S-1/A 1 zoominfos-1a4.htm S-1/A Document
As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on June 2, 2020.
Registration No. 333-236674
 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
AMENDMENT NO. 4 TO
FORM S-1
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
 
ZoomInfo Technologies Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
Delaware
7372
84-3721253
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(Primary Standard Industrial
Classification Code Number)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
805 Broadway Street, Suite 900
Vancouver, Washington 98660
Telephone: (800) 914-1220
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)
 
Anthony Stark
General Counsel
ZoomInfo Technologies Inc.
805 Broadway Street, Suite 900
Vancouver, Washington 98660
Telephone: (800) 914-1220
(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)
 
Copies to:
Richard A. Fenyes
Simpson Thacher & Bartlett LLP
425 Lexington Avenue
New York, New York 10017
Telephone: (212) 455-2000
Marc D. Jaffe
Jason M. Licht
Stelios G. Saffos
Latham & Watkins LLP
885 Third Avenue
New York, New York 10022
Telephone: (212) 906-1200
 
Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: As soon as practicable after this Registration Statement is declared effective.
 
If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, check the following box.  
If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
 
 
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.  
 
CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE
Title of Each Class of
Securities to be Registered
Amount to be Registered(1)(2)
Proposed Maximum Offering Price per Share(1)(2)
Proposed Maximum Aggregate
Offering Price(1)(2)
Amount of
Registration Fee
(3)
Class A Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share
51,175,000
$20.00
$1,023,500,000
$132,851
(1)
Estimated solely for the purpose of determining the amount of the registration fee in accordance with Rule 457(a) under the Securities Act of 1933.
(2)
Includes 6,675,000 shares of Class A common stock that are subject to the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares.
(3)
$119,566.00 previously paid.
 
The Registrant hereby amends this Registration Statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this Registration Statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until this Registration Statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.
 



 
 
 
The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.
SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED JUNE 2, 2020    
PROSPECTUS
44,500,000 Shares
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ZoomInfo Technologies Inc.
Class A Common Stock
$               per share
This is the initial public offering of shares of Class A common stock of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. We are selling 44,500,000 shares of our Class A common stock. We currently expect the initial public offering price to be between $19.00 and $20.00 per share of Class A common stock. We have applied to list our shares of Class A common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market (the “Nasdaq”) under the trading symbol “ZI.”
Following this offering, we will have three classes of common stock: Class A common stock, Class B common stock, and Class C common stock. Holders of shares of our Class A common stock are entitled to one vote for each share of Class A common stock held of record on all matters on which stockholders are entitled to vote generally. Holders of shares of our Class B common stock are entitled to ten votes for each share of Class B common stock held of record (for so long as the aggregate number of outstanding shares of our Class B common stock and Class C common stock represents at least 5% of the aggregate number of outstanding shares of common stock, and thereafter, one vote per share) on all matters on which stockholders of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. are entitled to vote generally. Holders of shares of our Class C common stock are entitled to ten votes for each share of Class C common stock held of record (for so long as the aggregate number of outstanding shares of our Class B common stock and Class C common stock represents at least 5% of the aggregate number of our outstanding shares of common stock, and thereafter, one vote per share upon the automatic conversion into shares of Class A common stock) on all matters on which stockholders of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. are entitled to vote generally. See “Description of Capital Stock.” ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. will be a holding company whose sole material asset will be a controlling equity interest in ZoomInfo HoldCo (as defined herein), which will be a holding company whose sole material asset will be an indirect controlling equity interest in ZoomInfo OpCo (as defined herein). The number of outstanding OpCo Units (as defined herein) of ZoomInfo OpCo will equal the aggregate number of outstanding shares of Class A common stock, Class B common stock, and Class C common stock. See “Organizational Structure—Offering Transactions.”
After the completion of this offering, certain affiliates of each of TA Associates, Carlyle, and our Founders (each as defined herein) will be parties to a stockholders agreement and will beneficially own approximately 89.6% of the combined voting power of our Class A, Class B, and Class C common stock (or 89.4% if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock). As a result, we will be a “controlled company” within the meaning of the Nasdaq corporate governance standards. See “Management—Controlled Company Exception” and “Principal Stockholders.”
We intend to use all of the net proceeds from this offering (including from any exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock) (i) to purchase newly issued HoldCo Units from ZoomInfo HoldCo, which in turn will purchase the same number of newly issued OpCo Units from ZoomInfo OpCo, (ii) to purchase OpCo Units from certain Pre-IPO OpCo Unitholders, and (iii) to fund merger consideration payable to certain Pre-IPO Blocker Holders (as defined herein) in connection with the Blocker Mergers (as defined herein). The foregoing purchases of OpCo Units will be at a price per unit equal to the public offering price per share of Class A common stock in this offering, less the underwriting discount. We will only retain net proceeds used to purchase newly issued HoldCo Units from ZoomInfo HoldCo, which will, in turn, purchase newly issued OpCo Units from ZoomInfo OpCo. ZoomInfo OpCo expects to use the proceeds it receives through ZoomInfo HoldCo from this offering to redeem and cancel all outstanding Series A Preferred Units (as defined herein), to repay our second lien term loans, to repay outstanding borrowings under our first lien revolving credit facility, and, to the extent there are remaining proceeds, for general corporate purposes. See “Use of Proceeds” and “Certain Relationships and Related Person Transaction—Purchase of OpCo Units and Payment of Blocker Merger Consideration.”
We are an “emerging growth company” as defined under the federal securities laws and, as such, have elected to comply with certain reduced public company reporting requirements. See “Summary—Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company.”
Investing in shares of our Class A common stock involves risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 31.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any other regulatory body has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Per Share
 
Total
Initial public offering price.................................................................................................................................
$     
 
$     
Underwriting discount(1).....................................................................................................................................
$     
 
$     
Proceeds, before expenses, to ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. ..............................................................................
$      
 
$      
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(1)
Please see the section entitled “Underwriting” for a description of compensation payable to the underwriters.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
To the extent that the underwriters sell more than 44,500,000 shares of our Class A common stock, the underwriters have the option, within 30 days from the date of this prospectus, to purchase up to an additional 6,675,000 shares of our Class A common stock from us at the initial public offering price less the underwriting discount.
Prior to the date hereof, certain funds and accounts managed by subsidiaries of BlackRock, Inc., entities affiliated with Dragoneer Investment Group, LLC, and certain entities affiliated with Fidelity Management & Research Company LLC (collectively, the “cornerstone investors”) have indicated an interest in purchasing an aggregate of up to $100.0 million each (up to $300.0 million in the aggregate) in shares of our Class A common stock in this offering at the initial public offering price. Because this indication of interest is not a binding agreement or commitment to purchase, the cornerstone investors could determine to purchase more, less, or no shares in this offering or the underwriters could determine to sell more, less, or no shares to any of the cornerstone investors. The underwriters will receive the same discount on any of our shares of Class A common stock purchased by the cornerstone investors as they will from any other shares of Class A common stock sold to the public in this offering.
The underwriters expect to deliver the shares of our Class A common stock against payment in New York, New York on or about                 , 2020.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Joint Book-Running Managers
 
 
 
J.P. Morgan
 
Morgan Stanley
Barclays
Credit Suisse
BofA Securities
Deutsche Bank Securities
RBC Capital Markets
UBS Investment Bank
Wells Fargo Securities
 
 
 
Co-Managers
 
 
 
Canaccord Genuity
JMP Securities
Mizuho Securities
Piper Sandler
Raymond James
Stifel
SunTrust Robinson Humphrey
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The date of this prospectus is          , 2020.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 



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Table of Contents
 
Page
 
You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus, any amendment or supplement to this prospectus, or any free writing prospectus we may authorize to be delivered or made available to you. This prospectus is an offer to sell only the shares offered hereby, but only under the circumstances and in jurisdictions where it is lawful to do so. Neither we nor the underwriters have authorized anyone to provide you with information different from that contained in this prospectus, any amendment or supplement to this prospectus, or any free writing prospectus prepared by us or on our behalf. Neither we nor the underwriters take any responsibility for, or can provide any assurance as to the reliability of, any information other than the information in this prospectus, any amendment or supplement to this prospectus, or any free writing prospectus prepared by us or on our behalf. The information in this prospectus, any amendment or supplement to this prospectus, or any applicable free writing prospectus is accurate only as of its date, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus, any amendment or supplement to this prospectus, or any applicable free writing prospectus, as applicable, or any sale of shares of our Class A common stock. Our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects may have changed since that date.
For Investors Outside the United States: We and the underwriters are offering to sell, and seeking offers to buy, shares of our Class A common stock only in jurisdictions where offers and sales are permitted. Neither we nor the underwriters have done anything that would permit this offering or possession or distribution of this prospectus in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required, other than in the United States. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus must inform themselves about, and observe any restrictions relating to, the offering of the shares of our Class A common stock and the distribution of this prospectus outside the United States.



About this Prospectus
Financial Statement Presentation
This prospectus includes certain historical combined and consolidated financial and other data for ZoomInfo OpCo. Immediately following this offering, ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. will be a holding company, and its sole material asset will be a controlling equity interest in ZoomInfo HoldCo, which will be a holding company whose sole material asset will be a controlling equity interest in ZoomInfo OpCo. ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. will operate and control all of the business and affairs of ZoomInfo OpCo through ZoomInfo HoldCo and, through ZoomInfo OpCo and its subsidiaries, conduct our business. Following this offering, ZoomInfo OpCo will be the predecessor of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. for financial reporting purposes. As a result, the consolidated financial statements of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. will recognize the assets and liabilities received in the reorganization at their historical carrying amounts, as reflected in the historical financial statements of ZoomInfo OpCo. ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. will consolidate ZoomInfo OpCo through ZoomInfo HoldCo on its consolidated financial statements and record a non-controlling interest related to the OpCo Units and HoldCo Units held by our pre-IPO owners (as defined below) on its consolidated balance sheet and statement of operations.
On February 1, 2019, we acquired, through a newly formed wholly owned subsidiary, Zebra Acquisition Corporation, 100% of the stock of Zoom Information, Inc. (“Pre-Acquisition ZI”). Pre-Acquisition ZI was a leading provider of company and contact information to sales and marketing professionals. The Zoom Information Acquisition (as defined below) qualifies as a business combination and was accounted for as such. We included the financial results of Pre-Acquisition ZI in the consolidated financial statements of ZoomInfo OpCo from the date of the Zoom Information Acquisition. Accordingly, the financial statements for the periods prior to the Zoom Information Acquisition may not be comparable to those for the periods after the Zoom Information Acquisition.
Numerical figures included in this prospectus have been subject to rounding adjustments. Accordingly, numerical figures shown as totals in various tables may not be arithmetic aggregations of the figures that precede them.
Certain Definitions
As used in this prospectus, unless otherwise noted or the context requires otherwise:
“22C Capital” refers to investment funds associated with 22C Capital LLC and its predecessor.
“ACV” refers to annual contract value, or the total annualized value that a customer has agreed to pay for subscription services at any particular point in time under contract(s) that are or were enforceable at that point in time.
“Blocker Companies” refers to certain of our Pre-IPO OpCo Unitholders that are taxable as corporations for U.S. federal income tax purposes.
“CAC” refers to customer acquisition cost, or the cost of acquiring a new customer. We calculate CAC as (i) our adjusted sales and marketing expense, which excludes expenses that are non-cash or one-time in nature, including equity compensation costs, amortization related to acquired technology, and acquisition-related integration and compensation expenses, divided by (ii) the number of new customers added during the period.
“Carlyle” refers to investment funds associated with The Carlyle Group.
“Class P Units” refers to Class P Units (including, without limitation, any indirectly held Class P Units) of ZoomInfo OpCo. The Class P Units are “profits interests” having economic characteristics similar to stock options and have the right to share in any equity value of ZoomInfo OpCo above specified participation thresholds which are referred to as “strike prices” in this prospectus.
“Continuing Class P Unitholders” refers to certain pre-IPO owners who will continue to hold Class P Units following the consummation of the Reorganization Transactions and the Offering Transactions.
“contact record event” refers to receipt of additional information or confirmatory evidence about a contact.

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“customers” refers to companies that have contracted with us to use our services and, at the time of measurement, maintain one or more active paid subscriptions to our platform. Paid subscriptions will generally include access for a number of employees or other affiliated persons of the customer.
“Datanyze” refers, collectively, to Datanyze, Inc. and Datanyze Rus, LLC.
“existing owners” or “pre-IPO owners” refer, collectively, to the Sponsors, the Founders, and the management and other equity holders who are the owners of ZoomInfo OpCo immediately prior to the Transactions (as defined herein).
“Employee Units” refers to the portion of HoldCo Units into which certain existing Class P Units (including, without limitation, certain indirectly held Class P Units) will be converted in the Reorganization Transactions.
“Exchange Tax Receivable Agreement” refers to the tax receivable agreement entered into with certain Pre-IPO OpCo Unitholders.
“Founders” refers to Henry Schuck, our Chief Executive Officer, and Kirk Brown.
“HoldCo Units” refers to the new class of units of ZoomInfo HoldCo created by the Reclassification. Each OpCo Unit and HoldCo Unit will have equivalent value and exchange rights for Class A common stock, subject to applicable vesting.
“HSKB” refers to HSKB Funds, LLC, a privately held limited liability company formed on February 9, 2016 for the purpose of issuing equity to certain persons who had performed and would continue to perform services for ZoomInfo OpCo.
“LTIP Units” refers to a class of partnership units that are intended to qualify as “profit interests” in ZoomInfo OpCo for federal income tax purposes that, subject to certain conditions, including vesting, are convertible by the holder into OpCo Units. LTIP Units initially will not have full parity, on a per unit basis, with OpCo Units with respect to ordinary and liquidating distributions. Upon the occurrence of specified events, LTIP Units can over time achieve full parity with OpCo Units, at which time vested LTIP Units may be converted into OpCo Units on a one-for-one basis.
“LTV” refers to lifetime value, or the value that we expect to generate from a customer during the period that the customer continues to use our services. We calculate LTV as the product of (i) our average ACV per customer, multiplied by (ii) our adjusted gross margin, which excludes expenses that are non-cash or one-time in nature, including equity compensation costs, amortization related to acquired technology, and acquisition-related integration and compensation expenses, multiplied by (iii) the fraction that is one divided by the annual rate that customers cancel subscriptions, which is defined as the percentage of ACV for customers that cancel during the period divided by the ACV at the beginning of the period.
“NeverBounce” refers to Metrics Delivered LLC.
“OpCo Units” refers to the new class of units of ZoomInfo OpCo created by the Reclassification, and does not include Class P Units. Each OpCo Unit and HoldCo Unit will have equivalent value and exchange rights for Class A common stock, subject to applicable vesting.
“paid users” refers to employees or other affiliated persons of a customer that have been granted access to our system under the terms of a contract with a customer.
“Pre-IPO Blocker Holders” refers to the pre-IPO owners that hold their interests in us through the Blocker Companies immediately prior to the consummation of this offering.
“Pre-IPO HoldCo Unitholders” refers to the pre-IPO owners that hold HoldCo Units immediately prior to the consummation of this offering.
“Pre-IPO OpCo Unitholders” refers to the pre-IPO owners that hold OpCo Units immediately prior to the consummation of this offering.

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“RainKing” refers to Rain King Software, Inc.
“Reorganization Tax Receivable Agreement” refers to the tax receivable agreement entered into with the Pre-IPO Blocker Holders.
“Series A Preferred Units” refers to the Series A preferred units of ZoomInfo OpCo outstanding immediately prior to the consummation of this offering and the use of proceeds therefrom.
“Sponsors” refers, collectively, to TA Associates, Carlyle, and 22C Capital.
“TA Associates” refers to investment funds associated with TA Associates.
“tax receivable agreements” refers, collectively, to the Exchange Tax Receivable Agreement and the Reorganization Tax Receivable Agreement.
“total addressable market” or “TAM” refers to the revenue opportunity that we believe is available to go-to-market intelligence solutions, such as ours. We calculate our TAM as the sum of (i) the product of (a) the number of specifically identified companies in our system with 10 to 99 employees and who sell to other businesses, multiplied by (b) the average ACV that we generate from companies with 10 to 99 employees, plus (ii) the product of (a) the number of specifically identified companies in our system with 100 to 999 employees and who sell to other businesses, multiplied by (b) the average ACV that we generate from companies with 100 to 999 employees, plus (iii) the product of (a) the number of specifically identified companies in our system with 1,000 or more employees, multiplied by (b) the average ACV that we generated from the top quartile of customers with 1,000 or more employees.
“ZoomInfo,” the “Company,” “we,” “us,” and “our” refer, (1) prior to the consummation of the Reorganization Transactions and the Offering Transactions, to ZoomInfo OpCo and its consolidated subsidiaries and, (2) after the consummation of the Reorganization Transactions and the Offering Transactions, to ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries.
“ZoomInfo HoldCo” refers to ZoomInfo Intermediate Holdings LLC, a Delaware limited liability company, and a direct subsidiary of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. following the Reorganization Transactions.
“ZoomInfo OpCo” refers to ZoomInfo Holdings LLC (formerly known as DiscoverOrg Holdings, LLC), a Delaware limited liability company, and a direct subsidiary of ZoomInfo HoldCo and indirect subsidiary of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. following the Reorganization Transactions.
 
Unless indicated otherwise, the information included in this prospectus assumes the following:
no exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase up to an additional 6,675,000 shares of Class A common stock from us solely to cover over-allotments;
that the shares of Class A common stock to be sold in this offering are sold at $19.50 per share, which is the midpoint of the price range indicated on the front cover of this prospectus; and
four-for-one reverse unit split by ZoomInfo OpCo.

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SUMMARY
This summary highlights information contained elsewhere in this prospectus and does not contain all of the information you should consider before investing in shares of our Class A common stock. Before you decide to invest in shares of our Class A common stock, you should read this entire prospectus carefully, including the sections entitled “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our consolidated financial statements and the related notes thereto included elsewhere in this prospectus. This summary contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties.
Overview
Our mission is to unlock actionable business information and insights to make organizations more successful.
ZoomInfo is a leading go-to-market intelligence platform for sales and marketing teams. Our cloud-based platform provides highly accurate and comprehensive information on the organizations and professionals they target. This “360-degree view” enables sellers and marketers to shorten sales cycles and increase win rates by delivering the right message, to the right person, at the right time, to hit their number.
Every business needs to sell effectively to thrive. Today, sales and marketing is inherently inefficient. Sales representatives spend only a third of their time actually selling, in large part because they must spend so much of their time researching, curating, and organizing data, which is often of poor quality. Sales and marketing teams often lack scalable and actionable go-to-market intelligence to engage their customers and prospects. All organizations that sell to other businesses can use ZoomInfo to sell more, in a smarter, better, and faster way.
Today, approximately 202,000 paid users leverage our platform to identify the best target customers, pinpoint the right decision makers, obtain continually updated predictive lead and company scoring, monitor buying signals and other attributes of target companies, craft the right message, engage via automated sales tools, and track progress through the deal cycle. Our go-to-market intelligence platform delivers comprehensive and high-quality intelligence and analytics on approximately 14 million companies, including advanced attributes, technologies used by companies, intent signals, and decision-maker contact information. Our intelligence is kept up to date in real time.
By leveraging artificial intelligence (“AI”) and machine learning techniques (“ML”), the ZoomInfo platform is able to process billions of raw data events and refine them into unique and actionable insights. To create these insights, our platform continuously collects, enriches, curates, and verifies the data from millions of proprietary and public sources, including our contributory network, which captures data on approximately 50 million contact record events daily from our free Community Edition users and many of our paying customers.


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Our software, insights, and data enable over 15,000 companies to sell and market more effectively and efficiently. Our customers operate in almost every industry vertical, including software, business services, manufacturing, telecommunications, financial services, retail, media and internet, transportation, education, hospitality, and real estate, and range from the largest global enterprises, to mid-market companies, down to small businesses. As customers continue their journey with us, we help them move up the go-to-market maturity curve from basic go-to-market operations, such as finding target accounts and contacts, to more sophisticated motions, such as prioritizing accounts, automating workflows and campaigns, crafting nuanced pitches, and monitoring deal momentum. Our robust suite of software and insights supports every step along that journey.
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Independent of size or industry, we believe our platform can make almost any sales and marketing team more effective and more efficient.
This broad applicability drives our TAM of approximately $24 billion, according to our estimates. Using the ZoomInfo platform, we have identified over 740,000 global businesses that sell to other businesses and have more than ten employees, which represent our potential customers. Our current customer base of over 15,000 implies penetration of approximately 2%.
Internally, we use the ZoomInfo platform to drive our own highly effective and efficient go-to-market motion. We have developed a high-velocity lead generation engine and invested in tech-enabled processes, such as lead scoring and lead routing, fueled by our data and insights. When combined with our investments in onboarding, training, and sales enablement, this results in an optimized go-to-market motion. For the 12 months ended March 31, 2020, our median new business sales cycle from opportunity creation to close was less than 30 days, and our average LTV compared to our average CAC was over 10x. Our focus on customer adoption, success, and expansion helps us to deliver continued value and creates opportunities for increased usage. Today, over 630 of our customers spend more than $100,000 in ACV, with 15 customers spending over $1,000,000 in ACV.
ZoomInfo, formerly known as DiscoverOrg, was co-founded in 2007 by our CEO, Henry Schuck. DiscoverOrg achieved significant organic growth since its founding and acquired Zoom Information, Inc. (“Pre-Acquisition ZI”) in February 2019 to further expand the breadth of our go-to-market intelligence, industry coverage, and addressable market opportunity. Subsequently, the combined business has been re-branded as ZoomInfo. We and Pre-Acquisition ZI generated revenue of $144.3 million and $72.5 million in 2018, respectively, and $293.3 million in 2019 and $9.7 million for the one month ended January 31, 2019, respectively. We generated revenue of $54.6 million and $102.2


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million for the three months ended March 31, 2019 and March 31, 2020, respectively. We and Pre-Acquisition ZI generated net income (loss) of $(28.6) million and $(27.5) million in 2018, respectively, and $(78.0) million in 2019 and $0.8 million for the one month ended January 31, 2019, respectively. We generated net income (loss) of $(40.2) million and $(5.9) million for the three months ended March 31, 2019 and March 31, 2020, respectively. We generated Adjusted Operating Income of $83.6 million and $167.1 million in 2018 and 2019, respectively. We generated Adjusted Operating Income of $31.7 million and $49.1 million for the three months ended March 31, 2019 and March 31, 2020, respectively.
Industry Background
Sales and Marketing is Fundamental to Every Business
For every company, sales and marketing is a fundamental function that defines its success. As a result, businesses typically spend significantly on sales and marketing activities. For example, Forbes Global 2000 companies collectively spent over $2 trillion on sales and marketing activities alone in 2018 according to Capital IQ.
Business-to-Business (“B2B”) Sales and Marketing has Changed
Prior to the advent of sales and marketing technologies, businesses that sold to other businesses operated in an analog world, relying on field sales representatives to gather customer information and navigate sales processes. This process was manual, expensive, and inefficient. The data gathered was limited in depth, breadth, and accuracy, and began decaying as soon as it was captured. To address these problems, businesses invested in new technologies like customer relationship management (“CRM”) to digitally transform the way they sell. The CRM market grew from $12 billion in 2009 to $42 billion in 2018, representing a nearly 250% increase, according to a 2019 Global Industry Analysts, Inc. report. CRM systems were adopted primarily to manage the sales process, while marketing automation systems and new forms of customer engagement were developed to automate different go-to-market tasks. Despite these investments, businesses still rely largely on manual processes to gather intelligence to drive these systems. Consequently, the data that supports CRM and sales & marketing automation systems and workflows is frequently stale, inaccurate, incomplete, and limited in depth and breadth.
Sales and Marketing is Still Inefficient
According to Salesforce.com, sales representatives spend only a third of their time actually selling, in large part because they must spend so much of their time researching and organizing data, which is often of poor quality. This inefficiency is manifested in three main ways:
1)
It’s hard to find and engage with decision makers. Inaccurate or missing contact information plagues efforts to engage with a broad set of targets quickly and efficiently.
2)
It’s hard to know when to engage. Sales and marketing professionals need to manually gather information across various sources to determine when a potential customer intends to make a purchase.
3)
No data-driven way to prioritize targets. Prioritization decisions for sales and marketing resources are often made based on intuition, random knowledge gathering, or incomplete and inaccurate data.
There is a Need for a Comprehensive Go-to-Market Intelligence Solution
Sales and marketing teams need go-to-market intelligence to engage the right people, at the right companies, with the right message, at the right time. Go-to-market intelligence provides a “360-degree view,” aggregating all the information and intelligence gathered from numerous sources that together paint a comprehensive dynamic picture of target customers, their organizational structure, corporate hierarchy, decision-makers, and methods of contact. This all needs to be updated in real time and integrated into workflows through CRM and sales & marketing automation systems—the systems nearly every company uses to manage its sales and marketing processes.
Today, point solutions exist to aid in go-to-market intelligence efforts, but they only address a fraction of the 360-degree view of the customer, and often lack the accuracy required to be effective. According to a Forrester report we commissioned, only 1.2% of companies have mature B2B intelligence practices and technology. Companies that have


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implemented some B2B intelligence practices and technology have realized 35% more leads and 45% higher-quality leads, leading to higher revenue and faster growth.
The ZoomInfo Platform
Our cloud-based go-to-market intelligence platform give sales and marketing professionals highly accurate and comprehensive information and insights on the organizations and professionals they target. Our platform helps users identify the best target customers, pinpoint the right decision makers, obtain continually updated predictive lead and company scoring, monitor buying signals and other attributes of target companies, craft the right message, engage via automated sales tools, and track progress through the deal cycle.
We provide a comprehensive 360-degree view on approximately 14 million companies and over 120 million professionals. We combine this with deep insights, such as personnel moves, pain points or planned investments, technologies used by companies, intent signals, advanced attributes (such as time series growth, granular department and location information, and employee trends), organizational charts, news and events, hierarchy information, locations, and funding details. Our intelligence is kept up to date in real time. This enables us to provide our customers with a contractual guarantee that at least 95% of the employment information they access will be current.
Our Data Engine
Our Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence Technologies
We are able to deliver high-quality intelligence at scale by leveraging an AI- and ML-powered engine that gathers data from millions of sources and standardizes, matches to entities, verifies, cleans, and applies the processed data to companies and people. To help train our AI and ML technologies and augment our contributory network, we have a team of 300 research analysts with deep expertise in cleaning B2B data.
Our Data Sources
We have a number of data sources, including proprietary sources, that enrich our platform:
Contributory Network. Our free users and many of our paying customers contribute data that enhances our platform. Our contributory network captures data on approximately 50 million contact record events daily.
Unstructured Public Information. Our patented and proprietary technologies extract and parse unstructured information found on webpages, newsfeeds, blogs, and other public sources, and then match that information with entities that we have previously identified.
Data Training Lab. We have developed hundreds of processes, largely automated, to gather information from sources, such as PBX directories, website traffic and source code, and proprietary surveys.
Generally Available Information. Our technology adds value to public information and a limited amount of purchased third-party data by combining them with our proprietary insights.
Benefits of Our Platform
Significant and Measurable Revenue Improvement. Our platform increases revenue for our customers who can easily measure the impact because we integrate with the systems that they use to attribute revenue.
Unmatched Accuracy, Depth, and Coverage of Data. We are able to provide a guarantee of 95%+ accuracy as a result of our focus on quality, coupled with proprietary methods to extract, parse, match, and clean data. We do not believe that any other solution provides the depth and breadth of data that we provide on approximately 14 million companies and over 120 million professionals.
Unique Data Points Drive Valuable Insights. We integrate unique data points that are proprietary to ZoomInfo with our customers’ data to enrich their information and develop unique insights.


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Integrated and Automated Platform. Our insights are available on our cloud-based platform and can also be delivered directly into our customers’ workflows and supporting infrastructure, including Salesforce, Marketo, HubSpot, Microsoft Dynamics, Oracle Sales Cloud, and other platforms. The vast majority of our customers integrate ZoomInfo with their most-used CRM or sales & marketing automation system.
Our Competitive Strengths
Market Leader with a Comprehensive Go-to-Market Intelligence Platform. We provide the most accurate and comprehensive go-to-market intelligence platform available.
Finely Tuned Go-to-Market Model. We utilize the ZoomInfo platform to power our efficient go-to-market motion. For the 12 months ended March 31, 2020, our average LTV to average CAC was over 10x.
High-Velocity Software Development. We foster an innovative, fast-paced engineering culture that enabled the release of 112 product features and services in 2019.
Viral Enthusiasm Driven by Our Base of “Fanatic Users.” We have approximately 82,000 “Fanatic Users,” which we define as users with over 100 activities, such as searches, exports, record views, and list match requests, among others, on the platform per month. We believe our Fanatic Users drive viral adoption of our platform.
Powerful and Significant Network Effects. As our user base grows, so does the data we receive, which enables us to provide greater value to our customers.
Visionary, Founder-Led Management Team. Our highly talented, customer-centric senior leadership, led by our co-founder and CEO, Henry Schuck, enables us to rapidly develop new products, move more quickly than our competition, and build our fast-paced, execution-oriented culture.
Our Market Opportunity
We estimate the TAM for our platform to be approximately $24 billion, based on data as of March 31, 2020.
We calculate our TAM by estimating the total number of companies by employee size for companies with 1,000 or more employees, companies with 100 to 999 employees, and companies with 10 to 99 employees and applying the ACV to each respective company using internally generated data of actual customer spend by company size. For companies with 1,000 or more employees, we have applied the average ACV of our top quartile of customers with 1,000 or more employees, who we believe have achieved broader implementation of our platform across their organizations. For companies with 100 to 999 employees and companies with 10 to 99 employees, we have applied an average ACV based on current spend for our customers in these bands. The aggregate calculated value represents our estimated TAM. Data for numbers of companies by employee count is from our ZoomInfo platform that we have identified as relevant prospects for our platform.
Our Growth Strategy
We intend to drive the growth of our business through the following strategies:
Continue to Acquire New Customers
Deliver Additional High-Value Solutions to Our Existing Customers
Drive Incremental Penetration Within Enterprises
Leverage Our Platform for Adjacent Use Cases such as Recruiting
Expand to International Markets
Selective Acquisitions to Complement Our Platform


5


Recent Developments
In December 2019, a novel strain of Coronavirus disease (“COVID-19”) was reported, and in March 2020, the WHO characterized COVID-19 as a pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in travel restrictions, prohibitions of non-essential activities, disruption and shutdown of certain businesses, and greater uncertainty in global financial markets. Such conditions are creating disruption in global supply chains, increasing rates of unemployment, and adversely impacting many industries. The outbreak could have a continued adverse impact on economic and market conditions and trigger a period of global economic slowdown.
As of the date of this prospectus, the full impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the global economy and the extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic may impact our financial condition or results of operations remain uncertain. Furthermore, because of our largely subscription-based business model, the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic may not be fully reflected in our results of operations and overall financial condition until future periods, if at all.
As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, we expect we will experience slowed growth or decline in new customer demand for our platform and lower demand from our existing customers for upgrades within our platform. We have experienced and expect to continue to experience an increase in potential customers seeking lower prices or other more favorable contract terms and current customers attempting to obtain concessions on the terms of existing contracts, including requests for early termination or waiver of payment obligations, all of which has adversely affected and could materially adversely impact our business, results of operations, and overall financial condition in future periods. The extent and continued impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our operational and financial condition will depend on certain developments, including: the duration and spread of the outbreak; government responses to the pandemic; its impact on the health and welfare of our employees and their families; its impact on our customers and our sales cycles; its impact on customer, industry, or employee events; delays in hiring and onboarding new employees; and effects on our partners and vendors, some of which are uncertain, difficult to predict, and not within our control.
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, in the first quarter of 2020, we temporarily closed all of our offices, including our office in Israel, and enabled our entire work force to work remotely. We have also implemented travel restrictions for non-essential business. These changes remain in effect in the second quarter of 2020 and could extend into future quarters. The impact, if any, of these and any additional operational changes we may implement is uncertain, but changes we have implemented to date have not affected and are not expected to materially affect our ability to maintain operations, including financial reporting systems, internal control over financial reporting, and disclosure controls and procedures. See “Risk Factors” for further discussion of the possible impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business.
To illustrate the performance of our business during the COVID-19 pandemic, we are disclosing certain new business ACV and net ACV changes.
New business ACV, which quantifies in a given period the annualized value of contracts with new customers that subscribed in such period, was $9.7 million in March 2020, representing 36% year-over-year growth, and $8.8 million in April 2020, representing 87% year-over-year growth. With respect to new business ACV, April 2020 was our highest first month of any quarter since the Zoom Information Acquisition. This growth may be attributable to factors including:
companies looking to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of their sales teams, particularly as historical sales activities involving in-person meetings and travel are less feasible;
our solution’s easily identifiable and quickly-realized return on investment (“ROI”), which is even more important when selling in this environment; and
our short sales cycle and the relatively low price point of our solution.


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summary2d.jpg
Largely due to growth in new business ACV, we experienced a positive Net Change in ACV in both March 2020 and April 2020. “Net Change in ACV” is defined as ACV at the end of the period minus ACV at the beginning of a period. Net Change in ACV is impacted by new contracts signed with new and existing customers, renewals and non-renewals of existing contracts, cancellations of contracts, and amendments or any other changes to contracts.
summary3d.jpg
ACV represents the total annualized value that a customer has agreed to pay for subscription services at any particular point in time under contract(s) that are or were enforceable at that point in time and does not represent revenue recognized from such contract(s). ACV is not meant to be considered in isolation or as a substitute for revenue or any other GAAP measures and is not indicative of our actual financial results for the quarter ended March 31, 2020 or for any other period or of future financial results.


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Investment Risks
An investment in shares of our Class A common stock involves substantial risks and uncertainties that may adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows. Some of the more significant challenges and risks relating to an investment in our Company include, among other things, the following:
the COVID-19 pandemic, including the global economic uncertainty and measures taken in response, could materially impact our business and future results of operations;
larger well-funded companies shifting their existing business models to become more competitive with us;
our ability to provide or adapt our platform for changes in laws and regulations or public perception, or changes in the enforcement of such laws, relating to data privacy;
the effects of companies more effectively catering to our customers by offering more tailored products or platforms at lower costs;
adverse general economic and market conditions reducing spending on sales and marketing;
the effects of declining demand for sales and marketing subscription platforms;
our ability to improve our technology and keep up with new processes for data collection, organization, and cleansing;
our ability to provide a highly accurate, reliable, and comprehensive platform moving forward;
our reliance on third-party systems that we do not control to integrate with our system and our potential inability to continue to support integration;
our ability to adequately fund research and development potentially limiting introduction of new features, integrations, and enhancements;
our ability to attract new customers and expand existing subscriptions;
a decrease in participation in our contributory network or increased opt-out rates impacting the depth, breadth, and accuracy of our platform;
our failure to protect and maintain our brand and our ability to attract and retain customers;
our substantial indebtedness, which could adversely affect our financial condition, our ability to raise additional capital to fund our operations, our ability to operate our business, our ability to react to changes in the economy or our industry, and our ability to meet our obligations under our outstanding indebtedness, and could divert our cash flow from operations for debt payments;
the parties to our stockholders agreement controlling us and their interests conflicting with ours or yours in the future; and
our being, upon the listing of our Class A common stock on the Nasdaq, a “controlled company” within the meaning of the Nasdaq rules and, as a result, qualifying for exemptions from certain corporate governance requirements, as a result of which you will not have the same protections afforded to stockholders of companies that are subject to such requirements.
Please see “Risk Factors” for a discussion of these and other factors you should consider before making an investment in shares of our Class A common stock.


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Organizational Structure
For a simplified diagram depicting our current organizational structure, see “Organizational Structure.” Immediately following this offering, ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. will be a holding company, and its sole material asset will be a controlling equity interest in ZoomInfo HoldCo, which will be a holding company whose sole material asset will be a controlling equity interest in ZoomInfo OpCo. ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. will operate and control all of the business and affairs, and consolidate the financial results, of ZoomInfo OpCo through ZoomInfo HoldCo and, through ZoomInfo OpCo and its subsidiaries, conduct our business. Prior to the completion of this offering:
ZoomInfo OpCo will effect a four-for-one reverse unit split;
ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. will form a new merger subsidiary with respect to each of the Blocker Companies through which certain of our Pre-IPO Blocker Holders hold their interests in ZoomInfo OpCo, each merger subsidiary will merge with and into the respective Blocker Companies in reverse-subsidiary mergers, and the surviving entities will merge with and into ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. (such mergers, the “Blocker Mergers”), which Blocker Mergers will result in the Pre-IPO Blocker Holders receiving a combination of (i) shares of Class C common stock of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. and (ii) a cash amount in respect of reductions in such Pre-IPO Blocker Holders’ equity interests, based on the initial offering price of the Class A common stock (see “Organizational Structure—Blocker Mergers”);
certain pre-IPO owners will acquire interests in ZoomInfo HoldCo as a result of the merger of an entity that holds OpCo Units on behalf of such pre-IPO owners into ZoomInfo HoldCo (the “ZoomInfo HoldCo Contributions”) and the redemption of some OpCo Units pursuant to which the holders of such OpCo Units receive HoldCo Units; and
the limited liability company agreement of each of ZoomInfo OpCo and ZoomInfo HoldCo will be amended and restated to, among other things, modify their capital structure by reclassifying the interests held by the Pre-IPO OpCo Unitholders, the Continuing Class P Unitholders, and the Pre-IPO HoldCo Unitholders, resulting in OpCo Units of ZoomInfo OpCo, Class P Units of ZoomInfo OpCo, and HoldCo Units of ZoomInfo HoldCo, respectively (such reclassification, the “Reclassification”).
We refer to the Reclassification, together with the Blocker Mergers and the ZoomInfo HoldCo Contributions, as the “Reorganization Transactions.” Pursuant to the amended and restated limited liability company agreement of ZoomInfo OpCo, the Pre-IPO OpCo Unitholders (or certain permitted transferees) will have the right (subject to the terms of such limited liability company agreement) to exchange their OpCo Units (together with a corresponding number of shares of Class B common stock) for shares of our Class A common stock on a one-for-one basis, subject to customary conversion rate adjustments for stock splits, stock dividends, and reclassifications. Pursuant to the amended and restated limited liability company agreement of ZoomInfo HoldCo, the Pre-IPO HoldCo Unitholders (or certain permitted transferees) will have the right (subject to the terms of such limited liability company agreement) to exchange their HoldCo Units (together with a corresponding number of shares of Class B common stock) for shares of our Class A common stock on a one-for-one basis, subject to customary conversion rate adjustments for stock splits, stock dividends, and reclassifications. For a description of the amended and restated limited liability company agreements of ZoomInfo OpCo and ZoomInfo HoldCo, please read “Certain Relationships and Related Person Transactions.”
Immediately following the consummation of this offering, the Pre-IPO OpCo Unitholders and the Pre-IPO HoldCo Unitholders will hold all of the issued and outstanding shares of our Class B common stock. The shares of Class B common stock will have no economic rights, but each share will entitle the holder to ten votes (for so long as the aggregate number of outstanding shares of our Class B common stock and Class C common stock represents at least 5% of the aggregate number of our outstanding shares of common stock, and thereafter, one vote per share) on all matters on which stockholders of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. are entitled to vote generally. Immediately following the consummation of this offering, the Pre-IPO Blocker Holders will hold all of the issued and outstanding shares of our Class C common stock. The shares of Class C common stock will have the same economic rights as shares of Class A common stock, but each share will entitle the holder to ten votes (for so long as the aggregate number of outstanding shares of our Class B common stock and Class C common stock represents at least 5% of the aggregate number of our outstanding shares of common stock, and thereafter, one vote per share upon the automatic conversion of our Class C


9


common stock into shares of Class A common stock) on all matters on which stockholders of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. are entitled to vote generally.
The voting power afforded to Pre-IPO OpCo Unitholders and Pre-IPO HoldCo Unitholders, as applicable, by their shares of Class B common stock will be automatically and correspondingly reduced as they exchange shares of Class B common stock, together with a corresponding number of OpCo Units or HoldCo Units, as applicable, for shares of Class A common stock of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc., and the voting power afforded to Pre-IPO Blocker Holders will be automatically and correspondingly reduced as they transfer shares of Class C common stock, which, except in certain circumstances, will automatically convert into shares of Class A common stock. See “Certain Relationships and Related Person Transactions—ZoomInfo OpCo Amended and Restated Limited Liability Company Agreement,” “Certain Relationships and Related Person Transactions—ZoomInfo HoldCo Amended and Restated Limited Liability Company Agreement,” and “Description of Capital Stock.” Holders of outstanding shares of our Class A common stock, Class B common stock, and Class C common stock will vote as a single class on all matters on which stockholders are entitled to vote generally, except as otherwise required by law.
Our post-offering organizational structure is commonly referred to as an umbrella partnership-C-corporation (“UP-C”) structure. This organizational structure will allow our Pre-IPO OpCo Unitholders to retain their equity ownership in ZoomInfo OpCo, an entity that is classified as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, in the form of OpCo Units. Investors in this offering and the Pre-IPO Blocker Holders will, by contrast, hold their equity ownership in ZoomInfo Technologies Inc., a Delaware corporation that is a domestic corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, in the form of shares of Class A or Class C common stock. Pre-IPO HoldCo Unitholders will hold their equity ownership in ZoomInfo HoldCo, an entity classified as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, in the form of HoldCo Units. We believe that our Pre-IPO OpCo Unitholders will generally find it advantageous to continue to hold their equity interests in an entity that is not taxable as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes. One of these benefits is that future taxable income of ZoomInfo OpCo that is allocated to our Pre-IPO OpCo Unitholders will be taxed on a flow-through basis and therefore will not be subject to corporate taxes at the entity level. Additionally, because our Pre-IPO OpCo Unitholders and Pre-IPO HoldCo Unitholders may exchange their OpCo Units or HoldCo Units, respectively, for shares of our Class A common stock, our UP-C structure provides our Pre-IPO OpCo Unitholders and Pre-IPO HoldCo Unitholders with potential liquidity that holders of non-publicly traded limited liability companies are not typically afforded. We do not believe that our UP-C structure will give rise to any significant business or strategic benefit or detriment to us.
As described below under “Certain Relationships and Related Person Transactions—Tax Receivable Agreements,” prior to the completion of this offering, we will enter into two tax receivable agreements. We will enter into (i) the Exchange Tax Receivable Agreement with certain Pre-IPO OpCo Unitholders and (ii) the Reorganization Tax Receivable Agreement with the Pre-IPO Blocker Holders. These tax receivable agreements will provide for the payment by ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. or any member of its affiliated, consolidated, combined, or unitary tax group (collectively, the “ZoomInfo Tax Group”) to such pre-IPO owners and certain Pre-IPO HoldCo Unitholders of 85% of the benefits, if any, the ZoomInfo Tax Group is deemed to realize (calculated using certain assumptions) as a result of certain tax attributes and benefits covered by the tax receivable agreements. The Exchange Tax Receivable Agreement will provide for the payment by members of the ZoomInfo Tax Group to certain Pre-IPO OpCo Unitholders and certain Pre-IPO HoldCo Unitholders of 85% of the benefits, if any, that the ZoomInfo Tax Group is deemed to realize (calculated using certain assumptions) as a result of (i) the ZoomInfo Tax Group’s allocable share of existing tax basis acquired in this offering and (ii) increases in the ZoomInfo Tax Group’s allocable share of existing tax basis and tax basis adjustments that will increase the tax basis of the tangible and intangible assets of the ZoomInfo Tax Group as a result of sales or exchanges of OpCo Units for shares of Class A common stock after this offering, and certain other tax benefits, including tax benefits attributable to payments under the Exchange Tax Receivable Agreement. The Reorganization Tax Receivable Agreement will provide for the payment by ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. to the Pre-IPO Blocker Holders and certain Pre-IPO HoldCo Unitholders of 85% of the benefits, if any, that the ZoomInfo Tax Group is deemed to realize (calculated using certain assumptions) as a result of the ZoomInfo Tax Group’s utilization of certain tax attributes of the Blocker Companies (including the ZoomInfo Tax Group’s allocable share of existing tax basis acquired in the Reorganization Transactions), and certain other tax benefits, including tax benefits attributable to payments under the Reorganization Tax Receivable Agreement.


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The amount of existing tax basis and the anticipated tax basis adjustments, as well as the amount and timing of any payments under the tax receivable agreements, will vary depending upon a number of factors, including the timing of exchanges, the price of shares of our Class A common stock at the time of the exchange, the extent to which such exchanges are taxable, the amount of tax attributes, and the amount and timing of our income. We estimate the amount of existing tax basis with respect to which our pre-IPO owners will be entitled to receive payments under the tax receivable agreements (assuming all Pre-IPO OpCo Unitholders excluding the Blocker Companies exchange their OpCo Units (together with a corresponding number of shares of Class B common stock) on the date of this offering) is approximately $352.3  million (assuming an offering price of  $19.50  per share of Class A common stock, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover of this prospectus). Certain late payments under the tax receivable agreements generally will accrue interest at an uncapped rate equal to one year LIBOR (or its successor rate) plus 500 basis points. See “Certain Relationships and Related Person Transactions—Tax Receivable Agreements.”
ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. is a holding company and has no material assets other than its ownership of HoldCo Units. ZoomInfo HoldCo is a holding company and has no material assets other than its ownership of OpCo Units. The limited liability company agreement of ZoomInfo OpCo that will be in effect at the time of this offering provides that certain distributions to cover the taxes of the ZoomInfo Tax Group and the other holders of OpCo Units and Class P Units will be made based upon assumed tax rates and other assumptions provided in such limited liability company agreement (such distributions, “tax distributions”). Additionally, in the event ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. declares any cash dividend, we intend to cause ZoomInfo HoldCo to cause ZoomInfo OpCo to make distributions to ZoomInfo HoldCo, which in turn will make distributions to ZoomInfo Technologies Inc., in an amount sufficient to cover such cash dividends declared by us. If ZoomInfo OpCo makes such distributions to ZoomInfo HoldCo and ZoomInfo HoldCo makes such distributions to ZoomInfo Technologies Inc., the other holders of OpCo Units, HoldCo Units, and certain Class P Units will also be entitled to receive the respective equivalent pro rata distributions. We intend to enter into a tax sharing agreement with ZoomInfo HoldCo prior to consummation of this offering (the “tax sharing agreement”). Pursuant to the tax sharing agreement, ZoomInfo HoldCo will be required to make certain payments to us to enable us to pay taxes of the ZoomInfo Tax Group and to meet our obligations under the tax receivable agreements.
Following this offering, ZoomInfo OpCo will be the predecessor of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. for financial reporting purposes. As a result, the consolidated financial statements of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. will recognize the assets and liabilities received in the reorganization at their historical carrying amounts, as reflected in the historical financial statements of ZoomInfo OpCo. ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. will consolidate ZoomInfo OpCo through ZoomInfo HoldCo on its consolidated financial statements and record a non-controlling interest related to the OpCo Units and HoldCo Units held by our pre-IPO owners on its consolidated balance sheet and statement of operations.


11


The simplified diagram below depicts our organizational structure immediately following the consummation of the Offering Transactions (as described under “Organizational Structure—Offering Transactions”) and the Reorganization Transactions (assuming an offering price of $19.50  per share of Class A common stock, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover of this prospectus, and no exercise of the over-allotment option by the underwriters). Unless otherwise stated or the context otherwise requires, the information provided in this prospectus reflects the consummation of the Offering Transactions and the Reorganization Transactions. For additional detail, see “Organizational Structure.”
summary2_h.jpg
________________
(1)
Each share of Class B common stock will provide the holder with ten votes (for so long as the aggregate number of outstanding shares of our Class B common stock and Class C common stock represents at least 5% of the aggregate number of our outstanding shares of common stock, and thereafter, one vote per share) on all matters on which stockholders of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. are entitled to vote generally. Immediately following this offering, the Pre-IPO OpCo Unitholders and the Pre-IPO HoldCo Unitholders will hold 234,932,785 and 4,182,893  shares of our Class B common stock, respectively (assuming an offering price of $19.50  per share of Class A common stock, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover of this prospectus), collectively representing 100% of our outstanding Class B common stock, and will


12


collectively hold 70.0% of the voting power in ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. Immediately following this offering, the holders of our Class B and Class C common stock will collectively hold 98.7% of the voting power in ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. For additional information, see “Organizational Structure—Organizational Structure Following this Offering and the Transactions” and “Description of Capital Stock—Common Stock—Class B Common Stock.”
(2)
Each share of Class C common stock will provide the holder with ten votes (for so long as the aggregate number of outstanding shares of our Class B common stock and Class C common stock represents at least 5% of the aggregate number of our outstanding shares of common stock, and thereafter, one vote per share upon the automatic conversion of our Class C common stock into shares of Class A common stock) on all matters on which stockholders of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. are entitled to vote generally. Immediately following this offering, the Pre-IPO Blocker Holders will hold 98,106,387  shares of our Class C common stock (assuming an offering price of $19.50  per share of Class A common stock, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover of this prospectus), representing 100% of our Class C common stock, and will collectively hold 28.7% of the voting power in ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. Immediately following this offering, the holders of our Class B and Class C common stock will collectively hold 98.7% of the voting power in ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. For additional information, see “Organizational Structure—Organizational Structure Following this Offering and the Transactions” and “Description of Capital Stock—Common Stock—Class C Common Stock.”
(3)
Assuming such Class P Units are fully vested, at the time of this offering,  10,364,582 shares of Class A common stock would be issuable upon the exchange of 14,471,631 Class P Units (assuming an offering price of $19.50  per share of Class A common stock, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover of this prospectus) that are held by the Continuing Class P Unitholders. For additional information, see “Organizational Structure—Reclassification and Amendment and Restatement of Limited Liability Company Agreement of ZoomInfo OpCo” and “Certain Relationships and Related Person Transactions—ZoomInfo OpCo Amended and Restated Limited Liability Company Agreement.”
(4)
ZoomInfo LLC (formerly known as DiscoverOrg, LLC) serves as the borrower under our first lien revolving credit facility and our first lien term loan facility, as amended (together, the “first lien credit facilities”), and our second lien term loan facility (together with the first lien credit facilities, the “secured credit facilities”). See “Description of Certain Indebtedness.”
The following table presents the outstanding common stock, OpCo Units, and HoldCo Units (i) on an actual basis, excluding the conversion of 14,471,631 Class P Units held by the Continuing Class P Unitholders, which are convertible for 10,364,582 shares of Class A common stock upon vesting, and (ii) on a diluted basis, assuming the conversion of such Class P Units, upon completion of the Reorganization Transactions and the Offering Transactions (assuming an offering price of $19.50  per share of Class A common stock, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover of this prospectus, and no exercise of the over-allotment option by the underwriters):
 
Common Stock
 
Units
 
Class A Common Stock
 
Class B Common Stock
 
Class C Common Stock
 
Total
 
HoldCo Units
 
OpCo Units
Public Stockholders(1)
45,368,871

 


 


 
45,368,871

 


 


Pre-IPO OpCo Unitholders


 
234,932,785

 


 
234,932,785

 


 
234,932,785

Pre-IPO HoldCo Unitholders


 
4,182,893

 


 
4,182,893

 
4,182,893

 


Pre-IPO Blocker Holders


 


 
98,106,387

 
98,106,387

 


 


ZoomInfo Technologies Inc.


 


 


 
 
 
143,475,258

 


ZoomInfo HoldCo


 


 


 
 
 


 
147,658,151

Total outstanding
45,368,871

 
239,115,678

 
98,106,387

 
382,590,936

 
147,658,151

 
382,590,936

Total, after giving effect to the conversion of Class P Units held by Continuing Class P Unitholders(2)
55,733,453

 
239,115,678

 
98,106,387

 
392,955,518

 
158,022,733

 
392,955,518

Total, after giving further effect to the vesting of employee equity grants under our 2020 Omnibus Incentive Plan(3)
56,250,730

 
239,115,678

 
98,106,387

 
393,472,795

 
158,540,010

 
393,472,795

________________
(1)
Includes 868,871 shares of Class A common stock issued to former employees of ZoomInfo OpCo in exchange for vested direct and indirect interests in ZoomInfo OpCo held prior to the offering .
(2)
In connection with the conversion of any Class P Unit for a share of Class A common stock, one OpCo Unit will be issued to ZoomInfo HoldCo and one HoldCo Unit will be issued to ZoomInfo Technologies Inc.
(3)
Includes 465,994 restricted stock units and 51,283 LTIP Units (in each case, assuming an offering price of $19.50  per share of Class A common stock, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover of this prospectus) to be granted in connection with this offering under the 2020 Omnibus Incentive Plan. In addition, 622,439 stock options, which we refer to as “leverage restoration options” (assuming an offering price of $19.50  per share of Class A common stock, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover of this prospectus), and 630,000 Class P Units, in each case with a strike price equal to the public offering price per share of Class A common stock, are expected to be granted in connection with the offering under the 2020 Omnibus Incentive Plan.


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The following table presents the economic interests and combined voting power in ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. held by the Sponsors, the Founders, management and others, and public stockholders (which does not reflect the exchange of any Class P Unit for a share of Class A common stock), upon completion of the Reorganization Transactions and the Offering Transactions (assuming an offering price of $19.50  per share of Class A common stock, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover of this prospectus, and no exercise of the over-allotment option by the underwriters):
 
Common Stock
Owned(1)
 
Voting Power(2)
 
Shares
 
%
 
Votes
 
%
Sponsors
251,207,121

 
65.7
%
 
2,512,071,210

 
73.5
%
Founders(3)
66,011,392

 
17.3
%
 
660,113,920

 
19.3
%
Management and Others
20,003,552

 
5.2
%
 
200,035,520

 
5.9
%
Public Shareholders(4)
45,368,871

 
11.9
%
 
45,368,871

 
1.3
%
Total
382,590,936

 
100.0
%
 
3,417,589,521

 
100.0
%
__________________
(1)
Reflects the sum of shares of our Class A common stock, Class B common stock, and Class C common stock, which represents direct and indirect economic ownership in us and our subsidiaries. Each share of our Class A common stock and Class C common stock has the same economic interest. Our Class B common stock does not have any economic rights, but each share of our Class B common stock will relate to one OpCo Unit or HoldCo Unit at the time of the closing of this offering.
(2)
Based on beneficial ownership, reflects one vote per share of Class A common stock, ten votes per share of Class B common stock, and ten votes per share of Class C common stock. See “Principal Stockholders” for additional information.
(3)
Reflects (i) Henry Schuck’s indirect economic interest in 7,363,514 OpCo Units and associated shares of Class B common stock held directly by HSKB Funds, LLC and 30,910,042 OpCo Units and associated shares of Class B common stock held directly by DO Holdings (WA), LLC; and (ii) Kirk Brown’s indirect economic interest in 27,737,836 OpCo Units and associated shares of Class B common stock held directly by DO Holdings (WA), LLC. Messrs. Schuck and Brown may be deemed to share voting and dispositive power over the securities held by DO Holdings (WA), LLC. Mr. Schuck may be deemed to control voting power over the securities held by HSKB Funds I, LLC and HSKB Funds II, LLC. See “Principal Stockholders” for additional information.
(4)
Includes 868,871 shares of Class A common stock issued to former employees of ZoomInfo OpCo in exchange for vested direct and indirect interests in ZoomInfo OpCo held prior to the offering .
Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company
We qualify as an “emerging growth company” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 (the “JOBS Act”). For so long as we remain an emerging growth company, we are permitted, and currently intend, to rely on the following provisions of the JOBS Act that contain exceptions from disclosure and other requirements that otherwise are applicable to companies that conduct initial public offerings and file periodic reports with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). These provisions include, but are not limited to:
being permitted to present only two years of audited financial statements and selected financial data and only two years of related “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in our periodic reports and registration statements, including this prospectus, subject to certain exceptions;
not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as amended (“SOX”);
reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports, proxy statements, and registration statements, including in this prospectus;
not being required to comply with any requirement that may be adopted by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (the “PCAOB”) regarding mandatory audit firm rotation or a supplement to the auditor’s report providing additional information about the audit and the financial statements; and
exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved.


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We will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest to occur of:
the last day of the fiscal year that follows the fifth anniversary of the completion of this offering;
the last day of the fiscal year in which we have total annual gross revenue of at least $1.07 billion;
the date on which we are deemed to be a “large accelerated filer,” as defined in the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”); and
the date on which we have issued more than $1 billion in non-convertible debt over a three-year period.
We have elected to take advantage of certain of the reduced disclosure obligations in this prospectus and may elect to take advantage of other reduced reporting requirements in our future filings with the SEC. As a result, the information that we provide to our Class A stockholders may be different than what you might receive from other public reporting companies in which you hold equity interests.
We have elected to avail ourselves of the provision of the JOBS Act that permits emerging growth companies to take advantage of an extended transition period to comply with new or revised accounting standards applicable to public companies. As a result, we will not be subject to new or revised accounting standards at the same time as other public companies that are not emerging growth companies.
For additional information, see the section titled “Risk Factors—Risks Related to this Offering and Ownership of Our Class A Common Stock—We are an “emerging growth company,” and the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies may make our Class A common stock less attractive to investors.”
Our Sponsors
TA Associates
Founded in 1968, TA Associates is one of the most experienced global growth private equity firms in the world. TA Associates invests in growing companies with opportunities for sustained growth, and employs a long-term approach, utilizing its strategic resources, to help management teams build lasting value in great companies. With approximately $33.5 billion raised since inception and over five decades of experience, TA Associates offers its portfolio companies strategic guidance, global insight, strategic acquisition support, recruiting assistance, and a significant network of contacts, in addition to sound financial backing. The firm’s investment team is based in Boston, Menlo Park, London, Mumbai, and Hong Kong.
The Carlyle Group 
The Carlyle Group Inc. (NASDAQ: CG) is a global investment firm with deep industry expertise that deploys private capital across four business segments: Corporate Private Equity, Real Assets, Global Credit, and Investment Solutions. With $217 billion of assets under management as of March 31, 2020, The Carlyle Group’s purpose is to invest wisely and create value on behalf of its investors, portfolio companies, and the communities in which they invest. The Carlyle Group is a leading private equity investor having completed more than 650 transactions representing over $105 billion in equity investments, with particular strength in technology, business services, and communications sectors, which represent over 310 investments and $34 billion of equity invested. The Carlyle Group employs more than 1,775 people in 32 offices across six continents.
22C Capital
22C Capital is a private investment firm based in New York committed to delivering capital and critical resources to companies operating at the intersection of technology enablement and data analytics adoption. 22C Capital has a dedicated focus on the business services, healthcare, and financial services sectors. 22C Capital seeks to partner with experienced management teams to build companies that are leaders in their respective markets. 22C Capital’s operational and technology resources, including its affiliated data science organization, strive to deliver practical, real-world support to help convert these businesses’ challenges into opportunities and unlock their full potential. 22C Capital executives


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have cross-disciplinary experience building and running market-leading data analytics companies, including co-founding and leading Capital IQ. 
 
After the completion of this offering, the parties to our stockholders agreement will beneficially own approximately 89.6% of the combined voting power of our Class A, Class B, and Class C common stock (or 89.4% if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock), with each share of Class A common stock entitling the holder to one vote, each share of Class B common stock entitling the holder to ten votes (for so long as the aggregate number of outstanding shares of our Class B common stock and Class C common stock represents at least 5% of the aggregate number of our outstanding shares of common stock, and thereafter, one vote per share) on all matters on which stockholders of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. are entitled to vote generally, and each share of Class C common stock entitling the holder to ten votes (for so long as the aggregate number of outstanding shares of our Class B common stock and Class C common stock represents at least 5% of the aggregate number of our outstanding shares of common stock, and thereafter, one vote per share upon the automatic conversion of our Class C common stock into shares of Class A common stock) on all matters on which stockholders of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. are entitled to vote generally. As a result, we will be a “controlled company” within the meaning of the Nasdaq corporate governance standards. Under these corporate governance standards, a company of which more than 50% of the voting power is beneficially owned by an individual, group, or other company is a “controlled company” and may elect not to comply with certain corporate governance standards, including the requirements (1) that a majority of its board of directors consist of independent directors, (2) that its board of directors have a compensation committee that is composed entirely of independent directors with a written charter addressing the committee’s purpose and responsibilities, and (3) that its board of directors have a nominating and corporate governance committee that is composed entirely of independent directors with a written charter addressing the committee’s purpose and responsibilities. Accordingly, you will not have the same protections afforded to shareholders of companies that are subject to all of these corporate governance requirements. In the event that we cease to be a “controlled company” and our Class A common stock continues to be listed on the Nasdaq, we will be required to comply with these provisions within the applicable transition periods.
 
Our Corporate Information
ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. was incorporated in Delaware on November 14, 2019. Our principal executive office is located at 805 Broadway Street, Suite 900, Vancouver, Washington 98660, and our telephone number is (800) 914-1220. We maintain a website at www.zoominfo.com. The reference to our website is intended to be an inactive textual reference only. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not part of this prospectus and investors should not rely on such information in deciding whether to purchase shares of our common stock.
We own, or have rights to, trademarks, service marks, or trade names that we use in connection with the operation of our business, including ZOOMINFO and DISCOVERORG, which we consider important to our marketing activities. This prospectus also contains trademarks of other companies that to our knowledge are the property of their respective holders, and we do not intend our use or display of such marks to imply relationships with, or endorsements of us by, any other company.
Solely for convenience, the trademarks, service marks, and trade names referred to in this prospectus are used without the ® and ™ symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights or the rights of the applicable licensors to these trademarks, service marks, and trade names. All trademarks, service marks, and trade names appearing in this prospectus are the property of their respective owners.


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The Offering
Issuer
ZoomInfo Technologies Inc.
 
 
Class A common stock offered by ZoomInfo Technologies Inc.

44,500,000 shares (plus up to an additional 6,675,000 shares at the option of the underwriters to cover over-allotments).
 
 
Option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock

We have granted the underwriters a 30-day option from the date of this prospectus to purchase up to 6,675,000 additional shares of our Class A common stock at the initial public offering price, less the underwriting discount.
 
 
Class A common stock outstanding after giving effect to this offering

45,368,871 shares (or 52,043,871 shares if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock).
 
 
Class A common stock outstanding after this offering assuming exchange of all OpCo Units and HoldCo Units held by the Pre-IPO OpCo Unitholders and the Pre-IPO HoldCo Unitholders, respectively, and conversion of all Class C common stock





382,590,936 shares (which does not reflect the exchange of any Class P Unit for a share of Class A common stock, and which remains unchanged if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock).
 
 
Voting power held by investors in this offering after giving effect to this offering

1.3% (or 1.5% if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock).
 
 
Voting power held by our pre-IPO owners after giving effect to this offering

98.7% (or 98.5% if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock).
 
 
Use of proceeds
We estimate that the net proceeds to ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. from this offering, after deducting the estimated underwriting discount, will be approximately $827.6 million (or $951.8 million if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock). ZoomInfo OpCo will reimburse ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. for or bear all of the expenses payable by it in this offering. We estimate these offering expenses (excluding the underwriting discount) will be approximately $11.0 million.
 
 
 
ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. intends to use all of the net proceeds from this offering (including from any exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock):
 
 
 
to purchase 41,853,783 newly issued HoldCo Units from ZoomInfo HoldCo for approximately $778.4 million (or 48,528,783 HoldCo Units for $902.5 million if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock), which in turn will purchase the same number of newly issued OpCo Units from ZoomInfo OpCo;
 
 
 
to purchase 2,370,948 OpCo Units from certain Pre-IPO OpCo Unitholders for approximately $44.1 million;
 
 


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to fund $5.1 million of merger consideration (an aggregate cash amount equal to 275,269 shares of Class C common stock multiplied by the public offering price per share of Class A common stock, less the underwriting discount) payable to certain Pre-IPO Blocker Holders in connection with the Blocker Mergers.
 
 
 
The foregoing purchases of HoldCo Units and OpCo Units will be made at a price per unit equal to the public offering price per share of Class A common stock in this offering, less the underwriting discount. Upon each purchase of OpCo Units, the corresponding shares of Class B common stock will be canceled. The number of outstanding OpCo Units of ZoomInfo OpCo will equal the aggregate number of outstanding shares of Class A common stock, Class B common stock and Class C common stock. See “Organizational Structure—Offering Transactions.”
 
 
 
We will only retain the net proceeds that are used to purchase newly issued HoldCo Units from ZoomInfo HoldCo, which will, in turn, be used to purchase newly issued OpCo Units from ZoomInfo OpCo. ZoomInfo OpCo expects to use the proceeds it receives through ZoomInfo HoldCo from this offering:
 
 
 
to redeem and cancel all outstanding Series A Preferred Units for approximately $274.2 million, including accumulated but unpaid distributions and related prepayment premiums;
 
 
 
to repay the entire aggregate principal amount of our second lien term loans, for approximately $380.6 million, including related prepayment premiums and accrued interest;
 
 
 
to repay $35.0 million of outstanding borrowings under our first lien revolving credit facility; and
 
 
 
to the extent there are remaining proceeds, for general corporate purposes.
 
 
 
We will not retain any of the net proceeds used to purchase OpCo Units from Pre-IPO OpCo Unitholders or to fund merger consideration for the Blocker Mergers. See “Use of Proceeds” and “Certain Relationships and Related Person Transactions—Purchase of OpCo Units and Payment of Blocker Merger Consideration.”
 
 
 
If the net proceeds from this offering are greater than the estimated net proceeds set forth herein, we expect to use the additional proceeds to purchase and cancel additional OpCo Units and HoldCo Units from the pre-IPO owners at a price per OpCo Unit or HoldCo Unit equal to the public offering price per share of Class A common stock in this offering, less the underwriting discount. If the net proceeds of this offering are less than the estimated net proceeds set forth herein, we expect to reduce the amount of outstanding borrowings under our first lien revolving credit facility that will be repaid. See “Use of Proceeds” and “Certain Relationships and Related Person Transactions—Purchase of OpCo Units and Payment of Blocker Merger Consideration.”
 
 


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Voting rights
Each share of our Class A common stock entitles its holder to one vote on all matters to be voted on by stockholders generally.

Immediately following the consummation of this offering, the Pre-IPO OpCo Unitholders and the Pre-IPO HoldCo Unitholders will hold all of the outstanding shares of our Class B common stock. The shares of Class B common stock will have no economic rights, but each share will entitle the holder to ten votes (for so long as the aggregate number of outstanding shares of our Class B common stock and Class C common stock represents at least 5% of
the aggregate number of our outstanding shares of common stock, and thereafter, one vote per share) on all matters on which stockholders of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. are entitled to vote generally. Immediately following the consummation of this offering, the Pre-IPO Blocker Holders will hold all of the issued and outstanding shares of our Class C common stock. The shares of Class C common stock will have the same economic rights as shares of Class A common stock, but each share will entitle the holder to ten votes (for so long as the aggregate number of outstanding shares of our Class B common stock and Class C common stock represents at least 5% of the aggregate number of our outstanding shares of common stock, and thereafter, one vote per share upon the automatic conversion of our Class C common stock into shares of Class A common stock) on all matters on which stockholders of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. are entitled to vote generally.

Holders of outstanding shares of our Class A common stock, Class B common stock, and Class C common stock will vote as a single class on all matters on which stockholders are entitled to vote generally, except as otherwise required by law. See “Description of Capital Stock—Common Stock.”
 
 
Dividend policy
We have no current plans to pay dividends on our Class A common stock or Class C common stock. The declaration, amount, and payment of any future dividends will be at the sole discretion of our board of directors. Our board of directors may take into account general economic and business conditions, our financial condition and operating results, our available cash and current and anticipated cash needs, capital requirements, contractual, legal, tax, and regulatory restrictions, and implications on the payment of dividends by us to our stockholders or by our subsidiaries (including ZoomInfo HoldCo and ZoomInfo OpCo) to us, and such other factors as our board of directors may deem relevant. Holders of our Class B common stock do not have any right to receive dividends, or to receive a distribution upon a liquidation, dissolution, or winding up of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc., with respect to their Class B common stock.
 
 


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ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. is a holding company and has no material assets other than a controlling equity interest in ZoomInfo HoldCo, which is a holding company and has no material assets other than a controlling equity interest in ZoomInfo OpCo. The limited liability company agreement of ZoomInfo OpCo that will be in effect at the time of this offering provides that certain distributions to cover the taxes of the ZoomInfo Tax Group and the other holders of OpCo Units and Class P Units will be made based upon assumed tax rates and other assumptions provided in such limited liability company agreement. Additionally, in the event ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. declares any cash dividend, we intend to cause ZoomInfo HoldCo to cause ZoomInfo OpCo to make distributions to ZoomInfo HoldCo, which in turn will make distributions to ZoomInfo Technologies Inc., in an amount sufficient to cover such cash dividends declared by us. If ZoomInfo OpCo makes such distributions to ZoomInfo HoldCo and ZoomInfo HoldCo makes such distributions to ZoomInfo Technologies Inc., the other holders of OpCo Units, HoldCo Units, and certain Class P Units will also be entitled to receive the respective equivalent pro rata distributions. We intend to enter into the tax sharing agreement, pursuant to which ZoomInfo HoldCo will be required to make certain payments to us to enable us to pay taxes of the ZoomInfo Tax Group and to meet our obligations under the tax receivable agreements.
 
 
 
We anticipate that cash received by ZoomInfo HoldCo may, in certain periods, exceed ZoomInfo Technologies Inc.’s obligations to pay its liabilities and make payments under the tax receivable agreements. We expect that ZoomInfo HoldCo will use any such excess cash from time to time: to acquire additional newly issued OpCo Units from ZoomInfo OpCo at a per unit price determined by reference to the market value of our Class A common stock; to pay dividends, which may include special dividends, on our Class A common stock and Class C common stock; to fund repurchases of our Class A common stock; or any combination of the foregoing. Our board of directors, in its sole discretion, will make any determination with respect to the use of any such excess cash. We also expect, if necessary, to undertake ameliorative actions, which may include pro rata or non-pro rata reclassifications, combinations, subdivisions, or adjustments of outstanding HoldCo Units or OpCo Units, or declare a stock dividend on our Class A common stock and Class C common stock of an aggregate number of additional newly issued shares that corresponds to the number of additional OpCo Units that ZoomInfo HoldCo is acquiring, to maintain one-to-one parity between OpCo Units and shares of Class A common stock, Class B common stock, and Class C common stock. See “Dividend Policy.”
 
 


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Exchange rights of holders of OpCo Units, Class P Units, LTIP Units, and HoldCo Units
Prior to this offering, we will amend and restate the limited liability company agreement of ZoomInfo OpCo so that the Pre-IPO OpCo Unitholders may, after the completion of this offering (subject to the terms of such limited liability company agreement), exchange their OpCo Units (together with a corresponding number of shares of Class B common stock) for shares of Class A common stock of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. on a one-for-one basis, subject to customary conversion rate adjustments for stock splits, stock dividends, and reclassifications. Subject to certain restrictions, the holders of Class P Units will have the right to exchange their vested Class P Units into a number of shares of Class A common stock that will generally be equal in value to the implied “spread value” of the corresponding Class P Units (calculated based on the excess of the public trading price of Class A common stock at the time of the exchange over the per unit strike price of such Class P Units). Holders of vested LTIP Units may similarly become eligible to convert their LTIP Units into OpCo Units which, in turn, may be exchanged on a one-for-one basis for shares of Class A common stock of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. as described above. See “Certain Relationships and Related Person Transactions—ZoomInfo OpCo Amended and Restated Limited Liability Company Agreement.” The limited liability company agreement of ZoomInfo HoldCo will provide that the Pre-IPO HoldCo Unitholders may, after the completion of this offering (subject to the terms of such limited liability company agreement), exchange their HoldCo Units (together with a corresponding number of shares of Class B common stock) for shares of Class A common stock of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. on a one-for-one basis, subject to customary conversion rate adjustments for stock splits, stock dividends, and reclassifications. See “Certain Relationships and Related Person Transactions—ZoomInfo HoldCo Amended and Restated Limited Liability Company Agreement.”
 
 
Conversion of Class C common stock
Pursuant to our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, at the option of the holder, a share of Class C common stock may be converted into one share of Class A common stock. In addition, each share of Class C common stock will convert automatically into one share of Class A common stock upon any transfer, whether or not for value, except for certain affiliate transfers described in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation among the Sponsors, the Founders, and their respective affiliates as of the date of the consummation of this offering. Each share of Class C common stock will also automatically convert into one share of Class A common stock if, on the record date for any meeting of the stockholders, the aggregate number of outstanding shares of our Class B common stock and Class C common stock is less than 5% of our outstanding shares of common stock. Once converted into Class A common stock, Class C common stock will not be reissued. See “Description of Capital Stock—Common Stock—Class C Common Stock.”
 
 


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Tax receivable agreements
As described below under “Certain Relationships and Related Person Transactions—Tax Receivable Agreements,” prior to the completion of this offering, we will enter into two tax receivable agreements. We will enter into (i) the Exchange Tax Receivable Agreement with certain of our Pre-IPO OpCo Unitholders and (ii) the Reorganization Tax Receivable Agreement with the Pre-IPO Blocker Holders. These tax receivable agreements will provide for the payment by members of the ZoomInfo Tax Group to such pre-IPO owners and certain Pre-IPO HoldCo Unitholders of 85% of the benefits, if any, that the ZoomInfo Tax Group is deemed to realize (calculated using certain assumptions) as a result of certain tax attributes and benefits covered by the tax receivable agreements. The Exchange Tax Receivable Agreement will provide for the payment by members of the ZoomInfo Tax Group to certain Pre-IPO OpCo Unitholders and certain Pre-IPO HoldCo Unitholders of 85% of the benefits, if any, that the ZoomInfo Tax Group is deemed to realize (calculated using certain assumptions) as a result of (i) the ZoomInfo Tax Group’s allocable share of existing tax basis acquired in this offering and (ii) increases in the ZoomInfo Tax Group’s allocable share of existing tax basis and tax basis adjustments that will increase the tax basis of the tangible and intangible assets of the ZoomInfo Tax Group as a result of sales or exchanges of OpCo Units for shares of Class A common stock after this offering, and certain other tax benefits, including tax benefits attributable to payments under the Exchange Tax Receivable Agreement. The Reorganization Tax Receivable Agreement will provide for the payment by ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. to Pre-IPO Blocker Holders and certain Pre-IPO HoldCo Unitholders of 85% of the benefits, if any, that the ZoomInfo Tax Group is deemed to realize (calculated using certain assumptions) as a result of the ZoomInfo Tax Group’s utilization of certain tax attributes of the Blocker Companies (including the ZoomInfo Tax Group’s allocable share of existing tax basis acquired in the Reorganization Transactions), and certain other tax benefits, including tax benefits attributable to payments under the Reorganization Tax Receivable Agreement. In each case, these increases in existing tax basis and tax basis adjustments generated over time may increase (for tax purposes) depreciation and amortization deductions and, therefore, may reduce the amount of tax that the ZoomInfo Tax Group would otherwise be required to pay in the future. Actual tax benefits realized by the ZoomInfo Tax Group may differ from tax benefits calculated under the tax receivable agreements as a result of the use of certain assumptions in the tax receivable agreements, including the use of an assumed weighted-average state and local income tax rate to calculate tax benefits. This payment obligation is an obligation of members of the ZoomInfo Tax Group, but not of ZoomInfo OpCo. See “Certain Relationships and Related Person Transactions—Tax Receivable Agreements.”
 
 
Indications of Interest
Prior to the date hereof, the cornerstone investors have indicated an interest in purchasing an aggregate of up to $100.0 million each (up to $300.0 million in the aggregate) in shares of our Class A common stock in this offering at the initial public offering price. Because this indication of interest is not a binding agreement or commitment to purchase, the cornerstone investors could determine to purchase more, less, or no shares in this offering or the underwriters could determine to sell more, less, or no shares to any of the cornerstone investors. The underwriters will receive the same discount on any of our shares of Class A common stock purchased by the cornerstone investors as they will from any other shares of Class A common stock sold to the public in this offering.
 
 


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Risk factors
See “Risk Factors” for a discussion of risks you should carefully consider before deciding to invest in our Class A common stock.
 
 
Certain U.S. federal income and estate tax consequences to non-U.S. holders

For a discussion of certain U.S. federal income and estate tax consequences that may be relevant to non-U.S. stockholders, see “Certain U.S. Federal Income and Estate Tax Consequences to Non-U.S. Holders.”
 
 
Nasdaq trading symbol
“ZI.
In this prospectus, unless otherwise indicated, the number of shares of Class A common stock outstanding and the other information based thereon reflects 45,368,871  shares of Class A common stock outstanding immediately following this offering and does not reflect:
6,675,000 shares of Class A common stock issuable upon exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock from us;
239,115,678 shares of Class A common stock issuable upon exchange of 234,932,785  OpCo Units and 4,182,893  HoldCo Units and the related shares of Class B common stock that will be held by the Pre-IPO OpCo Unitholders and the Pre-IPO HoldCo Unitholders, respectively, immediately following this offering;
98,106,387 shares of Class A common stock issuable upon conversion of 98,106,387 shares of Class C common stock that will be held by the Pre-IPO Blocker Holders immediately following this offering;
10,364,582 shares of Class A common stock issuable upon exchange of 14,471,631  Class P Units (assuming an offering price of $19.50  per share of Class A common stock, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover of this prospectus, and assuming such Class P Units are fully vested) that will be held by the Continuing Class P Unitholders immediately following this offering; or
18,650,000 shares of Class A common stock that may be granted under our 2020 Omnibus Incentive Plan, which includes shares of Class A common stock underlying the following employee equity grants, in each case to be awarded in connection with the offering:
465,994 restricted stock units ( assuming an offering price of $19.50  per share of Class A common stock, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover of this prospectus) ;
51,283 LTIP Units ( assuming an offering price of $19.50  per share of Class A common stock, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover of this prospectus);
622,439 stock options which we refer to as “leverage restoration options” (assuming an offering price of $19.50  per share of Class A common stock, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover of this prospectus) with a strike price equal to the public offering price per share of Class A common stock; and
630,000 Class P Units with a participation threshold (i.e., strike price) equal to the public offering price per share of Class A common stock.
See “Executive Compensation—Compensation Arrangements to be Adopted in Connection with this Offering—2020 Omnibus Incentive Plan.”
If we issue and sell a number of shares of Class A common stock in excess of the number of shares set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, we expect to use the additional net proceeds to purchase and cancel additional OpCo Units and HoldCo Units from the pre-IPO owners at a price per OpCo Unit or HoldCo Unit equal to the public offering price per share of Class A common stock in this offering, less the underwriting discount. Upon each purchase of HoldCo Units or OpCo Units, the corresponding shares of Class B common stock will be canceled. As a result, the total numbers of outstanding shares of Class A common stock, OpCo Units, HoldCo Units, and shares of Class B common stock, as well as the relative percentages of equity ownership and voting power of the holders of Class A common stock, Class B common stock, and Class C common stock, will be adjusted accordingly from the information presented herein.


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Summary Historical and Pro Forma Financial and Other Data
The following table presents the summary historical consolidated financial and other data for ZoomInfo OpCo and its subsidiaries and the summary pro forma combined and consolidated financial data for ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. for the periods and at the dates indicated. Immediately following this offering, ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. will be a holding company, and its sole material asset will be a controlling equity interest in ZoomInfo HoldCo, which will be a holding company whose sole material asset will be a controlling equity interest in ZoomInfo OpCo. ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. will operate and control all of the business and affairs of ZoomInfo OpCo through ZoomInfo HoldCo and, through ZoomInfo OpCo and its subsidiaries, conduct our business. Following this offering, ZoomInfo OpCo will be the predecessor of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. for financial reporting purposes. As a result, the consolidated financial statements of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. will recognize the assets and liabilities received in the reorganization at their historical carrying amounts, as reflected in the historical financial statements of ZoomInfo OpCo. ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. will consolidate ZoomInfo OpCo through ZoomInfo HoldCo in its consolidated financial statements and record a non-controlling interest related to the OpCo Units and HoldCo Units held by our pre-IPO owners on its consolidated balance sheet and statement of operations. The summary consolidated statements of operations data and summary consolidated statements of cash flows data presented below for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2019 and the summary consolidated balance sheet data presented below as of December 31, 2018 and 2019 have been derived from the consolidated financial statements of ZoomInfo OpCo included elsewhere in this prospectus. The summary consolidated financial information of ZoomInfo OpCo as of March 31, 2020 and for the three months ended March 31, 2019 and 2020 was derived from the unaudited consolidated financial statements of ZoomInfo OpCo included elsewhere in this prospectus. The unaudited consolidated financial statements of ZoomInfo OpCo have been prepared on the same basis as the audited consolidated financial statements and, in our opinion, have included all adjustments, which include normal recurring adjustments, necessary to present fairly in all material respects our financial position and results of operations. The results for any interim period are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the full year. Share and per share data in the table below has been retroactively adjusted to give effect to the four-for-one stock split, which occurred on May 20, 2020.
The summary historical consolidated financial and other data of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. has not been presented because ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. is a newly incorporated entity, has had no business transactions or activities to date, and had no assets or liabilities during the periods presented.
Historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results expected for any future period. You should read the summary historical consolidated financial data below, together with our audited consolidated financial statements and related notes thereto, the audited consolidated financial statements of Pre-Acquisition ZI and related notes thereto, the audited consolidated financial statements of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. and related notes thereto, and our unaudited consolidated financial statements and related notes thereto, each included elsewhere in this prospectus, as well as “Organizational Structure,” “Unaudited Pro Forma Combined and Consolidated Financial Information,” “Selected Historical Consolidated Financial Data,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” “Description of Certain Indebtedness,” and the other information appearing elsewhere in this prospectus.
The summary unaudited pro forma combined and consolidated financial data of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. presented below have been derived from our unaudited pro forma combined and consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. The summary unaudited pro forma combined and consolidated statement of operations data for the year ended December 31, 2019 give effect to (i) the acquisition of Pre-Acquisition ZI by ZoomInfo OpCo on February 1, 2019 (the “Zoom Information Acquisition”), (ii) the Reorganization Transactions, and (iii) the Offering Transactions, each as if they had occurred on January 1, 2019. The summary unaudited pro forma combined and consolidated statement of operations data for the three months ended March 31, 2020 give effect to (i) the Reorganization Transactions and (ii) the Offering Transactions, each as if they had occurred on January 1, 2019. The summary unaudited pro forma consolidated balance sheet data as of March 31, 2020 gives effect to (i) the Reorganization Transactions and (ii) the Offering Transactions, each as if they had occurred on March 31, 2020. The summary unaudited combined and consolidated pro forma financial data is presented for illustrative purposes only and is not necessarily indicative of the operating results or financial position that would have occurred if the relevant transactions had been consummated on the dates indicated, nor is it indicative of future operating results or financial position. See “Unaudited Pro Forma Combined and Consolidated Financial Information” and “Organizational Structure.”


24


 
ZoomInfo OpCo
(DiscoverOrg Holdings, LLC)
 
ZoomInfo Technologies Inc.
Pro Forma
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
Three Months Ended March 31,
 
Year Ended December 31,
($ in millions, except share amounts)
2018
 
2019
 
2019
 
2020
 
2019
Summary Statements of Operations Data(1):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenue
$
144.3

 
$
293.3

 
$
54.6

 
$
102.2

 
$
334.6

Cost of service(2)
30.1

 
43.6

 
9.1

 
14.8

 
53.7

Amortization of acquired technology
7.7

 
25.0

 
5.6

 
5.6

 
26.8

Gross profit
106.5

 
224.7

 
39.9

 
81.8

 
254.1

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating expenses(2)
79.9

 
188.6

 
41.7

 
61.5

 


Income from operations
26.6

 
36.1

 
(1.8
)
 
20.3

 
36.0

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Interest expense, net
58.2

 
102.4

 
23.5

 
24.5

 
72.1

Loss on debt extinguishment

 
18.2

 
18.2

 
2.2

 
18.2

Other (income) expense, net(3)
(0.1
)
 

 

 
(0.1
)
 

Income (loss) before income taxes
(31.5
)
 
(84.5
)
 
(43.5
)
 
(6.3
)
 
(54.3
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Benefit from income taxes
2.9

 
6.5

 
3.3

 
0.4

 
3.4

Net income (loss)
$
(28.6
)
 
$
(78.0
)
 
$
(40.2
)
 
$
(5.9
)
 
$
(50.9
)
Less: Net income (loss) attributable to non-controlling interests
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(31.8
)
Net income (loss) attributable to ZoomInfo Technologies Inc.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
$
(19.1
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic and diluted net loss per share
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
$
(0.13
)
Shares used in basic and diluted per share calculations
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
143,475,258

 
ZoomInfo OpCo
(DiscoverOrg Holdings, LLC)
 
ZoomInfo Technologies Inc.
Pro Forma
 
As of December 31,
 
As of March 31,
 
As of
March 31,
($ in millions, except share amounts)
2018
 
2019
 
2019
 
2020
 
2020
Summary Balance Sheet Data (at period end):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
9.0

 
$
41.4

 
$
68.4

 
$
63.0

 
$
145.8

Total assets
591.0

 
1,561.9

 
1,542.2

 
1,577.9

 
1,807.5

Long-term debt (including current portion)
633.7

 
1,203.3

 
1,206.2

 
1,238.8

 
841.5

Unearned revenue (including current portion)
52.5

 
159.1

 
105.3

 
173.2

 
173.2

Total liabilities
710.1

 
1,575.5

 
1,503.6

 
1,597.8

 
1,201.5

Temporary equity(4)

 
200.2

 
200.2

 
200.2

 

Permanent equity
(119.1
)
 
(213.8
)
 
(161.6
)
 
(220.1
)
 
606.0



25


 
ZoomInfo OpCo
(DiscoverOrg Holdings, LLC)
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
Three Months Ended March 31,
($ in millions, except share amounts)
2018
 
2019
 
2019
 
2020
Summary Statements of Cash Flows Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net cash provided by operating activities
$
43.8

 
$
44.4

 
$
14.2

 
$
28.3

Net cash used in investing activities
(13.1
)
 
(736.7
)
 
(708.6
)
 
(4.1
)
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities
(29.9
)
 
725.8

 
755.0

 
(2.6
)
 
ZoomInfo OpCo
(DiscoverOrg Holdings, LLC)
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
Three Months Ended March 31,
 
2018
 
2019
 
2019
 
2020
Other Data(5):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Allocated Combined Receipts(6)
$
241.2

 
$
336.0

 
$
73.1

 
$
103.6

Adjusted Operating Income(7)
$
83.6

 
$
167.1

 
$
31.7

 
$
49.1

Adjusted Operating Income Margin(7)
57
%
 
51
%
 
50
%
 
47
%
Adjusted EBITDA(8)
$
86.2

 
$
173.2

 
$
32.8

 
$
51.0

__________________
(1)
Historical results of ZoomInfo OpCo for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2019 do not reflect the results of Pre-Acquisition ZI prior to the Zoom Information Acquisition on February 1, 2019.
 
Year Ended
December 31, 2018
 
Year Ended
December 31, 2019
($ in millions)
ZoomInfo OpCo
(DiscoverOrg Holdings, LLC)
 
Pre-Acquisition ZI
 
ZoomInfo OpCo
(DiscoverOrg Holdings, LLC)
 
Pre-Acquisition ZI(a)
Revenue
$
144.3

 
$
72.5

 
$
293.3

 
$
9.7

Income from operations
26.6

 
(23.1
)
 
36.1

 
1.7

Net income (loss)
$
(28.6
)
 
$
(27.5
)
 
$
(78.0
)
 
$
0.8

__________________
(a)
Reflects January 2019 results for Pre-Acquisition ZI.
(2)
Includes equity-based compensation expense, as follows:
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
Three Months Ended March 31,
($ in millions)
2018
 
2019
 
2019
 
2020
Cost of service
$
8.3

 
$
4.0

 
$
1.2

 
$
1.7

Sales and marketing
15.8

 
11.2

 
2.7

 
6.4

Research and development
1.1

 
4.7

 
0.3

 
1.6

General and administrative
7.5

 
5.2

 
1.4

 
1.6

Total equity-based compensation expense
$
32.7

 
$
25.1

 
5.6

 
$
11.3

(3)
Primarily represents foreign exchange remeasurement gains and losses.
(4)
Consists of 207,000,000 Series A Preferred Units issued on February 1, 2019 in connection with the Zoom Information Acquisition. We expect to redeem and cancel all outstanding Series A Preferred Units with proceeds from this offering for approximately $274.2 million, including accumulated but unpaid distributions and related prepayment premiums.
(5)
In addition to our results determined in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”), we believe certain non-GAAP measures are useful in evaluating our operating performance. These measures include, but are not limited to, Allocated Combined Receipts, Adjusted Operating Income, Adjusted Operating Income Margin, and Adjusted EBITDA, which are used by management in making operating decisions, allocating financial resources, and internal planning and forecasting, and for business strategy purposes. We believe that non-GAAP financial information is useful to investors because it eliminates certain items that affect period-over-period comparability and it provides consistency with past financial performance and additional information about our underlying results and trends by excluding certain items that may not be indicative of our business, results of operations, or outlook.
Non-GAAP financial measures are not meant to be considered in isolation or as a substitute for the comparable GAAP measures, but rather as supplemental information to our business results. This information should be read only in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements prepared in accordance with GAAP. There are limitations to these non-GAAP financial measures because they are not prepared in accordance with GAAP and may not be comparable to similarly titled measures of other companies due to potential differences in methods of calculation


26


and items or events being adjusted. In addition, other companies may use different measures to evaluate their performance, all of which could reduce the usefulness of our non-GAAP financial measures as tools for comparison. A reconciliation is provided below for each non-GAAP financial measure to the most directly comparable financial measure stated in accordance with GAAP.
(6)
We define Allocated Combined Receipts as the combined receipts of our Company and companies that we have acquired allocated to the period of service delivery. We calculate Allocated Combined Receipts as the sum of (i) revenue, (ii) revenue recorded by acquired companies prior to our acquisitions of them, and (iii) the impact of fair value adjustments to acquired unearned revenue related to services billed by an acquired company prior to its acquisition. Management uses this measure to evaluate organic growth of the business period over period, as if the Company had operated as a single entity and excluding the impact of acquisitions or adjustments due to purchase accounting. Organic growth in current and future periods is driven by sales to new customers and the addition of additional subscriptions and functionality to existing customers, offset by customer cancellations or reduced subscriptions upon renewal. We believe that it is important to evaluate growth on this organic basis, as it is an indication of the success of our services from the customer’s perspective that is not impacted by corporate events such as acquisitions or the fair value estimates of acquired unearned revenue. We believe this measure is useful to investors because it illustrates the trends in our organic revenue growth and allows investors to analyze the drivers of revenue on the same basis as management.
The following table presents a reconciliation of Allocated Combined Receipts for the periods presented:
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
Three Months Ended March 31,
($ in millions)
2018
 
2019
 
2019
 
2020
Revenue
$
144.3

 
$
293.3

 
$
54.6

 
$
102.2

Impact of fair value adjustments to acquired unearned revenue(a)
2.9

 
32.2

 
8.5

 
1.4

Pre-Acquisition ZI revenue(b)
72.5

 
9.7

 
9.7

 

Impact of fair value adjustments to acquired unearned revenue recorded by Pre-Acquisition ZI(c)
14.6

 
0.1

 
0.1

 

Pre-acquisition revenue of other acquired companies(d)
6.9

 
0.6

 
0.2

 

Allocated Combined Receipts
$
241.2

 
$
336.0

 
$
73.1

 
$
103.6

Growth
 
 
39
%
 

 
42
%
__________________
(a)
Represents the impact of fair value adjustments to acquired unearned revenue relating to services billed by an acquired company, including Pre-Acquisition ZI, prior to our acquisition of that company.  These adjustments represent the difference between the revenue recognized based on management’s estimate of fair value of acquired unearned revenue and the receipts billed prior to the acquisition, less revenue recognized prior to the acquisition. 
(b)
Figures include revenue recognized by Pre-Acquisition ZI for the periods prior to our acquisition of Pre-Acquisition ZI.
(c)
Primarily represents the impact of fair value adjustments to acquired unearned revenue relating to services billed by a predecessor entity, prior to the acquisition of that predecessor entity by Pre-Acquisition ZI. These adjustments represent the difference between the revenue recognized based on Pre-Acquisition ZI management’s estimate of fair value of acquired unearned revenue and the receipts billed, prior to the acquisition, less revenue recognized prior to the acquisition. 
(d)
We acquired the assets of NeverBounce in September 2018. Additionally, Pre-Acquisition ZI acquired Datanyze in September 2018. Figures include revenue recognized by these entities for the periods presented prior to their respective acquisitions.
(7)
We define Adjusted Operating Income as income from operations plus (i) impact of fair value adjustments to acquired unearned revenue, (ii) amortization of acquired technology and other acquired intangibles, (iii) equity-based compensation, (iv) restructuring and transaction-related expenses, and (v) integration costs and acquisition-related compensation. We exclude the impact of fair value adjustments to acquired unearned revenue and amortization of acquired technology and other acquired intangibles, as well as equity-based compensation, because these are non-cash expenses or non-cash fair value adjustments and we believe that excluding these items provides meaningful supplemental information regarding performance and ongoing cash-generation potential. We exclude restructuring and transaction-related expenses, as well as integration costs and acquisition-related compensation, because such expenses are episodic in nature and have no direct correlation to the cost of operating our business on an ongoing basis. Adjusted Operating Income is presented because it is used by management to evaluate our financial performance and for planning and forecasting purposes. Additionally, we believe that it and similar measures are widely used by securities analysts and investors as a means of evaluating a company’s operating performance. Adjusted Operating Income should not be considered as an alternative to operating income as an indicator of operating performance. We define Adjusted Operating Income Margin as Adjusted Operating Income divided by the sum of revenue and impacts of fair value adjustments to acquired unearned revenue.


27


The following table presents a reconciliation of Adjusted Operating Income and Adjusted Operating Income Margin for the periods presented:
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
Three Months Ended March 31,
($ in millions)
2018
 
2019
 
2019
 
2020
Net loss
$
(28.6
)
 
$
(78.0
)
 
$
(40.2
)
 
$
(5.9
)
Provision for taxes
(2.9
)
 
(6.5
)
 
(3.3
)
 
(0.4
)
Interest expense, net
58.2

 
102.4

 
23.5

 
24.5

Loss on debt extinguishment

 
18.2

 
18.2

 
2.2

Other (income) expense, net(a)
(0.1
)
 

 

 
(0.1
)
Income from operations
26.6

 
36.1

 
(1.8
)
 
20.3

Impacts of fair value adjustments to acquired unearned revenue(b)
2.9

 
32.2

 
8.5

 
1.4

Amortization of acquired technology
7.7

 
25.0

 
5.6

 
5.6

Amortization of other acquired intangibles
7.0

 
17.6

 
3.7

 
4.6

Equity-based compensation
32.7

 
25.1

 
5.6

 
11.3

Restructuring and transaction-related expenses(c)
3.6

 
15.6

 
7.8

 
2.9

Integration costs and acquisition-related compensation(d)
3.2

 
15.5

 
2.4

 
3.0

Adjusted Operating Income
$
83.6

 
$
167.1

 
$
31.7

 
$
49.1

Adjusted Operating Income Margin
57
%
 
51
%
 
50
%
 
47
%
__________________
(a)
Primarily represents foreign exchange remeasurement gains and losses.
(b)
Represents the impact of fair value adjustments to acquired unearned revenue relating to services billed by an acquired company, including Pre-Acquisition ZI, prior to our acquisition of that company. These adjustments represent the difference between the revenue recognized based on management’s estimate of fair value of acquired unearned revenue and the receipts billed prior to the acquisition, less revenue recognized prior to the acquisition.
(c)
Represents costs directly associated with acquisition or disposal activities, including employee severance and termination benefits, contract termination fees and penalties, and other exit or disposal costs. For the year ended December 31, 2019, this expense related primarily to the acquisition of Pre-Acquisition ZI, including professional fees, severance and acceleration of payments for terminated employees, and accretion related to deferred consideration. For the year ended December 31, 2018, this expense related primarily to Carlyle’s investment in us. For the three months ended March 31, 2020, this expense related primarily to professional fees for the preparation for an initial public offering. For the three months ended March 31, 2019, this expense related primarily to the acquisition of Pre-Acquisition ZI, including professional fees, severance, and acceleration of payments for terminated employees.
(d)
Represents costs directly associated with integration activities for acquisitions and acquisition-related compensation, which includes transaction bonuses and retention awards. For the year ended December 31, 2019, this expense related primarily to activities resulting from the acquisition of Pre-Acquisition ZI, including consulting and professional services costs, cash vesting payments (see Note 4 – Business Combinations to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus), and transaction bonuses and other compensation, as well as expense incurred for retention awards granted upon the Company’s acquisitions of RainKing, NeverBounce, and Komiko. For the year ended December 31, 2018, this expense related primarily to retention awards granted upon our acquisition of RainKing and transaction bonuses paid upon Carlyle’s investment in us. For the three months ended March 31, 2020, this expense related primarily to cash vesting payments from the acquisition of Pre-Acquisition ZI (see Note 4 – Business Combinations to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus). For the three months ended March 31, 2019, this expense related primarily to activities resulting from the acquisition of Pre-Acquisition ZI, including cash vesting payments (see Note 4 – Business Combinations to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus) and transaction bonuses, as well as expense incurred for retention awards granted upon the Company’s acquisitions of RainKing and NeverBounce. This expense is included in cost of service, sales and marketing expense, research and development expense, and general and administrative expense as follows:
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
Three Months Ended March 31,
($ in millions)
2018
 
2019
 
2019
 
2020
Cost of service
$
0.2

 
$
0.4

 
$

 
$
0.1

Sales and marketing
0.6

 
5.8

 
1.0

 
1.0

Research and development
0.1

 
3.9

 
0.8

 
1.6

General and administrative
2.3

 
5.4

 
0.6

 
0.2

Total integration costs and acquisition-related compensation
$
3.2

 
$
15.5

 
$
2.4

 
$
3.0

(8)
EBITDA is defined as earnings before debt-related costs, including interest and loss on debt extinguishment, provision for taxes, depreciation, and amortization. Management further adjusts EBITDA to exclude certain items of a significant or unusual nature, including other (income) expense, net, impact of certain non-cash items, such as fair value of adjustments to acquired unearned revenue, and equity-based compensation, restructuring and transaction-related expenses, and integration costs and acquisition-related compensation. We exclude these items because these are non-cash expenses or non-cash fair value adjustments, which we do not consider indicative of performance and ongoing cash-


28


generation potential or are episodic in nature and have no direct correlation to the cost of operating our business on an ongoing basis. Adjusted EBITDA is presented because it is used by management to evaluate our financial performance and for planning and forecasting purposes. Additionally, we believe that it and similar measures are widely used by securities analysts and investors as a means of evaluating a company’s operating performance. Adjusted EBITDA should not be considered as an alternative to cash flows from operating activities as a measure of liquidity or as an alternative to operating income or net income as indicators of operating performance.

The following table presents a reconciliation of net loss to Adjusted EBITDA for the periods presented:
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
Three Months Ended March 31,
($ in millions)
2018
 
2019
 
2019
 
2020
Net loss
$
(28.6
)
 
$
(78.0
)
 
$
(40.2
)
 
$
(5.9
)
Interest expense, net
58.2

 
102.4

 
23.5

 
24.5

Loss on debt extinguishment

 
18.2

 
18.2

 
2.2

Provision for taxes
(2.9
)
 
(6.5
)
 
(3.3
)
 
(0.4
)
Depreciation
2.6

 
6.1

 
1.1

 
1.9

Amortization of acquired technology
7.7

 
25.0

 
5.6

 
5.6

Amortization of other acquired intangibles
7.0

 
17.6

 
3.7

 
4.6

EBITDA
43.9

 
84.8

 
8.6

 
32.6

Other (income) expense, net(a)
(0.1
)
 

 

 
(0.1
)
Impact of fair value adjustments to acquired unearned revenue(b)
2.9

 
32.2

 
8.5

 
1.4

Equity-based compensation
32.7

 
25.1

 
5.6

 
11.3

Restructuring and transaction-related expenses(c)
3.6

 
15.6

 
7.8

 
2.9

Integration costs and acquisition-related compensation(d)
3.2

 
15.5

 
2.4

 
3.0

Adjusted EBITDA
$
86.2

 
$
173.2

 
$
32.8

 
$
51.0

__________________
(a)
Primarily represents foreign exchange remeasurement gains and losses.
(b)
Represents the impact of fair value adjustments to acquired unearned revenue relating to services billed by an acquired company, including Pre-Acquisition ZI, prior to our acquisition of that company. These adjustments represent the difference between the revenue recognized based on management’s estimate of fair value of acquired unearned revenue and the receipts billed prior to the acquisition, less revenue recognized prior to the acquisition.
(c)
Represents costs directly associated with acquisition or disposal activities, including employee severance and termination benefits, contract termination fees and penalties, and other exit or disposal costs. For the year ended December 31, 2019, this expense related primarily to the acquisition of Pre-Acquisition ZI, including professional fees, severance and acceleration of payments for terminated employees, and accretion related to deferred consideration. For the year ended December 31, 2018, this expense related primarily to Carlyle’s investment in us. For the three months ended March 31, 2020, this expense related primarily to professional fees for the preparation for an initial public offering. For the three months ended March 31, 2019, this expense related primarily to the acquisition of Pre-Acquisition ZI, including professional fees, severance, and acceleration of payments for terminated employees.


29


(d)
Represents costs directly associated with integration activities for acquisitions and acquisition-related compensation, which includes transaction bonuses and retention awards. For the year ended December 31, 2019, this expense related primarily to activities resulting from the acquisition of Pre-Acquisition ZI, including consulting and professional services costs, cash vesting payments (see Note 4 – Business Combinations to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus), and transaction bonuses and other compensation, as well as expense incurred for retention awards granted upon the Company’s acquisitions of RainKing, NeverBounce, and Komiko. For the year ended December 31, 2018, this expense related primarily to retention awards granted upon our acquisition of RainKing and transaction bonuses paid upon Carlyle’s investment in us. For the three months ended March 31, 2020, this expense related primarily to cash vesting payments from the acquisition of Pre-Acquisition ZI (see Note 4 – Business Combinations to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus). For the three months ended March 31, 2019, this expense related primarily to activities resulting from the acquisition of Pre-Acquisition ZI, including cash vesting payments (see Note 4 – Business Combinations to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus) and transaction bonuses, as well as expense incurred for retention awards granted upon the Company’s acquisitions of RainKing and NeverBounce. This expense is included in cost of service, sales and marketing expense, research and development expense, and general and administrative expense as follows:
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
Three Months Ended March 31,
($ in millions)
2018
 
2019
 
2019
 
2020
Cost of service
$
0.2

 
$
0.4

 
$

 
$
0.1

Sales and marketing
0.6

 
5.8

 
1.0

 
1.0

Research and development
0.1

 
3.9

 
0.8

 
1.6

General and administrative
2.3

 
5.4

 
0.6

 
0.2

Total integration costs and acquisition-related compensation
$
3.2

 
$
15.5

 
$
2.4

 
$
3.0



30


RISK FACTORS
An investment in shares of our Class A common stock involves risks. You should carefully consider the following information about these risks, together with the other information contained in this prospectus, before investing in shares of our Class A common stock. Any of the following risks could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition or prospects, and could cause the trading price of our Class A common stock to decline, which would cause you to lose all or part of your investment. Our business, results of operations, financial condition, or prospects could also be harmed by risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently do not believe are material.
Risks Related to Our Business and Industry
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, including the resulting global economic uncertainty and measures taken in response to the pandemic, could materially impact our business and future results of operations and financial condition.
The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the economy and put unprecedented strains on governments, health care systems, educational institutions, businesses, and individuals around the world. The impact and duration of the COVID-19 pandemic are difficult to assess or predict. It is even more difficult to predict the impact on the global economic market, which will depend upon the actions taken by governments, businesses, and other enterprises in response to the pandemic. The pandemic has already caused, and is likely to result in further, significant disruption of global financial markets and economic uncertainty. Adverse market conditions resulting from the spread of COVID-19 could materially adversely affect our business and the value of our Class A common stock.
Our customers or potential customers, particularly in industries most impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, including the retail, restaurant, hotel, hospitality, consumer discretionary, airline, and oil and gas industries and companies whose customers operate in impacted industries, may reduce their technology or sales and marketing spending or delay their sales transformation initiatives, which could materially and adversely impact our business. Further, as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, we expect we will experience slowed growth or decline in new customer demand for our platform and lower demand from our existing customers for upgrades within our platform, as well as existing and potential customers reducing or delaying purchasing decisions. We have experienced, and expect to continue to experience, an increase in prospective customers seeking lower prices or other more favorable contract terms and current customers attempting to obtain concessions on the terms of existing contracts, including requests for early termination or waiver or delay of payment obligations, all of which has adversely affected and could materially adversely impact our business, results of operations, and overall financial condition in future periods. Further, we may face increased competition due to changes to our competitors’ products and services, including modifications to their terms, conditions, and pricing that could materially adversely impact our business, results of operations, and overall financial condition in future periods.
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we have temporarily closed all of our offices (including our headquarters and our office in Israel), enabled our employees to work remotely, implemented travel restrictions for all non-essential business, and shifted company events to virtual-only experiences, and we may deem it advisable to similarly alter, postpone, or cancel entirely additional events in the future. If the COVID-19 pandemic worsens, especially in regions where we have offices, our business activities originating from affected areas could be adversely affected. Disruptive activities could include business closures in impacted areas, further restrictions on our employees’ and service providers’ ability to travel, impacts to productivity if our employees or their family members experience health issues, and potential delays in hiring and onboarding of new employees. We may take further actions that alter our business operations as may be required by local, state, or federal authorities or that we determine are in the best interests of our employees. Such measures could negatively affect our sales and marketing efforts, sales cycles, employee productivity, or customer retention, any of which could harm our financial condition and business operations.
The COVID-19 pandemic could cause our third-party data center hosting facilities and cloud computing platform providers, which are critical to our infrastructure, to shut down their business, experience security incidents that impact our business, delay or disrupt performance or delivery of services, or experience interference with the supply chain of hardware required by their systems and services, any of which could materially adversely affect our business. Further, the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in our employees and those of many of our customers and vendors


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working from home and conducting work via the internet, and if the network and infrastructure of internet providers becomes overburdened by increased usage or is otherwise unreliable or unavailable, our employees’, and our customers’ and vendors’ employees’, access to the internet to conduct business could be negatively impacted. Limitations on access or disruptions to services or goods provided by or to some of our suppliers and vendors upon which our platform and business operations relies, could interrupt our ability to provide our platform, decrease the productivity of our workforce, and significantly harm our business operations, financial condition, and results of operations.
Our platform and the other systems or networks used in our business may experience an increase in attempted cyber-attacks, targeted intrusion, ransomware, and phishing campaigns seeking to take advantage of shifts to employees working remotely using their household or personal internet networks and to leverage fears promulgated by the COVID-19 pandemic. The success of any of these unauthorized attempts could substantially impact our platform, the proprietary and other confidential data contained therein or otherwise stored or processed in our operations, and ultimately our business. Any actual or perceived security incident also may cause us to incur increased expenses to improve our security controls and to remediate security vulnerabilities.
The extent and continued impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business will depend on certain developments, including: the duration and spread of the outbreak; government responses to the pandemic; the impact on our customers and our sales cycles; the impact on customer, industry, or employee events; and the effect on our partners, vendors, and supply chains, all of which are uncertain and cannot be predicted. Because of our largely subscription-based business model, the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic may not be fully reflected in our results of operations and overall financial condition until future periods, if at all.
To the extent the COVID-19 pandemic adversely affects our business and financial results, it may also have the effect of heightening many of the other risks described in this “Risk Factors” section, including but not limited to those relating to cyber-attacks and security vulnerabilities, interruptions or delays due to third-parties, or our ability to raise additional capital or generate sufficient cash flows necessary to fulfill our obligations under our existing indebtedness or to expand our operations.
Larger and more well-funded companies with access to significant resources, large amounts of data or data collection methods, and sophisticated technologies may shift their business model to become competitive with us.
Companies in related industries, such as CRM, business software, or advertising, including Salesforce.com, Oracle, Google, or Microsoft/LinkedIn, may choose to compete with us in the B2B sales and marketing intelligence space and would immediately have access to greater resources and brand recognition. We cannot anticipate how rapidly such a potential competitor could create products or services that would take significant market share from us or even surpass our products or services in quality, in at least some respect. If a large, well-funded competitor entered our space, it could reduce the demand for our products and services and reduce the amount we could demand for subscription renewals or upgrades from existing customers, and the amount we could demand from new subscribers to our products and services, reducing our revenue and profitability.
In addition, many of our potential competitors could have competitive advantages, such as greater name recognition, longer operating histories, significant install bases, broader geographic scope, and larger sales and marketing budgets and resources. Many of our potential competitors may have established relationships with independent software vendors, partners, and customers, greater customer experience resources, greater resources to make acquisitions, lower labor and development costs, larger and more mature intellectual property portfolios, and substantially greater financial, technical, and other resources. New competitors or alliances among competitors may emerge and rapidly acquire significant market share due to these or other factors.
Mergers and acquisitions in the technology industry, such as Microsoft’s acquisition of LinkedIn, increase the likelihood that our competitors in the future will be larger and have more resources. We expect this trend to continue as companies attempt to strengthen or maintain their market positions in an evolving industry. Companies resulting from these possible consolidations may create more compelling product offerings and be able to offer more attractive pricing options, making it more difficult for us to compete effectively.
Our competitors may be able to respond more quickly and effectively to new or changing opportunities, technologies, standards, or customer requirements, or pricing pressure. As a result, even if our products and services


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are more effective than the products and services that our competitors offer, potential customers might select competitive products and services in lieu of our services.
Changes in laws, regulations, and public perception concerning data privacy, or changes in the patterns of enforcement of existing laws and regulations, could impact our ability to efficiently gather, process, update, and/or provide some or all of the information we currently provide or the ability of our customers and users to use some or all of our products or services.
Our products and services rely heavily on the collection and use of information to provide effective insights to our customers and users. In recent years, there has been an increase in attention to and regulation of data protection and data privacy across the globe, including the FTC’s increasingly active approach to enforcing data privacy in the United States, as well as the enactment of the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”), which took effect in May 2018, and the California Consumer Privacy Act (“CCPA”), which took effect in January 2020. Other data privacy or data protection laws or regulations are under consideration in other jurisdictions. Laws such as these give rise to an increasingly complex set of compliance obligations on us, as well as on many of our customers. These laws impose restrictions on our ability to gather personal data and provide such personal data to our customers, provide individuals with the ability to opt out of such personal data collection, and impose obligations on our ability to pass data to our customers, as well as place downstream obligations on our customers relating to their use of the information we provide.
Certain of our activities could be found by a government or regulatory authority to be noncompliant or become noncompliant in the future with one or more data protection or data privacy laws, even if we have implemented and maintained a strategy that we believe to be compliant. New interpretations of existing laws or regulations could be inconsistent with our interpretations (such as our analysis of the extraterritorial applicability of GDPR to us), increase our compliance burden, make it more difficult to comply, and/or increase our risk of regulatory investigations and fines. For example, we are subject to complex and evolving regulatory requirements regarding the collection and use of personal data, including changes under CCPA (and other recently enacted and upcoming state laws) related to selling of personal data, and, among others, introducing opt-out rights and data broker registration obligations.
These complex laws may be implemented in a non-uniform way in many jurisdictions around the world and we may not be aware of every development that impacts our business. These laws may also require us to make additional changes to our services in order for us or our customers to comply with such legal requirements and may also increase our potential liability as a result of higher potential penalties for noncompliance. These new or proposed laws and regulations are subject to differing interpretations and may be inconsistent among jurisdictions. These and other legal requirements could reduce our ability to gather personal data used in our products and services. They could reduce demand for our services, require us to take on more onerous obligations in our contracts, restrict our ability to store, transfer and process personal data or, in some cases, impact our ability or our customers’ ability to offer our services in certain locations, to deploy our solutions, to reach current and prospective customers, or to derive insights from data globally.
The costs of complying with existing or new data privacy or data protection laws and regulations may limit our ability to gather personal data needed to provide our products and services, the use and adoption of our products and services, reduce overall demand for our products and services, make it more difficult for us to meet expectations from or commitments to customers and users, lead to significant fines, penalties, or liabilities for noncompliance, impact our reputation, or slow the pace at which we close sales transactions, any of which could harm our business.
Furthermore, the uncertain and shifting regulatory environment and trust climate may cause concerns regarding data privacy and may cause our vendors, customers, users, or our customers’ customers to resist providing the data necessary to allow us to offer our services to our customers and users effectively, or could prompt individuals to opt out of our collection of their personal data. Even the perception that the privacy of personal data is not satisfactorily protected or does not meet regulatory requirements could discourage prospective customers from subscribing to our products or services or discourage current customers from renewing their subscriptions.
Compliance with any of the foregoing laws and regulations can be costly and can delay or impede the development of new products or services. We may incur substantial fines if we violate any laws or regulations relating to the collection or use of personal data. For example, GDPR imposes sanctions for violations up to the greater of €20 million and 4%


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of worldwide gross annual revenue and CCPA allows for fines of up to $7,500 per violation (affected individual). Our actual or alleged failure to comply with applicable privacy or data security laws, regulations, and policies, or to protect personal data, could result in enforcement actions and significant penalties against us, which could result in negative publicity or costs, subject us to claims or other remedies, and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Because the interpretation and application of many privacy and data protection laws are uncertain, it is possible that these laws may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent with our existing data management practices or the features of our products and services. Further, we may be subject to additional risks associated with data security breaches or other incidents, in particular because certain data privacy laws, including CCPA, grant individuals a private right of action arising from certain data security incidents. If so, in addition to the possibility of fines, lawsuits, and other claims and penalties, we could be required to fundamentally change our business activities and practices or modify our products and services, which could harm our business.
Since the enactment of CCPA, new privacy and data security laws have been proposed in more than half of the states in the United States and in the U.S. Congress, reflecting a trend toward more stringent privacy legislation in the United States, which trend may accelerate depending on the results of the 2020 U.S. presidential election. We expect that there will continue to be new proposed laws, regulations, and industry standards concerning privacy, data protection, and information security in the United States and other jurisdictions, and we cannot determine the impact such future laws, regulations, and standards may have on our business. We could be subject to legal claims, government action, or harm to our reputation or incur significant remediation costs if we experience a security breach or our practices fail, or are seen as failing, to comply with our policies or with applicable laws concerning personally identifiable information.
Concern regarding our use of the personal data collected on our websites or collected when performing our services could keep prospective customers from subscribing to our services. Industry-wide incidents or incidents with respect to our websites, including misappropriation of third-party information, security breaches, or changes in industry standards, regulations, or laws, could deter people from using the internet or our websites to conduct transactions that involve the transmission of confidential information, which could harm our business.
We also receive data from third-party vendors (e.g., other data brokers). We are ultimately unable to verify with complete certainty the source of such data, how it was received, and that such information was collected and is being shared with us in compliance with all applicable data privacy laws.
We experience competition from companies that offer technologies designed to allow companies to better use and extract insights from existing, internal databases, or free information resources and from technologies that are designed to allow companies to gather and aggregate data from online sources.
The market for sales, marketing, and recruiting technology and data requires continuous innovation. It is highly competitive, rapidly evolving, and fragmented. There are low barriers to entry, shifting customer needs and strategies, and frequent introductions of new technologies and of new products and services. Many prospective customers have invested substantial resources to implement, and gained substantial familiarity with, competing solutions and therefore may be reluctant or unwilling to migrate from their current solution to ours. Many prospective customers may not appreciate differences in quality between our products and services and those of lower-priced competitors, and many prospects and current customers may not learn the best ways to use our products and services, making them less likely to obtain them or renew their subscriptions. New technologies and products may be or become better or more attractive to current or prospective customers than our products and services in one or more ways. Many current or prospective customers may find competing products or services more attractive if we do not keep pace with market innovation or changes in response to COVID-19, and many may choose or switch to competing products even if do our best to innovate and provide superior products and services.
Our current competitors include:
free online and offline sources of information on companies and business professionals, including government records, telephone books, company websites, and open online databases of business professionals, such as LinkedIn Sales Navigator, D&B Sales & Marketing Solutions, TechTarget, and Infogroup;


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our current and potential customers’ internal and homegrown business contact databases;
when used in conjunction with the foregoing or when additionally providing third-party sales and marketing data, predictive analytics and customer data platform technologies;
when used in conjunction with the foregoing or when additionally providing third-party sales and marketing data, sales and marketing vendors, which may specialize in appointment setting, online ad targeting, email marketing, or other outsource go-to-market functions;
other vendors of sales automation software;
other providers of third-party company attributes, technology attributes, and business contact information;
other providers of online content consumption data for predictive sales and marketing analytics; and
user-based networks of companies and/or business professionals.
Providers of direct “web-scraping” technology or databases built on web-scraping can provide low-cost alternatives to our products and services, and many of our current and prospective customers may choose a lower-cost alternative even if our products and services are superior, either despite the difference in quality or because the customer cannot readily determine that there is a difference in quality, especially if we fail to adequately demonstrate the value of our products and services to existing customers.
Companies with large databases that are currently not commercially available could enter the market and rapidly become new competitors. The existence of such potential competitors may not be readily apparent today, and such companies may become significant low-cost or no-cost competitors and adversely impact the demand for our solutions and services or limit our growth potential.
These risks could be exacerbated by weak economic conditions and lower customer spending on sales and marketing. Weakened economic conditions could also disproportionately increase the likelihood that any given current or prospective customer would choose a lower-price alternative even if our products or services were superior. Some current and potential customers, particularly large organizations, have elected in the past, and may in the future, elect to rely on internal and homegrown databases, develop, or acquire their own software, programs, tools, and internal data quality teams that would reduce or eliminate the demand for our products and services. If demand for our platform declines for any of these or other reasons, our business, results of operations, and financial condition could be adversely affected.
Adverse or weakened general economic and market conditions may reduce spending on sales and marketing technology and information, which could harm our revenue, results of operations, and cash flows.
Our revenue, results of operations, and cash flows depend on the overall demand for and use of technology and information for sales, marketing, and recruiting, which depends in part on the amount of spending allocated by our customers or potential customers on sales and marketing technology and information. This spending depends on worldwide economic and geopolitical conditions. The U.S. and other key international economies have experienced cyclical downturns from time to time in which economic activity was impacted by falling demand for a variety of goods and services, restricted credit, poor liquidity, reduced corporate profitability, volatility in credit, equity, and foreign exchange markets, bankruptcies, pandemics such as COVID-19, and overall economic uncertainty. These economic conditions can arise suddenly, and the full impact of such conditions often remains uncertain. In addition, geopolitical developments, such as potential trade wars, can increase levels of political and economic unpredictability globally and increase the volatility of global financial markets. Further actions or inactions of the U.S. or other major national governments, including the United Kingdom’s 2016 vote in favor of exiting the European Union (“Brexit”), may also impact economic conditions, which could result in financial market disruptions or an economic downturn.
Concerns about the systemic impact of a recession (in the United States or globally), energy costs, geopolitical issues, or the availability and cost of credit could lead to increased market volatility, decreased consumer confidence, and diminished growth expectations in the U.S. economy and abroad, which in turn could affect the rate of information technology (“IT”) spending and could adversely affect our customers’ ability or willingness to purchase our services,


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delay prospective customers’ purchasing decisions, reduce the value or duration of their subscription contracts, or affect attrition rates, all of which could adversely affect our future sales and operating results. Some of our users may view a subscription to our platform as a discretionary purchase, and our paying users may reduce their discretionary spending on our platform during an economic downturn. In particular, spending patterns of small businesses are difficult to predict and are sensitive to the general economic climate, the economic outlook specific to small businesses, the then-current level of profitability experienced by small businesses and overall consumer confidence. In addition, weak economic conditions can result in customers seeking to utilize free or lower-cost information that is available from alternative sources. Prolonged economic slowdowns may result in requests to renegotiate existing contracts on less advantageous terms to us than those currently in place, payment defaults on existing contracts, or non-renewal at the end of a contract term.
During weak economic times, there is an increased risk that one or more of our paying customers will file for bankruptcy protection, which may harm our revenue, profitability, and results of operations. We also face risk from international paying customers that file for bankruptcy protection in foreign jurisdictions, particularly given that the application of foreign bankruptcy laws may be more difficult to predict. In addition, we may determine that the cost of pursuing any creditor claim outweighs the recovery potential of such claim. As a result, weak economic times could harm our business, revenue, results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition.
Our product offerings are also concentrated by varying degrees across different industries, particularly the software and business services industries in the United States. In 2018, approximately 41% and 30% of our customers, as measured by ACV, operated in the software and business services industries, respectively. In 2019, approximately 39% and 29% of our customers, as measured by ACV, operated in the software and business services industries, respectively. Our customer base suffers when financial markets experience volatility, illiquidity, and disruption, which has occurred in the past and may reoccur, and the potential for increased and continuing disruptions going forward present considerable risks to our business and revenue.
We generate revenue from sales of subscriptions to our platform and data, and any decline in demand for the types of technologies and information we offer would negatively impact our business.
We derive 99% of our revenue from subscription services and expect to continue to generate revenue from the sale of subscriptions to our platform and data. As a result, the continued use of telephones and email as a primary means of B2B sales, marketing, and recruiting, and the continued use of internet cloud-based platforms to access telephone, email, and related information for such purposes, is critical to our future growth and success. If the sales and marketing information market fails to grow, or grows more slowly than we currently anticipate, or if there is a decrease in the use of telephones and email as primary means of B2B communication, demand for our platform and data would be negatively affected.
Changes in user preferences for sales and marketing platforms may have a disproportionately greater impact on us than if we offered disparate products and services. Demand for sales and marketing platforms in general, and our platform and data in particular, is affected by a number of factors, many of which are beyond our control. Some of these potential factors include:
awareness and acceptance of the sales and marketing platform category generally, and the growth, contraction and evolution of the category;
availability of products and services that compete with ours;
brand recognition;
pricing;
ease of adoption and use;
performance, features, and user experience, and the development and acceptance of new features, integrations, and capabilities;
customer support;


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accessibility across several devices, operating system, and applications;
integration with CRM and other related technologies; and
the potential for the development of new systems and protocols for B2B communication.
The market is subject to rapidly changing user demand and preference trends. If we fail to successfully predict and address these changes and trends, meet user demands or achieve more widespread market acceptance of our platform and data, our business, results of operations, and financial condition could be harmed.
If we fail to maintain and improve our methods and technologies, or anticipate new methods or technologies, for data collection, organization, and cleansing, competing products and services could surpass ours in depth, breadth, or accuracy of our data or in other respects.
Current or future competitors may seek to develop new methods and technologies for more efficiently gathering, cataloging, or updating business information, which could allow a competitor to create a product comparable or superior to ours, or that takes substantial market share from us, or that creates or maintains databases at a lower cost that we experience. We can expect continuous improvements in computer hardware, network operating systems, programming tools, programming languages, operating systems, data matching, data filtering, data predicting, and other database technologies and the use of the internet. These improvements, as well as changes in customer preferences or regulatory requirements, may require changes in the technology used to gather and process our data. Our future success will depend, in part, upon our ability to:
internally develop and implement new and competitive technologies;
use leading third-party technologies effectively; and
respond to advances in data collection, cataloging, and updating.
If we fail to respond to changes in data technology competitors may be able to develop products and services that will take market share from us, and the demand for our products and services, the delivery of our products and services, or our market reputation could be adversely affected.
If we are not able to obtain and maintain accurate, comprehensive, or reliable data, we could experience reduced demand for our products and services.
Our success depends on our clients’ confidence in the depth, breadth, and accuracy of our data. The task of establishing and maintaining accurate data is challenging and expensive. The depth, breadth, and accuracy of our data differentiates us from our competitors. Our standard contract with customers includes a quality guarantee pursuant to which a customer would have the right to terminate its subscription and we could be obligated to reimburse certain payments if the accuracy of our data were to fall below a certain threshold. If our data, including the data we obtain from third parties and our data extraction, cleaning, and insights, are not current, accurate, comprehensive, or reliable, it would increase the likelihood of negative customer experiences, which in turn would reduce the likelihood of customers renewing or upgrading their subscriptions and harm our reputation, making it more difficult to obtain new customers. In addition, if we are no longer able to maintain our high level of accuracy, we may face legal claims by our customers which could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
Our business depends upon the interoperability of our platform with third-party systems that we do not control.
Our technologies that allow our platform to interoperate with various third-party applications (which we call “integrations”) are critically important to our business. Many of our customers use our integrations to access our data from within, or send data to, CRM, marketing automation, applicant tracking, sales enablement, and other systems, including Salesforce.com, Marketo, HubSpot, Microsoft Dynamics, Oracle Sales Cloud, and a variety of other commonly used tools. The functionality of these integrations depends upon access to these systems, which is not within our control. For instance, approximately 36% of our customers use our Salesforce.com integration. Some of our competitors own, develop, operate, or distribute CRM and similar systems or have material business relationships with companies that own, develop, operate, or distribute CRM and similar systems that our platform integrates into. Moreover,


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some of these competitors have inherent advantages developing products and services that more tightly integrate with their CRM and similar systems or those of their business partners. In addition, companies that already operate CRM and similar systems may choose to become competitive with ZoomInfo. See also “—Larger and more well-funded companies with access to significant resources, large amounts of data or data collection methods and sophisticated technologies may shift their business model to become competitive with us.”
Third-party systems are constantly evolving, it is difficult to predict the challenges that we may encounter in developing our platform for use in conjunction with such third-party systems, and we may not be able to modify our integrations to assure its compatibility with the systems of other third parties following any of their changes to their systems. Some operators of CRM and similar systems may cease to permit our access or the integration of our platform to their systems. If Salesforce.com were to refuse to permit our integration to access its APIs, this integration would not function, and our customers’ experience would be hampered. Without a convenient way for our customers to integrate our products and services with products and services such as Salesforce.com, current customers may be less likely to renew or upgrade their subscriptions, prospective customers may be less likely to acquire subscriptions, or our products and services may not command the prices that we anticipate. In addition, some of our competitors may be able to disrupt the operations or compatibility of our platform with their systems, or exert strong business influence on our ability to, and terms on which we, integrate our platform. As our respective platforms and systems evolve, we expect this level of competition to increase. Should any of our competitors modify their systems in a manner that degrades the functionality of our platform or gives preferential treatment to competitive platforms or products, whether to enhance their competitive position or for any other reason, the interoperability of our platform with these systems could decrease and our business, results of operations, and financial condition could be harmed.
Our ability to introduce new features, integrations, capabilities, and enhancements is dependent on adequate research and development resources. If we do not adequately fund our research and development efforts, or if our research and development investments do not translate into material enhancements to our products and services, we may not be able to compete effectively, and our business, results of operations, and financial condition may be harmed.
To remain competitive, we must continue to develop new features, integrations, and capabilities to our products and services. This is particularly true as we further expand and diversify our capabilities to address additional applications and markets. Maintaining adequate research and development resources, such as the appropriate personnel and development technology, to meet the demands of the market is essential. If we are unable to develop features, integrations, and capabilities internally due to certain constraints, such as employee turnover, lack of management ability, or a lack of other research and development resources, our business may be harmed.
Moreover, research and development projects can be technically challenging and expensive. The nature of these research and development cycles may cause us to experience delays between the time we incur expenses associated with research and development and the time we are able to offer compelling features, integrations, capabilities, and enhancements and generate revenue, if any, from such investment. Anticipated demand for a feature, integration, capability, or enhancement we are developing could decrease after the development cycle has commenced, and we would nonetheless be unable to avoid substantial costs associated with the development of any such feature, integration, capability, or enhancement. Additionally, we may experience difficulties with software development, design, or marketing that could affect the length of these research and development cycles that could further delay or prevent our development, introduction, or implementation of features, integrations, capabilities, and enhancements. If we expend a significant amount of resources on research and development and our efforts do not lead to the successful introduction or improvement of features, integrations, and capabilities that are competitive, it could harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
Further, our competitors may expend more on their respective research and development programs or may be acquired by larger companies that would allocate greater resources to our competitors’ research and development programs or our competitors may be more efficient in their research and development activities. Our failure to maintain adequate research and development resources or to compete effectively with the research and development programs of our competitors would give an advantage to such competitors and may harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition.


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If we are unable to attract new customers and expand subscriptions of current customers, our revenue growth and profitability will be harmed.
To increase our revenue and achieve and maintain profitability, we must attract new customers and grow the subscriptions of existing customers. Our go-to-market efforts are intended to identify and attract prospective customers and convert them into paying customers, including the conversion of users of our Community Edition product to paying customers. In addition, we seek to expand existing customer subscriptions by adding new users, additional data entitlements, or additional products or services, including through expanding the adoption of our platform into other departments within customers. We do not know whether we will continue to achieve similar client acquisition and customer subscription growth rates in the future as we have in the past. Numerous factors may impede our ability to add new customers and grow existing customer subscriptions, including our failure to attract and effectively train new sales and marketing personnel despite increasing our sales efforts, to retain and motivate our current sales and marketing personnel, to develop or expand relationships with partners, to successfully deploy new features, integrations and capabilities of our products and services, to provide quality customer experience, or to ensure the effectiveness of our go-to-market programs. Additionally, increasing our sales to large organizations (both existing and prospective customers) requires increasingly sophisticated and costly sales and account management efforts targeted at senior management and other personnel. If our efforts to sell to organizations are not successful or do not generate additional revenue, our business will suffer. See also “—Failure to effectively expand our sales capabilities could harm our ability to increase the number of organizations on our platform and achieve broader market acceptance of our platform.”
Our ability to attract new customers and increase revenue from existing customers depends in large part on our ability to continually enhance and improve our platform and the features, integrations, and capabilities we offer, and to introduce compelling new features, integrations, and capabilities that reflect the changing nature of our market to maintain and improve the quality and value of our products and services, which depends on our ability to continue investing in research and development and our successful execution and our efforts to improve and enhance our platform. The success of any enhancement to our platform depends on several factors, including timely completion and delivery, competitive pricing, adequate quality testing, integration with existing technologies, and overall market acceptance. Any new features, integrations, or capabilities that we develop may not be introduced in a timely or cost-effective manner, may contain errors, failures, vulnerabilities, or bugs or may not achieve the market acceptance necessary to generate significant revenue. If we are unable to successfully develop new features, integrations, and capabilities to enhance our platform to meet the requirements of current and prospective customers or otherwise gain widespread market acceptance, our business, results of operations, and financial condition would be harmed.
Moreover, our business is subscription-based, and therefore our customers are not obligated to and may not renew their subscriptions after their existing subscriptions expire or may renew at a lower price, including if such customers choose to reduce their data access rights under their subscription, reduce the products or services to which they have access, or reduce their number of users. Most of our subscriptions are sold for a one-year term, though some organizations purchase a multi-year subscription plan. While many of our subscriptions provide for automatic renewal, our customers may opt-out of automatic renewal and customers have no obligation to renew a subscription after the expiration of the term. Our customers may or may not renew their subscriptions as a result of a number of factors (including as a result of general economic downturns as a result of COVID-19), including their satisfaction or dissatisfaction with our products and services, decreases in the number of users at the organization, our pricing or pricing structure, the pricing or capabilities of the products and services offered by our competitors, the effects of economic conditions, or reductions in our paying customers’ spending levels. In addition, our customers may renew for fewer subscriptions, renew for shorter contract lengths if they were previously on multi-year contracts, or switch to lower cost offerings of our products and services. It is difficult to predict attrition rates given our varied customer base of enterprise, mid-market, and small business customers. Our attrition rates may increase or fluctuate as a result of a number of factors, including customer dissatisfaction with our services, customers’ spending levels, mix of customer base, decreases in the number of users at our customers, competition, pricing increases, or changing or deteriorating general economic conditions. If customers do not renew their subscriptions or renew on less favorable terms or fail to add more users, or if we fail to expand subscriptions of existing customers, our revenue may decline or grow less quickly than anticipated, which would harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
Additionally, some of our customers may have multiple subscription plans simultaneously. For example, large enterprises with distributed procurement processes where different buyers, departments, or affiliates make their own


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purchasing decisions based on distinct product features or separate budgets. Companies who are our existing customers may also acquire another organization that is already on our subscription plan or complete a reorganization or spin-off transaction that results in an organization subscribing to multiple subscription plans. If organizations that subscribe to multiple subscription plans decide not to consolidate all of their subscription plans or decide to downgrade to lower priced or free subscription plans, our revenue may decline or grow less quickly than anticipated, which would harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
A slowdown or decline in participation in our contributory network and/or increase in the volume of opt-out requests from individuals with respect to our collection of their data could lead to a deterioration in the depth, breadth, or accuracy of our data and have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
We have a number of sources contributing to the depth, breadth, and accuracy of the data on our platform including our contributory network. All of our free Community Edition users must participate in our contributory network to get access to data. Similarly, many of our paying customers participate in our contributory network to improve the quality of the data within their CRM and similar systems. Community Edition users may cease to participate in our contributory network after deciding not to renew our Community Edition version. Our paying customers, including those who have migrated from the Community Edition, may elect not to participate for various reasons, including their sensitivity to sharing information within our contributory network or their determination that the benefits from sharing do not outweigh the potential harm from sharing. If we are not able to attract new participants or maintain existing participants in our contributory network, our ability to effectively gather new data and update and maintain the accuracy of our database could be adversely affected. Additionally, CCPA and other legal and regulatory changes are making it easier for individuals to opt-out of having their personal data collected through an opt-out button available on our website, which could result in higher rates of opting out. We expect that third-party intermediaries will emerge that offer services involving opting individuals out of their personal data being collected at scale (i.e., from all platforms, including ours). Consequently, our ability to grow our business may be harmed and our results of operations and financial condition could suffer.
If we fail to protect and maintain our brand, our ability to attract and retain customers will be impaired, our reputation may be harmed, and our business, results of operations, and financial condition may suffer.
We believe that developing, protecting, and maintaining awareness of our brand is critical to achieving widespread acceptance of our platform and is an important element in attracting new organizations to our platform. Furthermore, we believe that the importance of brand recognition will increase as competition in our market increases. Successful promotion of our brand will depend largely on the effectiveness of our marketing efforts and on our ability to ensure that our products and services remains high-quality, reliable, and useful at competitive prices.
Brand promotion activities may not yield increased revenue, and, even if they do, any increased revenue may not offset the expenses we incur in building our brand. If we fail to successfully promote and maintain our brand, or incur substantial expenses in an unsuccessful attempt to promote and maintain our brand, we may fail to attract new customers to the extent necessary to realize a sufficient return on our brand-building efforts, and our business, results of operations, and financial condition could suffer. In September 2019, we launched our new brand campaign to assume the ZoomInfo brand for our Company. While ZoomInfo was an existing brand, the selection of the ZoomInfo brand over DiscoverOrg may not be as successful as we intended, and we could lose the value of the DiscoverOrg brand without a corresponding benefit. At or about the time of the acquisition of Pre-Acquisition ZI by ZoomInfo OpCo, we believed that ZoomInfo had greater brand awareness and greater potential, but that it had a weaker reputation for data quality than DiscoverOrg. If we are not successful in improving the perception of the ZoomInfo brand in terms of the quality and accuracy of its data, our business, results of operations, and financial condition could suffer. Furthermore, in connection with the development and implementation of our rebranding campaign, we have spent additional time and costs, including those associated with advertising and marketing efforts. If we are unable to effectively implement our rebranding campaign, our business, results of operations, and financial condition could suffer.
In addition, independent industry analysts often provide reviews of ZoomInfo, as well as the products offered by our competitors, and perception of the relative value of our ZoomInfo brand in the marketplace may be significantly influenced by these reviews. If these reviews are negative, or less positive as compared to those of our competitors’ products, our brand may be harmed.


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Our business could be negatively affected by changes in search engine algorithms and dynamics or other traffic-generating arrangements.
We rely heavily on internet search engines, such as Google, including through the purchase of sales and marketing-related keywords and the indexing of our public-facing directory pages and other web pages, to generate a significant portion of the traffic to our website. Search engines frequently update and change the logic that determines the placement and display of results of a user’s search, such that the purchased or algorithmic placement of links to our website can be negatively affected. In addition, a significant amount of traffic is directed to our website through participation in pay-per-click and display advertising campaigns on search engines, including Google. Pricing and operating dynamics for these traffic sources can change rapidly, both technically and competitively. Moreover, a search engine could, for competitive or other purposes, alter its search algorithms or results, which could cause a website to place lower in search query results or inhibit participation in the search query results. If a major search engine changes its algorithms or results in a manner that negatively affects the search engine ranking, paid or unpaid, of our website, or if competitive dynamics impact the costs or effectiveness of search engine optimization, search engine marketing or other traffic-generating arrangements in a negative manner, our business and financial performance would be adversely affected.
We may not be able to adequately protect our proprietary and intellectual property rights in our data or technology.
Our success is dependent, in part, upon protecting our proprietary information and technology. We may be unsuccessful in adequately protecting our intellectual property. No assurance can be given that confidentiality, non-disclosure, or invention assignment agreements with employees, consultants, or other parties will not be breached and will otherwise be effective in controlling access to and distribution of our platform, or certain aspects of our platform, and proprietary information. Further, these agreements do not prevent our competitors from independently developing technologies that are substantially equivalent or superior to our platform. Additionally, certain unauthorized use of our intellectual property may go undetected, or we may face legal or practical barriers to enforcing our legal rights even where unauthorized use is detected.
Current law may not provide for adequate protection of our platform or data. In addition, legal standards relating to the validity, enforceability, and scope of protection of proprietary rights in internet-related businesses are uncertain and evolving, and changes in these standards may adversely impact the viability or value of our proprietary rights. Some license provisions protecting against unauthorized use, copying, transfer, and disclosure of our platform, or certain aspects of our platform, or our data may be unenforceable under the laws of certain jurisdictions. Further, the laws of some countries do not protect proprietary rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States, and mechanisms for enforcement of intellectual property rights in some foreign countries may be inadequate. To the extent we expand our international activities, our exposure to unauthorized copying and use of our data or certain aspects of our platform, or our data may increase. Further, competitors, foreign governments, foreign government-backed actors, criminals, or other third parties may gain unauthorized access to our proprietary information and technology. Accordingly, despite our efforts, we may be unable to prevent third parties from infringing upon or misappropriating our technology and intellectual property.
To protect our intellectual property rights, we may be required to spend significant resources to monitor and protect these rights, and we may or may not be able to detect infringement by our customers or third parties. Litigation has been and may be necessary in the future to enforce our intellectual property rights and to protect our trade secrets. Such litigation could be costly, time consuming, and distracting to management and could result in the impairment or loss of portions of our intellectual property. Furthermore, our efforts to enforce our intellectual property rights may be met with defenses, counterclaims, and countersuits attacking the validity and enforceability of our intellectual property rights. Our inability to protect our proprietary technology against unauthorized copying or use, as well as any costly litigation or diversion of our management’s attention and resources, could delay further sales or the implementation of our platform, impair the functionality of our platform, delay introductions of new features, integrations, and capabilities, result in our substituting inferior or more costly technologies into our platform, or injure our reputation. In addition, we may be required to license additional technology from third parties to develop and market new features, integrations, and capabilities, and we cannot be certain that we could license that technology on commercially reasonable terms or at all, and our inability to license this technology could harm our ability to compete.


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Our customers or unauthorized parties could use our products and services in a manner that is contrary to our values or applicable law, which could harm our relationships with consumers, customers, or employees or expose us to litigation or harm our reputation.
Because our data includes the direct contact information for millions of individuals and businesses, our platform and data could be misused by customers, or by parties who have obtained access to our data without authorization, to contact individuals for purposes that we would not permit, including uses unrelated to B2B communication or recruiting, such as to harass or annoy individuals or to perpetrate scams. Our customers could use our products or services for purposes beyond the scope of their contractual terms or applicable laws or regulations. In addition, third parties could gain access to our data or our platform through our customers or through malfeasance or cyber-attacks and use our platform and data for purposes other than its intended purpose or to create products that compete with our platform. Our customers’ or third parties’ misuse of our data, inconsistent with its permitted use, could result in reputational damage, adversely affect our ability to attract new customers and cause existing customers to reduce or discontinue the use of our platform, any of which could harm our business and operating results.
Our brand may be negatively affected by the actions of persons using our platform that are hostile or inappropriate, by the actions of individuals acting under false or inauthentic identities, by the use of our products or services to disseminate information that is misleading (or intended to manipulate opinions), by perceived or actual efforts by governments to obtain access to user information for security-related purposes or to censor certain content on our platform or by the use of our products or services for illicit, objectionable, or illegal ends. Further, we may fail to respond expeditiously or appropriately to the sharing of our platform and data outside of the terms of a customers’ license and the use of our data and insights for purposes other than for sales and marketing, or to otherwise address customer and individual concerns, which could erode confidence in our business.
As we acquire and invest in companies or technologies, we may not realize expected business or financial benefits and the acquisitions or investments could prove difficult to integrate, disrupt our business, dilute stockholder value and adversely affect our business, results of operation, and financial condition.
As part of our business strategy, from time to time we make investments in, or acquisitions of, complementary businesses, services, databases, and technologies, and we expect that we will continue to make such investments and acquisitions in the future to further grow our business and our product and service offerings. For example, in February 2019, we completed our largest acquisition to date of Pre-Acquisition ZI, for $748.0 million, net of cash acquired, which we are continuing to integrate. We have incurred severance costs and expect to incur additional costs to integrate prior acquisitions, such as IT integration expenses and costs related to the renegotiation of redundant vendor agreements. Since January 1, 2018, we have acquired substantially all of the assets of two other businesses as well: NeverBounce and Komiko, Inc. We may have difficulty effectively integrating the personnel, businesses, and technologies of these acquisitions into our Company and achieving the goals of those acquisitions.
Our strategy to make selective acquisitions to complement our platform depends on our ability to identify, and the availability of, suitable acquisition candidates. We may not be able to find suitable acquisition candidates and we may not be able to complete acquisitions on favorable terms, if at all. Acquired assets, data, or businesses may not be successfully integrated into our operations, costs in connection with acquisitions and integrations may be higher than expected and we may also incur unanticipated acquisition-related costs. These costs could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, or prospects. Any acquisition we complete could be viewed negatively by customers, users, developers, partners, or investors, and could have adverse effects on our existing business relationships.
Acquisitions and other transactions, arrangements, and investments involve numerous risks and could create unforeseen operating difficulties and expenditures, including:
potential failure to achieve the expected benefits on a timely basis or at all;
difficulties in, and the cost of, integrating operations, technologies, services, and platforms;
diversion of financial and managerial resources from existing operations;


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the potential entry into new markets in which we have little or no experience or where competitors may have stronger market positions;
potential write-offs of acquired assets or investments and potential financial and credit risks associated with acquired customers;
differences between our values and those of our acquired companies;
difficulties in re-training key employees of acquired companies and integrating them into our organizational structure and corporate culture;
difficulties in, and financial costs of, addressing acquired compensation structures inconsistent with our compensation structure;
inability to generate sufficient revenue to offset acquisition or investment costs;
inability to maintain, or changes in, relationships with customers and partners of the acquired business;
challenges converting and forecasting the acquired company’s revenue recognition policies including subscription-based revenue and revenue based on the transfer of control as well as appropriate allocation of the customer consideration to the individual deliverables;
difficulty with, and costs related to, transitioning the acquired technology onto our existing platforms and customer acceptance of multiple platforms on a temporary or permanent basis;
augmenting the acquired technologies and platforms to the levels that are consistent with our brand and reputation;
potential for acquired products to impact the profitability of existing products;
increasing or maintaining the security standards for acquired technology consistent with our other services;
potential unknown liabilities associated with the acquired businesses, including risks associated with acquired intellectual property and/or technologies;
challenges relating to the structure of an investment, such as governance, accountability, and decision-making conflicts that may arise in the context of a joint venture or other majority ownership investments;
negative impact to our results of operations because of the depreciation and amortization of amounts related to acquired intangible assets, fixed assets, and deferred compensation;
additional stock-based compensation;
the loss of acquired unearned revenue and unbilled unearned revenue;
delays in customer purchases due to uncertainty related to any acquisition;
ineffective or inadequate controls, procedures, and policies at the acquired company;
in the case of foreign acquisitions, challenges caused by integrating operations over distance, and across different languages, cultures, and political environments;
currency and regulatory risks associated with foreign countries and potential additional cybersecurity and compliance risks resulting from entry into new markets;
tax effects and costs of any such acquisitions, including the related integration into our tax structure and assessment of the impact on the realizability of our future tax assets or liabilities; and


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potential challenges by governmental authorities, including the Department of Justice, for anti-competitive or other reasons.
Any of these risks could harm our business. In addition, to facilitate these acquisitions or investments, we may seek additional equity or debt financing, which may not be available on terms favorable to us or at all, may affect our ability to complete subsequent acquisitions or investments and may affect the risks of owning our Class A common stock. For example, if we finance acquisitions by issuing equity or convertible debt securities or loans, our existing stockholders may be diluted, or we could face constraints related to the terms of, and repayment obligation related to, the incurrence of indebtedness that could affect the market price of our Class A common stock.
If we fail to maintain adequate operational and financial resources, particularly if we continue to grow rapidly, we may be unable to execute our business plan or maintain high levels of service and customer satisfaction.
We have experienced, and expect to continue to experience, rapid growth, which has placed, and may continue to place, significant demands on our management and our operational and financial resources. We have more than five offices across the United States and one office in Israel. We have also experienced significant growth in the number of customers using our products and services and in the amount of data in our databases. In addition, our organizational structure is becoming more complex as we scale our operational, financial, and management controls, as well as our reporting systems and procedures, and expand internationally. As we continue to grow, we face challenges of integrating, developing, training, and motivating a rapidly growing employee base in our various offices around the world and maintaining our company culture across multiple offices. Certain members of our management have not previously worked together for an extended period of time, and most do not have prior experience managing a public company, which may affect how they manage our growth. If we fail to manage our anticipated growth and change in a manner that preserves the key aspects of our corporate culture, the quality of our products and services may suffer, which could negatively affect our brand and reputation and harm our ability to attract users, employees, and organizations.
To manage growth in our operations and personnel, we will need to continue to grow and improve our operational, financial, and management controls and our reporting systems and procedures. We will require significant capital expenditures and the allocation of valuable management resources to grow and change in these areas. Our expansion has placed, and our expected future growth will continue to place, a significant strain on our management, customer experience, research and development, sales and marketing, administrative, financial, and other resources.
We anticipate that significant additional investments will be required to scale our operations and increase productivity, to address the needs of our customers, to further develop and enhance our products and services, to expand into new geographic areas and to scale with our overall growth. If additional investments are required due to significant growth, this will increase our cost base, which will make it more difficult for us to offset any future revenue shortfalls by reducing expenses in the short term.
In addition, as we expand our business, it is important that we continue to maintain a high level of customer service and satisfaction. As our paying customer base continues to grow, we will need to expand our account management, customer service and other personnel, which will require more complex management and systems. If we are not able to continue to provide high levels of customer service, our reputation, as well as our business, results of operations, and financial condition, could be harmed.
Failure to effectively expand our sales capabilities could harm our ability to bring on new customers at the rate we anticipate.
The rate at which we can acquire new customers will depend to a significant extent on our ability to expand our sales operations. We plan to continue expanding our sales force, and that will require us to invest significant financial and other resources to train and grow our sales force, in order to complement our go-to-market approach. Our business will be harmed if our efforts do not generate a corresponding increase in revenue. We may not achieve anticipated revenue growth from expanding our sales force if we are unable to hire and develop talented sales personnel, if our new sales personnel are unable to achieve desired productivity levels in a reasonable period of time, or if we are unable to retain our existing sales personnel. We believe that there is significant competition for sales personnel with the skills and technical knowledge that we require. Our ability to achieve revenue growth will depend, in large part, on our success in recruiting, training, and retaining sufficient numbers of sales personnel to support our growth.


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If we fail to offer high-quality customer experience, our business and reputation will suffer.
Numerous factors may impact a customer’s experience which may in turn impact the likelihood of such customer renewing or upgrading its subscription. Those factors include the usability of the platform, the depth, breadth, and accuracy of the data, the adequacy of our product documentation, and the quality of our onboarding, training, account management, and customer technical and research support functions. The number of customers has grown rapidly, and the continued growth that we anticipate will put additional pressure on our customer experience programs. It may be difficult for us to identify, recruit, train, and manage enough people with enough skill and talent in each area of the customer experience to adequately scale those functions to match the growth of our customer base. In addition, larger enterprise customers and customers with larger subscriptions are more demanding of our customer experience programs, in particular our research support services. If and as we add more large enterprise customers and increase the ACV of existing subscriptions, we may need to devote even more resources to such programs, and we may find it difficult to effectively scale those programs. If we do not adequately scale our customer experience operations to meet the demands of our growing customer base, an increase in large enterprise customers and large customer subscriptions or otherwise fail to provide an overall high-quality customer experience, fewer customers could renew or upgrade their subscriptions, and our reputation could suffer, negatively impacting our ability to acquire new customers, which would harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
In addition, customers from time to time rely upon our customer technical and research support teams to resolve technical and data accuracy issues relating to our products and services. We may be unable to respond quickly enough to accommodate short-term increases in customer demand for support services. Increased customer demand for these services, without corresponding revenue, could increase costs and adversely affect our reputation and operating results.
As more of our sales efforts target larger enterprise customers, our sales cycle may become longer and more expensive, and we may encounter pricing pressure and implementation and configuration challenges that may require us to delay revenue recognition for some complex transactions, all of which could harm our business and operating results.
As we target more of our sales efforts at larger enterprise customers and governmental or quasi-governmental entities, we may face longer sales cycles, greater competition, more complex customer due diligence, less favorable contractual terms, and less predictability in completing some of our sales.
Consequently, a target customer’s decision to use our services may be an enterprise-wide decision and, if so, these types of sales would require us to provide greater levels of education regarding the use and benefits of our products and services, as well as education regarding privacy and data protection laws and regulations to prospective customers. In addition, larger enterprise customers and governmental entities may demand more configuration, integration services, and features. As a result of these factors, these sales opportunities may require us to devote greater sales support and professional services resources to individual customers, driving up costs and time required to complete sales and diverting resources to a smaller number of larger transactions, while potentially requiring us to delay revenue recognition on some of these transactions until the technical or implementation requirements have been met.
We may fail to offer the optimal pricing and packaging of our products and services.
We have limited experience in determining the optimal pricing and packaging of our products and services, and we may need to change our pricing model from time to time. Demand for our products and services is sensitive to price, and current or prospective customers may choose not to subscribe or renew or upgrade their subscriptions due to costs. Further, certain of our competitors offer, or may in the future offer, lower-priced or free products or services that compete with our products and services or may bundle functionality compatible with our products and services and offer a broader range of products and services. Similarly, certain competitors may use marketing strategies that enable them to acquire users more rapidly or at a lower cost than us, or both. As we expand internationally, we may find that pricing and packaging appropriate in our current market is not acceptable to prospective customers in certain new markets. In addition, if our mix of features, integrations, and capabilities on our products and services changes or we develop additional versions for specific use cases or additional premium versions, then we may need or choose to revise our pricing.


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We have experienced rapid growth in recent periods, and our recent growth rates will not be indicative of our future growth.
We have experienced rapid organic and acquisition-driven growth in recent periods. We do not expect revenue growth in future periods to be consistent with recent history. Further, as we operate in a new and rapidly changing market, widespread acceptance and use of our platform is critical to our future growth and success. We believe our revenue growth depends on a number of factors, including, but not limited to, our ability to:
attract new customers;
provide excellent customer experience;
renew and grow current customer subscriptions;
convert users of and organizations on our free Community Edition into paying customers;
introduce and grow adoption of our products and services in new markets outside of the United States;
achieve widespread acceptance and use of our platform;
adequately expand our sales force and otherwise scale our operations as a business;
expand the features and capabilities of our platform, including through the creation and use of additional integrations;
maintain the security and reliability of our platform;
comply with existing and new applicable laws and regulations;
price and package our products and services effectively;
successfully compete against established companies and new market entrants;
increase awareness of our brand on a global basis; and
execute on our acquisition strategy.
We may not be able to successfully implement our strategic initiatives in accordance with our expectations, or in the timeframe we desire, which may result in an adverse impact on our business and financial results. We also expect our operating expenses to increase in future periods, and if our revenue growth does not increase to offset these anticipated increases in our operating expenses, our business, results of operations, and financial condition will be harmed and we may not be able to achieve or maintain profitability.
Further, our rapid growth may make it difficult to evaluate our future prospects. Our ability to forecast our future results of operations is subject to a number of uncertainties, including our ability to effectively plan for and model future growth. If we fail to achieve the necessary level of efficiency in our organization as it grows, or if we are not able to accurately forecast future growth, our business, results of operations, and financial condition could be harmed.
We depend on our executive officers and other key employees, and the loss of one or more of these employees or an inability to attract and retain other highly skilled employees could harm our business.
Our success depends largely upon the continued services of our executive officers and other key employees. We rely on our leadership team in the areas of research and development, operations, security, analytics, marketing, sales, customer experience, and general and administrative functions and on individual contributors in our research and development and operations. From time to time, there may be changes in our executive management team resulting from the hiring or departure of executives, which could disrupt our business. The loss of one or more of our executive officers or key employees could harm our business. Changes in our executive management team may also cause disruptions in, and harm to, our business.


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The company continues to be led by our CEO and co-founder, Henry Schuck, who plays an important role in driving the company’s culture, determining the strategy, and executing against that strategy across the company. If Mr. Schuck’s services became unavailable to the company for any reason, it may be difficult or impossible for the company to find an adequate replacement, which could cause us to be less successful in maintaining our culture and developing and effectively executing on our company strategies.
In addition, to execute our growth plan, we must attract and retain highly qualified personnel. Competition for these personnel on the West Coast, where our headquarters is located, and in other locations where we maintain offices, is intense, especially for engineers experienced in designing and developing software and software-as-a-service (“SaaS”) applications and experienced sales professionals. We have from time to time experienced, and we expect to continue to experience, difficulty in hiring and retaining employees with appropriate qualifications. In addition, certain domestic immigration laws restrict or limit our ability to recruit internationally. Any changes to U.S. immigration policies that restrain the flow of technical and professional talent may inhibit our ability to recruit and retain highly qualified employees. Many of the companies with which we compete for experienced personnel have greater resources than we have and may be able to offer more attractive terms of employment. In addition, we invest significant time and expense in training our employees, which increases their value to competitors who may seek to recruit them.
If we hire employees from competitors or other companies, their former employers may attempt to assert that these employees have breached their legal obligations, resulting in a diversion of our time and resources. In addition, job candidates and existing employees often consider the value of the equity awards they receive in connection with their employment. If the perceived value of our equity awards declines, it may harm our ability to recruit and retain highly skilled employees. If we fail to attract new personnel or fail to retain and motivate our current personnel, our business and future growth prospects could be harmed. Meanwhile, additions of executive-level management and large numbers of employees could significantly and adversely impact our culture. If we do not maintain and continue to develop our corporate culture as we grow and evolve, it could harm our ability to foster the innovation, creativity and teamwork we believe that we need to support our growth.
In addition, many of our key technologies and systems are custom-made for our business by our key personnel. The loss of key personnel, including key members of our management team, as well as certain of our key marketing, sales, product development, or technology personnel, could disrupt our operations and have an adverse effect on our ability to grow our business.
If we have overestimated the size of our total addressable market, our future growth rate may be limited.
We have estimated the size of our total addressable market based on internally generated data and assumptions, and such information is inherently imprecise. In addition, our projections, assumptions, and estimates of opportunities within our market are subject to a high degree of uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors, including, but not limited to, those described in this prospectus. If these internally generated data prove to be inaccurate or we make errors in our assumptions based on that data, our actual market may be more limited than our estimates. In addition, these inaccuracies or errors may cause us to misallocate capital and other critical business resources, which could harm our business.
Even if our total addressable market meets our size estimates and experiences growth, we may not continue to grow our share of the market. Our growth is subject to many factors, including our success in implementing our business strategy, which is subject to many risks and uncertainties. Accordingly, the estimates of our total addressable market included in this prospectus should not be taken as indicative of our ability to grow our business. For more information regarding the estimates of market opportunity and the forecasts of market growth included in this prospectus, see the sections titled “Summary—Our Market Opportunity” and “Business—Our Market Opportunity.”


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We may experience quarterly fluctuations in our operating results due to a number of factors which makes our future results difficult to predict and could cause our operating results to fall below expectations or our guidance.
Our quarterly operating results have fluctuated in the past and are expected to fluctuate in the future due to a variety of factors, many of which are outside of our control. As a result, our past results may not be indicative of our future performance, and comparing our operating results on a period-to-period basis may not be meaningful. In addition to the other risks described in this prospectus, factors that may affect our quarterly operating results include the following:
our ability to attract and retain customers and grow subscriptions of existing customers;
our ability to price and package our products and services effectively;
pricing pressure as a result of competition or otherwise;
unforeseen costs and expenses, including those related to the expansion of our business and operations;
changes in customers’ budgets and in the timing of their budget cycles and purchasing decisions;
changes in the competitive dynamics of our market, including consolidation among competitors or customers and the introduction of new products or product enhancements;
the amount and timing of payment for operating expenses, particularly research and development, sales, and marketing expenses and employee benefit expenses;
the timing of revenue and expenses related to the development or acquisition of technologies, products, or businesses;
potential goodwill and intangible asset impairment charges and amortization associated with acquired businesses;
potential restructuring and transaction-related expenses;
the amount and timing of costs associated with recruiting, training, and integrating new employees while maintaining our company culture;
our ability to manage our existing business and future growth, including increases in the number of customers on our platform and the introduction and adoption of our platform in new markets outside of the United States;
foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations; and
general economic and political conditions in our domestic and international markets.
We may not be able to accurately forecast the amount and mix of future subscriptions, revenue, and expenses and, as a result, our operating results may fall below our estimates or the expectations of public market analysts and investors. If our revenue or operating results fall below the expectations of investors or securities analysts, or below any guidance we may provide, the price of our Class A common stock could decline.
Our failure to raise additional capital or generate cash flows necessary to expand our operations and invest in new technologies in the future could reduce our ability to compete successfully and harm our results of operations.
We may require additional financing, and we may not be able to obtain debt or equity financing on favorable terms, if at all. If we raise equity financing to fund operations or on an opportunistic basis, our stockholders may experience significant dilution of their ownership interests. Our secured credit facilities restrict our ability to incur additional indebtedness, require us to maintain specified minimum liquidity and restrict our ability to pay dividends. The terms of any additional debt financing may be similar or more restrictive. If we need additional capital and cannot raise it on acceptable terms, or at all, we may not be able to, among other things:
develop new features, integrations, capabilities, and enhancements;


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continue to expand our product development, sales, and marketing organizations;
hire, train, and retain employees;
respond to competitive pressures or unanticipated working capital requirements; or
pursue acquisition opportunities.
For more information, see “—Risks Related to Our Indebtedness.”
We devote, and may continue to devote, substantial resources to our earlier platforms.
Our newest platform was developed by combining features from our earlier DiscoverOrg platform and the platform developed by (and acquired by us through the acquisition of) Pre-Acquisition ZI. Certain existing customers continue to use and may prefer to continue to use in the future those earlier platforms, which we continue to support. If we are unable to migrate our existing customers using our earlier platforms to our new platform, we may continue to devote substantial resources to the maintenance of our earlier platforms, which could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition, or we may experience customer dissatisfaction if we choose to no longer support those earlier platforms, which could cause certain customers not to renew or grow their subscriptions.
Operations and sales to customers outside the United States expose us to risks inherent in international operations.
Our success depends in part on our ability to expand sales to customers located outside of the United States. For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2019, our business outside of the United States accounted for approximately 7% and 9% of total revenue, respectively. Any new markets or countries into which we attempt to sell subscriptions to our platform may not be as receptive to our products and services as we anticipate. Expansion of sales to international customers may also create challenges for our U.S.-based sales and customer experience functions and may require us to consider expanding operations internationally. A significant increase in international customers or an expansion of our operations into other countries could create additional risks and challenges, including:
a need to localize our products and services, including translation into foreign languages and associated expenses;
competition from local incumbents that better understand the local market, customs, and culture, may market and operate more effectively, and may enjoy greater local affinity or awareness;
a need to comply with foreign regulatory frameworks or business practices, which among other things may favor local competitors;
evolving domestic and international tax environments;
liquidity issues or political actions by sovereign nations, including nations with a controlled currency environment, which could result in decreased values of balances or potential difficulties protecting our foreign assets or satisfying local obligations;
foreign currency fluctuations and controls, which may make our products and services more expensive for international customers and could add volatility to our operating results;
compliance with multiple, conflicting, ambiguous, or evolving governmental laws and regulations, including employment, tax, privacy, anti-corruption, import/export, economic sanctions, trade controls, antitrust, and data transfer, storage and protection, and our ability to identify and respond timely to compliance issues when they occur;
vetting and monitoring internal or external sales or customer experience resources in new and evolving markets to confirm they maintain standards consistent with our brand and reputation;


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uncertainty regarding regulation, currency, tax, and operations resulting from the Brexit vote that could disrupt trade, the sale of our services and commerce and movement of our people between the United Kingdom, the European Union, and other locations;
changes in the public perception of governments in the regions where we operate or plan to operate;
treatment of revenue from international sources, intellectual property considerations, and changes to tax codes, including being subject to foreign tax laws and being liable for paying withholding income or other taxes in foreign jurisdictions;
different pricing environments;
different or lesser protection of our intellectual property;
longer accounts receivable payment cycles and other collection difficulties;
changes in diplomatic and trade relationships, including the imposition of new trade restrictions, trade protection measures, import or export requirements, trade embargoes, and other trade barriers;
natural disasters, pandemics (such as COVID-19), acts of war, terrorism, pandemics, or security breaches;
regional economic and political conditions; and
higher costs of doing business internationally, including increased accounting, travel, infrastructure, and legal compliance costs.
Any of these factors could negatively impact our business and results of operations.
Cyber-attacks and security vulnerabilities could result in serious harm to our reputation, business, and financial condition.
Threats to network and data security are constantly evolving and becoming increasingly diverse and sophisticated. Our products and services, as well as our servers and computer systems and those of third parties that we rely on in our operations could be vulnerable to cybersecurity risks. As such, we may be subject to risks inherent to companies that process personal data. An increasing number of organizations have disclosed breaches of their information security systems, some of which have involved sophisticated and highly targeted attacks.
We are the target of attempts to identify and exploit system vulnerabilities and/or penetrate or bypass our security measures in order to gain unauthorized access to our systems, including an incident that has resulted in exfiltration of the contact records from our database. We employ multiple methods at different layers of our systems to defend against intrusion and attack, to protect our systems and to resolve and mitigate the impact of any incidents. Despite our efforts to keep our systems secure and to remedy identified vulnerabilities, future attacks could be successful and could result in substantial liability or business risk. Third parties will continue to attempt to gain unauthorized access to our systems or facilities through various means, including hacking into our systems or facilities, or those of our customers or vendors, or attempting to fraudulently induce our employees, customers, vendors or other users of our systems into disclosing sensitive information, which may in turn be used to access our IT systems. Our cybersecurity programs and efforts to protect our systems and data, and to prevent, detect and respond to data security incidents, may not prevent these threats or provide adequate security. Further, we may be subject to additional liability risks associated with data security breaches or other incidents by virtue of the private right of action granted to individuals under certain data privacy laws for actions arising from certain data security incidents.
We may experience breaches of our security measures due to human error, malfeasance, system errors or vulnerabilities, or other irregularities. Actual or perceived breaches of our security could subject us to regulatory investigations and orders, litigation, indemnity obligations, damages, penalties, fines and other costs in connection with actual and alleged contractual breaches, violations of applicable laws and regulations and other liabilities. Any such incident could also materially damage our reputation and harm our business, results of operations and financial condition. We maintain errors, omissions, and cyber liability insurance policies covering certain security and privacy damages.


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However, we cannot be certain that our coverage will be adequate for liabilities actually incurred or that insurance will continue to be available to us on economically reasonable terms, or at all.
Technical problems or disruptions that affect either our customers’ ability to access our services, or the software, internal applications, database, and network systems underlying our services, could damage our reputation and brands and lead to reduced demand for our products and services, lower revenues, and increased costs.
Our business, brand, reputation, and ability to attract and retain users and customers depend upon the satisfactory performance, reliability, and availability of our websites, which in turn depend upon the availability of the internet and our service providers. Interruptions in these systems, whether due to system failures, computer viruses, software errors, physical or electronic break-ins, or malicious hacks or attacks on our systems (such as denial of service attacks), could affect the security and availability of our services on our mobile applications and our websites and prevent or inhibit the ability of users to access our products or services. In addition, the software, internal applications, and systems underlying our products and services are complex and may not be error-free. We may encounter technical problems when we attempt to enhance our software, internal applications, and systems. Any inefficiencies, errors, or technical problems with our software, internal applications, and systems could reduce the quality of our products and services or interfere with our customers’ use of our products and services, which could reduce demand, lower our revenues, and increase our costs.
Our systems and operations are vulnerable to damage or interruption from fire, flood, power loss, security breaches, computer viruses, telecommunications failure, terrorist attacks, acts of war, electronic and physical break-ins, earthquakes, and similar events. The occurrence of any of the foregoing events could result in damage to or failure of our systems and hardware. These risks may be increased with respect to operations housed at facilities outside of our direct control, and the majority of the communications, network, and computer hardware used to operate the cloud for our platforms are located at facilities maintained by Google or Amazon, which we do not own or control.
Problems faced or caused by our IT service providers, including content distribution service providers, private network providers, internet providers, and third-party web-hosting providers, or with the systems by which they allocate capacity among their customers (as applicable), could adversely affect the experience of our users. If our third-party service providers are unable to keep up with our growing needs for capacity, our business could be harmed. Additionally, if these third-party cloud services stop providing services to us or increase rates, we may be unable to find sufficient other third-party providers, which could harm our business. See “—Interruptions or delays in services from third parties, including data center hosting facilities, internet infrastructure, cloud computing platform providers, and other hardware and software vendors, or our inability to adequately plan for and manage service interruptions or infrastructure capacity requirements, could impair the delivery of our services and harm our business.” In addition, if distribution channels for our mobile applications experience disruptions, such disruptions could adversely affect the ability of users and potential users to access or update our mobile applications. If our platform is unavailable to users or fails to function as quickly as users expect, it could result in reduced customer satisfaction and reduced attractiveness of our platform to customers. This in turn could lead to decreased sales to new customers, harm our ability to renew or grow the subscriptions of existing customers, and/or the issuance of service credits or refunds, any of which could harm our reputation, business, results of operations, and financial condition.
Any errors, defects, disruptions, or other performance problems with our services could harm our reputation, business, results of operations, and financial condition.
Interruptions or delays in services from third parties, including data center hosting facilities, internet infrastructure, cloud computing platform providers, and other hardware and software vendors, or our inability to adequately plan for and manage service interruptions or infrastructure capacity requirements, could impair the delivery of our services and harm our business.
We currently serve our customers through the use of third-party data center hosting facilities and cloud computing platform providers. Damage to, or failure of, these systems, or systems upon which they depend such as internet infrastructure, could result in interruptions in our services. We have from time to time experienced interruptions in our services and such interruptions may occur in the future. Interruptions in our services may cause us to issue credits to customers, cause customers to make warranty or other claims against us or to terminate their subscriptions, and adversely affect our customer renewal and upgrade performance and our ability to attract new customers, all of which would


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reduce our revenue. Our business would also be harmed if our customers and potential customers believe our services are unreliable.
We do not control the operation of third-party facilities, and they may be vulnerable to damage or interruption from earthquakes, floods, fires, power loss, telecommunications failures, and similar events. They may also be subject to break-ins, sabotage, intentional acts of vandalism, and similar misconduct, as well as local administrative actions, changes to legal or permitting requirements, and litigation to stop, limit, or delay operation. The occurrence of a natural disaster, pandemics (such as COVID-19) or an act of terrorism, a decision to close the facilities without adequate notice, or other unanticipated problems at these facilities could result in lengthy interruptions in our services.
These hardware, software, data, and cloud computing systems may not continue to be available at reasonable prices, on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. Any loss of the right to use any of these hardware, software, or cloud computing systems could significantly increase our expenses and otherwise result in delays in the provisioning of our services until equivalent technology is either developed by us, or, if available, is identified, obtained through purchase or license, and integrated into our services.
If the way cookies are used or shared, or if the use or transfer of cookies is restricted by third parties outside of our control or becomes subject to unfavorable legislation or regulation, our ability to develop and provide certain products or services could be diminished or eliminated.
Small text files (referred to as “cookies”) placed on internet browsers by certain websites are used to gather data regarding the content of a user’s web browsing activity. We license data gathered using cookies to identify trends in online content consumption by business organizations in order to make assumptions about the goods and services such businesses may purchase. The availability of this data may be limited by numerous potential factors, including general trends among internet users to refuse to accept cookies on their web browsers, laws or regulations limiting the transferability or use of information gathered using cookies, or the refusal of providers of such information to provide it to us or to provide it to us on favorable terms. If we are not able to obtain this information on the terms we anticipate, we will not be able to provide some of our predictive intent products or services, which may cause a reduction in revenue or a reduction in revenue growth. It may negatively impact our ability to obtain new customers, as well as our ability to renew or grow the subscriptions of existing customers.
Cookies may easily be deleted or blocked by internet users. All of the most commonly used internet browsers (including Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer, and Safari) allow internet users to prevent cookies from being accepted by their browsers. Internet users can also delete cookies from their computers at any time. Some internet users also download “ad blocking” software that prevents cookies from being stored on a user’s computer. If more internet users adopt these settings or delete their cookies more frequently than they currently do, our business could be harmed. In addition, the Safari and Firefox browsers block third-party cookies by default, and other browsers may do so in the future. Unless such default settings in browsers were altered by internet users to permit the placement of third-party cookies, fewer cookies would be available, which could adversely affect our business. In addition, companies such as Google have publicly disclosed their intention to move away from cookies to another form of persistent unique identifier (“ID”) to identify individual internet users or internet-connected devices in the bidding process on advertising exchanges. If companies do not use shared IDs across the entire ecosystem, this could have a negative impact on our ability obtain content consumption data.
Our management team has limited experience managing a public company.
Most members of our management team have limited experience managing a publicly traded company, interacting with public company investors, and complying with the increasingly complex laws pertaining to public companies. Our management team may not successfully or efficiently manage our transition to being a public company that is subject to significant regulatory oversight and reporting obligations under the federal securities laws and the continuous scrutiny of securities analysts and investors. These new obligations and constituents will require significant attention from our senior management and could divert their attention away from the day-to-day management of our business, which could harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition.


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We have a limited operating history, which makes it difficult to forecast our revenue and evaluate our business and future prospects.
Our business was originally founded in 2007, though much of our growth has occurred in recent periods. Our newest platform was introduced publicly in September 2019. As a result of our limited operating history, our ability to forecast our future results of operations and plan for and model future growth is limited and subject to a number of uncertainties. We have encountered and expect to continue to encounter risks and uncertainties frequently experienced by growing companies in rapidly evolving industries, such as the risks and uncertainties described herein. Additionally, the sales cycle for the evaluation and implementation of our paid versions, which can range from a single day to many months, may also cause us to experience a delay between increasing operating expenses and the generation of corresponding revenue, if any. Accordingly, we may be unable to prepare accurate internal financial forecasts or replace anticipated revenue that we do not receive as a result of delays arising from these factors, and our results of operations in future reporting periods may be below the expectations of investors. If we do not address these risks successfully, our results of operations could differ materially from our estimates and forecasts or the expectations of investors, causing our business to suffer and our Class A common stock price to decline.
We may be subject to litigation for any of a variety of claims, which could harm our reputation and adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
In the ordinary course of business, we may be involved in and subject to litigation for a variety of claims or disputes and receive regulatory inquiries. These claims, lawsuits, and proceedings could include labor and employment, wage and hour, commercial, data privacy, antitrust, alleged securities law violations or other investor claims, and other matters. The number and significance of these potential claims and disputes may increase as our business expands. Any claim against us, regardless of its merit, could be costly, divert management’s attention and operational resources, and harm our reputation. As litigation is inherently unpredictable, we cannot assure you that any potential claims or disputes will not have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition. Any claims or litigation, even if fully indemnified or insured, could make it more difficult to compete effectively or to obtain adequate insurance in the future.
In addition, we may be required to spend significant resources to monitor and protect our contractual, property, and other rights, including collection of payments and fees. Litigation has been and may be necessary in the future to enforce such rights. Such litigation could be costly, time consuming, and distracting to management and could result in the impairment or loss of our rights. Furthermore, our efforts to enforce our rights may be met with defenses, counterclaims, and countersuits attacking the validity and enforceability of such rights. Our inability to protect our rights as well as any costly litigation or diversion of our management’s attention and resources, could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition or injure our reputation.
We may in the future be sued by third parties for various claims including alleged infringement of proprietary intellectual property rights.
There is considerable patent and other intellectual property development activity in our market, and litigation, based on allegations of infringement or other violations of intellectual property, is frequent in software and internet-based industries. We may receive communications from third parties, including practicing entities and non-practicing entities, claiming that we have infringed their intellectual property rights.
In addition, we may be sued by third parties for breach of contract, defamation, negligence, unfair competition, or copyright or trademark infringement or claims based on other theories. We could also be subject to claims based upon the content that is accessible from our website through links to other websites or information on our website supplied by third parties or claims that our collection of information from third-party sites without a license violates certain federal or state laws or website terms of use. We could also be subject to claims that the collection or provision of certain information breached laws or regulations relating to privacy or data protection. Additionally, there are potential issues around possible ownership rights in personal data, which is subject to evolving regulatory oversight. As a result of claims against us regarding suspected infringement, our technologies may be subject to injunction, we may be required to pay damages, or we may have to seek a license to continue certain practices (which may not be available on reasonable terms, if at all), all of which may significantly increase our operating expenses or may require us to restrict our business activities and limit our ability to deliver our products and services and/or certain features,


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integrations, and capabilities of our platform. As a result, we may also be required to develop alternative non-infringing technology, which could require significant effort and expense and/or cause us to alter our products or services, which could negatively affect our business. Further, many of our subscription agreements require us to indemnify our customers for third-party intellectual property infringement claims, so any alleged infringement by us resulting in claims against such customers would increase our liability.
Our exposure to risks associated with various claims, including the use of intellectual property, may be increased as a result of acquisitions of other companies. For example, we may have a lower level of visibility into the development process with respect to intellectual property or the care taken to safeguard against infringement risks with respect to the acquired company or technology. In addition, third parties may make infringement and similar or related claims after we have acquired technology that had not been asserted prior to our acquisition.
We may be subject to liability if we breach our contracts, and our insurance may be inadequate to cover our losses.
We are subject to numerous obligations in our contracts with organizations using our products and services, as well as vendors and other companies with which we do business. We may breach these commitments, whether through a weakness in our procedures, systems, and internal controls, negligence, or through the willful act of an employee or contractor. Our insurance policies, including our errors and omissions insurance, may be inadequate to compensate us for the potentially significant losses that may result from claims arising from breaches of our contracts, as well as disruptions in our services, failures or disruptions to our infrastructure, catastrophic events and disasters, or otherwise.
In addition, our insurance may not cover all claims made against us, and defending a suit, regardless of its merit, could be costly and divert management’s attention. Further, such insurance may not be available to us in the future on economically reasonable terms, or at all.
Changes in laws and regulations related to the internet or changes in the internet infrastructure itself may diminish the demand for our platform and could harm our business.
The future success of our business depends upon the continued use of the internet as a primary medium for commerce, communication, and business applications. Federal, state, or foreign governmental bodies or agencies have in the past adopted, and may in the future adopt, laws or regulations affecting the use of the internet as a commercial medium. The adoption of any laws or regulations that could reduce the growth, popularity, or use of the internet, including laws or practices limiting internet neutrality, could decrease the demand for, or the usage of, our products and services, increase our cost of doing business, and harm our results of operations. Changes in these laws or regulations could require us to modify our platform, or certain aspects of our platform, in order to comply with these changes. In addition, government agencies or private organizations have imposed and may impose additional taxes, fees, or other charges for accessing the internet or commerce conducted via the internet. These laws or charges could limit the growth of internet-related commerce or communications generally or result in reductions in the demand for internet-based products such as ours. In addition, the use of the internet as a business tool could be harmed due to delays in the development or adoption of new standards and protocols to handle increased demands of internet activity, security, reliability, cost, ease-of-use, accessibility, and quality of service. Further, our platform depends on the quality of our users’ access to the internet.
On June 11, 2018, the repeal of the Federal Communications Commission’s (the “FCC”), “net neutrality” rules took effect and returned to a “light-touch” regulatory framework. The prior rules were designed to ensure that all online content is treated the same by internet service providers and other companies that provide broadband services. Additionally, on September 30, 2018, California enacted the California internet Consumer Protection and Net Neutrality Act of 2018, making California the fourth state to enact a state-level net neutrality law since the FCC repealed its nationwide regulations, mandating that all broadband services in California must be provided in accordance with state net neutrality requirements. The U.S. Department of Justice has sued to block the law going into effect, and California has agreed to delay enforcement until the resolution of the FCC’s repeal of the federal rules. A number of other states are considering legislation or executive actions that would regulate the conduct of broadband providers. We cannot predict whether the FCC order or state initiatives will be modified, overturned, or vacated by legal action of the court, federal legislation or the FCC. With the repeal of net neutrality rules in effect, we could incur greater operating expenses, which could harm our results of operations. As the internet continues to experience growth in the number of users, frequency of use, and amount of data transmitted, the internet infrastructure that we and our users rely on may be unable


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to support the demands placed upon it. The failure of the internet infrastructure that we or our users rely on, even for a short period of time, could undermine our operations and harm our results of operations.
Internet access is frequently provided by companies that have significant market power that could take actions that degrade, disrupt, or increase the cost of user access to our platform, which would negatively impact our business. The performance of the internet and its acceptance as a business tool has been harmed by “viruses,” “worms” and similar malicious programs and the internet has experienced a variety of outages and other delays as a result of damage to portions of its infrastructure. If the use of the internet is adversely affected by these issues, demand for our platform could decline.
We could incur greater operating expenses and our user acquisition and retention could be negatively impacted if network operators:
implement usage-based pricing;
discount pricing for competitive products;
otherwise materially change their pricing rates or schemes;
charge us to deliver our traffic at certain levels or at all;
throttle traffic based on its source or type;
implement bandwidth caps or other usage restrictions; or
otherwise try to monetize or control access to their networks.
Action by governments to restrict access to our platforms in their countries or to require us to disclose or provide access to information in our possession could harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
Our platforms depend on the ability of our users to access the internet and our platforms could be blocked or restricted in some countries for various reasons. Further, it is possible that governments of one or more foreign countries may seek to limit access to or certain features of our platforms in their countries, or impose other restrictions that may affect the availability of our platforms, or certain features of our platforms, in their countries for an extended period of time or indefinitely. For example, Russia and China are among a number of countries that have recently blocked certain online services, including Amazon Web Services (which is one of our cloud hosting providers), making it very difficult for such services to access those markets. In addition, governments in certain countries may seek to restrict or prohibit access to our platforms if they consider us to be in violation of their laws (including privacy laws) and may require us to disclose or provide access to information in our possession. If we fail to anticipate developments in the law or fail for any reason to comply with relevant law, our platforms could be further blocked or restricted and we could be exposed to significant liability that could harm our business. In the event that access to our platforms is restricted, in whole or in part, in one or more countries or our competitors are able to successfully penetrate geographic markets that we cannot access, our ability to add new customers or renew or grow the subscriptions of existing customers may be adversely affected, we may not be able to maintain or grow our revenue as anticipated and our business, results of operations, and financial condition could be adversely affected.
We are subject to sanctions, anti-corruption, anti-bribery, and similar laws, and non-compliance with such laws can subject us to criminal penalties or significant fines and harm our business and reputation.
We are subject to requirements under the U.S. Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control, anti-corruption, anti-bribery, and similar laws, such as the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended (the “FCPA”), the U.S. domestic bribery statute contained in 18 U.S.C. § 201, the U.S. Travel Act, the USA PATRIOT Act, the U.K. Bribery Act 2010, and other anti-corruption, anti-bribery, and anti-money laundering laws in countries in which we conduct activities. Anti-corruption and anti-bribery laws have been enforced aggressively in recent years and are interpreted broadly and prohibit companies and their employees and agents from promising, authorizing, making, offering, or providing anything of value to a “foreign official” for the purposes of influencing official decisions or obtaining or retaining business, or otherwise obtaining favorable treatment. As we increase our international sales and


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business, our risks under these laws may increase. Noncompliance with these laws could subject us to investigations, sanctions, settlements, prosecution, other enforcement actions, disgorgement of profits, significant fines, damages, other civil and criminal penalties or injunctions, adverse media coverage, and other consequences. Any investigations, actions or sanctions could harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
In addition, in the future we may use third parties to sell access to our platform and conduct business on our behalf abroad. We or such future third-party intermediaries, may have direct or indirect interactions with officials and employees of government agencies or state-owned or affiliated entities, and we can be held liable for the corrupt or other illegal activities of such future third-party intermediaries, and our employees, representatives, contractors, partners, and agents, even if we do not explicitly authorize such activities. We cannot provide assurance that our internal controls and compliance systems will always protect us from liability for acts committed by employees, agents, or business partners of ours (or of businesses we acquire or partner with) that would violate U.S. and/or non-U.S. laws, including the laws governing payments to government officials, bribery, fraud, kickbacks, false claims, pricing, sales and marketing practices, conflicts of interest, competition, employment practices and workplace behavior, export and import compliance, economic and trade sanctions, money laundering, data privacy, and other related laws. Any such improper actions or allegations of such acts could subject us to significant sanctions, including civil or criminal fines and penalties, disgorgement of profits, injunctions, and debarment from government contracts, as well as related stockholder lawsuits and other remedial measures, all of which could adversely affect our reputation, business, financial condition, and results of operations. Software intended to prevent access to our products and service from certain geographies may not be effective in all cases.
Any violation of economic and trade sanction laws, export and import laws, the FCPA, or other applicable anti-corruption laws or anti-money laundering laws could also result in whistleblower complaints, adverse media coverage, investigations, loss of export privileges, severe criminal or civil sanctions, and, in the case of the FCPA, suspension or debarment from U.S. government contracts, any of which could have a materially adverse effect on our reputation, business, results of operations, and prospects.
Changes in existing financial accounting standards or practices may harm our results of operations.
Changes in existing accounting rules or practices, new accounting pronouncements, or varying interpretations of current accounting pronouncements could negatively impact our results of operations. Further, such changes could potentially affect our reporting of transactions completed before such changes are effective. GAAP is subject to interpretation by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (the “FASB”), the SEC and various bodies formed to promulgate and interpret appropriate accounting principles. A change in these principles or interpretations could have a significant effect on our reported financial results and could affect the reporting of transactions completed before the announcement of a change.
In particular, in May 2014, the FASB and International Accounting Standard Board jointly issued a new revenue recognition standard, Accounting Standard Update (“ASU”) 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, later codified as Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 606 (collectively with subsequent amendments, “Topic 606”), that is designed to improve financial reporting by creating a common recognition guidance for GAAP. The core principle of this guidance is that an entity should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those services.
We adopted Topic 606, effective January 1, 2018, using the full retrospective method of adoption as if the adoption occurred on January 1, 2017, while Pre-Acquisition ZI adopted Topic 606 effective January 1, 2019, using the modified retrospective method of adoption. Results for Pre-Acquisition ZI beginning after January 1, 2019 are presented under Topic 606, while prior period amounts are not adjusted and continue to be presented in accordance with their historic accounting under ASC Topic 605 Revenue Recognition. We believe that the revenue presented for Pre-Acquisition ZI in 2018 would not have materially changed, had Pre-Acquisition ZI used the full retrospective method of adoption for Topic 606 and restated their 2018 revenue figures. See Note 2 - Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies within our consolidated financial statements included appearing elsewhere in this prospectus for additional information.


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In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02 Leases (Topic 842) (“Topic 842”), which increases the transparency and comparability among organizations’ accounting for leases. The guidance requires a company to recognize lease assets and liabilities on the balance sheet, as well as disclose key information about lease arrangements. In July 2018, the FASB issued guidance to permit an alternative transition method for Topic 842, which allows transition to the new lease standard by recognizing a cumulative-effect adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings in the period of adoption. We adopted Topic 842 as of January 1, 2019 under this new alternative transition method. We elected the package of practical expedients permitted under the transition guidance within the new standard, which among other things, allows us to carry forward the historical lease classification. In addition, as a practical expedient relating to our property leases, we will not separate lease components from nonlease components. We did not elect the hindsight practical expedient permitted under the transition guidance within the new lease standard. While adoption of Topic 842 did not have a material impact to our consolidated statements of operations or comprehensive loss, we did record a material increase to our assets and liabilities on the balance sheet upon adoption of this standard. Upon adoption, we recognized a right-of-use asset of $9.3 million and a lease liability of $12.8 million, largely pertaining to the Company’s headquarter office lease, with a cumulative-effect adjustment, net of tax, to retained earnings in the amount of $1.8 million representing hidden impairment. In addition, we recorded an additional $28.6 million right-of-use asset and lease liability on February 1, 2019 in connection with the acquisition of Pre-Acquisition ZI.
Any difficulties in implementing these pronouncements could cause us to fail to meet our financial reporting obligations, which could result in regulatory discipline and harm investors’ confidence in us.
Our internal controls over financial reporting currently do not meet all of the standards contemplated by Section 404 of SOX, and failure to achieve and maintain effective internal controls over financial reporting in accordance with Section 404 of SOX could impair our ability to produce timely and accurate financial statements or comply with applicable regulations and have a material adverse effect on our business.
As a public company, we will have significant requirements for enhanced financial reporting and internal controls. The process of designing and implementing effective internal controls is a continuous effort that will require us to anticipate and react to changes in our business and the economic and regulatory environments and to expend significant resources to maintain a system of internal controls that is adequate to satisfy our reporting obligations as a public company. If we are unable to establish or maintain appropriate internal financial reporting controls and procedures, it could cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations on a timely basis, result in material misstatements in our consolidated financial statements, and harm our operating results. In addition, we will be required, pursuant to Section 404 of SOX, to furnish a report by management on, among other things, the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting in the second annual report on Form 10-K following the completion of this offering. This assessment will need to include disclosure of any material weaknesses identified by our management in our internal control over financial reporting. The rules governing the standards that must be met for our management to assess our internal control over financial reporting are complex and require significant documentation, testing, and possible remediation. Testing and maintaining internal controls may divert management’s attention from other matters that are important to our business. Beginning with our second annual report on Form 10-K following the completion of this offering, our independent registered public accounting firm will be required to attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting on an annual basis. However, while we remain an emerging growth company, we will not be required to include an attestation report on internal control over financial reporting issued by our independent registered public accounting firm. If we are not able to complete our initial assessment of our internal controls and otherwise implement the requirements of Section 404 of SOX in a timely manner or with adequate compliance, our independent registered public accounting firm may not be able to certify as to the adequacy of our internal controls over financial reporting.
In addition to our results determined in accordance with GAAP, we believe certain non-GAAP measures may be useful in evaluating our operating performance. We present certain non-GAAP financial measures in this prospectus and intend to continue to present certain non-GAAP financial measures in future filings with the SEC and other public statements. Any failure to accurately report and present our non-GAAP financial measures could cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial and other information, which would likely have a negative effect on the trading price of our Class A common stock.


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Matters impacting our internal controls may cause us to be unable to report our financial information on a timely basis and thereby subject us to adverse regulatory consequences, including sanctions by the SEC or violations of applicable stock exchange listing rules, which may result in a breach of the covenants under existing or future financing arrangements. There also could be a negative reaction in the financial markets due to a loss of investor confidence in us and the reliability of our financial statements. Confidence in the reliability of our financial statements also could suffer if we or our independent registered public accounting firm continue to report a material weakness in our internal controls over financial reporting. This could materially adversely affect us and lead to a decline in the market price of our Class A common stock.
In connection with the audit of our consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2018, our management and auditors determined that a material weakness existed in the internal control over financial reporting due to insufficient controls over the review and approval of manual journal entries, including appropriate segregation of duties, and limited accounting department personnel capable of appropriately accounting for complex transactions undertaken by the company. A material weakness is a deficiency, or combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our annual or interim consolidated financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. While we remediated several of the issues described above and continue to take remediation steps, including hiring additional personnel around and subsequent to December 31, 2018, including a new chief financial officer with experience with scale subscription businesses and a vice president of accounting and controller with public company experience, we continued to have a limited number of personnel with the level of GAAP accounting knowledge, specifically related to complex accounting transactions, commensurate with our financial reporting requirements. As such, we continued to have a material weakness in our control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2019.
Although we believe the additional accounting resources will remediate the weakness with respect to insufficient personnel, there can be no assurance that the material weakness will be remediated on a timely basis or at all, or that additional material weaknesses will not be identified in the future. If we are unable to remediate the material weakness, our ability to record, process, and report financial information accurately, and to prepare financial statements within the time periods specified by the rules and forms of the SEC, could be adversely affected which, in turn, to may adversely affect our reputation and business and the market price of our Class A common stock.
Because we recognize subscription revenue over the subscription term, downturns or upturns in new sales and renewals are not immediately reflected in full in our results of operations.
We recognize revenue from subscriptions to our platform on a straight-line basis over the term of the contract subscription period beginning on the date access to our platform is granted, provided all other revenue recognition criteria have been met. Our subscription arrangements generally have contractual terms requiring advance payment for annual or quarterly periods. As a result, much of the revenue we report each quarter is the recognition of deferred revenue from recurring subscriptions entered into during previous quarters. Consequently, a decline in new or renewed recurring subscription contracts in any one quarter will not be fully reflected in revenue in that quarter but will negatively affect our revenue in future quarters. Accordingly, the effect of significant downturns in new or renewed sales of our recurring subscriptions are not reflected in full in our results of operations until future periods. Our subscription model also makes it difficult for us to rapidly increase our revenue through additional sales in any period, as revenue from new customers is typically recognized over the applicable subscription term. By contrast, a majority of our costs are expensed as incurred, which could result in our recognition of more costs than revenue in the earlier portion of the subscription term, and we may not attain profitability in any given period.
We have a history of net losses, we anticipate increasing operating expenses in the future, and we may not be able to achieve and, if achieved, maintain profitability.
We have incurred significant net losses in each year since our inception, including net losses of $28.6 million in 2018 and $78.0 million in 2019, and we had an accumulated deficit of $213.8 million as of December 31, 2019. We may not achieve or maintain profitability in the future. Because the market for our platform is rapidly evolving and has not yet reached widespread adoption, it is difficult for us to predict our future results of operations or the limits of our market opportunity. We expect our operating expenses to significantly increase over the next several years as we hire additional personnel, particularly in sales and marketing and research and development, expand our partnerships,


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operations and infrastructure, both domestically and internationally, continue to enhance our platform and develop and expand its features, integrations, and capabilities, and expand and improve our platform. We also intend to continue to build and enhance our platform through both internal research and development and selectively pursuing acquisitions that can contribute to the capabilities of our platform. In addition, as we become a public company and grow, we will incur additional significant legal, accounting, and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company. If our revenue does not increase to offset the expected increases in our operating expenses, we may not be profitable in future periods. In future periods, our revenue growth could slow or our revenue could decline for a number of reasons, including any failure to increase the number of organizations on our platform, any failure to increase our number of paying customers, a decrease in the growth of our overall market, our failure, for any reason, to continue to capitalize on growth opportunities, slowing demand for our platform, additional regulatory burdens, or increasing competition. As a result, our past financial performance may not be indicative of our future performance. Any failure by us to achieve or sustain profitability on a consistent basis could cause the value o