S-1/A 1 fs12020a1_greenwichlife.htm REGISTRATION STATEMENT

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on June 22, 2020

Registration Statement No. 333-238829

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

__________________________________________

Amendment No. 1

to

FORM S-1
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

__________________________________________

GREENWICH LIFESCIENCES, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

__________________________________________

Delaware

 

2834

 

20-5473709

(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)

 

(Primary Standard Industrial
Classification Code Number)

 

(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)

3992 Bluebonnet Dr, Building 14
Stafford, TX 77477
(832) 819
-3232
(Address and telephone number of registrant’s principal executive offices)

__________________________________________

Snehal Patel
Chief Executive Officer
Greenwich LifeSciences, Inc.
3992 Bluebonnet Dr, Building 14
Stafford, TX 77477
(832) 819
-3232
(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

__________________________________________

Copies to:

Jeffrey J. Fessler, Esq.
Nazia J. Khan, Esq.
Sheppard, Mullin, Richter & Hampton LLP
30 Rockefeller Plaza
New York, NY 10112
-0015
Tel.: (212) 653
-8700

 

Gregory Sichenzia, Esq.
Darrin Ocasio, Esq.
Sichenzia Ross Ference LLP
1185 Avenue of the Americas, 37
th Floor
New York, NY 10036
Tel.: (212) 930
-9700

__________________________________________

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public:
As soon as practicable after the effective date of this registration statement becomes effective.

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933 check the following box: S

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. £

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. £

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. £

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer £

 

Accelerated filer £

 

Non-accelerated filer S

 

Smaller reporting company S

           

Emerging growth company  S

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act. £

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

Title of Each Class of Securities to be Registered

 

Proposed
Maximum
Aggregate
Offering Price
(1)

 

Amount of
Registration
Fee
(2)

Common Stock, par value $0.001 per share

 

$

9,200,000

 

$

1,194.16

 

Warrants to purchase common stock to be issued to the Underwriter(3)(4)

 

 

 

 

 

Common stock issuable upon exercise of warrants to purchase common stock to be issued to the Underwriter(3)(5)

 

$

800,000

 

$

103.84

 

Common Stock, par value $0.001 per share offered by the selling stockholders

 

$

13,483,152

 

$

1,750.11

 

Total:

 

$

23,483,152

 

$

3,048.11

*

____________

(1)      Estimated solely for the purpose of computing the amount of the registration fee pursuant to Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended. Includes shares of common stock that the underwriters have the option to purchase to cover over-allotments, if any.

(2)      Calculated pursuant to Rule 457(o) based on an estimate of the proposed maximum aggregate offering price of the securities registered hereunder to be sold by the registrant.

(3)      We have agreed to issue to the underwriters, upon closing of this offering, warrants to purchase 8% of the number of shares of common stock sold in this offering (excluding shares of common stock sold to cover over-allotments, if any). Resales of shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of the underwriter warrants are being similarly registered on a delayed or continuous basis. We have calculated the proposed maximum aggregate offering price of the common stock underlying the underwriter’s warrants by assuming that such warrants are exercisable at a price per share equal to 125% of the price per share sold in this offering.

(4)      No fee required pursuant to Rule 457(g).

(5)      Pursuant to Rule 416 under the Securities Act, there is also being registered hereby such indeterminate number of additional shares of common stock of the Registrant as may be issued or issuable because of stock splits, stock dividends, stock distributions, and similar transactions.

*        Previously paid.

The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until the registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

  

 

EXPLANATORY NOTE

This Registration Statement contains two forms of prospectuses: one to be used in connection with the initial public offering of 1,150,000 shares of our common stock (including shares of common stock which may be issued on exercise of a 45-day option granted to the underwriters to cover over-allotments, if any) through the underwriters named on the cover page of this prospectus (the “IPO Prospectus”) and one to be used in connection with the potential resale by certain selling stockholders of an aggregate amount up to 1,685,394 shares of our common stock (the “Selling Stockholder Prospectus”). The IPO Prospectus and the Selling Stockholder Prospectus will be identical in all respects except for the alternate pages for the Selling Stockholder Prospectus included herein which are labeled “Alternate Pages for Selling Stockholder Prospectus.”

The Selling Stockholder Prospectus is substantively identical to the IPO Prospectus, except for the following principal points:

•        they contain different outside and inside front covers;

•        they contain different Offering sections in the Prospectus Summary section;

•        they contain different Use of Proceeds sections;

•        the Capitalization section is deleted from the Selling Stockholder Prospectus;

•        the Dilution section is deleted from the Selling Stockholder Prospectus;

•        a Selling Stockholder section is included in the Selling Stockholder Prospectus;

•        the Underwriting section from the IPO Prospectus is deleted from the Selling Stockholder Prospectus and a Plan of Distribution is inserted in its place; and

•        the Legal Matters section in the Selling Stockholder Prospectus deletes the reference to counsel for the underwriters.

We have included in this Registration Statement, after the financial statements, a set of alternate pages to reflect the foregoing differences of the Selling Stockholder Prospectus as compared to the IPO Prospectus.

While the selling stockholders have expressed an intent not to sell the shares of common stock registered pursuant to the Selling Stockholder Prospectus concurrently with the initial public offering, the sales of our common stock registered in the IPO Prospectus and the Selling Stockholder Prospectus may result in two offerings taking place concurrently, which could affect the price and liquidity of, and demand for, our common stock. This risk and other risks are included in “Risk Factors” beginning on page 10 of the IPO Prospectus.

 

The information in this preliminary prospectus is not complete and may be changed. These securities may not be sold until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell nor does it seek an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

Subject to Completion, dated June 22, 2020

PROSPECTUS

1,000,000 Shares

Common Stock

This is the initial public offering of shares of common stock of Greenwich LifeSciences, Inc. We are offering 1,000,000 shares of our common stock. No public market currently exists for our stock. We anticipate that the initial public offering price will be between $7.50 and $8.50 per share.

We have applied to list our shares on The Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “GLSI.”

In addition, we have registered an aggregate of 1,685,394 shares of our common stock for resale by certain selling stockholders by means of the Selling Stockholder Prospectus. While the selling stockholders have expressed an intent not to sell the shares of common stock registered pursuant to the Selling Stockholder Prospectus concurrently with the initial public offering, sales of the shares of our common stock registered in this prospectus and the Selling Stockholder Prospectus may result in two offerings taking place concurrently which might affect price, demand, and liquidity of our common stock.

We are an “emerging growth company” as that term is used in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 and, as such, have elected to comply with certain reduced public company reporting requirements.

Investing in our common stock involves risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 10.

 

Per Share

 

Total

Price to the public

 

$

   

$

 

Underwriting discounts and commissions

 

$

   

$

 

Proceeds to us (before expenses)(1)

 

$

   

$

____________

(1)      Does not include a non-accountable expense allowance equal to 1.0% of the gross proceeds of this offering payable to the underwriters. We refer you to “Underwriting” beginning on page 100 of this prospectus for additional information regarding underwriting compensation.

We have granted the underwriters a 45-day option to purchase up to 150,000 additional shares at the initial public offering price, less the underwriting discount.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

The underwriters expect to deliver the shares on or about             , 2020.

Prospectus dated             , 2020

Aegis Capital Corp.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Page

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

 

1

RISK FACTORS

 

10

INFORMATION REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

44

INDUSTRY AND MARKET DATA

 

46

USE OF PROCEEDS

 

47

DIVIDEND POLICY

 

48

CAPITALIZATION

 

49

DILUTION

 

50

SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

 

52

MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

53

BUSINESS

 

58

MANAGEMENT

 

77

EXECUTIVE AND DIRECTOR COMPENSATION

 

82

CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED PERSON TRANSACTIONS

 

87

PRINCIPAL STOCKHOLDERS

 

89

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

 

91

SHARES ELIGIBLE FOR FUTURE SALE

 

94

MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSEQUENCES TO NON-U.S. HOLDERS OF OUR COMMON STOCK

 

96

UNDERWRITING

 

100

LEGAL MATTERS

 

104

EXPERTS

 

104

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

 

104

INDEX TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

F-1

We have not, and the underwriters have not, authorized anyone to provide any information or to make any representations other than those contained in this prospectus or in any free writing prospectus prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. We take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give to you.

You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus. No dealer, salesperson or other person is authorized to give information that is not contained in this prospectus. This prospectus is not an offer to sell nor is it seeking an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. The selling stockholders are offering to sell and seeking offers to buy our common stock only in jurisdictions where offers and sales are permitted. The information in this prospectus is accurate only as of the date of this prospectus, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or of any sale of these securities.

All trademarks, trade names and service marks appearing in this prospectus are the property of their respective owners. Solely for convenience, the trademarks and trade names in this prospectus are referred to without the ® and TM symbols, but such references should not be construed as any indicator that their respective owners will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, their rights thereto.

i

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

The following summary highlights selected information contained elsewhere in this prospectus and is qualified in its entirety by the more detailed information and financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. It does not contain all the information that may be important to you and your investment decision. You should carefully read this entire prospectus, including the matters set forth under “Risk Factors,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” and our financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus. In this prospectus, unless context requires otherwise, references to “we,” “us,” “our,” “GLSI” “Greenwich LifeSciences,” or “the Company” refer to Greenwich LifeSciences, Inc.

Overview

We are a biopharmaceutical company developing GP2, an immunotherapy designed to prevent the recurrence of breast cancer following surgery. GP2 is a 9 amino acid transmembrane peptide of the HER2/neu (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) protein, a cell surface receptor protein that is expressed in a variety of common cancers, including expression in 75% of breast cancers at low (1+), intermediate (2+), and high (3+ or over-expressor) levels. In a Phase IIb clinical trial completed in 2018, no recurrences were observed in the HER2/neu 3+ adjuvant setting after median 5 years of follow-up, if the patient received the 6 primary intradermal injections over the first 6 months. We are planning to commence a Phase III clinical trial in 2020.

Substantial Unmet Need

Following breast cancer surgery, a HER2/neu 3+ patient receives Herceptin in the first year, with the hope that their breast cancer will not recur, with the odds of recurrence slowly decreasing over the first 5 years after surgery. Herceptin has been shown to reduce recurrence rates from 25% to 12% in the adjuvant setting while Kadcyla has been shown to reduce recurrence rates from 22% to 11% in the neoadjuvant setting. Accordingly, we believe that GP2 may be used to address the 50% of recurring patients who do not respond to either Herceptin or Kadcyla. In the neoadjuvant setting, a patient receives treatment before surgery and, based on the results of a biopsy at surgery, will receive the same or more potent treatment after surgery.

GP2 is administered in combination with the immunoadjuvant GM-CSF in years 2-4, following the first year of treatment with Herceptin, in a series of 11 intradermal injections comprising 6 primary injections over 6 months (1 injection per month) followed by 5 booster injections every 6 months thereafter. Furthermore, we believe that recently approved drugs such as Perjeta and Nerlynx do not fully address this unmet need, even in their most efficacious subpopulations, and that in the initial GP2 indication, approximately 17,000 new patients may be eligible for GP2 treatment per year, which could save approximately 1,500 to 2,000 lives per year.

Statistically Significant Phase IIb Clinical Data in HER2/neu 3+ Over-Expressors

In a randomized, single-blinded, placebo-controlled, multi-center (16 sites led by MD Anderson Cancer Center) Phase IIb clinical trial of HLA-A02 breast cancer patients, the combination of GP2-GMCSF-Herceptin treatment resulted in no recurrences in 46 HER2/neu 3+ over-expressor patients who were fully treated with GP2 versus 50 placebo patients who were treated with GMCSF-Herceptin and who recurred at a rate similar to historical recurrence rates for patients treated with Herceptin. After median 5 years of follow-up, there were 0% cancer recurrences in the HER2/neu 3+ patients treated with GP2-GMCSF-Herceptin, if the patient received the 6 primary intradermal injections over the first 6 months, versus an 11% cancer recurrence rate in the placebo arm treated with GMCSF-Herceptin (p = 0.0338). Thus, sequentially combining Herceptin in year 1 and GP2-GMCSF in years 2-4 may dramatically lower breast cancer recurrences in this patient population.

Potent Immune Response

In the Phase IIb clinical trial, GP2 immunotherapy elicited a potent immune response in HLA-A02 patients after they received the 6 primary intradermal injections over the first 6 months. The immune response was measured by a local skin test and immunological assays. Further, booster injections given every 6 months thereafter prolonged the immune response, thereby providing longer term protection.

1

Well Tolerated Safety Profile

In the Phase IIb and three Phase I clinical trials where 138 patients received GP2 immunotherapy, there were no reported serious adverse events (“SAEs”) related to GP2 treatment.

Upcoming Phase III Clinical Trial

We are planning to launch a Phase III clinical trial in 2020, using a similar treatment regime as the Phase IIb clinical trial. The manufacturing plan and the Phase III trial protocol have been reviewed by the FDA and final revisions to the Phase III trial protocol are under way, which may include an interim analysis/adaptive trial design. Furthermore, we have commenced GP2 manufacturing, and we are currently in the process of finalizing our engagement of contract manufacturing organizations, or CMOs, and contract research organizations, or CROs, for the Phase III clinical trial.

License & Intellectual Property

The Henry M. Jackson Foundation, or HJF, out-licenses technology of the United States military and it conducts research and manages clinical trials. We entered into an exclusive license agreement with HJF pursuant to which we have been granted an exclusive worldwide license to GP2. The GP2 issued patents provide protection ranging from 2026 through 2032 in major markets such as the U.S., Europe, Japan, Australia, and Canada, with ongoing prosecution in other markets. We plan to register GP2 as a biologic, which may be subject to 10-12 years market exclusivity in the U.S. upon receiving marketing approval.

Large Initial & Expandable Breast Cancer Market

We believe that the potential market for the proposed initial and follow-on indications is large. HER2/neu 3+ breast cancer patients comprise approximately 25% of all breast cancer patients. Approximately 40% to 50% of the U.S. population contains the HLA-A02 allele, while node positive and high risk node negative patients comprise approximately 50% of the market. Therefore, we believe that the initial market for GP2 could be the combination of the three populations above which together comprises 6% of breast cancer patients. We believe that follow-on indications could include additional HLA types (an additional 30% of the U.S. population) and the low to intermediate expressors of HER2/neu 1-2+ patients (an additional 50% of all breast cancer patients) which would expand the GP2 market from our estimated initial 6% to 30% of breast cancer patients who undergo surgery. Thus the market for GP2, including follow-on indications, could be 2.4 times the current Herceptin adjuvant setting market, which constitutes approximately 12.5% of breast cancer patients.

Our Product Candidate

GP2 is a HER2/neu transmembrane peptide that elicits a targeted immune response against HER2/neu-expressing cancers. Below is an image of a cell surface showing therapeutically relevant cell surface proteins in cancer. Breast cancers and other solid tumors with elevated expression of HER2/neu protein are highly aggressive with an increased disease recurrence and a worse prognosis.

2

Mechanism of Action

As shown below, following GP2 immunotherapy, CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (“CTLs”) recognize and destroy HER2/neu-expressing cancer cells. GP2 is administered in combination with an FDA-approved immunoadjuvant GM-CSF, which stimulates the proliferation of antigen presenting cells. Preclinical studies have shown that T cells sensitized against the GP2 peptide demonstrate significant recognition of HER2/neu-expressing tumors. Both ovarian and breast cancer-specific CTLs recognize GP2, which is widely expressed in HER2/neu-expressing tumors and is capable of inducing tumor-specific CTL populations in vitro.

Corporate Strategy

Our corporate strategy includes advancing GP2 into a Phase III clinical trial in the U.S. with favorable regulatory designations and pursuing a European and global clinical trial strategy to support GP2 registration outside of the U.S. We are considering various options to fund the Phase III clinical trial including financing and/or strategic transactions. Our strategy also includes, among other things, building a commercialization team, pursuing additional funding after this offering, and pursuing strategic collaborations to support the future global marketing and sales of GP2. A long term global and regional licensing process has been initiated and will continue as the Phase III trial commences.

Pipeline Strategy — Including GP2 In Other HER2/neu-Expressing Cancers

We are developing follow-on indications for GP2 by designing and planning additional clinical trials to expand the breast cancer patient population and to pursue additional HER2/neu-expressing cancers. Pending receipt of sufficient capital, the planned Phase III clinical trial can be supplemented with the following pipeline investments:

•        The efficacy of GP2-GMCSF-Herceptin can be explored in (1) other HLA patients in the same HER2/neu 3+ breast cancer patient population, (2) breast cancer patients who are low to intermediate expressors of HER2/neu (1-2+) and who comprise two-thirds of the triple negative market, or (3) other HER2/neu-expressing cancers including, but not limited to, ovarian, gastrointestinal, and colon cancers.

•        We may acquire a preclinical platform that can be quickly advanced into IND-enabling GMP manufacturing and GLP toxicology studies followed by initial human clinical trials.

Risks Associated with Our Business

Our business is subject to a number of risks of which you should be aware of before making an investment decision. These risks are discussed more fully in the “Risk Factors” section of this prospectus immediately following this prospectus summary. Some of these risks include the following:

•        We have incurred substantial losses since our inception and anticipate that we will continue to incur substantial and increasing losses for the foreseeable future.

•        We will require substantial additional financing to achieve our goals, and a failure to obtain this necessary capital when needed could force us to delay, limit, reduce or terminate our product development or commercialization efforts.

•        We currently have no source of revenues. We may never generate revenues or achieve profitability.

3

•        We expect to continue to incur significant operating and non-operating expenses, which may make it difficult for us to secure sufficient financing and may lead to uncertainty about our ability to continue as a going concern.

•        We are dependent on technologies we license, and if we lose the right to license such technologies or we fail to license new technologies in the future, our ability to develop new products would be harmed, and if we fail to meet our obligations under our current or future license agreements, we may lose the ability to develop our product candidate.

•        We face substantial competition, which may result in others discovering, developing or commercializing products before or more successfully than we do.

•        We are currently a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company with a product candidate in clinical development. If we are unable to successfully develop and commercialize our product candidate or experience significant delays in doing so, our business may be materially harmed.

•        Our success relies on third-party suppliers and manufacturers. Any failure by such third parties, including, but not limited to, failure to successfully perform and comply with regulatory requirements, could negatively impact our business and our ability to develop and market our product candidate, and our business could be substantially harmed.

•        Our future success is dependent on the regulatory approval of our product candidate.

•        Our business may be adversely affected by the ongoing coronavirus pandemic.

Corporate Information

We were incorporated as a Delaware corporation on August 29, 2006 under the name Norwell, Inc. On March 2, 2018, we changed our name to Greenwich LifeSciences, Inc. Our principal executive offices are located at 3992 Bluebonnet Dr., Building 14, Stafford, TX 77477 and our telephone number is (832) 819-3232. Our website address is www.greenwichlifesciences.com. The information contained on our website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus, and you should not consider any information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website as part of this prospectus or in deciding whether to purchase our common shares.

Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company

As a company with less than $1.07 billion in revenues during our last fiscal year, we qualify as an emerging growth company as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act (“JOBS Act”) enacted in 2012. As an emerging growth company, we expect to take advantage of reduced reporting requirements that are otherwise applicable to public companies. These provisions include, but are not limited to:

•        being permitted to present only two years of audited financial statements, in addition to any required unaudited interim financial statements, with correspondingly reduced “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” disclosure in this prospectus;

•        not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as amended (“Sarbanes-Oxley Act”);

•        reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports, proxy statements and registration statements; and

•        exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved.

We may use these provisions until the last day of our fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the completion of this offering. However, if certain events occur prior to the end of such five-year period, including if we become a “large accelerated filer,” our annual gross revenues exceed $1.07 billion or we issue more than $1.0 billion of non-convertible debt in any three-year period, we will cease to be an emerging growth company prior to the end of such five-year period.

4

The JOBS Act provides that an emerging growth company can take advantage of an extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards. As an emerging growth company, we intend to take advantage of an extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards as permitted by the JOBS Act.

To the extent that we continue to qualify as a “smaller reporting company,” as such term is defined in Rule 12b-2 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, after we cease to qualify as an emerging growth company, certain of the exemptions available to us as an emerging growth company may continue to be available to us as a smaller reporting company, including: (i) not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes Oxley Act; (ii) scaled executive compensation disclosures; and (iii) the requirement to provide only two years of audited financial statements, instead of three years.

5

THE OFFERING

Common stock offered by us

 

1,000,000 Shares

Common stock to be outstanding immediately after this offering

 


11,593,555 shares (11,743,555 shares if the underwriters exercise their option in full)

Option to purchase additional shares

 

The underwriters have an option for a period of 45 days to purchase up to an additional 150,000 shares of our common stock.

Use of proceeds

 

We estimate that the net proceeds from this offering will be approximately $6,752,925, or approximately $7,856,925 if the underwriters exercise their over-allotment option in full, at an assumed initial public offering price of $8.00 per share, the midpoint of the range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering for clinical trials, manufacturing our product candidate, retention of contract research organizations and for working capital and other general corporate purposes. We may also use a portion of the net proceeds to in-license, acquire or invest in complementary businesses or products, however, we have no current commitments or obligations to do so. See “Use of Proceeds” for a more complete description of the intended use of proceeds from this offering.

Underwriters’ warrants

 

Upon the closing of this offering, we have agreed to issue to Aegis Capital Corp., as representative of the underwriters, warrants that will be exercisable for the period commencing six months from the effective date of this offering and expiring five years from the effective date of the offering, entitling the representative to purchase 8% of the number of shares of common stock sold in this offering (excluding shares of common stock sold to cover over-allotments, if any). The registration statement of which this prospectus is a part also covers the underwriters’ warrants and the common shares issuable upon the exercise thereof. For additional information regarding our arrangement with the underwriters, please see “Underwriting.”

Lock-up agreements

 

We and our executive officers and directors have agreed with the underwriters not to sell, transfer or dispose of any shares or similar securities for 180 days after the date of this prospectus. For additional information regarding our arrangement with the underwriters, please see “Underwriting.”

Risk factors

 

See “Risk Factors” on page 10 and other information included in this prospectus for a discussion of factors to consider carefully before deciding to invest in shares of our common stock.

Proposed Nasdaq Capital
Market symbol

 


“GLSI”

The number of shares of our common stock to be outstanding after this offering is based on 8,613,190 shares of our common stock outstanding as of June 15, 2020, and excludes as of that date:

•        1,520,937 shares of common stock issuable upon conversion of 1,520,937 shares of our Series A Preferred Stock outstanding calculated by dividing the Original Series A Price by the Series A Conversion Price based upon an assumed initial public offering price of $8.00 per share, the midpoint of the range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus. The “Original Series A Price” means $0.267 per share, subject to adjustment. The “Series A Conversion Price” means $0.267 per share, subject to adjustment;

6

•        129,267 shares of common stock issuable upon conversion of 129,267 shares of our Series B Preferred Stock outstanding calculated by dividing the Original Series B Price by the Series B Conversion Price based upon an assumed initial public offering price of $8.00 per share, the midpoint of the range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus. The “Original Series B Price” means $1.335 per share, subject to adjustment. The “Series B Conversion Price” means $1.335 per share, subject to adjustment;

•        66,575 shares of common stock issuable upon conversion of 66,575 shares of our Series C Preferred Stock outstanding calculated by dividing the Original Series C Price by the Series C Conversion Price based upon an assumed initial public offering price of $8.00 per share, the midpoint of the range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus. The “Original Series C Price” means $2.67 per share, subject to adjustment. The “Series C Conversion Price” means $2.67 per share, subject to adjustment;

•        263,586 shares of common stock issuable upon conversion of 263,586 shares of our Series D Preferred Stock outstanding calculated by dividing the Original Series D Price by the Series D Conversion Price based upon an assumed initial public offering price of $8.00 per share, the midpoint of the range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus. The “Original Series D Price” means $5.34 per share, subject to adjustment. The “Series D Conversion Price” means $5.34 per share, subject to adjustment;

•        675,529 shares of common stock subject to future vesting issued to members of management and directors;

•        1,498,128 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2019 Equity Incentive Plan.

•        80,000 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of warrants to be issued to the representative of the underwriters as part of this offering at an exercise price of $10.00 (assuming an initial public offering price of $8.00 per share (the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus)).

Except as otherwise indicated herein, all information in this prospectus assumes or gives effect to:

•        a 1-for-2.67 stock split of our common and preferred stock effected on June 22, 2020 pursuant to which (i) every 2.67 shares of outstanding common stock was decreased to one share of common stock and (ii) the conversion ratio for each share of outstanding preferred stock into common stock was proportionately reduced on a 1-for-2.67 basis (the “Reverse Stock Split”). No fractional shares will be issued as a result of the Reverse Stock Split. Any fractional shares resulting from the Reverse Stock Split shall be rounded up to the nearest whole share;

•        the conversion of all of outstanding Series A Preferred Stock into an aggregate of 1,520,937 shares of our common stock, the conversion of all of outstanding Series B Preferred Stock into an aggregate of 129,267 shares of our common stock, the conversion of all of outstanding Series C Preferred Stock into an aggregate of 66,575 shares of our common stock and the conversion of all of outstanding Series D Preferred Stock into an aggregate of 263,586 shares of our common stock upon the closing of this offering; and

•        no exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase an additional 150,000 shares of common stock.

7

Summary Financial Data

The following tables set forth our summary financial data as of the dates and for the periods indicated. We have derived the summary statement of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018 from our audited financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. The summary statements of operations data for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019 and the summary balance sheet data as of March 31, 2020 have been derived from our unaudited financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. The following summary financial data should be read with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our financial statements and related notes and other information included elsewhere in this prospectus. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected in the future and the results for the three months ended December 31, 2020 are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the full fiscal year.

Statement of Operations Data:

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

 

Years Ended
December 31,

 

Three Months Ended
March 31,
(unaudited)

   

2019

 

2018

 

2020

 

2019

Revenues

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

Operating costs and expenses

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research and development

 

 

2,606

 

 

 

1,270

 

 

 

150

 

 

 

126

 

General and administrative

 

 

819

 

 

 

420

 

 

 

95

 

 

 

22

 

Total operating expenses

 

 

3,425

 

 

 

1,690

 

 

 

245

 

 

 

148

 

Net loss

 

$

(3,425

)

 

$

(1,690

)

 

$

(245

)

 

$

(148

)

Net loss per common share – basic and diluted(1)

 

$

(1.52

)

 

$

(8.32

)

 

$

(0.03

)

 

$

(0.73

)

Weighted average common shares outstanding – basic and diluted(1)

 

 

2,257,979

 

 

 

202,996

 

 

 

8,496,834

 

 

 

202,996

 

____________

(1)      See Note 3 to our financial statements for an explanation of the method used to compute basic and diluted net loss per share.

Balance Sheet Data:

(in thousands)

 

March 31, 2020
(unaudited)

   

Actual

 

Pro Forma(1)

 

Pro Forma,
As Adjusted
(2)(3)

Cash

 

$

7

 

 

$

7

 

 

$

6,760

 

Working capital deficit

 

 

(1,440

)

 

 

(1,440

)

 

 

5,313

 

Total assets

 

 

26

 

 

 

26

 

 

 

6,779

 

Total liabilities

 

 

1,447

 

 

 

1,447

 

 

 

1,447

 

Accumulated deficit

 

 

(27,459

)

 

 

(27,633

)

 

 

(28,880

)

Total stockholders’ equity (deficit)

 

 

(1,421

)

 

 

(1,421

)

 

 

5,332

 

____________

(1)      On a pro forma basis to reflect the issuance of an aggregate of 77,571 shares of common stock in April, May, and June 2020 in consideration for services rendered.

(2)      On a pro forma as adjusted basis to give further effect to our (i) issuance and sale of shares of common stock in this offering at an assumed initial public offering price of $8.00 per share, the midpoint of the price range listed on the cover page of this prospectus, after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us and (ii) the conversion of all outstanding shares of preferred stock into an aggregate of 1,980,365 shares of common stock upon closing of the offering.

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(3)      Each $1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed initial public offering price of $8.00 per share, the midpoint of the price range listed on the cover page of this prospectus, would increase (decrease) the pro forma as adjusted amount of each of cash, working capital, total assets and total stockholders’ equity (deficit) by approximately $920,000, assuming that the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same and after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. Similarly, each increase (decrease) of 500,000 shares in the number of shares offered by us at the assumed initial public offering price per share, the midpoint of the price range listed on the cover page of this prospectus, would increase (decrease) the pro forma as adjusted amount of each of cash, working capital, total assets and total stockholders’ equity (deficit) by approximately $3,680,000.

9

RISK FACTORS

An investment in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. Before making an investment decision, you should give careful consideration to the following risk factors, in addition to the other information included in this prospectus, including our financial statements and related notes, before deciding whether to invest in shares of our common stock. The occurrence of any of the adverse developments described in the following risk factors could materially and adversely harm our business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects. In that case, the trading price of our common stock could decline, and you may lose all or part of your investment.

Risks Relating to Our Financial Position and Capital Needs

We have incurred substantial losses since our inception and anticipate that we will continue to incur substantial and increasing losses for the foreseeable future.

We are a clinical stage biopharmaceutical company focused on the development of our novel cancer immunotherapy GP2, for breast cancer and potentially for a broad range of other HER2/neu-expressing cancers. Investment in biopharmaceutical product development is highly speculative because it entails substantial upfront capital expenditures and significant risk that a product candidate will fail to prove effective, gain regulatory approval or become commercially viable. We do not have any products approved by regulatory authorities and have not generated any revenues from collaboration and licensing agreements or product sales to date, and have incurred significant research, development and other expenses related to our ongoing operations and expect to continue to incur such expenses. As a result, we have not been profitable and have incurred significant operating losses since our inception. For the three months ended March 31, 2020 and the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, we reported a net loss of $0.2 million, $3.4 million and $1.7 million, respectively. As of March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, we had an accumulated deficit of $27.5 million and $27.2 million, respectively.

We do not expect to generate revenues for many years, if at all. We expect to continue to incur significant expenses and operating losses for the foreseeable future. We anticipate these losses to increase as we continue to research, develop and seek regulatory approvals for our product candidate and any additional product candidates we may acquire, and potentially begin to commercialize product candidates that may achieve regulatory approval. We may also encounter unforeseen expenses, difficulties, complications, delays and other unknown factors that may adversely affect our business. The size of our future net losses will depend, in part, on the rate of future growth of our expenses and our ability to generate revenues. Our expenses will further increase as we:

•        conduct clinical trials of our lead product candidate, GP2;

•        in-license or acquire the rights to, and pursue development of, other products, product candidates or technologies;

•        hire additional clinical, manufacturing, quality control, quality assurance and scientific personnel;

•        seek marketing approval for any product candidates that successfully complete clinical trials;

•        develop our outsourced manufacturing and commercial activities and establish sales, marketing and distribution capabilities, if we receive, or expect to receive, marketing approval for any product candidates;

•        maintain, expand and protect our intellectual property portfolio; and

•        add operational, financial and management information systems and personnel.

We need significant additional financing to fund our operations and complete the development and, if approved, the commercialization of our product candidate. If we are unable to raise capital when needed, we could be forced to delay, reduce or eliminate our product development programs or commercialization efforts.

We expect our existing cash as of March 31, 2020 together with proceeds from this offering will enable us to fund our operating expenses through and capital expenditure requirements for twelve months from the date of this prospectus; however, our existing cash will not be sufficient to complete development and obtain regulatory approval for our product candidate, and we will need to raise significant additional capital to help us do so. In addition, our operating plan may change as a result of many factors currently unknown to us, and we may need additional funds sooner than planned.

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We expect to expend substantial resources for the foreseeable future to continue the clinical development and manufacturing of our product candidate and the advancement and expansion of our preclinical research pipeline. These expenditures will include costs associated with research and development, potentially acquiring new product candidates or technologies, conducting preclinical studies and clinical trials and potentially obtaining regulatory approvals and manufacturing products, as well as marketing and selling products approved for sale, if any.

We believe that it may cost approximately $12 million to $15 million to complete an interim analysis of the safety and efficacy of our Phase III trial. Furthermore, the total cost to complete an interim analysis and file a BLA application for drug approval in the U.S. could exceed $16 million, and the total cost to complete our Phase III trial as planned could exceed $30 million; however, we believe that we have budget flexibility based upon the amount of proceeds raised from this offering as well as subsequent financings and other sources of capital with respect to the design of the Phase III clinical trial. We believe that we may be able to alter the cost of our Phase III clinical trial by adjusting the enrollment rate, the number of patients, and/or the number of immunological assays. While our budget for such Phase III trial may be flexible, our ability to reduce or modify costs may be adversely effected by, among other things, unexpected or higher costs associated with the trial, time required to complete the trial and other factors that may be beyond our control. Our budgets and future capital requirements depend on many factors, including:

•        the scope, progress, results and costs of our ongoing and planned development programs for our product candidate, as well as any additional clinical trials we undertake to obtain data sufficient to seek marketing approval for our product candidate;

•        the timing of, and the costs involved in, obtaining regulatory approvals for our product candidate if our clinical trials are successful;

•        the cost of commercialization activities for our product candidate, if our product candidate is approved for sale, including marketing, sales and distribution costs;

•        the cost of manufacturing our product candidate for clinical trials in preparation for regulatory approval, including the cost and timing of process development, manufacturing scale-up and validation activities;

•        our ability to establish and maintain strategic licensing or other arrangements and the financial terms of such agreements;

•        the costs to in-license future product candidates or technologies;

•        the costs involved in preparing, filing, prosecuting, maintaining, expanding, defending and enforcing patent claims, including litigation costs and the outcome of such litigation;

•        the costs in defending and resolving future derivative and securities class action litigation;

•        our operating expenses; and

•        the emergence of competing technologies or other adverse market developments.

Additional funds may not be available when we need them on terms that are acceptable to us, or at all. We have no committed source of additional capital. If adequate funds are not available to us on a timely basis, we may not be able to continue as a going concern or we may be required to delay, limit, reduce or terminate preclinical studies, clinical trials or other development activities for our product candidate or target indications, or delay, limit, reduce or terminate our establishment of sales and marketing capabilities or other activities that may be necessary to commercialize our product candidate.

We may consider strategic alternatives in order to maximize stockholder value, including financings, strategic alliances, acquisitions or the possible sale of the Company. We may not be able to identify or consummate any suitable strategic alternatives.

We may consider all strategic alternatives that may be available to us to maximize stockholder value, including financings, strategic alliances, acquisitions or the possible sale of the Company. We currently have no agreements or commitments to engage in any specific strategic transactions, and our exploration of various strategic alternatives may not result in any specific action or transaction. To the extent that this engagement results in a transaction, our business objectives may change depending upon the nature of the transaction. There can be no assurance that we will enter into

11

any transaction as a result of the engagement. Furthermore, if we determine to engage in a strategic transaction, we cannot predict the impact that such strategic transaction might have on our operations or stock price. We also cannot predict the impact on our stock price if we fail to enter into a transaction.

Raising additional capital may cause dilution to our existing stockholders, restrict our operations or require us to relinquish rights to our product candidate on unfavorable terms to us.

We may seek additional capital through a variety of means, including through private and public equity offerings and debt financings, collaborations, strategic alliances and marketing, distribution or licensing arrangements. To the extent that we raise additional capital through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, or through the issuance of shares under management or other types of contracts, or upon the exercise or conversion of outstanding derivative securities, the ownership interests of our stockholders will be diluted, and the terms of such financings may include liquidation or other preferences, anti-dilution rights, conversion and exercise price adjustments and other provisions that adversely affect the rights of our stockholders, including rights, preferences and privileges that are senior to those of our holders of common stock in the event of a liquidation. In addition, debt financing, if available, could include covenants limiting or restricting our ability to take certain actions, such as incurring additional debt, making capital expenditures, entering into licensing arrangements, or declaring dividends and may require us to grant security interests in our assets, including our intellectual property. If we raise additional funds through collaborations, strategic alliances, or marketing, distribution or licensing arrangements with third parties, we may have to relinquish valuable rights to our technologies, future revenue streams, product or product candidate or grant licenses on terms that may not be favorable to us. If we are unable to raise additional funds through equity or debt financings when needed, we may need to curtail or cease our operations.

There is substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern.

As of March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, we had cash of $6,835. In addition, we had current liabilities of approximately $1.4 million as of March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019. We expect our existing cash as of March 31, 2020 together with proceeds from this offering will enable us to fund our operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements for twelve months from the date of this prospectus. In the event that we are unable to obtain additional financing, we may be unable to continue as a going concern. There is no guarantee that we will be able to secure additional financing, including in connection with this offering. Changes in our operating plans, our existing and anticipated working capital needs, costs related to legal proceedings we might become subject to in the future, the acceleration or modification of our development activities, any near-term or future expansion plans, increased expenses, potential acquisitions or other events may further affect our ability to continue as a going concern. Similarly, the report of our independent registered public accounting firm on our financial statements as of and for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018 includes an explanatory paragraph indicating that there is substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern. If we cannot continue as a viable entity, our securityholders may lose some or all of their investment in us.

We currently have no source of revenues. We may never generate revenues or achieve profitability.

Currently, we do not generate any revenues from product sales or otherwise. Even if we are able to successfully achieve regulatory approval for our product candidate, we do not know when we will generate revenues or become profitable, if at all. Our ability to generate revenues from product sales and achieve profitability will depend on our ability to successfully commercialize products, including our current product candidate, GP2, and other product candidates that we may develop, in-license or acquire in the future. Our ability to generate revenues and achieve profitability also depends on a number of additional factors, including our ability to:

•        successfully complete development activities, including the necessary clinical trials;

•        complete and submit either Biologics License Applications, or BLAs, or New Drug Applications, or NDAs, to the FDA and obtain U.S. regulatory approval for indications for which there is a commercial market;

•        complete and submit applications to foreign regulatory authorities;

•        obtain regulatory approval in territories with viable market sizes;

•        obtain coverage and adequate reimbursement from third parties, including government and private payors;

12

•        set commercially viable prices for our product, if any;

•        establish and maintain supply and manufacturing relationships with reliable third parties and/or build our own manufacturing facility and ensure adequate, legally globally compliant manufacturing of bulk drug substances and drug products to maintain that supply;

•        develop distribution processes for our product candidate;

•        develop commercial quantities of our product candidate, once approved, at acceptable cost levels; obtain additional funding, if required to develop and commercialize our product candidate;

•        develop a commercial organization capable of sales, marketing and distribution for any products we intend to sell ourselves, in the markets in which we choose to commercialize on our own;

•        achieve market acceptance of our product;

•        attract, hire and retain qualified personnel; and

•        protect our rights in our intellectual property portfolio.

Our revenues for any product candidate for which regulatory approval is obtained will be dependent, in part, upon the size of the markets in the territories for which it gains regulatory approval, the accepted price for the product, the ability to get reimbursement at any price, and whether we own the commercial rights for that territory. If the number of our addressable disease patients is not as significant as our estimates, the indication approved by regulatory authorities is narrower than we expect, or the reasonably accepted population for treatment is narrowed by competition, physician choice or treatment guidelines, we may not generate significant revenues from sales of such products, even if approved. In addition, we anticipate incurring significant costs associated with commercializing any approved product candidate. As a result, even if we generate revenues, we may not become profitable and may need to obtain additional funding to continue operations. If we fail to become profitable or are unable to sustain profitability on a continuing basis, then we may be unable to continue our operations at planned levels and may be forced to reduce our operations.

The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act could adversely affect our business and financial condition.

H.R. 1, “An Act to provide for reconciliation pursuant to title II and V of the concurrent resolution on the budget for fiscal year 2018,” informally entitled the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (“Tax Act”) enacted on December 22, 2017, among other things, contains significant changes to corporate taxation, including reduction of the corporate tax rate from a top marginal rate of 35% to a single rate of 21%, limitation of the tax deduction for interest expense to 30% of adjusted taxable income (except for certain small businesses), limitation of the deduction for net operating losses carried forward from taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 to 80% of current year taxable income and elimination of net operating loss carrybacks, one time taxation of offshore earnings at reduced rates regardless of whether they are repatriated, elimination of U.S. tax on foreign earnings (subject to certain important exceptions), providing immediate deductions for certain new investments instead of deductions for depreciation expense over time, and modifying or repealing many business deductions and credits (including reduction of tax credits under the Orphan Drug Act). Notwithstanding the reduction in the corporate income tax rate, the overall impact of the Tax Act is uncertain and our business and financial condition could be adversely affected. In addition, it is uncertain if and to what extent various states will conform to the Tax Act.

Our ability to use net operating losses to offset future taxable income may be subject to limitations.

As of December 31, 2019, we had federal net operating loss, or NOLs, carryforwards of approximately $3.8 million. Our NOLs generated in tax years ending on or prior to December 31, 2017 are only permitted to be carried forward for 20 years under applicable U.S. tax laws, and will begin to expire, if not utilized, beginning in 2027. These NOL carryforwards could expire unused and be unavailable to offset future income tax liabilities. Under the Tax Act, federal NOLs incurred in tax years ending after December 31, 2017 may be carried forward indefinitely, but the deductibility of such federal NOLs is limited. It is uncertain if and to what extent various states will conform to the Tax Act, or whether any further regulatory changes may be adopted in the future that could minimize its applicability. In addition, under Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, and certain corresponding provisions of state law, if a corporation undergoes an “ownership change,” which is generally defined as a greater than 50% change, by value, in the ownership of its equity over a three-year period, the corporation’s ability to use its pre-change NOL carryforwards and other pre-change tax attributes to offset its post-change income may be limited.

13

Risks Related to the Development and Regulatory Approval of Our Product Candidate

Clinical-stage biopharmaceutical companies with product candidates in clinical development face a wide range of challenging activities which may entail substantial risk.

We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company with a product candidate in clinical development. The success of our product candidate will depend on several factors, including the following:

•        designing, conducting and successfully completing preclinical development activities, including preclinical efficacy and IND-enabling studies, for our product candidate or product candidates we may, in the future, in-license or acquire;

•        designing, conducting and completing clinical trials for our product candidate with positive results;

•        receipt of regulatory approvals from applicable authorities;

•        obtaining and maintaining patent and trade secret protection and regulatory exclusivity for our product candidate;

•        making arrangements with third-party manufacturers, receiving regulatory approval of our manufacturing processes and our third-party manufacturers’ facilities from applicable regulatory authorities and ensuring adequate supply of drug product;

•        manufacturing our product candidate at an acceptable cost;

•        effectively launching commercial sales of our product candidate, if approved, whether alone or in collaboration with others;

•        achieving acceptance of our product candidate, if approved, by patients, the medical community and third-party payors;

•        effectively competing with other therapies;

•        if our product candidate is approved, obtaining and maintaining coverage and adequate reimbursement by third-party payors, including government payors, for our product candidate;

•        complying with all applicable regulatory requirements, including FDA current Good Clinical Practices (“GCP”), current Good Manufacturing Practices (“cGMP”), and standards, rules and regulations governing promotional and other marketing activities;

•        maintaining a continued acceptable safety profile of the product during development and following approval; and

•        maintaining and growing an organization of scientists and business people who can develop and commercialize our product and technology.

If we do not achieve one or more of these factors in a timely manner or at all, we could experience significant delays or an inability to successfully develop and commercialize our product candidate, which could materially harm our business.

We may find it difficult to enroll patients in our clinical trials given the limited number of patients who have the diseases for which our product candidate is being studied which could delay or prevent the start of clinical trials for our product candidate.

Identifying and qualifying patients to participate in clinical trials of our product candidate is essential to our success. The timing of our clinical trials depends in part on the rate at which we can recruit patients to participate in clinical trials of our product candidate, and we may experience delays in our clinical trials if we encounter difficulties in enrollment. If we experience delays in our clinical trials, the timeline for obtaining regulatory approval of our product candidate will most likely be delayed.

14

Many factors may affect our ability to identify, enroll and maintain qualified patients, including the following:

•        eligibility criteria of our ongoing and planned clinical trials with specific characteristics appropriate for inclusion in our clinical trials;

•        design of the clinical trial;

•        size and nature of the patient population;

•        patients’ perceptions as to risks and benefits of the product candidate under study and the participation in a clinical trial generally in relation to other available therapies, including any new drugs that may be approved for the indications we are investigating;

•        the availability and efficacy of competing therapies and clinical trials;

•        pendency of other trials underway in the same patient population;

•        willingness of physicians to participate in our planned clinical trials;

•        severity of the disease under investigation;

•        proximity of patients to clinical sites;

•        patients who do not complete the trials for personal reasons; and

•        issues with CROs and/or with other vendors that handle our clinical trials.

We may not be able to initiate or continue to support clinical trials of our product candidate for one or more indications, or any future product candidates if we are unable to locate and enroll a sufficient number of eligible participants in these trials as required by the FDA or other regulatory authorities. Even if we are able to enroll a sufficient number of patients in our clinical trials, if the pace of enrollment is slower than we expect, the development costs for our product candidate may increase and the completion of our trials may be delayed or our trials could become too expensive to complete.

If we experience delays in the completion of, or termination of, any clinical trials of our product candidate, the commercial prospects of our product candidate could be harmed, and our ability to generate product revenue from any of our product candidate could be delayed or prevented. In addition, any delays in completing our clinical trials would likely increase our overall costs, impair product candidate development and jeopardize our ability to obtain regulatory approval relative to our current plans. Any of these occurrences may harm our business, financial condition, and prospects significantly.

The results of preclinical studies or earlier clinical trials are not necessarily predictive of future results. Our existing product candidate in clinical trials, and any other product candidates that may advance into clinical trials, may not have favorable results in later clinical trials or receive regulatory approval.

Success in preclinical studies and early clinical trials does not ensure that later clinical trials will generate adequate data to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of an investigational drug. A number of companies in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, including those with greater resources and experience than us, have suffered significant setbacks in clinical trials, even after seeing promising results in earlier preclinical studies or clinical trials.

Despite the results reported in earlier preclinical studies or clinical trials for our product candidate, we do not know whether the clinical trials we may conduct will demonstrate adequate efficacy and safety to result in regulatory approval to market our product candidate for a particular indication, in any particular jurisdiction. Efficacy data from prospectively designed trials may differ significantly from those obtained from retrospective subgroup analyses. If later-stage clinical trials do not produce favorable results, our ability to achieve regulatory approval for our product candidate may be adversely impacted. Even if we believe that we have adequate data to support an application for regulatory approval to market our current product candidate or any future product candidates, the FDA or other regulatory authorities may not agree and may require that we conduct additional clinical trials.

15

Clinical drug development involves a lengthy and expensive process with an uncertain outcome.

Clinical testing is expensive and can take many years to complete, with the outcome inherently uncertain. Failure can occur at any time during the clinical trial process. Before obtaining approval from regulatory authorities for the sale of our product candidate, we must conduct extensive clinical trials to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of our product candidate in humans. Prior to initiating clinical trials, a sponsor must complete extensive preclinical testing of a product candidate, including, in most cases, preclinical efficacy experiments as well as IND-enabling toxicology studies. These experiments and studies may be time-consuming and expensive to complete. The necessary preclinical testing may not be completed successfully for a preclinical product candidate and a potentially promising product candidate may therefore never be tested in humans. Once it commences, clinical testing is expensive, difficult to design and implement, can take many years to complete and is uncertain as to outcome. A failure of one or more clinical trials can occur at any stage of testing. The outcome of preclinical testing and early clinical trials may not be predictive of the success of later clinical trials, and interim results of a clinical trial do not necessarily predict final results. Moreover, preclinical and clinical data are often susceptible to varying interpretations and analyses, and many companies that have believed their product candidates performed satisfactorily in preclinical studies and clinical trials have nonetheless failed to obtain marketing approval of their products. We may experience numerous unforeseen events during drug development that could delay or prevent our ability to receive marketing approval or commercialize our product candidate. In particular, clinical trials of our product candidate may produce inconclusive or negative results. We have limited data regarding the safety, tolerability and efficacy of GP2 administered in combination with GM-CSF. Clinical trials also require the review and oversight of an institutional review board (“IRB”). An inability or delay in obtaining IRB approval could prevent or delay the initiation and completion of clinical trials, and the FDA may decide not to consider any data or information derived from a clinical investigation not subject to initial and continuing IRB review and approval.

We may experience delays in our ongoing or future clinical trials, and we do not know whether planned clinical trials will begin or enroll subjects on time, will need to be redesigned or will be completed on schedule, if at all. There can be no assurance that the FDA will not put clinical trials of our product candidate on hold in the future. Clinical trials may be delayed, suspended or prematurely terminated for a variety of reasons, such as:

•        delay or failure in reaching agreement with the FDA or a comparable foreign regulatory authority on a clinical trial design that we are able to execute;

•        delay or failure in obtaining authorization to commence a trial or inability to comply with conditions imposed by a regulatory authority regarding the scope or design of a trial;

•        delay or failure in reaching agreement on acceptable terms with prospective CROs and clinical trial sites, the terms of which can be subject to extensive negotiation and may vary significantly among different CROs and trial sites;

•        delay or failure in obtaining IRB approval or the approval of other reviewing entities, including comparable foreign regulatory authorities, to conduct a clinical trial at each site;

•        withdrawal of clinical trial sites from our clinical trials or the ineligibility of a site to participate in our clinical trials;

•        delay or failure in recruiting and enrolling suitable subjects to participate in a trial;

•        delay or failure in subjects completing a trial or returning for post-treatment follow-up;

•        clinical sites and investigators deviating from trial protocol, failing to conduct the trial in accordance with regulatory requirements, or dropping out of a trial;

•        inability to identify and maintain a sufficient number of trial sites, many of which may already be engaged in other clinical trial programs, including some that may be for the same indication;

•        failure of our third-party clinical trial managers, CROs, clinical trial sites, contracted laboratories or other third-party vendors to satisfy their contractual duties, meet expected deadlines or return trustworthy data;

16

•        delay or failure in adding new trial sites;

•        interim results or data that are ambiguous or negative or are inconsistent with earlier results or data;

•        alteration of trial design necessitated by re-evaluation of design assumptions based upon observed data;

•        feedback from the FDA, the IRB or a comparable foreign regulatory authority, or results from earlier stage or concurrent preclinical studies and clinical trials, that might require modification to the protocol for a trial;

•        a decision by the FDA, the IRB, a comparable foreign regulatory authority, or us to suspend or terminate clinical trials at any time for safety issues or for any other reason;

•        unacceptable risk-benefit profile, unforeseen safety issues or adverse side effects;

•        failure to demonstrate a benefit from using a product candidate;

•        difficulties in manufacturing or obtaining from third parties sufficient quantities of a product candidate to start or to use in clinical trials;

•        lack of adequate funding to continue a trial, including the incurrence of unforeseen costs due to enrollment delays, requirements to conduct additional studies or increased expenses associated with the services of our CROs and other third parties; or

•        changes in governmental regulations or administrative actions or lack of adequate funding to continue a clinical trial.

If we experience delays in the completion or termination of any clinical trial of our product candidate, the approval and commercial prospects of our product candidate will be harmed, delaying our ability to generate product revenues from such product candidate and our costs will most likely increase. The required regulatory approvals may also be delayed, thereby jeopardizing our ability to commence product sales and generate revenues and the period of commercial exclusivity for our product may be decreased. Regulatory approval of our product candidate may be denied for the same reasons that caused the delay.

Risks associated with operating in foreign countries could materially adversely affect our product development.

We may conduct future studies in countries outside of the U.S. Consequently, we may be subject to risks related to operating in foreign countries. Risks associated with conducting operations in foreign countries include:

•        differing regulatory requirements for drug approvals and regulation of approved drugs in foreign countries; more stringent privacy requirements for data to be supplied to our operations in the U.S., e.g., General Data Protection Regulation in the European Union;

•        unexpected changes in tariffs, trade barriers and regulatory requirements; economic weakness, including inflation, or political instability in particular foreign economies and markets; compliance with tax, employment, immigration and labor laws for employees living or traveling abroad; foreign taxes, including withholding of payroll taxes;

•        differing payor reimbursement regimes, governmental payors or patient self-pay systems and price controls;

•        foreign currency fluctuations, which could result in increased operating expenses or reduced revenues, and other obligations incident to doing business or operating in another country;

•        workforce uncertainty in countries where labor unrest is more common than in the U.S.;

•        production shortages resulting from any events affecting raw material supply or manufacturing capabilities abroad; and

•        business interruptions resulting from geopolitical actions, including war and terrorism.

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Our current and future product candidates, the methods used to deliver them or their dosage levels may cause undesirable side effects or have other properties that could delay or prevent their regulatory approval, limit the commercial profile of an approved label or result in significant negative consequences following any regulatory approval.

Undesirable side effects caused by our current or future product candidates, their delivery methods or dosage levels could cause us or regulatory authorities to interrupt, delay or halt clinical trials and could result in a more restrictive label or the delay or denial of regulatory approval or termination of clinical trials by the FDA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities; or an IRB, that approves and, monitors biomedical research to protect the rights and welfare of human subjects. As a result of safety or toxicity issues that we may experience in our clinical trials, or negative or inconclusive results from the clinical trials of others for drug candidates similar to our own, we may not receive approval to market our current product candidate or any product candidates we may pursue, which could prevent us from ever generating revenues or achieving profitability. Results of our trials could reveal an unacceptably high severity and incidence of side effects. In such an event, our trials could be suspended or terminated, and the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities could order us to cease further development of or deny approval of our current or any future product candidates for any or all targeted indications. The drug-related side effects could also affect patient recruitment or the ability of enrolled subjects to complete the trial or result in potential product liability claims. Any of these occurrences may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, cash flows and future prospects.

Additionally, if our product candidate receives regulatory approval, and we or others later identify undesirable side effects caused by such product, a number of potentially significant negative consequences could result, including that:

•        we may be forced to suspend marketing of such product;

•        regulatory authorities may withdraw their approvals of such product;

•        regulatory authorities may require additional warnings on the label that could diminish the usage or otherwise limit the commercial success of such product;

•        we may be required to conduct post-marketing studies;

•        we may be required to change the way the product is administered;

•        we could be sued and held liable for harm caused to subjects or patients; and

•        our reputation may suffer.

Any of these events could prevent us from achieving or maintaining market acceptance of our product candidate, if approved.

Our product development program may not uncover all possible adverse events that patients who take our product candidate may experience. The number of subjects exposed to our product candidate and the average exposure time in the clinical development program may be inadequate to detect rare adverse events or chance findings that may only be detected once the product is administered to more patients and for greater periods of time.

Clinical trials by their nature utilize a sample of the potential patient population. However, with a limited number of subjects and limited duration of exposure, we cannot be fully assured that rare and severe side effects of our product candidate will be uncovered. Such rare and severe side effects may only be uncovered with a significantly larger number of patients exposed to our product candidate. If such safety problems occur or are identified after our product candidate reaches the market, the FDA may require that we amend the labeling of the product or recall the product, or may even withdraw approval for the product.

Our future success is dependent on the regulatory approval of our product candidate.

Our business is dependent on our ability to obtain regulatory approval for our product candidate in a timely manner. We cannot commercialize our product candidate in the U.S. without first obtaining regulatory approval for the product from the FDA. Similarly, we cannot commercialize our product candidate outside of the U.S. without obtaining regulatory approval from comparable foreign regulatory authorities. Before obtaining regulatory approvals for the commercial sale of our product candidate for a target indication, we must demonstrate with substantial evidence

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gathered in preclinical studies and clinical trials, that the product candidate is safe and effective for use for that target indication and that the manufacturing facilities, processes and controls are adequate with respect to such product candidate.

The time required to obtain approval by the FDA and comparable foreign regulatory authorities is unpredictable but typically takes many years following the commencement of preclinical studies and clinical trials and depends upon numerous factors, including the substantial discretion of the regulatory authorities. In addition, approval policies, regulations, or the type and amount of clinical data necessary to gain approval may change during the course of a product candidate’s clinical development and may vary among jurisdictions.

Even if a product candidate were to successfully obtain approval from the FDA and comparable foreign regulatory authorities, any approval might contain significant limitations related to use restrictions for specified age groups, warnings, precautions or contraindications, or may be subject to burdensome post-approval study or risk management requirements. Also, any regulatory approval of our current product candidate or any future product candidates we may pursue, once obtained, may be withdrawn.

Our current product candidate and future product candidates could fail to receive regulatory approval from the FDA.

We have not obtained regulatory approval for our product candidate and it is possible that our existing product candidate or any future product candidates will not obtain regulatory approval, for many reasons, including:

•        disagreement with the regulatory authorities regarding the scope, design or implementation of our clinical trials;

•        failure to demonstrate that a product candidate is safe and effective for our proposed indication;

•        failure of clinical trials to meet the level of statistical significance required for approval;

•        failure to demonstrate that a product candidate’s clinical and other benefits outweigh its safety risks;

•        disagreement with our interpretation of data from preclinical studies or clinical trials;

•        the insufficiency of data collected from clinical trials of our product candidate to support the submission and filing of a BLA, NDA or other submission or to obtain regulatory approval;

•        failure to obtain approval of our manufacturing processes or facilities of third-party manufacturers with whom we contract for clinical and commercial supplies or our own manufacturing facility; or

•        changes in the approval policies or regulations that render our preclinical and clinical data insufficient for approval.

The FDA or a comparable foreign regulatory authority may require more information, including additional preclinical or clinical data to support approval or additional studies, which may delay or prevent approval and our commercialization plans, or we may decide to abandon the development program. If we were to obtain approval, regulatory authorities may approve our current product candidate and any future product candidates we may pursue for fewer or more limited indications than we request (including failing to approve the most commercially promising indications), may grant approval contingent on the performance of costly post-marketing clinical trials, or may approve a product candidate with a label that does not include the labeling claims necessary or desirable for the successful commercialization of that product candidate.

If we are unable to obtain regulatory approval for our product candidate in one or more jurisdictions, or any approval contains significant limitations, we may not be able to obtain sufficient funding to continue the development of that product or generate revenues attributable to that product candidate.

Failure to obtain regulatory approval in international jurisdictions would prevent our product candidate from being marketed abroad.

In addition to regulations in the U.S., to market and sell our product candidate in the European Union, United Kingdom, many Asian countries and other jurisdictions, we must obtain separate regulatory approvals and comply with numerous and varying regulatory requirements. Approval by the FDA does not ensure approval by regulatory authorities in

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other countries or jurisdictions, and approval by one regulatory authority outside the U.S. does not ensure approval by regulatory authorities in other countries or jurisdictions or by the FDA. The regulatory approval process outside the U.S. generally includes all of the risks associated with obtaining FDA approval as well as risks attributable to the satisfaction of local regulations in foreign jurisdictions. The approval procedure varies among countries and can involve additional testing. The time required to obtain approval may differ substantially from that required to obtain FDA approval. We may not be able to obtain approvals from regulatory authorities outside the U.S. on a timely basis, if at all. Clinical trials accepted in one country may not be accepted by regulatory authorities in other countries. In addition, many countries outside the U.S. require that a product be approved for reimbursement before it can be approved for sale in that country. A product candidate that has been approved for sale in a particular country may not receive reimbursement approval in that country.

We may not be able to file for regulatory approvals and may not receive necessary approvals to commercialize our product in any market. If we are unable to obtain approval of any of our current product candidate or any future product candidates we may pursue by regulatory authorities in the European Union, United Kingdom, Asia or elsewhere, the commercial prospects of that product candidate may be significantly diminished, our business prospects could decline and this could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Even if our current candidate receive regulatory approval, it may still face future development and regulatory difficulties.

Even if we obtain regulatory approval for our product candidate, that approval would be subject to ongoing requirements by the FDA and comparable foreign regulatory authorities governing the manufacture, quality control, further development, labeling, packaging, storage, distribution, adverse event reporting, safety surveillance, import, export, advertising, promotion, recordkeeping and reporting of safety and other post-marketing information. These requirements include submissions of safety and other post-marketing information and reports, registration, as well as continued compliance by us and/or our CMOs and CROs for any post-approval clinical trials that we may conduct. The safety profile of any product will continue to be closely monitored by the FDA and comparable foreign regulatory authorities after approval. If the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities become aware of new safety information after approval of our product candidate, they may require labeling changes or establishment of a risk evaluation and mitigation strategy, impose significant restrictions on such product’s indicated uses or marketing or impose ongoing requirements for potentially costly post-approval studies or post-market surveillance.

In addition, manufacturers of drug products and their facilities are subject to continual review and periodic inspections by the FDA and other regulatory authorities for compliance with cGMP, GCP, and other regulations. If we or a regulatory agency discover previously unknown problems with a product, such as adverse events of unanticipated severity or frequency, or problems with the facility where the product is manufactured, a regulatory agency may impose restrictions on that product, the manufacturing facility or us, including requiring recall or withdrawal of the product from the market or suspension of manufacturing. If we, our product candidate or the manufacturing facilities for our product candidate fail to comply with applicable regulatory requirements, a regulatory agency may:

•        issue warning letters or untitled letters;

•        mandate modifications to promotional materials or require us to provide corrective information to healthcare practitioners;

•        require us to enter into a consent decree, which can include imposition of various fines, reimbursements for inspection costs, required due dates for specific actions and penalties for noncompliance;

•        seek an injunction or impose civil or criminal penalties or monetary fines;

•        suspend or withdraw regulatory approval;

•        suspend any ongoing clinical trials;

•        refuse to approve pending applications or supplements to applications filed by us;

•        suspend or impose restrictions on operations, including costly new manufacturing requirements; or

•        seize or detain products, refuse to permit the import or export of products, or require us to initiate a product recall.

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The occurrence of any event or penalty described above may inhibit our ability to successfully commercialize our product and generate revenues.

Advertising and promotion of any product candidate that obtains approval in the U.S. is heavily scrutinized by the FDA, the Department of Justice, the Office of Inspector General of Health and Human Services, state attorneys general, members of Congress and the public. A company can make only those claims relating to safety and efficacy, purity and potency that are approved by the FDA and in accordance with the provisions of the approved label. Additionally, advertising and promotion of any product candidate that obtains approval outside of the U.S. is heavily scrutinized by comparable foreign regulatory authorities. Violations, including actual or alleged promotion of our product for unapproved or off-label uses, are subject to enforcement letters, inquiries and investigations, and civil and criminal sanctions by the FDA, as well as prosecution under the federal False Claims Act. Any actual or alleged failure to comply with labeling and promotion requirements may have a negative impact on our business.

Risks Related to Our Manufacturing

We have limited to no manufacturing, sales, marketing or distribution capability and must rely upon third parties for such.

We currently have purchase orders with various third-party manufacturing facilities for production of our product candidate for research and development and testing purposes. We depend on these manufacturers to meet our deadlines, quality standards and specifications. Our reliance on third parties for the manufacture of our active pharmaceutical ingredient and drug product and, in the future, any approved products, creates a dependency that could severely disrupt our research and development, our clinical testing, and ultimately our sales and marketing efforts if the source of such supply proves to be unreliable or unavailable. If the contracted manufacturing source is unreliable or unavailable, we may not be able to manufacture clinical drug supplies of our product candidate, and our preclinical and clinical testing programs may not be able to move forward and our entire business plan could fail.

The active pharmaceutical ingredient for our product candidate is currently sourced from Polypeptide Laboratories located in San Diego, California. We believe this single source is currently capable of supplying all anticipated needs of our proposed clinical studies, as well as initial commercial introduction. We will be developing a source or sources for drug product manufacturing. If we are able to commercialize our product in the future, there is no assurance that our manufacturers will be able to meet commercialized scale production requirements in a timely manner or in accordance with applicable standards or cGMP. Once the nature and scope of additional indications and their commensurate drug product demands are established, we will seek secondary suppliers of both the active pharmaceutical ingredient and drug product for our product candidate, but we cannot assure that such secondary suppliers will be found on terms acceptable to us, or at all.

We are subject to a multitude of manufacturing risks, any of which could substantially increase our costs and limit supply of our product candidate.

We and our CMOs will need to conduct significant development work for our product candidate for each target indication for studies, trials and commercial launch readiness. Developing commercially viable manufacturing processes is a difficult, expensive and uncertain task, and there are risks associated with scaling to the level required for advanced clinical trials or commercialization, including cost overruns, potential problems with process scale-up, process reproducibility, stability issues, consistency and timely availability of reagents or raw materials. The manufacturing facilities in which our product candidate will be made could be adversely affected by earthquakes and other natural disasters, medical pandemics, equipment failures, labor shortages, power failures, and numerous other factors.

Additionally, the process of manufacturing our product candidate is complex, highly regulated and subject to several risks, including but not limited to:

•        product loss due to contamination, equipment failure or improper installation or operation of equipment, or vendor or operator error;

•        reduced production yields, product defects, and other supply disruptions due to deviations, even minor, from normal manufacturing and distribution processes;

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•        unexpected product defects; and

•        microbial, viral, or other contaminations in our product candidate or in the manufacturing facilities in which our product candidate is made, which may result in the closure of such manufacturing facilities for an extended period of time to allow for the investigation and remediation of the contamination.

Any adverse developments affecting manufacturing operations for our product candidate may result in shipment delays, inventory shortages, lot failures, withdrawals or recalls or other interruptions in the supply of our drug substance and drug product, which could delay the development of our product candidate. We may also have to write off inventory, incur other charges and expenses for supply of drug product that fails to meet specifications, undertake costly remediation efforts, or seek more costly manufacturing alternatives. Inability to meet the demand for our product candidate could damage our reputation and the reputation of our product among physicians, healthcare payors, patients or the medical community, and cancer treatment centers, which could adversely affect our ability to operate our business and our results of operations.

In the clinical trials using GP2, GM-CSF is also administered and its availability is dependent upon a third-party manufacturer, which may or may not reliably provide GM-CSF, thus jeopardizing the completion of the trials.

GP2 is administered in combination with GM-CSF which is available in both liquid and lyophilized forms exclusively from one manufacturer. We will continue to be dependent on such manufacturer for our supply of GM-CSF in combination with GP2 in the ongoing GP2 trials and upon the potential commercialization of GP2. We have not entered into a supply agreement with the manufacturer for GM-CSF, and instead rely on purchase orders to meet our supply needs. Any temporary interruptions or discontinuation of the availability of GM-CSF could have a material adverse effect on our operations.

If any of our CMOs’ clinical manufacturing facilities are damaged or destroyed or production at such facilities is otherwise interrupted, our business and prospects would be negatively affected.

If our CMOs’ manufacturing facilities or the equipment in them is damaged or destroyed, we may not be able to quickly or inexpensively replace our manufacturing capacity or replace it at all. In the event of a temporary or protracted loss of this facility or equipment, we might not be able to transfer manufacturing to another CMO. Even if we could transfer manufacturing to another CMO, the shift would likely be expensive and time-consuming, particularly because the new facility would need to comply with the necessary regulatory requirements and we would need FDA approval before selling any products manufactured at that facility. Such an event could delay our clinical trials or reduce our product sales.

Although we do not currently maintain insurance coverage against damage to our property and to cover business interruption and research and development restoration expenses, any insurance coverage we obtain in the future may not reimburse us, or may not be sufficient to reimburse us, for any expenses or losses we may suffer. We may be unable to meet our requirements for our product candidate if there were a catastrophic event or failure of our current manufacturing facility or processes.

Risks Related to Our Dependence on Third Parties and Our License Agreements

We rely on third parties to conduct our preclinical studies and clinical trials. If these third parties do not successfully carry out their contractual duties or meet expected deadlines, or if we lose any of our CROs or other key third-party vendors, we may not be able to obtain regulatory approval for or commercialize our current or future product candidates on a timely basis, if at all.

Our internal capacity for clinical trial execution and management is limited and therefore we rely heavily on third parties. We have relied upon and plan to continue to rely upon third-party CROs, vendors and contractors to monitor and manage data for our ongoing preclinical and clinical programs. For example, our collaborating investigators along with their clinical and clinical operations teams may manage the conduct of any future clinical trials for GP2 as well as perform the analysis, publication and presentation of data and results related to this program.

We plan to rely on CROs and other third-party vendors for all currently contemplated clinical studies. We rely on these parties for the execution of our preclinical studies and clinical trials, including the proper and timely conduct

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of our clinical trials, and we control only some aspects of their activities. Outsourcing these functions involves risk that third parties may not perform to our standards, may not produce results or data in a timely manner or may fail to perform at all.

While we may have agreements governing the commitments of our third-party vendor services, we will have limited influence over their actual performance. Nevertheless, we will be responsible for ensuring that each of our trials is conducted in accordance with the applicable protocol and legal, regulatory and scientific standards, and our reliance on the CROs will not relieve us of our regulatory responsibilities.

If our Company, or any of our partners or CROs, fail to comply with applicable regulations and good clinical practices, the clinical data generated in our clinical trials may be deemed unreliable and the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may require us to perform additional clinical trials before approving our regulatory applications. We cannot assure you that upon inspection by a given regulatory authority, such regulatory authority will determine that any of our clinical trials comply with applicable requirements. In addition, our clinical trials must be conducted with product produced under cGMP and other requirements. We are also required to register ongoing clinical trials and post the results of completed clinical trials on a government-sponsored database, clinicaltrials.gov, within a specified timeframe. Failure to comply also would violate federal requirements in the U.S. and could result in other penalties, which would delay the regulatory approval process and result in adverse publicity.

Our CROs, third-party vendors and contractors are not and will not be our employees, and except for remedies available to us under our agreements with such CROs, third-party vendors and contractors, we cannot control whether or not they devote sufficient time and resources, including experienced staff, to our ongoing clinical, nonclinical and preclinical programs. They may also have relationships with other entities, some of which may be our competitors. If CROs, third-party vendors and contractors do not successfully carry out their contractual duties or obligations or meet expected deadlines or if the quality or accuracy of the clinical data they obtain is compromised due to the failure to adhere to our clinical protocols, regulatory requirements or for other reasons, our clinical trials may be extended, delayed or terminated and we may not be able to obtain regulatory approval for or successfully commercialize our current or future product candidates. CRO, vendor or contractor errors could cause our results of operations and the commercial prospects for our current or future product candidates to be harmed, our costs to increase and our ability to generate revenues to be delayed.

In addition, the use of third-party service providers requires us to disclose our proprietary information to these parties, which could increase the risk that this information will be misappropriated. To the extent we are unable to identify and successfully manage the performance of third-party service providers in the future, our business may be adversely affected. Though, once engaged, we intend to carefully manage our relationships with our CROs, there can be no assurance that we will not encounter challenges or delays in the future or that these delays or challenges will not have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and prospects.

We are dependent on technologies we license, and if we lose the right to license such technologies or we fail to license new technologies in the future, our ability to develop new products would be harmed, and if we fail to meet our obligations under our license agreements, we may lose the ability to develop our product candidate.

We currently are dependent on a license from HJF for technologies relating to our product candidate. The license imposes, and any future licenses we enter into are likely to impose, various development, funding, royalty, diligence, sublicensing, insurance and other obligations on us. If our license with respect to any of these technologies is terminated for any reason, the development of the products contemplated by the licenses would be delayed, or suspended altogether, while we seek to license similar technology or develop new non-infringing technology which could have a material adverse effect on our business.

We may not realize the benefits of our strategic alliances that we may form in the future.

We may form strategic alliances, create joint ventures or collaborations or enter into licensing arrangements with third parties that we believe will complement or augment our existing business. These relationships, or those like them, may require us to incur nonrecurring and other charges, increase our near- and long-term expenditures, issue securities that dilute our existing stockholders or disrupt our management and business. In addition, we face significant competition in seeking appropriate strategic alliances and the negotiation process is time-consuming and complex. Moreover, we

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may not be successful in our efforts to establish a strategic alliance or other alternative arrangements for or current product candidate or any future product candidates and programs because our research and development pipeline may be insufficient, our current product candidate and future product candidates and programs may be deemed to be at too early a stage of development for collaborative effort and third parties may not view such product candidates and programs as having the requisite potential to demonstrate safety and efficacy. If we license products or acquire businesses, we may not be able to realize the benefit of such transactions if we are unable to successfully integrate them with our existing operations and company culture. We cannot be certain that, following a strategic transaction or license, we will achieve the revenues or specific net income that justifies such transaction. Any delays in entering into new strategic alliances agreements related to our current product candidate or future product candidates could also delay the development and commercialization of such product candidates and reduce their competitiveness even if they reach the market.

Our business involves the use of hazardous materials and we and our third-party manufacturers and suppliers must comply with environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, which can be expensive and restrict how we do business.

Our third-party manufacturers’ and suppliers’ activities involve the controlled storage, use and disposal of hazardous materials. We and our manufacturers and suppliers are subject to laws and regulations governing the use, manufacture, storage, handling and disposal of these hazardous materials even after we sell or otherwise dispose of the products. In some cases, these hazardous materials and various wastes resulting from their use will be stored at our contractors or manufacturers’ facilities pending use and disposal. We cannot completely eliminate the risk of contamination, which could cause injury to our employees and others, environmental damage resulting in costly cleanup and liabilities under applicable laws and regulations governing the use, storage, handling and disposal of these materials and specified waste products. Although we expect that the safety procedures utilized by our third-party contractors and manufacturers for handling and disposing of these materials will generally comply with the standards prescribed by these laws and regulations, we cannot guarantee that this will be the case or eliminate the risk of accidental contamination or injury from these materials. In such an event, we may be held liable for any resulting damages and such liability could exceed our resources. We do not currently carry biological or hazardous waste insurance coverage and any future property and casualty, and general liability insurance policies may exclude coverage for damages and fines arising from biological or hazardous waste exposure or contamination.

We may not be able to establish or maintain the third-party relationships that are necessary to develop or potentially commercialize our product candidate.

We expect to depend on collaborators, partners, licensees, CROs and other third parties to formulate our product candidate, to manufacture our product candidate, and to conduct clinical trials for our product candidate. We cannot guarantee that we will be able to successfully negotiate agreements for or maintain relationships with collaborators, partners, licensees, clinical investigators, vendors and other third parties on favorable terms, if at all. Our ability to successfully negotiate such agreements will depend on, among other things, potential partners’ evaluation of the superiority of our technology over competing technologies and the quality of the preclinical and clinical data that we have generated, and the perceived risks specific to developing our product candidate. If we are unable to obtain or maintain these agreements, we may not be able to clinically develop, formulate, manufacture, obtain regulatory approvals for or commercialize our product candidate. We cannot necessarily control the amount or timing of resources that our contract partners will devote to our product candidate, and we cannot guarantee that these parties will fulfill their obligations to us under these arrangements in a timely fashion. We may not be able to readily terminate any such agreements with contract partners even if such contract partners do not fulfill their obligations to us.

In addition, we may receive notices from third parties from time to time alleging that our technology or product candidate infringes upon the intellectual property rights of those third parties. Any assertion by third parties that our activities or product candidate infringes upon the intellectual property rights of third parties may adversely affect our ability to secure strategic partners or licensees for our technology or product candidate or our ability to secure or maintain manufacturers for our compounds.

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Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property

We rely on an exclusive license granted to us by HJF with respect to GP2, and if HJF does not adequately defend such license, our business may be harmed.

We have been granted an exclusive license to GP2, our product candidate, from HJF. The GP2 patent rights were assigned to HJF by certain third parties including the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences. We rely on HJF to maintain the patents already issued with respect to GP2, to continue to pursue patent applications pending in certain countries with respect to GP2, and otherwise protect the intellectual property covered by our exclusive license agreement. We have limited control over the activities of HJF or over any other intellectual property that may be related to GP2. For example, we cannot be certain that activities by HJF have been or will be conducted in compliance with applicable laws and regulations and/or any agreements between HJF and the third party assignors. We have no control or input over whether, and in what manner, HJF may enforce or defend the patents against a third-party. HJF may enforce or defend the patent less vigorously than if we had enforced or defended the patents ourselves. Further, HJF may not necessarily seek enforcement in scenarios in which we would feel that enforcement was in our best interests. For example, HJF may not enforce the patents against a competitor of ours who is not a direct competitor of HJF. If our in-licensed intellectual property is found to be invalid or unenforceable, then HJF may not be able to enforce the patents against a competitor of ours. If we fail to meet our obligations under our exclusive license agreement with HJF, then HJF may terminate such agreement. Although we may choose to terminate our license agreement with HJF, doing so would allow a third party to seek and obtain an exclusive license to GP2. If a third party obtains an exclusive license to intellectual property with respect to GP2, then the third party may seek to enforce the intellectual property against us which may have a material adverse effect on our business.

It is difficult and costly to protect our proprietary rights, and we may not be able to ensure their protection. If our patent position does not adequately protect our product candidate, others could compete against us more directly, which would harm our business, possibly materially.

Our commercial success will depend in part on obtaining and maintaining patent protection and trade secret protection of our current product candidate and future product candidates, the processes used to manufacture them and the methods for using them, as well as successfully defending these patents against third-party challenges. As of the date of this prospectus, we only have licensed rights from HJF to certain issued patents as well as patent applications which are currently pending in certain countries with respect to GP2. Our ability to stop third parties from making, using, selling, offering to sell or importing our product candidate is dependent upon the extent to which we have rights under valid and enforceable patents or trade secrets that cover these activities.

The patent positions of biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies can be highly uncertain and involve complex legal and factual questions for which important legal principles remain unresolved. No consistent policy regarding the breadth of claims allowed in pharmaceutical patents has emerged to date in the U.S. or in foreign jurisdictions outside of the U.S. Changes in either the patent laws or interpretations of patent laws in the U.S. and other countries may diminish the value of our intellectual property. Accordingly, we cannot predict the breadth of claims that may be enforced in the patents that may be issued from the applications we currently or may in the future own or license from third parties. Further, if any patents we obtain or license are deemed invalid and unenforceable, our ability to commercialize or license our technology could be adversely affected.

Others have filed, and in the future are likely to file, patent applications covering products and technologies that are similar, identical or competitive to ours or important to our business. We cannot be certain that any patent application owned by a third party will not have priority over patent applications filed or in-licensed by us, or that we or our licensors will not be involved in interference, opposition, reexamination, review, reissue, post grant review or invalidity proceedings before U.S. or non-U.S. patent offices.

The degree of future protection for our proprietary rights is uncertain because legal means afford only limited protection and may not adequately protect our rights or permit us to gain or keep our competitive advantage. For example:

•        others may be able to make compounds that are similar to our product candidate, but that are not covered by the claims of our licensed patents;

•        HJF might not have been the first to make the inventions covered by its pending patent applications;

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•        we or HJF might not have been the first to file patent applications for these inventions;

•        HJF’spending patent applications may not result in issued patents;

•        the claims of HJF’s issued patents or patent applications when issued may not cover our product or product candidate;

•        any patents that we obtain from licensing or otherwise may not provide us with any competitive advantages;

•        any granted patents that we rely upon may be held invalid or unenforceable as a result of legal challenges by third parties; and

•        the patents of others may have an adverse effect on our business.

If we fail to comply with our obligations in the agreements under which we may license intellectual property rights from third parties or otherwise experience disruptions to our business relationships with our licensors, we could lose rights that are important to our business.

We may be required to enter into intellectual property license agreements that are important to our business. These license agreements may impose various diligence, milestone payment, royalty and other obligations on us. For example, we may enter into exclusive license agreements with various universities and research institutions, we may be required to use commercially reasonable efforts to engage in various development and commercialization activities with respect to licensed products, and may need to satisfy specified milestone and royalty payment obligations. If we fail to comply with any obligations under our agreements with any of these licensors, we may be subject to termination of the license agreement in whole or in part; increased financial obligations to our licensors or loss of exclusivity in a particular field or territory, in which case our ability to develop or commercialize products covered by the license agreement will be impaired.

In addition, disputes may arise regarding intellectual property subject to a license agreement, including:

•        the scope of rights granted under the license agreement and other interpretation-related issues;

•        the extent to which our technology and processes infringe on intellectual property of the licensor that is not subject to the licensing agreement;

•        our diligence obligations under the license agreement and what activities satisfy those obligations;

•        if a third-party expresses interest in an area under a license that we are not pursuing, under the terms of certain of our license agreements, we may be required to sublicense rights in that area to a third party, and that sublicense could harm our business; and

•        the ownership of inventions and know-how resulting from the joint creation or use of intellectual property by our licensors and us.

If disputes over intellectual property that we have licensed prevent or impair our ability to maintain our current licensing arrangements on acceptable terms, we may be unable to successfully develop and commercialize our product candidate.

We may need to obtain licenses from third parties to advance our research or allow commercialization of our product candidate. We may fail to obtain any of these licenses at a reasonable cost or on reasonable terms, if at all. In that event, we would be unable to further develop and commercialize our product candidate, which could harm our business significantly.

We may incur substantial costs as a result of litigation or other proceedings relating to patents and other intellectual property rights.

If we choose to commence a proceeding or litigation to prevent another party from infringing HJF’s patents, that party will have the right to ask the examiner or court to rule that such patents are invalid or should not be enforced against them. There is a risk that the examiner or court will decide that HJF’s patents are not valid and that HJF does not have the right to stop the other party from using the related inventions. There is also the risk that, even if the validity of such patents is upheld, the examiner or court will refuse to stop the other party on the ground that such other party’s

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activities do not infringe our rights to such patents. In addition, the U.S. Supreme Court has recently modified some tests used by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (the “USPTO”) in granting patents over the past 20 years, which may decrease the likelihood that we or HJF will be able to obtain patents and increase the likelihood of challenge to any patents we obtain or license. Any proceedings or litigation to enforce our intellectual property rights or defend ourselves against claims of infringement of third-party intellectual property rights could be costly and divert the attention of managerial and scientific personnel, regardless of whether such litigation is ultimately resolved in our favor. We may not have sufficient resources to bring these actions to a successful conclusion. Moreover, if we are unable to successfully defend against claims that we have infringed the intellectual property rights of others, we may be prevented from using certain intellectual property and may be liable for damages, which in turn could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.

We may infringe the intellectual property rights of others, which may prevent or delay our product development efforts and stop us from commercializing or increase the costs of commercializing our product candidate.

Our success will depend in part on our ability to operate without infringing the proprietary rights of third parties. We cannot guarantee that our product candidate, or manufacture or use of our product candidate, will not infringe third-party patents. Furthermore, a third party may claim that we are using inventions covered by the third party’s patent rights and may go to court to stop us from engaging in our normal operations and activities, including making or selling our product candidate. These lawsuits are costly and could affect our results of operations and divert the attention of managerial and scientific personnel. Some of these third parties may be better capitalized and have more resources than us. There is a risk that a court would decide that we are infringing the third party’s patents and would order us to stop the activities covered by the patents. In that event, we may not have a viable way around the patent and may need to halt commercialization of our product candidate. In addition, there is a risk that a court will order us to pay the other party damages for having violated the other party’s patents. In addition, we may be obligated to indemnify our licensors and collaborators against certain intellectual property infringement claims brought by third parties, which could require us to expend additional resources. The pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries have produced a proliferation of patents, and it is not always clear to industry participants, including us, which patents cover various types of products or methods of use. The coverage of patents is subject to interpretation by the courts, and the interpretation is not always uniform.

If we are sued for patent infringement, we would need to demonstrate that our product candidate or methods either do not infringe the patent claims of the relevant patent or that the patent claims are invalid, and we may not be able to do this. Proving invalidity is difficult. For example, in the U.S., proving invalidity requires a showing of clear and convincing evidence to overcome the presumption of validity enjoyed by issued patents. Even if we are successful in these proceedings, we may incur substantial costs and divert management’s time and attention in pursuing these proceedings, which could have a material adverse effect on us. If we are unable to avoid infringing the patent rights of others, we may be required to seek a license, which may not be available, defend an infringement action or challenge the validity of the patents in court. Patent litigation is costly and time consuming. We may not have sufficient resources to bring these actions to a successful conclusion. In addition, if we do not obtain a license, develop or obtain non-infringing technology, fail to defend an infringement action successfully or have infringed patents declared invalid, we may incur substantial monetary damages, encounter significant delays in bringing our product candidate to market and be precluded from manufacturing or selling our product candidate.

We cannot be certain that others have not filed patent applications for technology covered by HJF’s pending applications, or that HJF the first to invent the technology, because:

•        some patent applications in the U.S. may be maintained in secrecy until the patents are issued;

•        patent applications in the U.S. are typically not published until 18 months after the priority date; and

•        publications in the scientific literature often lag behind actual discoveries.

Our competitors may have filed, and may in the future file, patent applications covering technology similar to ours. Any such patent application may have priority over HJF’s patent applications, which could require us to obtain rights to issued patents covering such technologies. If another party has filed U.S. patent applications on inventions similar to HJF that claims priority to any applications filed prior to the priority dates of HJF’s applications, HJF may have to participate in an interference proceeding declared by the USPTO to determine priority of invention in the U.S. It is possible that such efforts would be unsuccessful if, unbeknownst to HJF, the other party had independently arrived at

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the same or similar inventions prior to HFJ’s inventions, resulting in a loss of HFJ’s U.S. patent position with respect to such inventions which could in turn have a material adverse effect on our operations. Other countries have similar laws that permit secrecy of patent applications, and may be entitled to priority over our applications in such jurisdictions.

Some of our competitors may be able to sustain the costs of complex patent litigation more effectively than us or the third parties from whom we license intellectual property because they have substantially greater resources. In addition, any uncertainties resulting from the initiation and continuation of any litigation could have a material adverse effect on our ability to raise the funds necessary to continue our operations.

If we are not able to adequately prevent disclosure of trade secrets and other proprietary information, the value of our technology and product could be significantly diminished.

We also rely on trade secrets to protect our proprietary technologies, especially where we do not believe patent protection is appropriate or obtainable. However, trade secrets are difficult to protect. We rely in part on confidentiality agreements with our employees, consultants, outside scientific collaborators, sponsored researchers and other advisors to protect our trade secrets and other proprietary information. These agreements may not effectively prevent disclosure of confidential information and may not provide an adequate remedy in the event of unauthorized disclosure of confidential information. Furthermore, any license agreements we enter into in the future may require us to notify, and in some cases license back to the licensor, certain additional proprietary information or intellectual property that we developed using the rights licensed to us under these agreements. Any such licenses back to the licensor could allow our licensors to use that proprietary information or intellectual property in a manner that could harm our business. In addition, others may independently discover our trade secrets and proprietary information. For example, the FDA, as part of its transparency initiative, is currently considering whether to make additional information publicly available on a routine basis, including information that we may consider to be trade secrets or other proprietary information, and it is not clear at the present time how the FDA’s disclosure policies may change in the future, if at all. Costly and time-consuming litigation could be necessary to enforce and determine the scope of our proprietary rights, and failure to obtain or maintain trade secret protection could adversely affect our competitive business position.

We may be subject to claims that our employees, consultants or independent contractors have wrongfully used or disclosed alleged trade secrets.

As is common in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries, we employ individuals who were previously employed at other biotechnology or pharmaceutical companies, including our competitors or potential competitors. Although we try to ensure that our employees, consultants and independent contractors do not use the proprietary information or know-how of others in their work for us, we may be subject to claims that we or our employees, consultants or independent contractors have inadvertently or otherwise used or disclosed trade secrets or other proprietary information of their former employers. Litigation may be necessary to defend against these claims. If we fail in defending any such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we could lose valuable intellectual property rights or personnel, which could adversely impact our business. Even if we are successful in defending against these claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and be a distraction to management.

Our intellectual property may not be sufficient to protect our product candidate from competition, which may negatively affect our business as well as limit our partnership or acquisition appeal.

We may be subject to competition despite the existence of intellectual property we license or own. We can give no assurances that our intellectual property claims will be sufficient to prevent third parties from designing around patents we own or license and developing and commercializing competitive products. The existence of competitive products that avoid our intellectual property could materially adversely affect our operating results and financial condition. Furthermore, limitations, or perceived limitations, in our intellectual property may limit the interest of third parties to partner, collaborate or otherwise transact with us, if third parties perceive a higher than acceptable risk to commercialization of our product candidate or future product candidates.

We may elect to sue a third party, or otherwise make a claim, alleging infringement or other violation of patents, trademarks, trade dress, copyrights, trade secrets, domain names or other intellectual property rights that we either own or license from a third party. If we do not prevail in enforcing our intellectual property rights in this type of litigation, we may be subject to:

•        paying monetary damages related to the legal expenses of the third party;

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•        facing additional competition that may have a significant adverse effect on our product pricing, market share, business operations, financial condition, and the commercial viability of our product; and

•        restructuring our company or delaying or terminating select business opportunities, including, but not limited to, research and development, clinical trial, and commercialization activities, due to a potential deterioration of our financial condition or market competitiveness.

A third party may also challenge the validity, enforceability or scope of the intellectual property rights that we license or own; and, the result of these challenges may narrow the scope or claims of or invalidate patents that are integral to our product candidate in the future. There can be no assurance that we will be able to successfully defend patents we own or license in an action against third parties due to the unpredictability of litigation and the high costs associated with intellectual property litigation, amongst other factors.

Intellectual property rights and enforcement may be less extensive in jurisdictions outside of the U.S.; thus, we may not be able to protect our intellectual property and third parties may be able to market competitive products that may use some or all of our intellectual property.

Changes to patent law, including the Leahy-Smith America Invests Act, AIA or Leahy-Smith Act, of 2011 and the Patent Reform Act of 2009 and other future article of legislation, may substantially change the regulations and procedures surrounding patent applications, issuance of patents, and prosecution of patents. We can give no assurances that the patents of our licensor can be defended or will protect us against future intellectual property challenges, particularly as they pertain to changes in patent law and future patent law interpretations.

In addition, enforcing and maintaining our intellectual property protection depends on compliance with various procedural, document submission, fee payment and other requirements imposed by the USPTO, courts and foreign government patent agencies, and HJF’s patent protection could be reduced or eliminated for non-compliance with these requirements which may have a material adverse effect on our business.

Risks Related to Commercialization of Our Current Product Candidate and Future Product Candidates

Our commercial success depends upon attaining significant market acceptance of our current product candidate and future product candidates, if approved, among physicians, patients, healthcare payors and cancer treatment centers.

Even if we obtain regulatory approval for our current product candidate or any future product candidates, the products may not gain market acceptance among physicians, healthcare payors, patients or the medical community, including cancer treatment centers. Market acceptance of any product candidates for which we receive approval depends on a number of factors, including:

•        the efficacy and safety of such product candidates as demonstrated in clinical trials;

•        the clinical indications and patient populations for which the product candidate is approved;

•        acceptance by physicians, major cancer treatment centers and patients of the drug as a safe and effective treatment;

•        the adoption of novel immunotherapies by physicians, hospitals and third-party payors;

•        the potential and perceived advantages of product candidates over alternative treatments;

•        the safety of product candidates seen in a broader patient group, including our use outside the approved indications;

•        any restrictions on use together with other medications;

•        the prevalence and severity of any side effects;

•        product labeling or product insert requirements of the FDA or other regulatory authorities;

•        the timing of market introduction of our product as well as competitive products;

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•        the development of manufacturing and distribution processes for commercial scale manufacturing for our current product candidate and any future product candidates;

•        the cost of treatment in relation to alternative treatments;

•        the availability of coverage and adequate reimbursement from third-party payors and government authorities;

•        relative convenience and ease of administration; and

•        the effectiveness of our sales and marketing efforts and those of our collaborators.

If our current product and any future product candidates are approved but fail to achieve market acceptance among physicians, patients, healthcare payors or cancer treatment centers, we will not be able to generate significant revenues, which would compromise our ability to become profitable.

Even if we are able to commercialize our current product candidate or any future product candidates, the products may not receive coverage and adequate reimbursement from third-party payors in the U.S. and in other countries in which we seek to commercialize our products, which could harm our business.

Our ability to commercialize any product successfully will depend, in part, on the extent to which coverage and adequate reimbursement for such product and related treatments will be available from third-party payors, including government health administration authorities, private health insurers and other organizations.

Third-party payors determine which medications they will cover and establish reimbursement levels. A primary trend in the healthcare industry is cost containment. Third-party payors have attempted to control costs by limiting coverage and the amount of reimbursement for particular medications. Increasingly, third-party payors are requiring that drug companies provide them with predetermined discounts from list prices and are challenging the prices charged for medical products. Third-party payors may also seek additional clinical evidence, beyond the data required to obtain regulatory approval, demonstrating clinical benefit and value in specific patient populations before covering our product for those patients. We cannot be sure that coverage and adequate reimbursement will be available for any product that we commercialize and, if coverage is available, what the level of reimbursement will be. Coverage and reimbursement may impact the demand for, or the price of, any product candidate for which we obtain regulatory approval. If reimbursement is not available or is available only at limited levels, we may not be able to successfully commercialize any product candidate for which we obtain regulatory approval.

There may be significant delays in obtaining coverage and reimbursement for newly approved drugs, and coverage may be more limited than the purposes for which the drug is approved by the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities. Moreover, eligibility for coverage and reimbursement does not imply that any drug will be paid for in all cases or at a rate that covers our costs, including research, development, manufacture, sale and distribution. Interim reimbursement levels for new drugs, if applicable, may also not be sufficient to cover our costs and may only be temporary. Reimbursement rates may vary according to the use of the drug and the clinical setting in which it is used, may be based on reimbursement levels already set for lower cost drugs and may be incorporated into existing payments for other services. Net prices for drugs may be reduced by mandatory discounts or rebates required by third-party payors and by any future relaxation of laws that presently restrict imports of drugs from countries where they may be sold at lower prices than in the U.S. No uniform policy for coverage and reimbursement exists in the U.S., and coverage and reimbursement can differ significantly from payor to payor. Third-party payors often rely upon Medicare coverage policy and payment limitations in setting their own reimbursement policies, but also have their own methods and approval process apart from Medicare determinations. Our inability to promptly obtain coverage and profitable reimbursement rates from both government-funded and private payors for any approved product that we develop could have a material adverse effect on our operating results, ability to raise capital needed to commercialize our product and overall financial condition.

Healthcare legislative measures aimed at reducing healthcare costs may have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

Third-party payors, whether domestic or foreign, or governmental or commercial, are developing increasingly sophisticated methods of controlling healthcare costs. In both the U.S. and certain international jurisdictions, there have been a number of legislative and regulatory changes to the health care system that could impact our ability to

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sell our product profitably. In particular, in 2010, the Affordable Care Act (“ACA”) was enacted, which, among other things, subjected biologic products to potential competition by lower-cost biosimilars, addressed a new methodology by which rebates owed by manufacturers under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program are calculated for drugs that are inhaled, infused, instilled, implanted or injected, increased the minimum Medicaid rebates owed by most manufacturers under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program, extended the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program to utilization of prescriptions of individuals enrolled in Medicaid managed care organizations, subjected manufacturers to new annual fees and taxes for certain branded prescription drugs, and provided incentives to programs that increase the federal government’s comparative effectiveness research. Since its enactment, there have been judicial and Congressional challenges to certain aspects of the ACA, as well as recent efforts by the current U.S. administration to repeal or repeal and replace certain aspects of the ACA. On December 14, 2018, a U.S. District Court Judge in the Northern District of Texas, or the Texas District Court Judge, ruled that the individual mandate is a critical and inseverable feature of the ACA, and therefore, because it was repealed as a part of the Tax Act, the remaining provisions of the ACA are invalid as well. While the Texas District Court Judge, as well as the Trump Administration and CMS, have stated that the ruling will have no immediate effect, it is unclear how this decision, subsequent appeals and other efforts to repeal and replace the ACA will impact the ACA. Until there is more certainty concerning the future of the ACA, it will be difficult to predict its full impact and influence on our business.

In addition, other legislative changes have been proposed and adopted in the U.S. since the ACA was enacted. In August 2011, the Budget Control Act of 2011, among other things, created measures for spending reductions by Congress. A Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction, tasked with recommending a targeted deficit reduction of at least $1.2 trillion for the years 2013 through 2021, was unable to reach required goals, thereby triggering the legislation’s automatic reduction to several government programs. This includes aggregate reductions of Medicare payments to providers of 2% per fiscal year, which went into effect in 2013, and will remain in effect through 2027 unless additional Congressional action is taken. The American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 further reduced Medicare payments to several providers, including hospitals and cancer treatment centers, and increased the statute of limitations period for the government to recover overpayments to providers from three to five years.

There have been, and likely will continue to be, legislative and regulatory proposals at the foreign, federal and state levels directed at containing or lowering the cost of healthcare. We cannot predict the initiatives that may be adopted in the future. The continuing efforts of the government, insurance companies, managed care organizations and other payors of healthcare services to contain or reduce costs of healthcare and/or impose price controls may adversely affect:

•        the demand for our product candidate, if we obtain regulatory approval;

•        our ability to receive or set a price that we believe is fair for our product;

•        our ability to generate revenue and achieve or maintain profitability;

•        the level of taxes that we are required to pay; and

•        the availability of capital.

We expect that the ACA, as well as other healthcare reform measures that may be adopted in the future, may result in additional reductions in Medicare and other healthcare funding, more rigorous coverage criteria, lower reimbursement and new payment methodologies. This could lower the price that we receive for any approved product. Any denial in coverage or reduction in reimbursement from Medicare or other government-funded programs may result in a similar denial or reduction in payments from private payors, which may prevent us from being able to generate sufficient revenue, attain profitability or commercialize our product candidate, if approved.

Price controls may be imposed in foreign markets, which may adversely affect our future profitability.

In some countries, particularly member states of the European Union, the pricing of prescription drugs is subject to governmental control. In these countries, pricing negotiations with governmental authorities can take considerable time after receipt of regulatory approval for a product. In addition, there can be considerable pressure by governments and other stakeholders on prices and reimbursement levels, including as part of cost containment measures. Political, economic and regulatory developments may further complicate pricing negotiations, and pricing negotiations may continue after reimbursement has been obtained. Reference pricing used by various European Union member states and parallel distribution, or arbitrage between low-priced and high-priced member states, can further reduce prices.

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In some countries, we or our collaborators may be required to conduct a clinical trial or other studies that compare the cost-effectiveness of our product candidate to other available therapies in order to obtain or maintain reimbursement or pricing approval. Publication of discounts by third-party payors or authorities may lead to further pressure on the prices or reimbursement levels within the country of publication and other countries. If reimbursement of our product is unavailable or limited in scope or amount, or if pricing is set at unsatisfactory levels, our business could be adversely affected.

Risks Related to Healthcare Compliance Regulations

Our relationships with customers and third-party payors will be subject to applicable anti-kickback, fraud and abuse and other healthcare laws and regulations, which could expose us to criminal sanctions, civil penalties, contractual damages, reputational harm and diminished profits and future earnings. If we or they are unable to comply with these provisions, we may become subject to civil and criminal investigations and proceedings that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and prospects.

Healthcare providers, physicians and third-party payors will play a primary role in the recommendation and prescription of any product candidates for which we obtain regulatory approval. Our current and future arrangements with healthcare providers, healthcare entities, third-party payors and customers may expose us to broadly applicable fraud and abuse and other healthcare laws and regulations that may constrain the business or financial arrangements and relationships through which we research, develop and will market, sell and distribute our product. As a pharmaceutical company, even though we do not and will not control referrals of healthcare services or bill directly to Medicare, Medicaid or other third-party payors, federal and state healthcare laws and regulations pertaining to fraud and abuse and patients’ rights are applicable to our business. Restrictions under applicable federal and state healthcare laws and regulations that may affect our ability to operate include the following:

•        the federal healthcare Anti-Kickback Statute which prohibits, among other things, individuals and entities from knowingly and willfully soliciting, offering, receiving or providing remuneration, directly or indirectly, overtly or covertly, in cash or in kind, to induce or reward, or in return for, either the referral of an individual for, or the purchase, order or recommendation of, any good or service, for which payment may be made under a federal healthcare program such as Medicare and Medicaid;

•        federal civil and criminal false claims laws, including the federal False Claims Act that can be enforced through civil whistleblower or qui tam actions, and civil monetary penalty laws, prohibit individuals or entities from knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, to the federal government, including the Medicare and Medicaid programs, claims for payment or approval that are false or fraudulent or making a false statement to avoid, decrease or conceal an obligation to pay money to the federal government;

•        the federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (“HIPAA”) which imposes criminal and civil liability for executing a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program and also created federal criminal laws that prohibit knowingly and willfully falsifying, concealing or covering up a material fact or making any materially false statements in connection with the delivery of or payment for healthcare benefits, items or services, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act of 2009 (“HITECH”) which imposes obligations, including mandatory contractual terms, with respect to safeguarding the privacy, security and transmission of individually identifiable health information on entities subject to the law, such as certain healthcare providers, health plans, and healthcare clearinghouses, known as covered entities, and their respective business associates that perform services for them that involve the creation, use, maintenance or disclosure of, individually identifiable health information;

•        the federal physician sunshine requirements under the ACA which requires certain manufacturers of drugs, devices, biologics and medical supplies, with certain exceptions, to report annually to HHS information related to payments and other transfers of value to physicians, other healthcare providers, and teaching hospitals, and ownership and investment interests held by physicians and other healthcare providers and their immediate family members and applicable group purchasing organizations;

•        analogous state and foreign laws and regulations, such as state anti-kickback and false claims laws, which may apply to sales or marketing arrangements and claims involving healthcare items or services reimbursed by non-governmental third-party payors, including private insurers; some state laws which

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require pharmaceutical companies to comply with the pharmaceutical industry’s voluntary compliance guidelines and the relevant compliance guidance promulgated by the federal government and may require drug manufacturers to report information related to payments and other transfers of value to physicians and other healthcare providers, marketing expenditures or pricing information; and certain state and local laws which require the registration of pharmaceutical sales representatives; and

•        state and foreign laws govern the privacy and security of health information in specified circumstances, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and often are not preempted by HIPAA, thus complicating compliance efforts.

Efforts to ensure that our business arrangements with third parties will comply with applicable healthcare laws and regulations will involve substantial costs. It is possible that governmental authorities will conclude that our business practices may not comply with current or future statutes, regulations or case law involving applicable fraud and abuse or other healthcare laws and regulations. If our operations are found to be in violation of any of these laws or any other governmental regulations that may apply to us, we may be subject to significant civil, criminal and administrative penalties, damages, fines, imprisonment, disgorgement, exclusion from government funded healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, integrity oversight and reporting obligations, and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations. If any physicians or other healthcare providers or entities with whom we expect to do business are found to not be in compliance with applicable laws, they may be subject to criminal, civil or administrative sanctions, including exclusions from government funded healthcare programs.

Our employees may engage in misconduct or other improper activities, including noncompliance with regulatory standards and requirements, which could cause significant liability for us and harm our reputation.

We are exposed to the risk of employee fraud or other misconduct, including intentional failures to comply with FDA regulations or similar regulations of comparable foreign regulatory authorities, provide accurate information to the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities, comply with manufacturing standards we have established, comply with federal and state healthcare fraud and abuse laws and regulations and similar laws and regulations established and enforced by comparable foreign regulatory authorities, report financial information or data accurately or disclose unauthorized activities to us. Employee misconduct could also involve the improper use of information obtained in the course of clinical trials, which could result in regulatory sanctions and serious harm to our reputation. It is not always possible to identify and deter employee misconduct, and the precautions we take to detect and prevent this activity may not be effective in controlling unknown or unmanaged risks or losses or in protecting us from governmental investigations or other actions or lawsuits stemming from a failure to be in compliance with such laws or regulations. If any such actions are instituted against us, and we are not successful in defending ourselves or asserting our rights, those actions could have a significant impact on our business and results of operations, including the imposition of significant civil, criminal and administrative penalties, damages, fines, imprisonment, exclusion from government funded healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, and integrity oversight and reporting obligations.

Product liability lawsuits against us could cause us to incur substantial liabilities and to limit commercialization of any products that we may develop.

We face an inherent risk of product liability exposure related to the testing of our current product candidate or future product candidates in human clinical trials and will face an even greater risk if we commercially sell any products that we may develop. Product liability claims may be brought against us by subjects enrolled in our clinical trials, patients, healthcare providers or others using, administering or selling our product. If we cannot successfully defend ourselves against claims that our product candidate or product caused injuries, we could incur substantial liabilities. Regardless of merit or eventual outcome, liability claims may result in:

•        decreased demand for any product candidates or products that we may develop;

•        termination of clinical trial sites or entire clinical trial programs;

•        injury to our reputation and significant negative media attention;

•        withdrawal of clinical trial participants;

•        significant costs to defend the related litigation;

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•        substantial monetary awards to trial subjects or patients;

•        loss of revenue;

•        diversion of management and scientific resources from our business operations; and

•        the inability to commercialize any products that we may develop.

Prior to engaging in future clinical trials, we intend to obtain product liability insurance coverage at a level that we believe is customary for similarly situated companies and adequate to provide us with insurance coverage for foreseeable risks; however, we may be unable to obtain such coverage at a reasonable cost, if at all. If we are able to obtain product liability insurance, we may not be able to maintain insurance coverage at a reasonable cost or in an amount adequate to satisfy any liability that may arise and such insurance may not be adequate to cover all liabilities that we may incur. Furthermore, we intend to expand our insurance coverage for products to include the sale of commercial products if we obtain regulatory approval for our product candidate in development, but we may be unable to obtain commercially reasonable product liability insurance for any products that receive regulatory approval. Large judgments have been awarded in class action lawsuits based on drugs that had unanticipated side effects. A successful product liability claim or series of claims brought against us, particularly if judgments exceed our insurance coverage, could decrease our cash and adversely affect our business.

Risks Related to our Business Operations

We face substantial competition, which may result in others discovering, developing or commercializing products before or more successfully than we do.

We face competition from numerous pharmaceutical and biotechnology enterprises, as well as from academic institutions, government agencies and private and public research institutions for our current product candidate. Our commercial opportunities will be reduced or eliminated if our competitors develop and commercialize products that are safer, more effective, have fewer side effects or are less expensive than any products that we may develop. Competition could result in reduced sales and pricing pressure on our current product candidate, if approved, which in turn would reduce our ability to generate meaningful revenues and have a negative impact on our results of operations. In addition, significant delays in the development of our product candidate could allow our competitors to bring products to market before we do and impair our ability to commercialize our product candidate. The biotechnology industry, including the cancer immunotherapy market, is intensely competitive and involves a high degree of risk. We compete with other companies that have far greater experience and financial, research and technical resources than us. Potential competitors in the U.S. and worldwide are numerous and include pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, educational institutions and research foundations, many of which have substantially greater capital resources, marketing experience, research and development staffs and facilities than ours. Some of our competitors may develop and commercialize products that compete directly with those incorporating our technology or may introduce products to market earlier than our product or on a more cost-effective basis. Our competitors compete with us in recruiting and retaining qualified scientific and management personnel as well as in acquiring technologies complementary to our technology. We may face competition with respect to product efficacy and safety, ease of use and adaptability to various modes of administration, acceptance by physicians, the timing and scope of regulatory approvals, availability of resources, reimbursement coverage, price and patent position, including the potentially dominant patent positions of others. An inability to successfully complete our product development or commercializing our product candidate could result in our having limited prospects for establishing market share or generating revenue.

Many of our competitors or potential competitors have significantly greater established presence in the market, financial resources and expertise in research and development, manufacturing, preclinical testing, conducting clinical trials, obtaining regulatory approvals and marketing approved products than we do, and as a result may have a competitive advantage over us. Mergers and acquisitions in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries may result in even more resources being concentrated among a smaller number of our competitors. Smaller or early-stage companies may also prove to be significant competitors, particularly through collaborative arrangements with large and established companies. These third parties compete with us in recruiting and retaining qualified scientific and management personnel, establishing clinical trial sites and patient registration for clinical trials, as well as in acquiring technologies and technology licenses complementary to our programs or potentially advantageous to our business.

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As a result of these factors, these competitors may obtain regulatory approval of their products before we are able to obtain patent protection or other intellectual property rights, which will limit our ability to develop or commercialize our current product candidate. Our competitors may also develop drugs that are safer, more effective, more widely used and cheaper than ours, and may also be more successful than us in manufacturing and marketing their products. These appreciable advantages could render our product candidate obsolete or noncompetitive before we can recover the expenses of development and commercialization.

Our business may be adversely affected by the ongoing coronavirus pandemic.

The outbreak of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has evolved into a global pandemic. The coronavirus has spread to many regions of the world. The extent to which the coronavirus impacts our business and operating results will depend on future developments that are highly uncertain and cannot be accurately predicted, including new information that may emerge concerning the coronavirus and the actions to contain the coronavirus or treat its impact, among others.

As a result of the continuing spread of the coronavirus, our business operations could be delayed or interrupted. For instance, our clinical trials may be affected by the pandemic. Site initiation, participant recruitment and enrollment, participant dosing, distribution of clinical trial materials, study monitoring and data analysis may be paused or delayed due to changes in hospital or university policies, federal, state or local regulations, prioritization of hospital resources toward pandemic efforts, or other reasons related to the pandemic. If the coronavirus continues to spread, some participants and clinical investigators may not be able to comply with clinical trial protocols. For example, quarantines or other travel limitations (whether voluntary or required) may impede participant movement, affect sponsor access to study sites, or interrupt healthcare services, and we may be unable to conduct our clinical trials. Further, if the spread of the coronavirus pandemic continues and our operations are adversely impacted, we risk a delay, default and/or nonperformance under existing agreements which may increase our costs. These cost increases may not be fully recoverable or adequately covered by insurance.

Infections and deaths related to the pandemic may disrupt the United States’ healthcare and healthcare regulatory systems. Such disruptions could divert healthcare resources away from, or materially delay FDA review and/or approval with respect to, our clinical trials. It is unknown how long these disruptions could continue, were they to occur. Any elongation or de-prioritization of our clinical trials or delay in regulatory review resulting from such disruptions could materially affect the development and study of our product candidates.

We currently utilize third parties to, among other things, manufacture raw materials. If either any third-party parties in the supply chain for materials used in the production of our product candidates are adversely impacted by restrictions resulting from the coronavirus outbreak, our supply chain may be disrupted, limiting our ability to manufacture our product candidates for our clinical trials and research and development operations.

As a result of the shelter-in-place order and other mandated local travel restrictions, our employees conducting research and development or manufacturing activities may not be able to access their laboratory or manufacturing space which may result in our core activities being significantly limited or curtailed, possibly for an extended period of time.

The spread of the coronavirus, which has caused a broad impact globally, including restrictions on travel and quarantine policies put into place by businesses and governments, may have a material economic effect on our business. While the potential economic impact brought by and the duration of the pandemic may be difficult to assess or predict, it has already caused, and is likely to result in further, significant disruption of global financial markets, which may reduce our ability to access capital either at all or on favorable terms. In addition, a recession, depression or other sustained adverse market event resulting from the spread of the coronavirus could materially and adversely affect our business and the value of our common stock.

The ultimate impact of the current pandemic, or any other health epidemic, is highly uncertain and subject to change. We do not yet know the full extent of potential delays or impacts on our business, our clinical trials, our research programs, healthcare systems or the global economy as a whole. However, these effects could have a material impact on our operations, and we will continue to monitor the situation closely.

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Significant disruptions of information technology systems, computer system failures or breaches of information security could adversely affect our business.

We rely to a large extent upon sophisticated information technology systems to operate our business. In the ordinary course of business, we collect, store and transmit large amounts of confidential information (including, but not limited to, personal information and intellectual property). The size and complexity of our information technology and information security systems, and those of our third-party vendors with whom we may contract, make such systems potentially vulnerable to service interruptions or to security breaches from inadvertent or intentional actions by our employees or vendors, or from malicious attacks by third parties. Such attacks are of ever-increasing levels of sophistication and are made by groups and individuals with a wide range of motives (including, but not limited to, industrial espionage and market manipulation) and expertise. While we intend to invest in the protection of data and information technology, there can be no assurance that our efforts will prevent service interruptions or security breaches.

Our internal computer systems, and those of our CROs, our CMOs, and other business vendors on which we may rely, are vulnerable to damage from computer viruses, unauthorized access, natural disasters, fire, terrorism, war and telecommunication and electrical failures. We exercise little or no control over these third parties, which increases our vulnerability to problems with their systems. If such an event were to occur and cause interruptions in our operations, it could result in a material disruption of our drug development programs. Any interruption or breach in our systems could adversely affect our business operations and/or result in the loss of critical or sensitive confidential information or intellectual property, and could result in financial, legal, business and reputational harm to us or allow third parties to gain material, inside information that they use to trade in our securities. For example, the loss of clinical trial data from completed or ongoing clinical trials could result in delays in our regulatory approval efforts and significantly increase our costs to recover or reproduce the data. To the extent that any disruption or security breach results in a loss of or damage to our data or applications, or inappropriate disclosure of confidential or proprietary information, we could incur liability, the further development of our current and future product candidates could be delayed and our business could be otherwise adversely affected.

We will need to grow the size of our organization in the future, and we may experience difficulties in managing this growth.

As of June 15, 2020, we had no full-time employees and 3 part-time employees. We will need to grow the size of our organization in order to support our continued development and potential commercialization of our product candidate. As our development and commercialization plans and strategies continue to develop, our need for additional managerial, operational, manufacturing, sales, marketing, financial and other resources may increase. Our management, personnel and systems currently in place may not be adequate to support this future growth. Future growth would impose significant added responsibilities on members of management, including:

•        managing our clinical trials effectively;

•        identifying, recruiting, maintaining, motivating and integrating additional employees;

•        managing our internal development efforts effectively while complying with our contractual obligations to licensors, licensees, contractors and other third parties;

•        improving our managerial, development, operational, information technology, and finance systems; and

•        expanding our facilities.

If our operations expand, we will also need to manage additional relationships with various strategic partners, suppliers and other third parties. Our future financial performance and our ability to commercialize our product candidate and to compete effectively will depend, in part, on our ability to manage any future growth effectively, as well as our ability to develop a sales and marketing force when appropriate for our company. To that end, we must be able to manage our development efforts and preclinical studies and clinical trials effectively and hire, train and integrate additional management, research and development, manufacturing, administrative and sales and marketing personnel. The failure to accomplish any of these tasks could prevent us from successfully growing our company.

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Our future success depends on our ability to retain our executive officers and to attract, retain and motivate qualified personnel.

We are highly dependent upon our personnel, including Snehal Patel, our Chief Executive Officer and member of our board of directors. The loss of Mr. Patel’s services could impede the achievement of our research, development and commercialization objectives. We have not obtained, do not own, nor are we the beneficiary of, key-person life insurance. Our future growth and success depend on our ability to recruit, retain, manage and motivate our employees. The loss of any member of our senior management team or the inability to hire or retain experienced management personnel could compromise our ability to execute our business plan and harm our operating results. Because of the specialized scientific and managerial nature of our business, we rely heavily on our ability to attract and retain qualified scientific, technical and managerial personnel. The competition for qualified personnel in the pharmaceutical field is intense and as a result, we may be unable to continue to attract and retain qualified personnel necessary for the development of our business.

Inadequate funding for the FDA, the SEC and other government agencies could hinder their ability to hire and retain key leadership and other personnel, prevent new products and services from being developed or commercialized in a timely manner or otherwise prevent those agencies from performing normal business functions on which the operation of our business may rely, which could negatively impact our business.

The ability of the FDA to review and approve new products can be affected by a variety of factors, including government budget and funding levels, ability to hire and retain key personnel and accept the payment of user fees, and statutory, regulatory, and policy changes. Average review times at the agency have fluctuated in recent years as a result. In addition, government funding of the SEC and other government agencies on which our operations may rely, including those that fund research and development activities is subject to the political process, which is inherently fluid and unpredictable.

Disruptions at the FDA and other agencies may also slow the time necessary for new drugs to be reviewed and/or approved by necessary government agencies, which would adversely affect our business. For example, over the last several years, including beginning on December 22, 2018, the U.S. government has shut down several times and certain regulatory agencies, such as the FDA and the SEC, have had to furlough critical FDA, SEC and other government employees and stop critical activities. If a prolonged government shutdown occurs, it could significantly impact the ability of the FDA to timely review and process our regulatory submissions, which could have a material adverse effect on our business. Further, upon completion of this offering and in our operations as a public company, future government shutdowns could impact our ability to access the public markets and obtain necessary capital in order to properly capitalize and continue our operations.

Risks Related to Owning our Common Stock and this Offering

An active trading market for our common stock may not develop, and you may not be able to sell your common stock at or above the initial public offering price.

Prior to the consummation of this offering, there has been no public market for our common stock. An active trading market for shares of our common stock may never develop or be sustained following this offering. If an active trading market does not develop, you may have difficulty selling your shares of common stock at an attractive price, or at all. The price for our common stock in this offering will be determined by negotiations between us and the underwriters, and it may not be indicative of prices that will prevail in the open market following this offering. Consequently, you may not be able to sell your common stock at or above the initial public offering price or at any other price or at the time that you would like to sell. An inactive market may also impair our ability to raise capital by selling our common stock, and it may impair our ability to attract and motivate our employees through equity incentive awards and our ability to acquire other companies, products or technologies by using our common stock as consideration.

We are registering shares of common stock to certain stockholders concurrently with the primary offering and while these stockholders have expressed an intent not to sell stock concurrently with the primary offering, if they did do so, such sales might affect the price, demand, and liquidity of our common stock.

We are registering shares of common stock to certain security holders concurrently with the primary offering which include the potential resale by certain selling stockholders of an aggregate amount up to 1,685,394 shares of our common stock. Sales by these selling stockholders may reduce the price of our common stock, demand for the shares sold in the offering and, as a result, the liquidity of your investment.

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The price of our common stock may fluctuate substantially.

You should consider an investment in our common stock to be risky, and you should invest in our common stock only if you can withstand a significant loss and wide fluctuations in the market value of your investment. Some factors that may cause the market price of our common stock to fluctuate, in addition to the other risks mentioned in this “Risk Factors” section and elsewhere in this prospectus, are:

•        sale of our common stock by our stockholders, executives, and directors and our stockholders whose shares are being registered in this offering;

•        volatility and limitations in trading volumes of our shares of common stock;

•        our ability to obtain financings to conduct and complete research and development activities including, but not limited to, our clinical trials, and other business activities;

•        possible delays in the expected recognition of revenue due to lengthy and sometimes unpredictable sales timelines;

•        the timing and success of introductions of new products by us or our competitors or any other change in the competitive dynamics of our industry, including consolidation among competitors, customers or strategic partners;

•        network outages or security breaches;

•        our ability to attract new customers;

•        our ability to secure resources and the necessary personnel to conduct clinical trials on our desired schedule;

•        commencement, enrollment or results of our clinical trials for our product candidate or any future clinical trials we may conduct;

•        changes in the development status of our product candidate;

•        any delays or adverse developments or perceived adverse developments with respect to the FDA’s review of our planned preclinical and clinical trials;

•        any delay in our submission for studies or product approvals or adverse regulatory decisions, including failure to receive regulatory approval for our product candidate;

•        unanticipated safety concerns related to the use of our product candidate;

•        failures to meet external expectations or management guidance;

•        changes in our capital structure or dividend policy, future issuances of securities, sales of large blocks of common stock by our stockholders;

•        our cash position;

•        announcements and events surrounding financing efforts, including debt and equity securities;

•        our inability to enter into new markets or develop new products;

•        reputational issues;

•        competition from existing technologies and products or new technologies and products that may emerge;

•        announcements of acquisitions, partnerships, collaborations, joint ventures, new products, capital commitments, or other events by us or our competitors;

•        changes in general economic, political and market conditions in or any of the regions in which we conduct our business;

•        changes in industry conditions or perceptions;

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•        changes in valuations of similar companies or groups of companies;

•        analyst research reports, recommendation and changes in recommendations, price targets, and withdrawals of coverage;

•        departures and additions of key personnel;

•        disputes and litigations related to intellectual properties, proprietary rights, and contractual obligations;

•        changes in applicable laws, rules, regulations, or accounting practices and other dynamics; and

•        other events or factors, many of which may be out of our control.

In addition, if the market for stocks in our industry or industries related to our industry, or the stock market in general, experiences a loss of investor confidence, the trading price of our common stock could decline for reasons unrelated to our business, financial condition and results of operations. If any of the foregoing occurs, it could cause our stock price to fall and may expose us to lawsuits that, even if unsuccessful, could be costly to defend and a distraction to management.

We have broad discretion in the use of the net proceeds from this offering and may not use them effectively.

Our management will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds from this initial public offering, including for any of the currently intended purposes described in the section entitled “Use of Proceeds.” Because of the number and variability of factors that will determine our use of the net proceeds from this offering, their ultimate use may vary substantially from their currently intended use. Our management may not apply our cash from this offering in ways that ultimately increase the value of any investment in our securities or enhance stockholder value. The failure by our management to apply these funds effectively could harm our business. Pending their use, we may invest the net proceeds from this offering in short-term, investment-grade, interest-bearing securities. These investments may not yield a favorable return to our stockholders. If we do not invest or apply our cash in ways that enhance stockholder value, we may fail to achieve expected financial results, which may result in a decline in the price of our shares of common stock, and, therefore, may negatively impact our ability to raise capital, invest in or expand our business, acquire additional products or licenses, commercialize our product, or continue our operations.

Market and economic conditions may negatively impact our business, financial condition and share price.

Concerns over medical epidemics, energy costs, geopolitical issues, the U.S. mortgage market and a deteriorating real estate market, unstable global credit markets and financial conditions, and volatile oil prices have led to periods of significant economic instability, diminished liquidity and credit availability, declines in consumer confidence and discretionary spending, diminished expectations for the global economy and expectations of slower global economic growth, increased unemployment rates, and increased credit defaults in recent years. Our general business strategy may be adversely affected by any such economic downturns (including the current downturn related to the current COVID-19 pandemic), volatile business environments and continued unstable or unpredictable economic and market conditions. If these conditions continue to deteriorate or do not improve, it may make any necessary debt or equity financing more difficult to complete, more costly, and more dilutive. Failure to secure any necessary financing in a timely manner and on favorable terms could have a material adverse effect on our growth strategy, financial performance, and share price and could require us to delay or abandon development or commercialization plans.

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports, or publish unfavorable research or reports about our business, our stock price and trading volume may decline.

The trading market for our common stock will rely in part on the research and reports that industry or financial analysts publish about us, our business, our markets and our competitors. We do not control these analysts. If securities analysts do not cover our common stock after the closing of this offering, the lack of research coverage may adversely affect the market price of our common stock. Furthermore, if one or more of the analysts who do cover us downgrade our stock or if those analysts issue other unfavorable commentary about us or our business, our stock price would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of us or fails to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the market and interest in our stock could decrease, which in turn could cause our stock price or trading volume to decline and may also impair our ability to expand our business with existing customers and attract new customers.

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Because certain of our stockholders control a significant number of shares of our common stock, they may have effective control over actions requiring stockholder approval.

Following this offering, our directors, executive officers and principal stockholders, and their respective affiliates, will beneficially own approximately 72% of our outstanding shares of common stock. As a result, these stockholders, acting together, would have the ability to control the outcome of matters submitted to our stockholders for approval, including the election of directors and any merger, consolidation or sale of all or substantially all of our assets. In addition, these stockholders, acting together, would have the ability to control the management and affairs of our company. Accordingly, this concentration of ownership might harm the market price of our common stock by:

•        delaying, deferring or preventing a change in corporate control;

•        impeding a merger, consolidation, takeover or other business combination involving us; or

•        discouraging a potential acquirer from making a tender offer or otherwise attempting to obtain control of us.

You will incur immediate dilution as a result of this offering.

If you purchase common stock in this offering, you will pay more for your shares than the net tangible book value of your shares. As a result, you will incur immediate dilution of $7.54 per share, representing the difference between the assumed initial public offering price of $8.00 per share (the midpoint of the range on the cover of this prospectus) and our estimated pro forma net tangible book value per share as of March 31, 2020 of $0.46. Accordingly, should we be liquidated at our book value, you would not receive the full amount of your investment.

Future sales and issuances of our common stock could result in additional dilution of the percentage ownership of our stockholders and could cause our share price to fall.

We expect that significant additional capital will be needed in the future to continue our planned operations, including increased marketing, hiring new personnel, commercializing our product, and continuing activities as an operating public company. To the extent we raise additional capital by issuing equity securities, our stockholders may experience substantial dilution. We may sell common stock, convertible securities or other equity securities in one or more transactions at prices and in a manner we determine from time to time. If we sell common stock, convertible securities or other equity securities in more than one transaction, investors may be materially diluted by subsequent sales. Such sales may also result in material dilution to our existing stockholders, and new investors could gain rights superior to our existing stockholders.

We do not intend to pay cash dividends on our shares of common stock so any returns will be limited to the value of our shares.

We currently anticipate that we will retain future earnings for the development, operation and expansion of our business and do not anticipate declaring or paying any cash dividends for the foreseeable future. Any return to stockholders will therefore be limited to the increase, if any, of our share price.

We are an “emerging growth company” and will be able to avail ourselves of reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies, which could make our common stock less attractive to investors.

We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the JOBS Act and we intend to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not “emerging growth companies” including not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements, and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. In addition, pursuant to Section 107 of the JOBS Act, as an “emerging growth company” we intend to take advantage of the extended transition period provided in Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act, for complying with new or revised accounting standards. In other words, an “emerging growth company” can delay the adoption of certain accounting standards until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies. We cannot predict if investors will find our common stock less attractive because we may rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our common stock

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less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our common stock and our stock price may be more volatile. We may take advantage of these reporting exemptions until we are no longer an “emerging growth company.” We will remain an “emerging growth company” until the earliest of (i) the last day of the fiscal year in which we have total annual gross revenues of $1.07 billion or more; (ii) the last day of our fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the date of the completion of this offering; (iii) the date on which we have issued more than $1 billion in nonconvertible debt during the previous three years; or (iv) the date on which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer under the rules of the SEC.

We may be at risk of securities class action litigation.

We may be at risk of securities class action litigation. In the past, biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies have experienced significant stock price volatility, particularly when associated with binary events such as clinical trials and product approvals. If we face such litigation, it could result in substantial costs and a diversion of management’s attention and resources, which could harm our business and results in a decline in the market price of our common stock.

There is no guarantee that our common stock will be listed on Nasdaq.

We have applied to have our shares of common stock listed on The Nasdaq Capital Market. Upon completion of this offering, we believe that we will satisfy the listing requirements and expect that our common stock will be listed on The Nasdaq Capital Market. Such listing, however, is not guaranteed. If the application is not approved, we may seek to have our common stock quoted on the OTCQB maintained by the OTC Markets Group, Inc. Even if such listing is approved, there can be no assurance any broker will be interested in trading our common stock. Therefore, it may be difficult to sell any shares you purchase in this offering if you desire or need to sell them.

Our second amended and restated certificate of incorporation (“Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation”) and our second amended and restated bylaws (the “Amended and Restated Bylaws”), to be effective upon completion of this offering, and Delaware law may have anti-takeover effects that could discourage, delay or prevent a change in control, which may cause our stock price to decline.

Our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation and our Amended and Restated Bylaws, to be effective upon completion of this offering, and Delaware law could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire us, even if closing such a transaction would be beneficial to our stockholders. Upon consummation of this offering, we will be authorized to issue up to 10 million shares of preferred stock. This preferred stock may be issued in one or more series, the terms of which may be determined at the time of issuance by our board of directors without further action by stockholders. The terms of any series of preferred stock may include voting rights (including the right to vote as a series on particular matters), preferences as to dividend, liquidation, conversion and redemption rights and sinking fund provisions. As of June 15, 2020, we have designated 4,200,000 shares of preferred stock as Series A Preferred Stock, of which 1,520,937 are issued and outstanding; 390,000 shares of preferred stock as Series B Preferred Stock, of which 129,267 are issued and outstanding; 205,000 shares of preferred stock as Series C Preferred Stock, of which 66,575 are issued and outstanding; and 2,000,000 shares of preferred stock as Series D Preferred Stock, of which 263,586 are issued and outstanding. The issuance of any preferred stock could materially adversely affect the rights of the holders of our common stock, and therefore, reduce the value of our common stock. In particular, specific rights granted to future holders of preferred stock could be used to restrict our ability to merge with, or sell our assets to, a third party and thereby preserve control by the present management.

Provisions of our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation and our Amended and Restated Bylaws and Delaware law also could have the effect of discouraging potential acquisition proposals or making a tender offer or delaying or preventing a change in control, including changes a stockholder might consider favorable. Such provisions may also prevent or frustrate attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our management. In particular, the certificate of incorporation and bylaws and Delaware law, as applicable, among other things:

•        provide the board of directors with the ability to alter the bylaws without stockholder approval;

•        place limitations on the removal of directors;

•        establishing advance notice requirements for nominations for election to the board of directors or for proposing matters that can be acted upon at stockholder meetings; and

•        provide that vacancies on the board of directors may be filled by a majority of directors in office, although less than a quorum.

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Financial reporting obligations of being a public company in the U.S. are expensive and time-consuming, and our management will be required to devote substantial time to compliance matters.

As a publicly traded company we will incur significant additional legal, accounting and other expenses that we did not incur as a privately company. The obligations of being a public company in the U.S. require significant expenditures and will place significant demands on our management and other personnel, including costs resulting from public company reporting obligations under the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations regarding corporate governance practices, including those under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, and the listing requirements of the stock exchange on which our securities are listed. These rules require the establishment and maintenance of effective disclosure and financial controls and procedures, internal control over financial reporting and changes in corporate governance practices, among many other complex rules that are often difficult to implement, monitor and maintain compliance with. Moreover, despite recent reforms made possible by the JOBS Act, the reporting requirements, rules, and regulations will make some activities more time-consuming and costly, particularly after we are no longer an “emerging growth company.” In addition, we expect these rules and regulations to make it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance. Our management and other personnel will need to devote a substantial amount of time to ensure that we comply with all of these requirements and to keep pace with new regulations, otherwise we may fall out of compliance and risk becoming subject to litigation or being delisted, among other potential problems.

Our Amended and Restated Bylaws to be effective upon completion of this offering provides that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the sole and exclusive forum for substantially all disputes between the Company and its stockholders, which could limit stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with the Company or its directors, officers or employees.

Our Amended and Restated Bylaws to be effective upon completion of this offering provides that unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the State of Delaware is the sole and exclusive forum for: (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of us, (ii) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any director, officer or other employee of our Company to us or our stockholders, (iii) any action asserting a claim against us, our directors, officers or employees arising pursuant to any provision of the Delaware General Corporation Law (the “DGCL”) or our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation or our Amended and Restated Bylaws to be effective upon completion of this offering, or (iv) any action asserting a claim against us, our directors, officers, employees or agents governed by the internal affairs doctrine, except for, as to each of (i) through (iv) above, any claim as to which the Court of Chancery determines that there is an indispensable party not subject to the jurisdiction of the Court of Chancery (and the indispensable party does not consent to the personal jurisdiction of the Court of Chancery within ten days following such determination), which is vested in the exclusive jurisdiction of a court or forum other than the Court of Chancery, or for which the Court of Chancery does not have subject matter jurisdiction. This exclusive forum provision would not apply to suits brought to enforce any liability or duty created by the Securities Act or the Exchange Act or any other claim for which the federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction. To the extent that any such claims may be based upon federal law claims, Section 27 of the Exchange Act creates exclusive federal jurisdiction over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or the rules and regulations thereunder.

Section 22 of the Securities Act creates concurrent jurisdiction for federal and state courts over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Securities Act or the rules and regulations thereunder. However, our Amended and Restated Bylaws to be effective upon completion of this offering contain a federal forum provision which provides that unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the federal district courts of the United States of America will be the exclusive forum for the resolution of any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act. Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in shares of our capital stock are deemed to have notice of and consented to this provision.

These choice of forum provisions may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other employees, which may discourage such lawsuits against us and our directors, officers and other employees. Alternatively, if a court were to find our choice of forum provisions contained in either our Amended and Restated Bylaws to be effective upon completion of this offering to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions, which could harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

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If we fail to comply with the rules under Sarbanes-Oxley related to accounting controls and procedures in the future, or, if we discover material weaknesses and other deficiencies in our internal control and accounting procedures, our stock price could decline significantly and raising capital could be more difficult.

Section 404 of Sarbanes-Oxley requires annual management assessments of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. If we fail to comply with the rules under Sarbanes-Oxley related to disclosure controls and procedures in the future, or, if we discover material weaknesses and other deficiencies in our internal control and accounting procedures, our stock price could decline significantly and raising capital could be more difficult. If material weaknesses or significant deficiencies are discovered or if we otherwise fail to achieve and maintain the adequacy of our internal control, we may not be able to ensure that we can conclude on an ongoing basis that we have effective internal controls over financial reporting in accordance with Section 404 of Sarbanes-Oxley. Moreover, effective internal controls are necessary for us to produce reliable financial reports and are important to helping prevent financial fraud. If we cannot provide reliable financial reports or prevent fraud, our business and operating results could be harmed, investors could lose confidence in our reported financial information, and the trading price of our common stock could drop significantly.

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INFORMATION REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. You should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this prospectus are forward-looking statements. The forward-looking statements in this prospectus are only predictions. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. In some cases, you can identify these forward-looking statements by terms such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “depends,” “estimate,” “expects,” “intend,” “may,” “ongoing,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “will,” “would” or the negative of those terms or other similar expressions, although not all forward-looking statements contain those words. We have based these forward-looking statements on our current expectations and projections about future events and trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, strategy, short- and long-term business operations and objectives, and financial needs. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements concerning the following:

•        our projected financial position and estimated cash burn rate;

•        our estimates regarding expenses, future revenues and capital requirements;

•        our ability to continue as a going concern;

•        our need to raise substantial additional capital to fund our operations;

•        the success, cost and timing of our clinical trials;

•        our dependence on third parties in the conduct of our clinical trials;

•        our ability to obtain the necessary regulatory approvals to market and commercialize our product candidate;

•        the ultimate impact of the current coronavirus pandemic, or any other health epidemic, on our business, our clinical trials, our research programs, healthcare systems or the global economy as a whole;

•        the potential that results of preclinical and clinical trials indicate our current product candidate or any future product candidates we may seek to develop are unsafe or ineffective;

•        the results of market research conducted by us or others;

•        our ability to obtain and maintain intellectual property protection for our current product candidate;

•        our ability to protect our intellectual property rights and the potential for us to incur substantial costs from lawsuits to enforce or protect our intellectual property rights;

•        the possibility that a third party may claim we or our third-party licensors have infringed, misappropriated or otherwise violated their intellectual property rights and that we may incur substantial costs and be required to devote substantial time defending against claims against us;

•        our reliance on third-party suppliers and manufacturers;

•        the success of competing therapies and products that are or become available;

•        our ability to expand our organization to accommodate potential growth and our ability to retain and attract key personnel;

•        the potential for us to incur substantial costs resulting from product liability lawsuits against us and the potential for these product liability lawsuits to cause us to limit our commercialization of our product candidate;

•        market acceptance of our product candidate, the size and growth of the potential markets for our current product candidate and any future product candidates we may seek to develop, and our ability to serve those markets; and

•        the successful development of our commercialization capabilities, including sales and marketing capabilities.

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These forward-looking statements are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties and assumptions, including those described in “Risk Factors.” Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risks emerge from time to time. It is not possible for our management to predict all risks, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements we may make. In light of these risks, uncertainties and assumptions, the forward-looking events and circumstances discussed in this prospectus may not occur and actual results could differ materially and adversely from those anticipated or implied in the forward-looking statements.

You should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot guarantee that the future results, levels of activity, performance or events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements will be achieved or occur. Moreover, except as required by law, neither we nor any other person assumes responsibility for the accuracy and completeness of the forward-looking statements. We undertake no obligation to update publicly any forward-looking statements for any reason after the date of this prospectus to conform these statements to actual results or to changes in our expectations.

You should read this prospectus and the documents that we reference in this prospectus and have filed with the SEC as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part with the understanding that our actual future results, levels of activity, performance and events and circumstances may be materially different from what we expect.

45

INDUSTRY AND MARKET DATA

This prospectus contains estimates and other statistical data made by independent parties and by us relating to market size and growth and other data about our industry. We obtained the industry and market data in this prospectus from our own research as well as from industry and general publications, surveys and studies conducted by third parties. This data involves a number of assumptions and limitations and contains projections and estimates of the future performance of the industries in which we operate that are subject to a high degree of uncertainty, including those discussed in “Risk Factors.” We caution you not to give undue weight to such projections, assumptions and estimates. Further, industry and general publications, studies and surveys generally state that they have been obtained from sources believed to be reliable, although they do not guarantee the accuracy or completeness of such information. While we believe that these publications, studies and surveys are reliable, we have not independently verified the data contained in them. In addition, while we believe that the results and estimates from our internal research are reliable, such results and estimates have not been verified by any independent source.

46

USE OF PROCEEDS

We estimate that the net proceeds from our issuance and sale of shares of our common stock in this offering will be approximately $6.8 million, based on an assumed initial public offering price of $8.00 per share, the midpoint of the price range listed on the cover page of this prospectus, after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. If the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full, we estimate that the net proceeds from this offering will be approximately $7.9 million.

We intend to use the net proceeds to fund our planned clinical trials, manufacturing and for general corporate purposes, including working capital. We intend to use the first $3.4 million of net proceeds from this offering in the following order:

•        Approximately $0.6 million to complete the manufacturing of our product candidate, GP2;

•        Approximately $2.1 million to enroll and treat the first 50 to 100 patients in our Phase III clinical trial; and

•        Approximately $0.7 million for working capital and other general corporate purposes.

Any additional capital that we raise pursuant to this offering will be used for the enrollment of additional patients in our Phase III clinical trial, for the retention of CROs to conduct clinical trials, and for additional working capital and other general corporate purposes. We may also use a portion of the net proceeds to in-license, acquire or invest in complementary businesses or products, however, we have no current commitments or obligations to do so.

We believe that it may cost approximately $12 million to $15 to complete an interim analysis of the safety and efficacy of our Phase III trial. If we are unable to raise sufficient funds for our Phase III trial as a result of this offering, we believe that we may be able to raise additional funds pursuant to subsequent financings or from the proceeds of potential strategic transactions from the out-licensing of marketing rights to GP2. We have flexibility based upon the amount of proceeds raised from this offering as well as subsequent financings and other sources of capital with respect to the design of the Phase III clinical trial which we believe that we may be able to alter by adjusting the enrollment rate, the number of patients, and/or the number of immunological assays. We believe that we can also reduce costs associated with our Phase III trial by managing the clinical trial with internal staff instead of using CROs and by further reducing management and staff compensation and overhead expenses, as necessary.

A $1.00 increase or decrease in the assumed initial public offering price of $8.00 per share would increase or decrease the net proceeds from this offering by approximately $0.92 million, assuming that the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same and after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions.

This expected use of the net proceeds from this offering and our existing cash represents our intentions based upon our current plans, financial condition and business conditions. Predicting the cost necessary to develop a product candidate can be difficult and the amounts and timing of our actual expenditures may vary significantly depending on numerous factors, including the progress of our development and commercialization efforts, the status of and results from clinical trials, any collaborations that we may enter into with third parties for our product candidate and any unforeseen cash needs. As a result, our management will retain broad discretion over the allocation of the net proceeds from this offering and our existing cash.

In the ordinary course of our business, we expect to from time to time evaluate the acquisition of, investment in or in-license of complementary products, technologies or businesses, and we could use a portion of the net proceeds from this offering for such activities. We currently do not have any agreements, arrangements or commitments with respect to any potential acquisition, investment or license.

Pending our use of the net proceeds from this offering, we intend to invest the net proceeds in a variety of capital preservation investments, including short-term, investment-grade, interest-bearing instruments and government securities.

47

DIVIDEND POLICY

We have never paid or declared any cash dividends on our common stock, and we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future. We intend to retain all available funds and any future earnings to fund the development and expansion of our business. Any future determination to pay dividends will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend upon a number of factors, including our results of operations, financial condition, future prospects, contractual restrictions, restrictions imposed by applicable law and other factors our board of directors deems relevant.

48

CAPITALIZATION

The following table sets forth our cash and capitalization as of March 31, 2020:

•        on an actual basis;

•        on a pro forma basis to reflect the issuance of an aggregate of 77,571 shares of common stock in April, May, and June 2020 in consideration for services rendered; and

•        on a pro forma as adjusted basis to give further effect to (i) our issuance and sale of 1,000,000 shares of our common stock included in the shares of common stock being sold in this offering at an assumed initial public offering price of $8.00 per share, which is the midpoint of the price range listed on the cover page of this prospectus, after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and our estimated offering expenses and (ii) the conversion of all outstanding shares of preferred stock into an aggregate of 1,980,365 shares of common stock upon closing of the offering.

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

 

Actual
(unaudited)

 

Pro Forma
(unaudited)

 

Pro Forma,
As Adjusted
(1)
(unaudited)

Cash

 

$

7

 

 

$

7

 

 

$

6,760 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Short term notes payable to related parties

 

 

635

 

 

 

635

 

 

 

635

 

Stockholders’ deficit:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share; 6,795,000 shares authorized, 1,980,365 issued and outstanding, actual; 6,795,000 shares authorized, 1,980,365 issued and outstanding, pro forma; 10,000,000 shares authorized, no shares issued and outstanding, pro forma as adjusted

 

 

2

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

Common stock, par value $0.001 per share; 100,000,000 shares authorized, 8,535,619 shares issued and outstanding, actual; 100,000,000 shares authorized, 8,613,190 shares issued and outstanding, pro forma; 100,000,000 shares authorized, 11,593,555 shares issued and outstanding, pro forma as adjusted

 

 

9

 

 

 

9

 

 

 

12

 

Additional paid-in capital

 

 

26,027

 

 

 

26,201

 

 

 

34,200

 

Accumulated deficit

 

 

(27,459

)

 

 

(27,633

)

 

 

(28,880

Total stockholders’ equity (deficit)

 

 

(1,421

)

 

 

(1,421

)

 

 

5,332 

 

Total capitalization

 

$

(1,421

)

 

$

(1,421

)

 

$

5,332

 

____________

(1)      A $1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed initial public offering price of $8.00 per share, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, would increase (decrease) the pro forma as adjusted amount of each of cash, total stockholders’ equity and total capitalization by $0.92 million, assuming that the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions. An increase (decrease) of 500,000 shares in the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, would increase (decrease) the pro forma as adjusted amount of each of cash, total stockholders’ equity and total capitalization by $3.68 million, assuming no change in the assumed initial public offering price per share and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions.

The number of shares of our common stock to be outstanding after this offering is based on 8,535,619 shares of our common stock outstanding as of March 31, 2020, assumes no exercise by the underwriters of their over-allotment option and excludes:

•        753,100 shares of common stock subject to future vesting issued to members of management and directors;

•        1,498,128 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2019 Equity Incentive Plan; and

•        80,000 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of warrants to be issued to the representative of the underwriters as part of this offering at an exercise price of $10.00 (assuming an initial public offering price of $8.00 per share (the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus)).

49

DILUTION

If you invest in our common stock, your ownership interest will be diluted to the extent of the difference between initial public offering price per share of our common stock and the pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately after this offering.

As of March 31, 2020 we had a historical net tangible book value (deficit) of $(1,440,051), or $(0.17) per share of common stock, based on 8,535,619 shares of common stock outstanding at March 31, 2020. Our historical net tangible book value per share is the amount of our total tangible assets less our total liabilities at March 31, 2020, divided by the number of shares of common stock outstanding at March 31, 2020.

After giving effect to the issuance of an aggregate of 77,571 shares of common stock in April, May, and June 2020 in consideration for services rendered, our pro forma net tangible book value (deficit) as of March 31, 2020 was $(1,440,051), or $(0.17) per share of common stock.

After giving further effect to (i) the sale of 1,000,000 shares of common stock in this offering at an assumed initial public offering price of $8.00 per share, the midpoint of the estimated offering price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, and after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us and (ii) the conversion of all outstanding shares of preferred stock into an aggregate of 1,980,365 shares of common stock upon closing of the offering, our pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value at March 31, 2020 would have been $5.3 million, or $0.46 per share of common stock. This represents an immediate increase in pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value of $0.60 per share to existing stockholders and immediate dilution of $7.54 per share to new investors purchasing shares of common stock in this offering.

The following table illustrates this dilution on a per share basis:

Assumed initial public offering price per share

 

 

 

 

 

$

8.00

Pro forma net tangible book value per share as of March 31, 2020

 

$

(0.14

)

 

 

 

Increase in pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share attributable to new investors in this offering

 

 

0.60 

 

 

 

 

Pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share immediately after this offering

 

 

 

 

 

 

0.46 

Dilution per share to new investors in this offering

 

 

 

 

 

$

7.54

A $1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed initial public offering price of $8.00 per share, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, would increase (decrease) our pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value after this offering by $0.08 per share and the dilution to new investors purchasing common stock in this offering by $0.92 per share, assuming that the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same and after deducting estimated underwriting discount and commissions. An increase of 500,000 shares in the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, would increase our pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value after this offering by $0.29 per share and decrease the dilution to new investors purchasing common stock in this offering by $0.29 per share, assuming no change in the assumed initial public offering price per share and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions. A decrease of 500,000 shares in the number of shares offered by us would decrease the pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value after this offering by $0.31 per share and increase the dilution to new investors purchasing common stock in this offering by $0.31 per share, assuming no change in the assumed initial public offering price per share and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions.

If the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full, the pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share after giving effect to the offering would be $0.55 per share. This represents an increase in pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value of $0.69 per share to existing stockholders and dilution in pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value of $7.45 per share to new investors.

50

The number of shares of our common stock to be outstanding after this offering is based on 8,535,619 shares of our common stock outstanding as of March 31, 2020, assumes no exercise by the underwriters of their over-allotment option and excludes:

•        753,100 shares of common stock subject to future vesting issued to members of management and directors;

•        1,498,128 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2019 Equity Incentive Plan; and

•        80,000 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of warrants to be issued to the representative of the underwriters as part of this offering at an exercise price of $10.00 (assuming an initial public offering price of $8.00 per share (the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus)).

The following table summarizes, on the pro forma as adjusted basis described above, the total number of shares of common stock purchased from us, the total consideration paid or to be paid, and the average price per share paid or to be paid by existing stockholders and by new investors in this offering at an assumed initial public offering price of $8.00 per share, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, before deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us:

 


Shares Purchased

 


Total Consideration

 

Average
Price
Per Share

   

Number

 

Percentage

 

Amount

 

Percentage

 

Existing stockholders

 

10,593,555

 

91.4

%

 

$

2,163,966

 

21.3

%

 

$

0.20

New investors

 

1,000,000

 

8.6

%

 

 

8,000,000

 

78.7

%

 

$

8.00

Total

 

11,593,555

 

100.0

%

 

$

10,163,966

 

100

%

 

 

 

A $1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed initial public offering price of $8.00 per share, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, would increase (decrease) the total consideration paid by new investors by $1 million and, in the case of an increase, would increase the percentage of total consideration paid by new investors by 12.5 percentage points and, in the case of a decrease, would decrease the percentage of total consideration paid by new investors by 12.5 percentage points, assuming that the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same. An increase (decrease) of 500,000 shares in the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, would increase (decrease) the total consideration paid by new investors by $4 million and, in the case of an increase, would increase the percentage of total consideration paid by new investors by 50 percentage points and, in the case of a decrease of 500,000 shares, would decrease the percentage of total consideration paid by new investors by 50 percentage points, assuming no change in the assumed initial public offering price.

The table above assumes no exercise of the underwriters’ over-allotment option in this offering. If the underwriters’ over-allotment option is exercised in full, the number of common shares held by new investors purchasing common stock in this offering would be increased to 9.8% of the total number of shares of common stock outstanding after this offering, and the number of shares held by existing stockholders would be reduced to 90.2% of the total number of shares of common stock outstanding after this offering.

To the extent that stock options or warrants are exercised, we issue new stock options under our equity incentive plan, or we issue additional common stock in the future, there will be further dilution to investors participating in this offering. In addition, if we raise additional capital through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, the issuance of these securities could result in further dilution to our stockholders.

51

SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

The following table sets forth our selected financial data as of the dates and for the periods indicated. We have derived the statement of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018 from our audited financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. The statements of operations data for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019 and the balance sheet data as of March 31, 2020 have been derived from our unaudited financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. The following summary financial data should be read with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our financial statements and related notes and other information included elsewhere in this prospectus. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected in the future.

Statement of Operations Data:

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

 

Years Ended
December 31,

 

Three Months Ended
March 31,
(unaudited)

   

2019

 

2018

 

2020

 

2019

Revenues

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

Operating costs and expenses

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research and development

 

 

2,606

 

 

 

1,270

 

 

 

150

 

 

 

126

 

General and administrative

 

 

819

 

 

 

420