contents
   at arm’s-length. KKR may face conflicts of interest in connection with any borrowings or disputes under this unsecured line of credit.
Investments   

As of the date of this prospectus we own the following investments:

 

•  AIP-PMR Industrial 3-Pack, a real estate operating company that currently holds fee simple interests in three industrial properties totaling 1,529,000 square feet;

 

•  KRE El Camino Real, a real estate operating company that currently holds a fee simple interest in a prime single tenant property totaling approximately 77,000 square feet; and

 

•  300 Pine, a real estate operating company that current holds a fee simple interest in a prime single tenant property totaling 770,000 square feet.

 

See “The Fund’s Investments” for a more detailed discussion of our investments. We acquired our initial investments through a combination of property-level and entity-level debt and equity investments by us funded with the proceeds of KKR’s purchases of our Class I Shares and drawdowns of the KKR Line of Credit.

Summary of Risks   

Investing in the Fund involves risks, including the risk that a stockholder may receive little or no return on his or her investment or that a stockholder may lose part or all of his or her investment. The Fund should be considered a speculative investment that entails substantial risks, and a prospective investor should invest in the Fund only if they can sustain a complete loss of their investment. Below is a summary of some of the principal risks of investing in the Fund. For a more complete discussion of the risks of investing in the Fund, see “Risks.”

 

Stockholders should consider carefully the following principal risks before investing in the Fund:

 

Limited History of Operations. The Fund is a newly organized, non-diversified, closed-end management investment company with a limited operating history. As a result, prospective investors have limited track record or history on which to base their investment decision.

 

Investment and Market Risk. An investment in the Fund involves a considerable amount of risk. Before making an investment decision, a prospective investor should (i) consider the suitability of this investment with respect to his or her investment objectives and personal situation and (ii) consider factors such as his or her personal net worth, income, age, risk tolerance and liquidity needs. Your investment in Common Stock represents an indirect investment in the assets owned by the Fund, and the value of these assets will fluctuate, sometimes rapidly and unpredictably, and such investment is subject to investment risk, including the possible loss of the entire principal amount invested. The Fund will be materially affected by market, economic and political conditions globally and in the jurisdictions and sectors in which it invests or operates, including factors affecting interest rates, the availability of credit, currency exchange rates and trade barriers.



 

18


Table of Contents
  

 

Distributions Risk. There can be no assurance that the Fund will achieve investment results that will allow the Fund to make a specified level of cash distributions or maintain certain levels of cash distributions. All distributions will be paid at the discretion of the Board and may depend on the Fund’s earnings, the Fund’s net investment income, the Fund’s financial condition, compliance with applicable regulations and such other factors as the Board may deem relevant from time to time.

 

Liquidity Risk. The Fund is designed primarily for long-term investors and an investment in the Fund’s Common Stock should be considered illiquid. The Common Stock is not currently listed for trading on any securities exchange. There is currently no public market for the Common Stock and none is expected to develop. Although the Fund may offer to repurchase Common Stock from stockholders, no assurance can be given that these repurchases will occur as scheduled or at all.

 

Reliance on the Adviser and Investment Professionals. As of the date of this prospectus, the Fund has made a limited number of investments and the success of the Fund will therefore depend on the ability of the Adviser and its respective affiliates to identify and consummate suitable investments and to, when relevant, exit investments of the Fund prudently.

 

Delay in Use of Proceeds Risk. Although the Fund currently intends to invest the proceeds from any sale of the Common Stock offered hereby within three months from receipt thereof, such investments may be delayed if suitable investments are unavailable at the time. Delays which the Fund encounters in the selection, due diligence and origination or acquisition of investments would likely limit its ability to pay distributions and lower overall returns.

 

Best Efforts Offering Risk. This offering is being made on a “best efforts” basis, meaning the Distributor and broker-dealers participating in the offering are only required to use their best efforts to sell our shares and have no firm commitment or obligation to sell any of the shares. Even though KKR has purchased $159 million of Class I Shares, such amount will not, by itself be sufficient for us to purchase a diversified portfolio of investments. Further, if we are unable to raise substantial funds in this offering, the Fund’s Board may seek the approval of the Fund’s stockholders to sell all or substantially all of the Fund’s assets and dissolve the Fund. In the event of the liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the Fund, stockholders are entitled to receive the then-current NAV per share of the assets legally available for distribution to the Fund’s stockholders, after payment of or adequate provision for all of the Fund’s known debts and liabilities, including any outstanding debt securities or other borrowings and any interest thereon.

 

Competition Risk. Identifying, completing and realizing attractive portfolio investments is competitive and involves a high degree of uncertainty. In acquiring its target assets, the Fund will compete with a variety of institutional investors, including specialty finance companies, public and private funds (including other funds managed by KKR), REITs, commercial and investment banks, commercial finance and insurance companies and other financial institutions.



 

19


Table of Contents
  

 

Non-Diversification Risk. As a non-diversified investment company, the Fund may invest more than 5% of its total assets in the securities of one or more issuers. The Fund may therefore be more susceptible than a diversified fund to being adversely affected by events impacting a single investment, geographic location, security or investment type.

 

Illiquid Investment Risk. Many of the Fund’s investments will be illiquid, including the Fund’s commercial real estate investments. A variety of factors could make it difficult for the Fund to dispose of any of its illiquid assets on acceptable terms even if a disposition is in the best interests of the Fund’s stockholders. The Fund cannot predict whether it will be able to sell any asset for the price or on the terms set by it or whether any price or other terms offered by a prospective purchaser would be acceptable to the Fund.

 

Real Estate Investment Risk. The Fund’s investments will be subject to the risks typically associated with real estate, including but not limited to:

 

•  local, state, national or international economic conditions, including market disruptions caused by regional concerns, political upheaval, sovereign debt crises and other factors;

 

•  lack of liquidity inherent in the nature of the asset;

 

•  reliance on tenants/operators/managers to operate their businesses in a sufficient manner and in compliance with their contractual arrangements with the Fund;

 

•  ability and cost to replace a tenant/operator/manager upon default;

 

•  property management decisions;

 

•  property location and conditions;

 

•  property operating costs, including insurance premiums, real estate taxes and maintenance costs;

 

•  competition from comparable properties;

 

•  the occupancy rate of, and the rental rates charged at, the properties;

 

•  the ability to collect on a timely basis all rent;

 

•  the effects of any bankruptcies or insolvencies;

 

•  changes in interest rates and in the availability, cost and terms of mortgage financing;

 

•  changes in governmental rules, regulations and fiscal policies;

 

•  cost of compliance with applicable federal, state, and local laws and regulations;

 

•  acts of nature, including earthquakes, hurricanes and other natural disasters;



 

20


Table of Contents
  

 

•  the potential for uninsured or underinsured property losses; and

 

•  other factors which are beyond the Fund’s control.

 

Epidemics and Pandemics Risk. Many countries have experienced outbreaks of infectious illnesses in recent decades, including swine flu, avian influenza, SARS and COVID-19 (the “Coronavirus”). In December 2019, an initial outbreak of the Coronavirus was reported in Hubei, China. Since then, a large and growing number of cases have been confirmed around the world. The Coronavirus outbreak has resulted in numerous deaths and the imposition of both local and more widespread “work from home” and other quarantine measures, border closures and other travel restrictions, causing social unrest and commercial disruption on a global scale. The World Health Organization has declared the Coronavirus outbreak a pandemic. The ongoing spread of the Coronavirus has had, and will continue to have, a material adverse impact on local economies in the affected jurisdictions and also on the global economy, as cross border commercial activity and market sentiment are increasingly impacted by the outbreak and government and other measures seeking to contain its spread. The operations of KKR (including those relating to the Fund) have been, and could continue to be, adversely impacted, including through quarantine measures and travel restrictions imposed on KKR personnel or service providers based or temporarily located in affected countries, or any related health issues of such personnel or service providers. Any of the foregoing events could materially and adversely affect the Fund’s ability to source, manage and divest its investments and its ability to fulfill its investment objectives. Similar consequences could arise with respect to other comparable infectious diseases.

 

Commercial Real Estate Industry Risk. The Fund’s business and operations are dependent on the commercial real estate industry generally, which in turn is dependent upon broad economic conditions. Challenging economic and financial market conditions may cause the Fund to experience an increase in the number of commercial real estate investments that result in losses, including delinquencies, non-performing assets and a decrease in the value of the property or, in the case of traded real estate-related securities, collateral which secures its investments, all of which could adversely affect the Fund’s results of operations.

 

Joint Venture Risk. The Fund may in the future enter into joint ventures with third parties to make investments. The Fund may also make investments in partnerships or other co-ownership arrangements or participations. Such investments may involve risks not otherwise present with other methods of investment. In addition, disputes between the Fund and its joint venture partners may result in litigation or arbitration that would increase the Fund’s expenses and prevent the Fund’s officers and directors from focusing their time and efforts on the Fund’s business. The Fund may at times enter into arrangements that provide for unfunded commitments and, even when not contractually obligated



 

21


Table of Contents
  

to do so, may be incentivized to fund future commitments related to its investments.

 

Recourse Financings Risk. In certain cases, financings for the Fund’s commercial real estate properties may be recourse to the Fund. Lenders customarily require that a creditworthy parent entity enter into so-called “recourse carveout” guarantees to protect the lender against certain bad-faith or other intentional acts of the borrower in violation of the loan documents. A “bad boy” guarantee typically provides that the lender can recover losses from the guarantors for certain bad acts, such as fraud or intentional misrepresentation, intentional waste, willful misconduct, criminal acts, misappropriation of funds, voluntary incurrence of prohibited debt and environmental losses sustained by lender. Our “bad boy” guarantees could apply to actions of the joint venture partners associated with our investments. While the Adviser expects to negotiate indemnities from such joint venture partners to protect against such risks, there remains the possibility that the acts of such joint venture partner could result in liability to us under such guarantees.

 

Valuation Risk. Within the parameters of the Fund’s valuation guidelines, the valuation methodologies used to value the Fund’s assets will involve subjective judgments and projections and that ultimately may not materialize. Ultimate realization of the value of an asset depends to a great extent on economic, market and other conditions beyond the Fund’s control and the control of the Adviser and the Fund’s independent valuation advisors. Rapidly changing market conditions or material events may not be immediately reflected in our daily NAV.

 

Risks Related to Specific Commercial Real Estate Property Types. The Fund intends to invest in a variety of commercial real estate property types, which may expose the Fund to risks.

 

Prime Single Tenant Risk. The Fund depends on its tenants for revenue, and therefore the Fund’s revenue is dependent on the success and economic viability of its tenants. The Fund’s reliance on single tenants in prime single tenant properties may decrease its ability to lease vacated space and could adversely affect its income, performance, operations and ability to pay distributions. Certain of the Fund’s investments in properties will be leased out to single tenants that the Adviser believes have favorable credit profiles and/or performance attributes supporting highly visible long-term cash flows. Adverse impacts to such tenants, businesses or operators, including as a result of changes in market or economic conditions, natural disasters, outbreaks of an infectious disease, pandemic or any other serious public health concern, political events or other factors that may impact the operation of these properties, may have negative effects on our business and financial results.

 

Mortgage Loan Risk. The Fund may originate and selectively acquire senior mortgage loans which are generally loans secured by a first mortgage lien on a commercial property and are subject to risks of delinquency and foreclosure and risks of loss that are greater than similar risks associated with loans made on the security of single-family residential property. In addition, certain of the mortgage loans in which



 

22


Table of Contents
  

the Fund invests may be structured so that all or a substantial portion of the principal will not be paid until maturity, which increases the risk of default at that time. The ability of a borrower to repay a loan secured by an income-producing property typically is dependent primarily upon the successful operation of such property rather than upon the existence of independent income or assets of the borrower. In the event of any default under a mortgage loan held directly by the Fund, it will bear a risk of loss of principal to the extent of any deficiency between the value of the collateral and the principal and accrued interest of the mortgage loan, which could have a material adverse effect on the profitability of the Fund.

 

Mezzanine Loan Risk. The Fund may invest in mezzanine loans that take the form of subordinated loans secured by a pledge of the ownership interests of either the entity owning the real property or the entity that owns the interest in the entity owning the real property. These types of investments involve a higher degree of risk than first mortgage loans secured by income producing real property because the investment may become unsecured as a result of foreclosure by the senior lender. As a result, the Fund may not recover some or all of its investment.

 

CMBS Risk. Commercial mortgage-backed securities (“CMBS”) are, generally, securities backed by obligations (including certificates of participation in obligations) that are principally secured by mortgages on real property or interests therein having a multifamily or commercial use, such as regional malls, other retail space, office buildings, industrial or warehouse properties, hotels, nursing homes and senior living centers. CMBS are subject to particular risks, including lack of standardized terms, shorter maturities than residential mortgage loans and payment of all or substantially all of the principal only at maturity rather than regular amortization of principal.

 

RMBS Risk. Our investments in residential mortgage-backed securities (“RMBS”) are subject to the risks of defaults, foreclosure timeline extension, fraud, home price depreciation and unfavorable modification of loan principal amount, interest rate and amortization of principal accompanying the underlying residential mortgage loans. In the event of defaults on the residential mortgage loans that underlie our investments in RMBS and the exhaustion of any underlying or any additional credit support, we may not realize our anticipated return on our investments and we may incur a loss on these investments. We may also acquire non-agency RMBS, which are backed by residential property but, in contrast to agency RMBS, their principal and interest are not guaranteed by federally chartered entities such as Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac and, in the case of the Government National Mortgage Association.

 

Below Investment Grade (High Yield or Junk) Securities Risk. A material portion of the Fund’s traded real estate-related securities (including both direct and indirect investments) may consist of below investment grade securities. Lower grade securities may be particularly susceptible to economic downturns. Because of the substantial risks associated with investments in lower grade securities, you could lose



 

23


Table of Contents
  

money on your investment in Common Stock, both in the short-term and the long-term.

 

Capital Markets Risk. The Fund expects to fund a portion of its commercial real estate investments with property-level financing. There can be no assurance that any financing will be available in the future on acceptable terms, if at all, or that it will be able to satisfy the conditions precedent required to use its credit facilities, if entered into, which could reduce the number, or alter the type, of investments that the Fund would make otherwise. Any failure to obtain financing could have a material adverse effect on the continued development or growth of the Fund’s investments and harm the Fund’s ability to operate and make distributions.

 

Interest Rate Risk. The Fund’s investments will expose it to interest rate risk, meaning that changes in prevailing market interest rates could negatively affect the value of such investments. If interest rates increase, so could the Fund’s interest costs for new debt, including variable rate debt obligations under any credit facility or other financing. This increased cost could make the financing of any development or acquisition more costly. Changes in interest rates may also affect certain of the Fund’s investments in traded real estate-related securities to the extent such debt does not float as a result of floors or otherwise. Factors that will affect market interest rates include, without limitation, inflation, deflation, slow or stagnant economic growth or recession, unemployment, money supply, governmental monetary policies, international disorders and instability in domestic and foreign financial markets.

 

LIBOR Risk. The Fund may pay interest under mortgages or credit facilities, and receive interest payments on certain of its real estate-related securities, based on the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”), which is the subject of recent national, international and regulatory guidance and proposals for reform. Abandonment of, or modifications to, LIBOR may adversely affect interest expense related to borrowings under the Fund’s credit facilities and real estate-related investments. The Fund’s debt may include floating-rate loans for which the interest rates are tied to LIBOR and real estate-related investments with interest payments based on LIBOR. There is currently no definitive information regarding the future utilization of LIBOR or of any particular replacement rate. Any benchmark may perform differently during any phase-out period than in the past. As such, the potential effect of any such event on the Fund’s cost of capital and net investment income cannot yet be determined, and any changes to benchmark interest rates could increase the Fund’s financing costs or decrease the income the Fund earns on its real estate debt investments, which could impact the Fund’s results of operations, cash flows and the market value of its investments.

 

Derivatives Risk. The Fund may invest in derivative instruments, such as options contracts, futures contracts, options on futures contracts, indexed securities, credit linked notes, credit default swaps and other swap agreements for investment, hedging and risk management purposes.



 

24


Table of Contents
  

Derivatives are subject to a number of risks described elsewhere in this prospectus, such as liquidity risk, interest rate risk, credit risk, management risk. Derivatives are also subject to counterparty risk, which is the risk that the other party in the transaction will not fulfill its contractual obligation. Derivative instruments can be illiquid, may disproportionately increase losses, and may have a potentially large impact on Fund performance.

 

Leverage Risk. The Fund may use leverage in connection with its investments. Leverage may result in greater volatility of the NAV of, and distributions on, the Common Stock because changes in the value of the Fund’s portfolio investments, including investments purchased with the proceeds from Borrowings or the issuance of Preferred Stock, if any, are borne entirely by holders of Common Stock.

 

Potential Conflicts of Interest Risk. KKR serves as adviser or sub-advisers to other vehicles that have the same or similar investment objectives and investment strategies to those of the Fund. As a result, the Adviser and the Fund’s portfolio managers may devote unequal time and attention to the management of the Fund and those other funds and accounts. Conflicts of interest exist or could arise in the future as a result of the relationships between us and our affiliates, on the one hand, and our wholly-owned operating partnership or any partner thereof, on the other. KKR has and expects in the future to hire affiliated property managers (who could also be joint venture partners for an investment) at prevailing market rates to perform management and specialized services for the Fund’s commercial real estate investments. For further information on potential conflicts of interest, see “Conflicts of Interest.”

 

Allocation of Investment Opportunities Risk. Certain other existing or future funds, investment vehicles and accounts managed by KKR and its affiliates and KKR proprietary entities invest in securities, properties and other assets in which the Fund seeks to invest. The Adviser’s allocation policy is designed to fairly and equitably distribute investment opportunities over time among funds or pools of capital managed by the Adviser and its affiliates. Allocation of identified investment opportunities among the Fund, KKR and other KKR investment vehicles presents inherent conflicts of interest where demand exceeds available supply. While the Adviser believes it is likely that there will be a limited overlap of investment opportunities for the Fund and other KKR investment vehicles and KKR proprietary accounts, the Fund’s share of investment opportunities may be materially affected by competition from other KKR investment vehicles and KKR proprietary entities. Investors should note that the conflicts inherent in making such allocation decisions will not always be resolved in favor of the Fund. See “Investment Objectives and Strategies—Allocation of Investment Opportunities” and “Conflicts of Interest.”

 

Anti-Takeover Provisions. The Fund’s charter and bylaws, as well as certain statutory and regulatory requirements, contain certain provisions that may have the effect of discouraging a third party from attempting to acquire the Fund. These provisions may inhibit a change of control in



 

25


Table of Contents
  

circumstances that could give the stockholders the opportunity to realize a premium over the value of the Common Stock.

 

Incentive Fee Risk. The incentive fee may create an incentive for the Adviser to make investments in order to maximize Portfolio Operating Income under the incentive fee even if such investments may not benefit our NAV, cause us to use more leverage than it otherwise would in the absence of the incentive fee or to otherwise make riskier investments on our behalf. While the Board does not monitor specific investment decisions by the Adviser and the particular timing of individual investment decisions as they relate to the Incentive Fee, the Board, as part of its fiduciary duties and responsibilities under the Investment Company Act (relating to future determinations as to whether to renew the investment advisory agreement with the Adviser), considers whether the incentive fee is fair and reasonable.

 

Payment of Management and Incentive Fees in Shares Risk. The Fund intends to rely on exemptive relief from the SEC that will permit the Fund to pay the Adviser all or a portion of its Management Fees and Incentive Fees in shares of Common Stock in lieu of paying the Adviser an equivalent amount of such fees in cash, which may dilute third party interests in the Fund.

 

Non-U.S. Investment Risks. We may invest in real estate located outside of the United States and real estate debt issued in, and/or backed by real estate in, countries outside the United States, including Asia and Europe. Non-U.S. real estate and real estate-related investments involve certain factors not typically associated with investing in real estate and real estate-related investments in the U.S., including risks relating to (i) currency exchange matters; (ii) differences in conventions relating to documentation, settlement, corporate actions, stakeholder rights and other matters; (iii) differences between U.S. and non-U.S. real estate markets, including potential price volatility in and relative illiquidity of some non-U.S. markets; (iv) the absence of uniform accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards, practices and disclosure requirements and differences in government supervision and regulation; (v) certain economic, social and political risks; (vi) the possible imposition of non-U.S. taxes on income and gains and gross sales or other proceeds recognized with respect to such investments; (vii) differing and potentially less well-developed or well-tested corporate laws regarding stakeholder rights, creditors’ rights (including the rights of secured parties), fiduciary duties and the protection of investors; (viii) different laws and regulations including differences in the legal and regulatory environment or enhanced legal and regulatory compliance; (ix) political hostility to investments by foreign investors; (x) less publicly available information; (xi) obtaining or enforcing a court judgement abroad; (xii) restrictions on foreign investment in other jurisdictions; and (xiii) difficulties in effecting repatriation of capital.

 

Property Manager Risk. The Adviser will hire property managers to manage our properties and leasing agents to lease vacancies in our properties. These property managers may be our affiliates or partners in



 

26


Table of Contents
  

joint ventures that we enter into. The property managers have significant decision-making authority with respect to the management of our properties. Our ability to direct and control how our properties are managed on a day-to-day basis may be limited because we engage other parties to perform this function. Thus, the success of our business may depend in large part on the ability of our property managers to manage the day-to-day operations and the ability of our leasing agents to lease vacancies in our properties. To the extent permitted by the Investment Company Act, such property managers may also be affiliated with KKR, which could result in conflicts of interest. Any adversity experienced by, or problems in our relationship with, our property managers or leasing agents could adversely impact the operation and profitability of our properties.

 

Risks Related to the Fund’s REIT Status. The Fund expects to operate so as to qualify as a REIT under the Code. However, qualification as a REIT involves the application of highly technical and complex Code provisions for which only a limited number of judicial or administrative interpretations exist. Notwithstanding the availability of cure provisions in the Code, various compliance requirements could be failed and could jeopardize the Fund’s REIT status.

 

Tax Risks of Investing in the Fund. Even if the Fund qualifies and maintains its status as a REIT, it may become subject to U.S. federal income taxes and related state and local taxes.

Key Features of a REIT   

We intend to elect to be taxed as a REIT beginning with our taxable year ended December 31, 2020. In general, a REIT is a company that:

•  acquires or provides financing for real estate assets;

•  offers the benefits of a professionally managed real estate portfolio;

•  satisfies the various requirements of the Code, including a requirement to distribute at least 90% of its REIT taxable income each year to its stockholders; and

•  is generally not subject to U.S. federal corporate income taxes on its net taxable income that it currently distributes to its stockholders, which substantially eliminates the “double taxation” (i.e., taxation at both the corporate and stockholder levels) that generally results from investments in a C corporation.

Limitation on Ownership Level    Our charter contains restrictions on the number of shares any one person or group may own. Specifically, our charter will not permit any person or group to own more than 9.8% in value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of our outstanding common stock or of our outstanding capital stock of all classes or series, and attempts to acquire our common stock or our capital stock of all other classes or series in excess of these 9.8% limits would not be effective without an exemption from these limits (prospectively or retroactively) by the Board. These limits may be further reduced if the Board waives these limits for certain holders. See “Certain Provisions of the Articles of


 

27


Table of Contents
   Incorporation—Transfer Restrictions.” These restrictions are designed, among other purposes, to enable us to comply with ownership restrictions imposed on REITs by the Code. Attempted acquisitions in excess of the restrictions described above will, pursuant to the charter, be void from the outset.

U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations

  

We intend to elect and qualify to be taxed as a REIT.

 

Our qualification and taxation as a REIT depend upon our ability to meet on a continuing basis, through actual operating results, certain qualification tests set forth in the U.S. federal tax laws. Those qualification tests involve the percentage of income that we earn from specified sources, the percentage of our assets that falls within specified categories, the diversity of the ownership of our shares, and the percentage of our taxable income that we distribute. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations.” No assurance can be given that the Fund will in fact satisfy such requirements for any taxable year.

 

If we qualify as a REIT, we generally will be allowed to deduct dividends paid to stockholders and, as a result, we generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax on that portion of our ordinary income and net capital gain that we annually distributes to stockholders, as long as we meet the minimum distribution requirements under the Code. We intend to make distributions to stockholders on a regular basis as necessary to avoid material U.S. federal income tax and to comply with the REIT distribution requirements. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations.”

 

In the case of certain U.S. stockholders, we expect your IRS Form 1099-DIV tax information, if required, to be sent to stockholders following the end of each year.



 

28


Table of Contents

SUMMARY OF FUND EXPENSES

This table illustrates the fees and expenses of the Fund that you will incur if you buy and hold shares of the Fund’s Common Stock. Because the Fund has a limited operating history, many of these expenses are estimates.

 

     Class I
Shares
     Class D
Shares
     Class S
Shares
     Class U
Shares
 

Stockholder Transaction Expenses:

           

Maximum Sales Load (as a percentage of the offering price)1

     None        None        3.0%        None  

Maximum Dealer Manager Fees (as a percentage of the offering price)1

     None        None        0.5%        None  

Annual Expenses (Percentage of Net Assets Attributable to Shares)

 

Management Fee2

     1.25%        1.25%        1.25%        1.25%  

Incentive Fee3

     0.88%        0.88%        0.88%        0.88%  

Servicing Fee4

     None        0.25%        0.25%        0.25%  

Distribution Fee5

     None        None        0.60%        0.60%  

Interest Payments on Borrowed Funds6

     0.36%        0.36%        0.36%        0.36%  

Property Level Expenses7

                           

Other Expenses8

     1.25%        1.25%        1.25%        1.25%  

Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses

     3.73%        3.98%        4.58%        4.58%  

Fees Waived and/or Expenses Reimbursed9

     -0.75%        -0.75%        -0.75%        -0.75%  

Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses After Fee Waiver and/or Expense Reimbursement

     2.98%        3.23%        3.83%        3.83%  

 

 

1

KKR Capital Markets LLC (the “Distributor”) is the principal underwriter and distributor of the Fund’s Common Stock and serves in that capacity on a best efforts basis, subject to various conditions. Shares may be offered through Selling Agents that have entered into selling agreements with the Distributor. Selling Agents typically receive the sales load with respect to Class S Shares purchased by their clients. The Distributor does not retain any portion of the sales load or dealer manager fees. Class S Shares are subject to a maximum sales load of up to 3.0% of the offering price. However, purchases of Class S Shares may be eligible for a sales load discount. Class S Shares are subject to a maximum dealer manager fee of 0.5% of the offering price. See “Purchase of Shares—Sales Loads and Dealer Manager Fees.” The Selling Agents may, in their sole discretion and subject to applicable law, reduce or waive the sales load on a non-scheduled basis in individual cases. Class D Shares, Class U Shares and Class I Shares are each not subject to a sales load or dealer manager fee; however, investors could be required to pay brokerage commissions on purchases and sales of Class D, Class U or Class I Shares to their Selling Agents. Investors should consult with their Selling Agents about the sale load and any additional fees or charges their Selling Agents might impose on each class of Shares.

 

 

2

Pursuant to an investment advisory agreement, the Adviser receives a Management Fee, payable monthly in arrears by the Fund, at an annual rate equal to 1.25% of the average daily value of the Fund’s net assets. The Adviser has voluntarily agreed to waive its Management Fee from effectiveness of the Fund’s registration statement until December 31, 2021. Effective January 1, 2022, the Adviser’s agreement to temporarily waive its Management Fee will terminate and the Adviser will receive a Management Fee at an annual rate of 1.25% of the average daily value of the Fund’s net assets. This voluntary fee reduction is not reflected in the fee schedule above. The longer an investor holds shares of the Fund’s common stock during this period, the longer such investor will receive the benefit of this Management Fee waiver period.

 

3

Pursuant to an investment advisory agreement, the Adviser receives an incentive fee calculated and payable quarterly in arrears in an amount equal to 12.5% of the Fund’s Portfolio Operating Income for the immediately preceding quarter. See “Management of the Fund—Investment Advisory Agreements and

 

29


Table of Contents
  Fees.” For purposes of the table above, we have assumed Portfolio Operating Income equal to 7% of the Fund’s net asset value. Actual Portfolio Operating Income may be higher or lower.

 

4

The Fund pays the Distributor a Servicing Fee that is payable monthly and accrued daily at an annualized rate of 0.25% of the net assets of the Fund attributable to Class D Shares, Class S Shares and Class U Shares. The Servicing Fee is for personal services provided to stockholders and/or the maintenance of stockholder accounts and to reimburse the Distributor for related expenses incurred. The Distributor generally will pay all or a portion of the Servicing Fee to the Selling Agents that sell Class D Shares, Class S Shares and Class U Shares. The Servicing Fee is governed by the Fund’s Distribution and Service Plan.

 

5

The Fund pays the Distributor a Distribution Fee that is payable monthly and accrued daily at an annualized rate of 0.60% of the net assets of the Fund attributable to Class U Shares and Class S Shares. The Distribution Fee is for the sale and marketing of the Class U Shares and Class S Shares and to reimburse the Distributor for related expenses incurred. All or a portion of the Distribution Fee may be used to pay for sub-transfer agency, sub-accounting and certain other administrative services that are not required to be paid pursuant to a service fee under Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”) rules. The Distributor generally will pay all or a portion of the Distribution Fee to the Selling Agents that sell Class U Shares and Class S Shares. Payment of the Distribution Fee is governed by the Fund’s Distribution and Service Plan.

 

6

The table assumes the average use of leverage by the Fund (including by the Fund’s consolidated subsidiaries) in an amount equal to 10% of the Fund’s total assets (less all liabilities and indebtedness not represented by Investment Company Act leverage) and assumes the annual interest rate on borrowings is 3.2%. The Fund’s actual interest costs associated with leverage may differ from the estimates above. In addition, the Fund also expects that its unconsolidated operating entities will use borrowings, the costs of which will be indirectly borne by stockholders. On April 1, 2021, the Fund entered into an unsecured line of credit with KKR Financial Holdings LLC, an affiliate of KKR, pursuant to which the Fund may borrow up to $100 million (consisting of a $50 million committed portion and a $50 million uncommitted portion) at an interest rate equal to the then-current interest rate offered by an unaffiliated third-party lender or, if no such rate is available, LIBOR plus 3.00%.

 

7

Represents estimated fees and expenses related to property management, disposition expenses, any other expenses related to investments in real property by the Fund’s consolidated subsidiaries for the first year of the Fund’s operations. In addition, the Fund also expects that its unconsolidated operating entities will incur property management, disposition and other expenses related to investments in real property, the costs of which will be indirectly borne by stockholders. The Fund’s real estate operating subsidiaries have and expect in the future to hire affiliated property managers (who could also be joint venture partners for an investment) at prevailing market rates to perform management and specialized services for the Fund’s commercial real estate investments.

 

8

“Other Expenses” are estimated based on average Fund net assets of $240,000,000 and anticipated expenses for the first year of the Fund’s operations after the commencement of this offering (assuming that the Fund has $150,000,000 of net assets from the KKR commitment as of the commencement of this offering). “Other Expenses” include professional fees, preferred share dividends, offering expenses and other expenses, including, without limitation, filing fees, printing fees, administration fees, investor servicing fees, custody fees, director fees, insurance costs and financing costs. Any offering expenses will be amortized over a twelve-month period.

 

9

Pursuant to an Expense Limitation and Reimbursement Agreement, through December 31, 2022, the Adviser has agreed to waive its fees and/or reimburse expenses of the Fund so that certain of the Fund’s Specified Expenses will not exceed 0.50% of net assets (annualized). The Fund has agreed to repay these amounts, when and if requested by the Adviser, but only if and to the extent that Specified Expenses are less than 0.50% of net assets (annualized) (or, if a lower expense limit is then in effect, such lower limit) within three years after the date the Adviser waived or reimbursed such fees or expenses; provided, however, that the Adviser may recapture a Specified Expense in the same year it is incurred. This arrangement cannot be terminated prior to December 31, 2022 without the Board’s consent. “Specified Expenses” is defined to include all expenses incurred in the business

 

30


Table of Contents
  of the Fund, including organizational and offering costs, with the exception of (i) the Management Fee, (ii) the Incentive Fee, (iii) the Servicing Fee, (iv) the Distribution Fee, (v) property level expenses, (vi) brokerage costs or other investment-related out-of-pocket expenses, including with respect to unconsummated investments, (vii) dividend/interest payments (including any dividend payments, interest expenses, commitment fees, or other expenses related to any leverage incurred by the Fund), (viii) taxes, and (ix) extraordinary expenses (as determined in the sole discretion of the Adviser).

Class I Example

The following example illustrates the expenses that you would pay on a $1,000 investment in Class I Shares and assuming (i) that during the first year of the Fund’s operations, after the commencement of this offering, the Fund raises $330,000,000 and issues an aggregate offering amount of approximately $82,500,000 of Class I Shares, (ii) total annual expenses of net assets attributable to the Class I Shares remains the same, (iii) a 5% annual return, (iv) reinvestment of all dividends and distributions at net asset value and (v) application of the Expense Limitation and Reimbursement Agreement through December 31, 2022:

 

     1 Year      3 Years      5 Years      10 Years  

Total Expenses Incurred

   $ 30      $ 100      $ 180      $ 388  

The example should not be considered a representation of future expenses. Actual expenses may be greater or less than those shown.

Class D Example

The following example illustrates the expenses that you would pay on a $1,000 investment in Class D Shares and assuming (i) that during the first year of the Fund’s operations, after the commencement of this offering, the Fund raises $330,000,000 and issues an aggregate offering amount of approximately $82,500,000 of Class D Shares, (ii) total annual expenses of net assets attributable to the Class D Shares remains the same, (iii) a 5% annual return, (iv) reinvestment of all dividends and distributions at net asset value and (v) application of the Expense Limitation and Reimbursement Agreement through December 31, 2022:

 

     1 Year      3 Years      5 Years      10 Years  

Total Expenses Incurred

   $ 33      $ 107      $ 191      $ 409  

The example should not be considered a representation of future expenses. Actual expenses may be greater or less than those shown.

Class S Example

The following example illustrates the expenses that you would pay on a $1,000 investment in Class S Shares and assuming (i) the maximum sales load, (ii) the Fund issues an aggregate offering amount of approximately $82,500,000 of Class S Shares each year, (iii) total annual expenses of net assets attributable to the Class S Shares remains the same, (iv) a 5% annual return, (v) reinvestment of all dividends and distributions at net asset value and (vi) application of the Expense Limitation and Reimbursement Agreement through December 31, 2022:

 

     1 Year      3 Years      5 Years      10 Years  

Total Expenses Incurred

   $ 39      $ 125      $ 219      $ 459  

The example should not be considered a representation of future expenses. Actual expenses may be greater or less than those shown.

 

31


Table of Contents

Class U Example

The following example illustrates the expenses that you would pay on a $1,000 investment in Class U Shares and assuming (i) that during the first year of the Fund’s operations, after the commencement of this offering, the Fund raises $330,000,000 and issues an aggregate offering amount of approximately $82,500,000 of Class U Shares, (ii) total annual expenses of net assets attributable to the Class U Shares remains the same, (iii) a 5% annual return, (iv) reinvestment of all dividends and distributions at net asset value and (v) application of the Expense Limitation and Reimbursement Agreement through December 31, 2022:

 

     1 Year      3 Years      5 Years      10 Years  

Total Expenses Incurred

   $ 39      $ 125      $ 219      $ 459  

The example should not be considered a representation of future expenses. Actual expenses may be greater or less than those shown.

 

32


Table of Contents

FINANCIAL HIGHLIGHTS

The information contained in the tables below sets forth selected information derived from the financial statements included in the SAI, which for the period ended December 31, 2020 have been audited by Deloitte & Touche LLP, the Fund’s independent registered public accounting firm (“Deloitte”).

The report of Deloitte is included in the financial statements included in the SAI. The information provided below should be read in conjunction with the financial statements. The Fund’s audited financial statements as of December 31, 2020 and for the period from July 2, 2020 (commencement of operations) to December 31, 2020 and unaudited financial statements as of March 31, 2021 and for the three months ended March 31, 2021 are included in the SAI.

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

KKR Real Estate Select Trust Inc.

Consolidated Financial Highlights

 

     For the three
months ended
March 31,
2021
(unaudited)
    For the Period
from July 2,
2020
(commencement
of operations) to
December 31,
2020
 

Per Share Operating Performance (1)

    

Net asset value, beginning of period

   $ 26.32     $ 25.00  

Income from operations:

    

Net investment income

     0.27       0.35  

Net realized and unrealized gain

     2.27       0.97  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total income from operations

     2.54       1.32  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net asset value, end of year

   $ 28.86     $ 26.32  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total return (2)

     9.63     5.29
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Ratios to average net assets(3)

    

Expenses, before waiver

     2.74     8.35

Expenses, after waiver

     0.51     0.50

Net investment income

     4.92     3.97

Supplemental data

    

Net assets, end of period

   $ 107,614,898     $ 88,863,166  

Portfolio turnover rate (2)(4)

     0.00     0.77

 

(1)

Per share calculations were performed using the shares outstanding at the end of the period.

 

(2)

Total return and Portfolio turnover rate are for the period indicated and have not been annualized. Total return assumes a purchase of common stock at the net asset value on the first day and a sale at the net asset value on the last day of each period reported on the table.

 

(3)

Annualized and does not yet include the impact of management and incentive fees. Please refer to Note 4 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for reach respective period presented above for a discussion of the timing of management and incentive fees.

 

(4)

Portfolio turnover is calculated on the basis of the Fund as a whole.

 

33


Table of Contents

THE FUND

The Fund is a newly organized, non-diversified, closed-end management investment company that continuously offers its Common Stock. The Fund was organized as a Maryland corporation on February 18, 2020 and intends to elect to be taxed as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes under the Code. The Fund has a limited operating history. The Fund’s principal office is located at 30 Hudson Yards, New York, New York 10001 and its telephone number is (212) 750-8300.

 

34


Table of Contents

USE OF PROCEEDS

The Fund will invest the net proceeds from the sale of its Common Stock in accordance with the Fund’s investment objectives and policies as stated below. The Fund generally expects to invest the proceeds from the offering as soon as practicable; which under normal circumstances is expected to be within three months from receipt thereof. However, in certain limited circumstances, such as in the case of unusually large cash inflows, the Fund may take up to six months or longer to fully invest the proceeds from the offering. Pending investment pursuant to the Fund’s investment objectives and policies, the net proceeds of the offering may be invested in permitted temporary investments, including, without limitation, short-term U.S. government securities, bank certificates of deposits and other short-term liquid investments. In addition, the Fund may maintain a portion of the proceeds in cash to meet operational needs. The Fund may be prevented from achieving its investment objectives during any time in which the Fund’s assets are not substantially invested in accordance with its policies.

 

35


Table of Contents

INVESTMENT OBJECTIVES AND STRATEGIES

Benefits of Investing in Real Estate

Allocating a portion of your investment portfolio to real estate may provide you with a steady source of income, portfolio diversification, a hedge against inflation and attractive risk-adjusted returns.

Investors may benefit from adding a diversified real estate component to their investment portfolios for the following reasons:

 

   

Stabilized real estate combined with proactive investment management and asset management may create an attractive return profile.

 

   

Real estate as an inflation protected, yielding asset class is well-positioned to benefit in a low interest rate environment.

Market Opportunity

We believe that real estate investments with growth potential and a defensive cash flow base in the largest and most active real estate markets can provide income and sustain growth over the long term. We expect to hold investments in this strategy through economic cycles. By focusing on assets and markets with attractive long-term fundamentals that can support attractively-priced long-term capital structures, we believe that we can generate attractive absolute and relative total returns with a substantial income component.

We believe our investment strategies are attractive for the following reasons:

 

   

Investors are intensifying their search for yield amid declining interest rates, which is leading to increased asset allocation to real estate.2

 

   

Continued demographic, technological and preference changes are accelerating urbanization, and we believe certain real estate markets are poised to be the outsized beneficiaries of future economic growth. The Fund anticipates focusing on opportunities within these population centers.

 

   

Secular growth trends may benefit our target asset classes, including multifamily, industrial, office in innovation markets, and select specialty sectors. KKR has historical experience acquiring and operating each of these asset classes in several markets.

Investment Objectives

The Fund’s primary investment objective is to provide attractive current income with a secondary objective of long-term capital appreciation. There can be no assurance that the Fund will achieve its investment objectives.

The Fund’s investment objectives are not fundamental and may be changed by the Board without the approval of the holders of a majority of the outstanding Common Stock or Preferred Stock, if any. The Fund is not required to provide prior notice to stockholders of any change to its investment objectives.

Investment Strategies

The Fund intends to achieve its investment objectives by investing primarily in a portfolio of real estate through exposure to three primary investment strategies:

 

  1.

Thematically-Driven Stabilized Real Estate: Stabilized, income-oriented commercial real estate equity investments in asset classes that we expect to benefit from secular growth trends, including multifamily, industrial, office in innovation markets, and select specialty sectors such as student housing, primarily in U.S. markets that offer the potential to generate high current income and, to a lesser extent, long-term capital appreciation.

 

2 Source: Cornell University Baker Program in Real Estate, Hodes Weill & Associates, May 9, 2019.

 

36


Table of Contents
  2.

Prime Single Tenant: High quality commercial real estate primarily located in or in close proximity to major metropolitan statistical areas and growth markets in the United States with favorable economic and demographic conditions and leased for long durations (typically greater than 10 years at acquisition) to single tenants that the Adviser believes have favorable credit profiles and/or performance attributes supporting highly visible long-term cash flows.

 

  3.

Private Real Estate Debt and Preferred Equity: Privately sourced debt and preferred equity interests that offer current income secured or backed by high quality real estate. The Fund intends to originate and selectively acquire mezzanine loans, which are structurally subordinate to senior loans but senior to equity in the borrower and preferred equity, which is subordinated to debt. To a lesser extent, the Fund may also originate and selectively acquire senior mortgage loans, which are generally loans secured by a first mortgage lien on a commercial property.

The Fund intends, under normal circumstances, to invest at least 80% of its net assets (plus the amount of its borrowings for investment purposes) in a portfolio of real estate, including in the form of property investments and real estate-related debt interests and to a lesser extent in traded real estate-related securities. The Fund’s 80% real estate investment policy may only be changed with 60 days’ prior notice to stockholders of the Fund.

We plan to own all or substantially all of our property investments through our wholly-owned operating partnership. The Fund’s property investments in each primary strategy are expected to be structured through privately-owned operating entities or private real estate operating companies which hold whole or partial interests in real properties. We expect to pursue these investments through various transaction types, such as large single asset purchases, portfolio purchases, platform build-ups and public to private transactions.

To a lesser extent, the Fund may also make investments in traded real estate-related securities such as MBS and equity or debt securities issued by REITs or real estate-related investment companies for the purposes of (i) making investments that provide current income to the Fund and provide a source of liquidity for tender offers or other liquidity requirements and (ii) to opportunistically exploit periods of market dislocation where the trading value of such securities sufficiently exceeds the relative value of private opportunities available in the Fund’s three primary investment strategies.

It is expected that the Fund’s portfolio will primarily be comprised of equity or debt interests in commercial properties located in the United States, although the Fund may also make investments in equity or debt interests in properties outside of the United States, including developed markets in Asia and Europe.

On a long-term basis, under normal circumstances, KKR expects to allocate the Fund’s portfolio among the Fund’s three primary investment strategies. Since real estate markets are often cyclical in nature, we do not target specific allocations by investment strategy or geography. The Fund will deploy capital into the investment strategy that provides the best opportunities to meet our investment objectives. For the purpose of providing liquidity for periodic share repurchases, we intend to, subject to any limitations and requirements relating to our intention to qualify as a REIT, generally maintain an allocation to securities, cash, cash equivalents and other short-term investments, which under normal circumstances may be up to 20% of our assets. In addition, we may seek to make opportunistic purchases of securities and other real estate-related short-term investments for investment purposes. Accordingly, at times the Fund’s investments in securities, including preferred equity in private real estate, traded real estate-related securities, minority investments in real estate owning vehicles, derivatives and other securities, may exceed 40% of the Fund’s assets.

The Fund has applied for exemptive relief from the SEC that permits it to, among other things, co-invest with certain other persons, including certain affiliates of the Adviser and certain public or private funds managed by the Adviser and its affiliates, subject to certain terms and conditions. However, there is no assurance that such relief will be granted.

 

37


Table of Contents

Portfolio Composition

The Fund’s portfolio will be comprised principally of the following types of investments. A more detailed description of the Fund’s investment policies and restrictions and more detailed information about the Fund’s portfolio investments are contained in the Statement of Additional Information (the “SAI”).

Investments in Thematically-Driven Stabilized Real Estate and Prime Single Tenant Properties

The Fund intends to make equity investments in stabilized, income-oriented commercial real estate in asset classes that are expected to benefit from secular growth trends, including multifamily, industrial, office in innovation markets, and select specialty sectors such as student housing primarily in U.S. markets that offer the potential to generate high current income and, to a lesser extent, long-term capital appreciation. Stabilized income-oriented real estate generally means that a property is well leased to tenants and does not require material capital improvements. The Fund also intends to make equity investments in high quality commercial real estate primarily located in or in close proximity to major metropolitan statistical areas and growth markets in the United States with favorable economic and demographic conditions and leased for long durations (typically at least a 10 year-period) to single tenants that the Adviser believes have favorable credit profiles and/or performance attributes supporting highly visible long-term cash flows.

Property Characteristics. The Fund intends to invest in high-quality, stabilized assets and portfolios with defensive, in-place cash flows that require limited near-term capital expenditures.

Location. The Fund intends to invest in major markets primarily in North America that the Adviser believes offer the most attractive risk-adjusted returns consistent with the objectives of the Fund, typically underpinned with an attractive outlook for secular growth in population and employment.

Property Types. On behalf of the Fund, the Adviser intends to invest primarily in the following commercial real estate property types:

Multifamily Properties. Multifamily properties are generally defined as having five or more dwelling units that are part of a single complex and offered for rental use as opposed to detached single-family residential properties.

Industrial Properties. Industrial properties are generally categorized as warehouse/distribution centers, research and development facilities, flex space or manufacturing.

Office Properties. Office properties include conventional office properties as well as office properties for specialized use, such as medical or laboratory use.

Select Specialty Sectors. Select specialty sectors include sub-segments of the real estate industry with purpose-built properties, such as student housing or self-storage.

Ownership Structure. We plan to own all or substantially all of our property investments through our wholly-owned operating partnership. The Fund’s property investments in each primary strategy are expected to be structured through privately-owned operating entities or private real estate operating companies which hold whole or partial interests in real properties. The Fund may also enter into joint ventures with third parties to make investments. The Fund may also make investments in partnerships or other co-ownership arrangements or participations arrangements with other investors, including affiliates, to acquire properties. The Fund will generally acquire fee simple interests for the properties (in which we own both the land and the building improvements), but may consider leased fee and leasehold interests if the Adviser believes the investment is consistent with the Fund’s investment objectives and strategies.

 

38


Table of Contents

Investments in Private Real Estate Debt and Preferred Equity

In addition to equity investments in the property types listed above, the Fund may also invest in privately sourced debt and preferred equity interests that offer current income secured or backed by high quality real estate. The Fund intends to originate and selectively acquire mezzanine loans, preferred equity, and to a lesser extent, senior mortgage loans.

The loans may vary in duration, bear interest at fixed or floating rates and amortize, if at all, over varying periods, often with a balloon payment of principal at maturity and in the case of mezzanine and preferred equity may allow for interest to accrue and be added to the principal amount rather than paid on a current basis and may include equity participation rights. The borrower of the Fund’s loan investments will generally be responsible for servicing obligations. In cases where the Fund as lender is responsible for servicing a loan, such obligations will generally consist of collecting, or arranging for the collection of, interest payments and, when applicable, enforcing the Fund’s rights under the loan documentation. There are no limits on the amount of loans the Fund may originate; provided such transactions comply with the Fund’s 80% real estate investment policy and do not impact the Fund’s ability to maintain its status as a REIT.

Mezzanine Loans. Mezzanine loans are a type of subordinate loan in which the loan is secured by one or more direct or indirect ownership interests in an entity that directly or indirectly owns real estate. Mezzanine loans are subordinate to a first mortgage or other senior debt. Investors in mezzanine loans are generally compensated for the increased credit risk from a pricing perspective and still benefit from the right to foreclose on its security, in many instances more efficiently than the rights of foreclosure for first mortgage loans. Upon a default by the borrower under a mezzanine loan, the mezzanine lender generally can take control of the property owning entity on an expedited basis, subject to the rights of the holders of debt senior in priority on the property. Rights of holders of mezzanine loans are usually governed by intercreditor or interlender agreements, which may limit the Fund’s ability to pursue remedies.

Preferred Equity. Preferred equity is a type of interest in an entity that owns real estate or real estate-related investments. Preferred equity interests are generally senior with respect to the payments of dividends and other distributions, redemption rights and rights upon liquidation to such entity’s common equity. Investors in preferred equity are typically compensated for their increased credit risk from a pricing perspective with fixed payments but may also participate in capital appreciation. Upon a default by a general partner of a preferred equity issuer, there typically is a change of control event and the limited partner assumes control of the entity. Rights of holders of preferred equity are usually governed by partnership agreements.

Senior Mortgage Loans. Senior mortgage loans are generally loans secured by a first mortgage lien on a commercial property. Senior mortgage loans generally provide for a higher recovery rate and lower defaults than other debt positions due to the lender’s favorable control features which at times may mean control of the entire capital structure.

Subordinate Mortgage Loans. Subordinate mortgage loans are loans that have a lower priority to collateral claims. Investors in subordinate mortgages are generally compensated for the increased risk from a pricing perspective as compared to first mortgage loans but still benefit from a direct lien on the related property or a security interest in the entity that owns the real estate. Investors typically receive principal and interest payments at the same time as senior debt unless a default occurs, in which case these payments are made only after any senior debt is repaid in full. The rights of holders of subordinate mortgages are usually governed by participation and other agreements.

Investments in Traded Real Estate-Related Securities

The Fund intends to invest a portion of its portfolio in traded real estate-related securities, which includes MBS and other equity or debt securities issued by REITs or real estate-related investment companies.

 

39


Table of Contents

The Fund expects that its investments in traded real estate-related securities will primarily be in U.S. securities, but it may also invest in non-U.S. securities.

The Fund plans to primarily invest in the following traded real estate-related securities:

CMBS. CMBS are securities backed by obligations (including certificates of participation in obligations) that are principally secured by commercial mortgages on real property or interests therein having a multifamily

or commercial use, such as retail, office or industrial properties, hotels, apartments, nursing homes and senior living facilities. CMBS are typically issued in multiple tranches whereby the more senior classes are entitled to priority distributions from the trust’s income to make specified interest and principal payments on such tranches. Losses and other shortfalls from expected amounts to be received on the mortgage pool are borne by the most subordinate classes, which receive principal payments only after the more senior classes have received all principal payments to which they are entitled. The credit quality of CMBS depends on the credit quality of the underlying mortgage loans, which is a function of factors such as the principal amount of loans relative to the value of the related properties; the cash flow produced by the property; the mortgage loan terms, such as principal amortization; market assessment and geographic location; construction quality of the property; and the creditworthiness of the borrowers.

Agency RMBS. Agency RMBS are residential mortgage-backed securities for which a U.S. government agency such as Government National Mortgage Association (“Ginnie Mae”), or a federally chartered corporation such as Federal National Mortgage Association (“Fannie Mae”) or Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“Freddie Mac”) guarantees payments of principal and interest on the securities. Although the U.S. government guarantees principal and interest payments on securities issued by the U.S. government and some of its agencies, such as securities issued by Ginnie Mae, this guarantee does not apply to losses resulting from declines in the market value of these securities. Some agency RMBS that the Fund may hold are not guaranteed or backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government, such as those issued by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. Although the U.S. government in the past has provided financial support to Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, there can be no assurance that it will support these or other government-sponsored enterprises in the future.

Agency RMBS differ from other forms of traditional debt securities, which normally provide for periodic payments of interest in fixed amounts with principal payments at maturity or on specified call dates. Instead, agency RMBS provide for monthly payments, which consist of both principal and interest. In effect, these payments are a “pass-through” of scheduled and prepaid principal payments and the monthly interest made by the individual borrowers on the mortgage loans, net of any fees paid to the issuers, servicers or guarantors of the securities. The principal may be prepaid at any time due to prepayments on the underlying mortgage loans or other assets. These differences can result in significantly greater price and yield volatility than is the case with traditional fixed-income securities.

The Fund’s allocation of agency RMBS collateralized by fixed-rate mortgages (“FRMs”), adjustable rate mortgages (“ARMs”), or hybrid adjustable-rate mortgages (“hybrid ARMs”) will depend on various factors including, but not limited to, relative value, expected future prepayment trends, supply and demand, costs of hedging, costs of financing, expected future interest rate volatility and the overall shape of the Treasury and interest rate swap yield curves. The Adviser intends to take these factors into account when making investments on behalf of the Fund. The Fund may also make investments in debentures that are issued and guaranteed by Freddie Mac or Fannie Mae or mortgage-backed securities the collateral of which is guaranteed by Ginnie Mae, Freddie Mac, Fannie Mae or another federally chartered corporation.

Non-Agency RMBS. Non-agency RMBS are residential mortgage-backed securities that are collateralized by pools of mortgage loans assembled for sale to investors by commercial banks, savings and loan associations and specialty finance companies. Non-agency RMBS are not issued or guaranteed by a U.S. government agency or federally chartered corporation. Like agency RMBS, non-agency RMBS represent interests in pools of mortgage loans secured by residential real property.

 

40


Table of Contents

The mortgage loan collateral for non-agency RMBS consists of residential mortgage loans that do not generally conform to underwriting guidelines issued by a federally chartered corporation, such as Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac, or an agency of the U.S. government, such as Ginnie Mae, due to certain factors, including mortgage balances in excess of agency underwriting guidelines, borrower characteristics, loan characteristics and level of documentation, and therefore are not issued or guaranteed by an agency. The Fund may also invest in credit risk transfer notes that, while not structured products, face similar risks as structured products because they are debt securities issued by governmental agencies but their value depends in part on a pool of mortgage loans.

The non-agency and agency RMBS acquired by the Fund could be secured by FRMs, ARMs, hybrid ARMs or interest only mortgages. FRMs have interest rates that are fixed for the term of the loan and do not adjust. The interest rates on ARMs generally adjust annually (although some may adjust more frequently) to an increment over a specified interest rate index. Hybrid ARMs have interest rates that are fixed for a specified period of time (typically three, five, seven or ten years) and, thereafter, adjust to an increment over a specified interest rate index. ARMs and hybrid ARMs generally have periodic and lifetime constraints on how much the loan interest rate can change on any predetermined interest rate reset date. Interest only securities are backed by mortgages where the borrower pays interest only. Relative value analysis, including consideration of current market conditions, will determine the Fund’s allocation to FRMs, ARMs, hybrid ARMs and interest only mortgages.

The Fund’s allocation of non-agency RMBS collateralized by FRMs, ARMs, hybrid ARMs or interest only mortgages will depend on various factors including, but not limited to, relative value, expected future prepayment trends, home price appreciation trends, supply and demand, availability of financing, expected future interest rate volatility and the overall state of the non-agency RMBS secondary market. Borrowers of the underlying loans that secure the non-agency RMBS assets which the Fund may purchase can be divided into prime, Alternative-A (“Alt-A”) and subprime borrowers based on their credit rating.

Other Fixed-Income Instruments. The Fund may invest in fixed-income instruments, such as investment grade and high-yield corporate debt securities, or junk bonds, or U.S. government debt securities. The issuer of a fixed-income instrument pays the investor a fixed- or variable-rate of interest and normally must repay the amount borrowed on or before maturity. Certain bonds are “perpetual” in that they have no maturity date. Holders of fixed-income bonds as creditors have a prior legal claim over common and preferred stockholders as to both income and assets of the issuer for the principal and interest due them and may have a prior claim over other creditors but are generally subordinate to any existing lenders in the issuer’s capital structure. Fixed-income instruments may be secured or unsecured. The investment return of corporate bonds is generated by payments of interest on the security and changes in the market value of the security. The market value of a corporate bond, especially a fixed-rate bond, will generally rise and fall inversely with interest rates. The value of intermediate- and longer-term corporate bonds normally fluctuates more in response to changes in interest rates than does the value of shorter-term corporate bonds. The market value of a corporate bond also may be affected by the credit rating of the corporation, the corporation’s performance and perceptions of the corporation in the market place. There is a risk that the issuers of the securities may not be able to meet their obligations on interest or principal payments at the time called for by an instrument. Corporate fixed-income instruments usually yield more than government or agency bonds due to the presence of credit risk. The types of mortgage-backed securities in which the Fund may invest include interest-only, inverse-interest only, or principal only residential MBS, commercial MBS, collateralized mortgage obligations (“CMOs”), securities issued by Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduits (“REMICs”), Re-securitized Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduits (“Re-REMICs”), pass-through certificates, credit linked notes, mortgage forwards or “to be announced” transactions, collateralized loan obligations backed by commercial loans and mortgage servicing rights securities. The Fund may invest in a Re-REMIC in order to obtain exposure to mortgages with a specific risk profile that could not otherwise be obtained through the purchase of existing REMICs. Pass-through certificates are fixed income securities whereby certificates are issued representing interests in a pool of mortgages or mortgage-backed securities. The Fund may invest in various tranches or classes of MBS.

Publicly Traded REITs. The Fund may invest in publicly traded REITs. REITs are investment vehicles that invest primarily in income-producing real estate or mortgages and other real estate-related loans or interests.

 

41


Table of Contents

Many public REITs are listed on major stock exchanges, such as the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. Publicly traded REITs typically employ leverage, which magnifies the potential for gains and the risk of loss. They typically pay out all of their taxable income as dividends to stockholders. In turn, stockholders pay the income taxes on those dividends.

Ratings of Securities. The Fund may invest in debt securities that are rated investment grade, debt securities rated below investment grade, and unrated debt securities. The Fund is not required to hold any minimum percentage of its NAV in debt securities rated investment grade.

Derivatives

Generally, derivatives are financial contracts whose value depends upon, or are derived from, the value of an underlying asset, reference rate or index, and may relate to individual debt or equity instruments, interest rates, currencies or currency exchange rates and related indexes.

In the normal course of business, the Fund will be exposed to the effect of interest rate changes, price changes and currency fluctuations and may seek to limit these risks by following established risk management policies and procedures including the use of derivatives. To mitigate exposure to variability in interest rates, derivatives may be used primarily to fix the rate on debt based on floating-rate indices and manage the cost of borrowing obligations.

The Fund may use a variety of commonly used derivative products, including interest rate swaps, caps, collars, floors, options contracts, futures contracts, options (on securities, bonds, currencies, interest rates, indices or swaps), swaps (including interest rate, credit default, equity index and total return swaps) and other swap agreements for investment, hedging and risk management purposes. Subject to the Fund’s 80% investment requirement, the Fund may invest without limitation in Treasury futures, Eurodollar futures, interest rate swaps, swaptions or similar instruments and combinations thereof. The Fund will use the market value, and not the notional value, of any derivatives used for purposes of the 80% test. See “Risks—Derivatives Risk.” We have a policy of entering into contracts with only major financial institutions based upon minimum credit ratings and other factors. We will periodically review the effectiveness of each hedging transaction.

The Fund will engage in derivative transactions only to the extent such transactions are consistent with the requirements of the Code for maintaining its qualification as a REIT for federal income tax purposes. See “Certain U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations.”

Temporary Strategies

At times the Adviser may judge that conditions in the markets make pursuing the Fund’s primary investment strategy inconsistent with the best interests of its stockholders. During temporary periods or in order to keep the Fund’s cash fully invested until the net proceeds of this offering of Common Stock can be invested in accordance with our primary investment strategies, the Fund may deviate from its investment policies and objectives. At such times the Adviser may, temporarily, use alternative strategies primarily designed to reduce fluctuations in the value of the Fund’s assets. If the Fund takes a temporary position, it may be unable to achieve its investment objectives. While the Fund would seek to continue to qualify as a REIT during such a period, there can be no guarantee it will be able to do so.

In implementing these temporary strategies, the Fund may invest all or a portion of its assets in fixed income securities; traded real estate-related securities; U.S. government securities, including bills, notes and bonds differing as to maturity and rates of interest that are either issued or guaranteed by the Treasury or by U.S. government agencies or instrumentalities; certificates of deposit issued against funds deposited in a bank or a savings and loan association; commercial paper; bankers’ acceptances; bank time deposits; shares of money market funds; securities issued or guaranteed by the federal government or any of its agencies, or any state or local government; repurchase agreements with respect to any of the foregoing; or any other securities or cash equivalents that the Adviser considers consistent with this strategy.

 

42


Table of Contents

It is impossible to predict when, or for how long, the Fund will use these alternative strategies. There can be no assurance that such strategies will be successful.

Investment Process

KKR’s investment approach is rooted in the belief that real estate fundamentals, values and returns are highly dependent on macroeconomic conditions, business and consumer preferences and demographic trends. KKR believes that real estate valuations have diverged significantly across different asset classes, markets and geographies, making theme identification, market selection, asset selection and portfolio construction key to generating attractive real estate returns over the long term.

KKR takes a thematic approach to investing, seeking to identify high-conviction themes and investing strategies that we believe benefit from a combination of cyclical and/or secular demand trends or market features and may result in attractive risk-adjusted returns. KKR’s research-driven approach to theme and strategy development leverages the broader KKR ecosystem, including KKR Private Equity, KKR Credit and the KKR Global Macro and Asset Allocation (“GMAA”) to develop and refine its investment themes. KKR believes that its access to differentiated industry expertise and deep global relationships and networks positions KKR to identify attractive demographic and industry trends that affect real estate fundamentals.

KKR has a research-intensive approach to developing investment themes and strategies, utilizing KKR resources and data, industry research and its deep industry relationships. Proactively identifying these themes and strategies allows KKR to develop in-depth industry expertise, establish deep industry relationships and guide intermediary relationships to opportunities where KKR is most convicted and can move expediently. This approach is designed to result in a highly selective and targeted method to investing and allows the Real Estate Team to develop a competitive advantage in sourcing transactions.

KKR’s theme development process includes the following three steps:

 

  1.

Opportunity Identification

 

   

Leverage KKR resources (Private Equity and GMAA)

 

   

Identify economic and demographic trends that impact real estate fundamentals

 

   

Identify markets and asset classes that benefit from trends

 

   

Determine whether current valuations present an attractive investment opportunity

 

   

Understand key risks and opportunities within thesis

 

  2.

Investment Approach

 

   

Discuss with market participants to refine thesis

 

   

Develop conviction around thesis with KKR Real Estate, investment committee and GMAA

 

   

Refine target strategy (i.e., target markets and target asset classes)

 

   

Establish target investment approach (i.e., joint venture, platform, etc.)

 

   

Identify potential operating partners and management teams

 

   

Develop view on size of opportunity, portfolio construction and ability to scale

 

  3.

Execution

 

   

Establish deep relationships with key intermediaries within target markets and asset classes

 

43


Table of Contents
   

Determine if scale can create a competitive advantage

 

   

Work with top operators, where relevant, in aligned structure, creating a differentiated operating model

 

   

Develop differentiated financing approach

 

   

Maximize value through flexible approach to exit

Upon the establishment of the top down targeted investment themes and strategies, KKR then seeks to source actionable investment opportunities within the parameters of each theme or strategy to perform a detailed bottoms up fundamental due diligence review of each investment opportunity, including:

 

   

understanding the underlying macro and micro economic fundamentals that drive the cash flow generating capacity of the opportunity, including a stringent evaluation of the market in which a property is located, such as local supply constraints, the quality and nature of the local workforce and prevailing local real estate values;

 

   

performing a fundamental analysis of the property and its operating performance, including tenant rosters, lease terms, zoning, operating costs and the asset’s overall competitive position in its market;

 

   

understanding leasing market conditions affecting the underlying real estate;

 

   

completing physical inspections of the property and/or commissioning/review of third-party reports, including appraisals, engineering reports and environmental reports;

 

   

evaluating the appropriateness of estimated costs and timing associated with capital improvements of the property where applicable;

 

   

completing detailed modeling of the cash flow in place and projected to be in place over the term of the investment;

 

   

in the case of single-tenant investments, evaluating the criticality of the real estate to the tenant’s operations and the ability to release upon a tenant departure;

 

   

performing detailed credit analysis on the financial health of key tenants;

 

   

completing legal review of all leases and major contracts, including terms of expense reimbursements where applicable and identifying any legal risks and potential mitigants;

 

   

identifying the appropriate capital structure to support the investment thesis and business plans;

 

   

in the case of equity investments, structuring the proper incentives and governance structure with our operating partners and management teams or, in the case of debt investments, evaluating the operating expertise and financial strength of the sponsor and borrower;

 

   

completing a valuation of the investment, including the investment basis relative to its value and the ability to liquidate the investment through a sale or refinancing of the underlying asset;

 

   

in the case of debt investments, reviewing the overall structure of the investment and rights in the collateral documentation;

 

   

assessing any stakeholder issues affecting the real estate; and

 

   

for directly originated loan investments, considering the quality of the underlying property, the location and geographic market of the underlying property, the cash flow of the underlying property, the reputation, experience and financial health of the sponsor that owns the equity of the underlying property, the loan-to-value ratio, the structure of the loan and the contractual rights and remedies available to the Fund

Each investment opportunity is thoroughly screened and discussed throughout the evaluation process with the KKR Real Estate Investment Committee, represented by the most senior members of the Real Estate Team, who are required to approve each transaction.

 

44


Table of Contents

KKR strives to maintain robust processes and accountability to ensure it makes well-informed investment decisions, allocates capital effectively, actively engages in key decisions impacting operational value creation, rigorously monitors investments, and, when relevant, exits prudently. Success requires sophisticated internal processes that continuously test KKR’s performance and leverages the collective skills, experience, and resources across the firm. In addition to a dedicated team whose members have honed their track records in sourcing, executing and managing real estate opportunities, KKR’s Real Estate Team is also supported by the firm’s broader capabilities and experience globally.

Allocation of Investment Opportunities

The Adviser’s allocation policy is designed to fairly and equitably distribute investment opportunities over time among funds or pools of capital managed by the Adviser and its affiliates. The Adviser’s allocation policy provides that once an investment has been approved it will be allocated to the funds or other pools of capital that have investment strategies suitable for such investment opportunity. If an investment opportunity is suitable for more than one fund or pool of capital, each suitable fund or pool of capital will receive a share of the investment based on its desired hold amount. Determinations as to desired hold amounts are based on such factors as: investment objectives and focus, target investment sizes, available capital, the timing of capital inflows and outflows and anticipated capital commitments and subscriptions, liquidity profile, applicable concentration limits and other investment restrictions, mandatory minimum investment rights and other contractual obligations applicable to participating funds and pools of capital, portfolio diversification, tax efficiencies and potential adverse tax consequences, regulatory restrictions applicable to participating funds and pools of capital, policies and restrictions (including internal policies and procedures) applicable to the participating funds and pools of capital, the avoidance of odd-lots or cases where a pro rata or other defined allocation methodology would result in a de minimis allocation to any participating funds and pools of capital, the potential dilutive effect of a new position, the overall risk profile, targeted beverage levels and targeted return of a portfolio, and the potential return available from a debt investment as compared to an equity investment. The outcome of this determination will result in the allocation of all, some or none of an investment opportunity to the Fund. In addition, subject to applicable law, affiliates of the Adviser will, from time to time, invest in one of the Fund’s portfolio investments and hold a different class of securities than the Fund. To the extent that an affiliate of the Adviser holds a different class of securities than the Fund, its interests might not be aligned with the Fund’s. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Adviser will act in the best interest of the Fund in accordance with its fiduciary duty to the Fund. Prior to receipt of co-investment relief, if a negotiated investment opportunity that the Fund cannot participate with affiliated funds in without co-investment relief is appropriate for both the Fund and one or more other funds, investment vehicles and accounts managed by KKR advised by the Adviser or KKR, the investment opportunity will not be shared and the Fund will receive all or none of the investment opportunity, on a basis that fairly and equitably distributes investment opportunities over time taking into consideration whether the Fund, any other fund, investment vehicle and account managed by KKR has a particular focus with respect to such investment opportunity.

Additionally, certain investment opportunities that may be appropriate for us may be allocated to other existing or future funds, investment vehicles and accounts managed by KKR and its affiliates. Currently, KKR manages a fund that invests in “core+” real estate in the United States (which are generally substantially stabilized assets generating relatively stable cash flow), with a focus on multifamily, industrial, office in innovation markets, senior housing and student housing in the top fifteen U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (together with future accounts with similar investment strategies, the “Private Core+ Accounts”). KKR believes it is likely that there will be a limited overlap of investment opportunities for us and the Private Core+ Accounts because of our primary investment objective of providing current income. To the extent an investment satisfies the investment objectives, targets and restrictions of us and the Private Core+ Accounts on the same terms, including at the lower leverage targeted by the Private Core+ Accounts, such investment will be allocated in accordance with KKR’s prevailing policies and procedures described above, subject to the requirements of the Investment Company Act and any form of co-investment relief we may obtain. KKR also manages KKR Real Estate Finance Trust Inc. and other investment vehicles and accounts, which invest in loans collateralized by commercial real estate (the “RE Credit Accounts”). KKR believes it is also likely that there will be a limited

 

45


Table of Contents

overlap of investment opportunities for the Fund and the RE Credit Accounts because the Fund’s focus on private mezzanine and preferred equity debt interests as compared to the RE Credit Accounts’ investment focus on stabilized and transitional whole loans. To the extent an investment satisfies the investment objectives of the Fund and the RE Credit Accounts on the same terms, such investment will be allocated in accordance with KKR’s prevailing policies and procedures described above, subject to the requirements of the Investment Company Act and any form of co-investment relief we may obtain.

 

46


Table of Contents

THE FUND’S INVESTMENTS

As of the date of this prospectus, we had made three investments in real estate operating companies, as described below.

Investments in Thematically-Driven Stabilized Real Estate and Prime Single Tenant Properties

The following table provides a summary of our real estate portfolio as of the date of this prospectus:

 

Investment

  Location  

Type

 

Acquisition
Date

  Ownership
Percentage
 

Purchase
Price(1)

 

Equity at
Cost / FMV(2)

  Square
Feet
  Occupancy
Rate

AIP-PMR Industrial 3-Pack

  Portland, OR
Metropolitan
Area
  Industrial   July 2020     $63 million     349,000   100%
  Memphis, TN
Metropolitan
Area
  Industrial   July 2020   99.50%   $53 million   $60 million / $69 million   770,000   100%
  Raleigh-
Durham, NC
Metropolitan
Area
  Industrial   November 2020     $52 million     410,000   100%
KRE El Camino Real   Palo Alto,
CA
  Prime Single Tenant   December 2020   99.50%   $104 million   $26 million / $26 million   77,000   100%
300 Pine   Seattle, WA   Prime Single Tenant   April 2021   50.51%   $601 million   $80 million / $80 million   770,000   93%

 

(1)

100% ownership basis excluding closing costs.

(2)

Fair market value as of 3/31/2021 except for 300 Pine which represents cost.

AIP-PMR Industrial 3-Pack – In July 2020, we acquired a 100% equity interest in a real estate operating company (“AIP-PMR Industrial 3-Pack”) which currently holds fee simple interests in three industrial properties totaling 1,529,000 square feet. AIP-PMR Industrial 3-Pack’s properties consist of a Class “A” distribution center located in the Portland, Oregon metropolitan area, a Class “A” distribution center located in the Memphis, Tennessee metropolitan area and a last mile distribution center located in the Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina metropolitan area. Each property is 100% leased to a single tenant. AIP-PMR Industrial 3-Pack acquired the three properties for a purchase price of approximately $168.3 million through a combination of approximately $108.7 million of property-level debt and an equity investment by us of approximately $59.6 million funded with the proceeds of purchases by KKR of our Class I common stock pursuant to KKR’s capital commitment. A limited liability company controlled by employees of the operating partner to AIP-PMR Industrial 3-Pack holds the remaining 0.51% economic interest representing greater than 5% of the voting securities in AIP-PMR Industrial 3-Pack.

KRE El Camino Real – In December 2020, we acquired a 100% equity interest in a real estate operating company (“KRE El Camino”) which currently holds a fee simple interest in a mixed-use property in Palo Alto, California totaling approximately 77,000 square feet. The property is primarily leased to a single investment grade tenant pursuant to a lease with approximately 17 years remaining. KRE El Camino acquired the property for a purchase price of approximately $106.0 million through a combination of approximately $80.0 million of property-level debt and an equity investment by us of approximately $26.0 million funded with the proceeds of purchases by KKR of our Class I common stock pursuant to KKR’s capital commitment. A limited liability company controlled by employees of the operating partner to KRE El Camino holds the remaining 0.50% economic interest representing greater than 5% of the voting securities in KRE El Camino.

300 Pine – In April 2021, we acquired an approximately 50.5% equity interest in a real estate operating company (“300 Pine”) which currently holds a fee simple interest in a mixed-use property in Seattle, Washington totaling approximately 770,000 square feet. The property is primarily leased to a single investment grade tenant

 

47


Table of Contents

pursuant to a lease with approximately 12 years remaining. 300 Pine acquired the property for a purchase price of approximately $600 million inclusive of capital reserves through a combination of approximately $455 million of property-level debt, an equity investment by us of approximately $80 million, an equity investment by our joint venture partner of approximately $77 million, and an equity investment by our operating partner of approximately $0.77 million.

Investments in Private Real Estate Debt and Preferred Equity

As of the date of this prospectus, we had not yet made any investments in private real estate debt or preferred equity.

 

48


Table of Contents

LEVERAGE

The Fund may use leverage to provide additional funds to support its investment activities. The Fund itself expects to use entity level debt (non-mortgage debt at the Fund level) and expects its investments will utilize property level debt financing (mortgages on the Fund’s properties that are not recourse to the Fund except in extremely limited circumstances). See “Risks—Recourse Financings.”

Property level debt will be incurred by operating entities held by the Fund or by joint ventures entered into by one of the Fund’s operating entities and secured by real estate owned by such operating entities. Such operating entities or joint ventures would solely own real estate assets and would borrow from a lender using the owned property as mortgage collateral. If an operating entity or joint venture were to default on a loan, the lender’s recourse would be to the mortgaged property and the lender would typically not have a claim to other assets of the Fund or its subsidiaries. When such property level debt is not recourse to the Fund, the Fund will not treat such borrowings as senior securities (as defined in the Investment Company Act) for purposes of complying with the Investment Company Act’s limitations on leverage unless (i) the operating entity is a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Fund, (ii) the Fund has sole majority control over the governance of a joint venture (which excludes shared control arrangements where the consents of both the Fund and another party are required for all material decisions) or (iii) the financial statements of the operating entity or joint venture holding such debt will be consolidated in the Fund’s financial statements. There is no guarantee that the Fund’s operating entities will be able to obtain mortgage loans on attractive terms or at all. In certain limited cases, property level debt may be recourse to the Fund. See “Risks—Recourse Financings Risk.”

The Fund may incur entity level debt, including unsecured and secured credit facilities from certain financial institutions and other forms of borrowing (collectively, “Borrowings”), representing up to 331/3% of the Fund’s total assets (less all liabilities and indebtedness not represented by Investment Company Act leverage) immediately after such Borrowings. In addition, the Fund may enter into investment management techniques (including reverse repurchase agreements and derivative transactions) that have similar effects as leverage, but which are not subject to the foregoing 331/3% limitation if effected in compliance with applicable SEC rules and guidance. Furthermore, the Fund may add leverage to its portfolio through the issuance of Preferred Stock in an aggregate amount of up to 50% of the Fund’s (less all liabilities and indebtedness not represented by Investment Company Act leverage) total assets immediately after such issuance. On January 27, 2021, the Fund issued $125,000 total liquidation preference of Preferred Stock entitled to cumulative preferential dividends of 12% per annum. See “Leverage” and “Risks—Leverage Risk.”

The Fund may not use leverage at all times and the amount of leverage may vary depending upon a number of factors, including the Adviser’s outlook for the market and the costs that the Fund would incur as a result of such leverage. Any Borrowings and Preferred Stock would have seniority over the Common Stock. There is no assurance that the Fund’s leveraging strategy will be successful.

Any Borrowings and Preferred Stock (if issued) leverage your investment in our Common Stock. Holders of Common Stock bear the costs associated with any Borrowings, and if the Fund issues Preferred Stock, holders of Common Stock would bear the offering costs of the Preferred Stock issuance. The Board may authorize the use of leverage through Borrowings and Preferred Stock without the approval of the holders of Common Stock.

The Fund is permitted to negotiate with banks or other financial institutions to arrange one or more credit facilities (each, a “Credit Facility”) pursuant to which the Fund would be entitled to borrow an amount equal to approximately 331/3% of the Fund’s total assets (less all liabilities and indebtedness not represented by Investment Company Act leverage). See “—Effects of Leverage.”

On April 1, 2021, the Fund entered into an unsecured line of credit with KKR Financial Holdings LLC (the “Lender”), an affiliate of KKR, pursuant to which the Fund may borrow up to $100 million at an interest rate equal to the then-current interest rate offered by an unaffiliated third-party lender or, if no such rate is available, LIBOR plus 3.00%. The line of credit consists of a $50 million committed unsecured portion and a $50 million uncommitted unsecured portion. The line of credit expires on March 31, 2022, subject to one-year

 

49


Table of Contents

extension options requiring Lender approval. Each advance under the uncommitted portion of the line of credit is repayable on the earliest of (i) Lender’s demand, (ii) the stated expiration of the line of credit, and (iii) the date on which KKR Registered Advisor LLC or an affiliate thereof or an affiliate thereof no longer acts as the Fund’s investment adviser; provided that the Company will have 180 days to make such repayment in the event of clauses (i) and (ii) and 45 days to make such repayment in the event of clause (iii). The Credit Agreement permits voluntary prepayment of principal and accrued interest without any penalty other than customary LIBOR breakage costs. The line of credit contains customary events of default. As is customary in such financings, if an event of default occurs under the line of credit, the Lender may accelerate the repayment of amounts outstanding under the line of credit and exercise other remedies subject, in certain instances, to the expiration of an applicable cure period. Although its terms were structured to be fair and reasonable to the Fund, this line of credit is with an affiliate of KKR and the terms of the agreement were not negotiated at arm’s-length. KKR may face conflicts of interest in connection with any borrowings or disputes under this unsecured line of credit.

Under the Investment Company Act, the Fund is not permitted to incur indebtedness unless immediately thereafter the total asset value of the Fund’s portfolio is at least 300% of the aggregate amount of outstanding indebtedness (i.e., the aggregate amount of outstanding debt may not exceed 331/3% of the Fund’s total assets (less all liabilities and indebtedness not represented by Investment Company Act leverage)). In addition, the Fund is not permitted to declare any cash distribution on its Common Stock unless, at the time of such declaration, the NAV of the Fund’s portfolio (determined deducting the amount of such distribution) is at least 300% of the aggregate amount of such outstanding indebtedness (excluding certain forms of private indebtedness). If the Fund borrows money, the Fund intends, to the extent possible, to retire outstanding debt from time to time to maintain coverage of any outstanding indebtedness of at least 300%. Under the Investment Company Act, the Fund may only issue one class of senior securities representing indebtedness.

The Fund may be required to prepay outstanding amounts or incur a penalty rate of interest upon the occurrence of certain events of default. The Fund’s future Credit Facilities may contain customary covenants that, among other things, limit the Fund’s ability to pay distributions in certain circumstances, incur additional debt, change its fundamental investment policies and engage in certain transactions, including mergers and consolidations, and require asset coverage ratios in addition to those required by the Investment Company Act. In connection with any new Credit Facility, the Fund may be required to pledge some or all of its assets and to maintain a portion of its assets in cash or high-grade securities as a reserve against interest or principal payments and expenses. The Fund’s custodian will retain all assets, including those that are pledged, but the lenders of such Credit Facility may have the ability to foreclose on such assets in the event of a default under the Credit Facility pursuant to a tri-party arrangement among the Fund, its custodian and such lenders. The Fund’s custodian is not an affiliate of the Fund, as such term is defined in the Investment Company Act. The Fund expects that any such Credit Facility would have customary covenant, negative covenant and default provisions. There can be no assurance that the Fund will enter into an agreement for any new Credit Facility on terms and conditions representative of the foregoing, or that additional material terms will not apply. In addition, if entered into, the Credit Facility may in the future be replaced or refinanced by one or more Credit Facilities having substantially different terms or by the issuance of Preferred Stock or debt securities.

Changes in the value of the Fund’s portfolio investments, including costs attributable to leverage, are borne entirely by the holders of the Common Stock. If there is a net decrease (or increase) in the value of the Fund’s investment portfolio, the leverage decreases (or increases) the NAV per share of Common Stock to a greater extent than if the Fund were not leveraged.

Utilization of leverage is a speculative investment technique and involves certain risks to holders of Common Stock. These include the possibility of higher volatility of the NAV of the Common Stock. So long as the Fund is able to realize a higher net return on its investment portfolio than the then-current cost of any leverage together with other related expenses, the effect of the leverage is to cause holders of Common Stock to realize a higher rate of return than if the Fund were not so leveraged. On the other hand, to the extent that the then-current cost of any leverage, together with other related expenses, approaches the net return on the Fund’s

 

50


Table of Contents

investment portfolio, the benefit of leverage to holders of Common Stock is reduced, and if the then-current cost of any leverage together with related expenses were to exceed the net return on the Fund’s portfolio, the Fund’s leveraged capital structure would result in a lower rate of return to holders of Common Stock than if the Fund were not so leveraged.

Under the Investment Company Act, the Fund is not permitted to issue Preferred Stock unless immediately after such issuance the value of the Fund’s asset coverage is at least 200% of the liquidation value of the outstanding Preferred Stock (i.e., such liquidation value may not exceed 50% of the Fund’s assets less all liabilities other than Borrowings and outstanding Preferred Stock). Under the Investment Company Act, the Fund may only issue one class of Preferred Stock.

In addition, the Fund is not permitted to declare any cash dividend or other distribution on its Common Stock unless, at the time of such declaration, the value of the Fund’s assets less liabilities other than Borrowings and outstanding Preferred Stock satisfies the above-referenced 200% coverage requirement. If Preferred Stock is issued, the Fund intends, to the extent possible, to purchase or redeem Preferred Stock from time to time to the extent necessary in order to maintain coverage of at least 200%.

If Preferred Stock is outstanding, two of the Fund’s Directors will be elected by the holders of Preferred Stock, voting separately as a class. The remaining directors of the Fund will be elected by holders of Common Stock and Preferred Stock voting together as a single class. In the event that the Fund fails to pay dividends on the Preferred Stock for two years, holders of Preferred Stock would be entitled to elect a majority of the Directors of the Fund.

The Fund may be subject to certain restrictions imposed either by guidelines of a lender, if the Fund borrows from a lender, or by one or more rating agencies which may issue ratings for Preferred Stock. These guidelines may impose asset coverage or portfolio composition requirements that are more stringent than those imposed on the Fund by the Investment Company Act. It is not anticipated that these covenants or guidelines will impede the Adviser from managing the Fund’s portfolio in accordance with the Fund’s investment objectives and policies. In addition to other considerations, to the extent that the Fund believes that the covenants and guidelines required by the rating agencies would impede its ability to meet its investment objectives, or if the Fund is unable to obtain its desired rating on Preferred Stock, the Fund will not issue Preferred Stock.

Effects of Leverage

The following table is designed to illustrate the effects of leverage on Common Stock total return, assuming hypothetical annual investment portfolio total returns (comprised of income and changes in the value of investments held in the Fund’s portfolio), of -10%, -5%, 0%, 5% and 10%. These assumed investment portfolio returns are hypothetical figures and are not necessarily indicative of the investment portfolio returns expected to be experienced by the Fund. See “Risks—Leverage Risk.”

The table further reflects the issuance of leverage representing 10% of the Fund’s total assets (less all liabilities and indebtedness not represented by Investment Company Act leverage), net of expenses and the Fund’s currently projected annual rate of interest on its leverage of 3.2%. To cover interest payments on such leverage, the Fund would need to achieve a 0.40% annual return.

 

Assumed Portfolio Total Return (Net of Expenses)

     (10.0 )%      (5.0 )%      0.0%        5.1     10.0

Common Stock Total Return

     (11.5 )%      (5.9 )%      (0.4)%        5.2     10.8

“Common Stock Total Return” is composed of two elements: (i) the Common Stock dividends and distributions paid by the Fund (the amount of which is largely determined by the net investment income of the Fund after paying interest on its leverage) and (ii) gains or losses on the value of the securities the Fund owns. As required by SEC rules, the table above assumes that the Fund is more likely to suffer capital losses than to enjoy capital appreciation. For example, to assume a total return of 0% the Fund must assume that the return it receives on its investments is entirely offset by losses in the value of those investments.

 

51


Table of Contents

The Fund is a non-diversified, closed-end management investment company designed primarily as a long-term investment and not as a trading vehicle. The Fund is not intended to be a complete investment program and, due to the uncertainty inherent in all investments, there can be no assurance that the Fund will achieve its investment objectives. At any point in time, your investment in the Fund may be worth less than you invested, even after taking into account the reinvestment of Fund dividends, distributions or interest payments, as applicable. For a more complete discussion of the risks of investing in the Fund, see “Risks.”

 

52


Table of Contents

RISKS

The Fund is a non-diversified, closed-end management investment company designed primarily as a long-term investment and not as a trading vehicle. An investment in the Fund is not intended to be a complete investment program and, due to the uncertainty inherent in all investments, there can be no assurance that the Fund will achieve its investment objectives. Your securities at any point in time may be worth less than you invested, even after taking into account the reinvestment of Fund dividends, distributions or interest payments, as applicable

Limited History of Operations

The Fund is a newly organized, non-diversified, closed-end management investment company with a limited operating history. As a result, prospective investors have limited track record or history on which to base their investment decision.

Investment and Market Risk

An investment in the Fund involves a considerable amount of risk. Before making an investment decision, a prospective investor should (i) consider the suitability of this investment with respect to his or her investment objectives and personal situation and (ii) consider factors such as his or her personal net worth, income, age, risk tolerance and liquidity needs.

Your investment in share of Common Stock represents an indirect investment in the assets owned by the Fund, and the value of these assets will fluctuate, sometimes rapidly and unpredictably, and such investment is subject to investment risk, including the possible loss of the entire principal amount invested. At any point in time, an investment in the Fund’s Common Stock could be worth less than the original amount invested, even after taking into account distributions paid by the Fund and the ability of stockholders to reinvest dividends. The Fund will also use leverage, which would magnify the Fund’s investment, market and certain other risks.

The Fund will be materially affected by market, economic and political conditions globally and in the jurisdictions and sectors in which it invests or operates, including factors affecting interest rates, the availability of credit, currency exchange rates and trade barriers. These factors are outside the Adviser’s control and could adversely affect the liquidity and value of the Fund’s investments and reduce the ability of the Fund to make attractive new investments.

Distributions Risk

There can be no assurance that the Fund will achieve investment results that will allow the Fund to make a specified level of cash distributions or maintain certain levels of cash distributions. All distributions will be paid at the discretion of the Board and may depend on the Fund’s earnings, the Fund’s net investment income, the Fund’s financial condition, compliance with applicable regulations and such other factors as the Board may deem relevant from time to time. Subject to the requirements of the Investment Company Act, the Fund may make distributions from sources other than cash flow from operations, including, without limitation, the sale of assets, borrowings, return of capital, or offering proceeds. See “Distributions” for a description of return of capital and its impacts.

Liquidity Risk

The Fund is designed primarily for long-term investors and an investment in the Fund’s Common Stock should be considered illiquid. The Common Stock is not currently listed for trading on any securities exchange. There is no public market for the Common Stock and none is expected to develop. The Common Stock therefore is not readily marketable and stockholders must be prepared to hold Common Stock for an indefinite period of

 

53


Table of Contents

time. Stockholders may not be able to sell their Common Stock at all or at a favorable price. Because the Fund is a closed-end management investment company, the Shares may not be redeemed at the option of the stockholder and may not currently be exchanged for shares of any other fund.

Although the Fund may offer to repurchase Common Stock from stockholders, no assurance can be given that these repurchases will occur as contemplated or at all. If the Fund conduct repurchase offers it will do so at times and in amounts that will depend on the Board. The Fund may need to suspend or postpone repurchase offers if it is not able to dispose of portfolio securities or loans in a timely manner.

Even if the Fund makes a tender offer, there is no guarantee that stockholders will be able to sell all of the Common Stock that they desire to sell in any particular tender offer. If a tender offer is oversubscribed by stockholders, the Fund will generally repurchase only a pro rata portion of the Common Stock tendered by each stockholder. A large stockholder in the Fund seeking repurchase may cause a greater likelihood of all stockholders seeking repurchase having their requests reduced pro rata. The potential for pro ration may cause some stockholders to tender more Common Stock for repurchase than they otherwise would wish to have repurchased, which may adversely affect others wishing to participate in the tender offer. In addition, in extreme cases, a Fund may not be able to complete repurchases due to its inability to liquidate a portion of its portfolio.

In any given quarter, the Adviser may or may not recommend to the Board that the Fund conduct a tender offer. For example, if adverse market conditions cause the Fund’s investments to become illiquid or trade at depressed prices or if the Adviser believes that conducting a tender offer for 5.0% of the aggregate NAV of the Fund’s outstanding Common Stock would impose an undue burden on stockholders who do not tender compared to the benefits of giving stockholders the opportunity to sell all or a portion of their Common Stock at NAV, the Fund may choose not to conduct a tender offer or may choose to conduct a tender offer for less than 5.0% of the aggregate NAV of its outstanding Common Stock. Regardless of the recommendation of the Adviser, the Board may or may not determine to cause the Fund to conduct a tender offer for any given quarter.

The Fund intends to comply with an exemption under FINRA Rule 5110 that requires the Fund to make at least two tender offers per calendar year. However, there may be quarters in which no tender offer is made, and it is possible that no tender offers will be conducted by the Fund at all. If a tender offer is not made, stockholders may not be able to sell their Common Stock as it is unlikely that a secondary market for the Common Stock will develop or, if a secondary market does develop, stockholders may be able to sell their Common Stock only at substantial discounts from NAV. If the Fund does conduct tender offers, it may be required to sell its more liquid, higher quality portfolio securities to purchase shares of Common Stock that are tendered, which may increase risks for remaining stockholders and increase fund expenses as a percent of assets. In addition, while the Fund is permitted to borrow money to finance the repurchase of Common Stock pursuant to tender offers, there can be no assurance that the Fund will be able to obtain such financing if it attempts to do so. Moreover, if the Fund’s portfolio does not provide adequate liquidity to fund tender offers, the Fund may extend the last day of any tender offer or choose to pay tendering stockholders with a promissory note, which will cause the stockholder to be paid at a later date than if the tender offer were not extended or if the promissory note were not issued.

Reliance on the Adviser and Investment Professionals

As of the date of this prospectus, the Fund has made a limited number of investments and the success of the Fund will therefore depend on the ability of the Adviser and its respective affiliates to identify and consummate suitable investments and to dispose of investments of the Fund at a profit. The Adviser and its affiliates will rely on the skill and expertise of the Fund’s investment team, and others providing investment and other advice and services with respect to the Fund. There can be no assurance that these key investment professionals or other persons will continue to be associated with or available to the Adviser or its affiliates throughout the life of the Fund. The loss or reduction of the services of one or more of such persons could have an adverse impact on the Fund. See “Management of the Fund.”

 

54


Table of Contents

Furthermore, although the Adviser’s team members and other investment professionals intend to devote sufficient time to the Fund so that it can carry out its proposed activities, certain of the Adviser’s team members are also responsible for the day-to-day activities and investments of certain other funds, investment vehicles and accounts managed by KKR, as further described in “Potential Conflicts of Interest” below.

Except for rights under the Investment Company Act and our charter, investors generally have no right or power to take part in the management of the Fund, and as a result, the investment performance of the Fund will depend on the actions of the Adviser. In addition, certain changes in the Adviser or its affiliates or circumstances relating to the Adviser or its affiliates may have an adverse effect on the Fund or one or more of its real estate and real estate-related assets including potential acceleration of credit facilities.

Finally, although the Adviser expects to have access to the appropriate resources, relationships, and expertise of KKR (subject to information-sharing policies and procedures with respect to KKR Credit), there can be no assurance that such resources, relationships, and expertise will be available for every transaction. In addition, investment professionals and committee members may be replaced or added, and management, operating, and investment procedures may be modified at any time.

Delay in Use of Proceeds Risk

Although the Fund currently intends to invest the proceeds from any sale of the Common Stock offered hereby as soon as practicable, such investments may be delayed if suitable investments are unavailable at the time. Pending investment, the net proceeds of the offering may be invested in permitted temporary investments, which include short-term U.S. government securities, bank certificates of deposit and other short-term liquid investments. The rate of return on these investments, which affects the amount of cash available to make distributions, may be less than the return obtainable from the type of investments in the real estate industry the Fund seeks to originate or acquire. Such investments may also make it more difficult for us to qualify as a REIT. Therefore, delays the Fund encounters in the selection, due diligence and origination or acquisition of investments would likely limit its ability to pay distributions and lower overall returns. In the event we are unable to find suitable investments such temporary investments may be maintained for longer periods which would be dilutive to overall investment returns. This could cause a substantial delay in the time it takes for your investment to realize its full potential return.

Best Efforts Offering

This offering is being made on a “best efforts” basis, meaning the Distributor and broker-dealers participating in the offering are only required to use their best efforts to sell our shares and have no firm commitment or obligation to sell any of the shares. Even though KKR has purchased $159 million of Class I Shares, such amount will not, by itself be sufficient for us to purchase a diversified portfolio of investments. If we are unable to raise substantial funds in this offering, we will be limited in the number and type of investments we make, and the value of your investment in us will be more dependent on the performance of any of the specific assets we acquire. Further, if we are unable to raise substantial funds in this offering, the Fund’s Board may seek the approval of the Fund’s stockholders to sell all or substantially all of the Fund’s assets and dissolve the Fund. In the event of the liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the Fund, stockholders are entitled to receive the then-current NAV per share of the assets legally available for distribution to the Fund’s stockholders, after payment of or adequate provision for all of the Fund’s known debts and liabilities, including any outstanding debt securities or other borrowings and any interest thereon. These rights are subject to the preferential rights of outstanding shares of any other class or series of the Fund’s stock, including any Preferred Stock.

Competition Risk

Identifying, completing and realizing attractive portfolio investments is competitive and involves a high degree of uncertainty. The Fund’s profitability depends, in large part, on its ability to acquire target assets at

 

55


Table of Contents

attractive prices. In acquiring its target assets, the Fund will compete with a variety of institutional investors, including specialty finance companies, public and private funds (including other funds managed by KKR), REITs, commercial and investment banks, commercial finance and insurance companies and other financial institutions. Also, as a result of this competition, desirable investments in the Fund’s target assets may be limited in the future and the Fund may not be able to take advantage of attractive investment opportunities from time to time, as the Fund can provide no assurance that it will be able to identify and make investments that are consistent with its investment objectives. The Fund cannot assure you that the competitive pressures it faces will not have a material adverse effect on its business, financial condition and results of operations or the Fund’s ability to locate, consummate and exit investments that satisfy its investment objectives.

Non-Diversification Risk

As a non-diversified investment company, the Fund may invest more than 5% of its total assets in the securities of one or more issuers. The Fund may therefore be more susceptible than a diversified fund to being adversely affected by events impacting a single investment, geographic location, security or investment type.

In addition, the Fund has not established any investment criteria limiting the geographic concentration of its private commercial real estate investments and does not plan to establish any investment criteria to limit its exposure to these risks for future investments. As a result, private commercial real estate investments underlying its investments may be overly concentrated in certain geographic areas and the Fund may experience losses as a result. Additionally, the Fund is not limited in the size of any single private commercial real estate investment it may make and certain of its investments may represent a significant percentage of the Fund’s assets. Any such investment may carry the risk associated with a significant asset concentration. Such risks could cause the Fund to experience a material adverse effect, which would result in the value of a stockholder’s investment in the Fund being diminished.

Illiquid Investment Risk

Many of the Fund’s investments will be illiquid, including the Fund’s private commercial real estate investments. A variety of factors could make it difficult for the Fund to dispose of any of its illiquid assets on acceptable terms even if a disposition is in the best interests of the Fund’s stockholders. The Fund cannot predict whether it will be able to sell any asset for the price or on the terms set by it or whether any price or other terms offered by a prospective purchaser would be acceptable to the Fund. The Fund also cannot predict the length of time needed to find a willing purchaser and to close the sale of an asset. The Fund may be required to expend cash to correct defects or to make improvements before an asset can be sold, and there can be no assurance that it will have cash available to correct those defects or to make those improvements. As a result, the Fund’s ability to sell investments in response to changes in economic and other conditions could be limited. Limitations on the Fund’s ability to respond to adverse changes in the performance of its investments may have a material adverse effect on the Fund’s business, financial condition and results of operations and the Fund’s ability to make distributions.

Real Estate Investment Risk

The Fund’s investments will be subject to the risks inherent in the ownership and operation of real estate and real estate-related businesses and assets. These risks include, but are not limited to:

 

   

the burdens of ownership of real property;

 

   

general and local economic conditions (such as an oversupply of space or a reduction in demand for space);

 

   

the supply and demand for properties (including competition based on rental rates);

 

   

energy and supply shortages;

 

56


Table of Contents
   

fluctuations in average occupancy and room rates;

 

   

the attractiveness, type and location of the properties and changes in the relative popularity of commercial properties as an investment;

 

   

the financial condition and resources of tenants, buyers and sellers of properties;

 

   

increased mortgage defaults;

 

   

the quality of maintenance, insurance and management services;

 

   

changes in the availability of debt financing which may render the sale or refinancing of properties difficult or impracticable;

 

   

changes in building, environmental and other laws and/or regulations (including those governing usage and improvements), fiscal policies and zoning laws;

 

   

changes in real property tax rates;

 

   

changes in interest rates and the availability of mortgage funds which may render the sale or refinancing of properties difficult or impracticable;

 

   

changes in operating costs and expenses;

 

   

energy and supply shortages;

 

   

uninsured losses or delays from casualties or condemnation;

 

   

negative developments in the economy that depress travel or leasing activity;

 

   

environmental liabilities;

 

   

contingent liabilities on disposition of assets;

 

   

uninsured or uninsurable casualties;

 

   

acts of God, including earthquakes, hurricanes and other natural disasters;

 

   

social unrest and civil disturbances, epidemics, pandemics or other public crises;

 

   

terrorist attacks and war;

 

   

risks and operating problems arising out of the presence of certain construction materials, structural or property level latent defects, work stoppages, shortages of labor, strikes, union relations and contracts, fluctuating prices and supply of labor and/or other labor-related factor; and

 

   

other factors which are beyond the control of the Adviser and its affiliates.

In addition, the Fund’s investments will be subject to various risks which could cause fluctuations in occupancy, rental rates, operating income and expenses or which could render the sale or financing of its properties difficult or unattractive. For example, following the termination or expiration of a tenant’s lease, there may be a period of time before the Fund will begin receiving rental payments under a replacement lease. During that period, the Fund will continue to bear fixed expenses such as interest, real estate taxes, maintenance and other operating expenses. In addition, declining economic conditions may impair the Fund’s ability to attract replacement tenants and achieve rental rates equal to or greater than the rents paid under previous leases. Increased competition for tenants may require the Fund to make capital improvements to properties which would not have otherwise been planned. Ultimately, to the extent that the Fund is unable to renew leases or re-let space as leases expire, decreased cash flow from tenants will result, which could adversely impact the Fund’s operating results.

Epidemics and Pandemics Risk

Many countries have experienced outbreaks of infectious illnesses in recent decades, including swine flu, avian influenza, SARS and COVID-19 (the “Coronavirus”). In December 2019, an initial outbreak of the

 

57


Table of Contents

Coronavirus was reported in Hubei, China. Since then, a large and growing number of cases have been confirmed around the world. The Coronavirus outbreak has resulted in numerous deaths and the imposition of both local and more widespread “work from home” and other quarantine measures, border closures and other travel restrictions, causing social unrest and commercial disruption on a global scale. The World Health Organization has declared the Coronavirus outbreak a pandemic.

The ongoing spread of the Coronavirus has had, and will continue to have, a material adverse impact on local economies in the affected jurisdictions and also on the global economy, as cross border commercial activity and market sentiment are increasingly impacted by the outbreak and government and other measures seeking to contain its spread. The Coronavirus outbreak could adversely impair the Fund’s net investment income, NAV, liquidity, ability to make new investments, ability to obtain financing on attractive terms or at all, ability to value its assets, ability to pay distributions and ability to satisfy repurchase requests. For example, the Coronavirus has had a significant impact on the CMBS market, which has been exposed to selling pressure and concern over market fundamentals, and has also impacted commercial real estate, which has become exposed to increased risk of tenant defaults and/or rent deferral. Certain asset classes, such as hotels and retail, have seen widespread closures or reduced operations. The operations of KKR (including those relating to the Fund) have been, and could continue to be, adversely impacted, including through quarantine measures and travel restrictions imposed on KKR personnel or service providers based or temporarily located in affected countries, or any related health issues of such personnel or service providers. Any of the foregoing events could materially and adversely affect the Fund’s ability to source, manage and divest its investments and its ability to fulfill its investment objectives. Similar consequences could arise with respect to other comparable infectious diseases.

Commercial Real Estate Industry Risk

The Fund’s business and operations are dependent on the commercial real estate industry generally, which in turn is dependent upon broad economic conditions. Challenging economic and financial market conditions may cause the Fund to experience an increase in the number of private commercial real estate investments that result in losses, including delinquencies, non-performing assets and a decrease in the value of the property or, in the case of real estate debt and traded real estate-related securities, collateral which secures its investments, all of which could adversely affect the Fund’s results of operations. The Fund may need to establish significant provisions for losses or impairment, and be forced to sell assets at undesirable prices, which may result in the Fund’s NAV declining and the Fund incurring substantial losses. Additionally, economic conditions can negatively impact the businesses of tenants of the Fund’s private commercial real estate investments, which in turn could cause the Fund to experience increased delinquencies or decreasing rents, either of which would negatively impact the Fund’s income.

These conditions may increase the volatility of the value of private commercial real estate investments made by the Fund. These developments also may make it more difficult for the Fund to accurately value its investments or to sell its investments on a timely basis. These developments, including rising interest rates, could adversely affect the ability of the Fund to use leverage for investment purposes and increase the cost of such leverage, which would reduce returns. Such developments could, in turn, diminish significantly the Fund’s revenue from investments and adversely affect the Fund’s NAV.

Private Commercial Real Estate Risk

Lease defaults, terminations by one or more tenants or landlord-tenant disputes may reduce the Fund’s revenues and net income. Any of these situations may result in extended periods during which there is a significant decline in revenues or no revenues generated by a property. If this occurred, it could adversely affect the Fund’s results of operations.

The Fund’s financial position and its ability to make distributions may also be adversely affected by financial difficulties experienced by any major tenants, including bankruptcy, insolvency or a general downturn

 

58


Table of Contents

in the business, or in the event any major tenants do not renew or extend their relationship as their lease terms expire. A tenant in bankruptcy may be able to restrict the ability to collect unpaid rents or interest during the bankruptcy proceeding. Furthermore, dealing with a tenants’ bankruptcy or other default may divert management’s attention and cause the Fund to incur substantial legal and other costs.

The Fund’s investments in real estate will be pressured in challenging economic and rental market conditions. If the Fund is unable to re-let or renew leases for all or substantially all of the space at these properties, if the rental rates upon such renewal or re-letting are significantly lower than expected, or if the Fund’s reserves for these purposes prove inadequate, the Fund will experience a reduction in net income and may be required to reduce or eliminate cash distributions.

The Fund may obtain only limited warranties when it purchases an equity investment in private commercial real estate. The purchase of properties with limited warranties increases the risk that the Fund may lose some or all of its invested capital in the property, as well as the loss of rental income from that property if an issue should arise that decreases the value of that property and is not covered by the limited warranties. If any of these results occur, it may have a material adverse effect on the Fund’s business, financial condition and results of operations and the Fund’s ability to make distributions.

Prime Single Tenant Risk

The Fund depends on its tenants for revenue, and therefore the Fund’s revenue is dependent on the success and economic viability of its tenants. Certain of the Fund’s investments in prime single tenant properties may be leased out to single tenants that the Adviser believes have favorable credit profiles and/or performance attributes supporting highly visible long-term cash flows. Adverse impacts to such tenants, including as a result of changes in market or economic conditions, natural disasters, outbreaks of an infectious disease, pandemic or any other serious public health concern, political events or other factors that may impact the operation of these properties, may have negative effects on our business and financial results. As a result, such tenants may in the future be, required to suspend operations at our properties for what could be an extended period of time. Further, if such tenants default under their leases, we may not be able to promptly enter into a new lease or operating arrangement for such properties, rental rates or other terms under any new leases or operating arrangement may be less favorable than the terms of the current lease or operating arrangement or we may be required to make capital improvements to such properties for a new tenant, any of which could adversely impact our operating results.

Emerging Markets Risk

The Fund may invest in emerging markets. These markets tend to be very inefficient and illiquid as well as subject to political and other factors to a heightened degree relative to non-emerging markets. Many emerging markets are developing both economically and politically and in some cases have relatively unstable governments and economies based on only a few commodities or industries. Many emerging market countries do not have firmly established product markets and companies in these markets might lack depth of management and can be very vulnerable to political or economic developments such as nationalization of key industries. Additional risks associated with investment in emerging markets include: (i) greater risk of expropriation, confiscatory taxation, nationalization, social and political instability (including the risk of changes of government following elections or otherwise) and economic instability; (ii) the relatively small current size of some of the markets for securities and other investments in emerging markets issuers and the current relatively low volume of trading, resulting in lack of liquidity and in price volatility; (iii) increased risk of national policies which restrict the Fund’s investment opportunities, including restrictions on investing in issuers or industries deemed sensitive to relevant national interests; (iv) the absence of developed legal structures governing private or foreign investment and private property; (v) the potential for higher rates of inflation or hyper-inflation; (vi) increased currency risk and risk of the imposition, extension or continuation of foreign exchange controls including managed adjustments in relative currency values; (vii) increased interest rate risk; (viii) increased credit risk; (ix) lower levels of democratic accountability; (x) greater differences in accounting standards and auditing practices which result in increased risk of unreliable financial information and (xi) different corporate governance frameworks. The emerging markets risks

 

59


Table of Contents

described above also increase counterparty risks for investments in those markets. In addition, investor risk aversion to emerging markets can have a significant adverse effect on the value and/or liquidity of investments made in or exposed to such markets and can accentuate any downward movement in the actual or anticipated value of such investments which is caused by any of the factors described above.

Litigation Risk

In the ordinary course of its business, the Fund may be subject to litigation from time to time. The outcome of such proceedings may materially adversely affect the value of the Fund and may continue without resolution for long periods of time. Any litigation may consume substantial amounts of the Adviser’s time and attention, and that time and the devotion of these resources to litigation may, at times, be disproportionate to the amounts at stake in the litigation.

The acquisition, ownership and disposition of real properties carries certain specific litigation risks. Litigation may be commenced with respect to a property acquired by the Fund or its subsidiaries in relation to activities that took place prior to the Fund’s acquisition of such property. In addition, at the time of disposition of an individual property, a potential buyer may claim that it should have been afforded the opportunity to purchase the asset or alternatively that such potential buyer should be awarded due diligence expenses incurred or statutory damages for misrepresentation relating to disclosure made, if such buyer is passed over in favor of another as part of the Fund’s efforts to maximize sale proceeds. Similarly, successful buyers may later sue the Fund under various damage theories, including those sounding in tort, for losses associated with latent defects or other problems not uncovered in due diligence.

Insurance Risk

Certain types of losses, generally of a catastrophic nature, such as earthquakes, floods and hurricanes may be uninsurable or not economically insurable. The Fund may not obtain, or be able to require tenants to obtain certain types of insurance if it is deemed commercially unreasonable. Under such circumstances, the insurance proceeds, if any, might not be adequate to restore the economic value of the property, which might decrease the value of the property. As a result, the insured company could lose its investments in, and anticipated profits and cash flows from, a number of properties and, as a result, adversely affect the Fund’s investment performance.

Environmental Risk

The Fund may be exposed to substantial risk of loss arising from investments involving undisclosed or unknown environmental, health or occupational safety matters, or inadequate reserves, insurance or insurance proceeds for such matters that have been previously identified. Under various U.S. federal, state and local and non-U.S. laws, ordinances and regulations, an owner of real property may be liable for the costs of removal or remediation of certain hazardous or toxic substances on or in such property. Such laws may also impose joint and several liability, which can result in a party being obligated to pay for greater than its share, or even all, of the liability involved. Such liability may also be imposed without regard to whether the owner knew of, or was responsible for, the presence of such hazardous or toxic substances and may be imposed on the owner in connection with the activities of a tenant at the property. The cost of any required remediation and the owner’s liability therefore as to any property are generally not limited under such laws and could exceed the value of the property and/or the aggregate assets of the owner. The presence of such substances, or the failure to properly remediate contamination from such substances, would adversely affect the owner’s ability to sell the real estate or to borrow funds using such property as collateral, which could have an adverse effect on the Fund’s return from such investment. Environmental claims with respect to a specific investment could exceed the value of such investment, and under certain circumstances, subject the other assets of the Fund to such liabilities. In addition, some environmental laws create a lien on contaminated property in favor of governments or government agencies for costs they incur in connection with the contamination.

 

60


Table of Contents

The ongoing presence of environmental contamination, pollutants or other hazardous materials on a property (whether known at the time of acquisition or not) could also result in personal injury (and associated liability) to persons on the property and persons removing such materials, future or continuing property damage (which would adversely affect property value) or claims by third parties, including as a result of exposure to such materials through the spread of contaminants.

In addition, the Fund’s operating costs and performance may be adversely affected by compliance obligations under environmental protection statutes, rules and regulations relating to investments of the Fund, including additional compliance obligations arising from any change to such statutes, rules and regulations. Statutes, rules and regulations may also restrict development of, and use of, property. Certain clean-up actions brought by governmental agencies and private parties could also impose obligations in relation to the Fund’s investments and result in additional costs to the Fund. If the Fund is deemed liable for any such environmental liabilities and is unable to seek recovery against its tenant, the Fund’s business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected, and the amount available to make distributions could be reduced.

Further, even in cases where the Fund is indemnified by the seller with respect to an investment against liabilities arising out of violations of environmental laws and regulations, there can be no assurance as to the financial viability of the seller to satisfy such indemnities or the ability of the Fund to achieve enforcement of such indemnities.

Joint Venture Risk

The Fund may in the future enter into joint ventures with third parties to make investments. The Fund may also make investments in partnerships or other co-ownership arrangements or participations. Such investments may involve risks not otherwise present with other methods of investment, including, for instance, the following risks and conflicts of interest:

 

   

the joint venture partner in an investment could become insolvent or bankrupt;

 

   

fraud or other misconduct by the joint venture partner;

 

   

the Fund may share decision-making authority with its joint venture partner regarding certain major decisions affecting the ownership of the joint venture and the joint venture property, such as the sale of the property or the making of additional capital contributions for the benefit of the property, which may prevent the Fund from taking actions that are opposed by its joint venture partner;

 

   

under certain joint venture arrangements, neither party may have the power to control the venture and, under certain circumstances, an impasse could result regarding cash distributions, reserves, or a proposed sale or refinancing of the investment, and this impasse could have an adverse impact on the joint venture, which could adversely impact the operations and profitability of the joint venture and/or the amount and timing of distributions the Fund receives from such joint venture;

 

   

the joint venture partner may at any time have economic or business interests or goals that are or that become in conflict with the Fund’s business interests or goals, including, for instance, the operation of the properties;

 

   

the joint venture partner may be structured differently than the Fund for tax purposes and this could create conflicts of interest and risk to the Fund’s ability to qualify as a REIT;

 

   

the Fund may rely upon its joint venture partner to manage the day-to-day operations of the joint venture and underlying assets, as well as to prepare financial information for the joint venture and any failure to perform these obligations may have a negative impact on the Fund’s performance and results of operations;

 

61


Table of Contents
   

the joint venture partner may experience a change of control, which could result in new management of the joint venture partner with less experience or conflicting interests to the Fund and be disruptive to the Fund’s business;

 

   

such joint venture partner may be in a position to take action contrary to the Fund’s instructions or requests or contrary to the Fund’s policies or objectives, including the Fund’s policy with respect to maintaining its qualification as a REIT;

 

   

the terms of the joint ventures could restrict the Fund’s ability to sell or transfer its interest to a third party when it desires on advantageous terms, which could result in reduced liquidity;

 

   

the Fund or its joint venture partner may have the right to trigger a buy-sell arrangement, which could cause the Fund to sell its interest, or acquire its partner’s interest, at a time when the Fund otherwise would not have initiated such a transaction;

 

   

the joint venture partner may not have sufficient personnel or appropriate levels of expertise to adequately support the Fund’s initiatives; and

 

   

to the extent it is permissible under the Investment Company Act for the Fund to partner with other vehicles advised by the Adviser, the Adviser may have conflicts of interest that may not be resolved in the Fund’s favor.

In addition, disputes between the Fund and its joint venture partner may result in litigation or arbitration that would increase the Fund’s expenses and prevent the Fund’s officers and directors from focusing their time and efforts on the Fund’s business. Any of the above might subject the Fund to liabilities and thus reduce its returns on the investment with the joint venture partner. The Fund may at times enter into arrangements that provide for unfunded commitments and, even when not contractually obligated to do so, may be incentivized to fund future commitments related to its investments.

Recourse Financings Risk

In certain cases, financings for the Fund’s commercial real estate properties may be recourse to the Fund. Generally, commercial real estate financings are structured as non-recourse to the borrower, which limits a lender’s recourse to the property pledged as collateral for the loan, and not the other assets of the borrower or to any parent of borrower, in the event of a loan default. However, lenders customarily will require that a creditworthy parent entity enter into so-called “recourse carveout” guarantees to protect the lender against certain bad-faith or other intentional acts of the borrower in violation of the loan documents. A “bad boy” guarantee typically provides that the lender can recover losses from the guarantors for certain bad acts, such as fraud or intentional misrepresentation, intentional waste, willful misconduct, criminal acts, misappropriation of funds, voluntary incurrence of prohibited debt and environmental losses sustained by lender. In addition, “bad boy” guarantees typically provide that the loan will be a full personal recourse obligation of the guarantor, for certain actions, such as prohibited transfers of the collateral or changes of control and voluntary bankruptcy of the borrower. These financing arrangements with respect to our investments generally require “bad boy” guarantees from us and/or certain of our subsidiaries and in the event that such a guarantee is called, our assets could be adversely affected. Moreover, our “bad boy” guarantees could apply to actions of the joint venture partners associated with our investments. While the Adviser expects to negotiate indemnities from such joint venture partners to protect against such risks, there remains the possibility that the acts of such joint venture partner could result in liability to us under such guarantees. We may provide “bad boy” guarantees on behalf of other funds, investment vehicles and accounts managed by KKR investing alongside us and as such guarantees are not for borrowed money, they will typically not be included under our leverage limitations.

Valuation Risk

The price the Fund pays for its private commercial real estate investments will be based on the Adviser’s projections of market demand, occupancy levels, rental income, the costs of any development, redevelopment or

 

62


Table of Contents

renovation of a property, borrower expertise and other factors. If any of the Adviser’s projections are inaccurate or it ascribes a higher value to assets and their value subsequently drops or fails to rise because of market factors, returns on the Fund’s investment may be lower than expected and could experience losses.

For the purposes of calculating the Fund’s NAV, private commercial real estate investments will initially be valued at cost, which the Fund expects to represent fair value at that time. Thereafter, valuations of properties will be derived from independent property appraisals.

Within the parameters of the Fund’s valuation guidelines, the valuation methodologies used to value the Fund’s private commercial real estate investments will involve subjective judgments and projections that may not materialize. Valuation methodologies will also involve assumptions and opinions about future events, which may or may not materialize. Valuations and appraisals of the Fund’s private commercial real estate investments will be only estimates of fair value. Ultimate realization of the value of an asset depends to a great extent on economic, market and other conditions beyond the Fund’s control and the control of the Adviser and the Fund’s independent valuation advisors. Valuations and appraisals of the Fund’s private commercial real estate investments are only conducted on a periodic basis. If the relevant asset’s value changes after such appraisal, it will be difficult for KKR to quantify the impact of such change and the necessary information to make a full assessment of the value may not be immediately available, which may require the Adviser to make an assessment of fair value with incomplete information. The participation of KKR in our valuation process could result in a conflict of interest, since the Management Fee is based on our average daily net assets. A material change in a private commercial real estate investment or a new appraisal of a private commercial real estate investment may have a material impact on our overall NAV, resulting in a sudden increase or decrease to our NAV per share. Further, valuations do not necessarily represent the price at which an asset would sell, since market prices of assets can only be determined by negotiation between a willing buyer and seller. As such, the carrying value of an asset may not reflect the price at which the asset could be sold in the market, and the difference between carrying value and the ultimate sales price could be material. In addition, accurate valuations are more difficult to obtain in times of low transaction volume because there are fewer market transactions that can be considered in the context of the appraisal. It also may be difficult to reflect fully and accurately rapidly changing market conditions or material events that may impact the value of our real property investments between valuations, or to obtain complete information regarding any such events in a timely manner. For example, an unexpected termination or renewal of a material lease, a material increase or decrease in vacancies, an unanticipated structural or environmental event at a property or material changes in market, economic and political conditions globally and in the jurisdictions and sectors in which a property operates, may cause the value of a property to change materially, yet obtaining sufficient relevant information after the occurrence has come to light and/or analyzing fully the financial impact of such an event may be difficult to do and may require some time. As a result, our NAV per share may not reflect a material event until such time as sufficient information is available and the impact of such an event on a property’s valuation is evaluated, such that our NAV may be appropriately updated in accordance with our valuation guidelines. The Adviser will rely on the independent valuation advisors’ appraisals in determining the fair value of the private commercial real estate investments. There will be no retroactive adjustment in the valuation of such assets, the offering price of the Common Stock, the price the Fund paid to repurchase Common Stock or NAV-based fees the Fund paid to KKR and the Distributor to the extent such valuations prove to not accurately reflect the realizable value of the Fund’s assets. Because the price you will pay for Common Stock in this offering, and the price at which your shares may be repurchased in quarterly tender offers by the Fund, are based on NAV per share of Common Stock, you may pay more than realizable value or receive less than realizable value for your investment.

Risks Related to Specific Private Commercial Real Estate Property Types

The Fund intends to invest in a variety of private commercial real estate property types, including multifamily, industrial, office, and select specialty sectors, which may expose the Fund to risks. For example, the Fund’s investments in multifamily properties may be affected by declining rents or may incur vacancies either by the expiration and non-renewal of tenant leases or the continued default of tenants under their leases, resulting in

 

63


Table of Contents

reduced revenues and less cash available to distribute to stockholders. Fluctuations in manufacturing activity in the United States may adversely affect the tenants of the Fund’s industrial properties and therefore the demand for and profitability of its industrial properties. Office properties are subject to risks that the tenants of those office properties face, including the overall health of the economy, the possibility of a downturn in the businesses operated by the tenants, lack of demand or obsolescence of the products or services provided by the tenants, and the non-competitiveness of the office tenants relative to their competitors. Specialty properties are subject to risks specific to their specialty use. For example, student housing properties are subject to seasonality and increased leasing risk and may be adversely affected by a change in university admission policies.

Mortgage Loan Risk

The Fund may originate and selectively acquire senior mortgage loans which are generally loans secured by a first mortgage lien on a commercial property and are subject to risks of delinquency and foreclosure and risks of loss. that are greater than similar risks associated with loans made on the security of single-family residential property. In addition, certain of the mortgage loans in which the Fund invests may be structured so that all or a substantial portion of the principal will not be paid until maturity, which increases the risk of default at that time. The ability of a borrower to repay a loan secured by an income-producing property typically is dependent primarily upon the successful operation of such property rather than upon the existence of independent income or assets of the borrower. If the net operating income of the property is reduced, the borrower’s ability to repay the loan may be impaired. Net operating income of an income-producing property can be affected by, among other things: tenant mix, success of tenant businesses, property management decisions, property location and condition, competition from comparable types of properties, changes in laws that increase operating expense or limit rents that may be charged, any need to address environmental contamination at the property, the occurrence of any uninsured casualty at the property, changes in national, regional or local economic conditions and/or specific industry segments, declines in regional or local real estate values, declines in regional or local rental or occupancy rates, increases in interest rates, real estate tax rates and other operating expenses, changes in governmental rules, regulations and fiscal policies, including environmental legislation, acts of God, terrorism, social unrest, civil disturbances, epidemics and other public crises.

In the event of any default under a mortgage loan held directly by the Fund, it will bear a risk of loss of principal to the extent of any deficiency between the value of the collateral and the principal and accrued interest of the mortgage loan, which could have a material adverse effect on the profitability of the Fund. In the event of the bankruptcy of a mortgage loan borrower, the mortgage loan to such borrower will be deemed to be secured only to the extent of the value of the underlying collateral at the time of bankruptcy (as determined by the bankruptcy court), and the lien securing the mortgage loan will be subject to the avoidance powers of the bankruptcy trustee or debtor-in-possession to the extent the lien is unenforceable under state law.

Foreclosure of a mortgage loan can be an expensive and lengthy process which could have a substantial negative effect on our anticipated return on the foreclosed mortgage loan. Residential mortgage-backed securities evidence interests in or are secured by pools of residential mortgage loans and commercial mortgage-backed securities evidence interests in or are secured by a single commercial mortgage loan or a pool of commercial mortgage loans. Accordingly, the mortgage-backed securities in which the Fund invests are subject to all of the risks of the underlying mortgage loans.

Mezzanine Loan Risk

The Fund may invest in mezzanine loans that take the form of subordinated loans secured by a pledge of the ownership interests of either the entity owning the real property or the entity that owns the interest in the entity owning the real property. These types of investments involve a higher degree of risk than first mortgage lien loans secured by income producing real property because the investment may become unsecured as a result of foreclosure by the senior lender. In the event of a bankruptcy of the entity providing the pledge of its ownership interests as security, the Fund may not have full recourse to the assets of such entity, or the assets of the entity

 

64


Table of Contents

may not be sufficient to satisfy the Fund’s mezzanine loan. If a borrower defaults on the Fund’s mezzanine loan or debt senior to the Fund’s loan, or in the event of a borrower bankruptcy, the Fund’s mezzanine loan will be satisfied only after the senior debt. As a result, the Fund may not recover some or all of its investment. In addition, mezzanine loans may have higher loan-to-value ratios than conventional mortgage loans, resulting in less equity in the real property and increasing the risk of loss of principal.

CMBS Risk

CMBS are, generally, securities backed by obligations (including certificates of participation in obligations) that are principally secured by mortgages on real property or interests therein having a multifamily or commercial use, such as regional malls, other retail space, office buildings, industrial or warehouse properties, hotels, nursing homes and senior living centers. CMBS are subject to particular risks, including lack of standardized terms, shorter maturities than residential mortgage loans and payment of all or substantially all of the principal only at maturity rather than regular amortization of principal. Additional risks may be presented by the type and use of a particular commercial property. Special risks are presented by certain property types. Commercial property values and net operating income are subject to volatility, which may result in net operating income becoming insufficient to cover debt service on the related mortgage loan. The repayment of loans secured by income-producing properties is typically dependent upon the successful operation of the related real estate asset rather than upon the liquidation value of the underlying real estate. Furthermore, the net operating income from and value of any commercial property is subject to various risks, including changes in general or local economic conditions and/or specific industry segments; the solvency of the related tenants; declines in real estate values; declines in rental or occupancy rates; increases in interest rates, real estate tax rates and other operating expenses; changes in governmental rules, regulations and fiscal policies; acts of God; terrorist threats and attacks; and social unrest, civil disturbances, epidemics and other public crises. Consequently, adverse changes in economic conditions and circumstances are more likely to have an adverse impact on mortgage-related securities secured by loans on commercial properties than on those secured by loans on residential properties. In addition, commercial lending generally is viewed as exposing the lender to a greater risk of loss than one- to four- family residential lending. Commercial lending, for example, typically involves larger loans to single borrowers or groups of related borrowers than residential one- to four- family mortgage loans.

The exercise of remedies and successful realization of liquidation proceeds relating to CMBS is also highly dependent on the performance of the servicer or special servicer. In many cases, overall control over the special servicing of related underlying mortgage loans will be held by a “directing certificate holder” or a “controlling class representative,” which is appointed by the holders of the most subordinate class of CMBS in such series. The Fund may not have the right to appoint the directing certificate holder. In connection with the servicing of the specially serviced mortgage loans, the related special servicer may, at the direction of the directing certificate holder, take actions with respect to the specially serviced mortgage loans that could adversely affect the Fund’s interests. There may be a limited number of special servicers available, particularly those that do not have conflicts of interest.

The Adviser will value the Fund’s potential CMBS investments based on loss-adjusted yields, taking into account estimated future losses on the mortgage loans included in the securitization’s pool of loans, and the estimated impact of these losses on expected future cash flows. The Adviser’s loss estimates may not prove accurate, as actual results may vary from estimates. In the event that the Adviser overestimates the pool level losses relative to the price the Fund pays for a particular CMBS investment, the Fund may experience losses with respect to such investment. Credit markets, including the CMBS market, have periodically experienced decreased liquidity on the primary and secondary markets during periods of market volatility. Such market conditions could re-occur and would impact the valuations of our investments and impair our ability to sell such investments if we were required to liquidate all or a portion of our CMBS investments quickly. Additionally, certain securities investments, such as horizontal or other risk retention investments in CMBS, may have certain holding period and other restrictions that would limit our ability to sell such investments.

 

65


Table of Contents

RMBS Risk

RMBS are, generally, securities that represent interest in a pools of residential mortgage loans secured by one to four family residential mortgage loans. Our investments in RMBS are subject to the risks of defaults, foreclosure timeline extension, fraud, home price depreciation and unfavorable modification of loan principal amount, interest rate and amortization of principal accompanying the underlying residential mortgage loans. To the extent that assets underlying our investments are concentrated geographically, by property type or in certain other respects, we may be subject to certain of the foregoing risks to a greater extent. In the event of defaults on the residential mortgage loans that underlie our investments in RMBS and the exhaustion of any underlying or any additional credit support, we may not realize our anticipated return on our investments and we may incur a loss on these investments.

We may also acquire non-agency RMBS, which are backed by residential property but, in contrast to agency RMBS, their principal and interest are not guaranteed by federally chartered entities such as the Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac and, in the case of the Government National Mortgage Association (“Ginnie Mae”), the U.S. government. In addition, we may invest in government mortgage pass-through securities, which represent participation interests in pools of residential mortgage loans purchased from individual lenders by a federal agency or originated by private lenders and guaranteed by a federal agency, including those issued or guaranteed by Ginnie Mae, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. Ginnie Mae certificates are direct obligations of the U.S. Government and, as such, are backed by the “full faith and credit” of the United States. Fannie Mae is a federally chartered, privately owned corporation and Freddie Mac is a corporate instrumentality of the United States. Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac certificates are not backed by the full faith and credit of the United States but the issuing agency or instrumentality has the right to borrow, to meet its obligations, from an existing line of credit with the U.S. Treasury. The U.S. Treasury has no legal obligation to provide such line of credit and may choose not to do so.

Risks Related to Investments in Publicly Traded REITs

The Fund’s investments in the securities of publicly traded REITs will be subject to a variety of risks affecting those REITs directly. Share prices of publicly traded REITs may decline because of adverse developments affecting the real estate industry and real property values, including supply and demand for properties, the economic health of the country or of different regions, the strength of specific industries that rent properties and interest rates. REITs often invest in highly leveraged properties. Returns from REITs, which typically are small or medium capitalization stocks, may trail returns from the overall stock market. In addition, changes in interest rates may hurt real estate values or make REIT shares less attractive than other income-producing investments. REITs are also subject to heavy cash flow dependency and defaults by borrowers and tenants.

Below Investment Grade (High Yield or Junk) Securities Risk

The Fund’s investments in traded real estate-related securities (including both direct and indirect investments) may consist of below investment grade securities. Lower grade securities may be particularly susceptible to economic downturns and are inherently speculative. It is likely that any such economic downturn could adversely affect the ability of the issuers of such securities to repay principal and pay interest thereon and increase the incidence of default for such securities.

Lower grade securities, though high yielding, are characterized by high risk. They may be subject to certain risks with respect to the issuing entity and to greater market fluctuations than certain lower yielding, higher rated securities. The retail secondary market for lower grade securities may be less liquid than that for higher rated securities. Adverse conditions could make it difficult at times to sell certain securities or could result in lower prices than those used in calculating the Fund’s NAV. Because of the substantial risks associated with investments in lower grade securities, you could lose money on your investment in Common Stock, both in the short-term and the long-term.

 

66


Table of Contents

Capital Markets Risk

The Fund expects to fund a portion of its commercial real estate investments with property-level financing. The Fund’s business may be adversely affected by disruptions in the debt and equity capital markets and institutional lending market, including the lack of access to capital or prohibitively high costs of obtaining or replacing capital. The ongoing spread of the Coronavirus has had, and may continue to have, a material adverse effect on credit markets. There can be no assurance that any financing will be available to the Fund in the future on acceptable terms, if at all, or that it will be able to satisfy the conditions precedent required to use its credit facilities, if entered into, which could reduce the number, or alter the type, of investments that the Fund would make otherwise. This may reduce the Fund’s income. To the extent that financing proves to be unavailable when needed, the Fund may be compelled to modify its investment strategies to optimize the performance of the portfolio. Any failure to obtain financing could have a material adverse effect on the continued development or growth of the Fund’s business and harm the Fund’s ability to operate and make distributions.

Interest Rate Risk

The Fund’s investments will expose it to interest rate risk, meaning that changes in prevailing market interest rates could negatively affect the value of such investments. If interest rates increase, so could the Fund’s interest costs for new debt, including variable rate debt obligations under any credit facility or other financing. This increased cost could make the financing of any development or acquisition more costly. Rising interest rates could limit the Fund’s ability to refinance existing debt when it matures or cause it to pay higher interest rates upon refinancing, which would negatively impact liquidity and profitability. In addition, an increase in interest rates could decrease the access third parties have to credit or the amount they are willing to pay for the Fund’s assets. Factors that will affect market interest rates include, without limitation, inflation, deflation, slow or stagnant economic growth or recession, unemployment, money supply, governmental monetary policies, international disorders and instability in domestic and foreign financial markets.

Changes in the general level of interest rates can affect the Fund’s net interest income, which is the difference between the interest income earned on the Fund’s interest-earning assets and the interest expense incurred in connection with its interest-bearing borrowings and hedges. Changes in the level of interest rates also can affect, among other things, the Fund’s ability to acquire certain traded real estate-related securities at attractive prices and enter into hedging transactions. Interest rates are highly sensitive to many factors, including governmental monetary and tax policies, domestic and international economic and political conditions, and other factors beyond the Fund’s control. If market interest rates increase further in the future, the interest rate on any variable rate borrowings will increase and will create higher debt service requirements, which would adversely affect the Fund’s cash flow and could adversely impact the Fund’s results of operations. Interest rate changes may also impact the Fund’s NAV as certain traded real estate-related securities and hedge derivatives, if any, are marked to market. Generally, as interest rates increase, the value of the Fund’s fixed rate securities decreases, which will decrease the book value of the Fund’s equity.

Furthermore, shifts in the U.S. Treasury yield curve reflecting an increase in interest rates would also affect the yield required on certain traded real estate-related securities and therefore their value. For instance, increasing interest rates would reduce the value of the fixed rate assets the Fund holds at the time because the higher yields required by increased interest rates result in lower market prices on existing fixed rate assets in order to adjust the yield upward to meet the market and vice versa. This would have similar effects on the Fund’s real estate-related securities portfolio and the Fund’s financial position and operations as a change in interest rates generally.

LIBOR Risk

The Fund may pay interest under mortgages or credit facilities, and receive interest payments on certain of its real estate-related securities, based on LIBOR, which is the subject of recent national, international and regulatory guidance and proposals for reform. Changes to, or the elimination of, LIBOR may adversely affect interest expense related to borrowings under the Fund’s credit facilities and real estate-related investments.

 

67


Table of Contents

On July 27, 2017, the Financial Conduct Authority, or the FCA, announced that it would phase out LIBOR as a benchmark by the end of 2021. It is unclear whether new methods of calculating LIBOR will be established such that it continues to exist after 2021. The administrator of LIBOR has announced it will consult on its intention to cease the publication of the one week and two month LIBOR settings immediately following the LIBOR publication on December 31, 2021, and the remaining USD LIBOR settings immediately following the LIBOR publication on June 30, 2023. The U.S. Federal Reserve System, Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, and Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation have issued guidance encouraging market participants to adopt alternatives to LIBOR in new contracts as soon as practicable and no later than December 31, 2021, and the FCA has indicated that market participants should not rely on LIBOR being available after 2021. As an alternative to LIBOR, the U.S. Federal Reserve System, in conjunction with the Alternative Reference Rates Committee, a steering committee comprised of large U.S. financial institutions, has identified the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”), a new index calculated by short-term repurchase agreements, backed by Treasury securities, as its preferred alternative rate for LIBOR.

While some instruments may contemplate a scenario where LIBOR is no longer available by providing for an alternative rate setting methodology, not all instruments may have such provisions and there is significant uncertainty regarding the effectiveness of any such alternative methodologies. Abandonment of or modifications to LIBOR could lead to significant short-term and long-term uncertainty and market instability. If LIBOR ceases to exist, we and our portfolio investments may need to amend or restructure our existing LIBOR-based debt instruments and any related hedging arrangements that extend beyond December 31, 2021, or June 30, 2023, depending on the applicable LIBOR tenor and pending the outcome of the LIBOR administrator’s consultation. Such amendments and restructurings may be difficult, costly and time consuming. In addition, from time to time we may invest in floating rate loans and investment securities whose interest rates are indexed to LIBOR. Uncertainty as to the nature of alternative reference rates and as to potential changes or other reforms to LIBOR, or any changes announced with respect to such reforms, may result in a sudden or prolonged increase or decrease in the reported LIBOR rates and the value of LIBOR-based loans and securities, including those of other issuers we currently own or may in the future own. It remains uncertain how such changes would be implemented and the effects such changes would have on us, issuers of instruments in which we invest and financial markets generally.

The expected discontinuation of LIBOR could have a significant impact on our business. There could be significant operational challenges for the transition away from LIBOR including, but not limited to, amending loan agreements with borrowers on investments that may have not been modified with fallback language and adding effective fallback language to new agreements in the event that LIBOR is discontinued before maturity. Beyond these challenges, the Adviser anticipate there may be additional risks to its current processes and information systems that will need to be identified and evaluated. Due to the uncertainty of the replacement for LIBOR, the potential effect of any such event on our cost of capital and net investment income cannot yet be determined.

Derivatives Risk

The Fund may invest in derivative instruments, such as options contracts, futures contracts, options on futures contracts, indexed securities, credit linked notes, credit default swaps and other swap agreements for investment, hedging and risk management purposes. The Fund may invest without limitation in Treasury futures, interest rate swaps, swaptions or similar instruments and combinations thereof. A derivative is a financial contract whose value depends on changes in the value of one or more underlying assets or reference rates. Derivatives are subject to a number of risks described elsewhere in this prospectus, such as liquidity risk, interest rate risk, credit risk and management risk. Derivatives are also subject to counterparty risk, which is the risk that the other party in the transaction will not fulfill its contractual obligation. Changes in the credit quality of the companies that serve as the Fund’s counterparties with respect to its derivative transactions will affect the value of those instruments. By using derivatives that expose the Fund to counterparties, the Fund assumes the risk that its counterparties could experience financial hardships that could call into question their continued ability to

 

68


Table of Contents

perform their obligations. In addition, in the event of the insolvency of a counterparty to a derivative transaction, the derivative transaction would typically be terminated at its fair market value. If the Fund is owed this fair market value in the termination of the derivative transaction and its claim is unsecured, the Fund will be treated as a general creditor of such counterparty, and will not have any claim with respect to the underlying security. As a result, concentrations of such derivatives in any one counterparty would subject the Fund to an additional degree of risk with respect to defaults by such counterparty. Derivatives also involve the risk of mispricing or improper valuation and the risk that changes in the value of a derivative may not correlate perfectly with an underlying asset, interest rate or index. Suitable derivative transactions may not be available in all circumstances and there can be no assurance that the Fund will engage in these transactions to reduce exposure to other risks when that would be beneficial. If the Fund invests in a derivative instrument, it could lose more than the principal amount invested.

Derivative instruments can be illiquid, may disproportionately increase losses, and may have a potentially large impact on Fund performance.

Leverage Risk

The Fund may use leverage in connection with its investments. This leverage may take the form of entity or property level debt. Property level debt will be incurred by operating entities held by the Fund or by joint ventures entered into by one of the Fund’s operating entities and secured by real estate owned by such operating entities. Such operating entities would own real estate assets and would borrow from a lender using the owned property as mortgage collateral. If an operating entity were to default on a loan, the lender’s recourse would be to the mortgaged property and the lender would typically not have a claim to other assets of the Fund or its subsidiaries. There are no limits under the Investment Company Act on the amount of leverage an operating entity may incur. When such property level debt is not recourse to the Fund, the Fund will not treat such borrowings as senior securities (as defined in the Investment Company Act) for purposes of complying with the Investment Company Act’s limitations on leverage unless (i) the operating entity is a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Fund, (ii) the Fund has sole majority control over the governance of a joint venture (which excludes shared control arrangements where the consents of both the Fund and another party are required for all material decisions) or (iii) the financial statements of the operating entity or joint venture holding such debt will be consolidated in the Fund’s financial statements. Property level debt may include covenants restricting when an operating entity held by the Fund can make distributions to the Fund. Defaults on the property level debt may result in the Fund losing its investment in the applicable property. Defaults on entity level debt may result in limits or restrictions on the Fund’s operations, including the Fund’s ability to pay distributions. The Fund will pay (and stockholders will bear) any costs and expenses relating to the use of leverage by the Fund, to the extent the Fund bears such costs, which will result in a reduction in the NAV of the Common Stock.

Leverage may result in greater volatility of the NAV of, and distributions on, the Common Stock because changes in the value of the Fund’s portfolio investments, including investments purchased with the proceeds from Borrowings or the issuance of Preferred Stock, if any, are borne entirely by holders of Common Stock. Common Stock income may fall if the interest rate on Borrowings or the dividend rate on Preferred Stock rises, and may fluctuate as the interest rate on Borrowings or the dividend rate on Preferred Stock varies. So long as the Fund is able to realize a higher net return on its investment portfolio than the then-current cost of any leverage together with other related expenses, the effect of the leverage will be to cause holders of Common Stock to realize higher current net investment income than if the Fund were not so leveraged. On the other hand, the Fund’s use of leverage will result in increased operating costs. Thus, to the extent that the then-current cost of any leverage, together with other related expenses, approaches the net return on the Fund’s investment portfolio, the benefit of leverage to holders of Common Stock will be reduced, and if the then-current cost of any leverage together with related expenses were to exceed the net return on the Fund’s portfolio, the Fund’s leveraged capital structure would result in a lower rate of return to holders of Common Stock than if the Fund were not so leveraged.

Any decline in the NAV of the Fund will be borne entirely by holders of Common Stock. Therefore, if the market value of the Fund’s portfolio declines, the Fund’s use of leverage will result in a greater decrease in NAV to holders of Common Stock than if the Fund were not leveraged.

 

69


Table of Contents

Certain types of Borrowings may result in the Fund being subject to covenants in credit agreements relating to asset coverage or portfolio composition or otherwise. In addition, the terms of the credit agreements may also require that the Fund pledge some or all of its assets as collateral. Such restrictions may be more stringent than those imposed by the Investment Company Act and limit the Fund’s ability to effectively manage its portfolio.

In addition, the Fund may enter into investment management techniques (including reverse repurchase agreements and derivative transactions) that have similar effects as leverage, but which are not subject to the foregoing 331/3% limitation if effected in compliance with applicable SEC rules and guidance. In accordance with these laws, rules and positions, the Fund may “set aside” liquid assets (often referred to as “asset segregation”), or engage in other SEC or staff-approved measures, to “cover” open positions with respect to certain portfolio management techniques, such as engaging in reverse repurchase agreements, dollar rolls, entering into credit default swaps or futures contracts, or purchasing securities on a when-issued or delayed delivery basis, that may be considered senior securities under the Investment Company Act. The Fund intends to cover its derivative positions by maintaining an amount of cash or liquid securities in a segregated account equal to the face value of those positions and by offsetting derivative positions against one another or against other assets to manage the effective market exposure resulting from derivatives in its portfolio. For sell protection credit default swaps, the Fund will be required to cover the full notional amount of the swap or treat any such uncovered amount as a senior security. To the extent that the Fund does not segregate liquid assets or otherwise cover its obligations under such transactions, such transactions will be treated as senior securities representing indebtedness for purposes of the requirement under the Investment Company Act that the Fund may not enter into any such transactions if the Fund’s borrowings would thereby exceed 331/3% of its total assets, less all liabilities and indebtedness of the Fund not represented by senior securities. However, these transactions, even if covered, may represent a form of economic leverage and will create risks. In addition, these segregation and coverage requirements could result in the Fund maintaining securities positions that it would otherwise liquidate (including positions in lower yielding securities), segregating assets at a time when it might be disadvantageous to do so or otherwise restricting portfolio management. Such segregation and cover requirements will not limit or offset losses on related positions.

On October 28, 2020, the SEC adopted Rule 18f-4 under the Investment Company Act providing for the regulation of a registered investment company’s use of derivatives and certain related instruments. Among other things, Rule 18f-4 limits a fund’s derivatives exposure through a value-at-risk test and requires the adoption and implementation of a derivatives risk management program for certain derivatives users. Subject to certain conditions, limited derivatives users (as defined in Rule 18f-4), however, would not be subject to the full requirements of Rule 18f-4. In connection with the adoption of Rule 18f-4, the SEC also eliminated the asset segregation framework arising from prior SEC guidance for covering derivatives and certain financial instruments. Compliance with these new requirements will be required after an eighteen-month transition period following the effective date of the adopted rule. As the Fund comes into compliance, the Fund’s approach to asset segregation and coverage requirements described in this Prospectus will be impacted. In addition, Rule 18f-4 may limit the Fund’s ability to engage in certain derivatives transactions and/or increase the costs of such derivatives transactions, which could adversely affect the value or performance of the Fund.

There can be no assurance that the Fund’s leveraging strategy will be successful.

Potential Conflicts of Interest Risk

The Adviser will experience conflicts of interest in connection with the management of the Fund, relating to the allocation of the Adviser’s time and resources between the Fund and other investment activities; the allocation of investment opportunities by the Adviser and its affiliates; compensation to the Adviser; services provided by the Adviser and its affiliates to issuers in which the Fund invests; investments by the Fund and other clients of the Adviser, subject to the limitations of the Investment Company Act; the formation of additional investment funds by the Adviser; differing recommendations given by the Adviser to the Fund versus other clients; and the Adviser’s use of information gained from issuers in the Fund’s portfolio to aid investments by other clients, subject to applicable law.

 

70


Table of Contents

In addition, the Adviser’s investment professionals will, from time to time, acquire confidential or material, non-public information concerning an entity in which the Fund has invested, or propose to invest, and the possession of such information generally will limit the Adviser’s ability to buy or sell particular securities of such entity on behalf of the Fund, thereby limiting the investment opportunities or exit strategies available to the Fund. In addition, holdings in the securities of an issuer by the Adviser or its affiliates will affect the ability of the Fund to make certain acquisitions of, or enter into certain transactions with, such issuer. From time to time, broker-dealers and investment advisers affiliated with the Adviser will also acquire confidential or material non-public information concerning entities in which the Fund has invested or proposes to invest, which could restrict the Adviser’s ability to buy or sell (or otherwise transact in) securities of such entities, thus limiting investment opportunities or exit strategies available to the Fund. See “Conflicts of Interest.”

The use of our operating partnership to own all or substantially all of our property investments may result in potential conflicts of interest with our operating partnership or limited partners in our operating partnership whose interests may not be aligned with those of our stockholders. Conflicts of interest exist or could arise in the future as a result of the relationships between us and our affiliates, on the one hand, and our operating partnership or any partner thereof, on the other. KKR will hire affiliated property managers (who could also be joint venture partners for an investment) at prevailing market rates to perform management and specialized services for the Fund’s commercial real estate investments. Our directors and officers have duties to our company under applicable Maryland law and our charter in connection with their direction of the management of the Fund. At the same time, we, as sole member, have duties to the general partner of our operating partnership which, in turn, as general partner of our operating partnership, has duties to our operating partnership and to the limited partners under Delaware law in connection with the management of our operating partnership. If there is a conflict between the interests of us or our stockholders, on the one hand, and the interests of the limited partners of our operating partnership other than us or our subsidiaries, on the other, we anticipate that the partnership agreement of our operating partnership will provide that any action or failure to act by us as general partner that gives priority to the separate interests of us or our stockholders that does not result in a violation of the contractual rights of the limited partners of our operating partnership under the partnership agreement will not violate the duties that the general partner owes to our operating partnership and its partners.

Allocation of Investment Opportunities Risk

Certain other existing or future funds, investment vehicles and accounts managed by KKR and its affiliates and KKR proprietary entities invest in securities, properties and other assets in which the Fund seeks to invest. The Adviser’s allocation policy is designed to fairly and equitably distribute investment opportunities over time among funds or pools of capital managed by the Adviser and its affiliates. Allocation of identified investment opportunities among the Fund, KKR and other KKR investment vehicles presents inherent conflicts of interest where demand exceeds available supply. While the Adviser believes it is likely that there will be a limited overlap of investment opportunities for the Fund and other KKR investment vehicles and KKR proprietary accounts, the Fund’s share of investment opportunities may be materially affected by competition from other KKR investment vehicles and KKR proprietary entities. Investors should note that the conflicts inherent in making such allocation decisions will not always be resolved in favor of the Fund. See “Investment Objectives and Strategies – Allocation of Investment Opportunities” and “Conflicts of Interest.”

Cyber-Security Risk and Identity Theft Risk

Increased reliance on internet-based programs and applications to conduct transactions and store data creates growing operational and security risks. Targeted cyber-attacks or accidental events can lead to breaches in computer and data systems security, and subsequent unauthorized access to sensitive transactional and personal information held or maintained by KKR, its affiliates, and third party service providers or counterparties. Any breaches that occur could result in a failure to maintain the security, confidentiality, or privacy of sensitive data, including personal information relating to investors and the beneficial owners of investors, and could lead to theft, data corruption, or overall disruption in operational systems. Criminals could use data taken in breaches in identity theft, obtaining loans or

 

71


Table of Contents

payments under false identities and other crimes that have the potential to affect the value of assets in which the Fund invests. These risks have the potential to disrupt KKR’s ability to engage in transactions, cause direct financial loss and reputational damage or lead to violations of applicable laws related to data and privacy protection and consumer protection. Cybersecurity risks also necessitate ongoing prevention and compliance costs.

Anti-Takeover Provisions

The Fund’s articles of incorporation and bylaws, as well as certain statutory and regulatory requirements, contain certain provisions that may have the effect of discouraging a third party from attempting to acquire the Fund. These provisions may inhibit a change of control in circumstances that could give the stockholders the opportunity to realize a premium over the value of the Common Stock.

Incentive Fee Risk

The Incentive Fee may create an incentive for the Adviser to make investments in order to maximize Portfolio Operating Income under the Incentive Fee even if such investments may not benefit our NAV, cause us to use more leverage than it otherwise would in the absence of the Incentive Fee or to otherwise make riskier investments on our behalf. While the Board does not monitor specific investment decisions by the Adviser and the particular timing of individual investment decisions as they relate to the Incentive Fee, the Board, as part of its fiduciary duties and responsibilities under the Investment Company Act (relating to future determinations as to whether to renew the investment advisory agreement with the Adviser), considers whether the Incentive Fee is fair and reasonable.

Payment of Management and Incentive Fees in Shares Risk

The Fund intends to rely on exemptive relief from the SEC that permits the Fund to pay the Adviser all or a portion of its Management Fees and Incentive Fees in shares of Common Stock in lieu of paying the Adviser an equivalent amount of such fees in cash, which may dilute third party interests in the Fund.

Non-U.S. Investment Risks

We may invest in real estate located outside of the United States and real estate debt issued in, and/or backed by real estate in, countries outside the United States, including Asia and Europe. Non-U.S. real estate and real estate-related investments involve certain factors not typically associated with investing in real estate and real estate-related investments in the U.S., including risks relating to (i) currency exchange matters, including fluctuations in the rate of exchange between the U.S. dollar and the various non-U.S. currencies in which such investments are denominated, and costs associated with conversion of investment principal and income from one currency into another; (ii) differences in conventions relating to documentation, settlement, corporate actions, stakeholder rights and other matters; (iii) differences between U.S. and non-U.S. real estate markets, including potential price volatility in and relative illiquidity of some non-U.S. markets; (iv) the absence of uniform accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards, practices and disclosure requirements and differences in government supervision and regulation; (v) certain economic, social and political risks, including potential exchange-control regulations, potential restrictions on non-U.S. investment and repatriation of capital, the risks associated with political, economic or social instability, including the risk of sovereign defaults, regulatory change, and the possibility of expropriation or confiscatory taxation or the imposition of withholding or other taxes on dividends, interest, capital gains, other income or gross sale or disposition proceeds, and adverse economic and political developments; (vi) the possible imposition of non-U.S. taxes on income and gains and gross sales or other proceeds recognized with respect to such investments; (vii) differing and potentially less well-developed or well-tested corporate laws regarding stakeholder rights, creditors’ rights (including the rights of secured parties), fiduciary duties and the protection of investors; (viii) different laws and regulations including differences in the legal and regulatory environment or enhanced legal and regulatory compliance; (ix) political hostility to investments by foreign investors; (x) less publicly available information; (xi) obtaining or enforcing a

 

72


Table of Contents

court judgement abroad; (xii) restrictions on foreign investment in other jurisdictions; and (xiii) difficulties in effecting repatriation of capital. Furthermore, while we may have the capacity, but not the obligation, to mitigate such additional risks, including through the utilization of certain foreign exchange hedging instruments, there is no guarantee that we will be successful in mitigating such risks and in turn may introduce additional risks and expenses linked to such efforts.

Property Manager Risk

The Adviser hires property managers to manage our properties and leasing agents to lease vacancies in our properties. These property managers may be our affiliates or partners in joint ventures that we enter into. The property managers have significant decision-making authority with respect to the management of our properties. Our ability to direct and control how our properties are managed on a day-to-day basis may be limited because we engage other parties to perform this function. Thus, the success of our business may depend in large part on the ability of our property managers to manage the day-to-day operations and the ability of our leasing agents to lease vacancies in our properties. Any adversity experienced by, or problems in our relationship with, our property managers or leasing agents could adversely impact the operation and profitability of our properties.

Risks Related to the Fund’s REIT Status

If we do not qualify as a REIT, we will be subject to tax as a regular corporation and could face a substantial tax liability.

We expect to operate so as to qualify as a REIT under the Code. However, qualification as a REIT involves the application of highly technical and complex Code provisions for which only a limited number of judicial or administrative interpretations exist. Notwithstanding the availability of cure provisions in the Code, various compliance requirements could be failed and could jeopardize our REIT status. Furthermore, new tax legislation, administrative guidance or court decisions, in each instance potentially with retroactive effect, could make it more difficult or impossible for us to qualify as a REIT. If we fail to qualify as a REIT in any tax year, then:

 

   

we would be taxed as a regular domestic corporation, which under current laws, among other things, means being unable to deduct distributions to stockholders in computing taxable income and being subject to federal income tax on our taxable income at regular corporate income tax rates;

 

   

any resulting tax liability could be substantial and could have a material adverse effect on our book value;

 

   

unless we were entitled to relief under applicable statutory provisions, we would be required to pay taxes, and therefore, our cash available for distribution to stockholders would be reduced for each of the years during which we did not qualify as a REIT and for which we had taxable income; and

 

   

we generally would not be eligible to requalify as a REIT for the subsequent four full taxable years.

To maintain our REIT status, we may have to borrow funds on a short-term basis during unfavorable market conditions.

To qualify as a REIT, we generally must distribute annually to our stockholders a minimum of 90% of our net taxable income, determined without regard to the dividends-paid deduction and excluding net capital gains. We will be subject to regular corporate income taxes on any undistributed REIT taxable income each year. Additionally, we will be subject to a 4% nondeductible excise tax on any amount by which distributions paid by us in any calendar year are less than the sum of 85% of our ordinary income, 95% of our capital gain net income and 100% of our undistributed income from previous years. Payments we make to our stockholders under our share repurchase plan will not be taken into account for purposes of these distribution requirements. If we do not have sufficient cash to make distributions necessary to preserve our REIT status for any year or to avoid taxation, we may be forced to borrow funds or sell assets even if the market conditions at that time are not favorable for these borrowings or sales. These options could increase our costs or reduce our equity.

 

73


Table of Contents

Compliance with REIT requirements may cause us to forego otherwise attractive opportunities, which may hinder or delay our ability to meet our investment objectives and reduce your overall return.

To qualify as a REIT, we are required at all times to satisfy tests relating to, among other things, the sources of our income, the nature and diversification of our assets, the ownership of our stock and the amounts we distribute to our stockholders. Compliance with the REIT requirements may impair our ability to operate solely on the basis of maximizing profits. For example, we may be required to make distributions to stockholders at disadvantageous times or when we do not have funds readily available for distribution.

Compliance with REIT requirements may force us to liquidate or restructure otherwise attractive investments.

To qualify as a REIT, at the end of each calendar quarter, at least 75% of the value of our assets must consist of cash, cash items, government securities and qualified real estate assets. The remainder of our investments in securities (other than qualified real estate assets and government securities) generally cannot include more than 10% of the voting securities (other than securities that qualify for the straight debt safe harbor) of any one issuer or more than 10% of the value of the outstanding securities of more than any one issuer unless we and such issuer jointly elect for such issuer to be treated as a “taxable REIT subsidiary” under the Code. Debt will generally meet the “straight debt” safe harbor if the debt is a written unconditional promise to pay on demand or on a specified date a certain sum of money, the debt is not convertible, directly or indirectly, into stock, and the interest rate and the interest payment dates of the debt are not contingent on the profits, the borrower’s discretion, or similar factors. Additionally, no more than 5% of the value of our assets (other than government securities and qualified real estate assets) can consist of the securities of any one issuer, and no more than 20% of the value of our assets may be represented by securities of one or more taxable REIT subsidiaries. If we fail to comply with these requirements at the end of any calendar quarter, we must dispose of a portion of our assets within 30 days after the end of the calendar quarter or qualify for certain statutory relief provisions in order to avoid losing our REIT qualification and suffering adverse tax consequences. In order to satisfy these requirements and maintain our qualification as a REIT, we may be forced to liquidate assets from our portfolio or not make otherwise attractive investments. These actions could have the effect of reducing our income and amounts available for distribution to our stockholders.

Our charter does not permit any person or group to own more than 9.8% in value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of our outstanding Common Stock or of our outstanding capital stock of all classes or series, and attempts to acquire our Common Stock or our capital stock of all other classes or series in excess of these 9.8% limits would not be effective without an exemption (prospectively or retroactively) from these limits by our board of directors.

For us to qualify as a REIT under the Code, not more than 50% of the value of our outstanding stock may be owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer individuals (including certain entities treated as individuals for this purpose) during the last half of a taxable year. For the purpose of assisting our qualification as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes, among other purposes, our charter prohibits beneficial or constructive ownership by any person or group of more than 9.8%, in value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of the outstanding shares of our outstanding Common Stock, or 9.8% in value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of our outstanding capital stock of all classes or series, which we refer to as the “Ownership Limit.” The constructive ownership rules under the Code and our charter are complex and may cause shares of the outstanding Common Stock owned by a group of related persons to be deemed to be constructively owned by one person. As a result, the acquisition of less than 9.8% of our outstanding Common Stock or our capital stock by a person could cause another person to constructively own in excess of 9.8% of our outstanding Common Stock or our capital stock, respectively, and thus violate the Ownership Limit. There can be no assurance that our board of directors, as permitted in the charter, will not decrease this Ownership Limit in the future. Any attempt to own or transfer shares of our Common Stock or capital stock in excess of the Ownership Limit without the consent of our board of directors will result in the transfer being void.

 

74


Table of Contents

The Ownership Limit may have the effect of precluding a change in control of us by a third party, even if such change in control would be in the best interests of our stockholders or would result in receipt of a premium to the price of our Common Stock (and even if such change in control would not reasonably jeopardize our REIT status). The exemptions to the Ownership Limit granted to date may limit our board of directors’ power to increase the Ownership Limit or grant further exemptions in the future.

Our board of directors is authorized to revoke our REIT election without stockholder approval, which may cause adverse consequences to our stockholders.

Our charter authorizes our board of directors to revoke or otherwise terminate our REIT election, without the approval of our stockholders, if it determines that changes to U.S. federal income tax laws and regulations or other considerations mean it is no longer in our best interests to qualify as a REIT. Our board of directors has fiduciary duties to us and our stockholders and could only cause such changes in our tax treatment if it determines in good faith that such changes are in our best interests and in the best interests of our stockholders. In this event, we would become subject to U.S. federal income tax on our taxable income and we would no longer be required to distribute most of our net income to our stockholders, which may cause a reduction in the total return to our stockholders.

Tax Risks of Investing in the Fund

Non-U.S. holders may be subject to U.S. federal income tax upon their disposition of shares of our Common Stock or upon their receipt of certain distributions from us.

In addition to any potential withholding tax on ordinary dividends, a non-U.S. holder (as such term is defined below under “Certain U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of U.S. Holders of Our Common Stock”), other than a “qualified shareholder” or a “qualified foreign pension fund,” that disposes of a “U.S. real property interest” (“USRPI”) (which includes shares of stock of a U.S. corporation whose assets consist principally of USRPIs), is generally subject to U.S. federal income tax under the Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act of 1980, as amended (“FIRPTA”), on the amount received from such disposition. Such tax does not apply, however, to the disposition of stock in a REIT that is “domestically controlled.” Generally, a REIT is domestically controlled if less than 50% of its stock, by value, has been owned directly or indirectly by non-U.S. persons during a continuous five-year period ending on the date of disposition or, if shorter, during the entire period of the REIT’s existence. We cannot assure you that we will qualify as a domestically controlled REIT. If we were to fail to so qualify, amounts received by a non-U.S. holder on certain dispositions of shares of our Common Stock (including a redemption) would be subject to tax under FIRPTA, unless (i) our shares of Common Stock were regularly traded on an established securities market and (ii) the non-U.S. holder did not, at any time during a specified testing period, hold more than 10% of our Common Stock. See “Certain U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of Our Common Stock—Sales of Our Common Stock.”

A non-U.S. holder other than a “qualified shareholder” or a “qualified foreign pension fund,” that receives a distribution from a REIT that is attributable to gains from the disposition of a USRPI as described above, including in connection with a repurchase of our Common Stock, is generally subject to U.S. federal income tax under FIRPTA to the extent such distribution is attributable to gains from such disposition, regardless of whether the difference between the fair market value and the tax basis of the USRPI giving rise to such gains is attributable to periods prior to or during such non-U.S. holder’s ownership of our Common Stock. In addition, a repurchase of our Common Stock, to the extent not treated as a sale or exchange, may be subject to withholding as an ordinary dividend. See “Certain U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of Our Common Stock—Distributions, and—Repurchases of our Common Stock.”

We seek to act in the best interests of the Fund as a whole and not in consideration of the particular tax consequences to any specific holder of our stock. Potential non-U.S. holders should inform themselves as to the U.S. tax consequences, and the tax consequences within the countries of their citizenship, residence, domicile, and place of business, with respect to the purchase, ownership and disposition of shares of our Common Stock.

 

75


Table of Contents

Investments outside the United States may subject us to additional taxes and could present additional complications to our ability to satisfy the REIT qualification requirements.

Non-U.S. investments may subject us to various non-U.S. tax liabilities, including withholding taxes. In addition, operating in functional currencies other than the U.S. dollar and in environments in which real estate transactions are typically structured differently than they are in the United States or are subject to different legal rules may present complications to our ability to structure non-U.S. investments in a manner that enables us to satisfy the REIT qualification requirements.

We may incur tax liabilities that would reduce our cash available for distribution to you.

Even if we qualify and maintain our status as a REIT, we may become subject to U.S. federal income taxes and related state and local taxes. For example, net income from the sale of properties that are “dealer” properties sold by a REIT (a “prohibited transaction” under the Code) will be subject to a 100% tax. We may not make sufficient distributions to avoid excise taxes applicable to REITs. Similarly, if we were to fail an income test (and did not lose our REIT status because such failure was due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect) we would be subject to tax on the income that does not meet the income test requirements. We also may decide to retain net capital gain we earn from the sale or other disposition of our investments and pay income tax directly on such income. In that event, our stockholders would be treated as if they earned that income and paid the tax on it directly. However, stockholders that are tax-exempt, such as charities or qualified pension plans, would have no benefit from their deemed payment of such tax liability unless they file U.S. federal income tax returns and thereon seek a refund of such tax. We also may be subject to state and local taxes on our income or property, including franchise, payroll, mortgage recording and transfer taxes, either directly or at the level of the other companies through which we indirectly own our assets, such as our taxable REIT subsidiaries, which are subject to full U.S. federal, state, local and foreign corporate-level income taxes. Any taxes we pay directly or indirectly will reduce our cash available for distribution to you.

You may have current tax liability on distributions you elect to reinvest in our Common Stock.

If you participate in our distribution reinvestment plan, you will be deemed to have received, and for U.S. federal income tax purposes will be taxed on, the amount reinvested in shares of our Common Stock to the extent the amount reinvested was not a tax-free return of capital. Therefore, unless you are a tax-exempt entity, you may be forced to use funds from other sources to pay your tax liability on the reinvested dividends.

Generally, ordinary dividends payable by REITs do not qualify for reduced U.S. federal income tax rates.

Currently, the maximum tax rate applicable to qualified dividend income payable to certain non-corporate U.S. stockholders is 20%. Dividends payable by REITs, however, generally are not eligible for the reduced rate. Although this does not adversely affect the taxation of REITs or dividends payable by REITs, the more favorable rates applicable to regular corporate qualified dividends could cause certain non-corporate investors to perceive investments in REITs to be relatively less attractive than investments in the stocks of non-REIT corporations that pay dividends, which could adversely affect the value of the shares of REITs, including our Common Stock. However, under tax reform legislation under the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “Tax Reform Bill”), commencing with taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2018 and continuing through 2025, individual taxpayers may be entitled to claim a deduction in determining their taxable income of 20% of ordinary REIT dividends (dividends other than capital gain dividends and dividends attributable to certain qualified dividend income received by us), which temporarily reduces the effective tax rate on such dividends. See “Certain U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of U.S. Holders of Our Common Stock—Distributions Generally.” You are urged to consult with your tax advisor regarding the effect of this change on your effective tax rate with respect to REIT dividends.

We may be subject to adverse legislative or regulatory tax changes that could increase our tax liability, reduce our operating flexibility and reduce the price of our Common Stock.

 

76


Table of Contents

In recent years, numerous legislative, judicial and administrative changes have been made in the provisions of U.S. federal income tax laws applicable to investments similar to an investment in shares of our Common Stock. . Additional changes to the tax laws are likely to continue to occur, and we cannot assure you that any such changes will not adversely affect the taxation of our stockholders. Any such changes could have an adverse effect on an investment in our shares or on the market value or the resale potential of our assets. You are urged to consult with your tax advisor with respect to the impact of recent legislation on your investment in our shares and the status of legislative, regulatory or administrative developments and proposals and their potential effect on an investment in our shares. Although REITs generally receive certain tax advantages compared to entities taxed as regular corporations, it is possible that future legislation would result in a REIT having fewer tax advantages, and it could become more advantageous for a company that invests in real estate to elect to be treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a corporation. As a result, our charter authorizes our board of directors to revoke or otherwise terminate our REIT election, without the approval of our stockholders, if it determines that changes to U.S. federal income tax laws and regulations or other considerations mean it is no longer in our best interests to qualify as a REIT. The impact of tax reform on an investment in our shares is uncertain. Prospective investors should consult their own tax advisors regarding changes in tax laws.

The failure of a mezzanine loan to qualify as a real estate asset could adversely affect our ability to qualify as a REIT.

We may acquire mezzanine loans, for which the United States Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”) has provided a safe harbor but not rules of substantive law. Pursuant to the safe harbor, if a mezzanine loan meets certain requirements, it will be treated by the IRS as a real estate asset for purposes of the REIT asset tests, and interest derived from the mezzanine loan will be treated as qualifying mortgage interest for purposes of the REIT 75% income test. We may acquire mezzanine loans that do not meet all of the requirements of this safe harbor. In the event we own a mezzanine loan that does not meet the safe harbor, the IRS could challenge such loan’s treatment as a real estate asset for purposes of the REIT asset and income tests and, if such a challenge were sustained, we could fail to qualify as a REIT.

If our operating partnership failed to qualify as a partnership or is not otherwise disregarded for U.S. federal income tax purposes, we would cease to qualify as a REIT.

If the IRS were to successfully challenge the status of our operating partnership as a partnership or disregarded entity for U.S. federal income tax purposes, it would be taxable as a corporation. In the event that this occurs, it would reduce the amount of distributions that our operating partnership could make to us. This would also result in our failing to qualify as a REIT and becoming subject to a corporate-level tax on our income, which would substantially reduce our cash available to pay distributions and the yield on your investment.

 

77


Table of Contents

CONFLICTS OF INTEREST

The Adviser will experience conflicts of interest in connection with the management of the Fund, including, but not limited to, those discussed below. Dealing with conflicts of interest is complex and difficult, and new and different types of conflicts may subsequently arise.

 

   

The members, officers and other personnel of the Adviser allocate their time, resources and other services between the Fund and other investment and business activities in which they are involved, including other funds, investment vehicles and accounts managed by KKR. The Adviser intends to devote such time as shall be necessary to conduct the Fund’s business affairs in an appropriate manner. However, the Adviser will continue to devote the time, resources and other services necessary to managing its other investment and business activities, and the Adviser is not precluded from conducting activities unrelated to the Fund. Substantial time will be spent by such members, officers and personnel monitoring the investments of other funds, investment vehicles and accounts managed by KKR.

 

   

The Adviser will, at times, compete with certain of its affiliates, including other entities it manages, for investments for the Fund, subjecting the Adviser to certain conflicts of interest in evaluating the suitability of investment opportunities and making or recommending acquisitions on the Fund’s behalf. The Adviser will receive advisory and other fees from the other entities it manages, and due to fee-offset provisions contained in the management agreements for such entities, the fees, at times, will not be proportionate to such entities’ investment accounts for any given transaction and the Adviser will have an incentive to favor entities from which it receives higher fees.

 

   

The Adviser’s allocation policy is designed to fairly and equitably distribute investment opportunities over time among funds or pools of capital managed by the Adviser and its affiliates. The Adviser’s allocation policy provides that once an investment has been approved it will be allocated to the funds or other pools of capital that have investment strategies suitable for such investment opportunity. If an investment opportunity is suitable for more than one fund or pool of capital, each suitable fund or pool of capital will receive a share of the investment based on its desired hold amount. Determinations as to desired hold amounts are based on such factors as: investment objectives and focus, target investment sizes, available capital, the timing of capital inflows and outflows and anticipated capital commitments and subscriptions, liquidity profile, applicable concentration limits and other investment restrictions, mandatory minimum investment rights and other contractual obligations applicable to participating funds and pools of capital, portfolio diversification, tax efficiencies and potential adverse tax consequences, regulatory restrictions applicable to participating funds and pools of capital, policies and restrictions (including internal policies and procedures) applicable to the participating funds and pools of capital, the avoidance of odd-lots or cases where a pro rata or other defined allocation methodology would result in a de minimis allocation to any participating funds and pools of capital, the potential dilutive effect of a new position, the overall risk profile, targeted leverage levels and targeted return of a portfolio, and the potential return available from a debt investment as compared to an equity investment. The outcome of this determination will result in the allocation of all, some or none of an investment opportunity to the Fund. In addition, subject to applicable law, affiliates of the Adviser will, from time to time, invest in one of the Fund’s portfolio investments and hold a different class of securities than the Fund. To the extent that an affiliate of the Adviser holds a different class of securities than the Fund, its interests might not be aligned with the Fund’s. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Adviser will act in the best interest of the Fund in accordance with its fiduciary duty to the Fund. Prior to receipt of co-investment relief, if a negotiated investment opportunity that the Fund cannot participate with affiliated funds in without co-investment relief is appropriate for both the Fund and one or more other funds, investment vehicles and accounts managed by KKR advised by the Adviser or KKR, the investment opportunity will not be shared and the Fund will receive all or none of the investment opportunity, on a basis that fairly and equitably distributes investment opportunities over time taking into consideration whether the Fund, any other fund, investment vehicle and account managed by KKR has a particular focus with respect to such investment opportunity.

 

78


Table of Contents

Additionally, certain investment opportunities that may be appropriate for us may be allocated to other existing or future funds, investment vehicles and accounts managed by KKR and its affiliates. Currently, KKR manages a fund that invests in “core+” real estate in the United States (which are generally substantially stabilized assets generating relatively stable cash flow), with a focus on multifamily, industrial, office in innovation markets, senior housing and student housing in the top fifteen U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (together with future accounts with similar investment strategies, the “Private Core+ Accounts”). KKR believes it is likely that there will be a limited overlap of investment opportunities for us and the Private Core+ Accounts because of our primary investment objective of providing current income. To the extent an investment satisfies the investment objectives, targets and restrictions of us and the Private Core+ Accounts on the same terms, including at the lower leverage targeted by the Private Core+ Accounts, such investment will be allocated in accordance with KKR’s prevailing policies and procedures described above, subject to the requirements of the Investment Company Act and any form of co-investment relief we may obtain. KKR also manages KKR Real Estate Finance Trust Inc. and other investment vehicles and accounts, which invest in loans collateralized by commercial real estate (the “RE Credit Accounts”). KKR believes it is also likely that there will be a limited overlap of investment opportunities for the Fund and the RE Credit Accounts because the Fund’s focus on private mezzanine and preferred equity debt interests as compared to the RE Credit Accounts’ investment focus on stabilized and transitional whole loans. To the extent an investment satisfies the investment objectives of the Fund and the RE Credit Accounts on the same terms, such investment will be allocated in accordance with KKR’s prevailing policies and procedures described above, subject to the requirements of the Investment Company Act and any form of co-investment relief we may obtain.

 

   

The appropriate allocation among the Fund and other KKR funds and accounts of expenses and fees generated in the course of evaluating and making investments often will not be clear, especially where more than one KKR fund or account participates. The Adviser will determine, in its sole discretion, the appropriate allocation of investment-related expenses, including broken deal expenses incurred in respect of unconsummated investments and expenses more generally relating to a particular investment strategy, among the funds and accounts participating or that would have participated in such investments or that otherwise participate in the relevant investment strategy, as applicable, which could result in the Fund bearing more or less of these expenses than other participants or potential participants in the relevant investments.

 

   

The compensation payable by the Fund to the Adviser will be approved by the Board consistent with the exercise of the requisite standard of care applicable to directors under state law and the Investment Company Act. Such compensation is payable, in most cases, regardless of the quality of the assets acquired, the services provided to the Fund or whether the Fund makes distributions to stockholders.

 

   

The Adviser and its affiliates will, at times, provide a broad range of financial services to companies in which the Fund invests, in compliance with applicable law, and will generally be paid fees for such services. In addition, from time to time, to the extent consistent with the Investment Company Act, affiliates of the Adviser could act as an underwriter or placement agent in connection with an offering of securities by one of the companies in the Fund’s portfolio or in connection with the arrangement of debt financing for real properties held by real estate operating companies in the Fund’s portfolio. Any compensation received by the Adviser and its affiliates for providing these services, will not be shared with the Fund and could be received before the Fund realizes a return on its investment. The Adviser will face conflicts of interest with respect to services performed for these companies, on the one hand, and investments recommended to the Fund, on the other hand.

 

   

From time to time, to the extent consistent with the Investment Company Act, affiliates of the Adviser could act as a lender to the Fund or one of the investments in the Fund’s portfolio pursuant to an unsecured line of credit. The Fund has entered into an unsecured line of credit with KKR Financial Holdings LLC, an affiliate of KKR, pursuant to which the Fund may borrow up to $100 million at an interest rate equal to the then-current interest rate offered by an unaffiliated third-party lender or, if no

 

79


Table of Contents
 

such rate is available, LIBOR plus 3.00%. KKR may face conflicts of interest in connection with any borrowings or disputes under such line of credit.

 

   

KKR engages in a broad range of business activities and invests in portfolio companies and other issuers whose operations could be substantially similar to the issuers of the Fund’s portfolio investments. The performance and operation of such competing businesses could conflict with and adversely affect the performance and operation of the issuers of the Fund’s portfolio investments and could adversely affect the prices and availability of business opportunities or transactions available to these issuers.

 

   

The Fund will bear all other costs and expenses of its operations, administration and transactions. An affiliate of the Adviser will serve as the Fund’s administrator and will provide, or oversee the performance of, administrative and compliance services for the Fund. From time to time, the Adviser will be required to decide whether costs and expenses are to be borne by the Fund, on the one hand, or the Adviser or the Administrator, on the other, and/or whether certain costs and expenses should be allocated between or among the Fund, on the one hand, and other funds, investment vehicles and accounts managed by the Adviser or its affiliates, on the other hand. The Adviser and Administrator will make all such expense allocation judgments in its fair and reasonable discretion and subject to the oversight of the Board, however, the Adviser and the Administrator will face conflicts of interest in making these determinations.

 

   

Affiliates of the Adviser (including portfolio companies owned by funds managed by the Adviser and its affiliates) will, at times, provide property management or other services with respect to properties in which the Fund invests, in compliance with applicable law, and will generally be paid fees for such services. Any compensation received by the Adviser’s affiliates for providing these services will be directly or indirectly borne by the Fund. Although any such arrangements will be subject to the requirements of applicable law, including guidance under the Investment Company Act, and must be approved by our independent directors, the Adviser will face conflicts of interest with respect to recommending the engagement of these service providers by the Fund.

 

   

From time to time, to the extent consistent with the Investment Company Act and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder, or with exemptive relief the Fund receives from the SEC, if any, the Fund and other clients for which the Adviser or its affiliates provides investment management services or carries on investment activities (including, among others, clients that are employee benefit plans subject to the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (“ERISA”) and related regulations) will make investments at different levels of an investment entity’s capital structure or otherwise in different classes of an issuer’s securities. These investments inherently give rise to conflicts of interest or perceived conflicts of interest between or among the various classes of securities held by the Fund and such other clients, including in the case of financial distress of the investment entity.

 

   

KKR and the Adviser sponsor and advise, and expect in the future to sponsor and advise, a broad range of investment funds, vehicles and other accounts, including proprietary vehicles, that make investments worldwide. KKR will, from time to time, also make investments for its own account, including, for example, through investment and co-investment vehicles established for KKR personnel and associates. The Adviser and its affiliates are not restricted from forming additional investment funds, from entering into other investment advisory relationships (including, among others, relationships with clients that are employee benefit plans subject to ERISA and related regulations) or from engaging in other business activities, even to the extent such activities are in competition with the Fund and/or involve substantial time and resources of the Adviser. For example, the Adviser could invest, on behalf of an affiliated fund, in a company that is a competitor of one of the Fund’s portfolio investments or that is a service provider, supplier, customer or other counterparty with respect to one of the Fund’s portfolio investments. In providing advice and recommendations to, or with respect to, such investments and in dealing in such investments on behalf of such other affiliated fund, to the extent

 

80


Table of Contents
 

permitted by law, the Adviser or its affiliates will not take into consideration the interests of the Fund and its portfolio investments and issuers thereof. Accordingly, such advice, recommendations and dealings will result in conflicts of interest for the Adviser. In addition, the Adviser’s ability to effectively implement the Fund’s investment strategies will be limited to the extent that contractual obligations relating to these permitted activities restrict the Adviser’s ability to engage in transactions that it would otherwise be interested in pursuing. Affiliates of the Adviser, whose primary business includes the origination of investments, engage in investment advisory business with accounts that compete with the Fund.

 

   

The Adviser and its affiliates will, from time to time, give advice and recommend securities to other clients that differs from, or is contrary to, advice given to or securities recommended or bought for the Fund even though their investment objectives are similar to the Fund’s.

 

   

To the extent not restricted by confidentiality requirements or applicable law, the Adviser will, from time to time, apply experience and information gained in providing services to the Fund’s portfolio investments in providing services to competing companies invested in by affiliates’ other clients, which could have adverse consequences for the Fund or its portfolio investments. In addition, in providing services in respect of such portfolio investments and other issuers of portfolio investments, the Adviser or its affiliates will, from time to time, come into possession of information that it is prohibited from acting on (including on behalf of the Fund) or disclosing as a result of applicable confidentiality requirements or applicable law, even though such action or disclosure would be in the interests of the Fund.

 

   

As a registered investment company, the Fund will be limited in its ability to invest in any investment in which the Adviser or its affiliates’ other clients have an investment. The Fund will also be limited in its ability to co-invest with the Adviser or one or more of its affiliates. Some of these co-investments would only be permitted pursuant to an exemptive order from the SEC.

 

   

The Fund depends to a significant extent on the Adviser’s access to the investment professionals and senior management of KKR and the information and deal flow generated by the KKR investment professionals and senior management during the normal course of their investment and portfolio management activities. The senior management and the investment professionals of the Adviser source, evaluate, analyze and monitor the Fund’s investments. The Fund’s future success will depend on the continued service of the senior management team and investment professionals of the Adviser.

 

   

The Adviser’s relationship with other advisory clients and with KKR could create a conflict of interest to the extent the Adviser becomes aware of inside information concerning investments or potential investment targets. KKR has adopted information-sharing policies and procedures which address both (i) the handling of confidential information and (ii) the information barrier that exists between the public and private sides of KKR. KKR has compliance functions to administer KKR’s information-sharing policies and procedures and monitor potential conflicts of interest. The Fund cannot assure its investors, however, that these procedures and practices will be effective. Although the Fund plans to leverage KKR’s firm-wide resources to help source, conduct due diligence on, structure, syndicate and create value for the Fund’s investments (to the extent permitted by applicable law), KKR’s information-sharing policies and procedures referenced above, as well as certain legal, contractual and tax constraints, could significantly limit KKR’s ability to do so. For example, from time to time KKR’s personnel will be in possession of material non-public information with respect to the Fund’s investments or potential investments, and as a result, such professionals will be restricted by KKR’s information-sharing policies or by law or contract, from sharing such information with the KKR professionals responsible for making the Fund’s investment decisions, even where the disclosure of such information would be in the best interest of the Fund or would otherwise influence the decisions taken by such investment professionals with respect to such investment or potential investment. In addition, this conflict and these procedures and practices could limit the freedom of the Adviser to enter into or exit from potentially profitable investments for the Fund which could have an adverse

 

81


Table of Contents
 

effect on the Fund’s results of operations. Conversely, the Adviser could pursue investments for the Fund without obtaining access to confidential information otherwise in its or KKR’s possession, which information, if reviewed, might otherwise impact the Adviser’s judgment with respect to such investments. Accordingly, as a result of such restrictions, the investment activities of KKR’s other businesses will differ from, or be inconsistent with, the interests of and activities that are undertaken for the Fund and there can be no assurance that the Fund will be able to fully leverage all of the available resources and industry expertise of KKR’s other businesses. Additionally, there will be circumstances in which one or more individuals associated with the Adviser will be precluded from providing services to the Fund because of certain confidential information available to those individuals or to other parts of KKR.

 

   

The nature of the Adviser’s businesses and the participation by its employees in creditors’ committees, steering committees or boards of directors of portfolio companies will, from time to time, result in the Adviser receiving material non-public information from time to time with respect to publicly held companies or otherwise becoming an “insider” with respect to such companies. With limited exceptions, KKR does not establish information barriers between its internal investment teams. Trading by KKR on the basis of such information, or improperly disclosing such information, could be restricted pursuant to applicable law and/or internal policies and procedures adopted by KKR to promote compliance with applicable law. Accordingly, the possession of “inside information” or “insider” status with respect to such an issuer by KKR or KKR personnel could, including where an appropriate information barrier does not exist between the relevant investment professionals or has been “crossed” by such professionals, significantly restrict the ability of the Adviser to deal in the securities of that issuer on behalf of the Fund, which could adversely impact the Fund, including by preventing the execution of an otherwise advisable purchase or sale transaction in a particular security until such information ceases to be regarded as material non-public information, which could have an adverse effect on the overall performance of such investment. In addition, affiliates of KKR in possession of such information could be prevented from disclosing such information to the Adviser, even where the disclosure of such information would be in the interests of the Fund. From time to time, the Adviser will also be subject to contractual “stand-still” obligations and/or confidentiality obligations that restrict its ability to trade in certain securities on behalf of the Fund. In certain circumstances, the Fund or the Adviser will engage an independent agent to dispose of securities of issuers in which KKR could be deemed to have material non-public information on behalf of the Fund. Such independent agent could dispose of the relevant securities for a price that is lower than the Adviser’s valuation of such securities which could take into account the material non-public information known to KKR in respect of the relevant issuer.

 

   

The Adviser could develop new businesses such as providing investment banking, advisory and other services to corporations, financial sponsors, management or other persons. Such services could relate to transactions that could give rise to investment opportunities that are suitable for the Fund. In such case, the Adviser’s client would typically require the Adviser to act exclusively on its behalf, thereby precluding the Fund from participating in such investment opportunities. The Adviser would not be obligated to decline any such engagements in order to make an investment opportunity available to the Fund. In addition, the Adviser could come into the possession of information through these new businesses that limits the Fund’s ability to engage in potential transactions.

 

   

The Investment Company Act limits the Fund’s ability to invest in, or hold securities of, companies that are controlled by funds managed by KKR. Any such investments could create conflicts of interest between the Fund, the Adviser and KKR. The Adviser will also have, or enter into, advisory relationships with other advisory clients (including, among others, employee benefit plans subject to ERISA and related regulations) that could lead to circumstances in which a conflict of interest between the Adviser’s advisory clients could exist or develop. In addition, to the extent that another client of the Adviser or KKR holds a different class of securities than the Fund, the interest of such client and the Fund might not be aligned. As a result of these conflicts and restrictions, the Adviser could be unable

 

82


Table of Contents
 

to implement the Fund’s investment strategies as effectively as it could have in the absence of such conflicts or restrictions. In order to avoid these conflicts and restrictions, the Adviser could choose to exit these investments prematurely and, as a result, the Fund would forgo any future positive returns associated with such investments.

 

   

Certain other KKR client accounts or proprietary accounts have investment objectives, programs, strategies and positions that are similar to, or conflict with, those of the Fund, or compete with, or have interests adverse to, the Fund. This type of conflict could affect the prices and availability of the assets in which the Fund invests. KKR will, from time to time, give advice or take action with respect to the investments held by, and transactions of, other KKR client accounts or proprietary accounts that could be different from or otherwise inconsistent with the advice given or timing or nature of any action taken with respect to the investments held by, and timing or nature of any action taken with respect to the investments held by, and transactions of, the Fund. Such different advice and/or inconsistent actions could be due to a variety of reasons, including, without limitation, the differences between the investment objective, program, strategy and tax treatment of the other KKR client accounts or proprietary accounts and the Fund or the regulatory status of other KKR client accounts and any related restrictions or obligations imposed on KKR as a fiduciary thereof. Such advice and actions could adversely impact the Fund.

 

   

The Investment Company Act prohibits the Fund from participating in certain transactions with certain of its affiliates including an Adviser-affiliated broker-dealer. The Fund generally is prohibited, for example, from buying or selling any security or other property from or to another client of the Adviser or of KKR. The Investment Company Act also prohibits certain “joint” transactions with certain of the Fund’s affiliates, which in certain circumstances could include investments in the same portfolio investment (whether at the same or different times to the extent the transaction involves jointness) or transactions in which a broker-dealer affiliated with the Adviser participates as principal with the Fund. If a person acquires more than 25% of the Fund’s voting securities, the Fund will generally be prohibited from buying or selling any security from or to such person or certain of that person’s affiliates, or entering into prohibited joint transactions with such persons. Similar restrictions limit the Fund’s ability to transact business with its officers or directors or their affiliates. The SEC has interpreted the Investment Company Act rules governing transactions with affiliates to prohibit certain “joint transactions” involving entities that share a common investment adviser. As a result of these restrictions, the scope of investment opportunities that would otherwise be available to the Fund will be limited. These investment opportunities will generally be made available to other funds, vehicles and accounts advised by the Adviser that are not subject to similar restrictions under the Investment Company Act.

 

   

From time to time, the Fund, KKR or its affiliates will recruit an existing or newly formed management team to pursue a new “platform” opportunity expected to lead to the formation of a future portfolio entity. In other cases, the Fund, KKR or its affiliates could form a new portfolio entity and recruit an existing or newly formed management team to build the portfolio entity through acquisitions and organic growth. Finally, in order to augment the Fund team’s capabilities and diligence techniques and, in some instances, operate or service the Fund’s investments, KKR could partner with, including through joint ventures or by making investments in, high-quality operators with significant expertise and the requisite skills to operate or service the Fund’s assets. The structure of each platform portfolio entity and the engagement of each operating partner will vary, including in respect of whether a management or operating team’s services are exclusive to the platform and whether members of the management or operating team are employed directly by such platform or indirectly through a separate management company established to manage such platform, and such structures are subject to change throughout an investment’s hold period, for example, in connection with potential restructurings, refinancings and/or dispositions. To the extent permitted under the Investment Company Act, the Fund would bear the expenses of the management team and/or portfolio entity, as the case may be, including, for example, any overhead expenses, employee compensation, diligence expenses or other expenses in

 

83


Table of Contents
 

connection with backing the management team and/or the build out of the platform entity. With respect to operating partners, KKR will generally retain, or otherwise enter into a joint venture arrangement with, such operating partner on an ongoing basis through a consulting or joint venture arrangement involving the payment of annual retainer fees. Further such, operating partner will typically receive success fees, performance-based compensation and other compensation for assistance provided by such operators in sourcing and diligencing investments for the Fund and other funds, investment vehicles and accounts managed by KKR. Such annual retainer fees, success fees, performance-based compensation and the other costs of retaining such operating partners would ordinarily be borne directly by the Fund as Fund expenses.

 

   

Stockholders of the Fund are based in a wide variety of jurisdictions and take a wide variety of forms. Accordingly, they could have conflicting regulatory, legal, investment, tax and other interests with respect to their investments in the Fund. The conflicting interests of individual stockholders relate to or arise from, among other things, the nature of investments made by the Fund, the selection, structuring, acquisition and management of investments, the timing of disposition of investments, internal investment policies of the stockholders and their target risk/return profiles. As a consequence, conflicts of interest could arise in connection with decisions made by the Adviser, including with respect to the nature or structuring of investments, which could be more beneficial for one stockholder than for another stockholder, especially with respect to stockholders’ individual tax situations. In addition, the Fund could make investments that have a negative impact on related investments made by the Fund in separate transactions. In selecting and structuring investments appropriate for the Fund, the Adviser will consider the investment and tax objectives of the Fund and its stockholders as a whole, not the investment, tax or other objectives of any stockholder individually.

Each of the Adviser and the other investment advisers and/or investment managers affiliated with KKR will deal with conflicts of interest using its best judgment, but in its sole discretion. When conflicts arise between the Fund and another affiliated fund, the Adviser will represent the interests of the Fund and the other participating affiliated adviser will represent the interests of the affiliated fund it sponsors, manages or advises. In resolving conflicts, the Adviser and the other affiliated advisers will consider various factors, including applicable restrictions under the Investment Company Act, the interests of the funds and accounts they advise in the context of both the immediate issue at hand and the longer term course of dealing among the Fund and the other affiliated fund. As with all conflicts involving the Fund, the Adviser’s determination as to which factors are relevant and the resolution of such conflicts will be made in the Adviser’s sole discretion except as required by the Investment Company Act or by the governing documents of the Fund. Although the Adviser has established procedures and policies addressing conflicts of interest, there can be no assurance that the Adviser will be able to resolve all conflicts in a manner that is favorable to the Fund.

 

84


Table of Contents

MANAGEMENT OF THE FUND

Board of Directors

The responsibilities of the Board include, among other things, the oversight of the Adviser’s investment activities, oversight of the Adviser’s financing arrangements and corporate governance activities. The Board currently has an audit committee and a nominating committee and may establish additional committees from time to time as necessary. As is the case with virtually all registered investment companies, the Fund’s service providers, primarily the Adviser and its affiliates, have responsibility for the Fund’s day-to-day management, subject to the investment objectives, restrictions and policies of the Fund and to the general oversight of the Board.

The Board of Directors is currently comprised of six directors. A majority of the directors are not “interested persons” of the Fund (as defined in the Investment Company Act). The name and business address of the directors and officers of the Fund and their principal occupations and other affiliations during the past five years are set forth under “Management of the Fund” in the SAI.

Adviser

KKR Registered Advisor LLC serves as the Fund’s Adviser, subject to the ultimate oversight of, and any policies established by, the Board, pursuant to the terms of an investment advisory agreement with the Fund. Under the terms of the investment advisory agreement, the Adviser allocates the Fund’s assets in accordance with the Fund’s investment objectives. The Adviser may reallocate the Fund’s assets subject to the ultimate oversight of, and any policies established by, the Board. The Adviser, pursuant to the policies adopted by our Board, is responsible for making fair value determinations, evaluating the effectiveness of the Fund’s valuation policies, overseeing the calculation of the NAV per share for each class of shares and reporting to the Board and the Valuation Committee of the Board.

The Adviser is a subsidiary of our sponsor, Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co. L.P. KKR is a leading global investment firm that manages multiple alternative asset classes, including private equity, energy, infrastructure, real estate and credit. The Adviser is located at 30 Hudson Yards, New York, NY 10001, and its telephone number is (212) 750-8300.

KKR founded KKR Real Estate in 2011 believing that a dedicated real estate team with access to KKR’s global investment platform, and the support of the KKR balance sheet capital, could create differentiated deal flow and generate compelling risk-adjusted returns for investors. The primary mandate of KKR Real Estate is to leverage the KKR brand, relationships, industry expertise, proprietary knowledge of the firm and the real estate expertise of the team to create differentiated deal flow for investors. As of December 31, 2020, KKR Real Estate has approximately 100 dedicated investment and asset management professionals. Since the formation of the business, KKR Real Estate has grown to approximately $28 billion of assets under management, including approximately $23 billion in the U.S. across equity and credit vehicles,5 which translates into owning or lending on approximately $86 billion of real estate assets across all property types, including multifamily, industrial, office, and select specialty sectors.

 

5 

Figures represent AUM across all KKR real estate transactions since 2011; strategies include Real Estate Partners Americas, Real Estate Partners Europe, Asia Real Estate Partners, Property Partners Americas, Real Estate Credit, estimated value of Global Atlantic assets, Real Estate nonbanking financial companies, Private Equity funds, Special Situations, trophy single tenant investments in KKR Credit accounts, KKR Balance Sheet investments and a pro rata portion of the AUM of Drawbridge Realty Management LLC. KKR does not act as an investment adviser to Drawbridge or any of its portfolio investments. Inclusive of estimated Global Atlantic assets. Based on preliminary financial results of Global Atlantic as of December 31, 2020. The estimated value of the Global Atlantic assets to be managed by KKR Real Estate as of the Global Atlantic acquisition closing is approximately $12 billion.

 

85


Table of Contents

About KKR

KKR operates with a single culture that rewards investment discipline, creativity, determination and patience and the sharing of information, resources, expertise and best practices across offices and asset classes, subject to well-defined information sharing policies and compliance procedures. Its investment professionals provide access to an established platform for evaluating investments, managing risk and focusing on opportunities that seek to generate attractive returns with appropriate levels of risk. This platform allows for intensive due diligence to filter investment opportunities and help select investments that offer the most favorable risk/reward characteristics. Because KKR believes that deep industry knowledge is integral to sourcing deals and creating value for investors, KKR’s investment professionals are organized in industry-specific teams. These teams conduct their own primary research, develop views on industry themes and trends and proactively work to identify companies in which to invest, often on an exclusive basis. KKR believes the industry-specific team approach allows investment teams to become experts within their sectors and build strong relationships with companies needing capital, while covering the full corporate credit space.

Founded in 1976, KKR is a leading global investment firm with 20 offices and approximately 1,600 people, including over 500 investment professionals. It operates an integrated global platform for sourcing and executing investments across multiple industries, asset classes and geographies. KKR is a long-term fundamental investor focused on producing attractive risk-adjusted returns for its clients. As of December 31, 2020, KKR had approximately $252 billion in assets under management.

Investment Management Team

The Fund is positioned, under the management of the Adviser, to take advantage of the full resources of KKR’s global network. The Fund will benefit from a deep and seasoned team of over 85 dedicated investment and asset management professionals with a leadership team that has worked together for over eight years. The Adviser believes the Fund will benefit from KKR Real Estate’s existing relationships, sourcing channels, market knowledge and operating expertise.

Set forth below is information regarding the team of senior KKR Real Estate investment professionals who are primarily responsible for overseeing the day-to-day management of the Fund. In pursuing the Fund’s investment objectives and strategy, the Fund is expected to benefit from the experience, relationships and operational capabilities that KKR has developed over four decades of investing to provide what KKR views as the cornerstone of KKR Real Estate’s competitive advantage in investing. This firm-wide integration is core to KKR’s real estate investment strategy and KKR believes it provides the opportunity for differentiated insights and access to deal flow relative to many standalone real estate investors. The investment professionals who have day-to-day responsibility for the Fund are members of KKR’s Real Estate Investment Committees, which includes three regional committees in the Americas, Europe and Asia, and consists of KKR’s senior leadership and co-founders.

 

   

Ralph Rosenberg Head of KKR Global Real Estate

 

   

Mr. Rosenberg joined KKR in 2011 and is the Global Head of KKR’s Real Estate Platform. Mr. Rosenberg sits on KKR Real Estate’s Global Investment Committee. Prior to joining KKR, Mr. Rosenberg was a partner at Eton Park Capital Management and also managed his own firm, R6 Capital Management, which later merged into Eton Park. Previously, he was a partner at Goldman Sachs. He holds an undergraduate degree from Brown University where he was magna cum laude and an M.B.A from the Stanford Graduate School of Business. Mr. Rosenberg is Chairman of the Board of Directors of KKR Real Estate Finance Trust Inc., a Global and U.S Trustee of the Urban Land Institute, a Governor of the Urban Land Institute Foundation, a Board member and Chair of PREA and a Board Member of the PREA Foundation. He also serves as a Trustee of Brown University and is an Honorary Trustee of the Francis W. Parker School in Chicago, Illinois. He is a former Trustee of the Stanford Graduate School of Business Trust and a former Trustee of the Masters School in Dobbs Ferry, New York.

 

86


Table of Contents
   

Billy Butcher – Chief Operating Officer of KKR Global Real Estate

 

   

Mr. Butcher joined KKR in 2004 and is the Chief Operating Officer of KKR’s global real estate business. Mr. Butcher serves on KKR’s real estate investment committees and leads the Firm’s investments in real estate corporate platforms globally. Mr. Butcher previously co-led U.S. real estate acquisitions, and before helping to establish the Firm’s dedicated real estate investment business in 2011, he worked in the Firm’s corporate private equity business in the U.S. and Asia. Prior to joining KKR, he was at Goldman, Sachs & Co. He holds an A.B., summa cum laude, from Princeton University, and an M.B.A. from the Stanford University Graduate School of Business, where he was the Henry Ford II Scholar and an Arjay Miller Scholar. Mr. Butcher is actively involved in a number of non-profit organizations and currently serves on the Board of Peer Forward, which is committed to enabling broader college access to U.S. high schoolers through positive peer influence.

 

   

Chris LeeHead of KKR Real Estate Americas

 

   

Mr. Lee joined KKR Capital Markets in the Real Estate Group in 2012. He is responsible for KKR’s Real Estate business in the Americas, overseeing both equity and credit investing platforms in the region. Mr. Lee is currently Vice Chairman of the Board of Directors of KKR Real Estate Finance Trust Inc. (NYSE: KREF) where he previously served as Co-Chief Executive Officer and Co-President since October 2015 and March 2016, respectively, through March 2020. He sits on KKR’s Real Estate Equity and Credit Investment Committees in the Americas, KKR’s Real Estate Equity and Credit Portfolio Management Committees in the Americas, KKR’s Inclusion and Diversity Council and chairs KKR’s Real Estate Valuation Committee. Prior to joining KKR, Mr. Lee spent three years at Apollo Global Management on their global real estate team where he focused on real estate acquisitions. He also worked at Goldman Sachs in the merchant banking division’s real estate principal investment area (REPIA) for over five years after spending two years in the investment banking division. Mr. Lee earned his MBA from Harvard Business School and his Bachelor’s degree in Economics from Emory University. He is a former trustee of St. Mark’s School of Texas in Dallas, Texas. Mr. Lee currently serves as a member of the Board of Directors of Sponsors for Educational Opportunity (SEO) in New York, New York, as a member of the Board of Directors of the PREA Foundation in Hartford, Connecticut and as a member of the Dean’s Advisory Council for Emory College of Arts and Sciences in Atlanta, Georgia. He is a member of the CRE Finance Council, Pension Real Estate Association, Real Estate Capital Policy Advisory Committee for the Real Estate Roundtable, Real Estate Executive Council, Manhattan Chapter of YPO and Urban Land Institute where he sits on one of its Urban Development and Mixed-Use Councils.

 

   

Justin PattnerHead of KKR Real Estate Equity Americas

 

   

Mr. Pattner joined KKR in 2011 to help form KKR’s Real Estate Platform. He is the Head of Real Estate Equity in the Americas and oversees all aspects of the business, including acquisitions, asset management and fundraising. He sits on KKR’s Real Estate Investment and Portfolio Management Committees across both Equity and Credit products in the Americas. Prior to joining KKR, Mr. Pattner was at Eton Park Capital Management where he focused on real estate and real estate related opportunities. Prior to Eton Park, he worked at Lehman Brothers in the real estate private equity group (LBREP) as well as at Lubert Adler Partners. Mr. Pattner graduated magna cum laude from the University of Pennsylvania where he received a B.A. in Economics. Mr. Pattner is currently a member of the Urban Land Institute.

 

   

Roger Morales – Head of KKR Commercial Real Estate Acquisitions Americas

 

87


Table of Contents
   

Mr. Morales joined KKR in 2011 as part of the founding team that formed KKR’s Real Estate Platform. He serves as Head of Commercial Real Estate Acquisitions Americas and is involved in management, acquisitions, portfolio management and fundraising. He sits on KKR’s Real Estate Equity and Credit Investment Committees and the Equity Portfolio Management Committee in the Americas. Prior to joining KKR, Mr. Morales worked with Eton Park Capital Management and with Vornado Realty Trust where he focused on real estate and real estate related investment opportunities. Before attending business school, he worked with JP Morgan Partners where he focused on middle market corporate private equity, and with Goldman, Sachs & Co.’s leveraged finance group. He received a B.A. from the University of Miami and an M.B.A. from Harvard Business School. Mr. Morales is a member of the Urban Land Institute and is a member of one of its Industrial and Office Park Development Councils. He is also a member of the University of Miami Real Estate Advisory Board.

 

   

Matt SalemHead of KKR Real Estate Credit

 

   

Mr. Salem joined KKR in 2015 and is a Partner and Head of Real Estate Credit. He also serves as Chief Executive Officer of KKR Real Estate Finance Trust Inc. (NYSE: KREF). Mr. Salem sits on KKR’s Real Estate Investment Committees. Prior to joining KKR, Mr. Salem was a managing director at Rialto Capital Management. Before joining Rialto in 2012, he was a managing director and head of CMBS trading at Goldman Sachs. Before joining Goldman Sachs in 2006, Mr. Salem held positions at Morgan Stanley and Citigroup Alternative Investments where he invested in mezzanine debt and other high yield CRE credit on behalf of the Travelers Insurance Companies. He began his career in 1996 at Midland Loan Services in Kansas City. Mr. Salem has a B.A. in Economics from Bates College. He has served on the Board of Governors of the Commercial Real Estate Finance Council and as Chair of the B-Piece Buyer Forum.

 

   

Guillaume CassouHead of KKR Real Estate Europe

 

   

Mr. Cassou joined KKR in 2012 and is responsible for the European Real Estate team. Mr. Salem sits on KKR’s Asian Equity Investment Committee. Prior to KKR, Mr. Cassou was an executive director at Goldman Sachs real estate principal investment area in London since 2007 focusing on real estate and real estate-related investments across Europe. Previously, Mr. Cassou worked in Goldman Sachs investment banking group from 2001 to 2007, where he was involved in a number of mergers, acquisitions, and capital market transactions. He holds an M.Sc. from Ecole Polytechnique, Paris.

 

   

John PattarHead of KKR Real Estate Asia

 

   

Mr. Pattar joined KKR in 2018 as a Partner and Head of Real Estate Asia. Mr. Pattar sits on KKR’s European Equity Investment Committee. Prior to joining KKR, Mr. Pattar was the CEO of CLSA Real Estate since 2004. At CLSA, Mr. Pattar built a Pan-Asian real estate platform for the firm consisting of a value added fund, Fudo Capital with equity raised of US$2.2 billion and a Core Fund mandate with MEC (Mitsubishi Estates Corporation) managing US$600m gross AUM. He managed the day-to-day operation of Fudo Capital, property funds specifically targeting direct investment in real estate in Asia-Pacific. On behalf of funds and principals of CLSA Capital Partners, Mr. Pattar sourced and completed property deals in Asia of approximately US$5 billion. Mr. Pattar has worked in Asian real estate markets for over 27 years; including South East Asia from 1992-1997, and in Hong Kong since 1998 covering principally North Asia. His extensive real estate experience covers property investment, development, capital transactions and asset management in China, Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, Vietnam, Taiwan, Thailand and Australia. Mr. Pattar holds a Bachelor of Laws degree from King’s College London, University of London (LLB) and is a Fellow of the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (F.R.I.C.S.).

 

88


Table of Contents

The Fund’s SAI provides additional information about the portfolio manager’s compensation structure, other accounts managed by the portfolio manager and the portfolio manager’s ownership of securities in the Fund.

Investment Advisory Agreement

Pursuant to an investment advisory agreement, the Adviser is entitled to receive a base management fee and an incentive fee. The base management fee (the “Management Fee”) is payable monthly in arrears at an annual rate of 1.25% of the average daily value of the Fund’s net assets. The incentive fee (the “Incentive Fee”) is calculated and payable quarterly in arrears in an amount equal to 12.5% of the Fund’s Portfolio Operating Income for the immediately preceding quarter.

“Portfolio Operating Income” means (1) the Fund’s share of Net Operating Income from the Fund’s real estate equity investments; plus (2) the Fund’s net investment income (or loss) from debt, preferred equity investments and real estate-related securities; minus (3) the Fund’s expenses (excluding Incentive Fees and distribution and servicing fees).

“Net Operating Income” means operating revenue net of operating expenses (inclusive of interest on investment level debt) for the Fund’s operating entities that invest in real estate and excludes (i) gains or losses from sales of depreciable real property, (ii) impairment write-downs on depreciable real property, (iii) real estate-related depreciation and amortization for each real estate operating venture and (iv) adjustments for recognizing straight line rent.

Portfolio Operating Income does not include any component of capital gains or capital appreciation. The Adviser is not entitled to any incentive fee based on the capital gains or capital appreciation of the Fund or its investments.

The Adviser has voluntarily agreed to waive its Management Fee from effectiveness of the Fund’s registration statement until December 31, 2021. Effective January 1, 2022, the Adviser’s agreement to temporarily waive its Management Fee will terminate and the Adviser will receive a Management Fee at an annual rate of 1.25% of the average daily value of the Fund’s net assets. The foregoing fee schedule may be extended, terminated or modified by the Adviser in its sole discretion and at any time, including prior to any such date listed above.

The Fund intends to rely on exemptive relief from the SEC that permits the Fund to pay the Adviser all or a portion of its Management Fees and Incentive Fees in shares of Common Stock in lieu of paying the Adviser an equivalent amount of such fees in cash. As a condition of this exemptive relief, the Adviser has committed not to sell any shares of Common Stock received in lieu of a cash payment of its management and incentive fees for at least 12 months from the date of issuance, except in exceptional circumstances. A historical record of the Adviser’s compensation is available on our website:                 .                

A discussion regarding the basis for the approval of the investment advisory agreement by the Board will be available in the Fund’s initial stockholder report. The basis for any subsequent continuation of the Fund’s investment advisory agreement will be provided in the annual or semi-annual reports to stockholders for the periods during which such continuations occur.

In addition to the fees paid to the Adviser, the Fund will pay all other costs and expenses of its operations, including compensation of its directors (other than those affiliated with the Adviser), custodial expenses, leveraging expenses, transfer agent expenses, legal fees, expenses of independent auditors, expenses of its periodic repurchases, expenses of preparing, printing and distributing prospectuses, stockholder reports, notices, proxy statements and reports to governmental agencies and taxes, if any.

 

89


Table of Contents

Competitive Advantages

KKR believes that the Fund will benefit from the following key competitive advantages:

 

   

Differentiated “One-Firm Approach”—The experience, relationships and operational capabilities that KKR has developed over four decades of investing combine to provide what KKR views as the cornerstone of KKR Real Estate’s competitive advantage in the asset class. This integration across KKR is core to its real estate investment strategy and provides what KKR believes to be differentiated insights and access to deal flow relative to many standalone real estate investors. KKR’s “One-Firm” approach is based on the following four pillars:

 

   

Proprietary sourcing channels;

 

   

Differentiated due diligence and analytic capabilities;

 

   

Execution capabilities; and

 

   

Trusted partnerships with key intermediaries.

 

   

Integrated Real Estate Platform Across Equity and Credit—KKR has an integrated U.S. equity and credit investment platform to broaden its sourcing channels and access information about the real estate capital markets. Since the formation of the business, KKR Real Estate has grown to approximately $28 billion of assets under management, including approximately $23 billion in the U.S. across equity and credit vehicles,6 which translates into owning or lending on approximately $86 billion of real estate assets across all property types, including multifamily, industrial, office, and select specialty sectors. KKR believes its existing portfolio provides it with a growing network of proprietary market intelligence and data on valuations, operating fundamentals, liquidity and trends across the real estate industry, leading to sourcing and underwriting advantages.

 

   

Established Real Estate Platform—The Fund will benefit from a deep and seasoned team of over 85 equity investment and asset management professionals with a leadership team that has worked together for over eight years. The Adviser believes the Fund will benefit from KKR Real Estate’s existing relationships, sourcing channels, market knowledge and operating expertise.

 

   

De Novo Portfolio Construction—KKR’s strategy is designed to construct a portfolio of investments targeting asset classes, markets and geographies that KKR believes have attractive long-term secular demand and growth trends. KKR believes that having a team that is both (i) unburdened with the management of legacy underperforming assets that have challenging business plans and limited liquidity and (ii) already transacting across the aforementioned target investment themes will be provide the Fund a competitive advantage.

 

   

Alignment of Interests with Investors—KKR believes that alignment of interests with investors is a fundamental tenet of investing. In the simplest of terms, KKR is one of its own largest investors. KKR has purchased $159 million of Class I Shares to facilitate the acquisition of the Fund’s initial assets. We believe this investment creates a significant alignment of interests with our investors and demonstrates a strong commitment to the Fund’s strategy. Additionally, the Fund has applied for exemptive relief from the SEC that, if granted, will permit the Fund to pay the Adviser all or a portion

 

6 

Figures represent AUM across all KKR real estate transactions since 2011; strategies include Real Estate Partners Americas, Real Estate Partners Europe, Asia Real Estate Partners, Property Partners Americas, Real Estate Credit, estimated value of Global Atlantic assets, Real Estate nonbanking financial companies, Private Equity funds, Special Situations, trophy single tenant investments in KKR Credit accounts, KKR Balance Sheet investments and a pro rata portion of the AUM of Drawbridge Realty Management LLC. KKR does not act as an investment adviser to Drawbridge or any of its portfolio investments. Inclusive of estimated Global Atlantic assets. Based on preliminary financial results of Global Atlantic as of December 31, 2020. The estimated value of the Global Atlantic assets to be managed by KKR Real Estate as of the Global Atlantic acquisition closing is approximately $12 billion.

 

90


Table of Contents
 

of its management and incentive fees in shares of Common Stock in lieu of paying the Adviser an equivalent amount of such fees in cash. There is no assurance that the relief will be granted. As a condition of this exemptive relief, the Adviser has committed not to sell any shares of Common Stock received in lieu of a cash payment of its management and incentive fees for at least 12 months from the date of issuance, except in exceptional circumstances.

 

Expense Limitation and Reimbursement Agreement

Pursuant to an Expense Limitation and Reimbursement Agreement, through December 31, 2022, the Adviser has agreed to waive its fees and/or reimburse expenses of the Fund so that certain of the Fund’s Specified Expenses will not exceed 0.50% of net assets (annualized). The Fund has agreed to repay these amounts, when and if requested by the Adviser, but only if and to the extent that Specified Expenses are less than 0.50% of net assets (annualized) (or, if a lower expense limit is then in effect, such lower limit) within three years after the date the Adviser waived or reimbursed such fees or expenses; provided, however, that the Adviser may recapture a Specified Expense in the same year it is incurred. This arrangement cannot be terminated prior to December 31, 2022 without the Board’s consent. “Specified Expenses” is defined to include all expenses incurred in the business of the Fund, including organizational and offering costs, with the exception of (i) the Management Fee, (ii) the Incentive Fee, (iii) the Servicing Fee, (iv) the Distribution Fee, (v) property level expenses, (vi) brokerage costs or other investment-related out-of-pocket expenses, including with respect to unconsummated investments, (vii) dividend/interest payments (including any dividend payments, interest expenses, commitment fees, or other expenses related to any leverage incurred by the Fund), (viii) taxes, and (ix) extraordinary expenses (as determined in the sole discretion of the Adviser).

Administrator

KKR (the “Administrator”), located at 30 Hudson Yards, New York, NY 10001, will serve as the Fund’s administrator and accounting agent. Pursuant to the administration agreement, the Administrator will provide, or oversee the performance of, administrative and compliance services, including, but not limited to, maintaining financial records, overseeing the calculation of NAV, compliance monitoring (including diligence and oversight of our other service providers), preparing reports to stockholders and reports filed with the SEC, preparing materials and coordinating meetings of the Board, managing the payment of expenses and the performance of administrative and professional services rendered by others and providing office space, equipment and office services. The Administrator has entered into a sub-administration agreement with The Bank of New York Mellon.

The Fund will bear all other costs and expenses of our operations, administration and transactions, including, the Fund’s allocable portion of compensation, overhead (including rent, office equipment and utilities) and other expenses incurred by the Administrator in performing its duties, including the allocable portion of the compensation paid by the Administrator (or its affiliates) to the Fund’s chief compliance officer and chief financial officer and their respective staffs as well as investor relations, legal, operations and other non-investment professionals at the Administrator that perform duties for the Fund.

Control Persons

A control person is a person who beneficially owns more than 25% of the voting securities of a company. KKR provided the initial capitalization of the Fund and has purchased $159 million of Class I Shares to facilitate the acquisition of the Fund’s initial assets. For so long as KKR has a greater than 25% interest in the Fund, KKR will be deemed be a “control person” of the Fund for purposes of the Investment Company Act. However, it is anticipated that once the Fund commences the offering of Common Stock, KKR’s control will be diluted until such time as it is no longer deemed a control person of the Fund.

 

91


Table of Contents

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

Shares

The Fund currently offers four classes of Common Stock: Class S Shares, Class D Shares, Class U Shares and Class I Shares and may offer additional classes of its Common Stock in the future. Affiliates of the Adviser have been granted exemptive relief from the SEC that permits the Fund to issue multiple classes of Shares and to impose asset-based distribution fees and early-withdrawal fees.

Minimum Investment

Generally, the minimum initial investment is $10,000 for Class S Shares, Class D Shares and Class U Shares and $1,000,000 for Class I Shares. The minimum subsequent investment is $500 for each class of Common Stock, except for additional purchases pursuant to the DRIP, which are not subject to a minimum purchase amount. The minimum investment for each class of Shares can be modified or waived in the sole discretion of the Fund or the Distributor, including for certain financial firms that submit orders on behalf of their customers, the Fund’s officers and directors and certain employees of KKR, including its affiliates, vehicles controlled by such employees and their extended family members.

Distributor

KKR Capital Markets LLC, is the principal underwriter and distributor of our Common Stock on a best efforts basis, subject to various conditions, pursuant to the terms of the Distribution Agreement. The Distributor is a subsidiary of our sponsor, Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co. L.P. The Distributor, located at 30 Hudson Yards, New York, NY 10001, is a broker-dealer registered with the SEC and is a member of FINRA. Selling Agents may be appointed by the Distributor to assist in the sale of the Fund’s Common Stock on a best efforts basis.

The Distributor is not obligated to sell any specific amount of shares of Common Stock. The Distribution Agreement also provides that the Fund will indemnify the Distributor and its affiliates and certain other persons against certain liabilities, including certain liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”).

Offering Prices and Fees

Class D Shares, Class U Shares and Class I Shares will be continuously offered at our NAV per share. Class S Shares will be continuously offered at our NAV per share, plus a maximum sales load of up to 3.0% of the offering price and a dealer manager fee of 0.5% of the offering price. Certain participating broker-dealers may offer Class S Shares subject to a dealer manager fee of up to 1.50%, provided that the sum of the sales load and dealer manager fee will not exceed 3.5% of the total purchase price. As of April 30, 2021, our NAV per share was $29.06.

Shares of Common Stock are generally offered through other Selling Agents that have entered into selling agreements with the Distributor. The Distributor may reallow the full amount of the sales load with respect to Class S Shares to the brokers or dealers that act as Selling Agents for the Fund. Different Selling Agents may impose different sales loads and dealer manager fees with respect to Class S Shares or offer different ways to reduce sales loads and dealer manager fees. Class I Shares, Class D Shares and Class U Shares are each not subject to a sales load; however, investors could be required to pay brokerage commissions on purchases and sales of Class I Shares, Class D Shares and Class U Shares to their Selling Agents. Investors should consult with their financial intermediaries about any additional fees or charges they might impose.

The Fund pays the Distributor a Servicing Fee that accrues daily and is payable monthly at an annualized rate of 0.25% of the net assets of the Fund attributable to Class S Shares, Class D Shares and Class U Shares. The

 

92


Table of Contents

Servicing Fee is for personal services provided to stockholders and/or the maintenance of stockholder accounts and to reimburse the Distributor for related expenses incurred. The Distributor may pay all or a portion of the Servicing Fee to the Selling Agents that sell Class S Shares, Class D Shares and Class U Shares. Payment of the Servicing Fee is governed by the Fund’s Distribution and Service Plan.

The Fund pays the Distributor a Distribution Fee that accrues daily and is payable monthly at an annualized rate of 0.60% of the net assets of the Fund attributable to Class S Shares and Class U Shares. The Distribution Fee is for the sale and marketing of the Class S Shares and Class U Shares and to reimburse the Distributor for related expenses incurred. All or a portion of the Distribution Fee may be used to pay for sub-transfer agency, sub-accounting and certain other administrative services that are not required to be paid pursuant to a service fee under FINRA rules. The Distributor may pay all or a portion of the Servicing Fee to the Selling Agents that sell Class S Shares, Class D Shares and Class U Shares. Payment of the Distribution Fee is governed by the Fund’s Distribution and Service Plan.

Class I Shares do not incur a Servicing Fee or Distribution Fee, and Class D Shares do not incur a Distribution Fee.

How to Purchase Shares

The following section provides basic information about how to purchase Shares of the Fund.

The Distributor acts as the distributor of Shares for the Fund on a best efforts basis, subject to various conditions, pursuant to the terms of the Distribution Agreement. The Distributor is not obligated to sell any specific amount of Shares of the Fund. Shares of the Fund will be continuously offered through the Distributor. As discussed below, the Fund may authorize one or more Selling Agents to receive orders on its behalf. Class S Shares, Class D Shares, Class U Shares, Class I Shares will be continuously offered at NAV per share calculated each regular business day, plus any applicable sales load and dealer manager fees. Selling Agents may establish different minimum investment requirements than the Fund and may also independently charge you transaction fees and additional amounts (which may vary) in return for its services, which will reduce your return. Shares you purchase through Selling Agents will normally be held in your account with that firm.

The Fund and the Distributor will have the sole right to accept orders to purchase Shares and reserve the right to reject any order in whole or in part.

No market currently exists for our Common Stock. The Fund does not currently intend to list its Common Stock for trading on any securities exchange in the near future. There is currently no secondary market for our Common Stock and the Fund does not anticipate that a secondary market will develop for its Common Stock. Neither the Adviser nor the Distributor intends to make a market in the Common Stock.

Class S Shares and Class U Shares are available to the general public through Selling Agents and other financial intermediaries that have selling agreements to distribute such class of shares.

Class D Shares are generally available for purchase only (1) through fee-based programs, also known as wrap accounts, that provide access to Class D shares, (2) through participating broker-dealers that have alternative fee arrangements with their clients to provide access to Class D shares, (3) through investment advisers that are registered under the Advisers Act or applicable state law and direct clients to trade with a broker-dealer that offers Class D shares, (4) through bank trust departments or any other organization or person authorized to act in a fiduciary capacity for its clients or customers or (5) other categories of investors that we name in an amendment or supplement to this prospectus.

Class I Shares are available only (1) through fee-based programs, known as wrap accounts, of investment dealers that provide access to Class I Shares, (2) through participating broker-dealers that have alternative fee

 

93


Table of Contents

arrangements with their clients, (3) through certain registered investment advisers, (4) through bank trust departments or any other organization or person authorized to act in a fiduciary capacity for its clients or customers, (5) to endowments, foundations, pension funds and other institutional investors for purchase in this offering, (6) to other categories of investors that we name in an amendment or supplement to this prospectus or (7) to the Fund’s officers and directors and their immediate family members, as well as officers and employees of KKR or other affiliates and their immediate family members, and, if approved by the Board, joint venture partners, consultants and other service providers.

Investors purchasing shares through a retirement plan or employee benefit plan may obtain additional information regarding the plan from their plan sponsor.

Acceptance and Timing of Purchase Orders

A purchase order received by the Fund or its designee prior to the close of the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”), on a day the Fund is open for business, together with payment made in one of the ways described above will be effected at that day’s NAV plus any applicable sales charge. An order received after the close of the NYSE will be effected at the NAV determined on the next business day. However, orders received by certain retirement plans and other financial firms on a business day prior to the close of the NYSE and communicated to the Fund or its designee prior to such time as agreed upon by the Fund and financial firm will be effected at the NAV determined on the business day the order was received by the financial firm. The Fund is “open for business” on each day the NYSE is open for trading, which excludes the following holidays: New Year’s Day, Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, Presidents’ Day, Good Friday, Memorial Day, Independence Day, Labor Day, Thanksgiving Day and Christmas Day. If the NYSE is closed due to weather or other extenuating circumstances on a day it would typically be open for business, the Fund reserves the right to treat such day as a business day and accept purchase orders in accordance with applicable law. The Fund reserves the right to close if the primary trading markets of the Fund’s portfolio instruments are closed and the Fund’s management believes that there is not an adequate market to meet purchase requests. On any business day when the Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association recommends that the securities markets close trading early, the Fund may close trading early. Purchase orders will be accepted only on days which the Fund is open for business.

For Shares purchased through the Distributor, order instructions must be received in good order prior to the close of regular trading on the NYSE (ordinarily 4:00 p.m., Eastern time) in order to receive the current day’s NAV. The Fund will be deemed to have received a purchase order when an authorized broker or, if applicable, a broker’s authorized designee, receives the order. Instructions must include the name and signature of an appropriate person designated on the account application, account name, account number, name of the Fund and dollar amount. Payments received without order instructions could result in a processing delay or a return of wire. Failure to send the accompanying payment on the same day may result in the cancellation of the order.

The Fund and the Distributor each reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to accept or reject any order for purchase of Shares. The sale of Shares may be suspended during any period in which the NYSE is closed other than weekends or holidays, or if permitted by the rules of the SEC, when trading on the NYSE is restricted or during an emergency which makes it impracticable for the Fund to dispose of its securities or to determine fairly the value of its net assets, or during any other period as permitted by the SEC for the protection of investors.

Purchasing Directly From the Fund

The following section provides additional information for investors wishing to purchase shares directly from the Fund. If you are investing through a financial intermediary, please contact your Selling Agent directly for more information.

 

94


Table of Contents

Purchase by Mail. To purchase shares of Common Stock by mail, simply complete and sign the account application and mail it, or for subsequent purchases include name, fund name and account number along with a check made payable to the Fund:

 

Regular Mail

 

Overnight or Express Mail

KKR Real Estate Select Trust Inc.   KKR Real Estate Select Trust Inc.
c/o: DST Asset Manager Solutions, Inc.   c/o: DST Asset Manager Solutions, Inc.

PO Box 219302

Kansas City, MO 64121-9302

 

430 W 7th Street Suite 219302

Kansas City, MO 64105-1407

The Fund does not consider the U.S. Postal Service or other independent delivery services to be its agents. Therefore, deposit in the mail or with such services, or receipt at U.S. Bank Global Fund Services post office box does not constitute receipt by the Transfer Agent. Receipt is determined at the time the order is received at the Transfer Agent’s offices.

All purchase checks must be in U.S. dollars drawn on a domestic financial institution. The Fund will not accept payment in cash or money orders. To prevent check fraud, the Fund will not accept third party checks, Treasury checks, credit card checks, traveler’s checks or starter checks for the purchase of shares. The Fund is unable to accept post-dated checks, or any conditional order or payment.

It is the policy of the Fund not to accept applications under certain circumstances or in amounts considered disadvantageous to stockholders. The Fund reserves the right to reject any application. An account application to purchase Fund shares is subject to acceptance by the Fund and is not binding until so accepted. Accounts opened by entities, such as credit unions, corporations, limited liability companies, partnerships or trusts, will require additional documentation. Please note that if any information is missing, your account application will be returned, and your account will not be opened.

Telephone Purchase. Investors may purchase additional shares of Common Stock by calling (855) 844-8655. If you elected this option on your account application, and your account has been open for at least seven (7) business days, telephone orders will be accepted via electronic funds transfer from your bank account through the Automated Clearing House (ACH) network. You must have banking information established on your account prior to making a purchase. If your order is received prior to 4 p.m. Eastern time, your shares will be purchased at the net asset value calculated on the day your order is placed.

Telephone trades must be received by or prior to market close. During periods of high market activity, stockholders may encounter higher than usual call waits. Please allow sufficient time to place your telephone transaction. Before executing an instruction received by telephone, the Transfer Agent will use reasonable procedures to confirm that the telephone instructions are genuine. The telephone call may be recorded and the caller may be asked to verify certain personal identification information. If the Fund or its agents follow these procedures, they cannot be held liable for any loss, expense or cost arising out of any telephone redemption request that is reasonably believed to be genuine. This includes fraudulent or unauthorized requests. If an account has more than one owner or authorized person, the Fund will accept telephone instructions from any one owner or authorized person.

Initial Investment—By wire. To purchase by wire, the Transfer Agent must have a completed account application before your wire is sent. A purchase order will not be accepted until the Fund has received the completed application and any requested documentation in proper form. Wired funds must be received by 4:00 p.m. Eastern Time to be eligible for same day pricing. Call the Transfer Agent at (855) 844-8655 between 9:00 a.m. and 6:00 p.m. Eastern Time on any day the New York Stock Exchange is open for business to advise of your intent to wire. This will ensure proper credit. Instruct your bank to wire funds to:

ABA #: 101000695

 

95


Table of Contents

Account #: 9872540085

Further credit: DST as Agent for KKR Real Estate Select Trust Inc.

Stockholder name and account number:

Subsequent Investments—By wire. Before sending your wire, please contact the Transfer Agent to advise them of your intent to wire funds. This will ensure prompt and accurate credit upon receipt of your wire.

Wired Funds Disclaimer. Wired funds must be received prior to 4:00 p.m. Eastern time to be eligible for same day pricing. The Fund and the Transfer Agent are not responsible for the consequences of delays resulting from the banking or Federal Reserve wire system, or from incomplete wiring instructions.

Lost Stockholders, Inactive Accounts and Unclaimed Property. It is important that the Fund maintains a correct address for each investor. An incorrect address may cause an investor’s account statements and other mailings to be returned to the Fund. Based upon statutory requirements for returned mail, the Fund will attempt to locate the investor or rightful owner of the account. If the Fund is unable to locate the investor, then the Fund will determine whether the investor’s account can legally be considered abandoned. Mutual fund accounts may be transferred to the state government of an investor’s state of residence if no activity occurs within the account during the “inactivity period” specified in the applicable state’s abandoned property laws, which varies by state. The Fund is legally obligated to escheat (or transfer) abandoned property to the appropriate state’s unclaimed property administrator in accordance with statutory requirements. The investor’s last known address of record determines which state has jurisdiction. Please proactively contact the Transfer Agent toll-free at (855) 844-8655 at least annually to ensure your account remains in active status.

Signature Guarantees. Signature guarantees will generally be accepted from domestic banks, brokers, dealers, credit unions, national securities exchanges, registered securities associations, clearing agencies and savings associations, as well as from participants in the New York Stock Exchange Medallion Signature Program and the Securities Transfer Agents Medallion Program (“STAMP”). A notary public is not an acceptable signature guarantor.

A signature guarantee, from either a Medallion program member or a non-Medallion program member, is required in the following situations:

 

   

If ownership is being changed on your account;

 

   

When redemption proceeds are payable or sent to any person, address, or bank account not on record;

 

   

When a redemption request is received by the Transfer Agent and the account address has changed within the last 15 calendar days; or

 

   

For all redemptions in excess of $100,000 where proceeds are requested to be sent by check

The Fund may waive any of the above requirements in certain instances. In addition to the situations described above, the Fund and/or the Transfer Agent reserve the right to require a signature guarantee in other instances based on the circumstances relative to the particular situation.

Non-financial transactions, including establishing or modifying certain services on an account, may require a signature guarantee, signature verification from a Signature Validation Program member, or other acceptable form of authentication from a financial institution source.

Anti-Money Laundering

In compliance with the USA Patriot Act of 2001, please note that the Transfer Agent will verify certain information on your account application as part of the Fund’s Anti-Money Laundering Program. As requested on the account application, you must supply your full name, date of birth, social security number and permanent

 

96


Table of Contents

street address. If you are opening the account in the name of a legal entity (e.g., partnership, limited liability company, business trust, corporation, etc.), you must also supply the identity of the beneficial owners. Mailing addresses containing only a P.O. Box will not be accepted. Please contact the Transfer Agent at (855) 844-8655 if you need additional assistance when completing your account application.

If we do not have a reasonable belief of the identity of a customer, the account will be rejected, or the customer will not be allowed to perform a transaction on the account until such information is received. The Fund may also reserve the right to close the account within 5 business days if clarifying information/documentation is not received.

Sales Load

This section includes important information about sales load and sales load reductions available to investors in the Fund’s Class S Shares.

The public offering price of Class S Shares will be the NAV per share at the time of purchase, plus any applicable sales load and dealer manager fees. The initial sales load varies depending on the size of your purchase, as set forth in the tables below. The actual sales load paid may vary among and within Selling Agents, as described herein. No sales load is imposed when Class S Shares are issued to you pursuant to the automatic reinvestment of income dividends or capital gains distributions. It is the responsibility of you and/or your financial intermediary to ensure that you obtain the proper breakpoint sales load discount, if any.

Because the offering price is calculated to two decimal places, the dollar amount of the sales charge as a percentage of the offering price and your net amount invested for any particular purchase of Fund Shares may be higher or lower depending on whether downward or upward rounding was required during the calculation process.

Class S Shares of the Fund are sold subject to the following sales load:

 

Your investment

   Sales Load
as a % of the
offering price
 

Up to $149,999.99

     3.50

$150,000.00 to $499,999.99

     3.00

$500,000.00 to $999,999.99

     2.50

$1,000,000.00 and over

     2.00

A person eligible for a sales load reduction includes an individual, his or her spouse or equivalent, children under 21 years of age and any corporation, partnership or sole proprietorship which is 100% owned, either alone or in combination, by any of the foregoing, a trustee or other fiduciary purchasing for a single trust or for a single fiduciary account, or a “company” as defined in Section 2(a)(8) of the Investment Company Act. Investors must notify the Fund or their Selling Agent at the time of the purchase order whenever a sales load reduction is applicable to purchases and may be required to provide the Fund, or their Selling Agent, with certain information or records to verify eligibility for a sales load reduction. Such information or records may include account statements or other records for Shares of the Fund of the investor and other eligible persons, as described above.

Upon such notification, an investor will pay the lowest applicable sales load. Sales load reductions may be modified or terminated at any time. Selling Agents may, in their sole discretion and subject to applicable law, reduce or waive the sales load on a non-scheduled basis in individual cases. For more information about sales load reductions, investors should contact the Distributor or their Selling Agent.

Qualifying for a reduced Class S Sales Load

Investors in the Fund may reduce or eliminate sales charges applicable to purchases of Class S Shares through utilization of the Rights of Accumulation, Letter of Intention or Reinvestment Privilege. These programs

 

97


Table of Contents

will apply to purchases of other closed-end funds that the Adviser or its affiliates may sponsor in the future as well as any open-end funds sponsored by the Adviser or its affiliates that offer Class S Shares (collectively, the “Eligible Funds”). These programs are summarized below.

Rights of Accumulation

Any “purchaser” (as defined below) may buy Class S Shares at a reduced sales charge by aggregating the dollar amount of the new purchase and the total net amount invested of all Shares of the Fund then held by the purchaser and applying the sales charge applicable to such aggregate. To obtain such discount, the purchaser must provide sufficient information at the time of purchase to permit verification that the purchase qualifies for the reduced sales charge. The rights of accumulation is subject to modification or discontinuance at any time with respect to all shares purchased thereafter.

For purposes of determining the applicable sales charge discount, a “purchaser” includes an individual, the individual’s spouse and the individual’s children under the age of 21, purchasing Class S Shares for the individual’s own account or account with the individual’s spouse and/or children; or a trustee or other fiduciary purchasing Class S Shares for a single fiduciary account although more than one beneficiary may be involved; or employees of a common employer, provided that purchases are aggregated and submitted by a single source and quarterly confirmation of such purchases can be provided to that single source; or an organized group, provided that the purchases are made through a central administrator, or a single dealer.

Letter of Intent

A Letter of Intent (a “LOI”) provides an opportunity for an investor to obtain a reduced sales charge by aggregating investments over a 13-month period, provided that the investor refers to such LOI when placing orders. For purposes of an LOI, the “Amount of Investment” as referred to in the preceding sales charge table includes all purchases of Common Stock over the 13-month period based on the total amount of intended purchases plus the value of all shares previously purchased and still owned. An alternative is to compute the 13-month period starting up to 90 days before the date of execution of an LOI. Each investment made during the period receives the reduced sales charge applicable to the total amount of the investment goal. The LOI imposes no obligation to purchase or sell additional shares and provides for a price adjustment depending upon the actual amount purchased within such period. If the total investments under the LOI are less than the intended amount and thereby qualify for a higher sales charge than actually paid, the appropriate number of escrowed shares is redeemed and the proceeds are used towards satisfaction of the obligation to pay the increased sales charge. If a redemption order is received for an account prior to the satisfaction of the LOI, any shares not held in escrow will be redeemed first. Shares held in escrow will then be redeemed and a portion of the proceeds will be used to satisfy the obligation to pay the higher sales charge. Please contact the Transfer Agent to obtain an LOI application at                .

Stockholder’s Responsibility With Respect to Breakpoint Discounts

To obtain the Class S Share sales charge discount set forth above, you must inform your financial intermediary of the existence of any eligible amounts under any Rights of Accumulation in accounts held by family members at the time of purchase. You must inform your financial intermediary of all shares of the Fund held (i) in your account(s) at the financial intermediary, (ii) in your account(s) by another financial intermediary, and (iii) in any other accounts held at any financial intermediary belonging to family members. IF YOU FAIL TO INFORM YOUR FINANCIAL INTERMEDIARY OR THE FUND OF ALL ELIGIBLE HOLDINGS OR PLANNED PURCHASES, YOU MAY NOT RECEIVE A SALES CHARGE DISCOUNT TO WHICH YOU WOULD OTHERWISE BE ENTITLED. The Fund will require the names and account numbers of all accounts claimed in connection with a request for a sales charge discount. You may also be required to provide verification of holdings (such as account statements and/or copies of documents that reflect the original purchase cost of your holdings) that qualify you for a sales charge reduction. As such, it is very important that you

 

98


Table of Contents

retain all records that may be needed to substantiate an original purchase price of your holdings, because the Fund, the Transfer Agent and financial intermediaries may not maintain this information.

Reinvestment Privilege

If you redeem Class S Shares, you may reinvest some or all of the proceeds in the same class of any Eligible Fund on or before the 90th day after the redemption without a sales charge unless the reinvestment would be prohibited by the Adviser’s frequent trading policy (if any). Special tax rules may apply. All accounts involved must have the same registration. This privilege does not apply to purchases made through automatic investment services. The reinvestment privilege only applies to your Class S Shares if you previously paid a front-end sales charge in connection with your purchase of such Class S Shares.

Payments to Financial Intermediaries

The Fund may pay service fees to Selling Agents for sub-administration, sub-transfer agency and other stockholders services associated with stockholders whose Shares are held of record in omnibus accounts, other group accounts or accounts traded through registered securities clearing agents.

The Adviser, out of its own resources and without additional cost to the Fund or its stockholders, may provide additional cash payments to intermediaries, including affiliates of the Adviser, for the sale of Common Stock and related services. These payments and compensation are in addition to service fees paid by the Fund, if any. Payments are generally made to intermediaries that provide stockholder servicing, marketing and related sales support or access to sales meetings, sales representatives and management representatives of the intermediary. Payments may also be paid to intermediaries for inclusion of the Fund on a sales list, including a preferred or select sales list or in other sales programs. Compensation may be paid as an expense reimbursement in cases in which the intermediary provides stockholder services to the Fund. The Adviser may also pay cash compensation in the form of finder’s fees that vary depending on the dollar amount of the Common Stock sold. The level of such payments may be substantial and may be different for different Selling Agents. These payments may create incentives on the part of a Selling Agents to view the Fund favorably compared with investment funds that do not make these payments, or that make smaller payments.

Share Class Considerations

The Fund currently offers four classes of Common Stock: Class S Shares, Class D Shares, Class U Shares and Class I Shares. When selecting a class of our Common Stock, you should consider the following:

 

   

Which classes of Common Stock are available to you;

 

   

The amount you intend to invest;

 

   

How long you expect to own our Common Stock; and

 

   

The total costs and expenses associates with a particular class of Common Stock.

Each investor’s financial considerations are different. You should speak with your Selling Agent to help you decide which class of Common Stock is best for you. Not all Selling Agents offer all classes of Shares. In addition, Selling Agents may vary the actual sales load charged, if applicable, as well as impose additional fees and charges on each class of Common Stock. If your Selling Agent offers more than one class of Common Stock, you should carefully consider which class of Common Stock to purchase.

Distribution in Foreign Jurisdictions

The distribution of this prospectus and the offer and sale of Common Stock in certain jurisdictions may be restricted by law. It is the responsibility of any persons wishing to purchase Shares to inform themselves of and

 

99


Table of Contents

to observe all applicable laws and regulations of any relevant jurisdictions. Prospective investors should inform themselves as to the legal requirements and tax consequences within the countries of their citizenship, residence, domicile and place of business with respect to the acquisition, holding or disposal of Shares, and any foreign exchange restrictions that may be relevant thereto.

 

100


Table of Contents

REPURCHASES

No Right of Redemption

The Fund is a closed-end investment company, and as such its stockholders will not have the right to cause the Fund to redeem their Common Stock. Instead, the Fund expects to provide liquidity through tender offers. Stockholders have no rights to redeem or transfer their shares, other than limited rights of a stockholder’s descendants or estate to request a repurchase of shares in the event of such stockholder’s death. Such repurchase may be made, at the Fund’s discretion, in a manner consistent with the Fund’s periodic repurchases or in such other manner permitted by the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), the Investment Company Act and the rules thereunder. Documentation for such repurchase request will be required as necessary to confirm the authority of the descendant or estate to make such request on behalf of the deceased stockholder.

Tender Offers

The Fund does not currently intend to list its Common Stock for trading on any securities exchange or any other trading market in the near future. In recognition that a secondary market for the Fund’s Common Stock likely will not exist, the Adviser currently intends to recommend to the Board that the Fund conduct quarterly tender offers for up to 5.0% of the aggregate NAV of its outstanding Common Stock in the sole discretion of the Board. The Fund expects to set the price of its tender offers using the NAV per share for each applicable class as of the last day of such tender offer. The Fund’s daily NAV per share will be available on the Fund’s website. In the event a tender offer is oversubscribed and in accordance with rules promulgated by the SEC, the Fund may accept for purchase additional outstanding shares of Common Stock representing up to 2.0% of the aggregate NAV of its outstanding Common Stock without amending or extending the tender offer.

However, in any given quarter, the Adviser may or may not recommend to the Board that the Fund conduct a tender offer. For example, if adverse market conditions cause the Fund’s investments to become illiquid or trade at depressed prices or if the Adviser believes that conducting a tender offer for 5.0% or less of the aggregate NAV of the Fund’s Common Stock then outstanding would impose an undue burden on stockholders who do not tender compared to the benefits of giving stockholders the opportunity to sell all or a portion of their Common Stock at NAV, the Fund may choose not to conduct a tender offer or may choose to conduct a tender offer for less than 5.0% of the aggregate NAV of its outstanding Common Stock. Regardless of the recommendation of the Adviser, the Board may or may determine not to cause the Fund to conduct a tender offer for any given quarter.

The Fund intends to comply with an exemption under FINRA Rule 5110 that requires the Fund to make at least two tender offers per calendar year. However, there may be quarters in which no tender offer is made, and it is possible that no tender offers will be conducted by the Fund at all. If a tender offer is not made, stockholders may not be able to sell their Common Stock as it is unlikely that a secondary market for the Common Stock will develop or, if a secondary market does develop, stockholders may be able to sell their Common Stock only at substantial discounts from NAV. If the Fund does conduct tender offers, it may be required to borrow or sell its more liquid, higher quality portfolio securities to purchase shares of Common Stock that are tendered, which may increase risks for remaining stockholders and increase fund expenses as a percent of assets. The Fund is designed primarily for long-term investors and an investment in the Fund’s Common Stock should be considered illiquid.

In a tender offer, the Fund repurchases outstanding shares of Common Stock at the NAV per share of each class of Common Stock or at a percentage of such NAV per share on the last day of the offer. The Fund anticipates selling portfolio investments to fund tender offers. However, subject to the Fund’s investment restriction with respect to Borrowings, the Fund may borrow money to finance the repurchase of Common Stock pursuant to any tender offers. However, there can be no assurance that the Fund will be able to obtain such financing for tender offers if it attempts to do so. Moreover, if the Fund’s portfolio does not provide adequate

 

101


Table of Contents

liquidity to fund tender offers, the Fund may extend the last day of any tender offer or choose to pay tendering stockholders with a promissory note, payment on which may be made in cash up to 30 days after the expiration of the tender offer period (as extended). The promissory note will be non-interest bearing, non-transferable and non-negotiable. With respect to the Common Stock tendered, the owner of a promissory note will no longer be a stockholder of the Fund and will not have the rights of a stockholder, including without limitation voting rights. The promissory note may be prepaid, without premium, penalty or notice, at any time. Although tender offers generally would be beneficial to stockholders by providing them with some ability to sell their Common Stock at NAV, the acquisition of Common stock by the Fund will decrease the total assets of the Fund. Tender offers are, therefore, likely to increase the Fund’s expense ratio, may result in untimely sales of portfolio securities and/or may limit the Fund’s ability to participate in new investment opportunities. To the extent the Fund maintains a cash position to satisfy Fund repurchases, the Fund would not be fully invested, which may reduce the Fund’s investment performance. Furthermore, to the extent the Fund borrows to finance the making of tender offers by the Fund, interest on such borrowings reduces the Fund’s net investment income. In order to fund repurchase requests, the Fund may be required to sell its more liquid, higher quality portfolio securities to purchase shares of Common Stock that are tendered, which may increase risks for remaining stockholders and increase fund expenses. Consummating a tender offer may require the Fund to liquidate portfolio securities, and realize gains or losses, at a time when the Adviser would otherwise consider it disadvantageous to do so.

It is the Board’s policy, which may be changed by the Board, not to purchase Common Stock pursuant to a tender offer if (1) such purchases would impair the Fund’s status as a REIT; (2) the Fund would not be able to liquidate portfolio securities in a manner that is orderly and consistent with the Fund’s investment objectives and policies in order to purchase shares of Common Stock tendered pursuant to the tender offer; or (3) there is, in the Board’s judgment, any (a) legal action or proceeding instituted or threatened challenging the tender offer or otherwise materially adversely affecting the Fund, (b) declaration of a banking moratorium by Federal or state authorities or any suspension of payment by banks in the United States or New York State, which is material to the Fund, (c) limitation imposed by Federal or state authorities on the extension of credit by lending institutions, (d) commencement or escalation of war, armed hostilities, acts of terrorism, natural disasters, public health crises or other international or national calamity directly or indirectly involving the United States that in the sole determination of the Board is material to the Fund, (e) a material decrease in the estimated NAV of the Fund from the estimated NAV of the Fund as of the commencement of the tender offer or (f) other events or conditions that would have a material adverse effect on the Fund or its stockholders if shares of Common Stock tendered pursuant to the tender offer were purchased. Thus, there can be no assurance that the Board will proceed with any tender offer. The Board may modify these conditions in light of circumstances existing at the time. The Fund may not purchase Common Stock to the extent such purchases would result in the asset coverage with respect to any borrowing being reduced below the asset coverage requirement set forth in the Investment Company Act. Accordingly, in order to purchase all shares of Common Stock tendered, the Fund may have to repay all or part of any then outstanding borrowing to maintain the required asset coverage. In addition, the amount of shares of Common Stock for which the Fund makes any particular tender offer may be limited for the reasons set forth above or in respect of other concerns related to the Fund’s portfolio or the impact of the tender offer on those stockholders who do not sell their shares of Common Stock in the tender offer. If a tender offer is oversubscribed by stockholders who tender shares of Common Stock, the Fund will generally repurchase a pro rata portion of the shares of Common Stock tendered by each stockholder. However, the Board, in its discretion, subject to applicable law, may amend a tender offer to include all or part of the oversubscribed amounts. In addition, for any tender offer, third party stockholders may not be given priority over stockholders that are affiliates of KKR, whose holdings in the Fund may be significant and may have the effect of diluting third party stockholders with respect to any tender offer.

Each tender offer would be made and stockholders would be notified in accordance with the requirements of the Exchange Act and the Investment Company Act, either by publication or mailing or both. The tender offer documents will contain information prescribed by such laws and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder. The repurchase of tendered shares of Common Stock by the Fund is a taxable event to stockholders.

 

102


Table of Contents

See “Certain U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations.” Selected securities dealers or other financial intermediaries may charge a processing fee to confirm a repurchase of shares pursuant to a tender offer.

The Fund will assume all fees and expenses related to a repurchase of shares. A stockholder tendering for repurchase less than all of its Common Stock must maintain a minimum account balance after the repurchase is effected, the amount of which will be established by the Fund from time to time and is currently $1,000. If a stockholder tenders a number of Common Stock that would cause the aggregate NAV of the stockholder’s holdings to fall below the required minimum, the Fund reserves the right to reduce the amount to be repurchased from the stockholder so that the required minimum balance is maintained. The Fund may also repurchase all of such a stockholder’s Common Stock in the Fund. The Fund or the Adviser may waive the minimum account balance from time to time.

The Fund’s NAV per share may change materially from the date a tender offer is mailed to the tender valuation date (or any later valuation date if the tender offer is extended), and to the effective date of repurchase, and it also may change materially shortly after a tender is completed. The method by which the Fund calculates its NAV is discussed under the caption “Net Asset Value.” Additional risks are discussed under “Risk—Liquidity Risk.”

Mandatory Redemptions

The Fund may redeem shares of Common Stock without consent or other action by the stockholder or other person if the Fund determines that:

 

   

the Common Stock has been transferred in violation of the Fund’s Charter or Bylaws, or has vested in any person other than by operation of law as a result of the death, divorce, dissolution, bankruptcy, insolvency or adjudicated incompetence of the stockholder;

 

   

ownership of the Common Stock by a stockholder or other person is likely to cause the Fund to be in violation of, or require registration of the Common Stock under, or subject the Fund to additional registration or regulation under, the securities, commodities, or other laws of the U.S. or any other relevant jurisdiction;

 

   

continued ownership of the Common Stock by a stockholder may be harmful or injurious to the business or reputation of the Fund, the Board, KKR, or any of their affiliates, or may subject the Fund or any stockholder to an undue risk of adverse tax or other fiscal or regulatory consequences;

 

   

any of the representations and warranties made by a stockholder or other person in connection with the acquisition of Common Stock were not true when made or has ceased to be true; or

 

   

with respect to a stockholder subject to special laws or compliance requirements, such as those imposed by ERISA, the Bank Holding Company Act or certain Federal Communication Commission regulations (collectively, “Special Laws or Regulations”), the stockholder is likely to be subject to additional regulatory or compliance requirements under these Special Laws or Regulations by virtue of continuing to hold any Common Stock.

Shares of Common Stock will be redeemed at the NAV per share of the class of Common Stock being redeemed. Stockholders whose shares of Common Stock are redeemed by the Fund will not be entitled to a return of any amount of sales load that was charged in connection with the stockholder’s purchase of such shares.

 

103


Table of Contents

NET ASSET VALUE

Calculation of NAV

The Fund determines the NAV of its shares daily, as of the close of regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange (normally, 4:00 p.m. Eastern Time). The calculation of NAV will be made by the Fund’s sub-administrator, subject to the oversight of the Adviser and the Administrator, based on valuation information provided by the Adviser.

The NAV per share of the Fund’s shares is determined by dividing the total assets of the Fund (the value of investments, plus cash or other assets, including interest and distributions accrued but not yet received) less the value of any liabilities (including accrued expenses or distributions), by the total number of shares outstanding.

Timing of Valuations

The value of the Fund’s investments for which reliable market quotations are readily available will be updated daily. The value of the Fund’s real property investments and real estate and other debt investments for which reliable market quotes are not readily available will be monitored for material changes on a continuous basis for purposes of updating the Fund’s daily NAV and, absent any material changes requiring more frequent updates, will be updated each month as described below.

Each month, the Adviser and the Independent Valuation Advisor will also determine an accrual schedule for the daily value of each real property based on an estimated month-end value. The Fund will use the daily values determined in such accrual schedule for purposes of calculating its NAV. For real estate debt and other debt investments for which reliable market quotes are not readily available, the most recent monthly or interim valuation will be used for purposes of calculating the Fund’s daily NAV. Any material changes to the valuation of real property investments and real estate and other debt investments, and related changes to the daily accrual schedule for any real property investment, will be reflected in the Fund’s NAV calculation beginning with the day that a revised valuation is determined.

Valuation Guidelines

The Board is responsible for the valuation process and has delegated the supervision of the daily valuation process to the Adviser. Our Board has adopted policies and procedures for determining the fair value of the Fund’s assets, and has delegated responsibility for applying the valuation policies to the Adviser.    The Adviser, pursuant to the policies adopted by our Board, is responsible for making fair value determinations, evaluating the effectiveness of the Fund’s valuation policies, overseeing the calculation of the NAV per share for each class of shares and reporting to the Board. The Adviser provides our Board with periodic reports on a quarterly basis, or more frequently if necessary, describing the valuation process applicable to that period. The Adviser’s activities in carrying out its responsibilities under the valuation policies and procedures will also be reviewed and monitored by KKR’s Real Estate Valuation Committee, subject to the oversight of KKR’s Global Valuation Committee.

The Fund’s investments will be valued at fair value in a manner consistent with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“GAAP”), including Accounting Standards Codification Topic 820, Fair Value Measurements and Disclosure (“ASC Topic 820”), issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board. ASC Topic 820 defines fair value as the price that would be received from the sale of an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. ASC Topic 820 also establishes a three-tier fair value hierarchy, which prioritizes the inputs used in measuring fair value. These tiers include: Level 1, defined as observable inputs such as quoted prices in active markets; Level 2, which includes inputs such as quoted prices for similar securities in active markets and quoted prices for identical securities where there is little or no activity in the market; and Level 3, defined as unobservable inputs for which little or no market data exists, therefore requiring an entity to develop its own assumptions.

 

105


Table of Contents

There is no single standard for determining fair value in good faith. As a result, determining fair value requires that judgment be applied to the specific facts and circumstances of each investment while employing a valuation process that is consistently followed. Determinations of fair value involve subjective judgments and estimates.

Independent Valuation Advisor

With the approval of our Board, including a majority of our independent directors, the valuation process of our real property investments and certain real estate debt, is managed by our independent valuation advisor, Altus Group U.S. Inc. (“Altus” or the “Independent Valuation Advisor”). The Independent Valuation Advisor is a leading global valuation advisory firm. Altus is engaged in the business of rendering opinions regarding the value of commercial real estate properties and is not affiliated with us or the Adviser. The compensation we pay to our Independent Valuation Advisor is based on the number of properties appraised and is not based on the estimated values of such properties. The Adviser, with the approval of our Board, including a majority of our independent directors, may engage additional independent valuation advisors in the future as our portfolio grows and diversifies globally. While Altus provides valuations of our real property investments and certain real estate debt investments, it is not responsible for, and does not calculate, our daily NAV.

Our independent valuation advisor has provided, and is expected to continue to provide real estate valuation advisory services to other funds managed by the Adviser and its affiliates and has received, and is expected to continue to receive, fees in connection with such services. Our Independent Valuation Advisor and its affiliates may from time to time in the future perform other commercial real estate and financial advisory services for other funds managed by the Adviser and its affiliates, so long as such other services do not adversely affect the independence of the Independent Valuation Advisor as certified in the applicable appraisal report.

At least annually, our Board, including a majority of our independent directors, reviews the appropriateness of our valuation guidelines. From time to time, our Board, including a majority of our independent directors, may adopt changes to the valuation guidelines if it determines that such changes are likely to result in a more accurate reflection of estimated fair value.

Valuation of Investments

Investments with Reliable Readily Available Market Prices

The Adviser will use reliable market quotations to value the Fund’s investments when such market quotations are readily available.

The Adviser will value exchange listed public securities of REITs or other issuers using the most recent closing public market price. The Adviser will value real estate-related securities or other securities traded over the counter and not listed on an exchange at prices obtained from one or more third-party pricing services or, if no such third-party pricing service is available, quotes from two or more broker dealers, as determined by the Adviser in accordance with the policies adopted by our Board.

Investments without Reliable Readily Available Market Prices

Fair value of our investments that do not have reliable readily available market prices will be determined as described below.

Real Property Investments

The Independent Valuation Advisor will administer the real property valuation process for the Fund and will select (subject to the Adviser’s approval) and manage the process associated with third-party appraisal firms with respect to the valuation of the Fund’s real property investments.

 

106


Table of Contents

Investments in newly acquired properties will initially be valued at cost. Each property will then be valued by an independent third-party appraisal firm within the first three months of acquisition and no less than annually thereafter. Each third-party appraisal is reviewed by the Independent Valuation Advisor for reasonableness. Upon conclusion of the appraisal, the independent third-party appraisal firm prepares a written report. Each third-party appraisal and review by the Independent Valuation Advisor is performed in accordance with the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice, or the similar industry standard for the country where the property appraisal is conducted. Any appraisal provided by an independent third-party appraisal firm will not be used in the valuation of the applicable property until the Independent Valuation Advisor has reviewed and confirmed for reasonableness such appraisal.

The Independent Valuation Advisor will cause approximately 1/12th of the Fund’s real property investments to be appraised by third-party appraisers each month. Each asset will be appraised by a third-party appraiser other than the Independent Valuation Advisor once per year. Each month the Independent Valuation Advisor will value the remaining approximately 11/12ths of the Fund’s real properties that are not being appraised by a third-party appraiser that month. The Adviser and the Independent Valuation Advisor will further update these monthly values on a daily basis as described in “Timing of Valuations” above.

In addition, the Adviser will monitor the Fund’s properties for events that the Adviser believes may have a material impact on the most recent estimated values of such property. Possible examples of such a material change include an unexpected termination or renewal of a material lease, a material change in vacancies, an unanticipated structural or environmental event at a property, capital market events, recent financial results or changes in the capital structure of the property, material changes in cap rates or discount rates, any regulatory changes that affect the investment, or a significant industry event or adjustment to the industry outlook that may cause the value of a property to change materially. Upon the occurrence of such a material event and provided that the Adviser is aware that such event has occurred, the Adviser will promptly notify the Independent Valuation Advisor and request that the Independent Valuation Advisor promptly provide an estimate of the change in value of the property.

In addition to the interim estimated valuation adjustment, the Independent Valuation Advisor, at its discretion, may perform an interim appraisal to confirm the estimated property value that was previously communicated to the Adviser. Any estimates of value or interim appraisals should be performed as soon as reasonably practicable after a determination by the Adviser that a material change has occurred and the financial effects of such change are quantifiable by the Independent Valuation Advisor. However, rapidly changing market conditions or material events may not be immediately reflected in our daily NAV. The resulting potential disparity in our NAV may inure to the benefit of stockholders whose shares are repurchased or new purchasers of our common stock, depending on whether our published NAV per share for such class is overstated or understated.

The Adviser will value our real properties using the valuation methodology it deems most appropriate and consistent with industry best practices and market conditions. The Adviser expects the primary methodology used to value our real properties will be the income approach, whereby value is derived by determining the present value of an asset’s stream of future cash flows (for example, discounted cash flow analysis). Income related to each property will be accrued on the basis of data extracted from (1) the annual budget for such property and (2) material, unbudgeted non-recurring income and expense events such as capital expenditures, prepayment penalties, assumption fees, tenant buyouts, lease termination fees and tenant turnover with respect to our properties when the Adviser becomes aware of such events and the relevant information is available. Consistent with industry practices, the income approach incorporates subjective judgments regarding comparable rental and operating expense data, the capitalization or discount rate and projections of future rent and expenses based on appropriate market evidence. Other methodologies that may also be used to value properties include sales comparisons and cost approaches.

Real estate appraisals are reported on a free and clear basis, excluding any property-level indebtedness that may be in place. Fund level and property level debt will be valued separately in accordance with GAAP.

 

107


Table of Contents

Properties held through joint ventures generally will be valued in a manner that is consistent with the methods described above. Once the value of a property held by the joint venture is determined and the Fund determines the fair value of any other assets and liabilities of the joint venture, the value of the Fund’s interest in the joint venture would then be determined by the Adviser using a hypothetical liquidation calculation to value the Fund’s interest in the joint venture.

Real Estate Debt and Other Debt Investments

The Independent Valuation Advisor will administer the valuation process for the Fund’s investments in real estate debt and other debt investments that do not have reliable readily available market quotations (including mortgage loans and mezzanine loans) on a daily basis. In the case of loans or other debt instruments with no reliable readily available market prices that are acquired by us, such initial value will generally be the acquisition price of such instrument. In the case of loans or other debt instruments originated by us, such initial value will generally be the par value of such instrument. The Independent Valuation Advisor will determine subsequent revaluations of loans and other debt instruments by considering, among other factors, the changes in value of the underlying real estate or other collateral, with anticipated sale proceeds (estimated cash flows) discounted to their present value using a discount rate based on current market rates. The Independent Valuation Advisor will value each debt investment at least monthly and will coordinate with the Adviser to monitor events intra-month that may affect the values of our real estate debt or other debt and incorporate the impact of those events in estimated fair values, as needed.

Real Estate-Related Securities and Other Securities

Real estate-related securities and other securities that do not have reliable readily available market quotations will be valued by one or more of the third-party pricing services in a manner consistent with real estate debt and other debt investments, as described above. Where such securities have a single broker quote, third-party pricing services will also consider such quote in determining estimated fair value.

 

108


Table of Contents

DISTRIBUTIONS

Beginning with the end of the Fund’s first full calendar month of operations after the date of this prospectus, the Fund will seek to pay consistent monthly distributions at an attractive distribution yield to stockholders of record. The Fund intends to accrue and declare distributions daily and distribute them on a monthly basis. In addition, the Fund intends to distribute any net capital gains it earns from the sale of portfolio securities to stockholders no less frequently than annually. Net short-term capital gain distributions may be paid more frequently. The Fund intends to make distributions necessary to maintain its qualification as a REIT.

Cash distributions to holders of our Common Stock will automatically be reinvested under the DRIP in additional whole and fractional shares unless you elect to receive your distributions in cash. Investors may terminate their participation in the DRIP with prior written notice to us. Under the DRIP, stockholders’ distributions are reinvested in Common Stock of the same class of Common Stock owned by the stockholder for a purchase price equal to the NAV per share (for the class of Common Stock being purchased) on the date that the distribution is paid. See “Distribution Reinvestment Plan.”

If, for any monthly distribution, net investment income and net realized gains were less than the amount of the distribution, the difference may be distributed from the Fund’s assets in the form of a return of capital which is applied against and reduces the stockholder’s basis in his or her Common Stock. A “return of capital” merely represents a partial return of your original investment and does not represent a gain on the Fund’s investments. When you sell your Common Stock in the Fund, the amount, if any, by which your sales price exceeds your basis in the Common Stock is gain subject to tax. Because a return of capital reduces your basis in the Common Stock, it will increase the amount of your gain or decrease the amount of your loss when you sell the Common Stock, all other things being equal. To the extent that the amount of any such distribution exceeds the stockholder’s basis in his or her Common Stock, the excess will be treated by the stockholder as gain from a sale or exchange of the Common Stock. As a result, you may be required to pay tax even if selling your investment in the Common Stock at a loss. In addition, in order to make such distributions, the Fund might have to sell a portion of its investment portfolio at a time when independent investment judgment might not dictate such action. The Fund’s final distribution for each calendar year may include any remaining net investment income and net realized gains undistributed during the year. The Fund’s actual financial performance will likely vary significantly from month-to-month and from year-to-year, and there may be extended periods of up to several years when the distribution rate will exceed the Fund’s actual total returns. The Fund’s projected or actual distribution rate is not a prediction of what the Fund’s actual total returns will be over any specific future period.

Various factors will affect the level of the Fund’s income, including the asset mix, the leases on the Fund’s real estate investments and the amount of leverage utilized by the Fund. To permit the Fund to maintain a more stable monthly distribution, the Fund may from time to time distribute less than the entire amount of income earned in a particular period. The undistributed income would be available to supplement future distributions. As a result, the distributions paid by the Fund for any particular month may be more or less than the amount of income actually earned by the Fund during that period. Undistributed income will add to the Fund’s net asset and, correspondingly, distributions from undistributed income will reduce the Fund’s NAV.

In order to qualify as a REIT, the Fund is required to distribute to its stockholders each year an amount equal to at least (a) the sum of (i) 90% of the Fund’s “REIT taxable income” (computed without regard to its dividends-paid deduction and excluding net capital gains) and (ii) the Fund’s net income, if any, (after tax) from foreclosure property, minus (b) the sum of specified items of non-cash income. To the extent that the Fund distributes less than 100% of its “REIT taxable income,” as adjusted, the Fund will be subject to tax at the regular corporate tax rates on the retained portion. If the Fund fails to distribute during each calendar year at least the sum of: (i) 85% of the Fund’s REIT ordinary income for such year; (ii) 95% of the Fund’s REIT capital gain net income for such year; and (iii) any undistributed taxable income from prior periods, the Fund would be subject to a 4% excise tax on the excess of such required distribution over the sum of (a) the amounts actually distributed and (b) the amounts of income retained on which it has paid corporate income tax. The Fund intends to make

 

109


Table of Contents

timely distributions sufficient to satisfy the REIT qualification requirements and, when possible, to avoid material income and excise taxes.

Section 19(b) of the Investment Company Act and Rule 19b-1 thereunder generally limit the Fund to one long-term capital gain distribution per year, subject to certain exceptions. For purposes of declaring and paying distributions, the Fund will determine its monthly net investment income to distribute in accordance with GAAP, which may differ from income tax regulations. For tax purposes, a distribution that for purposes of GAAP is composed of return of capital and net investment income may be subsequently re-characterized to also include capital gains. Stockholders will be informed of the tax characteristics of any distributions after the close of the Fund’s fiscal year.

 

110


Table of Contents

DISTRIBUTION REINVESTMENT PLAN

Pursuant to the Fund’s Distribution Reinvestment Plan (the “DRIP”), income dividends and/or capital gain distributions to stockholders will automatically be reinvested in additional shares of Common Stock by DST Asset Manager Solutions, Inc. ( the “DRIP Administrator”) unless the stockholders elects to receive cash. A stockholder may terminate participation in the DRIP at any time by notifying the DRIP Administrator before the record date of the next distribution via email at kkrcrmteam@dstsystems.com, by telephone at (855) 844-8655 or in writing to DST Asset Manager Solutions, Inc. at KKR Real Estate Select Trust, Inc., PO Box 219302, Kansas City, MO 64121-9302. Stockholders whose shares of Common Stock are held in the name of a broker or other nominee and who wish to elect to receive any dividends and distributions in cash must contact their broker or nominee. All distributions to stockholders who do not participate in the DRIP, or have elected to terminate their participation in the DRIP, are paid by wire or check mailed directly to the record holder by or under the direction of the DRIP Administrator when the Board declares a distribution.

The DRIP Administrator maintains all stockholder accounts in the DRIP and furnishes written confirmations of all transactions in the account, including information needed by stockholders for tax records. Shares in the account of each DRIP participant are held by the DRIP Administrator in non-certificated form in the name of the participant, and each stockholder’s proxy includes Common Stock purchased pursuant to the DRIP. The DRIP Administrator will forward all proxy solicitation materials to participants and vote proxies for Common Stock held under the DRIP in accordance with the instructions of the participants

There is no charge to participants for reinvesting regular distributions and capital gains distributions; however, the Fund reserves the right to amend the DRIP to include a service charge payable by the participants. The fees of the DRIP Administrator for handling the reinvestment of regular distributions and capital gains distributions are included in the fee to be paid by us to our transfer agent. There are no brokerage charges with respect to Common Stock issued directly by us as a result of regular distributions or capital gains distributions payable either in Common Stock or in cash.

The automatic reinvestment of such dividends or distributions does not relieve participants of any income tax that may be payable on such dividends or distributions. See “Certain U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations” in the SAI.

The Fund reserves the right to amend or terminate the DRIP at any time. Any expenses of the DRIP will be borne by the Fund. All correspondence or questions concerning the DRIP should be directed to DST Asset Manager Solutions, Inc.

For direct stockholders, if you elect to receive distributions and/or capital gains paid in cash, and the U.S. Postal Service cannot deliver the check, or if a check remains outstanding for six months, the Fund reserves the right to reinvest the distribution check in your account, at the Fund’s current net asset value, and to reinvest all subsequent distributions. Stockholders that are investor through a financial intermediary should contact their Selling Agent directly.

 

111


Table of Contents

DESCRIPTION OF SHARES

The following description of the terms of the stock of the Fund is only a summary. For a complete description, please refer to the Maryland General Corporation Law (the “MGCL”), and the Fund’s charter and bylaws. The Fund’s charter and bylaws are exhibits to the Registration Statement, of which this prospectus forms a part.

The Fund’s authorized stock consists of 500,000,000 shares of capital stock, par value $0.001 per share. Of the total shares of stock authorized, 100,000,000 are designated as Class S shares, 100,000,000 are designated as Class T, 100,000,000 are designated as Class D, 99,999,875 are designated as Class U, 100,000,000 are designated as Class I Shares and 125 are designated as Preferred Stock. Currently, only Class S, Class D, Class U and Class I shares are available for purchase.

There is currently no market for the Fund’s shares, and the Fund does not expect that a market for its shares will develop in the foreseeable future, if ever. A majority of the entire Board may, without any action by the stockholders, amend the charter from time to time to increase or decrease the aggregate number of shares of stock or the number of shares of stock of any class or series that the Fund has authority to issue. Under Maryland law, the Fund’s stockholders generally will not be personally liable for the Fund’s debts or obligations.

Shares of Common Stock

General

All shares of Common Stock offered pursuant to this prospectus will be, upon issuance, duly authorized, fully paid and nonassessable. The Fund currently offers four different classes of shares: Class S, Class D, Class U and Class I Shares. An investment in any share class of the Fund represents an investment in the same assets of the Fund. Each share class has different fees, as set forth in “Summary of Fund Expenses.” Certain share class details are set forth in “Plan of Distribution.” Common stockholders are entitled to receive distributions when, as and if authorized by the Board and declared by the Fund out of assets legally available for the payment of distributions. Common stockholders have no preference, conversion, exchange, sinking fund or redemption rights, have no preemptive rights to subscribe for any of the Fund’s securities and have no appraisal rights unless the Board determines that appraisal rights apply, with respect to all or any classes of common stock, to one or more transactions occurring after the date of such determination in connection with which common stockholders would otherwise be entitled to exercise appraisal rights. All shares of common stock have equal earnings, assets, distribution, liquidation and other rights except as provided in the charter and any multiple class plan adopted by the Fund. Stockholders are subject to transfer restrictions and there is no guarantee that they will be able to sell their shares. See “Certain Provisions in the Charter and Bylaws—Transfer Restrictions” below.

Distributions

Distributions may be paid to common stockholders if, as and when authorized by the Board and declared by the Fund out of assets legally available therefor.

If any shares of Preferred Stock are outstanding, common stockholders generally will not be entitled to receive any distributions from the Fund unless (1) the Fund has paid all accumulated dividends on the Preferred Stock, (2) the Fund has redeemed the full number of shares of Preferred Stock required to be redeemed by any provision for mandatory redemption of such Preferred Stock, (3) immediately after such a distribution, the Fund has an asset coverage of at least 200%, (4) the assets in the Fund’s portfolio meet any asset coverage requirements set forth by the Fund’s lenders or any applicable nationally recognized statistical rating organization (“NRSRO”), in each case, after giving effect to such a distribution and (5) there is no event of default existing under the terms of any of the Fund’s borrowings, in each case, after giving effect to such distributions.

 

112


Table of Contents

So long as senior securities representing indebtedness of the Fund are outstanding, stockholders generally will not be entitled to receive any distributions from the Fund unless (1) there is no event of default existing under the terms of such indebtedness, (2) immediately after such a distribution, the Fund has an asset coverage of at least 300% and (3) the assets in the Fund’s portfolio meet any asset coverage requirements set forth by the Fund’s lenders or any applicable NRSRO, in each case, after giving effect to such a distribution.

Liquidation Rights

The Fund’s stockholders are entitled to the then-current NAV per share of the assets legally available for distribution to the Fund’s stockholders in the event of the liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the Fund, after payment of or adequate provision for all of the Fund’s known debts and liabilities, including any outstanding debt securities or other borrowings and any interest thereon. These rights are subject to the preferential rights of outstanding shares of any other class or series of the Fund’s stock, including any Preferred Stock.

Voting Rights

Each outstanding share of common stock generally entitles the holder to cast one vote on all matters submitted to a vote of the Fund’s stockholders, including the election of directors. The presence in person or by proxy of stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast (without regard to class) at a meeting of the Fund’s stockholders constitutes a quorum at the meeting, unless applicable law or regulatory requirements or the Fund’s charter requires a separate vote of one or more classes of the Fund’s stock, in which case the presence in person or by proxy of the stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast by stockholders of each such class of common stock on such a matter will constitute a quorum.

There is no cumulative voting in the election of directors. Consequently, at each annual meeting of the Fund’s stockholders, the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of stock entitled to vote will be able to elect all of the successors of the directors whose terms expire at that meeting, except that holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of Preferred Stock, if any, will have the right, voting as a separate class, to elect two directors at all times.

Mandatory Redemptions

Shares of Common Stock are redeemable at the option of the Fund without consent or other action by the stockholder or other person if the Fund determines that:

 

   

the Common Stock has been transferred in violation of the Fund’s Charter or Bylaws, or has vested in any person other than by operation of law as a result of the death, divorce, dissolution, bankruptcy, insolvency or adjudicated incompetence of the stockholder;

 

   

ownership of the Common Stock by a stockholder or other person is likely to cause the Fund to be in violation of, or require registration of the Common Stock under, or subject the Fund to additional registration or regulation under, the securities, commodities, or other laws of the U.S. or any other relevant jurisdiction;

 

   

continued ownership of the Common Stock by a stockholder may be harmful or injurious to the business or reputation of the Fund, the Board of Directors, KKR or any of their affiliates, or may subject the Fund or any stockholder to an undue risk of adverse tax or other fiscal or regulatory consequences;

 

   

any of the representations and warranties made by a stockholder or other person in connection with the acquisition of Common Stock were not true when made or has ceased to be true; or

 

   

with respect to a stockholder subject to special laws or compliance requirements, such as those imposed by ERISA, the Bank Holding Company Act or certain Federal Communication Commission

 

113


Table of Contents
 

regulations (collectively, “Special Laws or Regulations”), the stockholder is likely to be subject to additional regulatory or compliance requirements under these Special Laws or Regulations by virtue of continuing to hold any Common Stock.

Shares of Common Stock will be redeemed at the NAV per share of the class of Common Stock being redeemed.

Preferred Stock

The Fund’s charter authorizes the Board to classify and reclassify any unissued shares of common stock into shares of other classes or series of stock, including Preferred Stock, without the approval of common stockholders. Common stockholders have no preemptive right to purchase any shares of Preferred Stock that the Fund may issue. On January 27, 2021, the Fund issued $125,000 total liquidation preference of Preferred Stock entitled to cumulative preferential dividends of 12% per annum. The Fund may elect to issue additional Preferred Stock in the future as part of a leveraging strategy.

Prior to issuance of shares of any class or series, the Board is required by Maryland law and by the Fund’s charter to set the preferences, conversion and other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends and other distributions, qualifications and terms and conditions of redemption of each such class or series. Thus, the Board could authorize the Fund to issue shares of Preferred Stock with terms that could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a transaction or a change in control that might involve a premium price for common stockholders or otherwise be in their best interests. Any issuance of Preferred Stock, however, must comply with the requirements of the Investment Company Act. If the Fund elects to issue Preferred Stock (and/or notes or other debt securities), its ability to make distributions to its common stockholders may be limited by the terms of such Preferred Stock or debt securities, the asset coverage requirements and other limitations imposed by the Investment Company Act, Maryland law and the Fund’s lenders.

Under the Investment Company Act, holders of the Preferred Stock would be entitled to elect two directors of the Fund at all times and to elect a majority of the Fund’s directors if at any time dividends on the Preferred Stock are unpaid in an amount equal to two full years’ dividends. Holders of the Preferred Stock would continue to have the right to elect a majority of the Fund’s directors until all dividends in arrears on the Preferred Stock have been paid. In addition, holders of the Preferred Stock would also be entitled to vote separately as a class on certain matters, which may at times give holders of Preferred Stock disproportionate influence over the Fund’s affairs.

Uncertificated Shares; Transfer Agent

The Fund does not issue certificates for shares of its common stock. Shares of the Fund’s Common Stock are held in “uncertificated” form, which will eliminate the physical handling and safekeeping responsibilities inherent in owning transferable share certificates and eliminate the need to return a duly executed share certificate to effect a transfer. The Transfer Agent acts as the Fund’s registrar and as the Transfer Agent for shares of the Fund’s common stock. With respect to shares held by a financial intermediary on behalf of an investor, the financial intermediary will be responsible for the functions of the registrar and transfer agent. Transfers can be effected simply by mailing a transfer and assignment form, which the Fund will provide to you at no charge, to the Transfer Agent. See “Custodian and Transfer Agent.”

 

114


Table of Contents

CERTAIN PROVISIONS IN THE CHARTER AND BYLAWS

The MGCL and the Fund’s charter and bylaws contain provisions that could make it more difficult for a potential acquirer to acquire the Fund by means of a tender offer, proxy contest or otherwise. These provisions are designed to discourage certain coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids and to encourage persons seeking to acquire control of the Fund to negotiate first with the Board. The Fund believes that the benefits of these provisions outweigh the potential disadvantages of discouraging any such acquisition proposals because, among other things, the negotiation of such proposals may improve their terms. The summary of the terms of the Fund’s charter and bylaws below is qualified in its entirety by reference to the Fund’s charter and bylaws filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

Election of Directors

As permitted by the MGCL, the Fund’s bylaws provide that the Fund is not required to hold an annual meeting of stockholders in any year in which the election of directors is not required to be acted on under the Investment Company Act. Accordingly, the Fund will not hold an annual meeting of stockholders each year and directors will be elected to serve an indefinite term between annual meetings of stockholders. The Fund’s bylaws provide that a director is elected by a plurality of all the votes cast at a meeting of stockholders at which a quorum is present. Pursuant to the Fund’s charter, the Board may amend the bylaws from time to time to alter the vote required to elect a director.

Number of Directors; Vacancies; Removal

The Fund’s charter provides that the number of directors will be set only by the Board in accordance with the Fund’s bylaws. The Fund’s bylaws provide that a majority of the entire Board may at any time increase or decrease the number of directors. However, the number of directors cannot be less than the minimum number required by the MGCL, which is one, or, unless the Fund’s bylaws are amended, more than fifteen.

Except as may be provided by the Board in setting the terms of any class or series of preferred stock or required by the Investment Company Act, any vacancy on the Board of Directors for any cause other than an increase in the number of directors may be filled by a majority of the remaining directors, even if such majority is less than a quorum, any vacancy in the number of directors created by an increase in the number of directors may be filled by a majority of the entire Board, and any director elected to fill a vacancy shall serve until the next annual meeting of stockholders and until his or her successor is duly elected and qualifies.

The Fund’s charter provides that a director may be removed only for cause, as defined in the charter, and then only by the affirmative vote of at least three-quarters of the votes entitled to be cast generally in the election of directors.

Action by Stockholders

Under the MGCL, stockholder action can be taken only at an annual or special meeting of stockholders or, unless the charter provides for stockholder action by less than unanimous written consent (which the Fund’s charter does not), by unanimous written consent in lieu of a meeting. These provisions, combined with the requirements of the Fund’s bylaws regarding the calling of a stockholder-requested special meeting of stockholders discussed below, may have the effect of delaying consideration of a stockholder proposal until the next annual meeting of stockholders.

Advance Notice Provisions for Stockholder Nominations and Stockholder Proposals

The Fund’s bylaws provide that, with respect to an annual meeting of stockholders, the nomination of individuals for election as directors and the proposal of other business to be considered by the Fund’s

 

115


Table of Contents

stockholders may be made only (1) pursuant to the Fund’s notice of the meeting, (2) by or at the direction of the Board or (3) by a stockholder who is a stockholder of record at the record date set by the Board for the purpose of determining stockholders entitled to vote at the annual meeting, at the time the stockholder provides the notice required by the Fund’s bylaws and at the time of the annual meeting (and any postponement or adjournment thereof), who is entitled to vote at the meeting in the election of each individual so nominated or on such other business and who has complied with the advance notice requirements of, and provided the information required by, the Fund’s bylaws. With respect to special meetings of the Fund’s stockholders, only the business specified in the notice of the meeting may be brought before the meeting. Nominations of individuals for election as directors at a special meeting of stockholders at which directors are to be elected may be made only (i) by or at the direction of the Board or (ii) if the special meeting has been called in accordance with the Fund’s bylaws for the purpose of electing directors, by any stockholder who is a stockholder of record at the record date set by the Board for the purpose of determining stockholders entitled to vote at the special meeting, at the time the stockholder provides the notice required by the Fund’s bylaws and at the time of the special meeting (and any postponement or adjournment thereof), who is entitled to vote at the meeting in the election of each individual so nominated and who has complied with the advance notice requirements of, and provided the information required by, the Fund’s bylaws.

Calling of Special Meetings of Stockholders

The Fund’s bylaws provide that special meetings of the Fund’s stockholders may be called by the Board and certain of the Fund’s officers. The Fund’s bylaws also provide that, subject to the satisfaction of certain procedural and informational requirements by the stockholders requesting the meeting, a special meeting of stockholders must be called by the secretary of the Fund to act on any matter that may properly be considered at a meeting of stockholders upon the written request of stockholders entitled to cast not less than a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast on such matter at such meeting. The Fund’s secretary will inform the requesting stockholders of the reasonably estimated cost of preparing and mailing the notice of meeting (including the Fund’s proxy materials), and the requesting stockholders must pay the estimated cost before the secretary may prepare and mail notice of the special meeting.

Approval of Extraordinary Corporate Action; Amendment of the Fund’s Charter and Bylaws

Under Maryland law, a Maryland corporation generally cannot dissolve, amend its charter, merge, consolidate, convert into another form of business entity, sell all or substantially all of its assets or engage in a statutory share exchange, unless approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. However, a Maryland corporation may provide in its charter for approval of these matters by a lesser percentage, but not less than a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter.

The Fund’s charter generally provides, except for provisions related to removal of directors, for approval of charter amendments and other extraordinary transactions by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast a majority of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. However, the Fund’s charter provides that the following matters require the approval of stockholders entitled to cast at least 80% of the votes entitled to be cast generally in the election of directors:

 

   

amendments to the provisions of the Fund’s charter relating to the power of the Board to fix the number of directors, remove directors, fill vacancies on the Board, revoke our REIT election and amend the bylaws or the restrictions on ownership and transfer of shares of stock;

 

   

charter amendments or any other proposal that would convert the Fund, whether by merger or otherwise, from a closed-end company to an open-end company (under the Investment Company Act) or make the Fund’s common stock a redeemable security (within the meaning of the Investment Company Act);

 

116


Table of Contents
   

the liquidation or dissolution of the Fund or charter amendments to effect the liquidation or dissolution of the Fund;

 

   

amendments to the provisions of the Fund’s charter relating to the vote required to approve the dissolution of the Fund, charter amendments and extraordinary transactions;

 

   

any merger, consolidation, conversion, statutory share exchange or sale or exchange of all or substantially all of the Fund’s assets that the MGCL requires be approved by the Fund’s stockholders;

 

   

any sale, lease, exchange, mortgage, pledge, transfer or other disposition by the Fund (in one or a series of transactions in any 12-month period) to or with any person or entity of assets of the Fund having an aggregate fair market value of $1,000,000 or more except for portfolio transactions (including pledges of portfolio securities in connection with borrowings) in the ordinary course of business; or

 

   

any transaction between the Fund, on the one hand, and any person or group of persons acting together that is entitled to exercise or direct the exercise, or acquire the right to exercise or direct the exercise, directly or indirectly (other than solely by virtue of a revocable proxy), of one-tenth or more of the voting power in the election of directors generally, or any person controlling, controlled by or under common control with any such person, or member of such group, on the other hand.

However, if such amendment, proposal or transaction is approved by at least three-quarters of the Fund’s continuing directors (in addition to approval by the Board), the amendment, proposal or transaction may instead be approved by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the votes entitled to be cast on such amendment, proposal or transaction described in this section, except that any amendment, proposal or transaction that would not otherwise require stockholder approval under the MGCL or the Investment Company Act will not require further stockholder approval unless another provision of the Fund’s charter or bylaws requires such approval. The “continuing directors” are defined in the Fund’s charter as its current directors and directors whose nomination for election by the Fund’s stockholders or whose election by the directors to fill a vacancy on the Board is approved by a majority of the continuing directors serving on the Board.

The Fund’s charter and bylaws provide that the Board will have the exclusive power to adopt, alter or repeal any provision of the Fund’s bylaws and to make new bylaws.

Transfer Restrictions

For the Fund to qualify as a REIT, no more than 50% in value of the outstanding shares of the Fund’s stock may be owned, directly or indirectly through the application of certain attribution rules under the Code, by any five or fewer individuals, as defined in the Code to include specified entities, during the last half of any taxable year other than the Fund’s first taxable year. In addition, the outstanding shares of the Fund’s stock must be owned by 100 or more persons independent of us and each other during at least 335 days of a 12-month taxable year or during a proportionate part of a shorter taxable year, excluding the Fund’s first taxable year for which the Fund elects to be taxed as a REIT. In addition, the Fund must meet requirements regarding the nature of the Fund’s gross income to qualify as a REIT. One of these requirements is that at least 75% of the Fund’s gross income for each calendar year must consist of rents from real property and income from other real property investments.

To assist the Fund in preserving the Fund’s status as a REIT, among other purposes, the Fund’s charter contains limitations on the transfer and ownership of shares of the Fund’s stock which prohibit: (i) any person, entity or group from owning or acquiring, directly or indirectly, more than 9.8% in value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of the aggregate of the Fund’s then outstanding shares of capital stock of all classes and series or more than 9.8% in value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of the aggregate of the Fund’s then outstanding shares of common stock; (ii) any person or entity from owning or acquiring, directly or indirectly shares of the Fund’s stock to the extent such ownership would result in the Fund’s being “closely held” within the meaning of Section 856(h) of the Code (without regard to whether the ownership

 

117


Table of Contents

interest is held during the last half of a taxable year) or otherwise failing to qualify as a REIT; and (iii) any transfer of or other event or transaction with respect to shares of capital stock that would result in the beneficial ownership of the Fund’s outstanding shares of capital stock by fewer than 100 persons (determined under the principles of Section 856(a)(5) of the Code). The Fund’s charter provides that any transfer of shares of the Fund’s capital stock that, if effective, would result in a violation of the above restrictions, shall be automatically void and the intended transferee shall acquire no rights in such shares of capital stock.

Any person who acquires or attempts to acquire shares of the Fund’s capital stock in violation of the foregoing restrictions, is required to give immediate written notice to us of such event, or, in the case of such a proposed or attempted transaction, 15 days written notice prior to such purported transaction. In both cases, such persons must provide to us such other information as we may request to determine the effect, if any, of such event on the Fund’s status as a REIT.

The foregoing restrictions will continue to apply until the Board determines it is no longer in the Fund’s best interest to attempt to, or to continue to, qualify as a REIT or that compliance with the restrictions is no longer required for us to qualify as a REIT.

The ownership limits do not apply to a person or persons that the Board exempts from the ownership limit upon appropriate assurances (including certain representations and undertakings from the intended transferee) that the Fund’s qualification as a REIT is not jeopardized. In addition, our charter exempts KKR and its affiliates from the Ownership Limit.

Every owner of 5% or more (or such lower percentage as required by the Code or the regulations promulgated thereunder) of the Fund’s outstanding stock is required, within 30 days after the end of each taxable year, to give the Fund written notice stating his, her or its name and address, the number of shares of each class and series of the Fund’s stock which the stockholder beneficially owns and a description of the manner in which the shares are held. Each such owner shall provide the Fund with such additional information as the Fund may request in order to determine the effect, if any, of the stockholder’s beneficial ownership on the Fund’s qualification as a REIT and to ensure compliance with the restrictions noted above. In addition, each stockholder shall upon demand be required to provide the Fund with such information as the Fund may request in order to determine the Fund’s qualification as a REIT and to comply with the requirements of any taxing authority or governmental authority or to determine such compliance.

Exclusive Forum

The Fund’s bylaws provide that, unless the Fund consents in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the sole and exclusive forum for (a) any Internal Corporate Claim (as defined in the MGCL), (b) any derivative action or proceeding brought on the Fund’s behalf, other than actions arising under federal securities laws, (c) any action asserting a claim of breach of any duty owed by any director or officer or other employee of the Fund to the Fund or to its stockholders, (d) any action asserting a claim against the Fund or any director or officer or other employee of the Fund arising pursuant to any provision of the MGCL or the Fund’s charter or bylaws or (e) any other action asserting a claim against the Fund or any director or officer or other employee of the Fund that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine shall be the Circuit Court for Baltimore City, Maryland, or, if that Court does not have jurisdiction, the United States District Court for the District of Maryland, Northern Division.

 

118


Table of Contents

CERTAIN U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

The following summary describes certain of the material U.S. federal income tax considerations relating to the ownership of our Common Stock as of the date hereof by U.S. holders and non-U.S. holders, each as defined below. Except where noted, this summary deals only with Common Stock held as a capital asset and does not deal with special situations, such as those of dealers in securities or currencies, financial institutions, regulated investment companies, tax-exempt entities (except as described in “—Taxation of Tax-Exempt Holders of Our Common Stock” below), insurance companies, persons holding Common Stock as a part of a hedging, integrated, conversion or constructive sale transaction or a straddle, traders in securities that elect to use a mark-to-market method of accounting for their securities holdings, persons liable for alternative minimum tax, persons who are “foreign governments” within the meaning of Section 892 of the Code, investors in pass-through entities or U.S. holders of Common Stock whose “functional currency” is not the U.S. dollar. Furthermore, the discussion below is based upon the provisions of the Code and regulations, rulings and judicial decisions thereunder as of the date hereof, and such authorities may be repealed, revoked or modified, possibly with retroactive effect, so as to result in U.S. federal income tax consequences different from those discussed below. No ruling on the U.S. federal, state, or local tax considerations relevant to our operation or to the purchase, ownership or disposition of our Common Stock has been requested from the IRS or other tax authority. No assurance can be given that the IRS would not assert, or that a court would not sustain, a position contrary to any of the tax consequences described below. The summary is also based upon the assumption that we and our subsidiaries and affiliated entities will operate in accordance with our and their applicable organizational documents.

The U.S. federal income tax treatment of holders of our Common Stock depends in some instances on determinations of fact and interpretations of complex provisions of U.S. federal income tax law for which no clear precedent or authority may be available. In addition, the tax consequences to any particular stockholder of holding our Common Stock will depend on the stockholder’s particular tax circumstances. You are urged to consult your own tax advisors concerning the U.S. federal income tax consequences in light of your particular situation as well as consequences arising under the laws of any other taxing jurisdiction.

Our Taxation as a REIT

We intend to elect and qualify to be taxed as a REIT under the Code commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2020. Furthermore, we intend to operate in such a manner as to qualify for taxation as a REIT under the applicable provisions of the Code so long as our board of directors determines that REIT qualification remains in our best interest. We have not received, and do not intend to seek, any rulings from the IRS regarding our status as a REIT or our satisfaction of the REIT requirements. The IRS may challenge our status as a REIT, and a court could sustain any such challenge. Our qualification and taxation as a REIT depend upon our ability to meet on a continuing basis, through actual annual operating results, certain qualification tests set forth in the U.S. federal tax laws. Those qualification tests involve the percentage of income that we earn from specified sources, the percentage of our assets that falls within specified categories, the diversity of the ownership of our shares, and the percentage of our taxable income that we distribute. No assurance can be given that our actual results of operations for any particular taxable year will satisfy such requirements. For a discussion of the tax consequences of our failure to qualify as a REIT, see “—Failure to Qualify.”

The sections of the Code and the corresponding regulations that govern the U.S. federal income tax treatment of a REIT and its stockholders are highly technical and complex. The following discussion is qualified in its entirety by the applicable Code provisions, rules and regulations promulgated thereunder, and administrative interpretations thereof.

Taxation of REITs in General

As indicated above, our qualification and taxation as a REIT depends upon our ability to meet, on a continuing basis, various qualification requirements imposed upon REITs by the Code. The material qualification

 

119


Table of Contents

requirements are summarized below under “—Requirements for Qualification as a REIT.” While we intend to operate so that we qualify as a REIT, no assurance can be given that the IRS will not challenge our qualification, or that we will be able to operate in accordance with the REIT requirements in the future. See “—Failure to Qualify.”

Provided that we qualify as a REIT, generally we will be entitled to a deduction for dividends that we pay and therefore will not be subject to U.S. federal corporate income tax on our net taxable income that is currently distributed to our stockholders. This treatment substantially eliminates the “double taxation” at the corporate and stockholder levels that generally results from an investment in a C corporation (i.e., a corporation generally subject to U.S. federal corporate income tax). Double taxation means taxation once at the corporate level when income is earned and once again at the stockholder level when the income is distributed. In general, the income that we generate, to the extent declared as a dividend and subsequently paid to our stockholders, is taxed only at the stockholder level.

If we qualify as a REIT, we will nonetheless be subject to U.S. federal tax in the following circumstances:

 

   

We will pay U.S. federal income tax on our taxable income, including net capital gain, that we do not distribute to stockholders during, or within a specified time after, the calendar year in which the income is earned.

 

   

If we have net income from “prohibited transactions,” which are, in general, sales or other dispositions of property held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business, other than foreclosure property, such income will be subject to a 100% tax.

 

   

If we elect to treat property that we acquire in connection with a foreclosure of a mortgage loan or from certain leasehold terminations as “foreclosure property,” we may thereby avoid (a) the 100% tax on gain from a resale of that property (if the sale would otherwise constitute a prohibited transaction) and (b) the inclusion of any income from such property not qualifying for purposes of the REIT gross income tests discussed below, but the income from the sale or operation of the property may be subject to U.S. corporate income tax at the highest applicable rate.

 

   

If due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect we fail to satisfy either the 75% gross income test or the 95% gross income test discussed below, but nonetheless maintain our qualification as a REIT because other requirements are met, we will be subject to a 100% tax on the greater of the amount by which we fail the 75% gross income test or the 95% gross income test, multiplied in either case by a fraction intended to reflect our profitability.

 

   

If (i) we fail to satisfy the asset tests (other than a de minimis failure of the 5% asset test or the 10% vote or value test, as described below under “—Asset Tests”) due to reasonable cause and not to willful neglect, (ii) we dispose of the assets or otherwise comply with such asset tests within six months after the last day of the quarter in which we identify such failure and (iii) we file a schedule with the IRS describing the assets that caused such failure, we will pay a tax equal to the greater of $50,000 or the net income from the nonqualifying assets during the period in which we failed to satisfy such asset tests multiplied by the highest corporate tax rate.

 

   

If we fail to satisfy one or more requirements for REIT qualification, other than the gross income tests and the asset tests, and the failure was due to reasonable cause and not to willful neglect, we will be required to pay a penalty of $50,000 for each such failure.

 

   

We may be required to pay monetary penalties to the IRS in certain circumstances, including if we fail to meet recordkeeping requirements intended to monitor our compliance with rules relating to the composition of a REIT’s stockholders, as described below in “—Requirements for Qualification as a REIT.”

 

   

If we fail to distribute during each calendar year at least the sum of:

 

   

85% of our ordinary income for such calendar year;

 

120


Table of Contents
   

95% of our capital gain net income for such calendar year; and

 

   

any undistributed taxable income from prior taxable years,

we will pay a 4% nondeductible excise tax on the excess of the required distribution over the amount we actually distributed, plus any retained amounts on which income tax has been paid at the corporate level.

 

   

We may elect to retain and pay income tax on our net long-term capital gain. In that case, a U.S. holder would include its proportionate share of our undistributed long-term capital gain (to the extent we make a timely designation of such gain to the stockholder) in its income, and would receive a credit or a refund for its proportionate share of the tax we paid.

 

   

We will be subject to a 100% excise tax on amounts received by us from a taxable REIT subsidiary (or on certain expenses deducted by a taxable REIT subsidiary) if certain arrangements between us and a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours, as further described below, are not comparable to similar arrangements among unrelated parties.

 

   

If we acquire any assets from a non-REIT C corporation in a carry-over basis transaction, we could be liable for specified tax liabilities inherited from that non-REIT C corporation with respect to that corporation’s “built-in gain” in its assets. Built-in gain is the amount by which an asset’s fair market value exceeds its adjusted tax basis at the time we acquire the asset. Applicable Treasury regulations, however, allow us to avoid the recognition of gain and the imposition of corporate-level tax with respect to a built-in gain asset acquired in a carry-over basis transaction from a non-REIT C corporation unless and until we dispose of that built-in gain asset during the 5-year period following its acquisition, at which time we would recognize, and would be subject to tax at the highest regular corporate rate on, the built-in gain.

 

   

In addition, notwithstanding our status as a REIT, we may also have to pay certain state and local income taxes, because not all states and localities treat REITs in the same manner that they are treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Moreover, as further described below, any domestic taxable REIT subsidiary in which we own an interest will be subject to U.S. federal corporate income tax on its net income.

Requirements for Qualification as a REIT. The Code defines a REIT as a corporation, trust or association:

 

  (1)

that is managed by one or more trustees or directors;

 

  (2)

the beneficial ownership of which is evidenced by transferable shares, or by transferable certificates of beneficial interest;

 

  (3)

that would be taxable as a domestic corporation, but for its election to be subject to tax as a REIT;

 

  (4)

that is neither a financial institution nor an insurance company subject to certain provisions of the Code;

 

  (5)

the beneficial ownership of which is held by 100 or more persons;

 

  (6)

of which not more than 50% in value of the outstanding shares are owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer individuals (as defined in the Code to include certain entities) after applying certain attribution rules;

 

  (7)

that makes an election to be a REIT for the current taxable year or has made such an election for a previous taxable year, which has not been terminated or revoked; and

 

  (8)

that meets other tests described below regarding the nature of its income and assets.

Conditions (1) through (4), inclusive, must be met during the entire taxable year. Condition (5) must be met during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months, or during a proportionate part of a taxable year of less

 

121


Table of Contents

than 12 months other than the first taxable year for which an election to become a REIT is made. Condition (6) must be met during the last half of each taxable year, but neither conditions (5) nor (6) apply to the first taxable year for which an election to become a REIT is made. We believe that we will maintain sufficient diversity of ownership to allow us to satisfy conditions (5) and (6) above. In addition, our charter contains restrictions regarding the ownership and transfer of our stock that are intended to assist us in continuing to satisfy the share ownership requirements described in (5) and (6) above. The provisions of our charter restricting the ownership and transfer of our stock are described in “Certain Provisions in the Charter and Bylaws— Transfer Restrictions.” These restrictions, however, may not ensure that we will be able to satisfy these share ownership requirements. If we fail to satisfy these share ownership requirements, we will fail to qualify as a REIT.

If we comply with regulatory rules pursuant to which we are required to send annual letters to holders of our stock requesting information regarding the actual ownership of our stock (as discussed below), and we do not know, or exercising reasonable diligence would not have known, whether we failed to meet requirement (6) above, we will be treated as having met the requirement.

To monitor compliance with the share ownership requirements, we generally are required to maintain records regarding the actual ownership of our shares. To do so, we must demand written statements each year from the record holders of significant percentages of our stock pursuant to which the record holders must disclose the actual owners of the shares (i.e., the persons required to include our dividends in their gross income). We must maintain a list of those persons failing or refusing to comply with this demand as part of our records. We could be subject to monetary penalties if we fail to comply with these record-keeping requirements. If you fail or refuse to comply with the demands, you will be required by Treasury regulations to submit a statement with your tax return disclosing your actual ownership of our shares and other information. In addition, we must satisfy all relevant filing and other administrative requirements established by the IRS to elect and maintain REIT status, use a calendar year for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and comply with the record keeping requirements of the Code and regulations promulgated thereunder.

Ownership of Partnership Interests. In the case of a REIT that is a partner in an entity that is treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, Treasury regulations provide that the REIT is deemed to own its proportionate share of the partnership’s assets and to earn its proportionate share of the partnership’s gross income based on its pro rata share of capital interests in the partnership for purposes of the asset and gross income tests applicable to REITs, as described below. However, solely for purposes of the 10% value test described below (see “—Asset Tests”), the determination of a REIT’s interest in a partnership’s assets will be based on the REIT’s proportionate interest in any securities issued by the partnership, excluding for these purposes, certain excluded securities as described in the Code. In addition, the assets and gross income of the partnership generally are deemed to retain the same character in the hands of the REIT. Thus, our proportionate share of the assets and items of income of partnerships in which we own an equity interest is treated as assets and items of income of our company for purposes of applying the REIT requirements described below. Consequently, to the extent that we directly or indirectly hold a preferred or other equity interest in a partnership, the partnership’s assets and operations may affect our ability to qualify as a REIT, even though we may have no control or only limited influence over the partnership.

Disregarded Subsidiaries. If a REIT owns a corporate subsidiary that is a “qualified REIT subsidiary,” the separate existence of that subsidiary is disregarded for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Generally, a qualified REIT subsidiary is a corporation, other than a taxable REIT subsidiary, all of the stock of which is owned directly or indirectly by the REIT. Other entities that are wholly-owned by us, including single member limited liability companies that have not elected to be taxed as corporations for U.S. federal income tax purposes, are also generally disregarded as separate entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes, including for purposes of the REIT income and asset tests. All assets, liabilities and items of income, deduction and credit of qualified REIT subsidiaries and disregarded subsidiaries will be treated as assets, liabilities and items of income, deduction and credit of the REIT itself. A qualified REIT subsidiary of ours is not subject to U.S. federal corporate income taxation, although it may be subject to state and local taxation in some states.

 

122


Table of Contents

In the event that a qualified REIT subsidiary or a disregarded subsidiary ceases to be wholly owned by us (for example, if any equity interest in the subsidiary is acquired by a person other than us or another disregarded subsidiary of us), the subsidiary’s separate existence would no longer be disregarded for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Instead, it would have multiple owners and would be treated as either a partnership or a taxable corporation. Such an event could, depending on the circumstances, adversely affect our ability to satisfy the various asset and gross income tests applicable to REITs, including the requirement that REITs generally may not own, directly or indirectly, more than 10% of the value or voting power of the outstanding securities of another corporation. See “—Asset Tests” and “—Income Tests.”

Taxable REIT Subsidiaries. A “taxable REIT subsidiary” is an entity that is taxable as a corporation in which we directly or indirectly own stock and that elects with us to be treated as a taxable REIT subsidiary. The separate existence of a taxable REIT subsidiary is not ignored for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Accordingly, a domestic taxable REIT subsidiary generally is subject to U.S. federal corporate income tax on its earnings, which may reduce the cash flow that we and our subsidiaries generate in the aggregate, and may reduce our ability to make distributions to our stockholders. In addition, if a taxable REIT subsidiary owns, directly or indirectly, securities representing 35% or more of the vote or value of a subsidiary corporation, that subsidiary will also be treated as a taxable REIT subsidiary. However, an entity will not qualify as a taxable REIT subsidiary if it directly or indirectly operates or manages a lodging or health care facility or, generally, provides to another person, under a franchise, license or otherwise, rights to any brand name under which any lodging facility or health care facility is operated. We generally may not own more than 10%, as measured by voting power or value, of the securities of a corporation that is not a qualified REIT subsidiary unless we and such corporation elect to treat such corporation as a taxable REIT subsidiary. Overall, no more than 20% of the value of a REIT’s assets may consist of stock or securities of one or more taxable REIT subsidiaries.

Income earned by a taxable REIT subsidiary is not attributable to the REIT. Rather, the stock issued by a taxable REIT subsidiary to us is an asset in our hands, and we treat dividends paid to us from such taxable REIT subsidiary, if any, as income. This income can affect our income and asset tests calculations, as described below. As a result, income that might not be qualifying income for purposes of the income tests applicable to REITs could be earned by a taxable REIT subsidiary without affecting our status as a REIT. For example, we may use taxable REIT subsidiaries to perform services or conduct activities that give rise to certain categories of income such as management fees, or to conduct activities that, if conducted by us directly, would be treated in our hands as prohibited transactions.

Several provisions of the Code regarding the arrangements between a REIT and its taxable REIT subsidiaries ensure that a taxable REIT subsidiary will be subject to an appropriate level of U.S. federal income taxation. For example, a taxable REIT subsidiary is limited in its ability to deduct interest payments made to affiliated REITs. In addition, we would be obligated to pay a 100% penalty tax on some payments that we receive from, or on certain expenses deducted by, a taxable REIT subsidiary if the IRS were to assert successfully that the economic arrangements between us and a taxable REIT subsidiary are not comparable to similar arrangements among unrelated parties.

Deductions are disallowed for business interest expense (even if paid to third parties) in excess of the sum of a taxpayer’s business interest income and 30% of the adjusted taxable income of the business, which is its taxable income computed without regard to business interest income or expense, net operating losses or the pass-through income deduction (and for taxable years before 2022, excludes depreciation and amortization). Under recently enacted legislation, the limitation for taxable years 2019 and 2020 is increased to the sum of a taxpayer’s business interest and 50% of the adjusted taxable income of the business. Such limitations may also impact the amount of U.S. federal income tax paid by any of our taxable REIT subsidiaries.

Income Tests

To qualify as a REIT, we must satisfy two gross income requirements, each of which is applied on an annual basis. First, at least 75% of our gross income, excluding gross income from prohibited transactions and certain

 

123


Table of Contents

hedging and foreign currency transactions, for each taxable year generally must be derived directly or indirectly from:

 

   

rents from real property;

 

   

interest on debt secured by mortgages on real property or on interests in real property;

 

   

dividends or other distributions on, and gain from the sale of, stock in other REITs;

 

   

gain from the sale of real property or mortgage loans;

 

   

abatements and refunds of taxes on real property;

 

   

income and gain derived from foreclosure property (as described below);

 

   

amounts (other than amounts the determination of which depends in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person) received or accrued as consideration for entering into agreements (i) to make loans secured by mortgages on real property or on interests in real property or (ii) to purchase or lease real property (including interests in real property and interests in mortgages on real property); and

 

   

interest or dividend income from investments in stock or debt instruments attributable to the temporary investment of new capital during the one-year period following our receipt of new capital that we raise through equity offerings or public offerings of debt obligations with at least a five-year term.

Second, at least 95% of our gross income, excluding gross income from prohibited transactions and certain hedging transactions, for each taxable year must be derived from sources that qualify for purposes of the 75% test, and from (i) dividends, (ii) interest and (iii) gain from the sale or disposition of stock or securities, which need not have any relation to real property.

If we fail to satisfy one or both of the 75% and 95% gross income tests for any taxable year, we may nevertheless qualify as a REIT for that year if we are entitled to relief under the Code. These relief provisions generally will be available if our failure to meet the tests is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, and we attach a schedule of the sources of our income to our U.S. federal income tax return. It is not possible, however, to state whether in all circumstances we would be entitled to the benefit of these relief provisions. For example, if we fail to satisfy the gross income tests because nonqualifying income that we intentionally recognize exceeds the limits on nonqualifying income, the IRS could conclude that the failure to satisfy the tests was not due to reasonable cause. If these relief provisions are inapplicable to a particular set of circumstances, we will fail to qualify as a REIT. Even if these relief provisions apply, a penalty tax would be imposed based on the amount of nonqualifying income. See “—Taxation of REITs in General.”

Gross income from our sale of property that we hold primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business is excluded from both the numerator and the denominator in both gross income tests. In addition, certain foreign currency gains will be excluded from gross income for purposes of one or both of the gross income tests. We will monitor the amount of our nonqualifying income, and we will manage our portfolio to comply at all times with the gross income tests. The following paragraphs discuss some of the specific applications of the gross income tests to us.

Dividends. We may directly or indirectly receive distributions from taxable REIT subsidiaries or other corporations that are not REITs or qualified REIT subsidiaries. These distributions generally are treated as dividend income to the extent of earnings and profits of the distributing corporation. Our dividend income from stock in any corporation (other than any REIT), including any taxable REIT subsidiary, will be qualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test, but not the 75% gross income test. Dividends that we receive from any REITs in which we own stock and our gain on the sale of the stock in those REITs will be qualifying income for purposes of both gross income tests. However, if a REIT in which we own stock fails to qualify as a REIT in any year, our income from such REIT would be qualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test, but not the 75% gross income test.

 

124


Table of Contents

Interest. The term “interest,” as defined for purposes of both gross income tests, generally excludes any amount that is based in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person; however, it generally includes the following: (i) an amount that is received or accrued based on a fixed percentage or percentages of receipts or sales, and (ii) an amount that is based on the income or profits of a debtor, as long as the debtor derives substantially all of its income from the real property securing the debt by leasing substantially all of its interest in the property, and only to the extent that the amounts received by the debtor would be qualifying “rents from real property” if received directly by a REIT.

Interest on debt secured by mortgages on real property or on interests in real property (including, for this purpose, prepayment penalties, loan assumption fees and late payment charges that are not compensation for services) generally is qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test. However, if the highest principal amount of a loan outstanding during a taxable year exceeds the fair market value of the real property securing the loan as of the date we agreed to originate or acquire the loan, a portion of the interest income from such loan will not be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test but will be qualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test. The portion of the interest income that will not be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test will be equal to the portion of the principal amount of the loan that is not secured by real property—that is, the amount by which the loan exceeds the value of the real estate that is security for the loan.

We expect that the CMBS and RMBS in which we invest generally will be treated either as interests in a grantor trust or as interests in a real estate mortgage investment conduit (“REMIC”) for U.S. federal income tax purposes and that all interest income from such CMBS and RMBS will be qualifying income for the 95% gross income test. In the case of CMBS and RMBS treated as interests in grantor trusts, we would be treated as owning an undivided beneficial ownership interest in the mortgage loans held by the grantor trust. The interest on such mortgage loans would be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test to the extent that the obligation is secured by real property, as discussed above. In the case of CMBS and RMBS treated as interests in a REMIC, income derived from REMIC interests will generally be treated as qualifying income for purposes of the 75% and 95% gross income tests. If less than 95% of the assets of the REMIC are real estate assets, however, then only a proportionate part of our interest in the REMIC and income derived from the interest will qualify for purposes of the 75% gross income test. In addition, some REMIC securitizations include imbedded interest swap or cap contracts or other derivative instruments that potentially could produce nonqualifying income for the holder of the related REMIC securities.

Interest, original issue discount and market discount income that we receive or accrue from mortgage-related assets generally will be qualifying income for purposes of both gross income tests.

Hedging Transactions. We and our subsidiaries may enter into hedging transactions with respect to one or more of our assets or liabilities. Hedging transactions could take a variety of forms, including interest rate swap agreements, interest rate cap agreements, options, futures contracts, forward rate agreements or similar financial instruments. Except to the extent provided by Treasury regulations, any income from a hedging transaction we enter into (i) in the normal course of our business primarily to manage risk of interest rate or price changes or currency fluctuations with respect to borrowings made or to be made, or ordinary obligations incurred or to be incurred, to acquire or carry real estate assets, which is clearly identified as a hedge along with the risk that it hedges within prescribed time periods specified in Treasury regulations, (ii) primarily to manage risk of currency fluctuations with respect to any item of income or gain that would be qualifying income under the 75% or 95% income tests which is clearly identified as a hedge along with the risk that it hedges within prescribed time periods, or (iii) in connection with the effective termination of certain hedging transactions described above will be excluded from gross income for purposes of both the 75% or 95% gross income tests. To the extent that we enter into other types of hedging transactions, the income from those transactions is likely to be treated as nonqualifying income for purposes of both of the 75% and 95% gross income tests. Moreover, to the extent that a position in a hedging transaction has positive value at any particular point in time, it may be treated as an asset that does not qualify for purposes of the asset tests described below. We intend to structure any hedging

 

125


Table of Contents

transactions in a manner that does not jeopardize our qualification as a REIT. No assurance can be given, however, that our hedging activities will not give rise to income or assets that do not qualify for purposes of the REIT tests, or that our hedging will not adversely affect our ability to satisfy the REIT qualification requirements.

We may conduct some or all of our hedging activities through a taxable REIT subsidiary or other corporate entity, the income of which may be subject to U.S. federal income tax, rather than by participating in the arrangements directly or through pass-through subsidiaries.

Fee Income. Any fee income that we earn will generally not be qualifying income for purposes of either gross income test. Any fees earned by a taxable REIT subsidiary will not be included for purposes of the gross income tests.

Rents from Real Property. Rents we receive will qualify as “rents from real property” in satisfying the gross income requirements for a REIT described above only if several conditions described below are met. These conditions relate to the identity of the tenant, the computation of the rent payable, and the nature of the property leased and any services provided in connection with the property. First, the amount of rent must not be based in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person. However, an amount received or accrued generally will not be excluded from rents from real property solely by reason of being based on a fixed percentage or percentages of receipts or sales. Second, rents we receive from a “related party tenant” will not qualify as rents from real property in satisfying the gross income tests unless the tenant is a taxable REIT subsidiary, at least 90% of the property is leased to unrelated tenants, the rent paid by the taxable REIT subsidiary is substantially comparable to the rent paid by the unrelated tenants for comparable space and the rent is not attributable to an increase in rent due to a modification of a lease with a “controlled taxable REIT subsidiary” (i.e., a taxable REIT subsidiary in which we own directly or indirectly more than 50% of the voting power or value of the stock). A tenant is a related party tenant if the REIT, or an actual or constructive owner of 10% or more of the REIT, actually or constructively owns 10% or more of the tenant. Whether rents paid by a taxable REIT subsidiary are substantially comparable to rents paid by other tenants is determined at the time the lease with the taxable REIT subsidiary is entered into, extended, or modified, if such modification increases the rents due under such lease. Third, if rent attributable to personal property leased in connection with a lease of real property is greater than 15% of the total rent received under the lease, then the portion of rent attributable to the personal property will not qualify as rents from real property. Finally, for rents to qualify as “rents from real property” for purposes of the gross income tests, we are only allowed to provide services that are both usually or “customarily rendered” in connection with the rental of real property and not otherwise considered “rendered to the occupant” of the property. Examples of these permitted services include the provision of light, heat, or other utilities, trash removal and general maintenance of common areas. We may, however, render services to our tenants through an “independent contractor” who is adequately compensated and from whom we do not derive revenue if certain requirements are satisfied. We may also own an interest in a taxable REIT subsidiary which provides non-customary services to tenants without tainting our rental income from the related properties.

Even if a REIT furnishes or renders services that are non-customary with respect to a property, if the greater of (i) the amounts received or accrued, directly or indirectly, or deemed received by the REIT with respect to such services, or (ii) 150% of our direct cost in furnishing or rendering the services during a taxable year is not more than 1% of all amounts received or accrued, directly or indirectly, by the REIT with respect to the property during the same taxable year, then only the amounts with respect to such non-customary services are not treated as rent for purposes of the REIT gross income tests.

We intend to cause any services that are not usually or “customarily rendered,” or that are for the benefit of a particular tenant in connection with the rental of real property, to be provided through a taxable REIT subsidiary or through an “independent contractor” who is adequately compensated and from which we do not derive revenue, and which meets certain other requirements. However, no assurance can be given that the IRS will concur with our determination as to whether a particular service is usual or customary, or otherwise in this regard.

 

126


Table of Contents

Prohibited Transactions Tax. A REIT will incur a 100% tax on the net income derived from any sale or other disposition of property, other than foreclosure property, that the REIT holds primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business. Whether a REIT holds an asset primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business depends, however, on the facts and circumstances in effect from time to time, including those related to a particular asset. Nevertheless, we intend to conduct our operations so that no asset that we own (or are treated as owning) will be treated as, or as having been, held for sale to customers, and that a sale of any such asset will not be treated as having been in the ordinary course of our business. We cannot assure you that we will comply with certain safe harbor provisions or that we will avoid owning property that may be characterized as property that we hold primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business. The 100% tax will not apply to gains from the sale of property that is held through a taxable REIT subsidiary or other taxable corporation, although such income will be subject to tax in the hands of such corporation at regular corporate income tax rates. We intend to structure our activities to avoid prohibited transaction characterization.

Foreclosure Property. Foreclosure property is any real property, including interests in real property, and any personal property incident to such real property:

 

   

that is acquired by a REIT as the result of the REIT having bid on such property at foreclosure, or having otherwise reduced such property to ownership or possession by agreement or process of law, after there was a default or default was imminent on a lease of such property or on indebtedness that such property secured;

 

   

for which the related loan was acquired by the REIT at a time when the default was not imminent or anticipated; and

 

   

for which the REIT makes a proper election to treat the property as foreclosure property.

However, a REIT will not be considered to have foreclosed on a property where the REIT takes control of the property as a mortgagee-in-possession and cannot receive any profit or sustain any loss except as a creditor of the mortgagor.

Property generally ceases to be foreclosure property at the end of the third taxable year following the taxable year in which the REIT acquired the property, or longer if an extension is granted by the Secretary of the Treasury. This grace period terminates and foreclosure property ceases to be foreclosure property on the first day:

 

   

on which a lease is entered into for the property that, by its terms, will give rise to income that does not qualify for purposes of the 75% gross income test, or any amount is received or accrued, directly or indirectly, pursuant to a lease entered into on or after such day that will give rise to income that does not qualify for purposes of the 75% gross income test;

 

   

on which any construction takes place on the property, other than completion of a building or any other improvement, if more than 10% of the construction was completed before default became imminent; or

 

   

which is more than 90 days after the day on which the REIT acquired the property and the property is used in a trade or business that is conducted by the REIT, other than through an independent contractor from whom the REIT itself does not derive or receive any income.

We will be subject to tax at the maximum corporate rate on any income from foreclosure property, including gain from the disposition of the foreclosure property, other than income that otherwise would be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, less expenses directly connected with the production of that income. However, net income from foreclosure property, including gain from the sale of foreclosure property held for sale in the ordinary course of a trade or business, will qualify for purposes of the 75% and 95% gross income tests. Any gain from the sale of property for which a foreclosure property election has been made will not be subject to the 100% tax on gains from prohibited transactions described above, even if the property would otherwise constitute inventory or dealer property.

 

127


Table of Contents

Phantom Income. Due to the nature of the assets in which we will invest, we may be required to recognize taxable income from certain assets in advance of our receipt of cash flow from or proceeds from disposition of such assets, and may be required to report taxable income that exceeds the economic income ultimately realized on such assets.

We may acquire debt instruments in the secondary market for less than their face amount. The amount of such discount generally will be treated as “market discount” for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Accrued market discount is reported as income when, and to the extent that, any payment of principal of the debt instrument is made, unless we elect to include accrued market discount in income as it accrues. Principal payments on certain debt instruments may be made monthly, and consequently accrued market discount may have to be included in income each month as if the debt instrument were assured of ultimately being collected in full. If we collect less on the debt instrument than our purchase price plus the market discount we had previously reported as income, we may not be able to benefit from any offsetting loss deductions.

The terms of the debt instruments that we hold may be modified under certain circumstances. These modifications may be considered “significant modifications” for U.S. federal income tax purposes that give rise to a deemed debt-for-debt exchange upon which we may recognize taxable income or gain without a corresponding receipt of cash.

Some of the debt securities that we acquire may have been issued with original issue discount. In general, we will be required to accrue non-de minimis original issue discount based on the constant yield to maturity of such debt securities, and to treat it as taxable income in accordance with applicable U.S. federal income tax rules even though such yield may exceed cash payments, if any, received on such debt instrument.

In addition, in the event that any debt instruments or debt securities acquired by us are delinquent as to mandatory principal and interest payments, or in the event payments with respect to a particular debt instrument are not made when due, we may nonetheless be required to continue to recognize the unpaid interest as taxable income. Similarly, we may be required to accrue interest income with respect to subordinated mortgage-backed securities at the stated rate regardless of whether corresponding cash payments are received.

Finally, we may be required under the terms of indebtedness that we incur to use cash received from interest payments to make principal payments on that indebtedness, with the effect of recognizing income but not having a corresponding amount of cash available for distribution to our stockholders.

As a result of each of these potential timing differences between income recognition or expense deduction and cash receipts or disbursements, there is a risk that we may have taxable income in excess of cash available for distribution. In that event, we may need to borrow funds or take other action to satisfy the REIT distribution requirements for the taxable year in which this “phantom income” is recognized. See “—Annual Distribution Requirements Applicable to REITs.”

Asset Tests

At the close of each quarter of our taxable year, we must satisfy the following tests relating to the nature of our assets:

 

   

At least 75% of the value of our total assets must be represented by the following:

 

   

interests in real property, including leaseholds and options to acquire real property and leaseholds;

 

   

interests in mortgages on real property;

 

   

stock in other REITs and debt instruments issued by publicly offered REITs;

 

   

cash and cash items (including certain receivables);

 

128


Table of Contents
   

government securities;

 

   

investments in stock or debt instruments attributable to the temporary investment of new capital during the one-year period following our receipt of new capital that we raise through equity offerings or public offerings of debt obligations with at least a five-year term; and

 

   

regular or residual interests in a REMIC. However, if less than 95% of the assets of a REMIC consists of assets that are qualifying real estate-related assets under U.S. federal income tax laws, determined as if we held such assets directly, we will be treated as holding directly our proportionate share of the assets of such REMIC.

 

   

Not more than 25% of our total assets may be represented by securities, other than those in the 75% asset class described above.

 

   

Except for securities in taxable REIT subsidiaries and the securities in the 75% asset class described in the first bullet point above, the value of any one issuer’s securities owned by us may not exceed 5% of the value of our total assets.

 

   

Except for securities in taxable REIT subsidiaries and the securities in the 75% asset class described in the first bullet point above, we may not own more than 10% of any one issuer’s outstanding voting securities.

 

   

Except for securities of taxable REIT subsidiaries and the securities in the 75% asset class described in the first bullet point above, we may not own more than 10% of the total value of the outstanding securities of any one issuer, other than securities that qualify for the “straight debt” exception or other exceptions discussed below.

 

   

Not more than 20% of the value of our total assets may be represented by the securities of one or more taxable REIT subsidiaries.

 

   

Not more than 25% of the value of our total assets may be represented by nonqualified publicly offered REIT debt instruments.

Notwithstanding the general rule, as noted above, that for purposes of the REIT income and asset tests we are treated as owning our proportionate share of the underlying assets of a subsidiary partnership, if we hold indebtedness issued by a partnership, the indebtedness will be subject to, and may cause a violation of, the asset tests unless the indebtedness is a qualifying mortgage asset or other conditions are met. Similarly, although stock of another REIT is a qualifying asset for purposes of the REIT asset tests, any non-mortgage debt that is issued by another REIT may not so qualify (although such debt will not be treated as “securities” for purposes of the 10% value test, as explained below).

Securities, for purposes of the asset tests, may include debt we hold from other issuers. However, debt we hold in an issuer that does not qualify for purposes of the 75% asset test will not be taken into account for purposes of the 10% value test if the debt securities meet the straight debt safe harbor. Subject to certain exceptions, debt will meet the “straight debt” safe harbor if the debt is a written unconditional promise to pay on demand or on a specified date a sum certain in money, the debt is not convertible, directly or indirectly, into stock, and the interest rate and the interest payment dates of the debt are not contingent on the profits of any person, the borrower’s discretion or similar factors. In the case of an issuer that is a corporation or a partnership, securities that otherwise would be considered straight debt will not be so considered if we, and any of our “controlled taxable REIT subsidiaries” as defined in the Code, hold any securities of the corporate or partnership issuer that (a) are not straight debt or other excluded securities (prior to the application of this rule), and (b) have an aggregate value greater than 1% of the issuer’s outstanding securities (including, in the case of a partnership issuer, our interest as a partner in the partnership).

In addition to straight debt, the Code provides that certain other securities will not violate the 10% asset test. Such securities include (i) any loan made to an individual or an estate, (ii) certain rental agreements pursuant to

 

129


Table of Contents

which one or more payments are to be made in subsequent years (other than agreements between a REIT and certain persons related to the REIT under attribution rules), (iii) any obligation to pay rents from real property, (iv) securities issued by governmental entities that are not dependent in whole or in part on the profits of (or payments made by) a non-governmental entity, (v) any security (including debt securities) issued by another REIT and (vi) any debt instrument issued by a partnership if the partnership’s income is of such a nature that the partnership would satisfy the 75% gross income test described above under “—Income Tests.” In applying the 10% asset test, a debt security issued by a partnership (other than straight debt or any other excluded security) is not taken into account to the extent, if any, of the REIT’s proportionate interest as a partner in that partnership.

Any stock that we hold or acquire in other REITs will be a qualifying asset for purposes of the 75% asset test. However, if a REIT in which we own stock fails to qualify as a REIT in any year, the stock in such REIT will not be a qualifying asset for purposes of the 75% asset test. Instead, we would be subject to the second, third, fourth, and fifth asset tests described above with respect to our investment in such a disqualified REIT. We will also be subject to those assets tests with respect to our investments in any non-REIT C corporations for which we do not make a taxable REIT subsidiary election.

We will monitor the status of our assets for purposes of the various asset tests and will seek to manage our portfolio to comply at all times with such tests. There can be no assurances, however, that we will be successful in this effort. Independent appraisals may not have been obtained to support our conclusions as to the value of our total assets or the value of any particular security or securities. Moreover, the values of some assets may not be susceptible to a precise determination, and values are subject to change in the future. Furthermore, the proper classification of an instrument as debt or equity for U.S. federal income tax purposes may be uncertain in some circumstances, which could affect the application of the REIT asset requirements. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not contend that our interests in our subsidiaries or in the securities of other issuers will not cause a violation of the REIT asset tests.

However, certain relief provisions are available to allow REITs to satisfy the asset requirements or to maintain REIT qualification notwithstanding certain violations of the asset and other requirements. For example, if we failed to satisfy the asset tests at the end of a calendar quarter, such a failure would not cause us to lose our REIT qualification if (i) we satisfied the asset tests at the close of the preceding calendar quarter and (ii) the discrepancy between the value of our assets and the asset requirements was not wholly or partly caused by an acquisition of nonqualifying assets, but instead arose from changes in the relative market values of our assets. If the condition described in (ii) were not satisfied, we could nevertheless avoid disqualification by eliminating any discrepancy within 30 days after the close of the calendar quarter in which it arose or by making use of the relief provisions described above.

In the case of de minimis violations of the 10% and 5% asset tests, a REIT may maintain its qualification despite a violation of such requirements if (i) the value of the assets causing the violation does not exceed the lesser of 1% of the REIT’s total assets and $10,000,000 and (ii) the REIT either disposes of the assets causing the failure within six months after the last day of the quarter in which it identifies the failure, or the relevant tests are otherwise satisfied within that time frame.

Even if we did not qualify for the foregoing relief provisions, one additional provision allows a REIT which fails one or more of the asset requirements for a particular tax quarter to nevertheless maintain its REIT qualification if (i) the REIT provides the IRS with a description of each asset causing the failure, (ii) the failure is due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect, (iii) the REIT pays a tax equal to the greater of (a) $50,000 per failure and (b) the product of the net income generated by the assets that caused the failure multiplied by the highest applicable corporate tax rate and (iv) the REIT either disposes of the assets causing the failure within six months after the last day of the quarter in which it identifies the failure, or otherwise satisfies the relevant asset tests within that time frame.

 

130


Table of Contents

Annual Distribution Requirements Applicable to REITs

To qualify for taxation as a REIT, we generally must distribute dividends (other than capital gain dividends) to our stockholders in an amount at least equal to:

 

   

the sum of (i) 90% of our REIT taxable income, computed without regard to the dividends paid deduction and our net capital gain and (ii) 90% of our net income after tax, if any, from foreclosure property; minus

 

   

the excess of the sum of specified items of non-cash income (including original issue discount on our mortgage loans) over 5% of our REIT taxable income, computed without regard to the dividends paid deduction and our net capital gain.

Distributions generally must be made during the taxable year to which they relate. Distributions may be made in the following year in two circumstances. First, if we declare a dividend in October, November or December of any year with a record date in one of these months and pay the dividend on or before January 31 of the following year, we will be treated as having paid the dividend on December 31 of the year in which the dividend was declared. Second, distributions may be made in the following year if the dividends are declared before we timely file our tax return for the year and if made before the first regular dividend payment made after such declaration. These distributions are taxable to our stockholders in the year in which paid, even though the distributions relate to our prior taxable year for purposes of the 90% distribution requirement. To the extent that we do not distribute all of our net capital gain or we distribute at least 90%, but less than 100% of our REIT taxable income, as adjusted, we will be subject to tax on the undistributed amount at regular corporate tax rates.

To the extent that in the future we may have available net operating losses carried forward from prior tax years, such losses may reduce the amount of distributions that we must make in order to comply with the REIT distribution requirements. Such losses, however, will generally not affect the tax treatment to our stockholders of any distributions that are actually made.

If we fail to distribute during a calendar year (or, in the case of distributions with declaration and record dates falling in the last three months of the calendar year, by the end of January following such calendar year) at least the sum of (i) 85% of our ordinary income for such year, (ii) 95% of our capital gain net income for such year and (iii) any undistributed taxable income from prior years, we will be subject to a 4% excise tax on the excess of such required distribution over the sum of (x) the amounts actually distributed (taking into account excess distributions from prior years) and (y) the amounts of income retained on which we have paid corporate income tax.

Although several types of non-cash income are excluded in determining the annual distribution requirement, we will incur corporate income tax and the 4% nondeductible excise tax with respect to those non-cash income items if we do not distribute those items on a current basis. As a result of the foregoing, we may not have sufficient cash to distribute all of our taxable income and thereby avoid corporate income tax and the excise tax imposed on certain undistributed income. In such a situation, we may need to borrow funds or issue additional stock.

We may elect to retain rather than distribute all or a portion of our net capital gains and pay the tax on the gains. In that case, we may elect to have our stockholders include their proportionate share of the undistributed net capital gains in income as long-term capital gains and receive a credit for their share of the tax paid by us. Our stockholders would then increase the adjusted basis of their stock by the difference between (i) the amounts of capital gain dividends that we designated and that they include in their taxable income, minus (ii) the tax that we paid on their behalf with respect to that income. For purposes of the 4% excise tax described above, any retained amounts for which we elect this treatment would be treated as having been distributed.

We intend to make timely distributions sufficient to satisfy the distribution requirements. However, it is possible that, from time to time, we may not have sufficient cash or other liquid assets to meet the distribution

 

131


Table of Contents

requirements due to timing differences between the actual receipt of income and actual payment of deductible expenses, and the inclusion of items of income and deduction of expenses by us for U.S. federal income tax purposes. In addition, we may decide to retain our cash, rather than distribute it, in order to repay debt, acquire assets or for other reasons. In the event that such timing differences occur, and in other circumstances, it may be necessary in order to satisfy the distribution requirements to arrange for short-term, or possibly long-term, borrowings, or to pay the dividends in the form of other property (including, for example, shares of our own stock).

If our taxable income for a particular year is subsequently determined to have been understated, under some circumstances we may be able to rectify a failure to meet the distribution requirement for a year by paying deficiency dividends to stockholders in a later year, which may be included in our deduction for dividends paid for the earlier year. Thus, we may be able to avoid being taxed on amounts distributed as deficiency dividends. However, we will be required to pay interest based upon the amount of any deduction taken for deficiency dividends.

Like-Kind Exchanges

We may dispose of properties in transactions intended to qualify as like-kind exchanges under the Code. Such like-kind exchanges are intended to result in the deferral of gain for U.S. federal income tax purposes. The failure of any such transaction to qualify as a like-kind exchange could require us to pay U.S. federal income tax, possibly including the 100% prohibited transaction tax, depending on the facts and circumstances surrounding the particular transaction.

Penalty Tax

Any redetermined rents, redetermined deductions, excess interest or redetermined taxable REIT subsidiary service income we generate will be subject to a 100% penalty tax. In general, redetermined rents are rents from real property that are overstated as a result of any services furnished to any of our tenants by a taxable REIT subsidiary, and redetermined deductions and excess interest represent any amounts that are deducted by a taxable REIT subsidiary for amounts paid to us that are in excess of the amounts that would have been deducted based on arm’s length negotiations. Rents that we receive will not constitute redetermined rents if they qualify for certain safe harbor provisions contained in the Code. Redetermined taxable REIT subsidiary service income is income earned by a taxable REIT subsidiary that is attributable to services provided to us, or on our behalf to any of our tenants, that is less than the amounts that would have been charged based upon arms’ length negotiations.

Record Keeping Requirements

We are required to comply with applicable record keeping requirements. Failure to comply could result in monetary fines. For example, we must request on an annual basis information from our stockholders designed to disclose the actual ownership of our outstanding Common Stock.

Failure to Qualify

If we fail to satisfy one or more requirements of REIT qualification, other than the income tests or asset requirements, then we may still retain REIT qualification if the failure is due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect, and we pay a penalty of $50,000 for each failure.

If we fail to qualify for taxation as a REIT in any taxable year and the relief provisions do not apply, we will be subject to tax on our taxable income as a corporation. This would significantly reduce both our cash available for distribution to our stockholders and our earnings. If we fail to qualify as a REIT, we will not be required to make any distributions to stockholders and any distributions that are made will not be deductible by us. Moreover, all distributions to stockholders would be taxable as dividends to the extent of our current and

 

132


Table of Contents

accumulated earnings and profits, whether or not attributable to capital gains of ours. Furthermore, subject to certain limitations in the Code, corporate distributees may be eligible for the dividends received deduction with respect to those distributions, and individual, trust and estate distributees may be eligible for reduced U.S. federal income tax rates on such dividends. Unless we are entitled to relief under specific statutory provisions, we also will be disqualified from taxation as a REIT for the four taxable years following the year during which qualification was lost.

Tax Aspects of Our Operating Partnership and any Subsidiary Partnerships

General. All or substantially all of our property investments will be held through our operating partnership. In addition, our operating partnership may hold certain investments indirectly through subsidiary partnerships and limited liability companies which are treated as partnerships or disregarded entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes. In general, entities that are treated as partnerships or disregarded entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes are “pass-through” entities which are not required to pay U.S. federal income tax. Rather, partners or members of such entities are allocated their shares of the items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of the partnership or limited liability company, and are potentially required to pay tax on this income, without regard to whether they receive a distribution from the partnership or limited liability company. A partner in such entities that is a REIT will include in its income its share of these partnership and limited liability company items for purposes of the various gross income tests, the computation of its REIT taxable income, and the REIT distribution requirements. Pursuant to these rules, for purposes of the asset tests, we will include our pro rata share of assets held by our operating partnership, including our share of its subsidiary partnerships and limited liability companies, based on its capital interest in each such entity.

Entity Classification. Our interests in our operating partnership and the subsidiary partnerships and limited liability companies involve special tax considerations, including the possibility that the IRS might challenge the status of these entities as partnerships (or disregarded entities), as opposed to associations taxable as corporations for U.S. federal income tax purposes. For example, an entity that would otherwise be classified as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes may nonetheless be taxable as a corporation if it is a “publicly traded partnership” and certain other requirements are met. A partnership or limited liability company would be treated as a publicly traded partnership if its interests are traded on an established securities market or are readily tradable on a secondary market or a substantial equivalent thereof, within the meaning of applicable Treasury regulations. If our operating partnership or a subsidiary partnership or limited liability company were treated as an association rather than as a partnership, it would be taxable as a corporation and would be required to pay an entity-level tax on its income. In this situation, the character of our assets and items of gross income would change and could prevent us from qualifying as a REIT. See “—Failure to Qualify” for a discussion of the effects of our failure to meet the REIT asset and income tests. In addition, a change in the tax status of our operating partnership, a subsidiary partnership or limited liability company might be treated as a taxable event. If so, we might incur a tax liability without any related cash distributions. We do not anticipate that our operating partnership or any subsidiary partnership or limited liability company will be treated as a publicly traded partnership which is taxable as a corporation.

Legislation was enacted that significantly changes the rules for U.S. federal income tax audits of partnerships, such as our operating partnership or any subsidiary partnerships or limited liability companies treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Such audits will continue to be conducted at the entity level unless such entity qualifies for and affirmatively elects an alternative procedure, any adjustments to the amount of tax due (including interest and penalties) will be payable by the entity itself. Under an alternative procedure, if elected, a partnership would issue information returns to persons who were partners in the audited year, who would then be required to take such adjustments into account in calculating their own tax liability, and the partnership would not be liable for the adjustments. If any of the operating partnership or our subsidiary partnerships or limited liability companies is able to and in fact elects the alternative procedure for a given adjustment, the amount of taxes for which such persons will be liable will be increased by any applicable penalties and a special interest charge. There can be no assurance that any such entities will make such an election for any given adjustment. Many issues and the overall effect of this new legislation on us are uncertain.

 

133


Table of Contents

Allocations of Income, Gain, Loss and Deduction. A partnership agreement (or, in the case of a limited liability company treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, the limited liability company agreement) will generally determine the allocation of partnership income and loss among partners. Generally, Section 704(b) of the Code and the Treasury regulations thereunder require that partnership allocations respect the economic arrangement of the partners. If an allocation of partnership income or loss does not comply with the requirements of Section 704(b) of the Code and the Treasury regulations thereunder, the item subject to the allocation will be reallocated in accordance with the partners’ interests in the partnership. This reallocation will be determined by taking into account all of the facts and circumstances relating to the economic arrangement of the partners with respect to such item. Our operating partnership’s allocations of taxable income and loss are intended to comply with the requirements of Section 704(b) of the Code and the Treasury regulations thereunder.

Tax Allocations with Respect to the Properties. Under Section 704(c) of the Code, income, gain, loss and deduction attributable to appreciated or depreciated property that is contributed to a partnership (including a limited liability company treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes) in exchange for an interest in the partnership must be allocated in a manner so that the contributing partner is charged with the unrealized gain, or benefits from the unrealized loss, associated with the property at the time of the contribution, as adjusted from time to time. The amount of the unrealized gain or unrealized loss generally is equal to the difference between the fair market value or book value and the adjusted tax basis of the contributed property at the time of contribution (this difference is referred to as a book-tax difference), as adjusted from time to time. These allocations are solely for U.S. federal income tax purposes and do not affect the book capital accounts or other economic or legal arrangements among the partners.

Appreciated property may be contributed to our operating partnership in exchange for operating partnership units in connection with future acquisitions. The partnership agreement requires that allocations be made in a manner consistent with Section 704(c) of the Code. Treasury regulations issued under Section 704(c) of the Code provide partnerships with a choice of several methods of accounting for book-tax differences. Any book-tax differences will be accounted for using any method approved under Section 704(c) of the Code and the applicable Treasury regulations as chosen by the general partner under the partnership agreement. Any property acquired by our operating partnership in a taxable transaction will initially have a tax basis equal to its fair market value, and Section 704(c) of the Code will not apply.

Taxation of U.S. Holders of Our Common Stock

U.S. Holder. As used in the remainder of this discussion, the term “U.S. holder” means a beneficial owner of our Common Stock that is for U.S. federal income tax purposes:

 

   

a citizen or resident of the United States;

 

   

a corporation (or an entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes) created or organized in or under the laws of the United States, any State thereof or the District of Columbia;

 

   

an estate the income of which is subject to U.S. federal income taxation regardless of its source; or

 

   

a trust if it (i) is subject to the primary supervision of a court within the United States and one or more U.S. persons have the authority to control all substantial decisions of the trust or (ii) has a valid election in effect under applicable Treasury regulations to be treated as a U.S. person.

If a partnership (or an entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes) holds our Common Stock, the tax treatment of a partner will generally depend upon the status of the partner and the activities of the partnership. If you are a partner of a partnership holding Common Stock, you should consult your advisors. A “non-U.S. holder” is a beneficial owner of our Common Stock that is neither a U.S. holder nor a partnership (or an entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes).

Distributions Generally. As long as we qualify as a REIT, distributions made by us to our taxable U.S. holders out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits that are not designated as capital gain dividends or

 

134


Table of Contents

“qualified dividend income” will be taken into account by them as ordinary income taxable at ordinary income tax rates and will not qualify for the reduced capital gains rates that currently generally apply to distributions by non-REIT C corporations to certain non-corporate U.S. holders. In determining the extent to which a distribution constitutes a dividend for tax purposes, our earnings and profits will be allocated first to distributions with respect to our preferred stock, if any, and then to our Common Stock. Corporate stockholders will not be eligible for the dividends received deduction with respect to these distributions. Under the Tax Reform Bill, U.S. holders that are individuals, trusts and estates generally may deduct 20% of “qualified REIT dividends” (i.e., REIT dividends other than capital gain dividends and portions of REIT dividends designated as qualified dividend income eligible for capital gain tax rates). The overall deduction is limited to 20% of the sum of the taxpayer’s taxable income (less net capital gain) and certain cooperative dividends, subject to further limitations based on taxable income. The deduction, if allowed in full, equates to a maximum effective U.S. federal income tax rate on ordinary REIT dividends of 29.6%. As with the other individual income tax changes, the deduction provisions are effective beginning in 2018. Without further legislation, the deduction would sunset after 2025.

Distributions in excess of both current and accumulated earnings and profits will not be taxable to a U.S. holder to the extent that the distributions do not exceed the adjusted basis of the holder’s stock. Rather, such distributions will reduce the adjusted basis of the stock. To the extent that distributions exceed the adjusted basis of a U.S. holder’s stock, the U.S. holder generally must include such distributions in income as long-term capital gain if the shares have been held for more than one year, or short-term capital gain if the shares have been held for one year or less.

Distributions will generally be taxable, if at all, in the year of the distribution. However, if we declare a dividend in October, November or December of any year with a record date in one of these months and pay the dividend on or before January 31 of the following year, we will be treated as having paid the dividend, and the stockholder will be treated as having received the dividend, on December 31 of the year in which the dividend was declared.

We will be treated as having sufficient earnings and profits to treat as a dividend any distribution we pay up to the amount required to be distributed in order to avoid imposition of the 4% excise tax discussed above. Moreover, any “deficiency dividend” will be treated as an ordinary or capital gain dividend, as the case may be, regardless of our earnings and profits. As a result, U.S. holders may be required to treat certain distributions that would otherwise result in a tax-free return of capital as taxable dividends.

Capital Gain Dividends. We may elect to designate distributions of our net capital gain as “capital gain dividends” to the extent that such distributions do not exceed our actual net capital gain for the taxable year. Capital gain dividends are taxed to U.S. holders of our stock as gain from the sale or exchange of a capital asset held for more than one year. This tax treatment applies regardless of the period during which the stockholders have held their stock. If we designate any portion of a dividend as a capital gain dividend, the amount that will be taxable to the stockholder as capital gain will be indicated to U.S. holders on IRS Form 1099-DIV. Corporate stockholders, however, may be required to treat up to 20% of capital gain dividends as ordinary income. Capital gain dividends are not eligible for the dividends received deduction for corporations.

Instead of paying capital gain dividends, we may elect to require stockholders to include our undistributed net capital gains in their income. If we make such an election, U.S. holders (i) will include in their income as long-term capital gains their proportionate share of such undistributed capital gains and (ii) will be deemed to have paid their proportionate share of the tax paid by us on such undistributed capital gains and thereby receive a credit or refund to the extent that the tax paid by us exceeds the U.S. holder’s tax liability on the undistributed capital gain. A U.S. holder of our stock will increase the basis in its stock by the difference between the amount of capital gain included in its income and the amount of tax it is deemed to have paid. A U.S. holder that is a corporation will appropriately adjust its earnings and profits for the retained capital gain in accordance with Treasury regulations to be prescribed by the IRS. Our earnings and profits will be adjusted appropriately.

 

135


Table of Contents

We must classify portions of our designated capital gain dividend into the following categories:

 

   

a 20% gain distribution, which would be taxable to non-corporate U.S. holders of our stock at a federal rate of up to 20%; or

 

   

an unrecaptured Section 1250 gain distribution, which would be taxable to non-corporate U.S. holders of our stock at a maximum rate of 25%.

We must determine the maximum amounts that we may designate as 20% and 25% capital gain dividends by performing the computation required by the Code as if the REIT were an individual whose ordinary income were subject to a marginal tax rate of at least 28%. The IRS currently requires that distributions made to different classes of stock be comprised proportionately of dividends of a particular type.

Passive Activity Loss and Investment Interest Limitation. Distributions that we make and gains arising from the disposition of our Common Stock by a U.S. holder will not be treated as passive activity income, and therefore U.S. holders will not be able to apply any “passive activity losses” against such income. Dividends paid by us, to the extent they do not constitute a return of capital, will generally be treated as investment income for purposes of the investment income limitation on the deduction of the investment interest.

Qualified Dividend Income. Distributions that are treated as dividends may be taxed at capital gains rates, rather than ordinary income rates, if they are distributed to an individual, trust or estate, are properly designated by us as qualified dividend income and certain other requirements are satisfied. Dividends are eligible to be designated by us as qualified dividend income up to an amount equal to the sum of the qualified dividend income received by us during the year of the distribution from other C corporations such as taxable REIT subsidiaries, our “undistributed” REIT taxable income from the immediately preceding year, and any income attributable to the sale of a built-in gain asset from the immediately preceding year (reduced by any U.S. federal income taxes that we paid with respect to such REIT taxable income and built-in gain).

Dividends that we receive will be treated as qualified dividend income to us if certain criteria are met. The dividends must be received from a domestic corporation (other than a REIT or a regulated investment company) or a qualifying foreign corporation. A foreign corporation generally will be a qualifying foreign corporation if it is incorporated in a possession of the United States, the corporation is eligible for benefits of an income tax treaty with the United States which the Secretary of Treasury determines is satisfactory, or the stock on which the dividend is paid is readily tradable on an established securities market in the United States. However, if a foreign corporation is a passive foreign investment company, then it will not be treated as a qualifying foreign corporation, and the dividends we receive from such an entity would not constitute qualified dividend income.

Furthermore, certain exceptions and special rules apply to determine whether dividends may be treated as qualified dividend income to us. These rules include certain holding requirements that we would have to satisfy with respect to the stock on which the dividend is paid, and special rules with regard to dividends received from regulated investment companies and other REITs.

In addition, even if we designate certain dividends as qualified dividend income to our stockholders, the stockholder will have to meet certain other requirements for the dividend to qualify for taxation at capital gains rates. For example, the stockholder will only be eligible to treat the dividend as qualifying dividend income if the stockholder is taxed at individual rates and meets certain holding requirements. In general, in order to treat a particular dividend as qualified dividend income, a stockholder will be required to hold our stock for more than 60 days during the 121-day period beginning on the date which is 60 days before the date on which the stock becomes ex-dividend.

Other Tax Considerations. To the extent that we have available net operating losses and capital losses carried forward from prior tax years, such losses may reduce the amount of distributions that we must make in order to comply with the REIT distribution requirements. Such losses, however, are not passed through to

 

136


Table of Contents

stockholders and do not offset income of stockholders from other sources, nor would such losses affect the character of any distributions that we make, which are generally subject to tax in the hands of stockholders to the extent that we have current or accumulated earnings and profits.

Sales of Our Common Stock. Upon any taxable sale or other disposition of our Common Stock (except pursuant to a repurchase by us, as described below), a U.S. holder of our Common Stock will recognize gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes in an amount equal to the difference between:

 

   

the amount of cash and the fair market value of any property received on such disposition; and

 

   

the U.S. holder’s adjusted basis in such Common Stock for tax purposes.

Gain or loss will be capital gain or loss if the Common Stock has been held by the U.S. holder as a capital asset. The applicable tax rate will depend on the holder’s holding period in the asset (generally, if an asset has been held for more than one year, it will produce long-term capital gain) and the holder’s tax bracket.

In general, any loss upon a sale or exchange of our Common Stock by a U.S. holder who has held such stock for six months or less (after applying certain holding period rules) will be treated as a long-term capital loss, but only to the extent of distributions from us received by such U.S. holder that are required to be treated by such U.S. holder as long-term capital gains.

Repurchases of Our Common Stock. A repurchase of our Common Stock will be treated as a distribution in exchange for the repurchased shares and taxed in the same manner as any other taxable sale or other disposition of our Common Stock discussed above, provided that the repurchase satisfies one of the tests enabling the repurchase to be treated as a sale or exchange. A repurchase will generally be treated as a sale or exchange if it (i) results in a complete termination of the holder’s interest in our Common Stock, (ii) results in a substantially disproportionate redemption with respect to the holder, or (iii) is not essentially equivalent to a dividend with respect to the holder. In determining whether any of these tests has been met, Common Stock actually owned, as well as Common Stock considered to be owned by the holder by reason of certain constructive ownership rules set forth in Section 318 of the Code, generally must be taken into account. The sale of Common Stock pursuant to a repurchase generally will result in a “substantially disproportionate” redemption with respect to a holder if the percentage of our then outstanding voting stock owned by the holder immediately after the sale is less than 80% of the percentage of our voting stock owned by the holder determined immediately before the sale. The sale of Common Stock pursuant to a repurchase generally will be treated as not “essentially equivalent to a dividend” with respect to a holder if the reduction in the holder’s proportionate interest in our stock as a result of our repurchase constitutes a “meaningful reduction” of such holder’s interest.

A repurchase that does not qualify as an exchange under such tests will constitute a dividend equivalent repurchase that is treated as a taxable distribution and taxed in the same manner as regular distributions, as described above under “—Distributions Generally.” In addition, although guidance is sparse, the IRS could take the position that a holder who does not participate in any repurchase treated as a dividend should be treated as receiving a constructive distribution of our Common Stock taxable as a dividend in the amount of their increased percentage ownership of our Common Stock as a result of the repurchase, even though the holder did not actually receive cash or other property as a result of the repurchase.

Medicare Tax. Certain U.S. holders, including individuals and estates and trusts, are subject to an additional 3.8% Medicare tax on all or a portion of their “net investment income,” which includes net gain from a sale or exchange of Common Stock and income from dividends paid on Common Stock. U.S. holders are urged to consult their own tax advisors regarding the Medicare tax.

Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of Our Common Stock

The rules governing the U.S. federal income taxation of non-U.S. holders are complex. This section is only a summary of such rules. We urge non-U.S. holders to consult their own tax advisors to determine the

 

137


Table of Contents

impact of federal, state and local income tax laws on ownership of the Common Stock, including any reporting requirements.

Distributions. Distributions by us to a non-U.S. holder on our Common Stock that are neither attributable to gain from sales or exchanges by us of “U.S. real property interests” nor designated by us as capital gains dividends will be treated as dividends of ordinary income to the extent that they are made out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits. These distributions generally will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on a gross basis at a rate of 30%, or a lower rate as may be specified under an applicable income tax treaty, unless the dividends are treated as effectively connected with the conduct by the non-U.S. holder of a trade or business within the United States. Under some treaties, however, lower rates generally applicable to dividends do not apply to dividends from REITs. Further, reduced treaty rates are not available to the extent the income allocated to the non-U.S. holder is excess inclusion income. Dividends that are effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s conduct of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, are attributable to a U.S. permanent establishment) will be subject to tax on a net basis, that is, after allowance for deductions, at graduated rates, in the same manner as U.S. holders are taxed with respect to these dividends, and are generally not subject to withholding. Applicable certification and disclosure requirements must be satisfied to be exempt from withholding under the effectively connected income exception. Any dividends received by a corporate non-U.S. holder that is engaged in a trade or business within the United States may also be subject to an additional branch profits tax at a 30% rate, or lower applicable treaty rate.

A non-U.S. holder of our Common Stock who wishes to claim the benefit of an applicable treaty rate and avoid backup withholding, as discussed below, for our ordinary dividends will be required (i) to complete the applicable IRS Form W-8 and certify under penalty of perjury that such holder is not a U.S. person as defined under the Code and is eligible for treaty benefits or (ii) if our Common Stock is held through certain foreign intermediaries, to satisfy the relevant certification requirements of applicable Treasury regulations. Special certification and other requirements apply to certain non-U.S. holders that are pass-through entities rather than corporations or individuals.

A non-U.S. holder of our Common Stock eligible for a reduced rate of U.S. withholding tax pursuant to an income tax treaty may obtain a refund of any excess amounts withheld by timely filing an appropriate claim for refund with the IRS.

Distributions that are neither attributable to gain from sales or exchanges of “U.S. real property interests” nor designated as capital gains dividends and that are in excess of our current or accumulated earnings and profits that do not exceed the adjusted basis of the non-U.S. holder in its Common Stock will reduce the non-U.S. holder’s adjusted basis in its Common Stock and will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax. Distributions that are neither attributable to gain from sales or exchanges of “U.S. real property interests” nor designated as capital gains dividends and that are in excess of current and accumulated earnings and profits that do exceed the adjusted basis of the non-U.S. holder in its Common Stock will be treated as gain from the sale of its stock, the tax treatment of which is described below under “—Sales of Our Common Stock.” Because we generally cannot determine at the time we make a distribution whether or not the distribution will exceed our current and accumulated earnings and profits, we normally will withhold tax on the entire amount of any distribution at the same rate as we would withhold on a dividend.

We would be required to withhold at least 15% of any distribution to a non-U.S. holder in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits if our Common Stock constitutes a U.S. real property interest with respect to such non-U.S. holder, as described below under “—Sales of Our Common Stock.” This withholding would apply even if a lower treaty rate otherwise applies or the non-U.S. holder is not liable for tax on the receipt of that distribution. However, a non-U.S. holder may seek a refund of these amounts from the IRS if the non-U.S. holder’s U.S. tax liability with respect to the distribution is less than the amount withheld.

 

138


Table of Contents

Distributions to a non-U.S. holder that are designated by us at the time of the distribution as capital gain dividends, other than those arising from the disposition of a U.S. real property interest, generally should not be subject to U.S. federal income taxation unless:

 

   

The investment in the Common Stock is effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s conduct of a trade or business in the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, is attributable to a U.S. permanent establishment of the non-U.S. holder), in which case the non-U.S. holder will generally be subject to the same treatment as U.S. holders with respect to any gain, except that a holder that is a foreign corporation also may be subject to the 30% branch profits tax, as discussed above; or

 

   

The non-U.S. holder is an individual who is present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year of the distribution and has a “tax home” in the United States, in which case the individual will be subject to a 30% tax on the individual’s capital gains.

Under the Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act of 1980 (“FIRPTA”), distributions to a non-U.S. holder that are attributable to gain from sales or exchanges by us of U.S. real property interests, whether or not designated as capital gain dividends, will cause the non-U.S. holder to be treated as recognizing gain that is income effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States. Non-U.S. holders will be taxed on this gain at the same rates applicable to U.S. holders, subject to a special alternative minimum tax in the case of nonresident alien individuals. Also, this gain may be subject to a 30% (or lower applicable treaty rate) branch profits tax in the hands of a non-U.S. holder that is a corporation. A distribution is not attributable to a U.S. real property interest if we held an interest in the underlying asset solely as a creditor.

We will be required to withhold and remit to the IRS the highest rate of U.S. federal income tax applicable to each non-U.S. holder, based on the status of such holder, of any distributions to non-U.S. holders that are designated as capital gain dividends, or, if greater, the highest rate of U.S. federal income tax applicable to each non-U.S. holder, based on the status of such holder, of a distribution that could have been designated as a capital gain dividend, whether or not attributable to sales of U.S. real property interests. Distributions can be designated as capital gain dividends to the extent of our net capital gain for the taxable year of the distribution. The amount withheld, which for individual non-U.S. holders may exceed the actual tax liability, is creditable against the non-U.S. holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability.

However, the above withholding tax will not apply to any capital gain dividend with respect to (i) any class of our stock which is “regularly traded” on an established securities market located in the United States if the non-U.S. holder did not own more than 10% of such class of stock at any time during the one-year period ending on the date of such dividend or (ii) a “qualified shareholder” or a “qualified foreign pension fund”. Instead, any capital gain dividend will be treated as a distribution subject to the rules discussed above under “—Distributions.” Also, the branch profits tax would not apply to such a distribution. However, it is not anticipated that our Common Stock will be “regularly traded” on an established securities market.

Although the law is not clear on the matter, it appears that amounts we designate as undistributed capital gains in respect of the stock held by U.S. holders generally should be treated with respect to non-U.S. holders in the same manner as actual distributions by us of capital gain dividends. Under that approach, the non-U.S. holders would be able to offset as a credit against their U.S. federal income tax liability resulting therefrom their proportionate share of the tax paid by us on the undistributed capital gains, and to receive from the IRS a refund to the extent that their proportionate share of this tax paid by us were to exceed their actual U.S. federal income tax liability. If we were to designate a portion of our net capital gain as undistributed capital gain, a non-U.S. holder is urged to consult its tax advisor regarding the taxation of such undistributed capital gain.

 

139


Table of Contents

Sales of Our Common Stock. Subject to the discussion below under “—Repurchases of Our Common Stock,” gain recognized by a non-U.S. holder upon the sale or exchange of our stock generally would not be subject to U.S. taxation unless:

 

   

the investment in our Common Stock is effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s conduct of a trade or business in the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, is attributable to a U.S. permanent establishment of the non-U.S. holder), in which case the non-U.S. holder will be subject to the same treatment as domestic holders with respect to any gain;

 

   

the non-U.S. holder is a nonresident alien individual who is present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year and has a tax home in the United States, in which case the nonresident alien individual will be subject to a 30% tax on the individual’s net capital gains for the taxable year; or

 

   

the non-U.S. holder is not a qualified shareholder or a qualified foreign pension fund (each as defined below) and our Common Stock constitutes a U.S. real property interest within the meaning of FIRPTA, as described below.

We anticipate that our Common Stock will constitute a U.S. real property interest within the meaning of FIRPTA unless we are a domestically-controlled REIT. We will be a domestically-controlled REIT if, at all times during a specified testing period, less than 50% in value of our stock is held directly or indirectly by non-U.S. holders. No assurance can be given, however, that we are or will be a domestically-controlled REIT.

Even if we were not a domestically-controlled REIT, a sale of Common Stock by a non-U.S. holder would nevertheless not be subject to taxation under FIRPTA as a sale of a U.S. real property interest if:

 

   

our Common Stock were “regularly traded” on an established securities market within the meaning of applicable Treasury regulations; and

 

   

the non-U.S. holder did not actually, or constructively under specified attribution rules under the Code, own more than 10% of our Common Stock at any time during the shorter of the five-year period preceding the disposition or the holder’s holding period.

However, it is not anticipated that our Common Stock will be “regularly traded” on an established securities market. If gain on the sale or exchange of our Common Stock were subject to taxation under FIRPTA, the non-U.S. holder would be subject to regular U.S. income tax with respect to any gain in the same manner as a taxable U.S. holder, subject to any applicable alternative minimum tax and special alternative minimum tax in the case of nonresident alien individuals. In such a case, under FIRPTA the purchaser of Common Stock may be required to withhold 10% of the purchase price and remit this amount to the IRS.

Qualified Shareholders. Subject to the exception discussed below, a qualified shareholder who holds our Common Stock directly or indirectly (through one or more partnerships) will not be subject to FIRPTA withholding on distributions by us or dispositions of our Common Stock. While a qualified shareholder will not be subject to FIRPTA withholding on distributions by us or dispositions of our Common Stock, certain investors of a qualified shareholder (i.e., non-U.S. persons who hold interests in the qualified shareholder (other than interests solely as a creditor), and hold more than 10% of our Common Stock (whether or not by reason of the investor’s ownership in the qualified shareholder)) may be subject to FIRPTA withholding.

A qualified shareholder is a non-U.S. person that (i) either is eligible for the benefits of a comprehensive income tax treaty which includes an exchange of information program and whose principal class of interests is listed and regularly traded on one or more recognized stock exchanges (as defined in such comprehensive income tax treaty), or is a foreign partnership that is created or organized under foreign law as a limited partnership in a jurisdiction that has an agreement for the exchange of information with respect to taxes with the United States and has a class of limited partnership units representing greater than 50% of the value of all the partnership units that is regularly traded on the NYSE or NASDAQ markets, (ii) is a “qualified collective investment vehicle”

 

140


Table of Contents

(within the meaning of Section 897(k)(3)(B) of the Code), and (iii) maintains records on the identity of each person who, at any time during the foreign person’s taxable year, is the direct owner of 5% or more of the class of interests or units (as applicable) described in (i), above.

Qualified Foreign Pension Funds. Any distribution to a qualified foreign pension fund (or an entity all of the interests of which are held by a qualified foreign pension fund) who holds our Common Stock directly or indirectly (through one or more partnerships) will not be subject to FIRPTA withholding on distributions by us or dispositions of our Common Stock.

A qualified foreign pension fund is any trust, corporation, or other organization or arrangement (i) which is created or organized under the law of a country other than the United States, (ii) which is established (a) by such country (or one or more political subdivisions thereof) to provide retirement or pension benefits to participants or beneficiaries that are current or former employees (including self-employed individuals) or persons designated by such employees, as a result of services rendered by such employees to their employers or (b) by one or more employers to provide retirement or pension benefits to participants or beneficiaries that are current or former employees (including self-employed individuals) or persons designated by such employees in consideration for services rendered by such employees to such employers, (iii) which does not have a single participant or beneficiary with a right to more than 5% of its assets or income, (iv) which is subject to government regulation and with respect to which annual information reporting about its beneficiaries is provided, or is otherwise available, to the relevant tax authorities in the country in which it is established or operates, and (v) with respect to which, under the laws of the country in which it is established or operates, (a) contributions to such organization or arrangement that would otherwise be subject to tax under such laws are deductible or excluded from the gross income of such entity or arrangement or taxed at a reduced rate, or (b) taxation of any investment income of such organization or arrangement is deferred or such income is excluded from the gross income of such entity or arrangement or is taxed at a reduced rate.

We urge non-U.S. holders to consult their own tax advisers to determine their eligibility for exemption from FIRPTA withholding and their qualification as a qualified shareholder or a qualified foreign pension fund.

Repurchases of Our Common Stock. A repurchase of our Common Stock that is not treated as a sale or exchange will be taxed in the same manner as regular distributions under the rules described above. See “—Taxation of U.S. Holders of Our Common Stock—Repurchases of Our Common Stock” for a discussion of when a redemption will be treated as a sale or exchange and related matters.

A repurchase of our Common Stock generally will be subject to tax under FIRPTA to the extent the distribution in the repurchase is attributable to gains from our dispositions of U.S. real property interests. To the extent the distribution is not attributable to gains from our dispositions of U.S. real property interests, the excess of the amount of money received in the repurchase over the non-U.S. holder’s basis in the repurchased shares will be treated in the manner described above under “—Sales of Our Common Stock.” The IRS has released an official notice stating that repurchase payments may be attributable to gains from dispositions of U.S. real property interests (except when the 10% publicly traded exception would apply), but has not provided any guidance to determine when and what portion of a repurchase payment is a distribution that is attributable to gains from our dispositions of U.S. real property interests. Due to the uncertainty, we may withhold at the highest rate of U.S. federal income tax applicable to each non-U.S. holder, based on the status of such holder, from all or a portion of repurchase payments to non-U.S. holders other than qualified shareholders or qualified foreign pension funds. To the extent the amount of tax we withhold exceeds the amount of a non-U.S. holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability, the non-U.S. holder may file a U.S. federal income tax return and claim a refund.

U.S. Federal Income Tax Returns. If a non-U.S. holder is subject to taxation under FIRPTA on proceeds from the sale of our Common Stock or on distributions we make, the non-U.S. holder will be required to file a U.S. federal income tax return. Prospective non-U.S. holders are urged to consult their tax advisors to determine

 

141


Table of Contents

the impact of U.S. federal, state, local and foreign income tax laws on their ownership of our Common Stock, including any reporting requirements.

Taxation of Tax-Exempt Holders of Our Common Stock

Provided that a tax-exempt holder has not held its Common Stock as “debt-financed property” within the meaning of the Code and our shares of stock are not being used in an unrelated trade or business, dividend income from us generally will not be unrelated business taxable income (“UBTI”) to a tax-exempt holder. Similarly, income from the sale of our Common Stock will not constitute UBTI unless the tax-exempt holder has held its Common Stock as debt-financed property within the meaning of the Code or has used the Common Stock in a trade or business.

Further, for a tax-exempt holder that is a social club, voluntary employee benefit association, supplemental unemployment benefit trust or qualified group legal services plan exempt from U.S. federal income taxation under Sections 501(c)(7), (c)(9), (c)(17) and (c)(20) of the Code, respectively, or a single parent title-holding corporation exempt under Section 501(c)(2) the income of which is payable to any of the aforementioned tax-exempt organizations, income from an investment in our Common Stock will constitute UBTI unless the organization properly sets aside or reserves such amounts for purposes specified in the Code. These tax-exempt holders should consult their own tax advisors concerning these “set aside” and reserve requirements.

Notwithstanding the above, however, a portion of the dividends paid by a “pension-held REIT” are treated as UBTI as to any trust which is described in Section 401(a) of the Code, is tax-exempt under Section 501(a) of the Code, and holds more than 10%, by value, of the interests in the REIT. Tax-exempt pension funds that are described in Section 401(a) of the Code are referred to below as “pension trusts.”

A REIT is a “pension-held REIT” if it meets the following two tests:

 

   

it would not have qualified as a REIT but for Section 856(h)(3) of the Code, which provides that stock owned by pension trusts will be treated, for purposes of determining whether the REIT is closely held, as owned by the beneficiaries of the trust rather than by the trust itself; and

 

   

either (i) at least one pension trust holds more than 25% of the value of the interests in the REIT, or (ii) a group of pension trusts each individually holding more than 10% of the value of the REIT’s stock, collectively owns more than 50% of the value of the REIT’s stock.

The percentage of any REIT dividend from a “pension-held REIT” that is treated as UBTI is equal to the ratio of the UBTI earned by the REIT, treating the REIT as if it were a pension trust and therefore subject to tax on UBTI, to the total gross income of the REIT. An exception applies where the percentage is less than 5% for any year, in which case none of the dividends would be treated as UBTI. The provisions requiring pension trusts to treat a portion of REIT distributions as UBTI will not apply if the REIT is not a “pension-held REIT” (for example, if the REIT is able to satisfy the “not closely held requirement” without relying on the “look through” exception with respect to pension trusts).

Dividend Reinvestment Plan

Holders who participate in the dividend reinvestment plan will recognize taxable income in the amount they would have received had they elected not to participate, even though they receive no cash. These deemed distributions will be treated as actual distributions from us to the participating holders and will retain the character and U.S. federal income tax effects applicable to all distributions. Stock received under the plan will have a holding period beginning with the day after purchase, and a U.S. federal income tax basis equal to its cost, which is the gross amount of the deemed distribution. Because of our charter’s restrictions on the number of shares of our stock that a person may own, we do not anticipate that we will become a “pension-held REIT.”

 

142


Table of Contents

Backup Withholding Tax and Information Reporting

U.S. Holders of Common Stock. In general, information-reporting requirements will apply to payments of dividends and proceeds of the sale of our Common Stock held by U.S. holders, unless such U.S. holder is an exempt recipient. A backup withholding tax may apply to such payments if such U.S. holder fails to provide a taxpayer identification number or certification of other exempt status or fails to report in full dividend or interest income. In addition, we may be required to withhold a portion of capital gain distributions to any U.S. holders who fail to certify their U.S. status to us. Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules will be allowed as a credit against your U.S. federal income tax liability, provided that the required information is timely furnished to the IRS.

Brokers that are required to report the gross proceeds from a sale of our Common Stock on IRS Form 1099-B will also be required to report the customer’s adjusted basis in the Common Stock sold and whether any gain or loss with respect to such stock is long-term or short-term. In some cases, there may be alternative methods of determining the basis in the Common Stock sold, in which case your broker will apply a default method of its choosing if you do not indicate which method you choose to have applied. U.S. holders should consult their own tax advisors regarding these reporting requirements and their election options.

Non-U.S. Holders of Our Common Stock. We must report annually to the IRS and to each non-U.S. holder the amount of dividends paid to such holder and the tax withheld with respect to such dividends, regardless of whether withholding was required. Copies of the information returns reporting such dividends and withholding may also be made available to the tax authorities in the country in which the non-U.S. holder resides under the provisions of an applicable income tax treaty.

A non-U.S. holder will be subject to backup withholding for dividends paid to such holder unless such holder certifies under penalty of perjury that it is a non-U.S. holder (and the payor does not have actual knowledge or reason to know that such holder is a “United States person” as defined under the Code), or such holder otherwise establishes an exemption.

Information reporting and, depending on the circumstances, backup withholding will apply to the proceeds of a sale of our Common Stock within the United States or conducted through certain U.S.-related financial intermediaries, unless the beneficial owner certifies under penalty of perjury that it is a non-U.S. holder (and the payor does not have actual knowledge or reason to know that the beneficial owner is a “United States person” as defined under the Code), or such owner otherwise establishes an exemption.

Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules may be allowed as a refund or a credit against a non-U.S. holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability provided the required information is timely furnished to the IRS.

Legislative or Other Actions Affecting REITs

The present U.S. federal income tax treatment of REITs may be modified, possibly with retroactive effect, by legislative, judicial or administrative action at any time. The REIT rules are constantly under review by persons involved in the legislative process and by the IRS and the Treasury, which may result in statutory changes as well as revisions to regulations and interpretations. Changes to the U.S. federal tax laws and interpretations thereof could adversely affect an investment in our Common Stock.

State and Local Taxes

We and our stockholders may be subject to state or local taxation in various state or local jurisdictions, including those in which we or they transact business or reside. Our state and local tax treatment and that of our stockholders may not conform to the U.S. federal income tax treatment discussed above. Consequently, prospective stockholders should consult their own tax advisors regarding the effect of state and local tax laws on an investment in our Common Stock.

 

143


Table of Contents

Tax Shelter Reporting

If a stockholder recognizes a loss with respect to stock of $2 million or more for an individual stockholder or $10 million or more for a corporate stockholder, the stockholder must file a disclosure statement with the IRS on Form 8886. Direct stockholders of portfolio securities are in many cases exempt from this reporting requirement, but stockholders of a REIT currently are not excepted. The fact that a loss is reportable under these regulations does not affect the legal determination of whether the taxpayer’s treatment of the loss is proper. Stockholders should consult their tax advisors to determine the applicability of these regulations in light of their individual circumstances.

Additional Withholding Requirements

Under Sections 1471 through 1474 of the Code (such Sections commonly referred to as “FATCA”), a 30% U.S. federal withholding tax may apply to any ordinary dividends and other distributions that we pay to (i) a “foreign financial institution” (as specifically defined in the Code) which does not provide sufficient documentation, typically on IRS Form W-8BEN-E, evidencing either (x) an exemption from FATCA, or (y) its compliance (or deemed compliance) with FATCA (which may alternatively be in the form of compliance with an intergovernmental agreement with the United States) in a manner that avoids withholding, or (ii) a “non-financial foreign entity” (as specifically defined in the Code) which does not provide sufficient documentation, typically on IRS Form W-8BEN-E, evidencing either (x) an exemption from FATCA, or (y) adequate information regarding certain substantial U.S. beneficial owners of such entity (if any). If a dividend payment is both subject to withholding under FATCA and subject to withholding tax discussed above, the withholding under FATCA may be credited against, and therefore reduce, such other withholding tax. Non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors to determine the applicability of this legislation in light of their individual circumstances.

CUSTODIAN AND TRANSFER AGENT

The custodian of the assets of the Fund is The Bank of New York Mellon located at 240 Greenwich Street, New York, New York 10286.

DST Asset Manager Solutions, Inc., located at 2000 Crown Colony Drive, Quincy, MA 02169, serves as the Fund’s transfer agent and dividend paying agent with respect to the Common Stock.

LEGAL MATTERS

Simpson Thacher & Bartlett LLP, Washington, D.C. serves as counsel to the Fund. Venable LLP, 750 East Pratt Street, Suite 900, Baltimore, MD 20202, serves as special Maryland counsel to the Fund.

 

144


Table of Contents

INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

Deloitte & Touche LLP serves as the independent registered public accounting firm of the Fund and audits the financial statements of the Fund. Deloitte & Touche LLP is located at 30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York, NY 10112.

 

145


Table of Contents

EXPERTS

The statements included in our prospectus under the heading “Net Asset Value – Independent Valuation Advisor,” “Net Asset Value – Valuation of Investments” relating to the role of our Independent Valuation Advisor, have been reviewed by Altus Group U.S. Inc., an independent valuation firm, and are included in our prospectus given the authority of such firm as experts in property valuations and appraisals.

 

146


Table of Contents

 

 

KKR REAL ESTATE SELECT TRUST INC.

CLASS S COMMON SHARES

CLASS D COMMON SHARES

CLASS U COMMON SHARES

CLASS I COMMON SHARES

 

 

PROSPECTUS

 

 

All dealers that buy, sell or trade the Fund’s Common Stock, whether or not participating in this offering, may be required to deliver a prospectus in accordance with the terms of the dealers’ agreements with the Fund’s Distributor.

You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus. The Fund has not authorized anyone to provide you with different information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. The Fund is not making an offer of these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer is not permitted.

                , 2021

 

 

 


Table of Contents

The information in this Statement of Additional Information is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This Statement of Additional Information is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

Subject to Completion, Dated May 4, 2021

KKR REAL ESTATE SELECT TRUST INC.

STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

 

 

KKR Real Estate Select Trust Inc. (the “Fund”) is a newly organized, non-diversified, closed-end management investment company that invests primarily in commercial real estate in the United States. This Statement of Additional Information relating to the Common Stock does not constitute a prospectus, but should be read in conjunction with the prospectus relating thereto dated                , 2021. This Statement of Additional Information, which is not a prospectus, does not include all information that a prospective investor should consider before purchasing Common Stock, and investors should obtain and read the prospectus prior to purchasing such Common Stock. A copy of the prospectus may be obtained without charge by calling (855) 844-8655, by writing to the Fund at 30 Hudson Yards, New York, NY 10001 or visiting the Fund’s website                . You may also obtain a copy of the prospectus on the Securities and Exchange Commission’s website (http://www.sec.gov). Capitalized terms used but not defined in this Statement of Additional Information have the meanings ascribed to them in the prospectus.

This Statement of Additional Information is dated                , 2021.


Table of Contents


Table of Contents

INVESTMENT OBJECTIVES

The Fund’s primary investment objective is to provide attractive current income with a secondary objective of long-term capital appreciation. There can be no assurance that the Fund will achieve its investment objectives.

INVESTMENT RESTRICTIONS

The Fund’s stated fundamental policies, which may only be changed by the affirmative vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities of the Fund, are listed below. For the purposes of this SAI, “majority of the outstanding voting securities of the Fund” means the vote, at an annual or special meeting of stockholders, duly called, (a) of 67% or more of the shares present at such meeting, if the holders of more than 50% of the outstanding shares are present or represented by proxy; or (b) of more than 50% of the outstanding shares, whichever is less.

Real Estate Fundamental Policy

The Fund has adopted a fundamental policy permitting it to invest in real estate or interests in real estate, securities that are secured by or represent interests in real estate (e.g. mortgage loans evidenced by notes or other writings defined to be a type of security), mortgage-related securities, investment funds that invest in real estate through entities that may qualify as real estate investment trusts (“REITs”), or in companies engaged in the real estate business or that have a significant portion of their assets in real estate (including REITs).

Fundamental Restrictions

The Fund may not:

 

  (1)

Borrow money, except to the extent permitted by the Investment Company Act (which currently limits borrowing to no more than 33 1/3% of the value of the Fund’s total assets (less all liabilities and indebtedness not represented by senior securities)). The Fund may borrow for investment purposes, for temporary liquidity, or to finance repurchases of its Common Stock.

 

  (2)

Issue senior securities, except to the extent permitted by Section 18 of the Investment Company Act (which currently limits the issuance of a class of senior securities that is indebtedness to no more than 33 1/3% of the value of the Fund’s total assets (less all liabilities and indebtedness not represented by senior securities) or, if the class of senior security is stock, to no more than 50% of the value of the Fund’s total assets (less all liabilities and indebtedness not represented by senior securities)).