N-2 1 d833306dn2.htm COHEN & STEERS TAX-ADVANTAGED PREFERRED SECURITIES AND INCOME FUND Cohen & Steers Tax-Advantaged Preferred Securities and Income Fund

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on November 19, 2019

Securities Act Registration No. 333-            

Investment Company Registration No. 811-23493

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM N-2

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER   
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933   
Pre-Effective Amendment No.        
Post-Effective Amendment No.        
and/or   
REGISTRATION STATEMENT   
UNDER   
THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940   
Amendment No.        

 

COHEN & STEERS TAX-ADVANTAGED PREFERRED SECURITIES AND INCOME FUND

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Charter)

280 Park Avenue, 10th Floor

New York, New York 10017

(Address of Principal Executive Offices)

(212) 832-3232

(Registrant’s Telephone Number, including Area Code)

Dana A. DeVivo, Esq.

Cohen & Steers Capital Management, Inc.

280 Park Avenue, 10th Floor

New York, New York 10017

(212) 832-3232

(Name and Address of Agent for Service)

 

With Copies to:

Michael G. Doherty

Ropes & Gray LLP

1211 Avenue of the Americas

New York, New York 10036

 

Approximate Date of Proposed Public Offering: As soon as practicable after the effective date of this Registration Statement.

If any of the securities being registered on this form are offered on a delayed or continuous basis in reliance on Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), other than securities offered in connection with a dividend reinvestment plan, check the following box. ☐

It is proposed that this filing will become effective (check appropriate box)

☐    when declared effective pursuant to 8(c)

 

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT*

 

Title of Securities

Being Registered

  Amount Being
Registered
  Proposed Maximum
Offering Price Per Unit
  Proposed Maximum
Aggregate Offering Price
  Amount of
Registration Fee

Common Shares, $.001 par value

  40,000   $25.00   $1,000,000.00   $129.80

 

*

Estimated solely for the purpose of calculating the registration fee.

The Registrant hereby amends this Registration Statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this Registration Statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act or until the Registration Statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.


Subject to Completion

Preliminary Prospectus dated         , 2019

The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

PROSPECTUS

[•] Shares

Cohen & Steers Tax-Advantaged Preferred Securities and Income Fund

Common Shares

$[•] per Share

 

 

The Fund. Cohen & Steers Tax-Advantaged Preferred Securities and Income Fund (the “Fund”) is a newly organized, non-diversified, closed-end management investment company.

Investment Objectives and Policies. The Fund’s primary investment objective is high current income. The Fund’s secondary investment objective is capital appreciation. The Fund seeks to achieve its investment objectives by investing at least 80% of its managed assets (i.e., net assets plus assets obtained through leverage) in a portfolio of preferred and other income securities issued by U.S. and non-U.S. companies, which may be either exchange-traded or available over-the-counter. In pursuing its investment objectives, the Fund seeks to achieve favorable after-tax returns for its shareholders by seeking to minimize the U.S. federal income tax consequences on income generated by the Fund. There can be no assurance that the Fund will achieve its investment objectives.

No Prior Trading History. Because the Fund is newly organized, its common shares of beneficial interest, $.001 par value per share (“Common Shares”) have no history of public trading. The shares of closed-end investment companies frequently trade at a discount from their net asset value, which creates a risk of loss for investors purchasing shares in the initial public offering. This risk may be greater for investors expecting to sell their shares in a relatively short period after completion of the initial public offering.

The Fund expects its Common Shares to be listed on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”), subject to notice of issuance, under the trading or “ticker” symbol “PTA.”

Investment in the Fund’s Common Shares involves substantial risks arising from, among other strategies, the Fund’s ability to invest in securities that are rated below investment grade or unrated but determined by Cohen & Steers Capital Management, Inc. (the “Investment Manager”) to be of comparable quality, the Fund’s exposure to foreign and emerging markets securities denominated in U.S. or non-U.S. currencies, and the Fund’s anticipated use of leverage. Below investment grade securities are regarded as having increased risk with respect to capacity to pay interest and to repay principal, and are commonly referred to as “high yield” securities or “junk” securities. The Fund’s exposure to foreign securities, particularly to emerging markets securities, involves special risks, including currency risk and the risk that the securities may decline in response to unfavorable


political and legal developments, unreliable or untimely information, or economic and financial instability. Because of the risks associated with investing in high yield securities, foreign and emerging market securities and using leverage, an investment in the Fund should be considered speculative. Before buying any of the Fund’s Common Shares, you should read the discussion of the principal risks of investing in the Fund in “Principal Risks of the Fund” beginning on page 49 of this prospectus.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

 

    

        Per Share        

  

        Total(1)        

Public offering price

   $[•]    $[•]

Sales load(2)

   $[•]    $[•]

Estimated offering expenses

   $[•]    $[•]

Proceeds, after expenses, to Fund(3)

   $[•]    $[•]

(notes on following page)

The underwriters expect to deliver Common Shares to purchasers on or about [•], 2020.

 

 

[underwriters]

 

 

The date of this prospectus is [•], 2020.


(notes from previous page)

 

 

(1)

The Fund has granted the underwriters an option to purchase up to [•] additional Common Shares at the public offering price within 45 days of the date of this prospectus solely to cover overallotments, if any. If such option is exercised in full, the public offering price and proceeds to the Fund will be $[•] and $[•] respectively. See “Underwriters.”

 

(2)

The Investment Manager (and not the Fund) has agreed to pay, from its own assets compensation of $[•] per Common Share to the underwriters in connection with the offering and, separately, an upfront structuring fee to [•], and may pay certain other underwriters a structuring fee, a sales incentive fee or other additional compensation in connection with the offering. These fees and compensation are not reflected under “Sales Load” or “Estimated Offering Expenses” in the table above because they are paid by the Investment Manager (and not the Fund). See “Underwriters.”

 

(3)

The Investment Manager has agreed to pay all organizational expenses of the Fund and all offering costs associated with the offering. The Fund is not obligated to repay any such organizational expenses or offering costs paid by the Investment Manager. See “Summary of Fund Expenses.”

(continued from previous page)

Investment Portfolio. Under normal market conditions, the Fund invests at least 80% of its Managed Assets (as defined below) in a portfolio of preferred and other income securities issued by U.S. and non-U.S. companies, which may be either exchange-traded or available over-the-counter (“OTC”). Such securities include traditional preferred securities; hybrid-preferred securities that have investment and economic characteristics of both preferred stock and debt securities; floating-rate and fixed-to-floating-rate preferred securities; fixed- and floating-rate corporate debt securities; convertible securities; contingent capital securities (“CoCos”); and securities of other closed-end, open-end, or exchange-traded funds (“ETFs”) that invest primarily in preferred and/or debt securities as described herein. To the extent the Fund invests in securities of other closed-end, open-end, or ETFs, the Fund will consider the investments of these funds, to the extent known by the Fund, in determining compliance with this policy. The Fund may also invest in restricted securities including securities that are only eligible for resale pursuant to Rule 144A under the Securities Act of 1933 (the “Securities Act”) (referred to as Rule 144A Securities) and securities of U.S. and non-U.S. issuers that are issued through private offerings without registration with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) pursuant to Regulation S under the Securities Act. “Managed Assets” are the Fund’s net assets, plus the principal amount of loans from financial institutions or debt securities issued by the Fund, the liquidation preference of preferred shares issued by the Fund, if any, and the proceeds of any reverse repurchase agreements entered into by the Fund (“Reverse Repurchase Agreements”).

The Fund also will invest 25% or more of its total assets in the financials sector, which is comprised of the banking, diversified financials, real estate (including real estate investment trusts) and insurance industries. From time to time, the Fund may have 25% or more of its total assets invested in any one or more of these industries that make up the financials sector. In addition, the Fund also may focus its investments in other sectors or industries, such as (but not limited to) energy, industrials, utilities, pipelines, health care and telecommunications. The Investment Manager retains broad discretion to allocate the Fund’s investments across various sectors and industries. The Fund may invest without limit in securities of non-U.S. companies, which may be non-U.S. dollar denominated, including securities issued by companies domiciled in emerging market countries. Typically, emerging markets are in countries that are in the process of industrialization, with lower gross national products per capita than more developed countries. The Investment Manager may hedge some or all of the Fund’s foreign currency exposure.

The Fund may invest in preferred and debt securities of any maturity or credit rating, including investment grade securities, below investment grade securities and unrated securities. Although not required to do so, the Fund will generally seek to maintain a minimum weighted average senior debt rating of companies in which it invests of BBB-, which the Fund considers to be investment grade. Although a company’s senior debt rating may be BBB-, an underlying security issued by such company in which the Fund invests may have a lower rating than BBB-. If the Fund cannot access a company’s


average senior debt rating, the Fund may look to the rating of the underlying security issued by such company. Below investment grade securities are also known as “high yield” or “junk” securities and are regarded as having more speculative characteristics with respect to the payment of interest and repayment of principal. The Fund may invest a significant portion of its assets in below investment grade securities or securities that are unrated but judged to be below investment grade by the Investment Manager.

The Fund is authorized to purchase, sell or enter into any derivative contract or option on a derivative contract, transaction or instrument, without limitation, including various interest rate transactions such as swaps, caps, floors or collars, and foreign currency transactions such as foreign currency forward contracts, futures contracts, options, swaps and other similar strategic transactions in connection with its investments in securities of non-U.S. companies. The Fund’s primary use of derivative contracts will be to enter into interest rate and currency hedging transactions in order to reduce the interest rate and foreign currency risk inherent in the Fund’s investments.

The Fund is non-diversified and as a result may invest a relatively high percentage of its assets in a limited number of issuers. As a result, changes in the value of a single investment could cause greater fluctuations in the Fund’s share price than would occur in a more diversified fund.

See “Investment Objectives and Policies” and “Principal Risks of the Fund.”

There can be no assurance that the Fund will achieve its investment objectives. See “Investment Objectives and Policies” and “Principal Risks of the Fund.”

Leverage. The Fund currently intends to seek to enhance the level of its distributions and total return through the use of leverage. Under normal market conditions, the Fund will generally utilize leverage in an amount equal to 331/3% of Managed Assets (under the Investment Company Act of 1940, the Fund may borrow in an amount up to 331/3% of its Managed Assets immediately after such borrowing) through borrowings, including loans from certain financial institutions and/or the issuance of debt securities (collectively, “Borrowings”). The Fund also may borrow money as a temporary measure for extraordinary or emergency purposes, including the payment of dividends and the settlement of securities transactions, which otherwise might require untimely dispositions of Fund securities. The Fund may borrow in both U.S. and foreign (non-U.S.) currencies, and may use derivatives and other transactions to manage any interest rate risk or currency exposure associated with its use of leverage. Although the Fund currently does not intend to do so, the Fund also may use leverage through the issuance of preferred shares (“Preferred Shares”) in an aggregate amount of up to 50% of the Fund’s Managed Assets immediately after such issuance. In addition to Borrowings and the issuance of Preferred Shares, the Fund may enter into certain investment management strategies, such as reverse repurchase agreements or derivatives transactions (collectively, “effective leverage”), to achieve leverage. The Fund considers effective leverage to result from any investment strategy which is used to increase gross investment exposure in excess of the Fund’s net asset value. Effective leverage does not include exposure obtained for hedging purposes, from securities lending, or to manage the Fund’s interest rate exposure. The Fund will not enter into any leverage transaction if, immediately after such transaction, the Fund’s total leverage including any Borrowings and Preferred Shares and effective leverage incurred, exceeds 50% of the Fund’s Managed Assets. Although certain derivatives transactions are not treated as leverage for purposes of the limits set forth above, these transactions may be considered a form of economic and may be subject to the risks associated with the use of leverage. See “Use of Leverage” and “Principal Risks of the Fund—Leverage Risk.”

Limited Term. In accordance with the Fund’s Declaration of Trust (the “Declaration of Trust”), the Fund intends to terminate as of the first business day following the twelfth anniversary of the effective date of the Fund’s initial registration statement, which the Fund currently expects to occur on or about


[•], 2032 (the “Dissolution Date”); provided that the Fund’s Board of Trustees (the “Board of Trustees”) may, by a vote of a majority of the Board of Trustees and seventy-five percent (75%) of the Continuing Trustees, as defined later in this prospectus (a “Board Action Vote”), without shareholder approval, extend the Dissolution Date (i) once for up to [one year], and (ii) once for up to an additional [one year], to a date up to and including [two years] after the initial Dissolution Date, which date shall then become the Dissolution Date. On or before the Dissolution Date, the Fund will cease its investment operations, retire or redeem its leverage facilities, liquidate its investment portfolio (to the extent possible) and distribute all its liquidated net assets to common shareholders of record in one or more distributions on or after the Dissolution Date.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Board of Trustees may determine, by a Board Action Vote, to cause the Fund to conduct a tender offer, as of a date within twelve months preceding the Dissolution Date (as may be extended as described above), to all holders of Common Shares (“Common Shareholders”) to purchase 100% of the then outstanding Common Shares of the Fund at a price equal to the net asset value (“NAV”) per Common Share on the expiration date of the tender offer (an “Eligible Tender Offer”). The Board of Trustees has established that the Fund must have at least $[200 million] of net assets immediately following the completion of an Eligible Tender Offer to ensure the continued viability of the Fund (the “Dissolution Threshold”). In an Eligible Tender Offer, the Fund will offer to purchase all Common Shares held by each Common Shareholder; provided that if the number of properly tendered Common Shares would result in the Fund having aggregate net assets below the Dissolution Threshold, the Eligible Tender Offer will be canceled, no Common Shares will be repurchased pursuant to the Eligible Tender Offer, and the Fund will terminate as scheduled. If an Eligible Tender Offer is conducted and the number of properly tendered Common Shares would result in the Fund having aggregate net assets greater than or equal to the Dissolution Threshold, all Common Shares properly tendered and not withdrawn will be purchased by the Fund pursuant to the terms of the Eligible Tender Offer. Following the completion of an Eligible Tender Offer, the Board of Trustees may, by a Board Action Vote, eliminate the Dissolution Date without shareholder approval and cause the Fund to have a perpetual existence.

Depending on a variety of factors, including the performance of the Fund’s investment portfolio over the period of its operations, the amount distributed to common shareholders in connection with the Fund’s termination or paid to participating common shareholders upon completion of an Eligible Tender Offer may be less, and potentially significantly less, than an investor’s original investment. Additionally, given the nature of certain of the Fund’s investments, the amount actually distributed upon the Fund’s termination may be less than the Fund’s net asset value per share on the Termination Date, and the amount actually paid upon completion of an Eligible Tender Offer may be less than the Fund’s initial public offering price per Common Share. See “Principal Risks of the Fund—Limited Term and Tender Offer Risks.”

The Board of Trustees may, to the extent it deems appropriate and without shareholder approval, adopt a plan of liquidation at any time preceding the anticipated Dissolution Date, which plan of liquidation may set forth the terms and conditions for implementing the termination of the existence of the Fund, including the commencement of the winding down of its investment operations and the making of one or more liquidating distributions to Common Shareholders prior to the Dissolution Date.

Distributions. The Fund intends to make monthly cash distributions at a level rate to Common Shareholders. In addition, on an annual basis, we intend to distribute in the last calendar quarter realized net capital gains, if any. Our monthly distributions may include return of capital, which represents a return of a shareholder’s original investment in the Fund. See “Dividends and Distributions.”


Investment Manager. Cohen & Steers Capital Management, Inc., a registered investment advisor located at 280 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10017, was formed in 1986, and its clients include pension plans, endowment funds and investment companies, including open-end and closed-end funds. As of [•], 2020, the Investment Manager managed approximately $[•] billion in assets. The Investment Manager is a wholly owned subsidiary of Cohen & Steers, Inc., a publicly traded company whose common stock is listed on the NYSE under the symbol “CNS.”

This prospectus sets forth concisely the information about the Fund you should know before investing. You should read the prospectus carefully before deciding whether to invest, and should retain it for future reference. A Statement of Additional Information, dated [•], 2020 (the “SAI”), as supplemented from time to time, containing additional information about the Fund, has been filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission and is incorporated by reference in its entirety into this prospectus. You can review the table of contents of the SAI on page 93 of this prospectus. You may request a free copy of the SAI by calling 800-330-7348. You also may call to request the Fund’s annual and semi-annual reports (when available) or other information about the Fund, and to make shareholder inquires. The Fund makes available the SAI and the Fund’s annual and semi-annual reports (when available), free of charge, at www.cohenandsteers.com. You may also obtain the SAI and other information regarding the Fund on the Securities and Exchange Commission website (http://www.sec.gov).

The Fund’s Common Shares do not represent a deposit or obligation of, and are not guaranteed or endorsed by, any bank or other insured depository institution, and are not federally insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the Federal Reserve Board or any other government agency.

Beginning on January 1, 2021, as permitted by regulations adopted by the SEC, paper copies of the Fund’s annual and semi-annual shareholder reports will no longer be sent by mail, unless you specifically request paper copies of the reports. Instead, the reports will be made available on the Fund’s website at www.cohenandsteers.com, and you will be notified by mail each time a report is posted and provided with a website link to access the report.

If you have already elected to receive shareholder reports electronically, you will not be affected by this change and you need not take any action. You may elect to receive shareholder reports and other communications from a Fund electronically anytime by contacting your financial intermediary or, if you are a direct investor, by signing up at www.cohenandsteers.com.

You may elect to receive all future reports in paper free of charge. If you invest through a financial intermediary, you can contact your financial intermediary or, if you are a direct investor, you can call (866) 227-0757 to let the Fund know you wish to continue receiving paper copies of your shareholder reports. Your election to receive reports in paper will apply to all Funds held in your account if you invest through your financial intermediary or all Funds held within the fund complex if you invest directly with the Fund.

 


 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

     1  

SUMMARY OF FUND EXPENSES

     31  

THE FUND

     33  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     33  

INVESTMENT OBJECTIVES AND POLICIES

     33  

USE OF LEVERAGE

     44  

PRINCIPAL RISKS OF THE FUND

     49  

ADDITIONAL RISK CONSIDERATIONS

     64  

HOW THE FUND MANAGES RISK

     68  

MANAGEMENT OF THE FUND

     69  

DIVIDENDS AND DISTRIBUTIONS

     72  

CLOSED-END STRUCTURE

     74  

REPURCHASE OF SHARES

     75  

TAXATION

     75  

DESCRIPTION OF SHARES

     79  

CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF THE DECLARATION OF TRUST AND BY-LAWS

     85  

UNDERWRITERS

     87  

CUSTODIAN, TRANSFER AGENT, DIVIDEND DISBURSING AGENT AND REGISTRAR

     91  

REPORTS TO SHAREHOLDERS

     92  

VALIDITY OF THE COMMON SHARES

     92  

TABLE OF CONTENTS FOR THE STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

     93  

You should rely only on the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. The Fund has not, and the underwriters have not, authorized anyone to provide you with different information. If anyone provides you with inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. The Fund is not, and the underwriters are not, making an offer of these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should not assume that the information contained in this prospectus is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front of this prospectus. The Fund’s business, financial condition, and prospects may have changed since that date.


COHEN & STEERS TAX-ADVANTAGED PREFERRED SECURITIES AND INCOME FUND

 

 

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

This is only a summary. This summary is not complete and may not contain all of the information that you should consider before investing in the Fund’s common shares of beneficial interest (“Common Shares”). You should review carefully the more detailed information contained in this prospectus and in the Statement of Additional Information (the “SAI”), especially the information set forth under the heading “Principal Risks of the Fund” on page 49 of this prospectus.

THE FUND

Cohen & Steers Tax-Advantaged Preferred Securities and Income Fund is a newly organized, non-diversified, closed-end management investment company. Throughout this prospectus, we refer to Cohen & Steers Tax-Advantaged Preferred Securities and Income Fund simply as the “Fund” or as “we,” “us” or “our.” See “The Fund.”

THE OFFERING

The Fund is offering [•] Common Shares through a group of underwriters led by [•]. The underwriters have been granted an option to purchase up to [•] additional Common Shares solely to cover overallotments, if any. See “Underwriters.” The initial public offering price is $[•] per Common Share. You must purchase at least 100 Common Shares ($[•]) in order to participate in this offering. Cohen & Steers Capital Management, Inc. (the “Investment Manager”) has agreed to pay all of the Fund’s organizational expenses and offering costs associated with this offering. The Fund is not obligated to repay any such organizational expenses or offering costs paid by the Investment Manager.

LIMITED TERM AND ELIGIBLE TENDER OFFER

In accordance with the Fund’s Declaration of Trust (the “Declaration of Trust”), the Fund intends to terminate as of the first business day following the twelfth anniversary of the effective date of the Fund’s initial registration statement, which the Fund currently expects to occur on or about [•], 2032 (the “Dissolution Date”); provided that the Fund’s Board of Trustees (the “Board of Trustees”) may, by a vote of a majority of the Board of Trustees and seventy-five percent (75%) of the Continuing Trustees, as defined later in this prospectus (a “Board Action Vote”), without shareholder approval, extend the Dissolution Date (i) once for up to [one year], and (ii) once for up to an additional [one year], to a date up to and including [two years] after the initial Dissolution Date, which date shall then become the Dissolution Date. In determining whether to extend the Dissolution Date, the Board of Trustees may consider the inability to sell the Fund’s assets in a timeframe consistent with dissolution due to lack of market liquidity or other extenuating circumstances. Additionally, the Board of Trustees may determine that market conditions are such that it is reasonable to believe that, with an extension, the Fund’s remaining assets will appreciate and generate income in an amount that, in the aggregate, is meaningful relative to the cost and expense of continuing the operation of the Fund. On or before the Dissolution Date, the Fund will cease its investment operations, retire or redeem its leverage facilities, liquidate its investment portfolio (to the extent possible) and distribute all its liquidated net assets to common shareholders of record in one or more distributions on or after the Dissolution Date.

Beginning one year before the Dissolution Date (the “Wind-Down Period”), the Fund may begin liquidating all or a portion of the Fund’s portfolio, and may deviate from its investment policies and may not achieve its investment objectives. During the Wind-Down Period (or in anticipation of an Eligible Tender Offer, as defined below), the Fund’s portfolio composition may change as more of its

 

1


portfolio holdings are called or sold and portfolio holdings are disposed of in anticipation of liquidation. Rather than reinvesting the proceeds of matured, called or sold securities in accordance with the investment program described below, the Fund may invest such proceeds in short term or other lower yielding securities or hold the proceeds in cash, which may adversely affects the Fund’s performance.

As of a date within twelve months preceding the Dissolution Date, the Board of Trustees may determine, by a Board Action Vote, to cause the Fund to conduct a tender offer to all holders of Common Shares (“Common Shareholders”) to purchase 100% of the then outstanding Common Shares of the Fund at a price equal to the net asset value (“NAV”) per Common Share on the expiration date of the tender offer (an “Eligible Tender Offer”). The Board of Trustees has established that the Fund must have at least $[200 million] of net assets immediately following the completion of an Eligible Tender Offer to ensure the continued viability of the Fund (the “Dissolution Threshold”). In an Eligible Tender Offer, the Fund will offer to purchase all Common Shares held by each Common Shareholder; provided that if the number of properly tendered Common Shares would result in the Fund having aggregate net assets below the Dissolution Threshold, the Eligible Tender Offer will be canceled, and no Common Shares will be repurchased pursuant to the Eligible Tender Offer. Instead, the Fund will begin (or continue) liquidating its portfolio and proceed to terminate as scheduled on or about the Dissolution Date. The Eligible Tender Offer would be made, and Common Shareholders would be notified thereof, in accordance with the requirements of the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”), the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”) and the applicable tender offer rules thereunder (including Rule 13e-4 and Regulation 14E under the Exchange Act). If the number of properly tendered Common Shares would result in the Fund having aggregate net assets greater than or equal to the Dissolution Threshold, all Common Shares properly tendered and not withdrawn will be purchased by the Fund pursuant to the terms of the Eligible Tender Offer. The Fund’s purchase of tendered Common Shares pursuant to a tender offer will have tax consequences for tendering Common Shareholders and may have tax consequences for non-tendering Common Shareholders. In addition, the Fund would continue to be subject to its obligations with respect to its issued and outstanding borrowings, preferred stock or debt securities, if any. Regardless of whether the Eligible Tender Offer is completed or canceled, the Investment Manager will pay all costs and expenses associated with the making of an Eligible Tender Offer, other than brokerage and related transaction costs associated with the disposition of portfolio investments in connection with the Eligible Tender Offer, which will be borne by the Fund and its Common Shareholders.

Following the completion of an Eligible Tender Offer, the Board of Trustees may, by a Board Action Vote, eliminate the Dissolution Date without shareholder approval and cause the Fund to have a perpetual existence. In determining whether to eliminate the Dissolution Date, the Board of Trustees may consider market conditions at such time and all other factors deemed relevant by the Board of Trustees in consultation with the Investment Manager, taking into account that the Investment Manager may have a potential conflict of interest in recommending to the Board of Trustees that the limited term structure be eliminated and the Fund have a perpetual existence. In making a decision to eliminate the Dissolution Date to provide for the Fund’s perpetual existence, the Board of Trustees will take such actions with respect to the continued operations of the Fund as it deems to be in the best interests of the Fund. The Fund is not required to conduct additional tender offers following an Eligible Tender Offer and conversion to a perpetual structure. Therefore, remaining Common Shareholders may not have another opportunity to participate in a tender offer or exchange their Common Shares for the then-existing NAV per Common Share.

 

2


All Common Shareholders remaining after a tender offer will be subject to proportionately higher expenses due to the reduction in the Fund’s total assets resulting from payment for the tendered Common Shares. A reduction in net assets, and the corresponding increase in the Fund’s expense ratio, could result in lower returns and put the Fund at a disadvantage relative to its peers and potentially cause the Fund’s Common Shares to trade at a wider discount to NAV than it otherwise would. Such reduction in the Fund’s total assets may also result in less investment flexibility, reduced diversification and greater volatility for the Fund, and may have an adverse effect on the Fund’s investment performance. Moreover, the resulting reduction in the number of outstanding Common Shares could cause the Common Shares to become more thinly traded or otherwise adversely impact the secondary market trading of such Common Shares.

Depending on a variety of factors, including the performance of the Fund’s investment portfolio over the period of its operations, the amount distributed to common shareholders in connection with the Fund’s termination or paid to participating common shareholders upon completion of an Eligible Tender Offer may be less, and potentially significantly less, than an investor’s original investment. Additionally, given the nature of certain of the Fund’s investments, the amount actually distributed upon the Fund’s termination may be less than the Fund’s net asset value per share on the Termination Date, and the amount actually paid upon completion of an Eligible Tender Offer may be less than the Fund’s initial public offering price per Common Share. See “Principal Risks of the Fund—Limited Term and Tender Offer Risks.”

The Board of Trustees may, to the extent it deems appropriate and without shareholder approval, adopt a plan of liquidation at any time preceding the anticipated Dissolution Date, which plan of liquidation may set forth the terms and conditions for implementing the termination of the existence of the Fund, including the commencement of the winding down of its investment operations and the making of one or more liquidating distributions to Common Shareholders prior to the Dissolution Date. See “Principal Risks of the Fund—Limited Term and Tender Offer Risks.”

INVESTMENT OBJECTIVES AND POLICIES

The Fund’s primary investment objective is high current income. The Fund’s secondary investment objective is capital appreciation. In pursuing its investment objectives, the Fund seeks to achieve favorable after-tax returns for its shareholders by seeking to minimize the U.S. federal income tax consequences on income generated by the Fund. There can be no assurance that the Fund will achieve its investment objectives. Unless otherwise indicated in this prospectus or the SAI, the Fund’s investment objectives and investment policies are considered non-fundamental and may be changed by the Fund’s Board of Trustees without shareholder approval. However, the Fund’s investment objectives and its policy of investing at least 80% of its Managed Assets (defined below) in preferred and other income securities may only be changed upon 60 days’ prior written notice to the Fund’s shareholders. See “Investment Objectives and Policies.”

Under normal market conditions, the Fund invests at least 80% of its Managed Assets in a portfolio of preferred and other income securities issued by U.S. and non-U.S. companies, which may be either exchange-traded or available OTC. Such securities include traditional preferred securities; hybrid-preferred securities that have investment and economic characteristics of both preferred stock and debt securities; floating-rate and fixed-to-floating-rate preferred securities; fixed- and floating-rate corporate debt securities; convertible securities; contingent capital securities (“CoCos”); and securities of other closed-end, open-end or exchange-traded funds (“ETFs”) that invest primarily in preferred and/or debt securities as described herein. To the extent the Fund invests in securities of other closed-end, open-end, or ETFs, the Fund will consider the investments of these funds, to the extent known by the

 

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Fund, in determining compliance with this policy. The Fund may also invest in restricted securities including securities that are only eligible for resale pursuant to Rule 144A under the Securities Act of 1933 (the “Securities Act”) (referred to as Rule 144A Securities) and securities of U.S. and non-U.S. issuers that are issued through private offerings without registration with the SEC pursuant to Regulation S under the Securities Act. “Managed Assets” are the Fund’s net assets, plus the principal amount of loans from financial institutions or debt securities issued by the Fund, the liquidation preference of preferred shares issued by the Fund, if any, and the proceeds of any reverse repurchase agreements entered into by the Fund (“Reverse Repurchase Agreements”).

The Fund also will invest 25% or more of its total assets in the financials sector, which is comprised of the banking, diversified financials, real estate (including real estate investment trusts (“REITs”)) and insurance industries. From time to time, the Fund may have 25% or more of its total assets invested in any one or more of these industries that make up the financials sector. In addition, the Fund also may focus its investments in other sectors or industries, such as (but not limited to) energy, industrials, utilities, pipelines, health care and telecommunications. The Investment Manager retains broad discretion to allocate the Fund’s investments across various sectors and industries. The Fund may invest without limit in securities of non-U.S. companies, which may be non-U.S. dollar denominated, including securities issued by companies domiciled in emerging market countries. Typically, emerging markets are in countries that are in the process of industrialization, with lower gross national products per capita than more developed countries. The Investment Manager may hedge some or all of the Fund’s foreign currency exposure.

The Fund may invest in preferred and debt securities of any maturity or credit rating, including investment grade securities, below investment grade securities and unrated securities. Although not required to do so, the Fund will generally seek to maintain a minimum weighted average senior debt rating of companies in which it invests of BBB-, which the Fund considers to be investment grade. Although a company’s senior debt rating may be BBB-, an underlying security issued by such company in which the Fund invests may have a lower rating than BBB-. If the Fund cannot access a company’s average senior debt rating, the Fund may look to the rating of the underlying security issued by such company. Below investment grade securities are also known as “high yield” or “junk” securities and are regarded as having more speculative characteristics with respect to the payment of interest and repayment of principal. The Fund may invest a significant portion of its assets in below investment grade securities or securities that are unrated but judged to be below investment grade by the Investment Manager.

The Fund is authorized to purchase, sell or enter into any derivative contract or option on a derivative contract, transaction or instrument, without limitation, including various interest rate transactions such as swaps, caps, floors or collars, and foreign currency transactions such as foreign currency forward contracts, futures contracts, options, swaps and other similar strategic transactions in connection with its investments in securities of non-U.S. companies. The Fund’s primary use of derivative contracts will be to enter into interest rate and currency hedging transactions in order to reduce the interest rate and foreign currency risk inherent in the Fund’s investments.

The Fund is non-diversified and as a result may invest a relatively high percentage of its assets in a limited number of issuers. As a result, changes in the value of a single investment could cause greater fluctuations in the Fund’s share price than would occur in a more diversified fund.

See “Investment Objectives and Policies” and “Principal Risks of the Fund” below.

 

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INVESTMENT PORTFOLIO

The Fund pursues its investment objectives primarily by investing in issues of preferred and other income securities the Investment Manager believes to be undervalued relative to credit quality and other investment characteristics. In making this determination, the Investment Manager evaluates the fundamental characteristics of an issuer, including, among other characteristics, an issuer’s creditworthiness, and also takes into account prevailing market factors. In analyzing credit quality, the Investment Manager considers not only fundamental analysis but also an issuer’s corporate and capital structure and the placement of the preferred or income securities within that structure. The Investment Manager may rely primarily on its own analysis of the credit quality and risks associated with individual securities considered for the Fund, rather than relying exclusively on NRSROs or third-party research. This aspect of the Investment Manager’s capabilities will be particularly important to the extent that the Fund invests in below investment grade or unrated securities and in securities of non-U.S. issuers. In evaluating relative value, the Investment Manager also takes into account call, conversion and other structural security features, in addition to such factors as the likely directions of credit ratings and relative value versus other income security classes.

Under normal market conditions, the Fund invests at least 80% of its Managed Assets in a portfolio of preferred and other income securities issued by U.S. and non-U.S. companies, which may be either exchange-traded or available OTC. Such securities may include:

 

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Traditional preferred securities;

 

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Hybrid-preferred securities that have investment and economic characteristics of both preferred stock and debt securities;

 

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Floating-rate and fixed-to-floating-rate preferred securities;

 

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Fixed- and floating-rate corporate debt securities;

 

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CoCos;

 

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Convertible securities; and

 

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Securities of other closed-end funds, open-end funds, or ETFs that invest primarily in preferred and/or income securities as described herein.

These securities may be across a wide range of sectors, industries and countries. The Fund may also invest in common stocks, government securities, mortgage- and asset-backed securities and municipal securities; however, under normal circumstances the Fund will not invest more than [10]% of its Managed Assets in mortgage-backed, mortgage-related and other asset-backed securities. These securities are not included within the Fund’s 80% investment policy.

On an overall basis, the Fund seeks to implement an investment strategy designed to minimize the U.S. federal income tax consequences on income generated by the Fund. The Fund seeks to accomplish this primarily by (i) investing in dividend-paying securities that are eligible to pay dividends that qualify for U.S. federal income taxation at rates applicable to long-term capital gain (“tax-advantaged dividends”), and complying with the holding period and other requirements for such favorable tax treatment; and (ii) offsetting any ordinary income and realized short-term capital gain against Fund expenses and realized short-term loss.

 

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PRIMARY INVESTMENT STRATEGIES AND TECHNIQUES

Preferred Securities. There are two basic types of preferred securities, traditional preferred securities and hybrid-preferred securities. Traditional preferred securities are perpetual and equity-like in nature. They may be issued by an entity taxable as a corporation and pay fixed or floating rate dividends. “Preference” means that a company must pay dividends on its preferred securities before paying any dividends on its common stock, and the claims of preferred securities holders are ahead of common stockholders’ claims on assets in a corporate liquidation or bankruptcy. However, these claims are subordinated to more senior creditors, including senior debt holders. Holders of preferred securities usually have no right to vote for corporate directors or on other matters. Preferred securities share many investment characteristics with both common stock and bonds; therefore, the risks and potential rewards of investing in the Fund may at times be similar to the risks of investing in both equity funds and bond funds.

Hybrid-preferred securities are debt instruments that have characteristics similar to those of traditional preferred securities. Hybrid preferred securities may be issued by corporations, generally in the form of interest-bearing notes with preferred securities characteristics, or by an affiliated trustor partnership of the corporation, generally in the form of preferred interests in subordinated debentures or similarly structured securities. The hybrid-preferred securities market consists of both fixed and adjustable coupon rate securities that are either perpetual in nature or have stated maturity dates. Hybrid preferred holders generally have claims to assets in a corporate liquidation that are senior to those of traditional preferred securities but subordinate to those of senior debt holders. Certain subordinated debt and senior debt issues that have preferred characteristics are also considered to be part of the broader preferred securities market.

The Fund intends to invest in both OTC and exchange-traded preferred securities. OTC issues are often referred to in the industry as “capital securities.”

Floating rate preferred securities provide for a periodic adjustment in the interest rate paid on the securities. The terms of such securities provide that interest rates are adjusted periodically based upon an interest rate adjustment index. The adjustment intervals may be regular, and range from daily up to annually, or may be event-based, such as a change in the short-term interest rate. Because of the interest rate reset feature, floating rate securities provide the Fund with a certain degree of protection against rising interest rates, although the interest rates of floating rate securities will participate in any declines in interest rates as well.

Debt Securities. Debt securities in which the Fund may invest include fixed- and floating-rate corporate debt securities issued by U.S. and non-U.S. corporations, including U.S. dollar denominated debt obligations issued or guaranteed by U.S. corporations, U.S. dollar-denominated obligations of foreign issuers and debt obligations denominated in foreign currencies. Such debt obligations include, among others, bonds, notes, debentures and variable rate demand notes, with the primary difference being their maturities and secured or unsecured status. Such corporate debt securities are fixed- or floating-rate securities issued by businesses to finance their operations. The issuer pays the investor a fixed or variable rate of interest and normally must repay the amount borrowed on or before maturity.

Convertible Securities. Convertible securities are hybrid securities that combine the investment characteristics of bonds and common stocks. Convertible securities typically consist of debt or perpetual preferred securities that may be converted within a specified period of time into a certain amount of common stock or other equity security of the same or a different issuer at a predetermined price. In some cases, conversion may be mandatory. They also include debt securities with warrants or common stock attached and hybrid and synthetic securities combining the features of debt securities

 

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and equity securities. Convertible securities entitle the holder to receive interest paid or accrued on debt, or dividends paid or accrued on preferred stock, until the security matures or is redeemed, converted or exchanged.

Contingent Capital Securities. The Fund may invest up to [20%] of its Managed Assets in CoCos. CoCos are debt or preferred securities with loss absorption characteristics that provide for an automatic write-down of the principal amount or value of securities or the mandatory conversion into common shares of the issuer under certain circumstances. A mandatory conversion might be automatically triggered, for instance, if a company fails to meet the capital minimum described in the security, the company’s regulator makes a determination that the security should convert, or the company receives specified levels of extraordinary public support. Since the common stock of the issuer may not pay a dividend, investors in these instruments could experience a reduced income rate, potentially to zero, and conversion would deepen the subordination of the investor (worsening the Fund’s standing in a bankruptcy). In addition, some CoCos provide for an automatic write-down of capital under such circumstances.

In one version of a CoCo, the security has loss absorption characteristics whereby the liquidation value of the security may be adjusted downward to below the original par value (even to zero) under certain circumstances. The write down of the par value would occur automatically and would not entitle the holders to seek bankruptcy of the company. In addition, an automatic write-down could result in a reduced income rate if the dividend or interest payment is based on the security’s par value. Such securities may, but are not required to, provide for circumstances under which the liquidation value may be adjusted back up to par, such as an improvement in capitalization and/or earnings.

Another version of a CoCo provides for mandatory conversion of the security into common shares of the issuer under certain circumstances. Since the common stock of the issuer may not pay a dividend, investors in these instruments could experience a reduced income rate, potentially to zero; and conversion would deepen the subordination of the investor, hence worsening standing in a bankruptcy. In addition, some such instruments have a set stock conversion rate that would cause an automatic write-down if the price of the common stock is below the conversion price on the conversion date.

An automatic write-down or conversion event is typically triggered by a reduction in the capital level of the issuer, but may also be triggered by regulatory actions (e.g., a change in capital requirements) or by other factors.

Concentration in Financials Sector. The Fund will invest 25% or more of its total assets in the financials sector, which is comprised of the banking, diversified financials, real estate (including REITs) and insurance industries. From time to time, the Fund may have 25% or more of its total assets invested in any one or more of these industries that make up the financials sector. In addition, the Fund also may focus its investments in other sectors or industries, such as (but not limited to) energy, industrials, utilities, pipelines, health care and telecommunications. The Investment Manager retains broad discretion to allocate the Fund’s investments across various sectors and industries.

Investment Grade and Below Investment Grade Securities. The Fund may invest in debt securities of any maturity or credit rating, including investment grade securities, below investment grade securities and unrated securities. Although not required to do so, the Fund will generally seek to maintain a minimum weighted average senior debt rating of companies in which it invests of BBB-, which the Fund considers to be investment grade. Although a company’s senior debt rating may be BBB-, an underlying security issued by such company in which the Fund invests may have a lower rating than BBB-. If the Fund cannot access a company’s average senior debt rating, the Fund may look to the rating of the underlying security issued by such company. The determination of whether a security is

 

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deemed investment grade or below investment grade will be determined at the time of investment. A security will be considered to be investment grade if it is rated as such by one nationally recognized statistical rating organization (“NRSRO”) (for example minimum Baa3 or BBB- by Moody’s or S&P, respectively) or, if unrated, is judged to be investment grade by the Investment Manager. Below investment grade quality securities or securities that are unrated but judged to be below investment grade by the Investment Manager, are commonly referred to as “high yield” or “junk” securities and are regarded as having more speculative characteristics with respect to the payment of interest and repayment of principal.

Foreign (Non-U.S.) Securities and Depositary Receipts. The Fund may invest without limit in securities of non-U.S. companies, including [15]% in securities of companies domiciled in emerging markets. Many foreign companies issue both foreign currency and U.S. dollar-denominated preferred and debt securities. Those securities that are traded in the United States have characteristics that are similar to traditional and hybrid preferred securities. The Fund may also invest in securities of foreign companies in the form of American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”), Global Depositary Receipts (“GDRs”) and European Depositary Receipts (“EDRs”). Generally, ADRs in registered form are dollar-denominated securities designed for use in the U.S. securities markets, which represent and may be converted into an underlying foreign security. GDRs, in bearer form, are designed for use outside the United States. EDRs, in bearer form, are designed for use in the European securities markets. The Fund may invest in foreign issuers in both developed and emerging markets.

Derivatives. The Fund is authorized to purchase, sell or enter into any derivative contract or option on a derivative contract, transaction or instrument including, without limitation, various interest rate transactions such as swaps, caps, floors or collars, and foreign currency transactions, such as foreign currency forward contracts, futures contracts, options, swaps and other similar transactions in connection with its investments in securities of non-U.S. companies. The Fund’s primary use of derivative contracts will be to enter into interest rate hedging transactions in order to reduce the interest rate risk inherent in the Fund’s investments, and foreign currency hedging transactions in order to reduce foreign currency exchange rate risks from adverse changes in the relationship between the U.S. dollar and foreign currencies (including to hedge against anticipated future changes which otherwise might adversely affect the prices of securities that the Fund intends to purchase at a later date). Derivative instruments, or “derivatives,” include instruments and contracts which are derived from and are valued in relation to one or more underlying interest rates, currencies, securities, financial benchmarks or indexes and include, without limitation, swap agreements (including credit default swaps), futures contracts, forward contracts, options on futures or forward contracts, and listed or OTC put or call options on, or linked to the value of, any security, index or basket of securities, commodity or index or basket of commodities or other reference asset. Derivatives typically allow an investor to hedge or speculate upon the price movements of a particular interest rate, currency, security, financial benchmark or index at a fraction of the cost of acquiring or borrowing the underlying asset. The value of a derivative depends largely upon price movements in the underlying asset.

An interest rate swap involves the exchange of cash flows based on interest rate specifications and a specified principal amount, often a fixed payment for a floating payment that is linked to an interest rate. In an interest rate cap, one party receives payments at the end of each period in which a specified interest rate on a specified principal amount exceeds an agreed rate; conversely, in an interest rate floor one party may receive payments if a specified interest rate on a specified principal amount falls below an agreed rate. Interest rate collars involve selling a cap and purchasing a floor, or vice versa, to protect a fund against interest rate movements exceeding given minimum or maximum levels.

 

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A foreign currency forward contract is an obligation to purchase or sell a specific currency for an agreed price on a future date which is individually negotiated and privately traded by currency traders and their customers. A foreign currency futures contract is an exchange-traded contract for the purchase or sale of a specified foreign currency at a specified price at a future date. A foreign currency swap is an agreement between two parties to exchange principal and interest payments on a loan made in one currency for principal and interest payments of a loan of equal value in another currency. The Fund may enter into a foreign currency forward contract, foreign currency futures contract or foreign currency swap, or purchase a currency option, for example, when it enters into a contract for the purchase or sale of a security denominated in a foreign currency or expects to receive a dividend or interest payment on a portfolio holding, in order to “lock in” the U.S. dollar value of the security or payment. In addition, the Fund may enter into a foreign currency forward contract, futures contract or swap or purchase a currency option in respect of a currency which acts as a proxy for a currency in which the Fund’s portfolio holdings or anticipated holdings are denominated. This second investment practice is generally referred to as “cross-hedging.” The Fund may also conduct its foreign currency exchange transactions on a spot (i.e., cash) basis at the spot rate prevailing in the foreign currency exchange market.

The Fund’s transactions in foreign currencies may increase or accelerate the Fund’s recognition of ordinary income and may affect the timing or character of the Fund’s distributions. To the extent any derivatives would be deemed to be illiquid, they will be included in the Fund’s maximum limitation of [25]% of net assets invested in illiquid securities.

Rule 144A Securities. Certain securities in which the Fund may invest are Rule 144A Securities. Rule 144A Securities are considered restricted securities because they are not registered for sale to the general public and may only be resold to certain qualified institutional buyers.

Regulation S Securities. The Fund may invest in the securities of U.S. and non-U.S. issuers that are issued through private offerings without registration with the SEC pursuant to Regulation S under the Securities Act. Offerings of Regulation S securities may be conducted outside of the United States. Because Regulation S securities are subject to legal or contractual restrictions on resale, certain Regulation S securities may be considered illiquid.

Short Sales. The Fund may enter into short sales, provided the dollar amount of short sales at any time would not exceed [25]% of the Managed Assets of the Fund. The Fund must designate collateral consisting of cash or liquid portfolio securities with a value equal to the current market value of the shorted securities, which is marked-to-market daily. If the Fund owns an equal amount of such securities or securities convertible into or exchangeable for, without payment of any further consideration, securities of the same issuer as, and equal in amount to, the securities sold short (which sales are commonly referred to as short sales against the box), the above requirements are not applicable.

Other Investment Companies. The Fund may invest in securities of other investment companies, including open-end funds, closed-end funds or ETFs, that invest primarily in preferred and/or debt securities as described herein, to the extent permitted under Section 12(d)(1) of the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”), and the rules promulgated thereunder, or any exemption granted to the Fund under the 1940 Act. The Fund also may invest in other funds either during periods when it has large amounts of uninvested cash, such as the period shortly after the Fund receives the proceeds of the offering of its Common Shares, or during periods when there is a shortage of attractive opportunities in the market. An investment in the shares of another fund is subject to the risks associated with that fund’s portfolio securities. To the extent the Fund invests in shares of another

 

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fund, Common Shareholders would indirectly pay a portion of that fund’s expenses, including advisory fees, brokerage and distribution expenses. These fees and expenses are in addition to the direct expenses of the Fund’s own operations. Common Shareholders would therefore be subject to duplicative expenses to the extent the Fund invests in other funds. The securities of other funds may also be leveraged and will therefore be subject to similar leverage risks to which the Fund is subject. As described in the sections entitled “Use of Leverage” and “Use of Leverage—Leverage Risk,” the NAV and market value of leveraged shares will be more volatile and the yield to shareholders will tend to fluctuate more than the yield generated by unleveraged shares. Other funds may have investment policies that differ from those of the Fund. In addition, to the extent the Fund invests in other funds, the Fund will be dependent upon the investment and research abilities of persons other than the Investment Manager.

ADDITIONAL INVESTMENT STRATEGIES AND TECHNIQUES

Common Stock. The Fund may invest up to [20]% of its Managed Assets in common stocks, which represent residual ownership interest in issuers and include rights or warrants to purchase common stocks. Holders of common stocks are entitled to the income and increase in the value of the assets and business of the issuers after all debt obligations and obligations to preferred shareholders are satisfied. Common stocks generally have voting rights. Common stocks fluctuate in price in response to many factors including historical and prospective earnings of the issuer, the value of its assets, general economic conditions, interest rates, investor perceptions and market liquidity. The value of equity securities purchased by the Fund could decline if the financial condition of the companies the Fund invests in declines or if overall market and economic conditions deteriorate. The value of such securities also may decline due to factors that affect a particular industry or industries, such as labor shortages or an increase in production costs and competitive conditions within an industry. In addition, their value may decline due to general market conditions that are not specifically related to a company or industry, such as real or perceived adverse economic conditions, changes in the general outlook for corporate earnings, changes in interest or currency rates or generally adverse investor sentiment.

Government Securities. The Fund may invest up to [20]% of its Managed Assets in government debt securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government or its agencies or instrumentalities or by a non-U.S. government or its agencies or instrumentalities. Obligations issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government, its agencies and instrumentalities include bills, notes and bonds issued by the U.S. Treasury, as well as “stripped” or “zero coupon” U.S. Treasury obligations representing future interest or principal payments on U.S. Treasury notes or bonds. Stripped securities are sold at a discount to their “face value,” and may exhibit greater price volatility than interest-bearing securities because investors receive no payment until maturity. Other obligations of certain agencies and instrumentalities of the U.S. government are supported only by the credit of the instrumentality. The U.S. government may choose not to provide financial support to U.S. government-sponsored agencies or instrumentalities if it is not legally obligated to do so, in which case, if the issuer were to default, the Fund might not be able to recover its investment form the U.S. government.

Municipal Securities. The Fund may invest up to [20]% of its Managed Assets in municipal securities, which includes debt obligations of states, territories or possessions of the United States and the District of Columbia and their political subdivisions, agencies and instrumentalities. Municipal securities are issued to obtain funds for various public purposes, including the construction of a wide range of public facilities such as airports, bridges, highways, housing, hospitals, mass transportation, schools, streets and water and sewer works. Other public purposes for which municipal securities may be issued include the refunding of outstanding obligations, obtaining funds for general operating expenses and lending such funds to other public institutions and facilities.

 

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The two major classifications of municipal securities are bonds and notes. Bonds may be further classified as “general obligation” or “revenue” issues. General obligation bonds are secured by the issuer’s pledge of its full faith, credit and taxing power for the payment of principal and interest. Revenue bonds are payable from the revenues derived from a particular facility or class of facilities, and in some cases, from the proceeds of a special excise or other specific revenue source, but not from the general taxing power. Most notes are general obligations of the issuing municipalities or agencies and are sold in anticipation of a bond sale, collection of taxes or receipt of other revenues. There are, of course, variations in the risks associated with municipal securities, both within a particular classification and between classifications. Although issued by governments and their agencies and instrumentalities, municipal securities are subject to default risk. The Fund does not anticipate meeting the requirements under the Code to pass through income from municipal securities as tax free to shareholders.

Investments in municipal securities may be affected significantly by economic, regulatory or political developments affecting the ability of an issuer to pay interest or repay principal. Certain issuers have experienced serious financial difficulties in the past and a reoccurrence of these difficulties may impair the ability of certain issuers to pay principal or interest on their obligations.

New Issues and Follow-On Offerings. In addition to purchasing securities in the secondary market, the Fund intends to seek investment opportunities in new issues and follow-on or secondary offerings of preferred securities, including such opportunities in, among other things, U.S. and/or foreign (non-U.S.) markets, restricted securities (including securities eligible for purchase and sale pursuant to Rule 144A or Regulation S under the Securities Act and OTC transactions. The Investment Manager, as an institutional investor, may have access to new issues and secondary offerings that may not be fully available to retail investors. By investing in such offerings, the Investment Manager may be able to secure favorable terms for the Fund, such as attractive pricing relative to other securities available in the secondary market. The Investment Manager has developed relationships with issuers and underwriters that it believes could afford the Fund competitive advantages in evaluating and managing these investment opportunities in preferred securities.

Illiquid Securities. The Fund may invest up to [25]% of its Managed Assets in investments that may be illiquid (i.e., securities that may be difficult to sell at a desirable time or price). The Investment Manager will be responsible for the day-to-day determination of the illiquidity of any security held by the Fund. The Investment Manager will consider factors such as (i) the nature of the market for a security (including the institutional private resale market; the frequency of trades and quotes for the security; the number of dealers willing to purchase or sell the security; the amount of time normally needed to dispose of the security; and the method of soliciting offers and the mechanics of transfer), (ii) the terms of certain securities or other instruments allowing for the disposition to a third party or the issuer thereof (e.g., certain repurchase obligations and demand instruments) and (iii) other permissible relevant factors.

Temporary Defensive Positions. For temporary defensive purposes or to keep cash on hand fully invested, and following the offering of the Common Shares pending investment in securities that meet the Fund’s investment objectives, the Fund may invest up to 100% of its total assets in cash, cash equivalents, government securities and short-term fixed-income securities. When and to the extent the Fund assumes a temporary defensive position, the Fund may not pursue or achieve its investment objectives.

Mortgage- and Asset-Backed Securities. Under normal circumstances the Fund will not invest more than [10]% of its Managed Assets in mortgage-backed, mortgage-related and other asset-backed securities.

 

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Mortgage-related securities include mortgage pass-through securities, collateralized mortgage obligations (“CMOs”), commercial mortgage-backed securities (“CMBSs”), mortgage dollar rolls, CMO residuals, stripped mortgage-backed securities (“SMBSs”) and other securities that directly or indirectly represent a participation in or are secured by and payable from mortgage loans on real property. These securities may be issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government or one of its sponsored entities or may be issued by private organizations. One type of SMBS has one class receiving all of the interest from the mortgage assets (the interest-only, or IO class), while the other class will receive the entire principal (the principal only, or PO class). The yield to maturity on an IO class is extremely sensitive to the rate of principal payments (including prepayments) on the underlying mortgage assets, and a rapid rate of principal payments may have a material adverse effect on the Fund’s yield to maturity from these securities.

Other asset-backed securities may be structured like mortgage-backed securities, but instead of mortgage loans or interests in mortgage loans, the underlying assets may include such items as motor vehicle installment sales or installment loan contracts, leases of various types of real and personal property, and receivables from credit card agreements and from sales of personal property. Regular payments received in respect of such securities include both interest and principal. Asset-backed securities typically have no U.S. Government backing. Additionally, the ability of an issuer of asset-backed securities to enforce its security interest in the underlying assets may be limited.

There can be no assurance that the Fund’s investment objectives will be achieved. For additional information about the Fund’s portfolio composition, see “Investment Objectives and Policies.”

USE OF LEVERAGE

The Fund currently intends to seek to enhance the level of its distributions and total return through the use of leverage. Under normal market conditions, the Fund will generally utilize leverage in an amount equal to 331/3% of Managed Assets (under the Investment Company Act of 1940, the Fund may borrow in an amount up to 331/3% of its Managed Assets immediately after such borrowing) through borrowings, including loans from certain financial institutions and/or the issuance of debt securities (collectively, “Borrowings”). The Fund also may borrow money as a temporary measure for extraordinary or emergency purposes, including the payment of dividends and the settlement of securities transactions, which otherwise might require untimely dispositions of Fund securities. The Fund may borrow in both U.S. and foreign (non-U.S.) currencies, and may use derivatives and other transactions to manage any interest rate risk or currency exposure associated with its use of leverage. Borrowing in non-U.S. currencies will expose the Fund to foreign currency risk. The Investment Manager may, but is not required to, engage in forward currency contracts, short sales or other transactions to hedge some or all of the Fund’s foreign currency exposure. Although the Fund currently does not intend to do so, the Fund also may use leverage through the issuance of preferred shares (“Preferred Shares”) in an aggregate amount of up to 50% of the Fund’s Managed Assets immediately after such issuance. In addition to Borrowings and the issuance of Preferred Shares, the Fund may enter into certain investment management strategies, such as Reverse Repurchase Agreements or derivatives transactions (collectively, “effective leverage”), to achieve leverage.

The Fund considers effective leverage to result from any investment strategy which is used to increase gross investment exposure in excess of the Fund’s net asset value. Effective leverage does not include exposure obtained for hedging purposes, from securities lending, or to manage the Fund’s interest rate exposure. The Fund will not enter into any leverage transaction if, immediately after such transaction, the Fund’s total leverage including any Borrowings and Preferred Shares and effective leverage incurred exceeds 50% of the Fund’s Managed Assets. In accordance with the 1940 Act and related guidance, it is

 

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possible that after entering into a leveraging transaction, the assets of the Fund decline due to market conditions such that this 50% limit will be exceeded. In that case, the leverage risk to Common Shareholders will increase. The Fund does not currently anticipate issuing any Preferred Shares and/or debt securities other than Borrowings.

There is no assurance that the Fund will utilize leverage or, if leverage is utilized, that it will be successful in enhancing the level of its cash distributions or total return. The NAV of the Common Shares may be reduced by the issuance or incurrence costs of any leverage. Through leveraging, the Fund will seek to obtain a higher return for Common Shareholders than if the Fund did not utilize leverage. Leverage is a speculative technique and there are special risks and costs associated with leverage. There can be no assurance that a leveraging strategy will be successful during any period in which it is employed. When leverage is used, the NAV and market price of the Common Shares and the yield to Common Shareholders will be more volatile. In addition, because the fees received by the Investment Manager are based on the Managed Assets of the Fund (including the liquidation preference of Preferred Shares, if any, the principal amount of outstanding Borrowings and the proceeds of any Reverse Repurchase Agreements), the Investment Manager has a financial incentive for the Fund to use certain forms of leverage (e.g., Borrowings, Preferred Shares and Reverse Repurchase Agreements), which may create a conflict of interest between the Investment Manager, on the one hand, and the Common Shareholders, on the other hand. See “Use of Leverage—Leverage Risk”.

In order to seek to reduce interest rate risk if the Fund engages in leverage through Borrowings, the Fund may enter into interest rate swap or cap transactions as to all or a portion of Fund leverage. The use of interest rate swaps and caps is a highly specialized activity that involves investment techniques and risks different from those associated with ordinary portfolio security transactions. In an interest rate swap, the Fund would agree to pay to the other party to the interest rate swap (which is known as the “counterparty”) a fixed rate payment in exchange for the counterparty agreeing to pay to the Fund a variable rate payment that is intended to approximate the Fund’s variable rate payment obligation on leverage. See “Use of Leverage—Interest Rate Transactions.”

So long as the Fund is able to realize a higher net return on its investment portfolio than the then-current cost of any leverage together with other related expenses, the effect of the leverage will be to cause Common Shareholders to realize higher current net investment income than if the Fund were not so leveraged. On the other hand, to the extent that the then current cost of any leverage, together with other related expenses, approaches the net return on the Fund’s investment portfolio, the benefit of leverage to Common Shareholders will be reduced, and if the then-current cost of any leverage were to exceed the net return on the Fund’s portfolio, the Fund’s leveraged capital structure would result in a lower rate of return to Common Shareholders than if the Fund were not so leveraged. The use by the Fund of leverage through Reverse Repurchase Agreements involves additional risks, including the risk that the market value of the securities that the Fund is obligated to repurchase may decline below the repurchase price, the risk that the Fund will be required to sell securities at inopportune times or prices in order to repay leverage and the risk that the counterparty may be unable to return the securities to the Fund. See “Use of Leverage—Leverage Risk.”

INVESTMENT MANAGER

Cohen & Steers Capital Management, Inc. is the investment manager of the Fund pursuant to an investment management agreement (the “Investment Management Agreement”). The Investment Manager was formed in 1986, and as of [•], 2020 had $[•] billion in assets under management. Its clients include pension plans, endowment funds and registered investment companies, including some of the largest open-end and closed-end real estate funds. The Investment Manager is a wholly owned

 

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subsidiary of Cohen & Steers, Inc., a publicly traded company whose common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) under the symbol “CNS.” The Investment Manager will be responsible for the management of the Fund’s portfolio. See “Management of the Fund—Investment Management Agreement.” The Investment Manager will have responsibility for providing administrative services and assisting the Fund with operational needs pursuant to an administration agreement (the “Administration Agreement”). The Fund also has entered into an agreement with [•] to perform certain administrative functions subject to the supervision of the Investment Manager. See “Management of the Fund—Administration and Co-Administration Agreement.”

FEES AND EXPENSES

The Fund will pay the Investment Manager a monthly fee computed at the annual rate of [•]% of the Fund’s average daily Managed Assets. See “Management of the Fund—Investment Manager.” If the Fund utilizes leverage, the fees paid to the Investment Manager for investment advisory and management services will be higher than if the Fund did not utilize leverage because the fees paid will be calculated based on the Fund’s Managed Assets, which include the liquidation preference of Preferred Shares, the principal amount of outstanding Borrowings and the proceeds of any Reverse Repurchase Agreements. The Fund’s investment management fees and other expenses are paid only by the Common Shareholders, and not by holders of Preferred Shares, if any. See “Use of Leverage.”

LISTING AND SYMBOL

The Fund expects its Common Shares to be listed on the NYSE, subject to notice of issuance, under the trading or “ticker” symbol “PTA.”

DIVIDENDS AND DISTRIBUTIONS

Subject to the determination of the Fund’s Board of Trustees to implement a Managed Dividend Policy (as defined below), commencing with the Fund’s first regular distribution, the Fund intends to make regular monthly cash distributions to Common Shareholders at a level rate based on the projected performance of the Fund, which rate is a fixed dollar amount which may be adjusted from time to time (a “Level Rate Distribution Policy”). The tax treatment and characterization of the Fund’s distributions may vary significantly from time to time because of the varied nature of the Fund’s investments. The ultimate tax characterization of the Fund’s distributions made in a taxable year cannot be determined finally until after the end of that taxable year. Over time, the Fund will distribute all of its net investment income. In addition, at least annually, the Fund intends to distribute all of its net realized capital gains. The Fund expects to declare the initial monthly dividend on the Common Shares within approximately 45 days, and to pay approximately 60 to 90 days, from the completion of this offering depending on market conditions. At times, to maintain a stable level of distributions, the Fund may pay out less than all of its net investment income or, in addition to paying out current net investment income, the Fund may pay out accumulated undistributed income, or may return capital.

The Fund may rely on an exemptive order from the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) received by the Investment Manager and certain closed-end funds managed by the Investment Manager to implement a dividend policy that would permit the Fund to include long-term capital gains in Fund distributions more frequently than is permitted under the 1940 Act (a “Managed Dividend Policy”). If, for any distribution, net investment income and net realized capital gains were less than the amount of the distribution, the difference would be distributed from the Fund’s assets and may constitute a return of capital, which is tax-free to the Common Shareholders, up to the amount of the shareholder’s tax basis in the applicable Common Shares, with any amounts exceeding such basis treated as gain from the sale of such Common Shares.

 

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A Level Rate Distribution Policy or a Managed Dividend Policy would result in the payment of distributions in approximately the same amount or percentage to Common Shareholders each month. If the source of the dividend or other distribution were the original capital contribution of the Common Shareholder, and the payment amounted to a return of capital, the Fund would be required to provide written disclosure to that effect. Nevertheless, Common Shareholders who periodically receive the payment of a dividend or other distribution may be under the impression that they are receiving net profits when they are not. Common Shareholders should read any written disclosure regarding dividends or other distributions carefully, and should not assume that the source of any distribution from the Fund is net profits. See “Dividends and Distributions.”

DIVIDEND REINVESTMENT PLAN

The Fund has a dividend reinvestment plan (the “Plan”) commonly referred to as an “opt-out” plan. Each Common Shareholder who participates in the Plan will have all distributions of dividends automatically reinvested in additional Common Shares. Common Shareholders who elect not to participate in the Plan will receive all distributions in cash. Shareholders whose Common Shares are held in the name of a broker or nominee should contact the broker or nominee to determine whether and how they may participate in the Plan. See “Dividends and Distributions—Dividend Reinvestment Plan” and “Taxation.”

CUSTODIAN, TRANSFER AGENT, DIVIDEND DISBURSING AGENT AND REGISTRAR

[•] (“[•]”) will act as custodian. [•] (“[•]”) will act as transfer agent, dividend disbursing agent and registrar for the Fund. See “Custodian, Transfer Agent, Dividend Disbursing Agent and Registrar.”

PRINCIPAL RISKS OF THE FUND

The Fund is a newly organized, non-diversified, closed-end management investment company designed primarily as a long-term investment and not as a trading vehicle. The Fund is not intended to be a complete investment program and, due to the uncertainty inherent in all investments, there can be no assurance that the Fund will achieve its investment objectives.

No Operating History. As a newly organized entity, the Fund has no operating history. The Common Shares have no history of public trading. See “The Fund.”

Investment Risk. An investment in the Fund is subject to investment risk, including the possible loss of the entire principal amount that you invest.

Market Risk. Your investment in Common Shares represents an indirect investment in the preferred securities, debt securities and other investments owned by the Fund. The value of these securities, like other investments, may move up or down, sometimes rapidly and unpredictably. The Fund may utilize leverage, which magnifies this risk. Your Common Shares at any point in time may be worth less than what you invested, even after taking into account the reinvestment of Fund dividends and distributions. See “Use of Leverage—Leverage Risk.”

Limited Term and Tender Offer Risks. Unless the [provision] of the Declaration of Trust is amended by shareholders in accordance with the Declaration of Trust, or unless the Fund completes an Eligible Tender Offer and converts to perpetual existence, the Fund will terminate on or about the Dissolution Date (subject to possible extension as described under “Limited Term and Eligible Tender Offer”). The Fund is not a so called “target date” or “life cycle” fund whose asset allocation becomes more conservative over time as its target date, often associated with retirement, approaches. In addition, the Fund is not a “target term” fund whose investment objective is to return its original NAV on the Dissolution Date or in an Eligible Tender Offer. The Fund’s investment objectives and policies are not

 

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designed to seek to return to investors that purchase shares in this offering their initial investment on the Dissolution Date or in an Eligible Tender Offer, and such investors and investors that purchase shares after the completion of this offering may receive more or less than their original investment upon dissolution or in an Eligible Tender Offer.

Because the assets of the Fund will be liquidated in connection with the dissolution, the Fund will incur transaction costs in connection with dispositions of portfolio securities. The Fund does not limit its investments to securities having a maturity date prior to the Dissolution Date and may be required to sell portfolio securities when it otherwise would not, including at times when market conditions are not favorable, which may cause the Fund to lose money. In particular, the Fund’s portfolio may still have large exposures to illiquid securities as the Dissolution Date approaches, and losses due to portfolio liquidation may be significant. During the Wind-Down Period, the Fund may begin liquidating all or a portion of the Fund’s portfolio, and the Fund may deviate from its investment strategy and may not achieve its investment objective. As a result, during the Wind-Down Period, the Fund’s distributions may decrease, and such distributions may include a return of capital. It is expected that Common Shareholders will receive cash in any liquidating distribution from the Fund, regardless of their participation in the Fund’s automatic dividend reinvestment plan. However, if on the Dissolution Date the Fund owns securities for which no market exists or securities that are trading at depressed prices, such securities may be placed in a liquidating trust. The Fund cannot predict the amount, if any, of securities that will be required to be placed in a liquidating trust. As the assets of the Fund will be liquidated in connection with its termination, the Fund may be required to sell portfolio securities when it otherwise would not, including at times when market conditions are not favorable, which may cause the Fund to lose money. The Fund may receive proceeds from the disposition of portfolio investments that are less than the valuations of such investments by the Fund and, in particular, losses from the disposition of illiquid securities may be significant. The disposition of portfolio investments by the Fund could also cause market prices of such instruments, and hence the NAV and market price of the Common Shares, to decline. In addition, disposition of portfolio investments will cause the Fund to incur increased brokerage and related transaction expenses.

Moreover, in conducting such portfolio transactions, the Fund may need to deviate from its investment policies and may not achieve its investment objective. The Fund’s portfolio composition may change as its portfolio holdings mature or are called or sold in anticipation of an Eligible Tender Offer or the Dissolution Date. During such period(s), it is possible that the Fund will hold a greater percentage of its total assets in shorter term and lower yielding securities and cash and cash equivalents than it would otherwise, which may impede the Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective and adversely impact the Fund’s performance and distributions to Common Shareholders, which may in turn adversely impact the market value of the Common Shares. In addition, the Fund may be required to reduce its leverage, which could also adversely impact its performance. The additional cash or cash equivalents held by the Fund could be obtained through reducing the Fund’s distributions to Common Shareholders and/or holding cash in lieu of reinvesting, which could limit the ability of the Fund to participate in new investment opportunities. The Fund does not limit its investments to securities having a maturity date prior to or around the Dissolution Date, which may exacerbate the foregoing risks and considerations. A Common Shareholder may be subject to the foregoing risks over an extended period of time, particularly if the Fund conducts an Eligible Tender Offer and is also subsequently terminated by or around the Dissolution Date.

If the Fund conducts an Eligible Tender Offer, the Fund anticipates that funds to pay the aggregate purchase price of shares accepted for purchase pursuant to the tender offer will be first derived from any cash on hand and then from the proceeds from the sale of portfolio investments held by the Fund.

 

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In addition, the Fund may be required to dispose of portfolio investments in connection with any reduction in the Fund’s outstanding leverage necessary in order to maintain the Fund’s desired leverage ratios following a tender offer. The risks related to the disposition of securities in connection with the Fund’s dissolution also would be present in connection with the disposition of securities in connection with an Eligible Tender Offer. It is likely that during the pendency of a tender offer, and possibly for a time thereafter, the Fund will hold a greater than normal percentage of its total assets in cash and cash equivalents, which may impede the Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective and decrease returns to shareholders. The tax effect of any such dispositions of portfolio investments will depend on the difference between the price at which the investments are sold and the tax basis of the Fund in the investments. Any capital gains recognized on such dispositions, as reduced by any capital losses the Fund realizes in the year of such dispositions and by any available capital loss carryforwards, will be distributed to shareholders as capital gain dividends (to the extent of net long-term capital gains over net short-term capital losses) or ordinary dividends (to the extent of net short-term capital gains over net long-term capital losses) during or with respect to such year, and such distributions will generally be taxable to Common Shareholders. If the Fund’s tax basis for the investments sold is less than the sale proceeds, the Fund will recognize capital gains, which the Fund will be required to distribute to Common Shareholders. In addition, the Fund’s purchase of tendered Common Shares pursuant to a tender offer will have tax consequences for tendering Common Shareholders and may have tax consequences for non-tendering Common Shareholders.

The purchase of Common Shares by the Fund pursuant to a tender offer will have the effect of increasing the proportionate interest in the Fund of non-tendering Common Shareholders. All Common Shareholders remaining after a tender offer may be subject to proportionately higher expenses due to the reduction in the Fund’s total assets resulting from payment for the tendered Common Shares. Such reduction in the Fund’s total assets may result in less investment flexibility, reduced diversification and greater volatility for the Fund, and may have an adverse effect on the Fund’s investment performance. Such reduction in the Fund’s total assets may also cause Common Shares to become thinly traded or otherwise negatively impact secondary trading of Common Shares. A reduction in net assets, and the corresponding increase in the Fund’s expense ratio, could result in lower returns and put the Fund at a disadvantage relative to its peers and potentially cause the Fund’s Common Shares to trade at a wider discount to NAV than it otherwise would. Furthermore, the portfolio of the Fund following an Eligible Tender Offer could be significantly different and, therefore, Common Shareholders retaining an investment in the Fund could be subject to greater risk. For example, the Fund may be required to sell its more liquid, higher quality portfolio investments to purchase Common Shares that are tendered in an Eligible Tender Offer, which would leave a less liquid, lower quality portfolio for remaining shareholders. The prospects of an Eligible Tender Offer may attract arbitrageurs who would purchase the Common Shares prior to the tender offer for the sole purpose of tendering those shares which could have the effect of exacerbating the risks described herein for shareholders retaining an investment in the Fund following an Eligible Tender Offer.

The Fund is not required to conduct an Eligible Tender Offer. If the Fund conducts an Eligible Tender Offer, there can be no assurance that the number of tendered Common Shares would not result in the Fund having aggregate net assets below the Dissolution Threshold, in which case the Eligible Tender Offer will be canceled, no Common Shares will be repurchased pursuant to the Eligible Tender Offer and the Fund will dissolve on the Dissolution Date (subject to possible extensions). Following the completion of an Eligible Tender Offer in which the number of tendered Common Shares would result in the Fund having aggregate net assets greater than or equal to the Dissolution Threshold, the Board of Trustees may, by a Board Action Vote, eliminate the Dissolution Date without shareholder approval.

 

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Thereafter, the Fund will have a perpetual term. The Investment Manager may have a conflict of interest in recommending to the Board that the Dissolution Date be eliminated because the Investment Manager would continue to receive management fees on the remaining assets of the Fund while it remains in existence. The Fund is not required to conduct additional tender offers following an Eligible Tender Offer and conversion to perpetual existence. Therefore, remaining Common Shareholders may not have another opportunity to participate in a tender offer. Shares of closed-end management investment companies frequently trade at a discount from their NAV, and as a result remaining Common Shareholders may only be able to sell their Shares at a discount to NAV.

Preferred Securities Risk. Under normal market conditions, the Fund will invest at least 80% of its Managed Assets in a portfolio of preferred and other income securities. There are various risks associated with investing in preferred securities, including those described below.

 

·  

Deferral and Omission Risk. Preferred securities may include provisions that permit the issuer, at its discretion, to defer or omit distributions for a stated period without any adverse consequences to the issuer. In certain cases, deferring or omitting distributions may be mandatory. If the Fund owns a preferred security that is deferring its distributions, the Fund may be required to report income for tax purposes although it has not yet received such income. In addition, recent changes in bank regulations may increase the likelihood for issuers to defer or omit distributions.

 

·  

Credit and Subordination Risk. Credit risk is the risk that a preferred security in the Fund’s portfolio will decline in price or the issuer of the security will fail to make dividend, interest or principal payments when due because the issuer experiences a decline in its financial status. Preferred securities are generally subordinated to bonds and other debt instruments in a company’s capital structure in terms of having priority to corporate income, claims to corporate assets and liquidation payments, and therefore will be subject to greater credit risk than more senior debt instruments.

 

·  

Interest Rate Risk. Interest rate risk is the risk that preferred securities will decline in value because of changes in market interest rates. When market interest rates rise, the market value of such securities generally will fall, and therefore the Fund may underperform during periods of rising interest rates. The Fund may be subject to a greater risk of rising interest rates than would normally be the case due to the current period of historically low rates and the effect of government monetary policy initiatives and resulting market reaction to those initiatives. Preferred securities with longer periods before maturity may be more sensitive to interest rate changes.

 

·  

Prepayment and Extension Risk. Prepayment risk is the risk that changes in interest rates, credit spreads or other factors will result in the call (repayment) of a preferred security more quickly than expected, such that the Fund may have to invest the proceeds in lower yielding securities, or that expectations of such early call will negatively impact the market price of the security. Extension risk is the risk that changes in the interest rates or credit spreads may result in diminishing call expectations, which can cause prices to fall.

 

·  

Floating-Rate and Fixed-to-Floating-Rate Securities Risk. The market value of floating-rate securities is a reflection of discounted expected cash flows based on expectations for future interest rate resets. The market value of such securities may fall in a declining interest rate environment and may also fall in a rising interest rate environment if there is a lag between the rise in interest rates and the reset. This risk may also be present with respect to fixed-to-floating-rate securities in which the Fund may invest. A secondary risk associated with declining interest rates is the risk that income earned by the Fund on floating-rate and fixed-to-floating-rate securities will decline due to lower coupon payments on floating-rate securities.

 

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·  

Call, Reinvestment and Income Risk. During periods of declining interest rates, an issuer may be able to exercise an option to redeem its issue at par earlier than scheduled which is generally known as call risk. Recent regulatory changes may increase call risk with respect to certain types of preferred securities. If this occurs, the Fund may be forced to reinvest in lower yielding securities. This is known as reinvestment risk. Preferred securities frequently have call features that allow the issuer to repurchase the security prior to its stated maturity. An issuer may redeem preferred securities if the issuer can refinance the preferred securities at a lower cost due to declining interest rates or an improvement in the credit standing of the issuer, or in the event of regulatory changes affecting the capital treatment of a security. Another risk associated with a declining interest rate environment is that the income from the Fund’s portfolio may decline over time when the Fund invests the proceeds from new share sales at market rates that are below the portfolio’s current earnings rate.

 

·  

Liquidity Risk. Certain preferred securities may be substantially less liquid than many other securities, such as common stocks or U.S. government securities. Illiquid securities involve the risk that the securities will not be able to be sold at the time desired by the Fund or at prices approximating the value at which the Fund is carrying the securities on its books. During periods of high volatility, the Fund may experience increased redemptions, requiring it to liquidate securities when it is difficult to do so.

 

·  

Limited Voting Rights Risk. Generally, traditional preferred securities offer no voting rights with respect to the issuer unless preferred dividends have been in arrears for a specified number of periods, at which time the preferred security holders may elect a number of directors to the issuer’s board of directors. Generally, once all the arrearages have been paid, the preferred security holders no longer have voting rights. Hybrid-preferred security holders generally have no voting rights.

 

·  

Special Redemption Rights. In certain varying circumstances, an issuer of preferred securities may redeem the securities prior to a specified date. For instance, for certain types of preferred securities, a redemption may be triggered by a change in U.S. federal income tax or securities laws. As with call provisions, a redemption by the issuer may have a negative impact on the return of the security held by the Fund. See “Call, Reinvestment and Income Risk” above and “Regulatory Risk” below.

 

·  

New Types of Securities. From time to time, preferred securities, including hybrid-preferred securities and contingent capital securities, have been, and may in the future be, offered having features other than those described herein. The Fund reserves the right to invest in these securities if the Investment Manager believes that doing so would be consistent with the Fund’s investment objectives and policies. Since the market for these instruments would be new, the Fund may have difficulty disposing of them at a suitable price and time. In addition to limited liquidity, these instruments may present other risks, such as high price volatility.

See “Principal Risks of the Fund—Preferred Securities Risk” below.

Debt Securities Risk. Debt securities generally present two primary types of risk—credit risk, which refers to the possibility that the issuer of a security will not be able to make payments of interest and principal when due, and interest rate risk, which is the risk that debt securities will decline in value because of changes in market interest rates. Debt securities also are subject to other similar risks as preferred securities, including call risk, extension risk and liquidity risk. See “Principal Risks of the Fund—Debt Securities Risk” below. 

Risk of Concentration in the Financials Sector. Because the Fund invests 25% of more of its total assets in the financials sector (and may invest a substantial portion of its assets in the financial sector, including in one or more industries in the financial sector), it will be more susceptible to adverse economic or

 

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regulatory occurrences affecting this sector, such as changes in interest rates, loan concentration, regulation and competition. In many countries, companies in the financials sector are regulated by governmental entities, which can increase costs for new services or products and make it difficult to pass increased costs on to consumers. In certain areas, deregulation of financial companies has resulted in increased competition and reduced profitability for certain companies. The profitability of many types of financial companies may be adversely affected in certain market cycles, including periods of rising interest rates, which may restrict the availability and increase the cost of capital, and declining economic conditions, which may cause credit losses due to financial difficulties of borrowers. Because many types of financial companies are vulnerable to these economic cycles, the Fund’s investments in these companies may lose significant value during such periods. See “Principal Risks of the Fund—Risk of Concentration in the Financials Sector” below.

Below Investment Grade and Unrated Securities Risk. The Fund may invest a significant portion of its assets in below investment grade securities or securities that are unrated but judged to be below investment grade by the Investment Manager. Lower-rated securities, or equivalent unrated securities, which are commonly known as “high yield” securities or “junk” securities generally involve greater volatility of price and risk of loss of income and principal, and may be more susceptible to real or perceived adverse economic and competitive industry conditions than higher grade securities. It is reasonable to expect that any adverse economic conditions could disrupt the market for lower-rated securities, have an adverse impact on the value of those securities and adversely affect the ability of the issuers of those securities to repay principal and interest on those securities.

Nationally recognized statistical rating organizations (“NRSROs”) are private services that provide ratings of the credit quality of debt obligations, including convertible securities. Ratings assigned by an NRSRO are not absolute standards of credit quality and do not evaluate market risks or the liquidity of securities. NRSROs may fail to make timely changes in credit ratings and an issuer’s current financial condition may be better or worse than a rating indicates.

In addition, the Fund may invest a significant portion of its assets in unrated securities (securities which are not rated by an NRSRO) if the Investment Manager determines that the securities are of comparable quality to rated securities that the Fund may purchase. Unrated securities may be less liquid than comparable rated securities and involve the risk that the Investment Manager may not accurately evaluate the security’s comparative credit rating. If a security is unrated, the Investment Manager will assign a rating using its own analysis of issuer quality. See “Principal Risks of the Fund—Below Investment Grade and Unrated Securities Risk” below.

Contingent Capital Securities Risk. CoCos, sometimes referred to as contingent convertible securities, are debt or preferred securities with loss absorption characteristics built into the terms of the security for the benefit of the issuer, for example, an automatic write-down of principal or a mandatory conversion into common stock of the issuer under certain circumstances, such as the issuer’s capital ratio falling below a certain level. CoCos may be subject to an automatic write-down (i.e., the automatic write-down of the principal amount or value of the securities, potentially to zero, and the cancellation of the securities) under certain circumstances, which could result in the Fund losing a portion or all of its investment in such securities. In addition, the Fund may not have any rights with respect to repayment of the principal amount of the securities that has not become due or the payment of interest or dividends on such securities for any period from (and including) the interest or dividend payment date falling immediately prior to the occurrence of such automatic write-down. An automatic write-down could also result in a reduced income rate if the dividend or interest payment is based on the security’s par value. If a CoCo provides for mandatory conversion of the security into common

 

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shares of the issuer under certain circumstances, such as an adverse event, the Fund could experience a reduced income rate, potentially to zero, as a result of the issuer’s common shares not paying a dividend. In addition, a conversion event would likely be the result of or related to the deterioration of the issuer’s financial condition (e.g., such as a decrease in the issuer’s capital ratio) and status as a going concern, so the market price of the issuer’s common shares received by the Fund may have declined, perhaps substantially, and may continue to decline, which may adversely affect the Fund’s NAV. Further, the issuer’s common shares would be subordinate to the issuer’s other security classes and therefore worsen the Fund’s standing in a bankruptcy proceeding. In addition, most CoCos are considered to be high yield or “junk” securities and are therefore subject to the risks of investing in below investment grade securities. See below “Principal Risks of the Fund—Below Investment Grade and Unrated Securities Risk.”

Foreign (Non-U.S.) and Emerging Market Securities Risk. Risks of investing in foreign securities, which can be expected to be greater for investments in emerging markets, include currency risks, future political and economic developments and possible imposition of foreign withholding or other taxes on income or proceeds payable on the securities. In addition, there may be less publicly available information about a foreign issuer than about a domestic issuer, and foreign issuers may not be subject to the same accounting, auditing and financial recordkeeping standards and requirements as domestic issuers.

The Fund may hold foreign securities of developed market issuers and emerging market issuers. Investing in securities of companies in emerging markets may entail special risks relating to potential economic, political or social instability and the risks of expropriation, nationalization, confiscation, trade sanctions or embargoes or the imposition of restrictions on foreign investment, the lack of hedging instruments, and repatriation of capital invested. Emerging securities markets are substantially smaller, less developed, less liquid and more volatile than the major securities markets. The limited size of emerging securities markets and limited trading value compared to the volume of trading in U.S. securities could cause prices to be erratic for reasons apart from factors that affect the quality of the securities. For example, limited market size may cause prices to be unduly influenced by traders who control large positions. Adverse publicity and investors’ perceptions, whether or not based on fundamental analysis, may decrease the value and liquidity of portfolio securities, especially in these markets. Many emerging market countries have experienced substantial, and in some periods extremely high, rates of inflation for many years. Inflation and rapid fluctuations in inflation rates and corresponding currency devaluations have had and may continue to have negative effects on the economies and securities markets of certain emerging market countries.

Foreign Currency and Currency Hedging Risk. Although the Fund will report its NAV and pay dividends in U.S. dollars, foreign securities often are purchased with and make interest and dividend payments in foreign currencies. Therefore, the Fund’s investments in foreign securities will be subject to foreign currency risk, which means that the Fund’s NAV could decline as a result of changes in the exchange rates between foreign currencies and the U.S. dollar. Currency rates in foreign countries may fluctuate significantly over short periods of time for a number of reasons, including changes in interest rates, intervention (or the failure to intervene) by U.S. or foreign governments, central banks or supranational entities such as the International Monetary Fund, or by the imposition of currency controls or other political developments in the United States or abroad. These fluctuations may have a significant adverse impact on the value of the Fund’s portfolio and/or the level of Fund distributions made to Common Shareholders. Certain foreign countries may impose restrictions on the ability of issuers of foreign securities to make payment of principal, dividends and interest to investors located outside the country, due to blockage of foreign currency exchanges or otherwise.

 

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The Fund may (but is not required to) engage in investments that are designed to hedge the Fund’s foreign currency risks, including foreign currency forward contracts, foreign currency futures contracts, put and call option on foreign currencies and foreign currency swaps. Such transactions may reduce returns or increase volatility, perhaps substantially. While these practices will be entered into to seek to manage these risks, these practices may not prove to be successful or may have the effect of limiting the gains from favorable market movements.

Foreign currency forward contracts, foreign currency futures contracts, OTC options on foreign currencies and foreign currency swaps are subject to the risk of default by the counterparty and can be illiquid. These currency hedging transactions, as well as the futures contracts and exchange-listed options in which the Fund may invest, are subject to many of the risks of, and can be highly sensitive to changes in the value of, the related currency or other reference asset. As such, a small investment could have a potentially large impact on the Fund’s performance. Whether or not the Fund engages in currency hedging transactions, the Fund may experience a decline in the value of its portfolio securities, in U.S. dollar terms, due solely to fluctuations in currency exchange rates. Use of currency hedging transactions may cause the Fund to experience losses greater than if the Fund had not engaged in such transactions.

The Fund’s transactions in foreign currencies may increase or accelerate the Fund’s recognition of ordinary income and may affect the timing or character of the Fund’s distributions.

Convertible Securities Risk. Although to a lesser extent than with nonconvertible fixed income securities, the market value of convertible securities tends to decline as interest rates increase and, conversely, tends to increase as interest rates decline. In addition, because of the conversion feature, the market value of convertible securities tends to vary with fluctuations in the market value of the underlying common stock. A unique feature of convertible securities is that as the market price of the underlying common stock declines, convertible securities tend to trade increasingly on a yield basis, and so may not experience market value declines to the same extent as the underlying common stock. When the market price of the underlying common stock increases, the prices of the convertible securities tend to rise as a reflection of the value of the underlying common stock. While no securities investments are without risk, investments in convertible securities generally entail less risk than investments in common stock of the same issuer.

Derivatives Risk. Derivatives transactions can be highly volatile and involve various types and degrees of risk, depending upon the characteristics of the particular derivative, including the imperfect correlation between the value of such instruments and the underlying assets, the possible default of the other party to the transaction and illiquidity of the derivative instruments. Derivatives transactions may entail investment exposures that are greater than their cost would suggest, meaning that a small investment in derivatives could have a large potential impact on the Fund’s performance, effecting a form of investment leverage on the Fund’s portfolio. In certain types of derivatives transactions the Fund could lose the entire amount of its investment; in other types of derivatives transactions the potential loss is theoretically unlimited.

The market for many derivatives is, or suddenly can become, illiquid. Changes in liquidity may result in significant, rapid and unpredictable changes in the prices for derivatives transactions. The Fund could experience losses if it were unable to liquidate a derivative position because of an illiquid secondary market. Although both OTC and exchange-traded derivatives markets may experience the lack of liquidity, OTC non-standardized derivatives transactions are generally less liquid than exchange-traded instruments. The illiquidity of the derivatives markets may be due to various factors, including congestion, disorderly markets, limitations on deliverable supplies, the participation of speculators,

 

22


government regulation and intervention, and technical and operational or system failures. In addition, the liquidity of a secondary market in an exchange-traded derivative contract may be adversely affected by “daily price fluctuation limits” established by the exchanges which limit the amount of fluctuation in an exchange-traded contract price during a single trading day. Once the daily limit has been reached in the contract, no trades may be entered into at a price beyond the limit, thus preventing the liquidation of open positions. Prices have in the past moved beyond the daily limit on a number of consecutive trading days. If it is not possible to close an open derivative position entered into by the Fund, the Fund would continue to be required to make cash payments of variation (or mark-to-market) margin in the event of adverse price movements. In such a situation, if the Fund has insufficient cash, it may have to sell portfolio securities to meet variation margin requirements at a time when it may be disadvantageous to do so. The absence of liquidity may also make it more difficult for the Fund to ascertain a market value for such instruments. The inability to close derivatives transactions positions also could have an adverse impact on the Fund’s ability to effectively hedge its portfolio.

Successful use of derivatives transactions also is subject to the ability of the Investment Manager to predict correctly movements in the direction of the relevant market and, to the extent the transaction is entered into for hedging purposes, to ascertain the appropriate correlation between the transaction being hedged and the price movements of the derivatives. Derivatives transactions entered into to seek to manage the risks of the Fund’s portfolio of securities may have the effect of limiting gains from otherwise favorable market movements. The use of derivatives transactions may result in losses greater than if they had not been used (and a loss on a derivatives transaction position may be larger than the gain in a portfolio position being hedged), may require the Fund to sell or purchase portfolio securities at inopportune times or for prices other than current market values, may limit the amount of appreciation the Fund can realize on an investment, or may cause the Fund to hold a security that it might otherwise sell. Amounts paid by the Fund as premiums and cash or other assets held as collateral with respect to derivatives transactions may not otherwise be available to the Fund for investment purposes. The use of currency transactions can result in the Fund incurring losses as a result of the imposition of exchange controls, political developments, government intervention or failure to intervene, suspension of settlements or the inability of the Fund to deliver or receive a specified currency.

The Fund may enter into swap, cap or other transactions to attempt to protect itself from increasing interest or dividend expenses resulting from increasing short-term interest rates on any leverage it incurs or increasing interest rates on securities held in its portfolio. A decline in interest rates may result in a decline in the value of the transaction, which may result in a decline in the NAV of the Fund. A sudden and dramatic decline in interest rates may result in a significant decline in the NAV of the Fund. Depending on the state of interest rates in general, the use of interest rate hedging transactions could enhance or harm the overall performance of the Common Shares.

In the event the Fund enters into forward currency contracts for hedging purposes, the Fund will be subject to currency exchange rates risk. Currency exchange rates may fluctuate significantly over short periods of time and also can be affected unpredictably by intervention of U.S. or foreign governments or central banks, or the failure to intervene, or by currency controls or political developments in the United States or abroad. The Fund’s success in these transactions will depend principally on the ability of the Investment Manager to predict accurately future foreign currency exchange rates. Additional risks associated with derivatives trading include counterparty risk, liquidity risk and tracking/correlation risk.

The Fund’s investments in forward currency contracts and interest rate swaps would subject the Fund to risks specific to derivatives transactions, including: the imperfect correlation between the value of

 

23


such instruments and the underlying assets of the Fund, which creates the possibility that the loss on such instruments may be greater than the gain in the value of the underlying assets in the Fund’s portfolio; the loss of principal; the possible default of the other party to the transaction; and illiquidity of the derivative investments. Furthermore, the ability to successfully use derivative instruments depends on the ability of the Investment Manager to predict pertinent market movements, which cannot be assured. Thus, the use of derivative instruments for hedging, currency or interest rate management, or other purposes may result in losses greater than if they had not been used.

Structured notes and other related instruments carry risks similar to those of more traditional derivatives such as futures, forward and option contracts. However, structured instruments may entail a greater degree of market risk and volatility than other types of debt obligations.

The Fund will be subject to credit risk with respect to the counterparties to certain derivatives transactions entered into by the Fund. Derivatives may be purchased on established exchanges or through privately negotiated OTC transactions. Each party to an OTC derivative bears the risk that the counterparty will default.

If a counterparty becomes bankrupt or otherwise fails to perform its obligations under a derivative contract due to financial difficulties, the Fund may experience significant delays in obtaining any recovery under the derivative contract in bankruptcy or other reorganization proceeding. The Fund may obtain only a limited recovery or may obtain no recovery in such circumstances. The counterparty risk for cleared derivatives transactions is generally lower than for uncleared OTC derivatives transactions since generally a clearing organization becomes substituted for each counterparty to a cleared derivative contract and, in effect, guarantees the parties’ performance under the contract as each party to a trade looks only to the clearing house for performance of financial obligations. However, there can be no assurance that the clearing house, or its members, will satisfy their obligations to the Fund.

Rule 144A Securities Risk. Rule 144A Securities are considered restricted securities because they are not registered for sale to the general public and may only be resold to certain qualified institutional buyers. Institutional markets for Rule 144A Securities that exist or may develop may provide both readily ascertainable values for such securities and the ability to promptly sell such securities. However, if there are an insufficient number of qualified institutional buyers interested in purchasing Rule 144A Securities held by the Fund, the Fund will be subject to liquidity risk and thus may not be able to sell the Rule 144A Securities at a desirable time or price.

Regulation S Securities Risk. Regulation S securities are offered through private offerings without registration with the SEC pursuant to Regulation S of the Securities Act. Regulation S securities may be relatively less liquid as a result of legal or contractual restrictions on resale. Because Regulation S securities are generally less liquid than registered securities, the Fund may take longer to liquidate these positions than publicly traded securities or may not be able to sell them at the price desired. Furthermore, companies whose securities are not publicly traded may not be subject to the disclosure and other investor protection requirements that would be applicable if their securities were publicly traded or otherwise offered in the United States. Accordingly, Regulation S securities may involve a high degree of business and financial risk and may result in losses to the Fund.

LIBOR Risk. Many financial instruments may be tied to the London Interbank Offered Rate, or “LIBOR,” to determine payment obligations, financing terms, hedging strategies, or investment value. LIBOR is the offered rate for short-term Eurodollar deposits between major international banks. On July 27, 2017, the head of the UK Financial Conduct Authority announced a desire to phase out the use of LIBOR by the end of 2021. Regulators and industry working groups have suggested alternative

 

24


reference rates, but global consensus is lacking and the process for amending existing contracts or instruments to transition away from LIBOR remains unclear. There also remains uncertainty and risk regarding the willingness and ability of issuers and lenders to include enhanced provisions in new and existing contracts or instruments. As such, the transition away from LIBOR may lead to increased volatility and illiquidity in markets that are tied to LIBOR, reduced values of LIBOR-related investments or investments in issuers that utilize LIBOR, increased difficulty in borrowing or refinancing and reduced effectiveness of hedging strategies, adversely affecting the Fund’s performance or NAV. In addition, the alternative reference rate may be an ineffective substitute resulting in prolonged adverse market conditions for the Fund.

Other Investment Companies Risk. To the extent the Fund invests a portion of its assets in investment companies, including open-end funds, closed-end funds, ETFs and other types of pooled investment funds, those assets will be subject to the risks of the purchased investment companies’ portfolio securities, and a shareholder in the Fund will bear not only his or her proportionate share of the Fund’s expenses, but also indirectly the expenses of the purchased investment companies. Shareholders would therefore be subject to duplicative expenses to the extent the Fund invests in other investment companies. Risks associated with investments in closed-end funds also generally include the risks described in this prospectus associated with the Fund’s structure as a closed-end investment company, including market risk, leverage risk, risk of market price discount from NAV, risk of anti-takeover provisions and non-diversification. In addition, investments in closed-end funds may be subject to dilution risk, which is the risk that strategies employed by a closed-end fund, such as rights offerings, may, under certain circumstances, have the effect of reducing its share price and the Fund’s proportionate interest. In addition, restrictions under the 1940 Act may limit the Fund’s ability to invest in other investment companies to the extent desired.

See “Principal Risks of the Fund—Other Investment Companies Risk” below.

Common Stock Risk. The Fund may invest in common stocks. Common stocks are subject to special risks. Although common stocks have historically generated higher average returns than fixed-income securities over the long-term, common stocks also have experienced significantly more volatility in returns. Common stocks may be more susceptible to adverse changes in market value due to issuer specific events or general movements in the equities markets. A drop in the stock market may depress the price of common stocks held by the Fund. Common stock prices fluctuate for many reasons, including changes in investors’ perceptions of the financial condition of an issuer or the general condition of the relevant stock market, or the occurrence of political or economic events affecting issuers. For example, an adverse event, such as an unfavorable earnings report, may depress the value of common stock in which the Fund has invested; the price of common stock of an issuer may be particularly sensitive to general movements in the stock market; or a drop in the stock market may depress the price of most or all of the common stocks held by the Fund. Also, common stock of an issuer in the Fund’s portfolio may decline in price if the issuer fails to make anticipated dividend payments because, among other reasons, the issuer of the security experiences a decline in its financial condition. The common stocks in which the Fund will invest are typically subordinated to preferred securities, bonds and other debt instruments in a company’s capital structure in terms of priority to corporate income and assets, and, therefore, will be subject to greater risk than the preferred securities or debt instruments of such issuers. In addition, common stock prices may be sensitive to rising interest rates as the costs of capital rise and borrowing costs increase.

Government Securities Risk. Not all obligations of the U.S. Government, its agencies and instrumentalities are backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Treasury. Some obligations are

 

25


backed only by the credit of the issuing agency or instrumentality, and in some cases there may be some risk of default by the issuer. Any guarantee by the U.S. Government or its agencies or instrumentalities of a security held by the Fund does not apply to the market value of such security or to the Common Shares. In addition, a security backed by the U.S. Treasury or the full faith and credit of the United States is guaranteed only as to the timely payment of interest and principal when held to maturity, but the market prices of such securities are not guaranteed and will fluctuate. In addition, because many types of U.S. Government securities trade actively outside the United States, their prices may rise and fall as changes in global economic conditions affect the demand for these securities. See “Principal Risks of the Fund—Government Securities Risk” below.

[Municipal Securities Risk. Municipal securities are debt obligations issued by states or by political subdivisions or authorities of states. Municipal securities are typically designated as general obligation bonds, which are general obligations of a governmental entity that are backed by the taxing power of such entity, or revenue bonds, which are payable from the income of a specific project or authority and are not supported by the issuer’s power to levy taxes. Municipal securities are long-term fixed rate debt obligations that generally decline in value with increases in interest rates, when an issuer’s financial condition worsens or when the rating on a bond is decreased. Many municipal securities may be called or redeemed prior to their stated maturity. Lower-quality revenue bonds and other credit-sensitive municipal securities carry higher risks of default than general obligation bonds. In addition, the amount of public information available about municipal securities is generally less than that for corporate equities or bonds. Special factors, such as legislative changes and local and business developments, may adversely affect the yield and/or value of the Fund’s investments in municipal securities. Other factors include the general conditions of the municipal securities market, the size of the particular offering, the maturity of the obligation and the rating of the issue. See “Principal Risks of the Fund—Municipal Securities Risk” below.]

Restricted and Illiquid Securities Risk. The Fund may invest in investments that may be illiquid (i.e., securities that may be difficult to sell at a desirable time or price). Illiquid securities are securities that are not readily marketable and may include some restricted securities, which are securities that may not be resold to the public without an effective registration statement under the Securities Act or, if they are unregistered, may be sold only in a privately negotiated transaction or pursuant to an exemption from registration. Illiquid investments involve the risk that the securities will not be able to be sold at the time desired by the Fund or at prices approximating the value at which the Fund is carrying the securities on its books. Restricted securities and illiquid securities are often more difficult to value and the sale of such securities often requires more time and results in higher brokerage charges or dealer discounts and other selling expenses than does the sale of liquid securities trading on national securities exchanges or in the OTC markets. Contractual restrictions on the resale of securities result from negotiations between the issuer and purchaser of such securities and therefore vary substantially in length and scope. To dispose of a restricted security that the Fund has a contractual right to sell, the Fund may first be required to cause the security to be registered. A considerable period may elapse between a decision to sell the securities and the time when the Fund would be permitted to sell, during which time the Fund would bear market risks.

Leverage Risk. The Fund currently intends to seek to enhance the level of its distributions and total return through the use of leverage. Under normal market conditions, the Fund will generally utilize leverage in an amount equal to 331/3% of Managed Assets (under the Investment Company Act of 1940, the Fund may borrow in an amount up to 331/3% of its Managed Assets immediately after such borrowing) through borrowings, including loans from certain financial institutions and/or the issuance of debt securities. The Fund may also engage in leverage up to the maximum permitted by the 1940 Act through the issuance of

 

26


Preferred Shares. The Fund also is permitted to enter into Reverse Repurchase Agreements, the proceeds of which may be used for leverage. See “Use of Leverage—Leverage Risk” below.

Certain other investment strategies, such as short sales or the use of derivatives, may also be considered a form of economic leverage and may be subject to the risks associated with the use of leverage. Leverage is a speculative technique and there are special risks and costs associated with leveraging. There is no assurance that a leveraging strategy will be successful. Leverage involves risks and special considerations for Common Shareholders, including (i) the likelihood of greater volatility of NAV, market price and dividend rate of the Common Shares than a comparable portfolio without leverage; (ii) the risk that fluctuations in the interest or dividend rates that the Fund must pay on any leverage will reduce the return on the holders of the Common Shares; (iii) the effect of leverage in a declining market, which is likely to cause a greater decline in the NAV of the Common Shares than if the Fund were not leveraged, which may result in a greater decline in the market price of the Common Shares; and (iv) leverage may increase operating costs, which may reduce total return. If the Fund utilizes leverage, the fees paid to the Investment Manager for investment advisory and management services will be higher than if the Fund did not utilize leverage because the fees paid will be calculated based on the Fund’s Managed Assets, which include the principal amount of outstanding Borrowings the liquidation preference of Preferred Shares, if any, and the proceeds of any Reverse Repurchase Agreements. The Fund may borrow in foreign currencies, which will expose the Fund to foreign currency risk. See “—Foreign Currency and Currency Hedging Risk.” Any such exposure is subject to the risk that the U.S. dollar will decline in value relative to the currency in which the Fund has borrowed, in which case the Fund will be worse off than if it had borrowed in U.S. dollars. Similar risks may apply if the Fund engages in leveraging transactions through the use of derivatives.

Risk of Market Price Discount from Net Asset Value. Shares of closed-end investment companies frequently trade at a discount from their NAV. This characteristic is a risk separate and distinct from the risk that NAV could decrease as a result of investment activities and may be greater for investors expecting to sell their shares in a relatively short period following completion of this offering. The Investment Manager cannot predict whether the Common Shares will trade at, above or below NAV. NAV will be reduced immediately following the offering of the Common Shares by the sales load and the amount of organizational and offering expenses paid by the Fund. See below “Principal Risks of the Fund—Risk of Market Price Discount From NAV.”

ADDITIONAL RISK CONSIDERATIONS

Tax Risk. No assurance can be given as to what percentage of the distributions paid on the Common Shares, if any, will consist of tax-advantaged qualified dividend income or long-term capital gain or what the tax rates on various types of income will be in future years. The maximum long-term capital gain tax rate applicable to qualified dividend income is currently 20%, 15%, or 0% for individuals depending on the amount of their taxable income for the year. An additional 3.8% Medicare tax will also apply in the case of some individuals. In addition, it may be difficult to obtain information regarding whether distributions by non-U.S. entities in which the Fund invests should be regarded as qualified dividend income. Furthermore, to receive qualified dividend income treatment, the Fund must meet holding period and other requirements with respect to the dividend-paying securities in its portfolio, and the shareholder must meet holding period and other requirements with respect to the Common Shares. Holding periods may be affected by certain of the Fund’s transactions in options and other derivatives. See “Taxation” below.

Active Management Risk. As an actively managed portfolio, the value of the Fund’s investments could decline because the financial condition of an issuer may change (due to such factors as management

 

27


performance, reduced demand or overall market changes), financial markets may fluctuate or overall prices may decline, or the Investment Manager’s investment techniques could fail to achieve the Fund’s investment objectives or negatively affect the Fund’s investment performance.

Potential Conflicts of Interest Risk. The Investment Manager and its affiliates are involved worldwide with a broad spectrum of financial services and asset management activities and may engage in the ordinary course of business in activities in which their interests or the interests of their clients may conflict with those of the Fund. The Investment Manager and its affiliates may provide investment management services to other funds and discretionary managed accounts that follow an investment program similar to that of the Fund. Subject to the requirements of the 1940 Act, the Investment Manager and its affiliates intend to engage in such activities and may receive compensation from third parties for their services. Neither the Investment Manager nor its affiliates are under any obligation to share any investment opportunity, idea or strategy with the Fund. As a result, other accounts of the Investment Manager and its affiliates may compete with the Fund for appropriate investment opportunities. The results of the Fund’s investment activities, therefore, may differ from those of other accounts managed by the Investment Manager or its affiliates, and it is possible that the Fund could sustain losses during periods in which one or more of the proprietary or other accounts managed by the Investment Manager or its affiliates achieve profits. The Investment Manager has informed the Fund’s Board of Trustees that the investment professionals associated with the Investment Manager are actively involved in other investment activities not concerning the Fund and will not be able to devote all of their time to the Fund’s business and affairs. The Investment Manager and its affiliates have adopted policies and procedures designed to address potential conflicts of interests and to allocate investments among the accounts managed by the Investment Manager and its affiliates in a fair and equitable manner. See “Additional Risk Considerations—Potential Conflicts of Interest Risk” in this prospectus and “Investment Management and Other Services—Portfolio Managers—Conflicts of Interest” in the SAI.

Dependence on Key Personnel Risk. The Investment Manager is dependent upon the experience and expertise of certain key personnel in providing services with respect to the Fund’s investments. If the Investment Manager were to lose the services of these individuals, its ability to service the Fund could be adversely affected. As with any managed fund, the Investment Manager might not be successful in selecting the best-performing securities or investment techniques for the Fund’s portfolio and the Fund’s performance may lag behind that of similar funds. In addition, the performance of the Fund may also depend on the experience and expertise of individuals who become associated with the Investment Manager in the future. See “Additional Risks Considerations—Dependence on Key Personnel Risk.”

Portfolio Turnover Risk. The Fund may engage in portfolio trading when considered appropriate, but short-term trading will not be used as the primary means of achieving the Fund’s investment objectives. There are no limits on portfolio turnover, and investments may be sold without regard to length of time held when, in the opinion of the Investment Manager, investment considerations warrant such action. A higher portfolio turnover rate results in correspondingly greater brokerage commissions and other transactional expenses that are borne by the Fund. High portfolio turnover may result in the realization of net short-term capital gains by the Fund that, when distributed to Common Shareholders, would be taxable to such shareholders as ordinary income. See “Additional Risk Considerations—Portfolio Turnover Risk.”

Non-Diversified Status. Because the Fund, as a non-diversified investment company, may invest in a smaller number of individual issuers than a diversified investment company, an investment in the Fund presents greater risk to you than an investment in a diversified company. See “Additional Risk Considerations—Non-Diversified Status.”

 

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Anti-Takeover Provisions. Certain provisions of the Fund’s Declaration of Trust and By-Laws could have the effect of limiting the ability of other entities or persons to acquire control of the Fund or to modify the Fund’s structure. The provisions may have the effect of depriving you of an opportunity to sell your shares at a premium over prevailing market prices and may have the effect of inhibiting conversion of the Fund to an open-end investment company. See “Certain Provisions of the Declaration of Trust and By-Laws” and “Additional Risk Considerations—Anti-Takeover Provisions.”

Geopolitical Risk. Occurrence of global events similar to those in recent years, such as war, terrorist attacks, natural or environmental disasters, country instability, infectious disease epidemics, market instability, debt crises and downgrades, embargoes, tariffs, sanctions and other trade barriers and other governmental trade or market control programs, the potential exit of a country from its respective union and related geopolitical events, may result in market volatility and may have long-lasting impacts on both the U.S. and global financial markets. Additionally, those events, as well as other changes in foreign and domestic political and economic conditions, could adversely affect individual issuers or related groups of issuers, securities markets, interest rates, secondary trading, credit ratings, inflation, investor sentiment and other factors affecting the value of the Fund’s investments.

On March 29, 2017, the United Kingdom (“UK”) formally notified the European Council of its intention to leave the EU and commenced the formal process of withdrawing from the EU (referred to as “Brexit”). Brexit has resulted in volatility in European and global markets and could have negative long-term impacts on financial markets in the UK and throughout Europe. There is considerable uncertainty about the potential consequences and precise timeframe for Brexit, how it will be conducted, how negotiations of trade agreements will proceed, and how the financial markets will react. As this process unfolds, markets may be further disrupted. Given the size and importance of the UK’s economy, uncertainty about its legal, political and economic relationship with the remaining member states of the EU may continue to be a source of instability.

Growing tensions, including trade disputes, between the United States and other nations, or among foreign powers, and possible diplomatic, trade or other sanctions could adversely impact the global economy, financial markets and the Fund. The strengthening or weakening of the U.S. dollar relative to other currencies may, among other things, adversely affect the Fund’s investments denominated in non-U.S. dollar currencies. It is difficult to predict when similar events affecting the U.S. or global financial markets may occur, the effects that such events may have, and the duration of those effects.

Real Estate Risk. To the extent that the Fund invests in real estate related investments, including REITs or real-estate linked derivative instruments, it will be subject to the risks associated with owning real estate and with the real estate industry generally. Property values may fall due to increasing vacancies or declining rents resulting from unanticipated economic, legal, cultural or technological developments. Real estate company prices also may drop because of the failure of borrowers to pay their loans and poor management, and residential developers, in particular, could be negatively impacted by falling home prices, slower mortgage origination and rising construction costs. REITs generally are dependent upon management skills and may not be diversified. REITs are also subject to heavy cash flow dependency, defaults by borrowers and self-liquidation. In addition, REITs could possibly fail to (i) qualify for favorable tax treatment under applicable tax law, or (ii) maintain their exemptions from registration under the 1940 Act. The above factors may also adversely affect a borrower’s or a lessee’s ability to meet its obligations to the REIT. In the event of a default by a borrower or lessee, the REIT may experience delays in enforcing its rights as a mortgagee or lessor and may incur substantial costs associated with protecting its investments.

 

29


Cyber Security Risk. With the increased use of technologies such as the Internet and the dependence on computer systems to perform necessary business functions, the Fund and its service providers (including the Investment Manager) may be susceptible to operational and information security risks resulting from cyber-attacks and/or other technological malfunctions. In general, cyber-attacks are deliberate, but unintentional events may have similar effects. Cyber-attacks include, among others, stealing or corrupting data maintained online or digitally, preventing legitimate users from accessing information or services on a website, releasing confidential information without authorization, gaining unauthorized access to digital systems for purposes of misappropriating assets and causing operational disruption. Cyber-attacks may also be carried out in a manner that does not require gaining unauthorized access, such as causing denial-of-service. Successful cyber-attacks against, or security breakdowns of, the Fund, the Investment Manager, or a custodian, transfer agent, or other affiliated or third-party service provider may adversely affect the Fund or its shareholders. For instance, cyber-attacks may interfere with the processing of shareholder transactions, affect the Fund’s ability to calculate its NAV, cause the release of private shareholder information or confidential Fund information, impede trading, cause reputational damage, and subject the Fund to regulatory fines, penalties or financial losses, reimbursement or other compensation costs, and additional compliance costs. Furthermore, as a result of breaches in cyber security or other operational and technology disruptions or failures, an exchange or market may close or issue trading halts on specific securities or an entire market, which may result in a Fund being, among other things, unable to buy or sell certain securities or financial instruments or unable to accurately price its investments. While the Fund has established business continuity plans and systems designed to prevent cyber-attacks, there are inherent limitations in such plans and systems including the possibility that certain risks have not been identified. Similar types of cyber security risks also are present for issuers of securities in which the Fund invests, which could result in material adverse consequences for such issuers, and may cause the Fund’s investment in such securities to lose value.

Each of the Fund and the Investment Manager may have limited ability to prevent or mitigate cyber-attacks or security or technology breakdowns affecting each Fund’s third-party service providers. While the Fund has established business continuity plans and systems designed to prevent or reduce the impact of cyber-attacks, such plans and systems are subject to inherent limitations.

Regulatory Risk. The U.S. government has proposed and adopted multiple regulations that could have a long-lasting impact on the Fund and on the mutual fund industry in general. The SEC’s final rules and amendments that modernize reporting and disclosure, along with other potential upcoming regulations, could, among other things, restrict the Fund’s ability to engage in transactions, and/or increase overall expenses of the Fund. In addition, the SEC, Congress, various exchanges and regulatory and self-regulatory authorities, both domestic and foreign, have undertaken reviews of the use of derivatives by registered investment companies, which could affect the nature and extent of instruments used by the Fund. While the full extent of all of these regulations is still unclear, these regulations and actions may adversely affect both the Fund and the instruments in which the Fund invests and its ability to execute its investment strategy. Similarly, regulatory developments in other countries may have an unpredictable and adverse impact on the Fund.

Mortgage- and Asset-Backed Securities Risk. The risks associated with mortgage-related securities include: (1) credit risk associated with the performance of the underlying mortgage properties and of the borrowers owning these properties; (2) adverse changes in economic conditions and circumstances, which are more likely to have an adverse impact on mortgage-related securities secured by loans on certain types of commercial properties than on those secured by loans on residential properties; (3) prepayment risk, which can lead to significant fluctuations in value of the mortgage-related security; (4) loss of all or part of the premium, if any, paid; and (5) decline in the market value of the security, whether resulting from changes in interest rates or prepayments on the underlying mortgage collateral.

 

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Asset-backed securities involve certain risks in addition to those presented by mortgage-related securities: (1) primarily, these securities do not have the benefit of the same security interest in the underlying collateral as mortgage-related securities and are more dependent on the borrower’s ability to pay; (2) credit card receivables are generally unsecured, and the debtors are entitled to the protection of a number of state and Federal consumer credit laws, many of which give debtors the right to set off certain amounts owed on the credit cards, thereby reducing the balance due; and (3) most issuers of automobile receivables permit the servicers to retain possession of the underlying obligations. If these obligations are sold to another party, there is a risk that the purchaser would acquire an interest superior to that of the holders of the related automobile receivables. In addition, because of the large number of vehicles involved in a typical issuance and technical requirements under state laws, the trustee for the holders of the automobile receivables may not have an effective security interest in all of the obligations backing such receivables. There is a possibility that recoveries on repossessed collateral may not, in some cases, be able to support payments on these securities.

Given the risks described above, an investment in the Common Shares may not be appropriate for all investors. You should carefully consider your ability to assume these risks before making an investment in the Fund.

 

 

SUMMARY OF FUND EXPENSES

 

 

The purpose of the following table and example below is to help you understand the fees and expenses that you, as a Common Shareholder, would bear directly or indirectly. Shareholders should understand that some of the percentages indicated in the tables below are estimates and may vary. The expenses shown in the table under “Estimated annual expenses” are based on estimated amounts for the Fund’s first full year of operations and assume that the Fund issues [•] Common Shares. The table also assumes the use of leverage in the form of Borrowings in an amount equal to 331/3% of the Fund’s Managed Assets (after the leverage is incurred), and shows Fund expenses as a percentage of net assets attributable to Common Shares. If the Fund issues fewer Common Shares, all other things being equal, these expenses would increase as a percentage of net assets attributable to Common Shares. Actual expenses may vary from the estimated expenses shown in the table.

 

Shareholder Transaction Expenses   

Percentage of
Offering Price

Sales Load (as a percentage of offering price)(1)

   None

Expenses borne by the Fund (as a percentage of offering price)(2),(3)

   None

Dividend Reinvestment Plan Fees(4)

   None
Annual Expenses   

Percentage of Net
Assets
Attributable to
Common Shares
(Assumes  Leverage
is Used)(5)

Investment Management Fee(6)

   [•]%

Interest Payments on Borrowed Funds(7)

   [•]%

Other Expenses(8)

   [•]%

Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses

   [•]%

 

 

(1)

The Investment Manager (and not the Fund) has agreed to pay, from its own assets, underwriting compensation of $[•] per Common Share to the underwriters in connection with the offering. The Fund is not obligated to repay such underwriting compensation paid by the Investment Manager.

 

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(2)

The Investment Manager has agreed to pay all organizational expenses of the Fund and all offering costs associated with this offering. The Fund is not obligated to repay any such organizational expenses or offering costs paid by the Investment Manager.

 

(3)

The Investment Manager (and not the Fund) has agreed to pay from its own assets, an upfront structuring fee to [•], and may pay certain other underwriters a structuring fee, a sales incentive fee or other additional compensation in connection with the offering. These fees are not reflected under sales load in the table above because they are paid by the Investment Manager (and not the Fund). In accordance with Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. rules, these upfront structuring fees are underwriting compensation to the recipients of such fees. See “Underwriters.”

 

(4)

The expenses of administering the Fund’s dividend reinvestment plan are included in Other expenses. You will pay brokerage charges if you direct your broker or the plan agent to sell your Common Shares that you acquired pursuant to a dividend reinvestment plan. You may also pay a pro rata share of brokerage commissions incurred in connection with open-market purchases pursuant to the Fund’s Dividend Reinvestment Plan. See “Dividends and Distributions—Dividend Reinvestment Plan.”

 

(5)

If the Fund does not borrow from financial institutions or otherwise use leverage, the Fund’s estimated annual expenses (as a percentage of net assets attributable to Common Shares) would be:

 

    

Percentage of Net
Assets
Attributable to
Common Shares
(Assumes no  Leverage)

Investment Management Fee(6)

   [•]%

Other Expenses(8)

   [•]%

Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses

   [•]%

 

(6)

The Investment Manager will receive a management fee at an annual rate of [•]% of the Fund’s average daily value of net assets attributable to Common Shares assuming no leverage is used. If the anticipated amount of leverage is used, the management fee would be [•]% of the Fund’s average daily value of net assets attributable to Common Shares because the fee is based on the Fund’s net assets, plus the principal amount of any Borrowings, the liquidation preference of Preferred Shares, if any, and the proceeds of any Reverse Repurchase Agreements.

 

(7)

Interest payments on borrowed funds assumes that leverage will represent 331/3% of the Fund’s Managed Assets and charge interest or involve payment at a rate set by an interest rate transaction at an annual average rate of approximately [•]%, which is based on current market conditions. The actual rate could vary substantially from this estimate, which could cause Interest payments on borrowed funds and Total annual Fund operating expenses to vary substantially from the percentages shown in the table above. The Fund may use forms of leverage other than and/or in addition to Borrowings, which may be subject to different interest expenses than those estimated above. The actual amount of interest expense borne by the Fund will vary over time in accordance with the level of the Fund’s use of Borrowings and variations in market interest rates. Interest expense is required to be treated as an expense of the Fund for accounting purposes. Any associated income or gains (or losses) realized from leverage obtained through Borrowings is not reflected in the Annual Expenses table above, but would be reflected in the Fund’s performance results.

 

(8)

The “Other expenses” shown in the tables above and related footnotes are based upon estimated amounts for the Fund’s first year of operations and assume that the Fund issues [•] Common Shares.

EXAMPLE

The following example illustrates the expenses (including the sales load, estimated offering expenses of this offering of $[•] and the estimated costs of Borrowings assuming the Fund utilizes leverage representing 331/3% of the Fund’s Managed Assets) that you would pay on a $1,000 investment in Common Shares, assuming (1) total annual Fund operating expenses of [•]% of net assets attributable to Common Shares in years 1 through 10 and (2) a 5% annual return:

 

1 Year

    3 Years     5 Years     10 Years  
$ [ •]    $ [ •]    $ [ •]    $ [ •] 

 

 

*

The examples above should not be considered a representation of future expenses. Actual expenses may be higher or lower. The example assumes that the estimated “Other Expenses” set forth in the Annual Expenses table is accurate and that all dividends and distributions are reinvested at NAV. Actual expenses may be greater or less than those assumed. Moreover, the Fund’s actual rate of return may be greater or less than the hypothetical 5% return shown in the example. Assuming the Fund does not use leverage, including through the use of Borrowings, the illustrated expenses in the example above would be $[•], $[•], $[•] and $[•] for years 1, 3, 5 and 10, respectively.

 

32


 

THE FUND

 

 

The Fund is a newly organized, non-diversified, closed-end management investment company. The Fund was organized as a Maryland statutory trust on November 14, 2019 and is registered as an investment company under the 1940 Act. As a newly organized entity, the Fund has no operating history. The Fund’s principal office is located at 280 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10017, and its telephone number is (212) 832-3232.

 

 

USE OF PROCEEDS

 

 

The net proceeds of the offering of Common Shares will be approximately $[•] (or $[•] if the underwriters exercise the overallotment option in full). The Investment Manager (and not the Fund) has agreed to pay from its own assets compensation of $[•] per Common Share to the underwriters in connection with the offering. The Investment Manager has agreed to pay all of the Fund’s organizational expenses and all offering costs associated with this offering, and the Fund is not obligated to repay any such organizational expenses or offering costs paid by the Investment Manager. The net proceeds will be invested in accordance with the policies set forth under “Investment Objectives and Policies.”

The Fund estimates that the net proceeds of this offering will be fully invested in accordance with its investment objectives and policies within 60 days of the initial public offering. Pending such investments, those proceeds may be invested in cash, cash equivalents, swaps, government securities and short-term fixed income securities. See “Investment Objectives and Policies.”

 

 

INVESTMENT OBJECTIVES AND POLICIES

 

 

GENERAL

The Fund’s primary investment objective is high current income. The Fund’s secondary investment objective is capital appreciation. There can be no assurance that the Fund will achieve its investment objectives. Unless otherwise indicated in this prospectus or the SAI, the Fund’s investment objectives and investment policies are considered non-fundamental and may be changed by the Board of Trustees without shareholder approval. However, the Fund’s investment objectives and its policy of investing at least 80% of its Managed Assets in preferred and other income securities may only be changed upon 60 days’ prior written notice to the Fund’s shareholders. The Fund pursues its investment objectives primarily by investing in issues of preferred and other income securities the Investment Manager believes to be undervalued relative to credit quality and other investment characteristics. In making this determination, the Investment Manager evaluates the fundamental characteristics of an issuer, including, among other characteristics, an issuer’s creditworthiness, and also takes into account prevailing market factors. In evaluating relative value, the Investment Manager also takes into account call, conversion and other structural security features, in addition to such factors as the likely directions of credit ratings and relative value versus other income security classes.

In analyzing credit quality, the Investment Manager considers not only fundamental analysis but also an issuer’s corporate and capital structure and the placement of the preferred or debt securities within

 

33


that structure. The Investment Manager may rely primarily on its own analysis of the credit quality and risks associated with individual securities considered for the Fund, rather than relying exclusively on NRSROs or third-party research. This aspect of the Investment Manager’s capabilities will be particularly important to the extent that the Fund invests in below investment grade or unrated securities and in securities of non-U.S. issuers.

Under normal market conditions, the Fund invests at least 80% of its Managed Assets in a portfolio of preferred and other income securities issued by U.S. and non-U.S. companies, which may be either exchange-traded or available OTC. Such securities may include:

 

·  

Traditional preferred securities;

 

·  

Hybrid-preferred securities that have investment and economic characteristics of both preferred stock and debt securities;

 

·  

Floating-rate and fixed-to-floating-rate preferred securities;

 

·  

Fixed- and floating-rate corporate debt securities;

 

·  

CoCos;

 

·  

Convertible securities; and

 

·  

Securities of other closed-end funds, open-end funds or ETFs that invest primarily in preferred and/or debt securities as described herein.

These securities may be across a wide range of sectors, industries and countries. The Fund may also invest in common stocks, government securities, mortgage- and asset-backed securities and municipal securities; however, under normal circumstances the Fund will not invest more than [10]% of its Managed Assets in mortgage-backed, mortgage-related and other asset-backed securities. These securities are not included within the Fund’s 80% investment policy.

The Fund also will invest 25% or more of its total assets in the financials sector, which is comprised of the banking, diversified financials, real estate (including REITs) and insurance industries. From time to time, the Fund may have 25% or more of its total assets invested in any one or more of these industries that make up the financials sector. In addition, the Fund also may focus its investments in other sectors or industries, such as (but not limited to) energy, industrials, utilities, pipelines, health care and telecommunications. The Investment Manager retains broad discretion to allocate the Fund’s investments across various sectors and industries. The Fund may invest without limit in securities of non-U.S. companies, which may be non-U.S. dollar denominated, including securities issued by companies domiciled in emerging market countries. Typically, emerging markets are in countries that are in the process of industrialization, with lower gross national products per capita than more developed countries. The Investment Manager may hedge some or all of the Fund’s foreign currency exposure.

The Fund may invest in preferred and debt securities of any maturity or credit rating, including investment grade securities, below investment grade securities and unrated securities. Although not required to do so, the Fund will generally seek to maintain a minimum weighted average senior debt rating of companies in which it invests of BBB-, which the Fund considers to be investment grade. Although a company’s senior debt rating may be BBB-, an underlying security issued by such company in which the Fund invests may have a lower rating than BBB-. If the Fund cannot access a company’s average senior debt rating, the Fund may look to the rating of the underlying security issued by such company. Below investment grade securities are also known as “high yield” or “junk” securities and are regarded as having more speculative characteristics with respect to the payment of interest and

 

34


repayment of principal. The Fund may invest a significant portion of its assets in below investment grade securities or securities that are unrated but judged to be below investment grade by the Investment Manager.

The Fund is authorized to purchase, sell or enter into any derivative contract or option on a derivative contract, transaction or instrument, without limitation, including various interest rate transactions such as swaps, caps, floors or collars, and foreign currency transactions such as foreign currency forward contracts, futures contracts, options, swaps and other similar strategic transactions in connection with its investments in securities of non-U.S. companies. The Fund’s primary use of derivative contracts will be to enter into interest rate and currency hedging transactions in order to reduce the interest rate and foreign currency risk inherent in the Fund’s investments.

The Fund is non-diversified and as a result may invest a relatively high percentage of its assets in a limited number of issuers. As a result, changes in the value of a single investment could cause greater fluctuations in the Fund’s share price than would occur in a more diversified fund.

On an overall basis, the Fund seeks to implement an investment strategy designed to minimize the U.S. federal income tax consequences on income generated by the Fund. The Fund seeks to accomplish this primarily by (i) investing in dividend-paying securities that are eligible to pay dividends that qualify for U.S. federal income taxation at rates applicable to long-term capital gain (“tax-advantaged dividends”), and complying with the holding period and other requirements for such favorable tax treatment; and (ii) offsetting any ordinary income and realized short-term capital gain against Fund expenses and realized short-term loss.

INVESTMENT PORTFOLIO

Our portfolio will be composed principally of the following investments. A more detailed description of the Fund’s investment policies and restrictions and more detailed information about the Fund’s portfolio investments are contained in the SAI.

PRIMARY INVESTMENT STRATEGIES AND TECHNIQUES

Preferred Securities. There are two basic types of preferred securities. The first, sometimes referred to in this prospectus as traditional preferred securities, consists of preferred stock issued by an entity taxable as a corporation. Preferred stocks are considered equity securities. The second basic type is referred to in this prospectus as hybrid-preferred securities. Hybrid-preferred securities may be issued by corporations, generally in the form of interest-bearing notes with preferred securities characteristics, or by an affiliated trust or partnership of the corporation, generally in the form of preferred interests in subordinated debentures or similarly structured securities. The hybrid-preferred securities market consists of both fixed- and adjustable coupon rate securities that are either perpetual in nature or have stated maturity dates. Hybrid-preferred securities are considered debt securities. The Investment Manager also considers senior debt perpetual issues, as well as exchange-listed senior debt issues that trade with attributes of exchange-listed perpetual and hybrid-preferred securities to be part of the broader preferred securities market. The Fund intends to invest significantly in OTC preferred securities, and will also invest in exchange-traded preferred securities.

Traditional Preferred Securities. Traditional preferred securities pay fixed or floating dividends to investors and have “preference” over common stock in the payment of dividends and in the liquidation of a company’s assets. This means that a company must pay dividends on preferred stock before paying any dividends on its common stock. In order to be payable, distributions on such preferred securities must be declared by the issuer’s board of directors. Income payments on certain preferred securities currently outstanding are cumulative, causing dividends and distributions to accumulate even if not

 

35


declared by the board of directors or otherwise made payable. In such a case, all accumulated dividends must be paid before any dividend on the common stock can be paid. However, some traditional preferred stocks are non-cumulative, in which case dividends do not accumulate and need not ever be paid. The Fund may invest in non-cumulative preferred securities, whereby the issuer does not have an obligation to make up any arrearages to its shareholders. Should an issuer of a non-cumulative preferred stock held by the Fund determine not to pay dividends on such stock, the amount of dividends the Fund pays may be adversely affected. There is no assurance that dividends or distributions on the traditional preferred securities in which the Fund invests will be declared or otherwise made payable. Preferred shareholders usually have no right to vote for corporate directors or on other matters. Shares of traditional preferred securities have a liquidation preference that generally equals the original purchase price at the date of issuance. The market value of preferred securities may be affected by favorable and unfavorable changes impacting companies in the utilities and financial services sectors, which are prominent issuers of preferred securities, and by actual and anticipated changes in tax laws, such as changes in corporate income tax rates. Because the claim on an issuer’s earnings represented by traditional preferred securities may become onerous when interest rates fall below the rate payable on such securities, the issuer may redeem the securities. Thus, in declining interest rate environments in particular, the Fund’s holdings of higher rate-paying fixed rate preferred securities may be reduced and the Fund may be unable to acquire securities of comparable credit quality paying comparable rates with the redemption proceeds.

Floating-rate and fixed-to-floating-rate preferred securities may be traditional preferred or hybrid-preferred securities. Floating-rate preferred securities provide for a periodic adjustment in the interest rate paid on the securities. The terms of such securities provide that interest rates are adjusted periodically based upon an interest rate adjustment index. The adjustment intervals may be regular, and range from daily up to annually, or may be event-based, such as a change in the short-term interest rate. Because of the interest rate reset feature, floating-rate securities provide the Fund with a certain degree of protection against rising interest rates, although the interest rates of floating-rate securities will participate in any declines in interest rates as well. Similarly, a fixed-to-floating-rate security may be less price-sensitive to rising interest rates (or yields), because it has a rate of payment that is fixed for a certain period (typically five, ten or thirty years when first issued), after which period a floating-rate of payment applies. The Fund may invest significantly in both floating-rate and fixed-to-floating-rate preferred securities.

Corporate shareholders of a RIC such as the Fund generally are permitted to claim the 50% DRD with respect to that portion of their distributions from the RIC attributable to amounts received by the RIC that qualify for the DRD, provided such amounts are properly reported by the RIC and certain holding period requirements are met at both the RIC and shareholder level. However, not all traditional preferred securities pay dividends that are eligible for the DRD.

Individual shareholders of a RIC such as the Fund generally may be eligible to treat as QDI that portion of their distributions from the RIC attributable to QDI received and reported as such by the RIC, provided certain holding period requirements are met at both the RIC and shareholder level. However, not all traditional preferred securities will provide significant benefits under the rules relating to QDI. For more information regarding QDI and DRD, see “Taxation” below.

Within the category of traditional preferred securities, the Fund may invest in traditional preferred securities issued by real estate companies, including REITs. REIT preferred securities are generally perpetual in nature, although REITs often have the ability to redeem the preferred securities after a specified period of time. The market value of REIT preferred securities may be affected by favorable

 

36


and unfavorable changes affecting a particular REIT. While sharing characteristics of other traditional preferred securities, dividends from REIT preferred securities do not qualify for the DRD and generally do not constitute QDI, as described below. The Fund may invest in REITs of any market capitalization; however, even the larger REITs tend to be small- to medium-sized companies in relation to the equity markets as a whole.

Between 2018 and 2025, “Qualified REIT dividends” are treated as eligible for a 20% deduction by non-corporate taxpayers. Qualified REIT dividends are dividends received from REITs that are neither capital gain dividends nor are eligible for treatment as qualified dividends. Proposed regulations issued by the IRS enable the Fund to pass-through Qualified REIT dividends to its shareholders, provided the shareholders meet certain holding period requirements with respect to their shares.

Hybrid-Preferred Securities. Hybrid-preferred securities are typically issued by corporations, generally in the form of interest-bearing notes with preferred securities characteristics, as described below, or by an affiliated business trust of a corporation, generally in the form of beneficial interests in subordinated debentures or similarly structured securities. The hybrid-preferred securities market consists of both fixed- and adjustable coupon rate securities that are either perpetual in nature or have stated maturity dates.

Hybrid-preferred securities are typically junior and fully subordinated liabilities of an issuer or the beneficiary of a guarantee that is junior and fully subordinated to the other liabilities of the guarantor. In addition, hybrid-preferred securities typically permit an issuer to defer the payment of income for 18 months or more without triggering an event of default. Generally, the maximum deferral period is five years. Because of their subordinated position in the capital structure of an issuer, the ability to defer payments for extended periods of time without default consequences to the issuer, and certain other features (such as restrictions on common dividend payments by the issuer or ultimate guarantor when full cumulative payments on the trust preferred securities have not been made), these hybrid-preferred securities are often treated as close substitutes for traditional preferred securities, both by issuers and investors. Hybrid-preferred securities have many of the key characteristics of equity because of their subordinated position in an issuer’s capital structure and because their quality and value are heavily dependent on the profitability of the issuer rather than on any legal claims to specific assets or cash flows. Hybrid-preferred securities include, but are not limited to, trust originated preferred securities; monthly income preferred securities; quarterly income bond securities; quarterly income debt securities; quarterly income preferred securities; corporate trust securities; public income notes; and other hybrid-preferred securities.

Hybrid-preferred securities are typically issued with a final maturity date, although some are perpetual in nature. In certain instances, a final maturity date may be extended and/or the final payment of principal may be deferred at the issuer’s option for a specified time without default. No redemption can typically take place unless all cumulative payment obligations have been met, although issuers may be able to engage in open-market repurchases without regard to whether all payments have been paid.

Many hybrid-preferred securities are issued by trusts or other special purpose entities established by operating companies and are not direct obligations of the operating company. At the time the trust or special purpose entity sells such preferred securities to investors, it purchases debt of the operating company (with terms comparable to those of the trust or special purpose entity securities), which enables the operating company to deduct for tax purposes the interest paid on the debt held by the trust or special purpose entity. For U.S. federal income tax purposes, holders of the trust preferred securities generally are treated as owning beneficial interests in the underlying debt of the operating company held by the trust or special purpose entity, and payments on the hybrid-preferred securities are treated as

 

37


interest rather than dividends. As such, payments on the hybrid-preferred securities are not eligible for the DRD or the reduced rates of tax that may apply to QDI. The trust or special purpose entity would be a holder of the operating company’s debt and would have priority with respect to the operating company’s earnings and profits over the operating company’s common shareholders, but would typically be subordinated to other classes of the operating company’s debt. Typically a preferred share has a rating that is slightly below that of its corresponding operating company’s senior debt securities.

Within the category of hybrid-preferred securities are senior debt instruments that trade in the broader preferred securities market. These debt instruments, which are sources of long-term capital for the issuers, have structural features similar to preferred stock such as maturities ranging from 30 years to perpetuity, call features, exchange listings and the inclusion of accrued interest in the trading price. Similar to other hybrid-preferred securities, these debt instruments usually do not offer equity capital treatment. Corporate trust securities (CORTS®) and public income notes (PINES®) are two examples of senior debt instruments which are structured and trade as hybrid-preferred securities.

The Fund may invest in other types of preferred securities, including preferred securities that are not currently in use and which may or may not be illiquid. The Fund may also engage in derivatives transactions that are intended to provide economic exposure similar to investments in preferred securities. The Fund may invest in preferred securities denominated in U.S. or foreign (non-U.S.) currencies.

Debt Securities. Debt securities in which the Fund may invest include fixed- and floating-rate corporate debt securities issued by U.S. and non-U.S. corporations, including U.S. dollar denominated debt obligations issued or guaranteed by U.S. corporations, U.S. dollar-denominated obligations of foreign issuers and debt obligations denominated in foreign currencies. Such debt obligations include, among others, bonds, notes, debentures and variable rate demand notes, with the primary difference being their maturities and secured or unsecured status. Such corporate debt securities are fixed- or floating-rate securities issued by businesses to finance their operations. The issuer pays the investor a fixed or variable rate of interest and normally must repay the amount borrowed on or before maturity.

Convertible Securities. Convertible securities are hybrid securities that combine the investment characteristics of bonds and common stocks. Convertible securities typically consist of debt or perpetual preferred securities that may be converted within a specified period of time into a certain amount of common stock or other equity security of the same or a different issuer at a predetermined price. In some cases, conversion may be mandatory. They also include debt securities with warrants or common stock attached and hybrid and synthetic securities combining the features of debt securities and equity securities. Convertible securities entitle the holder to receive interest paid or accrued on debt, or dividends paid or accrued on preferred stock, until the security matures or is redeemed, converted or exchanged.

Contingent Capital Securities. The Fund may invest up to [20]% of its Managed Assets in CoCos. CoCos are debt or preferred securities with loss absorption characteristics that provide for an automatic write-down of the principal amount or value of securities or the mandatory conversion into common shares of the issuer under certain circumstances. A mandatory conversion might be automatically triggered, for instance, if a company fails to meet the capital minimum described in the security, the company’s regulator makes a determination that the security should convert, or the company receives specified levels of extraordinary public support. Since the common stock of the issuer may not pay a dividend, investors in these instruments could experience a reduced income rate, potentially to zero, and conversion would deepen the subordination of the investor (worsening the Fund’s standing in a bankruptcy). In addition, some CoCos provide for an automatic write-down of capital under such circumstances.

 

38


In one version of a CoCo, the security has loss absorption characteristics whereby the liquidation value of the security may be adjusted downward to below the original par value (even to zero) under certain circumstances. The write down of the par value would occur automatically and would not entitle the holders to seek bankruptcy of the company. In addition, an automatic write-down could result in a reduced income rate if the dividend or interest payment is based on the security’s par value. Such securities may, but are not required to, provide for circumstances under which the liquidation value may be adjusted back up to par, such as an improvement in capitalization and/or earnings.

Another version of a CoCo provides for mandatory conversion of the security into common shares of the issuer under certain circumstances. Since the common stock of the issuer may not pay a dividend, investors in these instruments could experience a reduced income rate, potentially to zero; and conversion would deepen the subordination of the investor, hence worsening standing in a bankruptcy. In addition, some such instruments have a set stock conversion rate that would cause an automatic write-down if the price of the common stock is below the conversion price on the conversion date.

An automatic write-down or conversion event is typically triggered by a reduction in the capital level of the issuer, but may also be triggered by regulatory actions (e.g., a change in capital requirements) or by other factors.

Concentration in Financials Sector. The Fund will invest 25% or more of its total assets in the financials sector, which is comprised of the banking, diversified financials, real estate (including REITs) and insurance industries. From time to time, the Fund may have 25% or more of its total assets invested in any one or more of these industries that make up the financials sector. In addition, the Fund also may focus its investments in other sectors or industries, such as (but not limited to) energy, industrials, utilities, pipelines, health care and telecommunications. The Investment Manager retains broad discretion to allocate the Fund’s investments across various sectors and industries.

Investment Grade and Below Investment Grade Securities. The Fund may invest in debt securities of any maturity or credit rating, including investment grade securities, below investment grade securities and unrated securities. Although not required to do so, the Fund will generally seek to maintain a minimum weighted average senior debt rating of companies in which it invests of BBB-, which the Fund considers to be investment grade. Although a company’s senior debt rating may be BBB-, an underlying security issued by such company in which the Fund invests may have a lower rating than BBB-. If the Fund cannot access a company’s average senior debt rating, the Fund may look to the rating of the underlying security issued by such company. The determination of whether a security is deemed investment grade or below investment grade will be determined at the time of investment. A security will be considered to be investment grade if it is rated as such by one nationally recognized statistical rating organization (“NRSRO”) (for example minimum Baa3 or BBB- by Moody’s or S&P, respectively) or, if unrated, is judged to be investment grade by the Investment Manager. Below investment grade quality securities or securities that are unrated but judged to be below investment grade by the Investment Manager, are commonly referred to as “high yield” or “junk” securities and are regarded as having more speculative characteristics with respect to the payment of interest and repayment of principal.

Foreign (Non-U.S.) Securities and Depositary Receipts. The Fund may invest without limit in securities of non-U.S. companies, including [15]% in securities of companies domiciled in emerging markets. Many foreign companies issue both foreign currency and U.S. dollar-denominated preferred and debt securities. Those securities that are traded in the United States have characteristics that are similar to traditional and hybrid preferred securities. The Fund may also invest in securities of foreign companies in the form of American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”), Global Depositary Receipts (“GDRs”) and

 

39


European Depositary Receipts (“EDRs”). Generally, ADRs in registered form are dollar-denominated securities designed for use in the U.S. securities markets, which represent and may be converted into an underlying foreign security. GDRs, in bearer form, are designed for use outside the United States. EDRs, in bearer form, are designed for use in the European securities markets. The Fund may invest in foreign issuers in both developed and emerging markets.

Derivatives. The Fund is authorized to purchase, sell or enter into any derivative contract or option on a derivative contract, transaction or instrument including, without limitation, various interest rate transactions such as swaps, caps, floors or collars, and foreign currency transactions, such as foreign currency forward contracts, futures contracts, options, swaps and other similar transactions in connection with its investments in securities of non-U.S. companies. The Fund’s primary use of derivative contracts will be to enter into interest rate hedging transactions in order to reduce the interest rate risk inherent in the Fund’s investments, and foreign currency hedging transactions in order to reduce foreign currency exchange rate risks from adverse changes in the relationship between the U.S. dollar and foreign currencies (including to hedge against anticipated future changes which otherwise might adversely affect the prices of securities that the Fund intends to purchase at a later date). Derivative instruments, or “derivatives,” include instruments and contracts which are derived from and are valued in relation to one or more underlying interest rates, currencies, securities, financial benchmarks or indexes and include, without limitation, swap agreements (including credit default swaps), futures contracts, forward contracts, options on futures or forward contracts, and listed or OTC put or call options on, or linked to the value of, any security, index or basket of securities, commodity or index or basket of commodities or other reference asset. Derivatives typically allow an investor to hedge or speculate upon the price movements of a particular interest rate, currency, security, financial benchmark or index at a fraction of the cost of acquiring or borrowing the underlying asset. The value of a derivative depends largely upon price movements in the underlying asset.

An interest rate swap involves the exchange of cash flows based on interest rate specifications and a specified principal amount, often a fixed payment for a floating payment that is linked to an interest rate. In an interest rate cap, one party receives payments at the end of each period in which a specified interest rate on a specified principal amount exceeds an agreed rate; conversely, in an interest rate floor one party may receive payments if a specified interest rate on a specified principal amount falls below an agreed rate. Interest rate collars involve selling a cap and purchasing a floor, or vice versa, to protect a fund against interest rate movements exceeding given minimum or maximum levels.

A foreign currency forward contract is an obligation to purchase or sell a specific currency for an agreed price on a future date which is individually negotiated and privately traded by currency traders and their customers. A foreign currency futures contract is an exchange-traded contract for the purchase or sale of a specified foreign currency at a specified price at a future date. A foreign currency swap is an agreement between two parties to exchange principal and interest payments on a loan made in one currency for principal and interest payments of a loan of equal value in another currency. The Fund may enter into a foreign currency forward contract, foreign currency futures contract or foreign currency swap, or purchase a currency option, for example, when it enters into a contract for the purchase or sale of a security denominated in a foreign currency or expects to receive a dividend or interest payment on a portfolio holding, in order to “lock in” the U.S. dollar value of the security or payment. In addition, the Fund may enter into a foreign currency forward contract, futures contract or swap or purchase a currency option in respect of a currency which acts as a proxy for a currency in which the Fund’s portfolio holdings or anticipated holdings are denominated. This second investment practice is generally referred to as “cross-hedging.” The Fund may also conduct its foreign currency exchange transactions on a spot (i.e., cash) basis at the spot rate prevailing in the foreign currency exchange market.

 

40


The Fund’s transactions in foreign currencies may increase or accelerate the Fund’s recognition of ordinary income and may affect the timing or character of the Fund’s distributions. To the extent any derivatives would be deemed to be illiquid, they will be included in the Fund’s maximum limitation of [25]% of net assets invested in illiquid securities.

Rule 144A Securities. Certain securities in which the Fund may invest are Rule 144A Securities. Rule 144A Securities are considered restricted securities because they are not registered for sale to the general public and may only be resold to certain qualified institutional buyers.

Regulation S Securities. The Fund may invest in the securities of U.S. and non-U.S. issuers that are issued through private offerings without registration with the SEC pursuant to Regulation S under the Securities Act. Offerings of Regulation S securities may be conducted outside of the United States. Because Regulation S securities are subject to legal or contractual restrictions on resale, certain Regulation S securities may be considered illiquid.

Short Sales. The Fund may enter into short sales, provided the dollar amount of short sales at any time would not exceed [25]% of the Managed Assets of the Fund. The Fund must designate collateral consisting of cash or liquid portfolio securities with a value equal to the current market value of the shorted securities, which is marked-to-market daily. If the Fund owns an equal amount of such securities or securities convertible into or exchangeable for, without payment of any further consideration, securities of the same issuer as, and equal in amount to, the securities sold short (which sales are commonly referred to as short sales against the box), the above requirements are not applicable.

Other Investment Companies. The Fund may invest in securities of other investment companies, including open-end funds, closed-end funds or ETFs, that invest primarily in preferred and/or debt securities as described herein, to the extent permitted under Section 12(d)(1) of the 1940 Act and the rules promulgated thereunder, or any exemption granted to the Fund under the 1940 Act. The Fund also may invest in other funds either during periods when it has large amounts of uninvested cash, such as the period shortly after the Fund receives the proceeds of the offering of its Common Shares, or during periods when there is a shortage of attractive opportunities in the market.

An investment in the shares of another fund is subject to the risks associated with that fund’s portfolio securities. To the extent the Fund invests in shares of another fund, Common Shareholders would indirectly pay a portion of that fund’s expenses, including advisory fees, brokerage and distribution expenses. These fees and expenses are in addition to the direct expenses of the Fund’s own operations. Common Shareholders would therefore be subject to duplicative expenses to the extent the Fund invests in other funds. The securities of other funds may also be leveraged and will therefore be subject to similar leverage risks to which the Fund is subject. As described in the sections entitled “Use of Leverage” and “Use of Leverage—Leverage Risk,” the NAV and market value of leveraged shares will be more volatile and the yield to shareholders will tend to fluctuate more than the yield generated by unleveraged shares. Other funds may have investment policies that differ from those of the Fund. In addition, to the extent the Fund invests in other funds, the Fund will be dependent upon the investment and research abilities of persons other than the Investment Manager.

ADDITIONAL INVESTMENT STRATEGIES AND TECHNIQUES

Common Stock. The Fund may invest up to [20]% of its Managed Assets in common stocks, which represent residual ownership interest in issuers and include rights or warrants to purchase common stocks. Holders of common stocks are entitled to the income and increase in the value of the assets and business of the issuers after all debt obligations and obligations to preferred shareholders are satisfied.

 

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Common stocks generally have voting rights. Common stocks fluctuate in price in response to many factors including historical and prospective earnings of the issuer, the value of its assets, general economic conditions, interest rates, investor perceptions and market liquidity. The value of equity securities purchased by the Fund could decline if the financial condition of the companies the Fund invests in declines or if overall market and economic conditions deteriorate. The value of such securities also may decline due to factors that affect a particular industry or industries, such as labor shortages or an increase in production costs and competitive conditions within an industry. In addition, their value may decline due to general market conditions that are not specifically related to a company or industry, such as real or perceived adverse economic conditions, changes in the general outlook for corporate earnings, changes in interest or currency rates or generally adverse investor sentiment.

Government Securities. The Fund may invest up to [20]% of its Managed Assets in government debt securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government or its agencies or instrumentalities or by a non-U.S. government or its agencies or instrumentalities. Obligations issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government, its agencies and instrumentalities include bills, notes and bonds issued by the U.S. Treasury, as well as “stripped” or “zero coupon” U.S. Treasury obligations representing future interest or principal payments on U.S. Treasury notes or bonds. Stripped securities are sold at a discount to their “face value,” and may exhibit greater price volatility than interest-bearing securities because investors receive no payment until maturity. Other obligations of certain agencies and instrumentalities of the U.S. government are supported only by the credit of the instrumentality. The U.S. government may choose not to provide financial support to U.S. government-sponsored agencies or instrumentalities if it is not legally obligated to do so, in which case, if the issuer were to default, the Fund might not be able to recover its investment form the U.S. government.

Municipal Securities. The Fund may invest up to [20]% of its Managed Assets in municipal securities, which includes debt obligations of states, territories or possessions of the United States and the District of Columbia and their political subdivisions, agencies and instrumentalities. Municipal securities are issued to obtain funds for various public purposes, including the construction of a wide range of public facilities such as airports, bridges, highways, housing, hospitals, mass transportation, schools, streets and water and sewer works. Other public purposes for which municipal securities may be issued include the refunding of outstanding obligations, obtaining funds for general operating expenses and lending such funds to other public institutions and facilities.

The two major classifications of municipal securities are bonds and notes. Bonds may be further classified as “general obligation” or “revenue” issues. General obligation bonds are secured by the issuer’s pledge of its full faith, credit and taxing power for the payment of principal and interest. Revenue bonds are payable from the revenues derived from a particular facility or class of facilities, and in some cases, from the proceeds of a special excise or other specific revenue source, but not from the general taxing power. Most notes are general obligations of the issuing municipalities or agencies and are sold in anticipation of a bond sale, collection of taxes or receipt of other revenues. There are, of course, variations in the risks associated with municipal securities, both within a particular classification and between classifications. Although issued by governments and their agencies and instrumentalities, municipal securities are subject to default risk. The Fund does not anticipate meeting the requirements under the Code to pass through income from municipal securities as tax free to shareholders.

Investments in municipal securities may be affected significantly by economic, regulatory or political developments affecting the ability of an issuer to pay interest or repay principal. Certain issuers have

 

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experienced serious financial difficulties in the past and a reoccurrence of these difficulties may impair the ability of certain issuers to pay principal or interest on their obligations.

New Issues and Follow-On Offerings. In addition to purchasing securities in the secondary market, the Fund intends to seek investment opportunities in new issues and follow-on or secondary offerings of preferred securities, including such opportunities in, among other things, U.S. and/or foreign (non-U.S. markets), restricted securities, (including securities eligible for purchase and sale pursuant to Rule 144A or Regulation S under the Securities Act) and OTC transactions. The Investment Manager, as an institutional investor, may have access to new issues and secondary offerings that may not be fully available to retail investors. By investing in such offerings, the Investment Manager may be able to secure favorable terms for the Fund, such as attractive pricing relative to other securities available in the secondary market. The Investment Manager has developed relationships with issuers and underwriters that it believes could afford the Fund competitive advantages in evaluating and managing these investment opportunities in preferred securities.

Illiquid Securities. The Fund may invest up to [25]% of its Managed Assets in investments that may be illiquid securities. For this purpose, illiquid securities may include, among others, securities that are illiquid by virtue of the absence of a readily available market or legal or contractual restrictions on resale. Securities that have legal or contractual restrictions on resale but have a readily available market are not deemed illiquid for purposes of this limitation.

The Investment Manager will be responsible for the day-to-day determination of the illiquidity of any security held by the Fund. In reaching liquidity decisions, the Investment Manager will consider, among other things, factors such as (i) the nature of the market for a security (including the institutional private resale market; the frequency of trades and quotes for the security; the number of dealers willing to purchase or sell the security; the amount of time normally needed to dispose of the security; and the method of soliciting offers and the mechanics of transfer), (ii) the terms of certain securities or other instruments allowing for the disposition to a third party or the issuer thereof (e.g., certain repurchase obligations and demand instruments) and (iii) other permissible relevant factors.

Temporary Defensive Positions. For temporary defensive purposes or to keep cash on hand fully invested, and following the offering of the Common Shares pending investment in securities that meet the Fund’s investment objectives, the Fund may invest up to 100% of its total assets in cash, cash equivalents, government securities and short-term fixed-income securities. When and to the extent the Fund assumes a temporary defensive position, the Fund may not pursue or achieve its investment objectives.

Mortgage- and Asset-Backed Securities. Under normal circumstances the Fund will not invest more than [10]% of its Managed Assets in mortgage-backed, mortgage-related and other asset-backed securities. Mortgage-related securities include mortgage pass-through securities, CMOs, CMBSs, mortgage dollar rolls, CMO residuals, SMBSs and other securities that directly or indirectly represent a participation in or are secured by and payable from mortgage loans on real property. These securities may be issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government or one of its sponsored entities or may be issued by private organizations. One type of SMBS has one class receiving all of the interest from the mortgage assets (the interest-only, or IO class), while the other class will receive the entire principal (the principal only, or PO class). The yield to maturity on an IO class is extremely sensitive to the rate of principal payments (including prepayments) on the underlying mortgage assets, and a rapid rate of principal payments may have a material adverse effect on the Fund’s yield to maturity from these securities.

Other asset-backed securities may be structured like mortgage-backed securities, but instead of mortgage loans or interests in mortgage loans, the underlying assets may include such items as motor

 

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vehicle installment sales or installment loan contracts, leases of various types of real and personal property, and receivables from credit card agreements and from sales of personal property. Regular payments received in respect of such securities include both interest and principal. Asset-backed securities typically have no U.S. Government backing. Additionally, the ability of an issuer of asset-backed securities to enforce its security interest in the underlying assets may be limited.

Other Investments. The Fund’s cash reserves, held to provide sufficient flexibility to take advantage of new opportunities for investments and for other cash needs, will be invested in money market instruments. Money market instruments in which the Fund may invest its cash reserves will generally consist of high quality short-term debt securities, including, without limitation, obligations issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government, its agencies or instrumentalities, repurchase agreements relating to such obligations and commercial paper. See “Investment Objectives and Policies” in the SAI.

 

 

USE OF LEVERAGE

 

 

The Fund currently intends to seek to enhance the level of its distributions and total return through the use of leverage. Under normal market conditions, the Fund will generally utilize leverage in an amount equal to 331/3% of Managed Assets (under the Investment Company Act of 1940, the Fund may borrow in an amount up to 331/3% of its Managed Assets immediately after such borrowing) through borrowings, including loans from certain financial institutions and/or the issuance of debt securities. The Fund also may borrow money as a temporary measure for extraordinary or emergency purposes, including the payment of dividends and the settlement of securities transactions, which otherwise might require untimely dispositions of Fund securities. The Fund may borrow in both U.S. and foreign (non-U.S.) currencies, and may use derivatives and other transactions to manage any interest rate risk or currency exposure associated with its use of leverage. Borrowing in non-U.S. currencies will expose the Fund to foreign currency risk. The Investment Manager may, but is not required to, engage in forward currency contracts, short sales or other transactions to hedge some or all of the Fund’s foreign currency exposure. Although the Fund currently does not intend to do so, the Fund also may use leverage through the issuance of Preferred Shares in an aggregate amount of up to 50% of the Fund’s Managed Assets immediately after such issuance. In addition to Borrowings and the issuance of Preferred Shares, the Fund may enter into certain investment management strategies, such as Reverse Repurchase Agreements or Derivatives Transactions (collectively, “effective leverage”), to achieve leverage.

The Fund considers effective leverage to result from any investment strategy which is used to increase gross investment exposure in excess of the Fund’s net asset value. Effective leverage does not include exposure obtained for hedging purposes, from securities lending, or to manage the Fund’s interest rate exposure. The Fund will not enter into any leverage transaction if, immediately after such transaction, the Fund’s total leverage including any Borrowings and Preferred Shares and effective leverage incurred exceeds 50% of the Fund’s Managed Assets. In accordance with the 1940 Act and related guidance, it is possible that after entering into a leveraging transaction, the assets of the Fund decline due to market conditions such that this 50% limit will be exceeded. In that case, the leverage risk to Common Shareholders will increase. The Fund does not currently anticipate issuing any Preferred Shares and/or debt securities other than Borrowings.

There is no assurance that the Fund will utilize leverage or, if leverage is utilized, that it will be successful in enhancing the level of its cash distributions or total return. The NAV of the Common

 

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Shares may be reduced by the issuance or incurrence costs of any leverage. Through leveraging, the Fund will seek to obtain a higher return for Common Shareholders than if the Fund did not utilize leverage. Leverage is a speculative technique and there are special risks and costs associated with leverage. There can be no assurance that a leveraging strategy will be successful during any period in which it is employed. When leverage is used, the NAV and market price of the Common Shares and the yield to Common Shareholders will be more volatile. In addition, because the fees received by the Investment Manager are based on the Managed Assets of the Fund (including the liquidation preference of Preferred Shares, if any, the principal amount of outstanding Borrowings and the proceeds of any Reverse Repurchase Agreements), the Investment Manager has a financial incentive for the Fund to use certain forms of leverage (e.g., Borrowings, Preferred Shares and Reverse Repurchase Agreements), which may create a conflict of interest between the Investment Manager, on the one hand, and the Common Shareholders, on the other hand.

Under the 1940 Act, the Fund generally is not permitted to borrow money if, immediately after such Borrowing, the principal amount of such Borrowings exceeds 331/3% of the Fund’s assets less liabilities other than the Borrowings (i.e., the value of the Fund’s total assets must be at least 300% of the principal amount of any Borrowings). In addition, depending on the terms of the Borrowing, the Fund may not be permitted to declare any cash dividend or other distribution on its Common Shares unless, at the time of such declaration, the value of the Fund’s assets, less liabilities other than the Borrowings, is at least 300% of such principal amount. If the Fund borrows, the Fund intends, to the extent possible, to prepay all or a portion of the principal amount of the Borrowing to the extent necessary in order to maintain the required asset coverage. Failure to maintain certain asset coverage requirements could result in an event of default and entitle the debt holders to elect a majority of the Board of Trustees.

Under the 1940 Act, the Fund is not permitted to issue Preferred Shares if, immediately after such issuance, the liquidation value of the outstanding Preferred Shares exceeds 50% of the Fund’s assets (including the proceeds from the issuance) less liabilities other than Borrowings (i.e., the value of the Fund’s total assets must be at least 200% of the liquidation value of the outstanding Preferred Shares). In addition, the Fund is not permitted to declare any cash dividend or other distribution on its Common Shares unless, at the time of such declaration, the value of the Fund’s assets less liabilities other than Borrowings is at least 200% of such liquidation value. If the Fund issues Preferred Shares, the Fund intends, to the extent possible, to purchase or redeem Preferred Shares from time to time to the extent necessary in order to maintain coverage of any Preferred Shares of at least 200%. If the Fund has Preferred Shares outstanding, two of the members of the Fund’s Board of Trustees will be elected by the holders of Preferred Shares, voting separately as a class. The remaining members of the Board of Trustees of the Fund will be elected by Common Shareholders and Preferred Shares voting together as a single class. In the event the Fund failed to pay dividends on Preferred Shares for two years, holders of Preferred Shares would be entitled to elect a majority of the Board of Trustees of the Fund. See “Description of Shares—Preferred Shares.” The Fund has no current intention to issue Preferred Shares.

The Fund may enter into Reverse Repurchase Agreements involving the transfer by the Fund of portfolio securities to a financial institution with an agreement to repurchase such securities on a future date at a specified price. In return, the financial institution provides financing to the Fund equal to the discounted value of such securities. The use by the Fund of Reverse Repurchase Agreements effects a form of economic leverage, because the proceeds derived from such Reverse Repurchase Agreements may be invested in additional securities. At the time the Fund enters into a Reverse Repurchase Agreement, it will “cover” its exposure under the Reverse Repurchase Agreement by designating on its books and records liquid instruments having a value not less than the repurchase price (including accrued interest). As a result, a Reverse Repurchase Agreement will not be considered a Borrowing by

 

45


the Fund for purposes of the 1940 Act. The amount of financing the Fund may obtain through Reverse Repurchase Agreements is not expected to exceed 331/3% of the Fund’s total assets; however, the Fund has no current intention to use Reverse Repurchase Agreements for leverage.

In determining whether to issue Preferred Shares or enter into Reverse Repurchase Agreements, the Board of Trustees would consider a variety of factors, including, but not limited to, the recommendations of the Investment Manager with respect to various available leverage alternatives, as well as information relating to the yield curve environment, interest rate trends, market conditions, the cost of leverage, and potential litigation risks.

As noted above, the Fund may engage in various derivatives transactions described in this prospectus to seek to generate return, facilitate portfolio management and mitigate risks. Certain derivatives transactions effect a form of economic leverage on the Fund’s portfolio and may be subject to the risks associated with the use of leverage.

The Fund may be subject to certain restrictions imposed by either guidelines of one or more NRSROs which may issue ratings for leverage or, if the Fund borrows from a lender, by the lender. These restrictions may impose asset coverage or portfolio composition requirements that are more stringent than those currently imposed on the Fund by the 1940 Act. With respect to any Borrowings, the Fund may be required to prepay outstanding amounts or incur a penalty rate of interest upon the occurrence of certain events of default under its lending arrangements. The Fund expects that any Borrowings would contain customary covenants that, among other things, likely would limit the Fund’s ability to pay distributions in certain circumstances, incur additional debt, change its fundamental investment policies and engage in certain transactions, including mergers and consolidations.

Effects of Leverage. Assuming that leverage in the form of Borrowings will represent up to 331/3% of the Fund’s Managed Assets and charge interest or involve payment at a rate set by an interest rate transaction at an annual average rate of approximately [•]%, the income generated by the Fund’s portfolio (net of estimated expenses) must exceed [•]% in order to cover such interest payments or payment rates and other expenses specifically related to leverage. Of course, these numbers are merely estimates, used for illustration. Actual interest, or payment rates may vary frequently and may be significantly higher or lower than the rate estimated above.

The following table is furnished in response to requirements of the SEC. It is designed to illustrate the effect of leverage on Common Share total return, assuming investment portfolio total returns (comprised of income and changes in the value of investments held in the Fund’s portfolio) of –10%, –5%, 0%, 5% and 10%. These assumed investment portfolio returns are hypothetical figures and are not necessarily indicative of the investment portfolio returns expected to be experienced by the Fund. The table assumes leverage in an aggregate amount equal to 331/3% of the Fund’s Managed Assets. See “Use of Leverage—Leverage Risk” below.

 

Assumed Portfolio Total Return

     –10     –5     0     5     10

Common Share Total Return

     [•]     [•]     [•]     [•]     [•]

Common Share total return is comprised of two elements—the net investment income of the Fund after paying expenses, including interest expenses on the Fund’s Borrowings as described above and dividend payments on any preferred shares issued by the Fund and gain and losses on the value of the securities the Fund owns. As required by the rules of the SEC, the table assumes the Fund is more likely to suffer capital losses than to enjoy capital appreciation. For example, to assume a total return of 0%, the Fund must assume that the income it receives on its investment is entirely offset by losses in the value of those securities (including the proceeds from entering into a Reverse Repurchase Agreement).

 

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Leverage Risk. Utilization of leverage is a speculative investment technique and involves certain risks to Common Shareholders. These include the possibility of higher volatility of the NAV of and distributions on the Common Shares and potentially more volatility in the market value of the Common Shares. So long as the Fund is able to realize a higher net return on its investment portfolio than the then current cost of any leverage together with other related expenses, the effect of the leverage will be to cause Common Shareholders to realize higher current net investment income than if the Fund were not so leveraged. On the other hand, to the extent that the then current cost of any leverage, together with other related expenses, approaches the net return on the Fund’s investment portfolio, the benefit of leverage to Common Shareholders will be reduced, and if the then current cost of any leverage were to exceed the net return on the Fund’s portfolio, the Fund’s leveraged capital structure would result in a lower rate of return to Common Shareholders than if the Fund were not so leveraged. Any decline in the NAV of the Fund’s investments will be borne entirely by Common Shareholders. Therefore, if the market value of the Fund’s portfolio declines, the leverage will result in a greater decrease in NAV to Common Shareholders than if the Fund were not leveraged. Such greater NAV decrease will also tend to cause a greater decline in the market price for the Common Shares. To the extent that the Fund is required or elects to redeem any Preferred Shares or prepay any Borrowings or Reverse Repurchase Agreements, the Fund may need to liquidate investments to fund such redemptions or prepayments. Liquidation at times of adverse economic conditions may result in capital loss and reduce returns to Common Shareholders.

In addition, such redemption or prepayment would likely result in the Fund seeking to terminate early all or a portion of any swap or cap transaction and could result in a termination payment by or to the Fund. See “Use of Leverage—Interest Rate Transactions.”

The use by the Fund of leverage through Reverse Repurchase Agreements involves additional risks, including the risk that the market value of the securities that the Fund is obligated to repurchase may decline below the repurchase price. Also, Reverse Repurchase Agreements involve the risk that the market value of the securities retained in lieu of sale by the Fund in connection with the Reverse Repurchase Agreement may decline in price. If the buyer of securities under a Reverse Repurchase Agreement files for bankruptcy or becomes insolvent, such buyer or its trustee or receiver may receive an extension of time to determine whether to enforce the Fund’s obligation to repurchase the securities, and the Fund’s use of the proceeds of the reverse repurchase agreement may effectively be restricted pending such decision. The use by the Fund of leverage through Reverse Repurchase Agreements also would involve the risk that the Fund will be required to sell securities at inopportune times or prices in order to repay leverage and the risk that the counterparty may be unable to return the securities to the Fund.

Interest Rate Transactions. In order to seek to reduce interest rate risk if the Fund engages in leverage through Borrowings, the Fund may enter into interest rate swap or cap transactions as to all or a portion of Fund leverage. In an interest rate swap, the Fund would agree to pay the counterparty a fixed rate payment in exchange for the counterparty agreeing to pay the Fund a variable rate payment that is intended to approximate the Fund’s variable rate payment obligation on leverage. The payment obligation would be based on the notional amount of the swap. In an interest rate cap, the Fund would pay a premium to the counterparty to the interest rate swap and to the extent that a specified variable rate index exceeds a predetermined fixed rate, would receive from the counterparty payments of the difference based on the notional amount of such cap. The Fund would typically use interest rate swaps or caps with the intent to reduce or eliminate the risk that an increase in short-term interest rates could have on the performance of the Common Shares as a result of leverage. The Fund may choose not to enter into interest rate swap or cap transactions or to enter into them to a limited extent, in which case the Fund would have greater exposure to interest rate risk.

 

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The use of interest rate swaps and caps is a highly specialized activity that involves investment techniques and risks different from those associated with ordinary portfolio security transactions. Depending on the state of interest rates in general, the Fund’s use of interest rate swaps or caps could enhance or harm the overall performance of the Common Shares. To the extent there is a decline in interest rates, the value of the interest rate swap or cap could decline, and could result in a decline in the NAV of the Common Shares. In addition, if short-term interest rates are lower than the Fund’s rate of payment on the interest rate swap, this will reduce the performance of the Common Shares. If, on the other hand, short-term interest rates are higher than the Fund’s rate of payment on the interest rate swap, this will enhance the performance of the Common Shares. Buying interest rate caps could enhance the performance of the Common Shares by providing a maximum leverage expense. Buying interest rate caps could also decrease the net income of the Common Shares in the event that the premium paid by the Fund to the counterparty exceeds the additional amount the Fund would have been required to pay had it not entered into the cap agreement. The Fund has no current intention of selling an interest rate swap or cap. The Fund will not enter into interest rate swap or cap transactions with an aggregate notional amount that exceeds the outstanding amount of the Fund’s leverage.

Interest rate swaps and caps do not involve the delivery of securities or other underlying assets or principal. Accordingly, the risk of loss with respect to interest rate swaps is limited to the net amount of interest payments that the Fund is contractually obligated to make. In addition, if the counterparty to an interest rate swap or cap defaults, the Fund would not be able to use the anticipated net receipts under the swap or cap to offset dividend or interest payments. Depending on whether the Fund would be entitled to receive net payments from the counterparty on the swap or cap, which in turn would depend on the general state of short-term interest rates at that point in time, such default could negatively impact the performance of the Common Shares. Although this will not guarantee that the counterparty does not default, the Fund will not enter into an interest rate swap or cap transaction with any counterparty that the Investment Manager believes does not have the financial resources to honor its obligation under the interest rate swap or cap transaction. Further, the Investment Manager will continually monitor the financial stability of a counterparty to an interest rate swap or cap transaction in an effort to proactively protect the Fund’s investments. In addition, at the time an interest rate swap or cap transaction reaches its scheduled termination date, there is a risk that the Fund will not be able to obtain a replacement transaction or that the terms of the replacement will not be as favorable as on the expiring transaction. If this occurs, it could have a negative impact on the performance of the Common Shares.

The Fund will usually enter into swaps on a net basis; that is, the two payment streams will be netted out in a cash settlement on the payment date or dates specified in the instrument, with the Fund receiving or paying, as the case may be, only the net amount of the two payments. The Fund intends to maintain in a segregated account with its custodian cash or liquid securities having a value at least equal to the Fund’s net payment obligations under any swap transaction, marked to market daily.

The Fund may choose or be required to prepay any Borrowings or principal amounts of Reverse Repurchase Agreements, or redeem some or all of any outstanding Preferred Shares. This redemption or prepayment would likely result in the Fund seeking to terminate early all or a portion of any swap or cap transaction. Such early termination could result in termination payment by or to the Fund.

The Fund may seek to hedge its interest rate exposure and any foreign currency exposure associated with borrowing in non-U.S. currencies using other transactions instead of, or in addition to, interest rate swaps and caps, such as other types of derivatives transactions and short sales of securities.

 

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PRINCIPAL RISKS OF THE FUND

 

 

The Fund is a newly organized, non-diversified, closed-end management investment company designed primarily as a long-term investment and not as a trading vehicle. The Fund is not intended to be a complete investment program and, due to the uncertainty inherent in all investments, there can be no assurance that the Fund will achieve its investment objectives.

No Operating History. The Fund is a newly organized, non-diversified, closed-end management investment company with no operating history.

Investment Risk. An investment in the Fund is subject to investment risk, including the possible loss of the entire principal amount that you invest.

Market Risk. Your investment in Common Shares represents an indirect investment in the preferred securities, debt securities and other investments owned by the Fund. The value of these securities, like other investments, may move up or down, sometimes rapidly and unpredictably. The Fund may utilize leverage, which magnifies this risk. Your Common Shares at any point in time may be worth less than what you invested, even after taking into account the reinvestment of Fund dividends and distributions. See “Use of Leverage—Leverage Risk.”

Limited Term and Tender Offer Risks. Unless the [provision] of the Declaration of Trust is amended by shareholders in accordance with the Declaration of Trust, or unless the Fund completes an Eligible Tender Offer and converts to perpetual existence, the Fund will terminate on or about the Dissolution Date (subject to possible extension as described under “Limited Term and Eligible Tender Offer”). The Fund is not a so called “target date” or “life cycle” fund whose asset allocation becomes more conservative over time as its target date, often associated with retirement, approaches. In addition, the Fund is not a “target term” fund whose investment objective is to return its original NAV on the Dissolution Date or in an Eligible Tender Offer. The Fund’s investment objectives and policies are not designed to seek to return to investors that purchase shares in this offering their initial investment on the Dissolution Date or in an Eligible Tender Offer, and such investors and investors that purchase shares after the completion of this offering may receive more or less than their original investment upon dissolution or in an Eligible Tender Offer.

Because the assets of the Fund will be liquidated in connection with the dissolution, the Fund will incur transaction costs in connection with dispositions of portfolio securities. The Fund does not limit its investments to securities having a maturity date prior to the Dissolution Date and may be required to sell portfolio securities when it otherwise would not, including at times when market conditions are not favorable, which may cause the Fund to lose money. In particular, the Fund’s portfolio may still have large exposures to illiquid securities as the Dissolution Date approaches, and losses due to portfolio liquidation may be significant. During the Wind-Down Period, the Fund may begin liquidating all or a portion of the Fund’s portfolio, and the Fund may deviate from its investment strategy and may not achieve its investment objective. As a result, during the Wind-Down Period, the Fund’s distributions may decrease, and such distributions may include a return of capital. It is expected that Common Shareholders will receive cash in any liquidating distribution from the Fund, regardless of their participation in the Fund’s automatic dividend reinvestment plan. However, if on the Dissolution Date the Fund owns securities for which no market exists or securities that are trading at depressed prices, such securities may be placed in a liquidating trust. The Fund cannot predict the amount, if any, of securities that will be required to be placed in a liquidating trust. As the assets of the Fund will be

 

49


liquidated in connection with its termination, the Fund may be required to sell portfolio securities when it otherwise would not, including at times when market conditions are not favorable, which may cause the Fund to lose money. The Fund may receive proceeds from the disposition of portfolio investments that are less than the valuations of such investments by the Fund and, in particular, losses from the disposition of illiquid securities may be significant. The disposition of portfolio investments by the Fund could also cause market prices of such instruments, and hence the NAV and market price of the Common Shares, to decline. In addition, disposition of portfolio investments will cause the Fund to incur increased brokerage and related transaction expenses.

Moreover, in conducting such portfolio transactions, the Fund may need to deviate from its investment policies and may not achieve its investment objective. The Fund’s portfolio composition may change as its portfolio holdings mature or are called or sold in anticipation of an Eligible Tender Offer or the Dissolution Date. During such period(s), it is possible that the Fund will hold a greater percentage of its total assets in shorter term and lower yielding securities and cash and cash equivalents than it would otherwise, which may impede the Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective and adversely impact the Fund’s performance and distributions to Common Shareholders, which may in turn adversely impact the market value of the Common Shares. In addition, the Fund may be required to reduce its leverage, which could also adversely impact its performance. The additional cash or cash equivalents held by the Fund could be obtained through reducing the Fund’s distributions to Common Shareholders and/or holding cash in lieu of reinvesting, which could limit the ability of the Fund to participate in new investment opportunities. The Fund does not limit its investments to securities having a maturity date prior to or around the Dissolution Date, which may exacerbate the foregoing risks and considerations. A Common Shareholder may be subject to the foregoing risks over an extended period of time, particularly if the Fund conducts an Eligible Tender Offer and is also subsequently terminated by or around the Dissolution Date.

If the Fund conducts an Eligible Tender Offer, the Fund anticipates that funds to pay the aggregate purchase price of shares accepted for purchase pursuant to the tender offer will be first derived from any cash on hand and then from the proceeds from the sale of portfolio investments held by the Fund. In addition, the Fund may be required to dispose of portfolio investments in connection with any reduction in the Fund’s outstanding leverage necessary in order to maintain the Fund’s desired leverage ratios following a tender offer. The risks related to the disposition of securities in connection with the Fund’s dissolution also would be present in connection with the disposition of securities in connection with an Eligible Tender Offer. It is likely that during the pendency of a tender offer, and possibly for a time thereafter, the Fund will hold a greater than normal percentage of its total assets in cash and cash equivalents, which may impede the Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective and decrease returns to shareholders. The tax effect of any such dispositions of portfolio investments will depend on the difference between the price at which the investments are sold and the tax basis of the Fund in the investments. Any capital gains recognized on such dispositions, as reduced by any capital losses the Fund realizes in the year of such dispositions and by any available capital loss carryforwards, will be distributed to shareholders as capital gain dividends (to the extent of net long-term capital gains over net short-term capital losses) or ordinary dividends (to the extent of net short-term capital gains over net long-term capital losses) during or with respect to such year, and such distributions will generally be taxable to Common Shareholders. If the Fund’s tax basis for the investments sold is less than the sale proceeds, the Fund will recognize capital gains, which the Fund will be required to distribute to Common Shareholders. In addition, the Fund’s purchase of tendered Common Shares pursuant to a tender offer will have tax consequences for tendering Common Shareholders and may have tax consequences for non-tendering Common Shareholders.

 

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The purchase of Common Shares by the Fund pursuant to a tender offer will have the effect of increasing the proportionate interest in the Fund of non-tendering Common Shareholders. All Common Shareholders remaining after a tender offer may be subject to proportionately higher expenses due to the reduction in the Fund’s total assets resulting from payment for the tendered Common Shares. Such reduction in the Fund’s total assets may result in less investment flexibility, reduced diversification and greater volatility for the Fund, and may have an adverse effect on the Fund’s investment performance. Such reduction in the Fund’s total assets may also cause Common Shares to become thinly traded or otherwise negatively impact secondary trading of Common Shares. A reduction in net assets, and the corresponding increase in the Fund’s expense ratio, could result in lower returns and put the Fund at a disadvantage relative to its peers and potentially cause the Fund’s Common Shares to trade at a wider discount to NAV than it otherwise would. Furthermore, the portfolio of the Fund following an Eligible Tender Offer could be significantly different and, therefore, Common Shareholders retaining an investment in the Fund could be subject to greater risk. For example, the Fund may be required to sell its more liquid, higher quality portfolio investments to purchase Common Shares that are tendered in an Eligible Tender Offer, which would leave a less liquid, lower quality portfolio for remaining shareholders. The prospects of an Eligible Tender Offer may attract arbitrageurs who would purchase the Common Shares prior to the tender offer for the sole purpose of tendering those shares which could have the effect of exacerbating the risks described herein for shareholders retaining an investment in the Fund following an Eligible Tender Offer.

The Fund is not required to conduct an Eligible Tender Offer. If the Fund conducts an Eligible Tender Offer, there can be no assurance that the number of tendered Common Shares would not result in the Fund having aggregate net assets below the Dissolution Threshold, in which case the Eligible Tender Offer will be canceled, no Common Shares will be repurchased pursuant to the Eligible Tender Offer and the Fund will dissolve on the Dissolution Date (subject to possible extensions). Following the completion of an Eligible Tender Offer in which the number of tendered Common Shares would result in the Fund having aggregate net assets greater than or equal to the Dissolution Threshold, the Board of Trustees may, by a Board Action Vote, eliminate the Dissolution Date without shareholder approval. Thereafter, the Fund will have a perpetual term. The Investment Manager may have a conflict of interest in recommending to the Board of Trustees that the Dissolution Date be eliminated because the Investment Manager would continue to receive management fees on the remaining assets of the Fund while it remains in existence. The Fund is not required to conduct additional tender offers following an Eligible Tender Offer and conversion to perpetual existence. Therefore, remaining Common Shareholders may not have another opportunity to participate in a tender offer. Shares of closed-end management investment companies frequently trade at a discount from their NAV, and as a result remaining Common Shareholders may only be able to sell their Shares at a discount to NAV.

Preferred Securities Risk. Under normal market conditions, the Fund will invest at least 80% of its Managed Assets in a portfolio of preferred and other income securities. There are various risks associated with investing in preferred securities, including those described below.

 

·  

Deferral and Omission Risk. Preferred securities may include provisions that permit the issuer, at its discretion, to defer or omit distributions for a stated period without any adverse consequences to the issuer. In certain cases, deferring or omitting distributions may be mandatory. If the Fund owns a preferred security that is deferring its distributions, the Fund may be required to report income for tax purposes although it has not yet received such income. In addition, recent changes in bank regulations may increase the likelihood for issuers to defer or omit distributions.

 

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·  

Credit and Subordination Risk. Credit risk is the risk that a preferred security in the Fund’s portfolio will decline in price or the issuer of the security will fail to make dividend, interest or principal payments when due because the issuer experiences a decline in its financial status. Preferred securities are generally subordinated to bonds and other debt instruments in a company’s capital structure in terms of having priority to corporate income, claims to corporate assets and liquidation payments, and therefore will be subject to greater credit risk than more senior debt instruments.

 

·  

Interest Rate Risk. Interest rate risk is the risk that preferred securities will decline in value because of changes in market interest rates. When market interest rates rise, the market value of such securities generally will fall, and therefore the Fund may underperform during periods of rising interest rates. The Fund may be subject to a greater risk of rising interest rates than would normally be the case due to the current period of historically low rates and the effect of government monetary policy initiatives and resulting market reaction to those initiatives. Preferred securities with longer periods before maturity may be more sensitive to interest rate changes.

 

·  

Prepayment and Extension Risk. Prepayment risk is the risk that changes in interest rates, credit spreads or other factors will result in the call (repayment) of a preferred security more quickly than expected, such that the Fund may have to invest the proceeds in lower yielding securities, or that expectations of such early call will negatively impact the market price of the security. Extension risk is the risk that changes in the interest rates or credit spreads may result in diminishing call expectations, which can cause prices to fall.

 

·  

Floating-Rate and Fixed-to-Floating-Rate Securities Risk. The market value of floating-rate securities is a reflection of discounted expected cash flows based on expectations for future interest rate resets. The market value of such securities may fall in a declining interest rate environment and may also fall in a rising interest rate environment if there is a lag between the rise in interest rates and the reset. This risk may also be present with respect to fixed-to-floating-rate securities in which the Fund may invest. A secondary risk associated with declining interest rates is the risk that income earned by the Fund on floating-rate and fixed-to-floating-rate securities will decline due to lower coupon payments on floating-rate securities.

 

·  

Call, Reinvestment and Income Risk. During periods of declining interest rates, an issuer may be able to exercise an option to redeem its issue at par earlier than scheduled which is generally known as call risk. Recent regulatory changes may increase call risk with respect to certain types of preferred securities. If this occurs, the Fund may be forced to reinvest in lower yielding securities. This is known as reinvestment risk. Preferred securities frequently have call features that allow the issuer to repurchase the security prior to its stated maturity. An issuer may redeem preferred securities if the issuer can refinance the preferred securities at a lower cost due to declining interest rates or an improvement in the credit standing of the issuer, or in the event of regulatory changes affecting the capital treatment of a security. Another risk associated with a declining interest rate environment is that the income from the Fund’s portfolio may decline over time when the Fund invests the proceeds from new share sales at market rates that are below the portfolio’s current earnings rate.

 

·  

Liquidity Risk. Certain preferred securities may be substantially less liquid than many other securities, such as common stocks or U.S. government securities. Illiquid securities involve the risk that the securities will not be able to be sold at the time desired by the Fund or at prices approximating the value at which the Fund is carrying the securities on its books. During periods of high volatility, the Fund may experience increased redemptions, requiring it to liquidate securities when it is difficult to do so.

 

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·  

Limited Voting Rights Risk. Generally, traditional preferred securities offer no voting rights with respect to the issuer unless preferred dividends have been in arrears for a specified number of periods, at which time the preferred security holders may elect a number of directors to the issuer’s board of directors. Generally, once all the arrearages have been paid, the preferred security holders no longer have voting rights. Hybrid-preferred security holders generally have no voting rights.

 

·  

Special Redemption Rights. In certain varying circumstances, an issuer of preferred securities may redeem the securities prior to a specified date. For instance, for certain types of preferred securities, a redemption may be triggered by a change in U.S. federal income tax or securities laws. As with call provisions, a redemption by the issuer may have a negative impact on the return of the security held by the Fund. See “Call, Reinvestment and Income Risk” above and “Regulatory Risk” below.

 

·  

New Types of Securities. From time to time, preferred securities, including hybrid-preferred securities and contingent capital securities, have been, and may in the future be, offered having features other than those described herein. The Fund reserves the right to invest in these securities if the Investment Manager believes that doing so would be consistent with the Fund’s investment objectives and policies. Since the market for these instruments would be new, the Fund may have difficulty disposing of them at a suitable price and time. In addition to limited liquidity, these instruments may present other risks, such as high price volatility.

Debt Securities Risk. There are special risks associated with investing in debt securities, including:

 

·  

Credit Risk. Credit risk refers to the possibility that the issuer of a security will not be able to make payments of interest and principal when due because the issuer of the security experiences a decline in its financial status. Changes in an issuer’s credit rating or the market’s perception of an issuer’s creditworthiness may also affect the value of the Fund’s investment in that issuer.

 

·  

Interest Rate Risk. Interest rate risk is the risk that debt securities will decline in value because of changes in market interest rates. When market interest rates rise, the market value of such securities generally will fall, and therefore the Fund may underperform during periods of rising interest rates. The Fund may be subject to a greater risk of rising interest rates than would normally be the case due to the current period of historically low rates and the effect of government monetary policy initiatives and resulting market reaction to those initiatives. Debt securities with longer periods before maturity may be more sensitive to interest rate changes.

 

·  

Prepayment and Extension Risk. Prepayment risk is the risk that changes in interest rates, credit spreads or other factors will result in the call (repayment) of a debt security more quickly than expected, such that the Fund may have to invest the proceeds in lower yielding securities, or that expectations of such early call will negatively impact the market price of the security. Extension risk is the risk that changes in the interest rates or credit spreads may result in diminishing call expectations, which can cause prices to fall.

 

·  

Call Risk. Call risk is the risk that, during a period of falling interest rates, the issuer may redeem a security by repaying it early, which may reduce the Fund’s income if the proceeds are reinvested at lower interest rates.

 

·  

Liquidity Risk. Certain debt securities may be substantially less liquid than many other securities, such as common stocks or U.S. government securities. Illiquid securities involve the risk that the securities will not be able to be sold at the time desired by the Fund or at prices approximating the value at which the Fund is carrying the securities on its books. During periods of high volatility, the Fund may experience increased redemptions, requiring it to liquidate securities when it is difficult to do so.

 

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·  

Convertible Securities Risk. The market value of a convertible security performs like that of a regular debt security; that is, if market interest rates rise, the value of a convertible security usually falls. In addition, convertible securities are subject to the risk that the issuer will not be able to pay interest or dividends when due, and their market value may change based on changes in the issuer’s credit rating or the market’s perception of the issuer’s creditworthiness. Because it derives a portion of its value from the common stock into which it may be converted, a convertible security is also subject to the same types of market and issuer risk as apply to the underlying common stock.

Risk of Concentration in the Financials Sector. Because the Fund invests a substantial portion of its net assets in the financials sector, it will be more susceptible to adverse economic or regulatory occurrences affecting this sector, such as changes in interest rates, loan concentration and competition. In addition, the Fund will also be subject to the risks of investing in the individual industries and securities that comprise the financials sector, including:

 

·  

Banking Industry Risk. Banks depend upon being able to obtain funds at reasonable costs and upon liquidity in the capital and credit markets to finance their lending and other operations which makes banks sensitive to changes in money market and general economic conditions. When a bank’s borrowers have financial trouble, their failure to repay the bank will adversely affect the bank’s financial situation. Banks are also highly regulated. Decisions by regulators may limit the loans banks make and the interest rates and fees they charge, and may reduce bank profitability.

 

·  

Real Estate Industry Risk. Investments in real estate are closely linked to the performance of the real estate markets. Property values may fall due to increasing vacancies or declining rents resulting from unanticipated economic, legal, cultural or technological developments. Real estate company prices also may drop because of the failure of borrowers to pay their loans and poor management, and residential developers, in particular, could be negatively impacted by falling home prices, slower mortgage origination and rising construction costs.

 

·  

Insurance Industry Risk. The insurance industry is subject to extensive government regulation and can be significantly affected by changes in interest rates, general economic conditions, price and market competition, the imposition of premium rate caps or other changes in government regulation or tax law. Certain segments of the insurance industry can be significantly affected by mortality and morbidity rates, environmental clean-up costs and catastrophic events such as earthquakes, hurricanes and terrorist acts.

To the extent that the Fund focuses its investments in other sectors or industries, such as (but not limited to) energy, industrials, utilities, pipelines, health care and telecommunications, the Fund will be subject to the risks associated with these particular sectors and industries. These sectors and industries may be adversely affected by, among others, changes in government regulation, world events and economic conditions.

Below Investment Grade and Unrated Securities Risk. The Fund may invest a significant portion of its assets in below investment grade securities or securities that are unrated but judged to be below investment grade by the Investment Manager. Securities rated below investment grade are regarded as having predominately speculative characteristics with respect to the issuer’s capacity to pay interest and repay principal, and these bonds are commonly referred to as “high yield” securities or “junk” securities. These securities are subject to a greater risk of default. The prices of these lower grade securities are more sensitive to negative developments, such as a decline in the issuer’s revenues or a general economic downturn, than are the prices of higher grade securities. Lower grade securities tend to be less liquid than investment grade securities. The market values of lower grade securities tend to be more volatile than investment grade securities.

 

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Lower-rated securities, or equivalent unrated securities, may be considered speculative with respect to the issuer’s continuing ability to make principal and interest payments. Analysis of the creditworthiness of issuers of lower-rated securities may be more complex than for issuers of higher quality debt securities, and the Fund’s ability to achieve the Fund’s investment objectives may, to the extent the Fund is invested in lower-rated securities, be more dependent upon such creditworthiness analysis than would be the case if the Fund were investing in higher quality securities. An issuer of these securities has a currently identifiable vulnerability to default and the issuer may be in default or there may be present elements of danger with respect to principal or interest.

The secondary markets in which lower-rated securities are traded may be less liquid than the market for higher grade securities. Less liquidity in the secondary trading markets could adversely affect the price at which the Fund could sell a particular lower-rated security when necessary to meet liquidity needs or in response to a specific economic event, such as a deterioration in the creditworthiness of the issuer, and could adversely affect and cause large fluctuations in the NAV of the Fund’s shares. Adverse publicity and investor perceptions may decrease the values and liquidity of lower rated securities.

It is reasonable to expect that any adverse economic conditions could disrupt the market for lower-rated securities, have an adverse impact on the value of those securities and adversely affect the ability of the issuers of those securities to repay principal or interest on those securities. New laws and proposed new laws may adversely impact the market for lower-rated securities.

NRSROs are private services that provide ratings of the credit quality of debt obligations, including convertible securities. Appendix B to the SAI describes the various ratings assigned to financial obligations by S&P, Moody’s and Fitch. Ratings assigned by a NRSRO are not absolute standards of credit quality and do not evaluate market risks or the liquidity of securities. NRSROs may fail to make timely changes in credit ratings and an issuer’s current financial condition may be better or worse than a rating indicates. NRSROs may be paid by the companies whose securities they analyze and grade. To the extent that the issuer of a security pays an NRSRO for the analysis of its security, an inherent conflict of interest may exist that could affect the reliability of the rating. The Fund will not necessarily sell a security when its rating is reduced below what its rating was at the time of purchase. The Investment Manager does not rely solely on credit ratings, and develops its own analysis of issuer credit quality. The ratings of a security may change over time. S&P, Moody’s and Fitch monitor and evaluate the ratings assigned to securities on an ongoing basis. As a result, securities held by the Fund could receive a higher rating (which would tend to increase their value) or a lower rating (which would tend to decrease their value) during the period in which they are held.

The Fund may invest a significant portion of its assets in unrated securities (securities which are not rated by an NRSRO) if the Investment Manager determines that the securities are of comparable quality to rated securities that the Fund may purchase. Unrated securities may be less liquid than comparable rated securities and involve the risk that the Investment Manager may not accurately evaluate the security’s comparative credit rating. If a security is unrated, the Investment Manager will assign a rating using its own analysis of issuer quality. Because the Fund may invest in high yield and/or unrated securities, the Fund’s success in achieving its investment objectives may depend more heavily on the Investment Manager’s analysis than if the Fund invested exclusively in higher-quality and rated securities. The Investment Manager will attempt to reduce the risks of investing in lower rated or unrated securities through active portfolio management, credit analysis and attention to current developments and trends in the economy and the financial markets.

Contingent Capital Securities Risk. CoCos, sometimes referred to as contingent convertible securities, are debt or preferred securities with loss absorption characteristics built into the terms of the security

 

55


for the benefit of the issuer, for example, an automatic write-down of principal or a mandatory conversion into common stock of the issuer under certain circumstances, such as the issuer’s capital ratio falling below a certain level. CoCos may be subject to an automatic write-down (i.e., the automatic write-down of the principal amount or value of the securities, potentially to zero, and the cancellation of the securities) under certain circumstances, which could result in the Fund losing a portion or all of its investment in such securities. In addition, the Fund may not have any rights with respect to repayment of the principal amount of the securities that has not become due or the payment of interest or dividends on such securities for any period from (and including) the interest or dividend payment date falling immediately prior to the occurrence of such automatic write-down. An automatic write-down could also result in a reduced income rate if the dividend or interest payment is based on the security’s par value. If a CoCo provides for mandatory conversion of the security into common shares of the issuer under certain circumstances, such as an adverse event, the Fund could experience a reduced income rate, potentially to zero, as a result of the issuer’s common shares not paying a dividend. In addition, a conversion event would likely be the result of or related to the deterioration of the issuer’s financial condition (e.g., such as a decrease in the issuer’s capital ratio) and status as a going concern, so the market price of the issuer’s common shares received by the Fund may have declined, perhaps substantially, and may continue to decline, which may adversely affect the Fund’s NAV. Further, the issuer’s common shares would be subordinate to the issuer’s other security classes and therefore worsen the Fund’s standing in a bankruptcy proceeding. In addition, most CoCos are considered to be “high yield” or “junk” securities and are therefore subject to the risks of investment in below investment grade securities.

It will often be difficult to predict when, if at all, an automatic write-down or conversion event will occur. Accordingly, the trading behavior of CoCos may not follow the trading behavior of other types of debt and preferred securities. Any indication that an automatic write-down or conversion event may occur can be expected to have a material adverse effect on the market price of the CoCos. CoCos are a relatively new form of security and the full effects of an automatic write-down or conversion event have not been experienced broadly in the marketplace. The occurrence of an automatic write-down or conversion event may be unpredictable and the potential effects of such event on the Fund’s yield, NAV and/or market price may be adverse.

Foreign (Non-U.S.) and Emerging Market Securities Risk. Investing in foreign securities involves certain risks not involved in domestic investments, including, but not limited to:

 

·  

future foreign economic, financial, political and social developments;

 

·  

different legal systems;

 

·  

the possible imposition of exchange controls or other foreign governmental laws or restrictions;

 

·  

less governmental supervision;

 

·  

regulation changes;

 

·  

less publicly available information about foreign companies due to less rigorous disclosure and accounting standards or regulatory practices;

 

·  

high and volatile rates of inflation;

 

·  

Foreign currency devaluation;

 

·  

fluctuating interest rates; and

 

·  

different accounting, auditing and financial record-keeping standards and requirements.

 

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Investments in foreign securities, especially in emerging market countries, will expose the Fund to the direct or indirect consequences of political, social or economic changes in the countries that issue the securities or in which the issuers are located. Political developments in foreign countries or the United States may at times subject such countries to sanctions from the U.S. government, foreign governments and/or international institutions that could negatively affect the Fund’s investments in issuers located in, doing business in, or with assets in such countries. Certain countries in which the Fund may invest, especially emerging market countries, have historically experienced, and may continue to experience, high rates of inflation, high interest rates, exchange rate fluctuations, large amounts of external debt, balance of payments and trade difficulties and extreme poverty and unemployment. Many of these countries are also characterized by political uncertainty and instability. The cost of servicing external debt will generally be adversely affected by rising international interest rates because many external debt obligations bear interest at rates which are adjusted based upon international interest rates. In addition, with respect to certain foreign countries, there is a risk of:

 

·  

the possibility of expropriation of assets;

 

·  

confiscatory taxation;

 

·  

difficulty in obtaining or enforcing a court judgment;

 

·  

economic, political or social instability; and

 

·  

diplomatic developments that could affect investments in those countries.

In addition, individual foreign economies may differ favorably or unfavorably from the U.S. economy in such respects as:

 

·  

growth of gross domestic product;

 

·  

rates of inflation;

 

·  

capital reinvestment;

 

·  

resources;

 

·  

self-sufficiency; and

 

·  

balance of payments position.

To the extent the Fund’s investments are focused in a geographic region or country, the Fund will be subject, to a greater extent than if the Fund’s assets were less geographically focused, to the risks of adverse changes in that region or country. In addition, certain investments in foreign securities also may be subject to foreign withholding or other taxes, which would reduce the Fund’s return on those securities.

The Fund may hold foreign securities of developed market issuers and emerging market issuers. Investing in securities of companies in emerging markets may entail special risks relating to potential economic, political or social instability and the risks of expropriation, nationalization, confiscation, trade sanctions or embargoes or the imposition of restrictions on foreign investment, the lack of hedging instruments, and on repatriation of capital invested. Emerging securities markets are substantially smaller, less developed, less liquid and more volatile than the major securities markets. The limited size of emerging securities markets and limited trading value compared to the volume of trading in U.S. securities could cause prices to be erratic for reasons apart from factors that affect the quality of the securities. For example, limited market size may cause prices to be unduly influenced by traders who control large positions. Adverse publicity and investors’ perceptions, whether or not based

 

57


on fundamental analysis, may decrease the value and liquidity of portfolio securities, especially in these markets. Many emerging market countries have experienced substantial, and in some periods extremely high, rates of inflation for many years. Inflation and rapid fluctuations in inflation rates and corresponding currency devaluations have had and may continue to have negative effects on the economies and securities markets of certain emerging market countries.

As a result of these potential risks, the Investment Manager may determine that, notwithstanding otherwise favorable investment criteria, it may not be practicable or appropriate to invest in a particular country. The Fund may invest in countries in which foreign investors, including the Investment Manager, have had no or limited prior experience.

Foreign Currency and Currency Hedging Risk. Although the Fund will report its NAV and pay dividends in U.S. dollars, foreign securities often are purchased with and make interest and dividend payments in foreign currencies. Therefore, the Fund’s investments in foreign securities will be subject to foreign currency risk, which means that the Fund’s NAV could decline as a result of changes in the exchange rates between foreign currencies and the U.S. dollar. Currency rates in foreign countries may fluctuate significantly over short periods of time for a number of reasons, including changes in interest rates, intervention (or the failure to intervene) by U.S. or foreign governments, central banks or supranational entities such as the International Monetary Fund, or by the imposition of currency controls or other political developments in the United States or abroad. These fluctuations may have a significant adverse impact on the value of the Fund’s portfolio and/or the level of Fund distributions made to Common Shareholders. Certain foreign countries may impose restrictions on the ability of issuers of foreign securities to make payment of principal, dividends, and interest to investors located outside the country, due to blockage of foreign currency exchanges or otherwise.

The Fund may (but is not required to) engage in investments that are designed to hedge the Fund’s foreign currency risks, including foreign currency forward contracts, foreign currency futures contracts, put and call option on foreign currencies and foreign currency swaps. Such transactions may reduce returns or increase volatility, perhaps substantially. While these practices will be entered into to seek to manage these risks, these practices may not prove to be successful or may have the effect of limiting the gains from favorable market movements.

Foreign currency forward contracts, foreign currency futures contracts, OTC options on foreign currencies and foreign currency swaps are subject to the risk of default by the counterparty and can be illiquid. These currency hedging transactions, as well as the futures contracts and exchange-listed options in which the Fund may invest, are subject to many of the risks of, and can be highly sensitive to changes in the value of, the related currency or other reference asset. As such, a small investment could have a potentially large impact on the Fund’s performance. Whether or not the Fund engages in currency hedging transactions, the Fund may experience a decline in the value of its portfolio securities, in U.S. dollar terms, due solely to fluctuations in currency exchange rates. Use of currency hedging transactions may cause the Fund to experience losses greater than if the Fund had not engaged in such transactions.

The Fund’s transactions in foreign currencies may increase or accelerate the Fund’s recognition of ordinary income and may affect the timing or character of the Fund’s distributions.

Convertible Securities Risk. Although to a lesser extent than with nonconvertible fixed income securities, the market value of convertible securities tends to decline as interest rates increase and, conversely, tends to increase as interest rates decline. In addition, because of the conversion feature, the market value of convertible securities tends to vary with fluctuations in the market value of the underlying

 

58


common stock. A unique feature of convertible securities is that as the market price of the underlying common stock declines, convertible securities tend to trade increasingly on a yield basis, and so may not experience market value declines to the same extent as the underlying common stock. When the market price of the underlying common stock increases, the prices of the convertible securities tend to rise as a reflection of the value of the underlying common stock.

Derivatives Risk. Derivatives transactions can be highly volatile and involve various types and degrees of risk, depending upon the characteristics of the particular derivative, including the imperfect correlation between the value of such instruments and the underlying assets, the possible default of the other party to the transaction and illiquidity of the derivative instruments. Derivatives transactions may entail investment exposures that are greater than their cost would suggest, meaning that a small investment in derivatives could have a large potential impact on the Fund’s performance, effecting a form of investment leverage on the Fund’s portfolio. In certain types of derivatives transactions the Fund could lose the entire amount of its investment; in other types of derivatives transactions the potential loss is theoretically unlimited.

The market for many derivatives is, or suddenly can become, illiquid. Changes in liquidity may result in significant, rapid and unpredictable changes in the prices for derivatives transactions. The Fund could experience losses if it were unable to liquidate a derivative position because of an illiquid secondary market. Although both OTC and exchange-traded derivatives markets may experience the lack of liquidity, OTC non-standardized derivatives transactions are generally less liquid than exchange-traded instruments. The illiquidity of the derivatives markets may be due to various factors, including congestion, disorderly markets, limitations on deliverable supplies, the participation of speculators, government regulation and intervention, and technical and operational or system failures. In addition, the liquidity of a secondary market in an exchange-traded derivative contract may be adversely affected by “daily price fluctuation limits” established by the exchanges which limit the amount of fluctuation in an exchange-traded contract price during a single trading day. Once the daily limit has been reached in the contract, no trades may be entered into at a price beyond the limit, thus preventing the liquidation of open positions. Prices have in the past moved beyond the daily limit on a number of consecutive trading days. If it is not possible to close an open derivative position entered into by the Fund, the Fund would continue to be required to make cash payments of variation (or mark-to-market) margin in the event of adverse price movements. In such a situation, if the Fund has insufficient cash, it may have to sell portfolio securities to meet variation margin requirements at a time when it may be disadvantageous to do so. The absence of liquidity may also make it more difficult for the Fund to ascertain a market value for such instruments. The inability to close derivatives transactions positions also could have an adverse impact on the Fund’s ability to effectively hedge its portfolio.

Successful use of derivatives transactions also is subject to the ability of the Investment Manager to predict correctly movements in the direction of the relevant market and, to the extent the transaction is entered into for hedging purposes, to ascertain the appropriate correlation between the transaction being hedged and the price movements of the derivatives. Derivatives transactions entered into to seek to manage the risks of the Fund’s portfolio of securities may have the effect of limiting gains from otherwise favorable market movements. The use of derivatives transactions may result in losses greater than if they had not been used (and a loss on a derivatives transaction position may be larger than the gain in a portfolio position being hedged), may require the Fund to sell or purchase portfolio securities at inopportune times or for prices other than current market values, may limit the amount of appreciation the Fund can realize on an investment, or may cause the Fund to hold a security that it might otherwise sell. Amounts paid by the Fund as premiums and cash or other assets held as collateral with respect to derivatives transactions may not otherwise be available to the Fund for investment purposes. The use of

 

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currency transactions can result in the Fund incurring losses as a result of the imposition of exchange controls, political developments, government intervention or failure to intervene, suspension of settlements or the inability of the Fund to deliver or receive a specified currency.

The Fund may enter into swap, cap or other transactions to attempt to protect itself from increasing interest or dividend expenses resulting from increasing short-term interest rates on any leverage it incurs or increasing interest rates on securities held in its portfolio. A decline in interest rates may result in a decline in the value of the transaction, which may result in a decline in the NAV of the Fund. A sudden and dramatic decline in interest rates may result in a significant decline in the NAV of the Fund. Depending on the state of interest rates in general, the use of interest rate hedging transactions could enhance or harm the overall performance of the Common Shares.

In the event the Fund enters into forward currency contracts for hedging purposes, the Fund will be subject to currency exchange rates risk. Currency exchange rates may fluctuate significantly over short periods of time and also can be affected unpredictably by intervention of U.S. or foreign governments or central banks, or the failure to intervene, or by currency controls or political developments in the United States or abroad. The Fund’s success in these transactions will depend principally on the ability of the Investment Manager to predict accurately future foreign currency exchange rates. Additional risks associated with derivatives trading include counterparty risk, liquidity risk and tracking/correlation risk.

The Fund’s investments in forward currency contracts and interest rate swaps would subject the Fund to risks specific to derivatives transactions, including: the imperfect correlation between the value of such instruments and the underlying assets of the Fund, which creates the possibility that the loss on such instruments may be greater than the gain in the value of the underlying assets in the Fund’s portfolio; the loss of principal; the possible default of the other party to the transaction; and illiquidity of the derivative investments. Furthermore, the ability to successfully use derivative instruments depends on the ability of the Investment Manager to predict pertinent market movements, which cannot be assured. Thus, the use of derivative instruments for hedging, currency or interest rate management, or other purposes may result in losses greater than if they had not been used.

Structured notes and other related instruments carry risks similar to those of more traditional derivatives such as futures, forward and option contracts. However, structured instruments may entail a greater degree of market risk and volatility than other types of debt obligations.

The Fund will be subject to credit risk with respect to the counterparties to certain derivatives transactions entered into by the Fund. Derivatives may be purchased on established exchanges or through privately negotiated OTC transactions. Each party to an OTC derivative bears the risk that the counterparty will default.

If a counterparty becomes bankrupt or otherwise fails to perform its obligations under a derivative contract due to financial difficulties, the Fund may experience significant delays in obtaining any recovery under the derivative contract in bankruptcy or other reorganization proceeding. The Fund may obtain only a limited recovery or may obtain no recovery in such circumstances. The counterparty risk for cleared derivatives transactions is generally lower than for uncleared OTC derivatives transactions since generally a clearing organization becomes substituted for each counterparty to a cleared derivative contract and, in effect, guarantees the parties’ performance under the contract as each party to a trade looks only to the clearing house for performance of financial obligations. However, there can be no assurance that the clearing house, or its members, will satisfy their obligations to the Fund.

 

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Rule 144A Securities Risk. Rule 144A Securities are considered restricted securities because they are not registered for sale to the general public and may only be resold to certain qualified institutional buyers. Institutional markets for Rule 144A Securities that exist or may develop may provide both readily ascertainable values for such securities and the ability to promptly sell such securities. However, if there are an insufficient number of qualified institutional buyers interested in purchasing Rule 144A Securities held by the Fund, the Fund will be subject to liquidity risk and thus may not be able to sell the Rule 144A Securities at a desirable time or price.

Regulation S Securities Risk. Regulation S securities are offered through private offerings without registration with the SEC pursuant to Regulation S of the Securities Act. Regulation S securities may be relatively less liquid as a result of legal or contractual restrictions on resale. Because Regulation S securities are generally less liquid than registered securities, the Fund may take longer to liquidate these positions than publicly traded securities or may not be able to sell them at the price desired. Furthermore, companies whose securities are not publicly traded may not be subject to the disclosure and other investor protection requirements that would be applicable if their securities were publicly traded or otherwise offered in the United States. Accordingly, Regulation S securities may involve a high degree of business and financial risk and may result in losses to the Fund.

LIBOR Risk. Many financial instruments may be tied to the London Interbank Offered Rate, or “LIBOR,” to determine payment obligations, financing terms, hedging strategies, or investment value. LIBOR is the offered rate for short-term Eurodollar deposits between major international banks. On July 27, 2017, the head of the UK Financial Conduct Authority announced a desire to phase out the use of LIBOR by the end of 2021. Regulators and industry working groups have suggested alternative reference rates, but global consensus is lacking and the process for amending existing contracts or instruments to transition away from LIBOR remains unclear. There also remains uncertainty and risk regarding the willingness and ability of issuers and lenders to include enhanced provisions in new and existing contracts or instruments. As such, the transition away from LIBOR may lead to increased volatility and illiquidity in markets that are tied to LIBOR, reduced values of LIBOR-related investments or investments in issuers that utilize LIBOR, increased difficulty in borrowing or refinancing and reduced effectiveness of hedging strategies, adversely affecting the Fund’s performance or NAV. In addition, the alternative reference rate may be an ineffective substitute resulting in prolonged adverse market conditions for the Fund.

Other Investment Companies Risk. To the extent the Fund invests a portion of its assets in investment companies, including open-end funds, closed-end funds, ETFs and other types of pooled investment funds, those assets will be subject to the risks of the purchased investment companies’ portfolio securities, and a shareholder in the Fund will bear not only his or her proportionate share of the Fund’s expenses, but also indirectly the expenses of the purchased investment companies. Shareholders would therefore be subject to duplicative expenses to the extent the Fund invests in other investment companies. Risks associated with investments in closed-end funds also generally include the risks described in this prospectus associated with the Fund’s structure as a closed-end investment company, including market risk, leverage risk, risk of market price discount from NAV, risk of anti-takeover provisions and non-diversification. In addition, restrictions under the 1940 Act may limit the Fund’s ability to invest in other investment companies to the extent desired.

In addition, investments in other investment companies may be subject to the following risks:

 

·  

Manager Risk. The Fund’s investments in other funds are subject to the ability of the managers of those funds to achieve the funds’ investment objectives.

 

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·  

Dilution Risk. Strategies employed by a closed-end fund, such as rights offerings, may, under certain circumstances, have the effect of reducing its share price and the Fund’s proportionate interest.

 

·  

Foreign Fund Risk. Risks associated with investments in non-U.S. funds may be different than those of investments in U.S. funds. Non-U.S. funds are subject to different regulatory regimes that may be less rigorous than in the United States in areas such as governance and financial reporting requirements. There also may be less publicly available information about such funds, and investments in these funds may carry special tax consequences. In addition, non-U.S. funds are generally subject to the risks of investing in other types of foreign securities.

 

·  

BDCs Risk. Investments in closed-end funds that are BDCs may be subject to a high degree of risk. BDCs typically invest in small and medium-sized companies that may not have access to public equity markets for capital raising. As a result, a BDC’s portfolio typically will include a substantial amount of securities purchased in private placements, and the portfolio may carry risks similar to those of a private equity or venture capital fund. Securities that are not publicly registered may be difficult to value and may be difficult to sell at a price representative of their intrinsic value.

 

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ETF Risk. An ETF that is based on a specific index, whether securities, commodities or a combination of the two, may not be able to replicate and maintain exactly the composition and relative weighting of securities in the index. An ETF also incurs certain expenses not incurred by its applicable index. The market value of an ETF share may differ from its NAV; the share may trade at a premium or discount to its NAV, which may be due to, among other things, differences in the supply and demand in the market for the share and the supply and demand in the market for the underlying assets of the ETF. In addition, certain securities that are part of the index tracked by an ETF may, at times, be unavailable, which may impede the ETF’s ability to track its index. An ETF that utilizes leverage can, at times, be relatively illiquid, which can affect whether its share price approximates NAV. As a result of using leverage, an ETF is subject to the risk of failure in the futures and options markets it uses to obtain leverage and the risk that a counterparty will default on its obligations, which can result in a loss to the Fund.

Common Stock Risk. Common stocks are subject to special risks. Although common stocks have historically generated higher average returns than fixed-income securities over the long-term, common stocks also have experienced significantly more volatility in returns. Common stocks may be more susceptible to adverse changes in market value due to issuer specific events or general movements in the equities markets. A drop in the stock market may depress the price of common stocks held by the Fund. Common stock prices fluctuate for many reasons, including changes to investors’ perceptions of the financial condition of an issuer or the general condition of the relevant stock market, or the occurrence of political or economic events affecting issuers. For example, an adverse event, such as an unfavorable earnings report, may depress the value of common stock in which the Fund has invested; the price of common stock of an issuer may be particularly sensitive to general movements in the stock market; or a drop in the stock market may depress the price of most or all of the common stocks held by the Fund. Also, common stock of an issuer in the Fund’s portfolio may decline in price if the issuer fails to make anticipated dividend payments because, among other reasons, the issuer of the security experiences a decline in its financial condition. The common stocks in which the Fund will invest are typically subordinated to preferred securities, bonds and other debt instruments in a company’s capital structure in terms of priority to corporate income and assets, and, therefore, will be subject to greater risk than the preferred securities or debt instruments of such issuers. In addition, common stock prices may be sensitive to rising interest rates as the costs of capital rise and borrowing costs increase.

 

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Government Securities Risk. Not all obligations of the U.S. Government, its agencies and instrumentalities are backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Treasury. Some obligations are backed only by the credit of the issuing agency or instrumentality, and in some cases there may be some risk of default by the issuer. Any guarantee by the U.S. Government or its agencies or instrumentalities of a security held by the Fund does not apply to the market value of such security or to the Common Shares. In addition, a security backed by the U.S. Treasury or the full faith and credit of the United States is guaranteed only as to the timely payment of interest and principal when held to maturity, but the market prices of such securities are not guaranteed and will fluctuate. In addition, because many types of U.S. Government securities trade actively outside the United States, their prices may rise and fall as changes in global economic conditions affect the demand for these securities.

Municipal Securities Risk. Municipal securities are debt obligations issued by states or by political subdivisions or authorities of states. Municipal securities are typically designated as general obligation bonds, which are general obligations of a governmental entity that are backed by the taxing power of such entity, or revenue bonds, which are payable from the income of a specific project or authority and are not supported by the issuer’s power to levy taxes. Municipal securities are long-term fixed rate debt obligations that generally decline in value with increases in interest rates, when an issuer’s financial condition worsens or when the rating on a bond is decreased. Many municipal securities may be called or redeemed prior to their stated maturity. Lower-quality revenue bonds and other credit-sensitive municipal securities carry higher risks of default than general obligation bonds. In addition, the amount of public information available about municipal securities is generally less than that for corporate equities or bonds. Special factors, such as legislative changes and local and business developments, may adversely affect the yield and/or value of the Fund’s investments in municipal securities. Other factors include the general conditions of the municipal securities market, the size of the particular offering, the maturity of the obligation and the rating of the issue.

Many municipal securities are subject to continuing requirements as to the actual use of the bond proceeds or manner of operation of the project financed from those proceeds that may affect the exemption of interest on such securities from U.S. federal income taxation. The market for municipal securities is generally less liquid than for other securities, and therefore the price of municipal securities may be more volatile and subject to greater price fluctuations than securities with greater liquidity. In addition, an issuer’s ability to make income distributions generally depends on several factors including the financial condition of the issuer and general economic conditions.

Restricted and Illiquid Securities Risk. The Fund may invest in investments that may be illiquid (i.e., securities that may be difficult to sell at a desirable time or price). Illiquid securities are securities that are not readily marketable and may include some restricted securities, which are securities that may not be resold to the public without an effective registration statement under the Securities Act or, if they are unregistered, may be sold only in a privately negotiated transaction or pursuant to an exemption from registration. Illiquid investments involve the risk that the securities will not be able to be sold at the time desired by the Fund or at prices approximating the value at which the Fund is carrying the securities on its books. Restricted securities and illiquid securities are often more difficult to value and the sale of such securities often requires more time and results in higher brokerage charges or dealer discounts and other selling expenses than does the sale of liquid securities trading on national securities exchanges or in the OTC markets. Contractual restrictions on the resale of securities result from negotiations between the issuer and purchaser of such securities and therefore vary substantially in length and scope. To dispose of a restricted security that the Fund has a contractual right to sell, the Fund may first be required to cause the security to be registered. A considerable period may elapse between a decision to sell the securities and the time when the Fund would be permitted to sell, during which time the Fund would bear market risks.

 

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Leverage Risk. The Fund currently intends to seek to enhance the level of its distributions and total return through the use of leverage. See “Use of Leverage—Leverage Risk.”

Certain other investment strategies, such as short sales or the use of derivatives, may also be considered a form of economic leverage and may be subject to the risks associated with the use of leverage. Leverage is a speculative technique and there are special risks and costs associated with leveraging. There is no assurance that a leveraging strategy will be successful. Leverage involves risks and special considerations for Common Shareholders, including (i) the likelihood of greater volatility of NAV, market price and dividend rate of the Common Shares than a comparable portfolio without leverage; (ii) the risk that fluctuations in the interest or dividend rates that the Fund must pay on any leverage will reduce the return on the holders of the Common Shares; (iii) the effect of leverage in a declining market, which is likely to cause a greater decline in the NAV of the Common Shares than if the Fund were not leveraged, which may result in a greater decline in the market price of the Common Shares; and (iv) leverage may increase operating costs, which may reduce total return. If the Fund utilizes leverage, the fees paid to the Investment Manager for investment advisory and management services will be higher than if the Fund did not utilize leverage because the fees paid will be calculated based on the Fund’s Managed Assets, which include the principal amount of outstanding Borrowings the liquidation preference of Preferred Shares, if any, and the proceeds of any Reverse Repurchase Agreements. The Fund may borrow in foreign currencies, which will expose the Fund to foreign currency risk. See “—Foreign Currency and Currency Hedging Risk.” Any such exposure is subject to the risk that the U.S. dollar will decline in value relative to the currency in which the Fund has borrowed, in which case the Fund will be worse off than if it had borrowed in U.S. dollars. Similar risks may apply if the Fund engages in leveraging transactions through the use of derivatives.

Risk of Market Price Discount from Net Asset Value. Shares of closed-end investment companies frequently trade at a discount from their NAV. This characteristic is a risk separate and distinct from the risk that NAV could decrease as a result of investment activities and may be greater for investors expecting to sell their shares in a relatively short period following completion of this offering. NAV will be reduced immediately following the offering of the Common Shares by the sales load and the amount of organizational and offering expenses paid by the Fund. Whether investors will realize gains or losses upon the sale of the shares will depend not upon the Fund’s NAV but entirely upon whether the market price of the shares at the time of sale is above or below the investor’s purchase price for the shares. Because the market price of the shares will be determined by factors such as relative supply of and demand for shares in the market, general market and economic conditions, and other factors beyond the control of the Fund, the Investment Manager cannot predict whether the Common Shares will trade at, above or below NAV, or at below or above the initial public offering price.

 

 

ADDITIONAL RISK CONSIDERATIONS

 

 

Tax Risk. No assurance can be given as to what percentage of the distributions paid on the Common Shares, if any, will consist of tax-advantaged qualified dividend income or long-term capital gain or what the tax rates on various types of income will be in future years. The maximum long-term capital gain tax rate applicable to qualified dividend income is currently 20%, 15%, or 0% for individuals depending on the amount of their taxable income for the year. An additional 3.8% Medicare tax will also apply in the case of some individuals. In addition, it may be difficult to obtain information regarding whether distributions by non-U.S. entities in which the Fund invests should be regarded as qualified dividend income. Furthermore, to receive qualified dividend income treatment, the Fund

 

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must meet holding period and other requirements with respect to the dividend-paying securities in its portfolio, and the shareholder must meet holding period and other requirements with respect to the Common Shares. Holding periods may be affected by certain of the Fund’s transactions in options and other derivatives. See “Taxation.”

Active Management Risk. As an actively managed portfolio, the value of the Fund’s investments could decline because the financial condition of an issuer may change (due to such factors as management performance, reduced demand or overall market changes), financial markets may fluctuate or overall prices may decline, or the Investment Manager’s investment techniques could fail to achieve the Fund’s investment objectives or negatively affect the Fund’s investment performance.

Potential Conflicts of Interest Risk. The Investment Manager and its affiliates are involved worldwide with a broad spectrum of financial services and asset management activities and may engage in the ordinary course of business in activities in which their interests or the interests of their clients may conflict with those of the Fund. The Investment Manager and its affiliates may provide investment management services to other funds and discretionary managed accounts that follow an investment program similar to that of the Fund. Subject to the requirements of the 1940 Act, the Investment Manager and its affiliates intend to engage in such activities and may receive compensation from third parties for their services. Neither the Investment Manager nor its affiliates are under any obligation to share any investment opportunity, idea or strategy with the Fund. As a result, other accounts of the Investment Manager and its affiliates may compete with the Fund for appropriate investment opportunities. The results of the Fund’s investment activities, therefore, may differ from those of other accounts managed by the Investment Manager or its affiliates, and it is possible that the Fund could sustain losses during periods in which one or more of the proprietary or other accounts managed by the Investment Manager or its affiliates achieve profits. The Investment Manager has informed the Fund’s Board of Trustees that the investment professionals associated with the Investment Manager are actively involved in other investment activities not concerning the Fund and will not be able to devote all of their time to the Fund’s business and affairs. The Investment Manager and its affiliates have adopted policies and procedures designed to address potential conflicts of interests and to allocate investments among the accounts managed by the Investment Manager and its affiliates in a fair and equitable manner.

Dependence on Key Personnel Risk. The Investment Manager is dependent upon the experience and expertise of certain key personnel in providing services with respect to the Fund’s investments. If the Investment Manager were to lose the services of these individuals, its ability to service the Fund could be adversely affected. As with any managed fund, the Investment Manager might not be successful in selecting the best-performing securities or investment techniques for the Fund’s portfolio and the Fund’s performance may lag behind that of similar funds. In addition, the performance of the Fund may also depend on the experience and expertise of individuals who become associated with the Investment Manager in the future.

Portfolio Turnover Risk. The techniques and strategies contemplated by the Fund might result in a high degree of portfolio turnover. Although the Fund cannot accurately predict its annual portfolio turnover rate, it may be greater than 100%. There are no limits on the rate of portfolio turnover, and investments may be sold without regard to length of time held when the Fund’s investment strategy so dictates. Higher portfolio turnover rates would result in corresponding increases in brokerage commissions and may generate short-term capital gains that are taxable as ordinary income to Common Shareholders when distributed to such shareholders.

 

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Non-Diversified Status. The Fund is classified as a “non-diversified” investment company under the 1940 Act, which means the Fund is not limited by the 1940 Act in the proportion of its assets that may be invested in the securities of a single issuer. However, the Fund intends to conduct its operations so as to qualify as a RIC for purposes of the Code (including by meeting the applicable diversification requirements under the Code), which generally will relieve the Fund of any liability for U.S. federal income tax to the extent the Fund’s earnings are distributed to shareholders. See “Taxation” in this prospectus and the SAI. Because the Fund, as a non-diversified investment company, may invest in a smaller number of individual issuers than a diversified investment company, an investment in the Fund presents greater risk to you than an investment in a diversified company.

Anti-Takeover Provisions. Certain provisions of the Fund’s Declaration of Trust and By-Laws could have the effect of limiting the ability of other entities or persons to acquire control of the Fund or to modify the Fund’s structure. The provisions may have the effect of depriving you of an opportunity to sell your shares at a premium over prevailing market prices and may have the effect of inhibiting conversion of the Fund to an open-end investment company. These include provisions for staggered terms of office for members of the Board of Trustees, super-majority voting requirements for merger, consolidation, liquidation, termination and asset sale transactions, amendments to the Declaration of Trust and conversion to open-end status. See “Description of Shares” and “Certain Provisions of the Declaration of Trust and By-Laws.”

Geopolitical Risk. Occurrence of global events similar to those in recent years, such as war, terrorist attacks, natural or environmental disasters, country instability, infectious disease epidemics, market instability, debt crises and downgrades, embargoes, tariffs, sanctions and other trade barriers and other governmental trade or market control programs, the potential exit of a country from its respective union and related geopolitical events, may result in market volatility and may have long-lasting impacts on both the U.S. and global financial markets. Additionally, those events, as well as other changes in foreign and domestic political and economic conditions, could adversely affect individual issuers or related groups of issuers, securities markets, interest rates, secondary trading, credit ratings, inflation, investor sentiment and other factors affecting the value of the Fund’s investments.

On March 29, 2017, the United Kingdom (“UK”) formally notified the European Council of its intention to leave the EU and commenced the formal process of withdrawing from the EU (referred to as “Brexit”). Brexit has resulted in volatility in European and global markets and could have negative long-term impacts on financial markets in the UK and throughout Europe. There is considerable uncertainty about the potential consequences and precise timeframe for Brexit, how it will be conducted, how negotiations of trade agreements will proceed, and how the financial markets will react. As this process unfolds, markets may be further disrupted. Given the size and importance of the UK’s economy, uncertainty about its legal, political and economic relationship with the remaining member states of the EU may continue to be a source of instability.

Growing tensions, including trade disputes, between the United States and other nations, or among foreign powers, and possible diplomatic, trade or other sanctions could adversely impact the global economy, financial markets and the Fund. The strengthening or weakening of the U.S. dollar relative to other currencies may, among other things, adversely affect the Fund’s investments denominated in non-U.S. dollar currencies. It is difficult to predict when similar events affecting the U.S. or global financial markets may occur, the effects that such events may have, and the duration of those effects.

Real Estate Risk. To the extent that the Fund invests in real estate related investments, including REITs or real-estate linked derivative instruments, it will be subject to the risks associated with owning real estate and with the real estate industry generally. Property values may fall due to increasing vacancies or

 

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declining rents resulting from unanticipated economic, legal, cultural or technological developments. Real estate company prices also may drop because of the failure of borrowers to pay their loans and poor management, and residential developers, in particular, could be negatively impacted by falling home prices, slower mortgage origination and rising construction costs. REITs generally are dependent upon management skills and may not be diversified. REITs are also subject to heavy cash flow dependency, defaults by borrowers and self-liquidation. In addition, REITs could possibly fail to (i) qualify for favorable tax treatment under applicable tax law, or (ii) maintain their exemptions from registration under the 1940 Act. The above factors may also adversely affect a borrower’s or a lessee’s ability to meet its obligations to the REIT. In the event of a default by a borrower or lessee, the REIT may experience delays in enforcing its rights as a mortgagee or lessor and may incur substantial costs associated with protecting its investments.

Cyber Security Risk. With the increased use of technologies such as the Internet and the dependence on computer systems to perform necessary business functions, the Fund and its service providers (including the Investment Manager) may be susceptible to operational and information security risks resulting from cyber-attacks and/or other technological malfunctions. In general, cyber-attacks are deliberate, but unintentional events may have similar effects. Cyber-attacks include, among others, stealing or corrupting data maintained online or digitally, preventing legitimate users from accessing information or services on a website, releasing confidential information without authorization, gaining unauthorized access to digital systems for purposes of misappropriating assets and causing operational disruption. Cyber-attacks may also be carried out in a manner that does not require gaining unauthorized access, such as causing denial-of-service. Successful cyber-attacks against, or security breakdowns of, the Fund, the Investment Manager, or a custodian, transfer agent, or other affiliated or third-party service provider may adversely affect the Fund or its shareholders. For instance, cyber-attacks may interfere with the processing of shareholder transactions, affect the Fund’s ability to calculate its NAV, cause the release of private shareholder information or confidential Fund information, impede trading, cause reputational damage, and subject the Fund to regulatory fines, penalties or financial losses, reimbursement or other compensation costs, and additional compliance costs. Furthermore, as a result of breaches in cyber security or other operational and technology disruptions or failures, an exchange or market may close or issue trading halts on specific securities or an entire market, which may result in a Fund being, among other things, unable to buy or sell certain securities or financial instruments or unable to accurately price its investments. While the Fund has established business continuity plans and systems designed to prevent cyber-attacks, there are inherent limitations in such plans and systems including the possibility that certain risks have not been identified. Similar types of cyber security risks also are present for issuers of securities in which the Fund invests, which could result in material adverse consequences for such issuers, and may cause the Fund’s investment in such securities to lose value.

Each of the Fund and the Investment Manager may have limited ability to prevent or mitigate cyber-attacks or security or technology breakdowns affecting each Fund’s third-party service providers. While the Fund has established business continuity plans and systems designed to prevent or reduce the impact of cyber-attacks, such plans and systems are subject to inherent limitations.

Regulatory Risk. The U.S. government has proposed and adopted multiple regulations that could have a long-lasting impact on the Fund and on the mutual fund industry in general. The SEC’s final rules and amendments that modernize reporting and disclosure, along with other potential upcoming regulations, could, among other things, restrict the Fund’s ability to engage in transactions, and/or increase overall expenses of the Fund. In addition, the SEC, Congress, various exchanges and regulatory and self-regulatory authorities, both domestic and foreign, have undertaken reviews of the use of

 

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derivatives by registered investment companies, which could affect the nature and extent of instruments used by the Fund. While the full extent of all of these regulations is still unclear, these regulations and actions may adversely affect both the Fund and the instruments in which the Fund invests and its ability to execute its investment strategy. Similarly, regulatory developments in other countries may have an unpredictable and adverse impact on the Fund.

Mortgage- and Asset-Backed Securities Risk. The risks associated with mortgage-related securities include: (1) credit risk associated with the performance of the underlying mortgage properties and of the borrowers owning these properties; (2) adverse changes in economic conditions and circumstances, which are more likely to have an adverse impact on mortgage-related securities secured by loans on certain types of commercial properties than on those secured by loans on residential properties; (3) prepayment risk, which can lead to significant fluctuations in value of the mortgage-related security; (4) loss of all or part of the premium, if any, paid; and (5) decline in the market value of the security, whether resulting from changes in interest rates or prepayments on the underlying mortgage collateral.

Asset-backed securities involve certain risks in addition to those presented by mortgage-related securities: (1) primarily, these securities do not have the benefit of the same security interest in the underlying collateral as mortgage-related securities and are more dependent on the borrower’s ability to pay; (2) credit card receivables are generally unsecured, and the debtors are entitled to the protection of a number of state and Federal consumer credit laws, many of which give debtors the right to set off certain amounts owed on the credit cards, thereby reducing the balance due; and (3) most issuers of automobile receivables permit the servicers to retain possession of the underlying obligations. If these obligations are sold to another party, there is a risk that the purchaser would acquire an interest superior to that of the holders of the related automobile receivables. In addition, because of the large number of vehicles involved in a typical issuance and technical requirements under state laws, the trustee for the holders of the automobile receivables may not have an effective security interest in all of the obligations backing such receivables. There is a possibility that recoveries on repossessed collateral may not, in some cases, be able to support payments on these securities.

 

 

HOW THE FUND MANAGES RISK

 

 

Investment Limitations. The Fund has adopted certain investment limitations designed to limit investment risk that are fundamental and may not be changed without the approval of the holders of a “majority of the outstanding” (as defined below) Common Shares and, if issued, Preferred Shares voting as a single class, and the approval of the holders of a majority of the Preferred Shares voting as a separate class. Under these limitations, the Fund may not: (1) issue senior securities (including borrowing money for other than temporary purposes) except in conformity with the limits set forth in the 1940 Act or pursuant to exemptive relief therefrom, or pledge, mortgage or hypothecate its assets other than to secure such issuances or borrowings or in connection with permitted investment strategies; (2) act as an underwriter of securities issued by other persons; (3) generally directly purchase or sell real estate; (4) make loans to other persons except through the lending of securities held by it; or (5) invest more than 25% of its total assets in securities of issuers in any one industry (except as discussed herein). Further information about and exceptions to these limitations are contained in the SAI under “Investment Objectives and Policies” and “Investment Restrictions.” For these purposes, a “majority of the outstanding” shares means the lesser of (a) 67% of the Fund’s outstanding voting

 

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securities present at a shareholder meeting, if the holders of more than 50% of the outstanding voting securities are present or represented by proxy, or (b) more than 50% of the outstanding voting securities.

The Fund may become subject to guidelines that are more limiting than its investment restrictions in order to obtain and maintain ratings from NRSROs on any Preferred Shares that it issues. The Fund does not anticipate that such guidelines would have a material adverse effect on the Common Shareholders or the Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objectives. See “Investment Objectives and Policies” in the SAI for a complete list of the fundamental and non-fundamental investment policies of the Fund.

Management of Investment Portfolio and Capital Structure to Limit Leverage Risk. The Fund may take certain actions if short-term interest rates increase or market conditions otherwise change (or the Fund anticipates such an increase or change) and the Fund has incurred leverage which begins (or is expected) to adversely affect Common Shareholders. In order to attempt to offset such a negative impact of leverage on Common Shareholders, the Fund may attempt to shorten the average maturity of its overall investment portfolio or may reduce its Borrowings or any Reverse Repurchase Agreements or extend the maturity of any outstanding Preferred Shares. The Fund may also attempt to reduce the leverage by redeeming or otherwise purchasing any Preferred Shares. As explained above under “Use of Leverage—Leverage Risk,” the success of any such attempt to limit leverage risk depends on the Investment Manager’s ability to accurately predict interest rate or other market changes. Because of the difficulty of making such predictions, the Fund may never attempt to manage its capital structure in the manner described in this paragraph.

Derivative Transactions. The Fund may enter into derivative transactions to manage risk. See “Principal Risks of the Fund—Derivatives Risk.”

Limitations on Borrowings, Preferred Shares and Reverse Repurchase Agreements. The Fund is limited under Section 18 of the 1940 Act in the level of Borrowings it may incur and the amount of Preferred Shares it may issue to 331/3% and 50%, respectively, of its total assets. See “Description of Shares—Preferred Shares—Limited Issuance of Preferred Shares and Borrowings.” A Reverse Repurchase Agreement would not be subject to the limitations imposed by Section 18 of the 1940 Act. As a result, if the Fund enters into Reverse Repurchase Agreements, it would be permitted to leverage more of its assets than would be permissible through the use of Borrowings and/or the issuance of Preferred Shares. The Fund’s financing, however, obtainable through Reverse Repurchase Agreements is not expected to exceed 331/3% of the Fund’s total assets. To the extent the Fund enters into Reverse Repurchase Agreements, the Fund will “cover” its exposure under the Reverse Repurchase Agreements by designating on its books and records liquid instruments having a value not less than the repurchase price (including accrued interest). The Fund has no current intention to utilize leverage through the issuance of Preferred Shares or the use of Reverse Repurchase Agreements. See “Use of Leverage.”

 

 

MANAGEMENT OF THE FUND

 

 

The business and affairs of the Fund are managed under the direction of the Board of Trustees. The members of the Board of Trustees (the “Trustees”) approve all significant agreements between the Fund and persons or companies furnishing services to it, including the Fund’s agreement with its Investment Manager, co-administrator, custodian and transfer agent. The management of the Fund’s day-to-day operations is delegated to its officers, the Investment Manager and the Fund’s

 

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co-administrator, subject always to the investment objectives and policies of the Fund and to the general supervision of the Trustees. The names and business addresses of the Trustees and officers of the Fund and their principal occupations and other affiliations during the past five years are set forth under “Management of the Fund” in the SAI.

INVESTMENT MANAGER

Cohen & Steers Capital Management, Inc., with offices located at 280 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10017, has been retained to provide investment advice, and, in general, to conduct the management and investment program of the Fund under the overall supervision and control of the Trustees of the Fund. The Investment Manager, a registered investment adviser, was formed in 1986, and as of [•], 2020 had $[•] billion of assets under management. Its clients include pension plans, endowment funds and registered investment companies, including some of the largest open-end and closed-end real estate funds. Registered open- and closed-end funds advised by the Investment Manager (the “Cohen & Steers Funds”) invest in U.S. and non-U.S. real estate investment trusts and other real estate securities, infrastructure securities, preferred and other fixed income securities, dividend paying large-cap value securities, and commodities and other “real” assets. The Investment Manager is a wholly owned subsidiary of Cohen & Steers, Inc., a publicly traded company whose common stock is listed on the NYSE under the symbol (“CNS”).

INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT AGREEMENT

Under its Investment Management Agreement with the Fund, the Investment Manager furnishes a continuous investment program for the Fund’s portfolio, makes the day-to-day investment decisions for the Fund, and generally manages the Fund’s investments in accordance with the stated policies of the Fund, subject to the general supervision of the Board of Trustees of the Fund. The Investment Manager will be responsible for the management of the Fund’s portfolio. The Investment Manager also performs certain administrative services for the Fund and provides persons satisfactory to the Trustees of the Fund to serve as officers of the Fund. Such officers, as well as certain other employees and Trustees of the Fund, may be trustees, officers or employees of the Investment Manager. For a description of the sales load, structuring fees and other compensation paid to the underwriters, see “Underwriters.”

For its services under the Investment Management Agreement, the Fund will pay the Investment Manager a monthly investment management fee computed at the annual rate of [•]% of the Fund’s average daily Managed Assets. In addition to the monthly management fee, the Fund pays all other costs and expenses of its operations, including compensation of its Trustees, administration, custodian, transfer agency and dividend disbursing expenses, legal fees, expenses of independent auditors, expenses of repurchasing shares, expenses of issuing any preferred shares, listing expenses, expenses of preparing, printing and distributing shareholder reports, notices, proxy statements and reports to governmental agencies and taxes, if any. If the Fund utilizes leverage, the fees paid to the Investment Manager for investment advisory and administration services will be higher than if the Fund did not utilize leverage because the fees paid will be calculated based on the Fund’s Managed Assets, which includes the NAV of the Common Shares, the principal amount of loans from financial institutions or debt securities issued by the Fund, the liquidation preference of Preferred Shares issued by the Fund, if any, and the proceeds of any Reverse Repurchase Agreements entered into by the Fund. The Fund’s investment management fees and other expenses are paid only by the Common Shareholders and not by holders of the Preferred Shares. See “Use of Leverage.”

A discussion regarding the considerations of the Fund’s Board of Trustees for approving the Investment Management Agreement will be included in the Fund’s first report to shareholders.

 

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PORTFOLIO MANAGERS

The Fund’s portfolio managers are jointly and primarily responsible for the day-to-day management of the Fund:

William F. Scapell. Mr. Scapell currently serves as Executive Vice President of the Investment Manager and prior to that, Senior Vice President of the Investment Manager since 2003. He joined the Investment Manager in 2003 and currently serves as senior vice president of the Investment Manager. Prior to joining the Investment Manager, Mr. Scapell was a director in the fixed-income research department of Merrill Lynch & Co., Inc., where he also was its chief strategist for preferred securities. He was previously in bank supervision and monetary policy roles at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York for five years. Mr. Scapell is a Chartered Financial Analyst.

Elaine Zaharis-Nikas. Ms. Zaharis-Nikas joined the Investment Manager in 2003 and currently serves as Senior Vice President of the Investment Manager. Prior to that, Vice President of the Investment Manager since 2005. Prior to joining the Investment Manager, Ms. Zaharis-Nikas was a credit analyst for five years, and an internal auditor for three years, at J.P. Morgan Chase. Ms. Zaharis-Nikas is a Chartered Financial Analyst.

The Investment Manager utilizes a team-based approach in managing the Fund. Mr. Scapell directs and supervises the execution of the Fund’s investment strategy, and leads and guides the other members of the investment team.

See “Management of the Fund—Compensation of Trustees and Certain Officers” and “Investment Management and Other Services” in the SAI for further information about the Fund’s portfolio managers’ compensation, other accounts managed by the portfolio managers and the portfolio managers’ ownership of securities in the Fund.

ADMINISTRATION AND CO-ADMINISTRATION AGREEMENT

Under the Administration Agreement with the Fund, the Investment Manager will have responsibility for providing administrative services and assisting the Fund with operational needs, including providing administrative services necessary for the operations of the Fund and furnishing office space and facilities required for conducting the business of the Fund.

In accordance with the Administration Agreement and with the approval of the Board of Trustees of the Fund, the Fund has entered into an agreement with [•] as co-administrator under a fund accounting and administration agreement (the “Co-Administration Agreement”). Under the Co-Administration Agreement, [•] has assumed responsibility for certain fund administration services.

Under the Administration Agreement, the Fund pays the Investment Manager an amount equal to, on an annual basis, [•]% of the Fund’s average daily Managed Assets. Under the Co-Administration Agreement, the Fund pays [•] a monthly co-administration fee. The co-administration fee paid by the Fund to [•] is computed on the basis of the average net assets in the Fund at an annual rate equal to [•]% of the first $[•] in assets and [•]% of assets in excess of $[•], with a minimum fee of $[•]. [The aggregate fee paid by the Fund and the other Cohen & Steers Funds to [•] is computed by calculating the effective rate for all the funds and multiplying the monthly average net assets of each respective fund in the complex by that effective rate. For those funds with preferred shares or borrowings outstanding, the monthly average net assets will be adjusted by the monthly average liquidation preference of the preferred shares. The Fund is then responsible for its pro rata amount of the aggregate administration fee. [•] also serves as the Fund’s custodian and [•] has been retained to serve as the Fund’s transfer agent, dividend disbursing agent and registrar. See “Custodian, Transfer Agent, Dividend Disbursing Agent and Registrar.”]

 

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DIVIDENDS AND DISTRIBUTIONS

 

 

LEVEL RATE DISTRIBUTION POLICY

Subject to the determination of the Board of Trustees to implement a Managed Distribution Policy, as discussed below, commencing with the Fund’s first regular distribution, the Fund intends to implement a Level Rate Distribution Policy, pursuant to which the Fund intends to make regular monthly cash distributions to Common Shareholders at a level rate based on the projected performance of the Fund, which rate is a fixed dollar amount which may be adjusted from time to time. The tax treatment and characterization of the Fund’s distributions may vary significantly from time to time because of the varied nature of the Fund’s investments. The ultimate tax characterization of the Fund’s distributions made in a taxable year cannot be determined finally until after the end of that taxable year.

Distributions can only be made from net investment income after making any required payments on any interest rate transactions. The Fund’s ability to maintain a level distribution rate will depend on a number of factors, including the stability of income received from its investments. Over time, the Fund will distribute all of its net investment income. In addition, at least annually, the Fund intends to distribute all of its net realized capital gains, if any, to shareholders. The Fund expects to declare the initial monthly distribution on the Common Shares within approximately 45 days, and to pay approximately 60 to 90 days, from the completion of this offering, depending on market conditions. The net income of the Fund consists of all income accrued on portfolio assets less all expenses of the Fund. Expenses of the Fund are accrued each day. At times, to maintain a stable level of distributions, the Fund may pay out less than all of its net investment income, in which case the undistributed net investment income would be available to supplement distributions in future monthly periods. At other times, in addition to paying out current net investment income, the Fund may pay out accumulated undistributed income or may return capital. As a result, the distributions paid by the Fund for any particular monthly period may be more or less than the amount of net investment income actually earned by the Fund during the period. Undistributed net investment income will be added to the Fund’s NAV and, correspondingly, distributions from undistributed net investment income will be deducted from the Fund’s NAV. See “Taxation.”

MANAGED DISTRIBUTION POLICY

The Fund may rely on an exemptive order from the SEC received by the Investment Manager and certain closed-end funds managed by the Investment Manager to implement a Managed Distribution Policy. If, for any distribution, net investment income and net realized capital gains were less than the amount of the distribution, the difference would be distributed from the Fund’s assets and may constitute a return of capital. The Fund’s final distribution for each calendar year would include any remaining net investment income and net realized capital gain undistributed during the year. In the event the Fund distributed in any calendar year amounts in excess of net investment income and net realized capital gain (such excess, the “Excess”), such distribution would decrease the Fund’s assets and, therefore, have the likely effect of increasing the Fund’s expense ratio. There is a risk that the Fund would not eventually realize capital gains in an amount corresponding to a distribution of the Excess. In addition, in order to make such distributions, the Fund may have to sell a portion of its investment portfolio at a time when independent investment judgment might not dictate such action.

A Managed Distribution Policy may require certain distributions that may be deemed a return of capital for tax purposes. For each taxable year, the Excess generally will be treated as a return of capital that is tax-free to the Common Shareholders, up to the amount of the shareholder’s tax basis in the

 

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applicable Common Shares, with any amounts exceeding such basis treated as gain from the sale of such Common Shares. In certain instances, the Fund may make distributions exceeding net capital gains for that year (as reduced by capital loss carryforwards) but not exceeding current earnings and profits, in which case those distributions will be taxable as ordinary income.

There is no guarantee that the Board of Trustees will determine to implement a Managed Distribution Policy. The Board of Trustees reserves the right to change the distribution policy from time to time and to amend or terminate a Level Rate Distribution Policy or a Managed Distribution Policy at any time without prior notice to Common Shareholders.

A Level Rate Distribution Policy or a Managed Distribution Policy would result in the payment of distributions in approximately the same amount or percentage to Common Shareholders each month. If the source of the distribution were the original capital contribution of the Common Shareholder, and the payment amounted to a return of capital, the Fund would be required to provide written disclosure to that effect. Nevertheless, Common Shareholders who periodically receive the payment of a distribution may be under the impression that they are receiving net profits when they are not. Common Shareholders should read any written disclosure regarding distributions carefully, and should not assume that the source of any distribution from the Fund is net profits.

DIVIDEND REINVESTMENT PLAN

The Fund has a dividend reinvestment plan commonly referred to as an “opt-out” plan. Each Common Shareholder who participates in the Plan and will have all distributions of dividends automatically reinvested in additional Common Shares by [•],[•] as agent (the “Plan Agent”). Common Shareholders who elect not to participate in the Plan will receive all distributions in cash paid by check mailed directly to the shareholder of record (or if the shares are held in street or other nominee name, then to the nominee) by the Plan Agent, as dividend disbursing agent. Common Shareholders whose Common Shares are held in the name of a broker or nominee should contact the broker or nominee to determine whether and how they may participate in the Plan.

The Plan Agent serves as agent for the Common Shareholders in administering the Plan. After the Fund declares a dividend, the Plan Agent will, as agent for the shareholders, either (i) receive the cash payment and use it to buy Common Shares in the open market, on the NYSE or elsewhere, for the participants’ accounts or (ii) distribute newly issued Common Shares of the Fund on behalf of the participants. The Plan Agent will receive cash from the Fund with which to buy Common Shares in the open market if, on the distribution payment date, the NAV per share exceeds the market price per Common Share plus estimated brokerage commissions on that date. The Plan Agent will have until the last business day before the next ex-dividend date for the Common Shares, but in no event more than 30 days after the distribution payment date (as the case may be, the “Purchase Period”), to invest the dividend or distribution in Common Shares purchased in the open market. During the Purchase Period, however, if at the close of business on any day on which NAV is calculated, the NAV of a Common Share equals or is less than the market price per share plus estimated brokerage commissions, the Plan Agent will cease making open market purchases and the uninvested portion of such dividends or distributions shall be filled through the issuance of new Common Shares at the price set forth below. The Plan Agent will receive the dividend or distribution in newly issued Common Shares of the Fund if, on the payment date, the market price per share plus estimated brokerage commissions equals or exceeds the NAV per share of the Fund on that date. The number of shares to be issued will be computed at a per share rate equal to the greater of (i) the NAV or (ii) 95% of the closing market price per Common Share on the payment date.

 

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Participants in the Plan may withdraw from the plan upon notice to the Plan Agent. Such withdrawal will be effective immediately if received not less than ten days prior to a distribution record date; otherwise, it will be effective for all subsequent distributions. If any participant elects to have the Plan Agent sell all or part of his or her shares and remit the proceeds, the Plan Agent is authorized to deduct a $[•] fee plus $[•] per share brokerage commissions.

In the case of record shareholders, such as banks, brokers or nominees (each, a “nominee”), which hold Common Shares for others who are the beneficial owners, the Plan Agent will administer the Plan on the basis of the number of Common Shares certified from time to time by the nominee as representing the total amount registered in the nominee’s name and held for the account of beneficial owners who are participants in the Plan. If your Common Shares are held through a nominee who has elected not to participate in the Plan and are not registered with the Plan Agent, the nominee may reinvest all dividends and distributions received on your behalf from the Fund in Common Shares through open-market purchases at a price per share that may be higher or lower than the Fund’s NAV per share. Please contact your financial institution for details. Common Shares may be purchased through any of the underwriters, acting as broker or, after the completion of this offering, acting as dealer.

The Plan Agent’s fees for the handling of reinvestment of dividends and other distributions will be paid by the Fund. Each participant will pay a pro rata share of brokerage commissions incurred with respect to the Plan Agent’s open market purchases in connection with the reinvestment of distributions. There are no other charges to participants for reinvesting dividend distributions. Purchases and/or sales are usually made through a broker affiliated with [•].

Experience under the Plan may indicate that changes are desirable. Accordingly, the Fund reserves the right to amend or terminate the Plan as applied to any distribution paid subsequent to written notice of the change sent to all shareholders of the Fund at least 90 days before the record date for the dividend or distribution. The Plan also may be amended or terminated by the Plan Agent by at least 90 days’ written notice to all shareholders of the Fund. All correspondence concerning the Plan should be directed to the Plan Agent at [•], or you may contact the Plan Agent by telephone at [•].

The automatic reinvestment of dividends will not relieve participants of any income tax that may be payable or required to be withheld on such dividends or distributions. See “Taxation.”

 

 

CLOSED-END STRUCTURE

 

 

The Fund is newly organized, non-diversified closed-end management investment company. Closed-end investment companies differ from open-end investment companies (open-end funds or mutual funds) in that closed-end investment companies generally list their shares for trading on a stock exchange and do not redeem their shares at the request of the shareholder. This means that if you wish to sell your shares of a closed-end investment company you must trade them on the market like any other stock at the prevailing market price at that time. In an open-end fund, if the shareholder wishes to sell shares, the fund will redeem or buy back the shares at NAV. Open-end funds generally offer new shares on a continuous basis to new investors, and closed-end investment companies generally do not. The continuous inflows and outflows of assets in an open-end fund can make it difficult to manage the fund’s investments. By comparison, closed-end investment companies are generally able to stay fully invested in securities that are consistent with their investment objectives, and also have greater flexibility to make certain types of investments, and to use certain investment strategies, such as leverage and investments in illiquid securities.

 

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Shares of closed-end investment companies frequently trade at a discount to their NAV. See “Principal Risks of the Fund—Risk of Market Price Discount From Net Asset Value.” Because of this possibility and the recognition that any such discount may not be in the best interest of shareholders, the Fund’s Board of Trustees might consider from time to time engaging in open market repurchases, tender offers for shares at NAV or other programs intended to reduce the discount. The Fund cannot guarantee or assure, however, that the Fund’s Board of Trustees will decide to engage in any of these actions. Nor is there any guarantee or assurance that such actions, if undertaken, would result in shares trading at a price equal or close to NAV per share. See “Repurchase of Shares.” The Board of Trustees may also consider converting the Fund to an open-end fund, which would require a vote of the shareholders of the Fund.

 

 

REPURCHASE OF SHARES

 

 

Shares of closed-end investment companies often trade at a discount to NAV, and the Fund’s shares may also trade at a discount to their NAV, although it is possible that they may trade at a premium above NAV. The market price of the Common Shares will be determined by such factors as relative demand for and supply of shares in the market, the Fund’s NAV, general market and economic conditions and other factors beyond the control of the Fund.

Although Common Shareholders will not have the right to redeem their shares, the Fund may take action to repurchase shares in the open market or make tender offers for its shares at NAV. During the pendency of any tender offer, the Fund will publish how Common Shareholders may readily ascertain the NAV. For more information see “Repurchase of Shares” in the SAI. Repurchase of the Common Shares may have the effect of reducing any market discount to NAV.

There is no assurance that, if action is undertaken to repurchase or tender for shares, such action will result in the shares trading at a price which approximates their NAV. Although share repurchases and tenders could have a favorable effect on the market price of the shares, you should be aware that the acquisition of shares by the Fund will decrease the total assets of the Fund and, therefore, have the effect of increasing the Fund’s expense ratio and may adversely affect the ability of the Fund to achieve its investment objectives. To the extent the Fund may need to liquidate investments to fund repurchases of shares, this may result in portfolio turnover which will result in additional expenses being borne by the Fund and may result in higher taxes when Fund shares are held in a taxable account. The Board of Trustees currently consider the following factors to be relevant to a potential decision to repurchase shares: the extent and duration of the discount, the liquidity of the Fund’s portfolio, the impact of any action on the Fund or its shareholders and market considerations. Any share repurchases or tender offers will be made in accordance with the requirements of the Exchange Act and the 1940 Act. See “Taxation” for a description of the potential tax consequences of a share repurchase.

 

 

TAXATION

 

 

The following discussion offers only a brief outline of the U.S. federal income tax consequences of investing in the Fund and is based on the U.S. federal tax laws in effect on the date hereof. Such tax laws are subject to change by legislative, judicial or administrative action, possibly with retroactive effect. For more detailed information regarding tax considerations, see the SAI. There may be other tax

 

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considerations applicable to particular investors, including foreign shareholders (as defined later in this section). Investors should consult their own tax advisers for more detailed information and for information regarding the impact of state, local and foreign taxes on an investment in the Fund.

Taxation of the Fund. The Fund has elected to be treated as, and intends to qualify each year to be treated as, a regulated investment company (“RIC”) under U.S. federal income tax law. In order to qualify and be treated as a RIC, the Fund must derive at least 90% of its gross income for each taxable year from “qualifying income” as defined in the Code and meet requirements with respect to diversification of assets and distribution of income and gains. If the Fund does so, the Fund generally will not be required to pay federal income taxes on any income it distributes to shareholders. If the Fund were to fail to meet any one of these requirements, the Fund could in some cases cure such failure, including by paying a Fund-level tax, paying interest, making additional distributions, or disposing of certain assets. If the Fund were ineligible to or otherwise did not cure such failure for any year, the Fund would be subject to tax on its taxable income and net capital gains at corporate rates, and all distributions from earnings and profits, including any distributions of net tax-exempt income and net long-term capital gains, would be taxable to shareholders as ordinary income.

The U.S. federal income tax treatment of certain Fund investments is unclear with respect to the timing and character of income recognized by a Fund. An adverse determination by the IRS could require a Fund to purchase or sell securities or to make additional distributions in order to comply with the tax rules applicable to RICs. Further, the application of the diversification, gross income and distribution requirements for treatment as a RIC under the Code can be unclear with respect to certain investments. As a result, there can be no assurance that the Fund will be able to maintain its status as a RIC.

Certain income of the Fund’s investments, including investments in certain debt instruments, could affect the amount, timing and character of distributions you receive and could cause the Fund to recognize taxable income in excess of the cash generated by such investments, which may require the Fund to liquidate other investments (including when it is not advantageous to do so) to meet its distribution requirements or otherwise qualify for treatment as a RIC.

Distributions. Dividends paid out of the Fund’s current and accumulated earnings and profits will, except in the case of distributions of qualified dividend income and capital gain dividends described below, be taxable to a U.S. shareholder as ordinary income.

Taxes on distributions of capital gains are determined by how long the Fund owned the investments that generated the gains, rather than how long a shareholder has owned his or her shares. In general, the Fund will recognize long-term capital gain or loss on investments it has owned for more than one year, and short-term capital gain or loss on investments it has owned for one year or less. Tax rules can alter the Fund’s holding period in its investments and thereby affect the tax treatment of gain or loss on such investments. Distributions of net capital gain (that is, the excess of net long-term capital gain over net short-term capital loss, in each case determined with reference to any loss carryforwards) that are properly reported by the Fund as capital gain dividends (“Capital Gain Dividends”) will be taxable to shareholders as long-term capital gains includible in net capital gains and taxed to individuals at reduced rates. Distributions of net short-term capital gain (as reduced by any net long-term capital loss for the taxable year) will be taxable to shareholders as ordinary income. The Fund may report certain dividends as derived from “qualified dividend income” which, when received by an individual, will be taxed at the reduced rates applicable to net capital gain, provided holding period and other requirements are met at both the shareholder and Fund levels.

If a portion of the Fund’s income consists of dividends paid by U.S. corporations, a portion of the dividends paid by the Fund may be eligible for the corporate dividends-received deduction for

 

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corporate shareholders. In addition, distributions reported by the Fund as derived from “qualified dividend income” (“QDI”) will be taxed in the hands of individuals at the reduced rates applicable to net capital gain, provided certain holding period and other requirements are met by both the shareholder and the Fund. Dividend income that the Fund receives from U.S. REITs will generally not be treated as QDI and will not qualify for the dividends-received deduction. It is unclear the extent to which distributions the Fund receives from investments in certain preferred securities will be eligible for treatment as QDI or for the corporate dividends-received deduction. The Fund cannot predict at this time what portion, if any, of its dividends will qualify for the corporate dividends-received deduction or be eligible for the reduced rates of taxation applicable to QDI.

Between 2018 and 2025, “Qualified REIT dividends” are treated as eligible for a 20% deduction by non-corporate taxpayers. Qualified REIT dividends are dividends received from REITs that are neither capital gain dividends nor are eligible for treatment as qualified dividends. Proposed regulations issued by the IRS enable the Fund to pass-through Qualified REIT dividends to its shareholders, provided the shareholders meet certain holding period requirements with respect to their shares.

Dividends received by corporate shareholders may qualify for the dividends-received deduction to the extent of the amount of qualifying dividends received by the Fund from domestic corporations (other than REITs) and to the extent, if any, that a portion of interest paid or accrued on certain high yield discount obligations owned by a Fund is treated as a dividend. A dividend received by a Fund will not be treated as a dividend eligible for the dividends-received deduction (1) if it has been received with respect to any share of stock that the Fund has held for less than 46 days (91 days in the case of certain preferred stock) during the 91-day period beginning on the date which is 45 days before the date on which such share becomes ex-dividend with respect to such dividend (during the 181-day period beginning 90 days before such date in the case of certain preferred stock) or (2) to the extent that the Fund is under an obligation (pursuant to a short sale or otherwise) to make related payments with respect to positions in substantially similar or related property. Moreover, the dividends received deduction may otherwise be disallowed or reduced (1) if the corporate shareholder fails to satisfy the foregoing requirements with respect to its shares of the Fund or (2) by application of various provisions of the Code (for instance, the dividends-received deduction is reduced in the case of a dividend received on debt-financed portfolio stock (generally, stock acquired with borrowed funds)).

A distribution of an amount in excess of the Fund’s current and accumulated earnings and profits in any taxable year will be treated as a return of capital to the extent of a shareholder’s tax basis in his or her shares, and thereafter as capital gain. A return of capital is not taxable, but it reduces a shareholder’s basis in his or her shares, thus reducing any loss or increasing any gain on a subsequent taxable disposition by the shareholder of such shares.

Distributions will be treated in the manner described above regardless of whether such distributions are paid in cash or invested in additional shares of a Fund.

Shareholders will be notified annually as to the U.S. federal income tax status of distributions.

The Code generally imposes a 3.8% Medicare contribution tax on the net investment income of certain individuals, trusts and estates to the extent their income exceeds certain threshold amounts. For these purposes, “net investment income” generally includes, among other things, (i) distributions paid by the Fund of net investment income and capital gains as described above, and (ii) any net gain from the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of Fund shares. Shareholders are advised to consult their tax advisors regarding the possible implications of this additional tax on their investment in the Fund.

 

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Sale or exchange of Fund shares. The sale or other disposition of the Common Shares generally will be a taxable transaction for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Selling holders of Common Shares generally will recognize gain or loss in an amount equal to the difference between the sum of the amount of cash and the fair market value of any property received in exchange therefor and their respective bases in such Common Shares. If the Common Shares are held as a capital asset, the gain or loss generally will be a capital gain or loss. Similarly, a redemption (including a redemption resulting from liquidation of the Fund), if any, of the Common Shares by the Fund generally will give rise to capital gain or loss if the holder does not own (and is not regarded under certain tax law rules of constructive ownership as owning) any Common Shares in the Fund and provided that the redemption proceeds do not represent declared but unpaid dividends. A capital gain or loss will be long-term or short-term, depending generally on your holding periods for the Common Shares.

From time to time, the Fund may make a tender offer for its Common Shares. Shareholders who tender all Common Shares held, or considered to be held, by them will be treated as having sold their shares and generally will realize a capital gain or loss. If a shareholder tenders fewer than all of its Common Shares, or fewer than all its tendered shares are accepted for repurchase, such shareholder may be treated as having received a taxable dividend upon the tender of its Common Shares. In such a case, there is a risk that non-tendering shareholders whose interests in the Fund increase as a result of such tender will be treated as having received a taxable distribution from the Fund. The extent of such risk will vary depending upon the particular circumstances of the tender offer, in particular whether such offer is a single and isolated event or is part of a plan for periodically redeeming the common shares of the Fund; if isolated, any such risk is likely remote. If the Fund repurchases common shares on the open market, such that a selling shareholder would have no specific knowledge that he or she is selling his or her shares to the Fund, it is less likely that shareholders whose percentage share interests in the Fund increase as a result of any such open-market sale will be treated as having received a taxable distribution from the Fund.

Backup withholding. The Fund may be required to withhold, for U.S. federal income taxes, a portion of all taxable dividends and redemption proceeds payable to shareholders who fail to provide the Fund with their correct taxpayer identification numbers or who otherwise fail to make required certifications, or if the Fund or a shareholder has been notified by the Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”) that such shareholder is subject to backup withholding. Corporate shareholders and other shareholders specified in the Code and the Treasury regulations promulgated thereunder are exempt from such backup withholding. Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amounts withheld will be allowed as a refund or a credit against the shareholder’s federal income tax liability if the appropriate information is timely provided to the IRS.

Foreign shareholders. Non-resident alien individuals, foreign trusts or estates, foreign corporations or foreign partnerships (foreign shareholders) are advised to consult their own tax advisors with respect to the particular tax consequences to them of an investment in the Fund.

Other tax matters. Special tax rules apply to investments though defined contribution plans and other tax-qualified plans. Common Shareholders should consult their tax advisers to determine the suitability of Common Shares as an investment through such plans and the precise effect of an investment on their particular tax situation.

Investors are advised to consult their own tax advisers with respect to the application to their own circumstances of the above-described general taxation rules and with respect to the state, local, foreign and other tax consequences to them of an investment in the Common Shares.

 

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The SAI summarizes further U.S. federal income tax considerations that may apply to the Fund and its shareholders and may qualify the considerations discussed herein. Fund distributions also may be subject to state and local taxes. You should consult with your own tax adviser regarding the particular consequences of investing in the Fund.

 

 

DESCRIPTION OF SHARES

 

 

COMMON SHARES

The Fund is authorized to issue [•] Common Shares. The Board of Trustees, with the approval of a majority of the Trustees and without action by the Fund’s shareholders, may amend the Fund’s Declaration of Trust to increase or decrease the total number of shares of stock of the Fund or the number of shares of any class that the Fund has authority to issue. The Common Shares have no preemptive, conversion, exchange, redemption or appraisal rights. Each share has equal voting, dividend, distribution and liquidation rights. The Common Shares outstanding are, and those offered hereby when issued will be, fully paid and nonassessable. Common Shareholders are entitled to one vote per share. All voting rights for the election of Trustees are noncumulative, which means that the holders of more than 50% of the Common Shares can elect 100% of the Trustees then nominated for election if they choose to do so and, in such event, the holders of the remaining Common Shares will not be able to elect any Trustees. The Fund expects its Common Shares to be listed on the NYSE, subject to notice of issuance, under the symbol “PTA.” Under the rules of the NYSE applicable to listed companies, the Fund will be required to hold an annual meeting of shareholders in each year. The foregoing description and the description below under “Certain Provisions of the Declaration of Trust and By-Laws” are subject to the provisions contained in the Declaration of Trust and By-Laws.

NAV will be reduced immediately following the offering by the amount of the sales load and offering expenses paid by the Fund. See “Use of Proceeds.” The Investment Manager has agreed to pay (i) all organizational expenses and (ii) the Fund’s offering expenses (other than sales load) to the extent that offering expenses are in excess of $[•] per Common Share. Offering expenses paid by the Fund may include reimbursement to the Investment Manager or its affiliates for expenses incurred in connection with the offering, including compensation to sales personnel. See “Underwriters.”

As of the date of this prospectus, the Investment Manager owned of record and beneficially shares of the Common Shares constituting 100% of the outstanding shares of the Fund, and thus, until the public offering of the shares is completed, will control the Fund.

FUND NET ASSET VALUE

The Fund will determine the NAV of its shares as of the close of trading of the NYSE (currently 4:00 p.m. New York time) no less frequently than the last business day of each week and at such other times as the Board of Trustees may determine. The Fund intends to make its NAV available for publication weekly. NAV of the Common Shares is computed by dividing the value of all assets of the Fund (including accrued interest and dividends and current and deferred income tax assets), less all liabilities (including accrued expenses, distributions payable, any Borrowings, and liabilities under Reverse Repurchase Agreements) and less the liquidation preference of any outstanding Preferred Shares, by the total number of Common Shares outstanding. Any interest rate swap transaction that the Fund enters into may, depending on the applicable interest rate environment, have a positive or negative value for purposes of calculating NAV. Any cap transaction that the Fund enters into may, depending on the

 

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applicable interest rate environment, have no value or a positive value. In addition, accrued payments to the Fund under such transactions will be assets of the Fund and accrued payments by the Fund will be liabilities of the Fund.

For purposes of determining the NAV per share of the Fund, readily marketable portfolio securities principally traded on any exchange or similar regulated market reporting contemporaneous transaction prices are valued, except as indicated below, at the last sale price reflected on such principal market on the business day as of which such value is being determined. If there has been no sale on such day, the securities are valued at the mean of the closing bid and asked prices on such day, or if no asked price is available, the bid price may be used. If no bid or asked prices are quoted on such day, then the security is valued by such method as the Fund’s Board of Trustees shall determine in good faith to reflect its fair market value. Portfolio securities traded on more than one securities exchange are valued at the last sale price on the business day as of which such value is being determined as reflected on the tape at the close of the exchange representing the principal market for such securities.

Readily marketable securities traded in the OTC market, including listed securities or assets whose primary market is believed by the Investment Manager to be OTC, are valued at the official closing prices as reported by sources as the Fund’s Board of Trustees deem appropriate to reflect their fair market value. If there has been no sale on such day, the securities are valued at the mean of the closing bid and asked prices on such day, or if no asked price is available, at the bid price. However, certain fixed-income securities may be valued on the basis of prices provided by a pricing service when such prices are believed by the Investment Manager, pursuant to a delegation by the Board of Trustees, to reflect the fair market value of such securities. In addition, certain swap agreements may be valued on the basis of the prices of the underlying reference assets.

Securities or assets for which market prices are unavailable, or for which the Investment Manager determines that bid and/or ask price or a counterparty valuation does not reflect market value, will be valued at fair value pursuant to procedures approved by the Fund’s Board of Trustees. Circumstances in which market prices may be unavailable include, but are not limited to, when trading in a security or asset is suspended, the exchange on which the security or asset is traded is subject to an unscheduled close or disruption or material events occur after the close of the exchange on which the security or asset is principally traded. In these circumstances, the Fund determines fair value in a manner that fairly reflects the market value of the security or asset on the valuation date based on consideration of any information or factors it deems appropriate. These may include, but are not limited to, recent transactions in comparable securities or assets, information relating to the specific security or asset and developments in the markets.

The Fund’s use of fair value pricing may cause the NAV of the Common Shares to differ from the NAV that would be calculated using market quotations. Fair value pricing involves subjective judgments and it is possible that the fair value determined for a security may be materially different than the value that could be realized upon the sale of that security.

Short-term debt securities, which have a maturity date of 60 days or less, are valued at amortized cost, which approximates value. Investments in open-end mutual funds are valued at their closing NAV.

Because the Fund may hold securities that are primarily listed on foreign exchanges that trade on weekends or days when the Fund does not price its shares, the value of securities held in the Fund may change on days when you will not be able to purchase or sell Fund shares on the NYSE.

 

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PREFERRED SHARES

The Declaration of Trust authorizes the Board of Trustees, without approval of the Common Shareholders, to classify any unissued shares of the Fund’s common stock into preferred shares, par value $.001 per share, in one or more classes or series, with rights as determined by the Board of Trustees. The Fund has no current intention to issue Preferred Shares.

Limited Issuance of Preferred Shares and Borrowings.Under the 1940 Act, the Fund could issue Preferred Shares with an aggregate liquidation preference of up to one-half of the value of the Fund’s Managed Assets less liabilities other than Borrowings, measured immediately after issuance of the Preferred Shares. “Liquidation preference” means the original purchase price of the shares being liquidated plus any accrued and unpaid dividends. In addition, the Fund is not permitted to declare any cash dividend or other distribution on its Common Shares unless the liquidation preference of the Preferred Shares is less than one-half of the value of the Fund’s assets less liabilities other than Borrowings (determined after deducting the amount of such dividend or distribution) immediately after the distribution. Under the requirements of the 1940 Act, the Fund, immediately after any Borrowings, must have an asset coverage of at least 300%. With respect to such Borrowings, asset coverage means the ratio which the value of the assets of the Fund, less liabilities other than Borrowings, bears to the aggregate amount of such Borrowings represented by senior securities issued by the Fund. Certain types of Borrowings may result in the Fund being subject to covenants in credit agreements relating to asset coverages or portfolio composition or otherwise.

The Fund currently intends to seek to enhance the level of its distributions and total return through the use of leverage. Under normal market conditions, the Fund will generally utilize leverage in an amount equal to 30% of Managed Assets (under the Investment Company Act of 1940, the Fund may borrow in an amount up to 331/3% of its Managed Assets immediately after such borrowing) through borrowings, including loans from certain financial institutions and/or the issuance of debt securities. The Fund may also use leverage in an amount up to the maximum extent permitted by the 1940 Act through the issuance of Preferred Shares. The Fund also could enter into Reverse Repurchase Agreements for leverage. The Fund may purchase or redeem any Preferred Shares and/or reduce outstanding Borrowings if necessary to maintain required asset coverage.

In addition, the Fund may be subject to certain restrictions imposed by guidelines of one or more NRSROs which may issue ratings for Preferred Shares, if any, or commercial paper or notes issued by the Fund. Such restrictions may be more stringent than those imposed by the 1940 Act.

Distribution Preference. Preferred Shares, if any, would have complete priority over the Common Shares. Currently, the Fund has no intention to issue Preferred Shares.

Liquidation Preference. In the event of any voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the affairs of the Fund, holders of Preferred Shares, if any, will be entitled to receive a preferential liquidating distribution (expected to equal the original purchase price per share plus accumulated and unpaid dividends thereon, whether or not earned or declared) before any distribution of assets is made to Common Shareholders.

Voting Rights. Preferred Shares are required to be voting shares and to have equal voting rights with Common Shares. Except as otherwise indicated in this prospectus or the SAI and except as otherwise required by applicable law, holders of Preferred Shares will vote together with Common Shareholders as a single class.

Holders of Preferred Shares, voting as a separate class, will be entitled to elect two of the Fund’s Trustees. The remaining Trustees will be elected by Common Shareholders and holders of Preferred

 

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Shares, voting together as a single class. In the event that two full years of accrued dividends are unpaid on the Preferred Shares, the holders of all outstanding Preferred Shares, voting as a separate class, will be entitled to elect a majority of the Fund’s Trustees until all dividends in arrears have been paid or declared and set apart for payment. In order for the Fund to take certain actions or enter into certain transactions, a separate class vote of holders of Preferred Shares will be required, in addition to the combined single class vote of the holders of Preferred Shares and Common Shares.

Redemption, Purchase and Sale of Preferred Shares. The terms of the Preferred Shares may provide that they are redeemable at certain times, in whole or in part, at the original purchase price per share plus accumulated dividends. The terms may also state that the Fund may tender for or purchase Preferred Shares and resell any shares so tendered. Any redemption or purchase of Preferred Shares by the Fund will reduce the leverage applicable to Common Shares, while any resale of shares by the Fund will increase such leverage. See “Use of Leverage.”

The discussion above describes the Board of Trustees’ present intention with respect to a possible offering of Preferred Shares. If the Board of Trustees determines to authorize such an offering, the terms of the Preferred Shares may be the same as, or different from, the terms described above, subject to applicable law and the Declaration of Trust. The Fund has no current intention to issue Preferred Shares.

 

 

LIMITED TERM AND ELIGIBLE TENDER OFFER

 

 

In accordance with the Declaration of Trust, the Fund intends to terminate as of the first business day following the twelfth anniversary of the effective date of the Fund’s initial registration statement, which the Fund currently expects to occur on or about the Dissolution Date; provided that the Board of Trustees may, by a vote of a majority of the Board of Trustees and seventy-five percent (75%) of the members of the Board of Trustees who either (i) have been a member of the Board of Trustees for a period of at least thirty-six months (or since the commencement of the Fund’s operations, if less than thirty-six months) or (ii) were nominated to serve as a member of the Board of Trustees by a majority of the Continuing Trustees then members of the Board of Trustees (the “Continuing Trustees”) (a “Board Action Vote”), without shareholder approval, extend the Dissolution Date (i) once for up to [one year], and (ii) once for up to an additional [one year], to a date up to and including [two years] after the initial Dissolution Date, which date shall then become the Dissolution Date. In determining whether to extend the Dissolution Date, the Board of Trustees may consider the inability to sell the Fund’s assets in a time frame consistent with dissolution due to lack of market liquidity or other extenuating circumstances. Additionally, the Board of Trustees may determine that market conditions are such that it is reasonable to believe that, with an extension, the Fund’s remaining assets will appreciate and generate income in an amount that, in the aggregate, is meaningful relative to the cost and expense of continuing the operation of the Fund. On or before the Dissolution Date, the Fund will cease its investment operations, retire or redeem its leverage facilities, liquidate its investment portfolio (to the extent possible) and distribute all its liquidated net assets to common shareholders of record in one or more distributions on or after the Dissolution Date.

Beginning one year before the Dissolution Date (the “Wind-Down Period”), the Fund may begin liquidating all or a portion of the Fund’s portfolio, and may deviate from its investment policies and may not achieve its investment objectives. During the Wind-Down Period (or in anticipation of an Eligible Tender Offer, as defined below), the Fund’s portfolio composition may change as more of its

 

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portfolio holdings are called or sold and portfolio holdings are disposed of in anticipation of liquidation. Rather than reinvesting the proceeds of matured, called or sold securities in accordance with the investment program described above, the Fund may invest such proceeds in short term or other lower yielding securities or hold the proceeds in cash, which may adversely affect the Fund’s performance.

As of a date within twelve months preceding the Dissolution Date, the Board of Trustees may determine, by a Board Action Vote, to cause the Fund to conduct a tender offer to Common Shareholders to purchase 100% of the then outstanding Common Shares of the Fund at a price equal to the net asset value (“NAV”) per Common Share on the expiration date of the tender offer (an “Eligible Tender Offer”). The Board of Trustees has established that the Fund must have at least $[200 million] of net assets immediately following the completion of an Eligible Tender Offer to ensure the continued viability of the Fund (the “Dissolution Threshold”). In an Eligible Tender Offer, the Fund will offer to purchase all Common Shares held by each Common Shareholder; provided that if the number of properly tendered Common Shares would result in the Fund having aggregate net assets below the Dissolution Threshold, the Eligible Tender Offer will be canceled, and no Common Shares will be repurchased pursuant to the Eligible Tender Offer. Instead, the Fund will begin (or continue) liquidating its portfolio and proceed to terminate as scheduled on or about the Dissolution Date. The Eligible Tender Offer would be made, and Common Shareholders would be notified thereof, in accordance with the requirements of the 1940 Act, the Exchange Act and the applicable tender offer rules thereunder (including Rule 13e-4 and Regulation 14E under the Exchange Act). If the number of properly tendered Common Shares would result in the Fund having aggregate net assets greater than or equal to the Dissolution Threshold, all Common Shares properly tendered and not withdrawn will be purchased by the Fund pursuant to the terms of the Eligible Tender Offer. The Fund’s purchase of tendered Common Shares pursuant to a tender offer will have tax consequences for tendering Common Shareholders and may have tax consequences for non-tendering Common Shareholders. In addition, the Fund would continue to be subject to its obligations with respect to its issued and outstanding borrowings, preferred stock or debt securities, if any. Regardless of whether the Eligible Tender Offer is completed or canceled, the Investment Manager will pay all costs and expenses associated with the making of an Eligible Tender Offer, other than brokerage and related transaction costs associated with the disposition of portfolio investments in connection with the Eligible Tender Offer, which will be borne by the Fund and its Common Shareholders.

Following the completion of an Eligible Tender Offer, the Board of Trustees may, by a Board Action Vote, eliminate the Dissolution Date without shareholder approval. In determining whether to eliminate the Dissolution Date, the Board of Trustees may consider market conditions at such time and all other factors deemed relevant by the Board of Trustees in consultation with the Investment Manager, taking into account that the Investment Manager may have a potential conflict of interest in recommending to the Board of Trustees that the limited term structure be eliminated and the Fund have a perpetual existence. In making a decision to eliminate the Dissolution Date to provide for the Fund’s perpetual existence, the Board of Trustees will take such actions with respect to the continued operations of the Fund as it deems to be in the best interests of the Fund. The Fund is not required to conduct additional tender offers following an Eligible Tender Offer and conversion to a perpetual structure. Therefore, remaining Common Shareholders may not have another opportunity to participate in a tender offer or exchange their Common Shares for the then-existing NAV per Common Share.

All Common Shareholders remaining after a tender offer will be subject to proportionately higher expenses due to the reduction in the Fund’s total assets resulting from payment for the tendered Common Shares. A reduction in net assets, and the corresponding increase in the Fund’s expense ratio,

 

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could result in lower returns and put the Fund at a disadvantage relative to its peers and potentially cause the Fund’s Common Shares to trade at a wider discount to NAV than it otherwise would. Such reduction in the Fund’s total assets may also result in less investment flexibility, reduced diversification and greater volatility for the Fund, and may have an adverse effect on the Fund’s investment performance. Moreover, the resulting reduction in the number of outstanding Common Shares could cause the Common Shares to become more thinly traded or otherwise adversely impact the secondary market trading of such Common Shares.

An Eligible Tender Offer may be commenced upon Board Action Vote without a shareholder vote. The Fund is not required to conduct an Eligible Tender Offer. If no Eligible Tender Offer is conducted, the Fund will dissolve on the Dissolution Date (subject to extension as described above), unless the limited term provisions of the Declaration of Trust are amended with the vote of shareholders.

The Board of Trustees may terminate the Fund without shareholder approval at any time, including prior to the Dissolution Date. Upon its termination, the Fund will distribute substantially all of its net assets to shareholders, after paying or otherwise providing for all charges, taxes, expenses and liabilities, whether due or accrued or anticipated, of the Fund, as may be determined by the Board of Trustees. The Fund retains broad flexibility to liquidate its portfolio, wind up its business and make liquidating distributions to Common Shareholders in a manner and on a schedule it believes will best contribute to the achievement of its investment objective. Accordingly, as the Fund nears an Eligible Tender Offer or the Dissolution Date, the Investment Manager may begin liquidating all or a portion of the Fund’s portfolio through opportunistic sales. During this time, the Fund may not achieve its investment objective, comply with the investment guidelines described in this prospectus or be able to sustain its historical distribution levels. During such period(s), the Fund’s portfolio composition may change as more of its portfolio holdings are called or sold and portfolio holdings are disposed of in anticipation of liquidation or an Eligible Tender Offer. Rather than reinvesting the proceeds of matured, called or sold securities in accordance with the investment program described above, the Fund may invest such proceeds in short term or other lower yielding securities, hold the proceeds in cash or distribute them, which may adversely affect its performance. The Fund’s distributions during the Wind-Down Period may decrease, and such distributions may include a return of capital. The Fund may distribute the proceeds in one or more liquidating distributions prior to the final liquidation, which may cause fixed expenses to increase when expressed as a percentage of assets under management. It is expected that shareholders will receive cash in any liquidating distribution from the Fund, regardless of their participation in the Fund’s dividend reinvestment plan. shareholders generally will realize capital gain or loss upon the termination of the Fund in an amount equal to the difference between the amount of cash or other property received by the shareholder (including any property deemed received by reason of its being placed in a liquidating trust) and the shareholder’s adjusted tax basis in the shares of the Fund for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

If on the Dissolution Date the Fund owns securities for which no market exists or securities that are trading at depressed prices, such securities may be placed in a liquidating trust. Securities placed in a liquidating trust may be held for an indefinite period of time, potentially several years or longer, until they can be sold or pay out all of their cash flows. During such time, the shareholders will continue to be exposed to the risks associated with the Fund and the value of their interest in the liquidating trust will fluctuate with the value of the liquidating trust’s remaining assets. To the extent the costs associated with a liquidating trust exceed the value of the remaining securities, the liquidating trust trustees may elect to write off or donate the remaining securities to charity. The Fund cannot predict the amount, if any, of securities that will be required to be placed in a liquidating trust or how long it will take to sell or otherwise dispose of such securities.

 

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The Fund may continue in existence after the Dissolution Date to pay, satisfy and discharge any existing debts or obligations, collect and distribute any remaining net assets to Common Shareholders and do all other acts required to liquidate and wind up its business and affairs. If the Fund determines to liquidate, the Fund will complete the liquidation of its portfolio (to the extent possible and not already liquidated), retire or redeem its sources of leverage (to the extent not already retired or redeemed), distribute all of its liquidated net assets to its Common Shareholders (to the extent not already distributed), and the Fund will terminate its existence under Maryland law.

The Fund is not a so called “target date” or “life cycle” fund whose asset allocation becomes more conservative over time as its target date, often associated with retirement, approaches. In addition, the Fund is not a “target term” fund whose investment objective is to return its original NAV on the Dissolution Date or in an Eligible Tender Offer. The Fund’s investment objective and policies are not designed to seek to return investors’ original investment upon termination of the Fund or in an Eligible Tender Offer, and investors may receive more or less than their original investment upon termination of the Fund or in an Eligible Tender Offer.

The Board of Trustees may, to the extent it deems appropriate and without shareholder approval, adopt a plan of liquidation at any time preceding the anticipated Dissolution Date, which plan of liquidation may set forth the terms and conditions for implementing the termination of the existence of the Fund, including the commencement of the winding down of its investment operations and the making of one or more liquidating distributions to Common Shareholders prior to the Dissolution Date.

See “Principal Risks of the Fund—Limited Term and Tender Offer Risks.”

 

 

CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF THE DECLARATION OF TRUST AND BY-LAWS

 

 

The Fund has provisions in its Declaration of Trust and By-Laws that could have the effect of limiting the ability of other entities or persons to acquire control of the Fund, to cause it to engage in certain transactions or to modify its structure. Commencing with the first annual meeting of shareholders, and if at such time, the number of Trustees shall be three (3) or more, the Board of Trustees will be divided into three classes, having initial terms of one, two and three years, respectively. At the annual meeting of shareholders in each year thereafter, the term of one class will expire and Trustees will be elected to serve in that class for terms of three years. This provision could delay for up to two years the replacement of a majority of the Board of Trustees. A Trustee may be removed from office only for cause and only by a vote of the holders of at least 75% of the outstanding shares of the Fund entitled to vote on the matter. The affirmative vote of at least 75% of the entire Board of Trustees is required to authorize the conversion of the Fund from a closed-end to an open-end fund. Such conversion also requires the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 75% of the votes entitled to be cast thereon by the Common Shareholders unless it is approved by a vote of at least 75% of the Continuing Trustees (as defined below), in which event such conversion requires the approval of the holders of a majority of the votes entitled to be cast thereon by the shareholders of the Fund.

A “Continuing Trustee” is any member of the Board of Trustees of the Fund who (i) is not a person or affiliate of a person who enters or proposes to enter into a Business Combination (as defined below) with the Fund (an “Interested Party”) and (ii) who has been a member of the Board of Trustees of the Fund for a period of at least 12 months, or has been a member of the Board of Trustees since the Fund’s initial public offering of Common Shares, or is a successor of a Continuing Trustee who is unaffiliated with an Interested Party and is recommended to succeed a Continuing Trustee by a majority of the

 

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Continuing Trustees then on the Board of Trustees of the Fund. The affirmative vote of at least 75% of the votes entitled to be cast thereon by shareholders of the Fund will be required to amend the Declaration of Trust to change any of the provisions in this paragraph and the preceding paragraph.

The affirmative votes of at least 75% of the entire Board of Trustees and the holders of at least (i) 80% of the votes entitled to be cast thereon by the shareholders of the Fund and (ii) in the case of a Business Combination (as defined below), 662/3% of the votes entitled to be cast thereon by the shareholders of the Fund other than votes held by an Interested Party who is (or whose affiliate is) a party to a Business Combination or an affiliate or associate of the Interested Party, are required to authorize any of the following transactions:

(i) merger, consolidation or statutory share exchange of the Fund with or into any other entity;

(ii) issuance or transfer by the Fund (in one or a series of transactions in any 12-month period) of any securities of the Fund to any person or entity for cash, securities or other property (or combination thereof) having an aggregate fair market value of $1,000,000 or more, excluding (a) issuances or transfers of debt securities of the Fund, (b) sales of securities of the Fund in connection with a public offering, (c) issuances of securities of the Fund pursuant to a dividend reinvestment plan adopted by the Fund, (d) issuances of securities of the Fund upon the exercise of any stock subscription rights distributed by the Fund and (e) portfolio transactions effected by the Fund in the ordinary course of business;

(iii) any sale, lease, exchange, mortgage, pledge, transfer or other disposition by the Fund (in one or a series of transactions in any 12 month period) to or with any person or entity of any assets of the Fund having an aggregate fair market value of $1,000,000 or more except for portfolio transactions (including pledges of portfolio securities in connection with Borrowings) effected by the Fund in the ordinary course of its business (transactions within clauses (i) and (ii) and this clause (iii) above being known individually as a “Business Combination”);

(iv) any voluntary liquidation or dissolution of the Fund or an amendment to the Declaration of Trust to terminate the Fund’s existence; or

(v) any shareholder proposal as to specific investment decisions made or to be made with respect to the Fund’s assets as to which shareholder approval is required under Federal or Maryland law.

However, the shareholder vote described above will not be required with respect to the foregoing transactions (other than those set forth in (v) above) if they are approved by a vote of at least 75% of the Continuing Trustees (as defined above). In that case, if Maryland law requires shareholder approval, the affirmative vote of a majority of votes entitled to be cast thereon shall be required and if Maryland law does not require shareholder approval, no shareholder approval will be required.

The Fund’s By-Laws contain provisions the effect of which is to prevent matters, including nominations of Trustees, from being considered at a shareholders’ meeting where the Fund has not received notice of the matters. To be timely, a shareholders’s notice shall set forth all information required under the By-Laws and shall be delivered to the secretary at the principal executive office of the Fund not earlier than the 150th day nor later than 5:00 p.m., Eastern Time, on the 120th day prior to the first anniversary of the date of mailing of the notice for the preceding year’s annual meeting; provided, however, that in the event that the date of the annual meeting is advanced or delayed by more than 30 days from the first anniversary of the date of the preceding year’s annual meeting (or in the case of the first annual meeting after the Fund’s initial public offering), notice by the shareholder to be timely must be so delivered not earlier than the 150th day prior to the date of such annual meting and

 

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not later than 5:00 p.m., Eastern Time, on the later of the 120th day prior to the date of such annual meeting or the tenth day following the day on which public announcement of the date of such meeting is first made.

The Board of Trustees has determined that the foregoing voting requirements, which are generally greater than the minimum requirements under Maryland law and the 1940 Act, are in the best interest of the Fund’s shareholders generally.

Reference is made to the Declaration of Trust and By-Laws of the Fund, on file with the SEC, for the full text of these provisions. These provisions could have the effect of depriving shareholders of an opportunity to sell their shares at a premium over prevailing market prices by discouraging a third party from seeking to obtain control of the Fund in a tender offer or similar transaction. On the other hand, these provisions may require persons seeking control of a Fund to negotiate with its management regarding the price to be paid for the shares required to obtain such control, they promote continuity and stability and they enhance the Fund’s ability to pursue long-term strategies that are consistent with its investment objectives.

 

 

UNDERWRITERS

 

 

Under the terms and subject to the conditions in an underwriting agreement, dated the date of this prospectus, the Underwriters named below, for whom [•] and [•] are acting as representatives (the “Representatives”), have severally agreed to purchase, and the Fund has agreed to sell to them, the number of Common Shares indicated below.

 

Underwriter

  

Number of
Common
Shares

[•]

  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  

 

Total

  
  

 

 

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The Underwriters are offering the Common Shares subject to their acceptance of the common shares from the Fund and subject to prior sale. The underwriting agreement provides that the obligations of the several Underwriters to pay for and accept delivery of the Common Shares offered by this prospectus are subject to the approval of certain legal matters by their counsel and to certain other conditions. The Underwriters are obligated to take and pay for all of the Common Shares offered by this prospectus if any such shares are taken. However, the Underwriters are not required to take or pay for the Common Shares covered by the Underwriters’ over-allotment option described below.

The Underwriters initially propose to offer part of the Common Shares directly to the public at the public offering price listed on the cover page of this prospectus and part to certain dealers at a price that represents a concession not in excess of $                 per common share under the public offering price. Investors must pay for any common shares purchased in this offering on or before                 , 2020.

The Fund has granted to the Underwriters an option, exercisable for 45 days from the date of this prospectus, to purchase up to                 additional Common Shares at the public offering price listed on the cover page of this prospectus. The Underwriters may exercise this option solely for the purpose of covering over-allotments, if any, made in connection with the offering of the Common Shares offered by this prospectus. To the extent the option is exercised, each Underwriter will become obligated, subject to certain conditions, to purchase approximately the same percentage of the additional Common Shares as the number listed next to the Underwriter’s name in the preceding table bears to the total number of Common Shares listed next to the names of all Underwriters in the preceding table.

The following table shows the per share and total public offering price, underwriting discounts and commissions (sales load) and proceeds to the Fund. These amounts are shown assuming both no exercise and full exercise of the Underwriters’ option to purchase up to an additional                 Common Shares.

 

    

 

     Total  
    

Per Share

    

No Exercise

    

Full Exercise

 

Public Offering Price

   $                $                $            

Sales Load

     None        None        None  

Proceeds to the Fund

   $        $        $    

The compensation and fees paid to the Underwriters described below under “Additional Compensation Paid by the Investment Manager” are not reimbursable to the Investment Manager by the Fund and are therefore not reflected in the table above.

The Investment Manager (and not the Fund) will pay all organizational expenses of the Fund and all offering costs associated with this offering. The Fund is not obligated to repay any such organizational expenses or offering costs paid by the Investment Manager.

The Underwriters have informed the Fund that they do not intend sales to discretionary accounts to exceed five percent of the total number of Common Shares offered by them.

In order to meet requirements for listing the common shares on the NYSE, the Underwriters have undertaken to sell lots of 100 or more shares to a minimum of 400 beneficial owners in the United States. The minimum investment requirement is 100 common shares ($[•]).

The Fund’s common shares are expected to be approved for listing on the NYSE, subject to notice of issuance, under the symbol “PTA”.

 

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The Fund has agreed that, without the prior written consent of the Representatives on behalf of the Underwriters, it will not, during the period ending 180 days after the date of this prospectus:

 

·  

offer, pledge, sell, contract to sell, sell any option or contract to purchase, purchase any option or contract to sell, grant any option, right or warrant to purchase, lend or otherwise transfer or dispose of, directly or indirectly, any common shares or any securities convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for common shares;

 

·  

file any registration statement with the SEC relating to the offering of any common shares or any securities convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for common shares; or

 

·  

enter into any swap or other arrangement that transfers to another, in whole or in part, any of the economic consequences of ownership of the common shares;

whether any such transaction described above is to be settled by delivery of common shares or such other securities, in cash or otherwise.

The restrictions described in the immediately preceding paragraph do not apply to:

 

·  

the sale of Common Shares to the Underwriters;

 

·  

any Common Shares issued pursuant to the Reinvestment Plan; or

 

·  

any preferred share issuance.

The Representatives, in their sole discretion, may release the Common Shares and other securities subject to the lock-up agreement described above in whole or in part at any time with or without notice.

In order to facilitate the offering of the Common Shares, the Underwriters may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the Common Shares. Specifically, the Underwriters may sell more Common Shares than they are obligated to purchase under the underwriting agreement, creating a short position. A short sale is covered if the short position is no greater than the number of Common Shares available for purchase by the Underwriters under the over-allotment option. The Underwriters can close out a covered short sale by exercising the over-allotment option or purchasing Common Shares in the open market. In determining the source of Common Shares to close out a covered short sale, the Underwriters will consider, among other things, the open market price of the Common Shares compared to the price available under the over-allotment option. The Underwriters may also sell Common Shares in excess of the over-allotment option, creating a naked short position. The Underwriters must close out any naked short position by purchasing Common Shares in the open market. A naked short position is more likely to be created if the Underwriters are concerned that there may be downward pressure on the price of the Common Shares in the open market after pricing that could adversely affect investors who purchase in the offering. As an additional means of facilitating the offering, the Underwriters may bid for, and purchase, Common Shares in the open market to stabilize the price of the Common Shares. Finally, the underwriting syndicate may also reclaim selling concessions allowed to an Underwriter or a dealer for distributing the Common Shares in the offering. Any of these activities may raise or maintain the market price of the Common Shares above independent market levels or prevent or retard a decline in the market price of the Common Shares. The Underwriters are not required to engage in these activities, and may end any of these activities at any time.

The Fund, the Investment Manager and the Underwriters have agreed to indemnify each other against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.

 

89


A prospectus in electronic format may be made available on websites maintained by one or more Underwriters, or selling group members, if any, participating in this offering. The Representatives may agree to allocate a number of common shares to Underwriters for sale to their online brokerage account holders. Internet distributions will be allocated by the Representatives to Underwriters that may make Internet distributions on the same basis as other allocations.

Prior to this offering, there has been no public market for the Common Shares. The initial public offering price for the Common Shares was determined by negotiation among the Fund, the Investment Manager and the Representatives. There can be no assurance, however, that the price at which the Common Shares trade after this offering will not be lower than the price at which they are sold by the Underwriters or that an active trading market in the common shares will develop and continue after this offering.

Prior to the public offering of the Common Shares, the Investment Manager purchased Common Shares from the Fund in an amount satisfying the net worth requirements of Section 14(a) of the Investment Company Act, which requires the Fund to have a net worth of at least $100,000 prior to making a public offering. As of the date of this prospectus, the Investment Manager owned 100% of the Fund’s outstanding Common Shares and therefore may be deemed to control the Fund until such time as it owns less than 25% of the Fund’s outstanding Common Shares, which is expected to occur upon the closing of this offering.

The Fund anticipates that the Representatives and certain other Underwriters may from time to time act as brokers and dealers in connection with the execution of its portfolio transactions after they have ceased to be Underwriters and, subject to certain restrictions, may act as such brokers while they are Underwriters.

The Underwriters and their respective affiliates are full service financial institutions engaged in various activities, which may include securities trading, commercial lending, investment banking, financial advisory, investment management, principal investment, hedging, derivatives, financing and brokerage activities. Certain of the Underwriters or their respective affiliates from time to time have provided in the past, and may provide in the future, securities trading, commercial lending, investment banking, financial advisory, investment management, principal investment, hedging, derivatives, financing and brokerage services to the Fund, certain of its executive officers and affiliates and the Investment Manager and its affiliates in the ordinary course of business, for which they have received, and may receive, customary fees and expenses.

No action has been taken in any jurisdiction (except in the United States) that would permit a public offering of the Common Shares, or the possession, circulation or distribution of this prospectus or any other material relating to the Fund or the Common Shares where action for that purpose is required. Accordingly, the Common Shares may not be offered or sold, directly or indirectly, and neither this prospectus nor any other offering material or advertisements in connection with the Common Shares may be distributed or published, in or from any country or jurisdiction except in compliance with the applicable rules and regulations of any such country or jurisdiction.

The principal business address of [•] is [•]. The principal business address of [•] is [•].

ADDITIONAL COMPENSATION PAID BY THE INVESTMENT MANAGER

The Investment Manager (and not the Fund) has agreed to pay to each of [•] and [•], from its own assets, an upfront structuring fee in the amount of $                and $                , respectively, for advice relating to the structure, design and organization of the Fund as well as services related to the sale and

 

90


distribution of the Common Shares. If the over-allotment option is not exercised, the upfront structuring fee paid to each of [•] and [•] will not exceed                 % and                 %, respectively, of the total public offering price of the common shares. These services provided by these Underwriters to the Investment Manager are unrelated to the Investment Manager’s function of advising the Fund as to its investments in securities or use of investment strategies and investment techniques.

The Investment Manager (and not the Fund) has agreed to pay each of                  and                 , from its own assets, an upfront fee in the amount of $                 and $                , respectively, for services related to the distribution of the Common Shares. If the over-allotment option is not exercised, the upfront fee paid to each of                  and                  will not exceed                 % and                 %, respectively, of the total public offering price of the Common Shares. These services provided by these Underwriters to the Investment Manager are unrelated to the Investment Manager’s function of advising the Fund as to its investments in securities or use of investment strategies and investment techniques.

The Investment Manager (and not the Fund) may also pay certain other qualifying Underwriters a structuring fee, a sales incentive fee or other additional compensation in connection with this offering.

The amount of these structuring and other fees are calculated based on the total respective sales of Common Shares by these Underwriters, including those Common Shares included in the Underwriters’ over-allotment option, and will be paid regardless of whether some or all of the over-allotment option is exercised.

In addition, the Investment Manager (and not the Fund) has agreed to pay from its own assets, compensation of $[•] per common share to the Underwriters in connection with the offering, which aggregate amount will not exceed [•]% of the total public offering price of the common shares.

Total underwriting compensation determined in accordance with Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (“FINRA”) rules is summarized as follows. The Investment Manager has agreed to reimburse the Underwriters for the reasonable fees and disbursements of counsel to the Underwriters in connection with the review by FINRA of the terms of the sale of the common shares in an amount not to exceed $[•] in the aggregate, which amount will not exceed                 % of the total public offering price of the common shares if the over-allotment option is not exercised. The sum total of all compensation to the Underwriters in connection with this public offering of the Common Shares, including expense reimbursement and all forms of structuring and other fee payments to the Underwriters, will not exceed 9.0% of the total public offering price of the Common Shares.

 

 

CUSTODIAN, TRANSFER AGENT, DIVIDEND DISBURSING AGENT AND REGISTRAR

 

 

[•], whose principal business address is [•], has been retained to act as custodian of the Fund’s investments, and [•], whose principal business address is [•], has been retained to serve as the Fund’s transfer and dividend disbursing agent and registrar.

Neither [•] nor [•] has any part in deciding the Fund’s investment policies or which securities are to be purchased or sold for the Fund’s portfolio.

 

91


 

REPORTS TO SHAREHOLDERS

 

 

The Fund will send unaudited semi-annual and audited annual reports to its shareholders (when available), including a list of investments held.

 

 

VALIDITY OF THE COMMON SHARES

 

 

The validity of the Common Shares offered hereby is being passed on for the Fund by [•] (with respect to matters pertaining to Maryland Law) and Ropes & Gray LLP, New York, New York, and certain other legal matters will be passed on for the underwriters by [•]. Ropes & Gray LLP and [•] may rely as to certain matters of Maryland law on the opinion of [•].

 

92


 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS FOR THE STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

 

Statement of Additional Information

     3  

Investment Objectives and Policies

     3  

Investment Restrictions

     28  

Management of the Fund

     29  

Principal Shareholders

     33  

Investment Management and Other Services

     34  

Custodian and Transfer and Dividend Disbursing Agent

     38  

Code of Ethics

     38  

Proxy Voting

     38  

Portfolio Transactions and Brokerage

     39  

Determination of Net Asset Value

     40  

Repurchase of Shares

     41  

Taxation

     42  

Counsel and Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

     61  

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

     62  

Statement of Assets and Liabilities

     63  

Notes to Financial Statement

     64  

Appendix A: Proxy Voting Procedures and Guidelines

     65  

Appendix B: Ratings of Investments

     77  

Privacy Policy

     C-86  

 

93


 

 

Until [•] (25 days after the date of this prospectus), all dealers that buy, sell or trade the Common Shares, whether or not participating in this offering, may be required to deliver a prospectus. This is in addition to the dealers’ obligation to deliver a prospectus when acting as underwriters and with respect to their unsold allotments or subscriptions.

[•] Shares

Cohen & Steers

Tax-Advantaged Preferred Securities and Income Fund

Common Shares

$[•] per Share

 

 

PROSPECTUS

 

 

 

[Underwriters]


Subject to Completion, Dated [    ], 2019

THE INFORMATION IN THIS STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION (“STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION”) IS NOT COMPLETE AND MAY BE CHANGED. WE MAY NOT SELL THESE SECURITIES UNTIL THE REGISTRATION STATEMENT FILED WITH THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION IS EFFECTIVE. THIS STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION IS NOT AN OFFER TO SELL THESE SECURITIES AND IS NOT SOLICITING AN OFFER TO BUY THESE SECURITIES IN ANY JURISDICTION WHERE THE OFFER OR SALE IS NOT PERMITTED.

 

LOGO

COHEN & STEERS

TAX-ADVANTAGED PREFERRED SECURITIES AND INCOME FUND

280 PARK AVENUE

NEW YORK, NEW YORK 10017

(212) 832-3232

 

 

STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

This Statement of Additional Information is not a prospectus, but should be read in conjunction with the prospectus of Cohen & Steers Tax-Advantaged Preferred Securities and Income Fund, dated [    ], 2019, as supplemented from time to time (the “Prospectus”).

This Statement of Additional Information is incorporated by reference in its entirety into the Prospectus. Copies of the Statement of Additional Information and Prospectus may be obtained free of charge by writing or calling the address or phone number shown above.

 

 


 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Statement of Additional Information

     3  

Investment Objectives and Policies

     3  

Investment Restrictions

     28  

Management of the Fund

     29  

Principal Shareholders

     33  

Investment Management and Other Services

     34  

Custodian and Transfer and Dividend Disbursing Agent

     38  

Code of Ethics

     38  

Proxy Voting

     38  

Portfolio Transactions and Brokerage

     39  

Determination of Net Asset Value

     40  

Repurchase of Shares

     41  

Taxation

     42  

Counsel and Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

     61  

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

     62  

Statement of Assets and Liabilities

     63  

Notes to Financial Statement

     64  

Appendix A: Proxy Voting Procedures and Guidelines

     65  

Appendix B: Ratings of Investments

     77  

Privacy Policy

     C-86  

 

2


 

STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

 

 

Cohen & Steers Tax-Advantaged Preferred Securities and Income Fund (the “Fund”) is a newly organized, non-diversified, closed-end management investment company organized as a Maryland Statutory Trust on November 14, 2019. Much of the information contained in this Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”) expands on subjects discussed in the Prospectus. Defined terms used herein have the same meanings as in the Prospectus. No investment in the shares of the Fund should be made without first reading the Prospectus.

 

 

INVESTMENT OBJECTIVES AND POLICIES

 

 

The following descriptions supplement the descriptions of the principal investment objectives, policies, strategies and risks as set forth in the Prospectus. Unless otherwise indicated in the prospectus or this SAI, the Fund’s investment objectives and investment policies are considered non-fundamental and may be changed by the Fund’s Board of Trustees (the “Board”) without shareholder approval. However, the Fund’s investment objectives and its policy of investing at least 80% of its Managed Assets in preferred and other income securities may only be changed upon 60 days’ prior written notice to the Fund’s shareholders.

Under normal market conditions, the Fund invests at least 80% of its Managed Assets (as defined below) in a portfolio of preferred and other income securities issued by U.S. and non-U.S. companies, which may be either exchange-traded or available over-the-counter (“OTC”). Such securities include traditional preferred securities; hybrid-preferred securities that have investment and economic characteristics of both preferred stock and debt securities; floating-rate and fixed-to-floating-rate preferred securities; fixed- and floating-rate corporate debt securities; convertible securities; contingent capital securities (“CoCos”); and securities of other closed-end, open-end or exchange-traded funds (“ETFs”) that invest primarily in preferred and/or debt securities as described herein. To the extent the Fund invests in securities of other closed-end, open-end, or ETFs, the Fund will consider the investments of these funds, to the extent known by the Fund, in determining compliance with this policy. The Fund may also invest in certain restricted securities including securities that are only eligible for resale pursuant to Rule 144A under the Securities Act of 1933 (the “Securities Act”) (referred to as Rule 144A Securities) and securities of U.S. and non-U.S. issuers that are issued through private offerings without registration with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) pursuant to Regulation S under the Securities Act. “Managed Assets” are the Fund’s net assets, plus the principal amount of loans from financial institutions or debt securities issued by the Fund, the liquidation preference of preferred shares issued by the Fund, if any, and the proceeds of any reverse repurchase agreements entered into by the Fund (“Reverse Repurchase Agreements”).

The Fund also will invest 25% or more of its total assets in the financials sector, which is comprised of the banking, diversified financials, real estate (including real estate investment trusts) and insurance industries. From time to time, the Fund may have 25% or more of its total assets invested in any one or more of these industries that make up the financials sector. In addition, the Fund also may focus its investments in other sectors or industries, such as (but not limited to) energy, industrials, utilities, pipelines, health care and telecommunications. The Investment Manager retains broad discretion to allocate the Fund’s investments across various sectors and industries. The Fund may invest without limit in securities of non-U.S. companies, which may be non-U.S. dollar denominated, including

 

3


securities issued by companies domiciled in emerging market countries. Typically, emerging markets are in countries that are in the process of industrialization, with lower gross national products per capita than more developed countries. The Investment Manager may hedge some or all of the Fund’s foreign currency exposure.

The Fund may invest in preferred and debt securities of any maturity or credit rating, including investment grade securities, below investment grade securities and unrated securities. Although not required to do so, the Fund will generally seek to maintain a minimum weighted average senior debt rating of companies in which it invests of BBB-, which the Fund considers to be investment grade. Although a company’s senior debt rating may be BBB-, an underlying security issued by such company in which the Fund invests may have a lower rating than BBB-. If the Fund cannot access a company’s average senior debt rating, the Fund may look to the rating of the underlying security issued by such company. Below investment grade securities are also known as “high yield” or “junk” securities and are regarded as having more speculative characteristics with respect to the payment of interest and repayment of principal. The Fund may invest a significant portion of its assets in below investment grade securities or securities that are unrated but judged to be below investment grade by the Investment Manager.

The Fund is authorized to purchase, sell or enter into any derivative contract or option on a derivative contract, transaction or instrument, without limitation, including various interest rate transactions such as swaps, caps, floors or collars, and foreign currency transactions such as foreign currency forward contracts, futures contracts, options, swaps and other similar strategic transactions in connection with its investments in securities of non-U.S. companies. The Fund’s primary use of derivative contracts will be to enter into interest rate and currency hedging transactions in order to reduce the interest rate and foreign currency risk inherent in the Fund’s investments.

The Fund is non-diversified and as a result may invest a relatively high percentage of its assets in a limited number of issuers. As a result, changes in the value of a single investment could cause greater fluctuations in the Fund’s share price than would occur in a more diversified fund.

Except as otherwise stated, all percentage restrictions referenced in this SAI or the Prospectus are measured at the time of investment. If a percentage restriction is adhered to at the time a transaction is effected, a later increase or decrease in such percentage resulting from market movements will not be considered a violation of the restriction.

 

 

PREFERRED SECURITIES

There are two basic types of preferred securities. The first, sometimes referred to in this prospectus as traditional preferred securities, consists of preferred stock issued by an entity taxable as a corporation. Preferred stocks are considered equity securities. The second basic type is referred to in this prospectus as hybrid-preferred securities. Hybrid-preferred securities may be issued by corporations, generally in the form of interest-bearing notes with preferred securities characteristics, or by an affiliated trust or partnership of the corporation, generally in the form of preferred interests in subordinated debentures or similarly structured securities. The hybrid-preferred securities market consists of both fixed- and adjustable coupon rate securities that are either perpetual in nature or have stated maturity dates. Hybrid-preferred securities are considered debt securities. The Investment Manager also considers senior debt perpetual issues, as well as exchange-listed senior debt issues that trade with attributes of exchange-listed perpetual and hybrid-preferred securities to be part of the broader preferred securities market. The Fund intends to invest significantly in OTC preferred securities, and will also invest in exchange-traded preferred securities.

 

4


Traditional Preferred Securities. Traditional preferred securities pay fixed or floating dividends to investors and have “preference” over common stock in the payment of dividends and in the liquidation of a company’s assets. This means that a company must pay dividends on preferred stock before paying any dividends on its common stock. In order to be payable, distributions on such preferred securities must be declared by the issuer’s board of directors. Income payments on certain preferred securities currently outstanding are cumulative, causing dividends and distributions to accumulate even if not declared by the board of directors or otherwise made payable. In such a case, all accumulated dividends must be paid before any dividend on the common stock can be paid. However, some traditional preferred stocks are non-cumulative, in which case dividends do not accumulate and need not ever be paid. The Fund may invest in non-cumulative preferred securities, whereby the issuer does not have an obligation to make up any arrearages to its shareholders. Should an issuer of a non-cumulative preferred stock held by the Fund determine not to pay dividends on such stock, the amount of dividends the Fund pays may be adversely affected. There is no assurance that dividends or distributions on the traditional preferred securities in which the Fund invests will be declared or otherwise made payable. Preferred shareholders usually have no right to vote for corporate directors or on other matters. Shares of traditional preferred securities have a liquidation preference that generally equals the original purchase price at the date of issuance. The market value of preferred securities may be affected by favorable and unfavorable changes impacting companies in the utilities and financial services sectors, which are prominent issuers of preferred securities, and by actual and anticipated changes in tax laws, such as changes in corporate income tax rates. Because the claim on an issuer’s earnings represented by traditional preferred securities may become onerous when interest rates fall below the rate payable on such securities, the issuer may redeem the securities. Thus, in declining interest rate environments in particular, the Fund’s holdings of higher rate-paying fixed rate preferred securities may be reduced and the Fund may be unable to acquire securities of comparable credit quality paying comparable rates with the redemption proceeds.

Floating-rate and fixed-to-floating-rate preferred securities may be traditional preferred or hybrid-preferred securities. Floating-rate preferred securities provide for a periodic adjustment in the interest rate paid on the securities. The terms of such securities provide that interest rates are adjusted periodically based upon an interest rate adjustment index. The adjustment intervals may be regular, and range from daily up to annually, or may be event-based, such as a change in the short-term interest rate. Because of the interest rate reset feature, floating-rate securities provide the Fund with a certain degree of protection against rising interest rates, although the interest rates of floating-rate securities will participate in any declines in interest rates as well. Similarly, a fixed-to-floating-rate security may be less price-sensitive to rising interest rates (or yields), because it has a rate of payment that is fixed for a certain period (typically five, ten or thirty years when first issued), after which period a floating-rate of payment applies. The Fund may invest significantly in both floating-rate and fixed-to-floating-rate preferred securities.

[Corporate shareholders of a RIC such as the Fund generally are permitted to claim the 50% DRD with respect to that portion of their distributions from the RIC attributable to amounts received by the RIC that qualify for the DRD, provided such amounts are properly reported by the RIC and certain holding period requirements are met at both the RIC and shareholder level. However, not all traditional preferred securities pay dividends that are eligible for the DRD.

Individual shareholders of a RIC such as the Fund generally may be eligible to treat as QDI that portion of their distributions from the RIC attributable to QDI received and reported as such by the RIC, provided certain holding period requirements are met at both the RIC and shareholder level. However, not all traditional preferred securities will provide significant benefits under the rules relating to QDI. For more information regarding QDI and DRD, see “Taxation” below.]

 

5


Within the category of traditional preferred securities, the Fund may invest in traditional preferred securities issued by real estate companies, including REITs. REIT preferred securities are generally perpetual in nature, although REITs often have the ability to redeem the preferred securities after a specified period of time. The market value of REIT preferred securities may be affected by favorable and unfavorable changes affecting a particular REIT. While sharing characteristics of other traditional preferred securities, dividends from REIT preferred securities do not qualify for the DRD and generally do not constitute QDI, as described below. The Fund may invest in REITs of any market capitalization; however, even the larger REITs tend to be small- to medium-sized companies in relation to the equity markets as a whole.

Between 2018 and 2025, “Qualified REIT dividends” are treated as eligible for a 20% deduction by non-corporate taxpayers. Qualified REIT dividends are dividends received from REITs that are neither capital gain dividends nor are eligible for treatment as qualified dividends. Proposed regulations issued by the IRS enable the Fund to pass-through Qualified REIT dividends to its shareholders, provided the shareholders meet certain holding period requirements with respect to their shares.

Hybrid-Preferred Securities. Hybrid-preferred securities are typically issued by corporations, generally in the form of interest-bearing notes with preferred securities characteristics, as described below, or by an affiliated business trust of a corporation, generally in the form of beneficial interests in subordinated debentures or similarly structured securities. The hybrid-preferred securities market consists of both fixed- and adjustable coupon rate securities that are either perpetual in nature or have stated maturity dates.

Hybrid-preferred securities are typically junior and fully subordinated liabilities of an issuer or the beneficiary of a guarantee that is junior and fully subordinated to the other liabilities of the guarantor. In addition, hybrid-preferred securities typically permit an issuer to defer the payment of income for 18 months or more without triggering an event of default. Generally, the maximum deferral period is five years. Because of their subordinated position in the capital structure of an issuer, the ability to defer payments for extended periods of time without default consequences to the issuer, and certain other features (such as restrictions on common dividend payments by the issuer or ultimate guarantor when full cumulative payments on the trust preferred securities have not been made), these hybrid-preferred securities are often treated as close substitutes for traditional preferred securities, both by issuers and investors. Hybrid-preferred securities have many of the key characteristics of equity because of their subordinated position in an issuer’s capital structure and because their quality and value are heavily dependent on the profitability of the issuer rather than on any legal claims to specific assets or cash flows. Hybrid-preferred securities include, but are not limited to, trust originated preferred securities; monthly income preferred securities; quarterly income bond securities; quarterly income debt securities; quarterly income preferred securities; corporate trust securities; public income notes; and other hybrid-preferred securities.

Hybrid-preferred securities are typically issued with a final maturity date, although some are perpetual in nature. In certain instances, a final maturity date may be extended and/or the final payment of principal may be deferred at the issuer’s option for a specified time without default. No redemption can typically take place unless all cumulative payment obligations have been met, although issuers may be able to engage in open-market repurchases without regard to whether all payments have been paid.

Many hybrid-preferred securities are issued by trusts or other special purpose entities established by operating companies and are not direct obligations of the operating company. At the time the trust or special purpose entity sells such preferred securities to investors, it purchases debt of the operating company (with terms comparable to those of the trust or special purpose entity securities), which

 

6


enables the operating company to deduct for tax purposes the interest paid on the debt held by the trust or special purpose entity. For U.S. federal income tax purposes, holders of the trust preferred securities generally are treated as owning beneficial interests in the underlying debt of the operating company held by the trust or special purpose entity, and payments on the hybrid-preferred securities are treated as interest rather than dividends. As such, payments on the hybrid-preferred securities are not eligible for the DRD or the reduced rates of tax that may apply to QDI. The trust or special purpose entity would be a holder of the operating company’s debt and would have priority with respect to the operating company’s earnings and profits over the operating company’s common shareholders, but would typically be subordinated to other classes of the operating company’s debt. Typically a preferred share has a rating that is slightly below that of its corresponding operating company’s senior debt securities.

Within the category of hybrid-preferred securities are senior debt instruments that trade in the broader preferred securities market. These debt instruments, which are sources of long-term capital for the issuers, have structural features similar to preferred stock such as maturities ranging from 30 years to perpetuity, call features, exchange listings and the inclusion of accrued interest in the trading price. Similar to other hybrid-preferred securities, these debt instruments usually do not offer equity capital treatment. Corporate trust securities (CORTS®) and public income notes (PINES®) are two examples of senior debt instruments which are structured and trade as hybrid-preferred securities.

The Fund may invest in other types of preferred securities, including preferred securities that are not currently in use and which may or may not be illiquid. The Fund may also engage in derivatives transactions that are intended to provide economic exposure similar to investments in preferred securities. The Fund may invest in preferred securities denominated in U.S. or foreign (non-U.S.) currencies.

 

 

DEBT SECURITIES

In addition to investing in preferred securities, the Fund may invest in fixed- and floating-rate corporate debt securities. Other debt securities in which the Fund may invest include investments in debt securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government or its agencies or instrumentalities or a non-U.S. Government or its agencies or instrumentalities, mortgage-backed and asset-backed securities, collateralized mortgage obligations and municipal securities. Debt securities may pay fixed or variable rates of interest. Bonds and other debt securities generally are issued by corporations and other issuers to borrow money from investors.

Corporate Debt Obligations. The Fund may invest in investment grade or below investment grade U.S. dollar-denominated debt obligations issued or guaranteed by U.S. corporations or U.S. commercial banks, U.S. dollar-denominated obligations of foreign issuers and debt obligations of foreign issuers denominated in foreign currencies. Such debt obligations include, among others, bonds, notes, debentures and variable rate demand notes. In choosing corporate debt securities on behalf of the Fund, the Investment Manager may consider (i) general economic and financial conditions; (ii) the specific issuer’s (a) business and management, (b) cash flow, (c) earnings coverage of interest and dividends, (d) ability to operate under adverse economic conditions, (e) fair market value of assets, and (f) in the case of foreign issuers, unique political, economic or social conditions applicable to such issuer’s country, and (iii) other considerations deemed appropriate.

U.S. Government Obligations. The Fund may invest in U.S. Government obligations. Obligations issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government, its agencies and instrumentalities include bills, notes and bonds issued by the U.S. Treasury, as well as “stripped” or “zero coupon” U.S. Treasury obligations

 

7


representing future interest or principal payments on U.S. Treasury notes or bonds. Stripped securities are sold at a discount to their “face value,” and may exhibit greater price volatility than interest-bearing securities because investors receive no payment until maturity.

Obligations of certain agencies and instrumentalities of the U.S. Government are supported by the right of the issuer to borrow from the U.S. Treasury. Other obligations of certain agencies and instrumentalities of the U.S. Government are supported only by the credit of the instrumentality. The U.S. Government may choose not to provide financial support to U.S. Government-sponsored agencies or instrumentalities if it is not legally obligated to do so, in which case, if the issuer were to default, the Fund might not be able to recover their investment from the U.S. Government.

Mortgage-Backed and Asset-Backed Securities. Mortgage-backed securities are mortgage-related securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government, its agencies and instrumentalities, or issued by non-government entities. Mortgage-related securities represent pools of mortgage loans assembled for sale to investors by various government agencies, as well as by non-government issuers such as commercial banks, savings and loan institutions, mortgage bankers and private mortgage insurance companies. Although certain mortgage-related securities are guaranteed by a third party or otherwise similarly secured, the market value of the security, which may fluctuate, is not guaranteed.

Other asset-backed securities are structured like mortgage-backed securities, but instead of mortgage loans or interests in mortgage loans, the underlying assets may include such items as motor vehicle installment sales or installment loan contracts, leases of various types of real and personal property, and receivables from credit card agreements and from sales of personal property. Regular payments received in respect of such securities include both interest and principal. Asset-backed securities typically have no U.S. Government backing. Additionally, the ability of an issuer of asset-backed securities to enforce its security interest in the underlying assets may be limited.

If the Fund purchases a mortgage-backed or other asset-backed security at a premium, that portion may be lost if there is a decline in the market value of the security whether resulting from changes in interest rates or prepayments in the underlying collateral. As with other interest-bearing securities, the prices of such securities are inversely affected by changes in interest rates. Although the value of a mortgage-backed or other asset-backed security may decline when interest rates rise, the converse is not necessarily true, since in periods of declining interest rates the mortgages and loans underlying the securities are prone to prepayment, thereby shortening the average life of the security and shortening the period of time over which income at the higher rate is received.

When interest rates are rising, the rate of prepayment tends to decrease, thereby lengthening the period of time over which income at the lower rate is received. For these and other reasons, a mortgage-backed or other asset-backed security’s average maturity may be shortened or lengthened as a result of interest rate fluctuations and, therefore, it is not possible to predict accurately the security’s return.

Collateralized Mortgage Obligations (“CMOs”). The Fund may invest in CMOs. A CMO is a hybrid between a mortgage-backed bond and a mortgage pass-through security. A CMO is a type of mortgage-backed security that creates separate classes with varying maturities and interest rates, called tranches. Similar to a bond, interest and prepaid principal is paid, in most cases, semi-annually.

CMOs may be collateralized by whole mortgage loans, but are more typically collateralized by portfolios of mortgage pass-through securities guaranteed by the U.S. Government, and their income streams. CMOs are structured into multiple classes, each bearing a different stated maturity. Actual maturity and average life will depend upon the prepayment experience of the collateral. CMOs provide for a modified form of call protection through a de facto breakdown of the underlying pool of

 

8


mortgages according to how quickly the loans are repaid. Monthly payment of principal received from the pool of underlying mortgages, including prepayments, is first returned to investors holding the shortest maturity class. Investors holding the longer maturity classes receive principal only after the first class has been retired. An investor is partially guarded against a sooner than desired return of principal because of the sequential payments.

In a typical CMO transaction, an issuer issues multiple series (e.g., Series A, B, C and Z) of CMO bonds (“Bonds”). Proceeds of the Bond offering are used to purchase mortgages or mortgage pass-through certificates (“Collateral”). The Collateral is pledged to a third party trustee as security for the Bonds. Principal and interest payments from the Collateral are used to pay principal on the Bonds in the following order: Series A, B, C and Z. The Series A, B, and C Bonds all bear current interest. Interest on a Series Z Bond is accrued and added to principal and a like amount is paid as principal on the Series A, B, or C Bond currently being paid off. Only after the Series A, B, and C Bonds are paid in full does the Series Z Bond begin to receive payment. With some CMOs, the issuer serves as a conduit to allow loan originators (primarily builders or savings and loan associations) to borrow against their loan portfolios.

Municipal Securities. The Fund may invest in “Municipal Securities,” which includes debt obligations of states, territories or possessions of the United States and the District of Columbia and their political subdivisions, agencies and instrumentalities. Municipal Securities are issued to obtain funds for various public purposes, including the construction of a wide range of public facilities such as airports, bridges, highways, housing, hospitals, mass transportation, schools, streets and water and sewer works. Other public purposes for which Municipal Securities may be issued include the refunding of outstanding obligations, obtaining funds for general operating expenses and lending such funds to other public institutions and facilities. In addition, certain types of industrial development bonds are issued by or on behalf of public authorities to obtain funds to provide for the construction, equipment, repair or improvement of privately operated housing facilities, airport, mass transit, industrial, port or parking facilities, air or water pollution control facilities and certain local facilities for water supply, gas, electricity sewage or solid waste disposal. The principal and interest payments for industrial development bonds or pollution control bonds are often the sole responsibility of the industrial user and therefore may not be backed by the taxing power of the issuing municipality. Such obligations are considered to be Municipal Securities provided that the interest paid thereon, in the opinion of bond counsel, qualifies as exempt from U.S. federal income tax. The Fund does not anticipate meeting the requirements under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”) to pass through income from municipal securities as tax free to the Fund’s shareholders.

The two major classifications of Municipal Securities are bonds and notes. Bonds may be further classified as “general obligation” or “revenue” issues. General obligation bonds are secured by the issuer’s pledge of its full faith, credit and taxing power for the payment of principal and interest. Revenue bonds are payable from the revenues derived from a particular facility or class of facilities, and in some cases, from the proceeds of a special excise or other specific revenue source, but not from the general taxing power. Tax exempt industrial development bonds are in most cases revenue bonds and do not generally carry the pledge of the credit of the issuing municipality. Notes are short term instruments which usually mature in less than two years. Most notes are general obligations of the issuing municipalities or agencies and are sold in anticipation of a bond sale, collection of taxes or receipt of other revenues. There are, of course, variations in the risks associated with Municipal Securities, both within a particular classification and between classifications.

Senior Secured Floating Rate Loans. The Fund may invest in senior secured floating-rate loans (“Senior Loans”). Senior Loans generally are made to corporations, partnerships and other business entities

 

9


(“Borrowers”) which operate in various industries and geographical regions. Senior Loans, which typically hold the most senior position in a Borrower’s capital structure, pay interest at rates that are re-determined periodically on the basis of a floating base lending rate, such as the London Inter-bank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”), plus a premium. This floating-rate feature should help to minimize changes in the principal value of the Senior Loans resulting from interest rate changes. The Fund may invest in Senior Loans that are below investment grade quality and are speculative investments that are subject to credit risk.

Senior Loans in which the Fund may invest may not be rated by an NRSRO, will not be registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) or any state securities commission and generally will not be listed on any national securities exchange. Therefore, the amount of public information available about Senior Loans will be limited, and the performance of the Fund’s investments in Senior Loans will be more dependent on the analytical abilities of the Investment Manager than would be the case for investments in more widely rated, registered or exchange-listed securities. In evaluating the creditworthiness of Borrowers, the Investment Manager may consider, and may rely in part, on analyses performed by others. Moreover, certain Senior Loans will be subject to contractual restrictions on resale and, therefore, will be illiquid.

Bank Instruments. The Fund may invest in certificates of deposits, time deposits, and bankers’ acceptances from U.S. or foreign banks, including certificates of deposit (e.g., Eurodollar CDs) and time deposits (e.g., Eurodollar time deposits) of foreign branches of domestic banks. A time deposit is a non-negotiable receipt issued by a bank in exchange for the deposit of funds. Like a certificate of deposit, it earns a specified rate of interest over a definite period of time; however, it cannot be traded in the secondary market.

[Inflation-Linked Fixed-Income Securities. The Fund may invest in inflation-linked fixed-income securities. Inflation-linked fixed-income securities are securities which have a principal value that is periodically adjusted according to the rate of inflation. If an index measuring inflation falls, the principal value of inflation-indexed bonds will typically be adjusted downward, and consequently the interest payable on these securities (calculated with respect to a smaller principal amount) will be reduced. In the case of Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities, also known as TIPS, repayment of original bond principal upon maturity (as adjusted for inflation) is guaranteed by the U.S. Treasury. The market for TIPS may be less developed or liquid, and more volatile, than certain other securities markets. There can be no assurance that the inflation index used in these securities (i.e., the Consumer Price Index) will accurately measure the real rate of inflation. For inflation-linked bonds that do not provide a similar guarantee, the adjusted principal value of the inflation-linked bond repaid at maturity may be less than the original principal.

Such bonds may also be issued by or related to sovereign governments of developed countries, by countries deemed to be emerging markets, and inflation-linked bonds issued by or related to companies or other entities not affiliated with governments. Because of their inflation adjustment feature, inflation-linked bonds typically have lower yields than conventional fixed-rate bonds. In addition, inflation-linked bonds also normally decline in price when real interest rates rise. In the event of deflation, in which prices decline over time, the principal and income of inflation-linked bonds would likely decline, resulting in losses to the Fund.

The Fund’s investments in inflation-linked debt securities can cause the Fund to accrue income for tax purposes without a corresponding receipt of cash, which, because no cash is received at the time of accrual, may require the Fund to sell assets (including when not advantageous to do so) to satisfy the Fund’s distribution requirements (see “Taxation” below).]

 

10


 

CONVERTIBLE SECURITIES

The Fund may invest in convertible securities. Convertible securities are preferred stocks or debt obligations that are convertible into common stock. They generally offer lower interest or dividend yields than non-convertible securities of similar quality. Convertible securities have both equity and fixed-income risk characteristics. Like all fixed-income securities, the value of convertible securities is susceptible to the risk of market losses attributable to changes in interest rates. Generally, the market value of convertible securities tends to decline as interest rates increase and, conversely, to increase as interest rates decline. However, when the market price of the common stock underlying a convertible security approaches or exceeds the conversion price of the convertible security, the convertible security tends to reflect the market price of the underlying common stock. As the market price of the underlying common stock declines, the convertible security, like a fixed-income security, tends to trade increasingly on a yield basis, and thus, may not decline in price to the same extent as the underlying common stock. The markets for convertible securities may be less liquid than markets for common stocks or bonds.

 

 

CONTINGENT CAPITAL SECURITIES

The Fund may invest in contingent capital securities. In some cases, debt and traditional and hybrid preferred securities can include loss absorption provisions that make the securities more like equity—these securities are generally referred to as contingent capital securities (sometimes referred to as “CoCos”). This is particularly true in the financial sector, the largest preferred issuer segment.

In one version of a CoCo, the security has loss absorption characteristics whereby the liquidation value of the security may be adjusted downward to below the original par value (even to zero) under certain circumstances. This may occur, for instance, in the event that business losses have eroded capital to a substantial extent. The write down of the par value would occur automatically and would not entitle the holders to seek bankruptcy of the company. In addition, an automatic write-down could result in a reduced income rate if the dividend or interest payment is based on the security’s par value. Such securities may, but are not required to, provide for circumstances under which the liquidation value may be adjusted back up to par, such as an improvement in capitalization and/or earnings.

Another version of a CoCo provides for mandatory conversion of the security into common shares of the issuer under certain circumstances. The mandatory conversion might relate, for instance, to maintenance of a capital minimum, whereby falling below the minimum would trigger automatic conversion. Since the common stock of the issuer may not pay a dividend, investors in these instruments could experience a reduced income rate, potentially to zero, and conversion would deepen the subordination of the investor, hence worsening the Fund’s standing in a bankruptcy. In addition, some such instruments also provide for an automatic write-down if the price of the common stock is below the conversion price on the conversion date.

An automatic write-down or conversion event is typically triggered by a reduction in the capital level of the issuer, but may also be triggered by regulatory actions (e.g., a change in capital requirements) or by other factors.

 

 

BELOW INVESTMENT GRADE SECURITIES

The Fund may invest in securities that are rated below investment grade. Securities rated below investment grade are regarded as having predominately speculative characteristics with respect to the issuer’s capacity to pay interest and repay principal, and these bonds are commonly referred to as “high

 

11


yield” or “junk” securities. These securities are subject to a greater risk of default. The prices of these lower-grade securities are more sensitive to negative developments, such as a decline in the issuer’s revenues or a general economic downturn, than are the prices of higher-grade securities. Lower-grade securities tend to be less liquid than investment grade securities. The market values of lower-grade securities tend to be more volatile than investment grade securities. A security will be considered to be below investment grade if it is rated as such by one nationally recognized statistical rating organization (“NRSRO”) (for example, below Baa3 or BBB- by Moody’s Investors Services, Inc. (“Moody’s”) or Standard & Poor’s Ratings Services (“S&P”)) or, if unrated, are judged to be below investment grade by Cohen & Steers Capital Management, Inc. (the “Advisor”). Although a company’s senior debt rating may be, for example, BBB-, an underlying security issued by such company in which the Fund invests may have a lower rating. See Appendix B for a description of certain ratings.

Lower-rated securities, or equivalent unrated securities, may be considered speculative with respect to the issuer’s continuing ability to make principal and interest payments. Analysis of the creditworthiness of issuers of lower-rated securities may be more complex than for issuers of higher-quality debt securities, and the Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective may, to the extent the Fund is invested in lower-rated securities, be more dependent upon such creditworthiness analysis than would be the case if the Fund were investing in higher quality securities. An issuer of these securities has a currently identifiable vulnerability to default and the issuer may be in default or there may be present elements of danger with respect to principal or interest.

The secondary markets in which lower-rated securities are traded may be less liquid than the market for higher grade securities. Less liquidity in the secondary trading markets could adversely affect the price at which the Fund could sell a particular lower-rated security when necessary to meet liquidity needs or in response to a specific economic event, such as a deterioration in the creditworthiness of the issuer, and could adversely affect and cause large fluctuations in the net asset value (“NAV”) of the Fund’s shares. Adverse publicity and investor perceptions may decrease the values and liquidity of high yield securities.

It is reasonable to expect that any adverse economic conditions could disrupt the market for lower-rated securities, have an adverse impact on the value of those securities and adversely affect the ability of the issuers of those securities to repay principal or interest on those securities. New laws and proposed new laws may adversely impact the market for lower-rated securities.

 

 

FOREIGN (NON-U.S.) SECURITIES

The Fund may invest in foreign (non-U.S.) securities as described in its Prospectus. Investing in securities issued by foreign companies involves considerations and possible risks not typically associated with investing in securities issued by domestic corporations. The values of foreign investments are affected by changes in currency rates or exchange control regulations, application of foreign tax laws, including withholding or other taxes, changes in governmental administration or economic or monetary policy (in the United States or abroad) or changed circumstances in dealings between nations. Costs are incurred in connection with conversions between various currencies. In addition, foreign brokerage commissions are generally higher than in the United States, and foreign securities markets may be less liquid, more volatile and less subject to governmental supervision than in the United States. Investments in foreign countries could be affected by other factors not present in the United States, including expropriation, confiscatory taxation, lack of uniform accounting and auditing standards and potential difficulties in enforcing contractual obligations which could extend settlement periods.

 

12


Investments in foreign securities, especially in emerging market countries, will expose the Fund to the direct or indirect consequences of political, social or economic changes in the countries that issue the securities or in which the issuers are located. Certain countries in which the Fund may invest, especially emerging market countries, have historically experienced, and may continue to experience, high rates of inflation, high interest rates, exchange rate fluctuations, large amounts of external debt, balance of payments and trade difficulties, and extreme poverty and unemployment. Many of these countries are also characterized by political uncertainty and instability. The cost of servicing external debt will generally be adversely affected by rising international interest rates because many external debt obligations bear interest at rates that are adjusted based upon international interest rates. In addition, with respect to certain foreign countries, there is a risk of:

 

·  

the possibility of expropriation of assets;

 

·  

confiscatory taxation;

 

·  

difficulty in obtaining or enforcing a court judgment;

 

·  

economic, political or social instability; and

 

·  

diplomatic developments that could affect investments in those countries.

Continuing uncertainty as to the status of the Euro and the European Monetary Union and the potential for certain countries to withdraw from the institution has created significant volatility in currency and financial markets generally. Any partial or complete dissolution of the European Union (“EU”) could have significant adverse effects on currency and financial markets, and on the values of the Fund’s investments. In June 2016, the United Kingdom approved a referendum to leave the EU. Significant uncertainty remains in the market regarding the ramifications of that development, and the range and potential implications of possible political, regulatory, economic and market outcomes are difficult to predict.

The Fund may invest in sponsored and unsponsored American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”), Global Depositary Receipts (“GDRs”) and similar depositary receipts. ADRs, typically issued by a financial institution (a depositary), evidence ownership interests in a security or a pool of securities issued by a foreign company and deposited with the depositary. Prices of ADRs are quoted in U.S. dollars, and ADRs are traded in the United States. GDRs are receipts issued outside the United States, typically by non-United States banks and trust companies, that evidence ownership of either foreign or domestic securities. Generally, GDRs, in bearer form, are designated for use outside the United States. Ownership of ADRs and GDRs entails similar investment risks to direct ownership of foreign securities traded outside the U.S., including increased market liquidity, currency, political, information and other risks. Income and gains earned by the Fund in respect of foreign securities may be subject to foreign withholding and other taxes, which will reduce the Fund’s return on such securities.

 

 

CREDIT RATINGS AND UNRATED SECURITIES

NRSROs are private services that provide ratings of the credit quality of debt obligations, including convertible securities. Appendix B describes the various ratings assigned to debt obligations by S&P, Moody’s and Fitch. Ratings assigned by an NRSRO are not absolute standards of credit quality and do not evaluate market risks or the liquidity of securities. NRSROs may fail to make timely changes in credit ratings and an issuer’s current financial condition may be better or worse than a rating indicates. NRSROs may be paid by the companies whose securities they analyze and grade. To the extent that the issuer of a security pays an NRSRO for the analysis of its security, an inherent conflict of interest may

 

13


exist that could affect the reliability of the rating. The Fund will not necessarily sell a security when its rating is reduced below its rating at the time of purchase. The Investment Manager does not rely solely on credit ratings, and develops its own analysis of issuer credit quality. The ratings of a debt security may change over time. S&P, Moody’s and Fitch monitor and evaluate the ratings assigned to securities on an ongoing basis. As a result, securities held by the Fund could receive a higher rating (which would tend to increase their value) or a lower rating (which would tend to decrease their value) during the period in which they are held.

The Fund may invest a significant portion of its assets in unrated securities (securities which are not rated by an NRSRO) if the Investment Manager determines that the securities are of comparable quality to rated securities that the Fund may purchase. Unrated securities may be less liquid than comparable rated securities and involve the risk that the Investment Manager may not accurately evaluate the security’s comparative credit rating. Because the Fund may invest in high yield and/or unrated securities, the Fund’s success in achieving its investment objectives may depend more heavily on the Investment Manager’s analysis than if the Fund invested exclusively in higher-quality and rated securities. The Investment Manager will attempt to reduce the risks of investing in lower rated or unrated debt instruments through active portfolio management, credit analysis and attention to current developments and trends in the economy and the financial markets. In determining whether to retain or sell such a security, the Investment Manager may consider such factors as Investment Manager’s assessment of the credit quality of the issuers of such security, the price at which such security could be sold and the rating, if any, assigned to such security by other NRSROs.

 

 

SHORT-TERM FIXED INCOME SECURITIES

For temporary defensive purposes or to keep cash on hand fully invested, and following the offering of the Common Shares pending investment in securities that meet the Fund’s investment objectives, the Fund may invest up to 100% of its total assets in cash, cash equivalents, government securities and short-term fixed income securities. Short-term fixed income investments are defined to include, without limitation, the following:

(1) U.S. Government securities, including bills, notes and bonds differing as to maturity and rates of interest that are either issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Treasury or by U.S. Government agencies or instrumentalities. U.S. Government securities include securities issued by (a) the Federal Housing Administration, Farmers Home Administration, Export-Import Bank of the United States, Small Business Administration, and Government National Mortgage Association, whose securities are supported by the full faith and credit of the United States; (b) the Federal Home Loan Banks, Federal Intermediate Credit Banks, and Tennessee Valley Authority, whose securities are supported by the right of the agency to borrow from the U.S. Treasury; (c) the Federal National Mortgage Association, whose securities are supported by the discretionary authority of the U.S. Government to purchase certain obligations of the agency or instrumentality; and (d) the Student Loan Marketing Association, whose securities are supported only by its credit. While the U.S. Government provides financial support to such U.S. Government-sponsored agencies or instrumentalities, no assurance can be given that it always will do so since it is not so obligated by law. The U.S. Government, its agencies and instrumentalities do not guarantee the market value of their securities. Consequently, the value of such securities may fluctuate.

(2) Certificates of deposit issued against funds deposited in a bank or a savings and loan association. Such certificates are for a definite period of time, earn a specified rate of return, and are normally negotiable. The issuer of a certificate of deposit agrees to pay the amount deposited plus interest to the

 

14


bearer of the certificate on the date specified thereon. Certificates of deposit purchased by the Fund may not be fully insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.

(3) Repurchase agreements, which involve purchases of debt securities. At the time the Fund purchases securities pursuant to a repurchase agreement, it simultaneously agrees to resell and redeliver such securities to the seller, who also simultaneously agrees to buy back the securities at a fixed price and time. This assures a predetermined yield for the Fund during its holding period, since the resale price is always greater than the purchase price and reflects an agreed-upon market rate. Such actions afford an opportunity for the Fund to invest temporarily available cash. The Fund may enter into repurchase agreements only with respect to obligations of the U.S. Government, its agencies or instrumentalities; certificates of deposit; or bankers’ acceptances in which the Fund may invest. Repurchase agreements may be considered loans to the seller, collateralized by the underlying securities. The risk to the Fund is limited to the ability of the seller to pay the agreed-upon sum on the repurchase date; in the event of default, the repurchase agreement provides that the Fund is entitled to sell the underlying collateral. If the value of the collateral declines after the agreement is entered into, and if the seller defaults under a repurchase agreement when the value of the underlying collateral is less than the repurchase price, the Fund could incur a loss of both principal and interest. The Investment Manager monitors the value of the collateral at the time the action is entered into and at all times during the term of the repurchase agreement. The Investment Manager does so in an effort to determine that the value of the collateral always equals or exceeds the agreed-upon repurchase price to be paid to the Fund. If the seller were to be subject to a Federal bankruptcy proceeding, the ability of the Fund to liquidate the collateral could be delayed or impaired because of certain provisions of the bankruptcy laws.

(4) Commercial paper, which consists of short-term unsecured promissory notes, including variable rate master demand notes issued by corporations to finance their current operations. Master demand notes are direct lending arrangements between the Fund and a corporation. There is no secondary market for such notes. However, they are redeemable by the Fund at any time.

The Investment Manager will consider the financial condition of the corporation (e.g., earning power, cash flow and other liquidity ratios) and will continuously monitor the corporation’s ability to meet all of its financial obligations, because the Fund’s liquidity might be impaired if the corporation were unable to pay principal and interest on demand. Investments in commercial paper will typically be limited to commercial paper rated in the two highest categories at the time of purchase by a major NRSRO or are unrated but determined to be of comparable quality by the Investment Manager and which mature within one year of the date of purchase or carry a variable or floating rate of interest.

 

 

REAL ESTATE COMPANIES

The Fund may invest significantly in the securities of real estate companies and may be susceptible to adverse economic or regulatory occurrences affecting that sector. Real property investments are subject to varying degrees of risk. The yields available from investments in real estate depend on the amount of income and capital appreciation generated by the related properties. Income and real estate values may also be adversely affected by such factors as applicable laws (e.g., Americans with Disabilities Act and tax laws), interest rate levels and the availability of financing. If the properties do not generate sufficient income to meet operating expenses, including, where applicable, debt service, ground lease payments, tenant improvements, third-party leasing commissions and other capital expenditures, the income and ability of the real estate company to make payments of any interest and principal on its debt securities will be adversely affected. In addition, real property may be subject to the quality of credit extended and defaults by borrowers and tenants. The performance of the economy in each of the regions and

 

15


countries in which the real estate owned by a portfolio company is located affects occupancy, market rental rates and expenses and, consequently, has an impact on the income from such properties and their underlying values.

The financial results of major local employers also may have an impact on the cash flow and value of certain properties. In addition, real estate investments are relatively illiquid and, therefore, the ability of real estate companies to vary their portfolios promptly in response to changes in economic or other conditions is limited. A real estate company also may have joint venture investments in certain of its properties and, consequently, its ability to control decisions relating to these properties may be limited. Real property investments are also subject to risks which are specific to the investment sector or type of property in which the real estate companies are investing.

 

·  

Retail Properties. Retail properties are affected by the overall health of the applicable economy and may be adversely affected by the growth of alternative forms of retailing, bankruptcy, departure or cessation of operations of a tenant, a shift in consumer demand due to demographic changes, spending patterns and lease terminations.

 

·  

Office Properties. Office properties are affected by the overall health of the economy and other factors such as a downturn in the businesses operated by their tenants, obsolescence and non-competitiveness.

 

·  

Hotel Properties. The risks of hotel properties include, among other things, the necessity of a high level of continuing capital expenditures, competition, increases in operating costs which may not be offset by increases in revenues, dependence on business and commercial travelers and tourism, increases in fuel costs and other expenses of travel and adverse effects of general and local economic conditions.

 

·  

Healthcare Properties. Healthcare properties and healthcare providers are affected by several significant factors, including Federal, state and local laws governing licenses, certification, adequacy of care, pharmaceutical distribution, medical rates, equipment, personnel and other factors regarding operations; continued availability of revenue from government reimbursement programs (primarily Medicaid and Medicare); and competition on a local and regional basis.

 

·  

Multifamily Properties. The value and successful operation of a multifamily property may be affected by a number of factors such as the location of the property, the ability of the management team, the level of mortgage rates, presence of competing properties, adverse economic conditions in the locale, oversupply and rent control laws or other laws affecting such properties.

 

·  

Insurance Issues. Certain real estate companies may carry comprehensive liability, fire, flood, earthquake extended coverage and rental loss insurance with various policy specifications, limits and deductibles.

 

·  

Credit Risk. REITs may be highly leveraged, and financial covenants may affect the ability of REITs to operate effectively.

 

·  

Environmental Issues. In connection with the ownership (direct or indirect), operation, management and development of real properties that may contain hazardous or toxic substances, a portfolio company may be considered an owner, operator or responsible party of such properties and, therefore, may be potentially liable for removal or remediation costs, as well as certain other costs, including governmental fines and liabilities for injuries to persons and property.

 

16


·  

Smaller Companies. Even the larger REITs in the industry tend to be small- to medium-sized companies in relation to the equity markets as a whole. REIT shares, therefore, can be more volatile than, and perform differently from, larger company stocks.

 

·  

REIT Tax Issues. REITs are subject to a highly technical and complex set of provisions in the Code. It is possible that the Fund may invest in a real estate company which purports to be a REIT and that the company could fail to qualify as a REIT. In the event of any such unexpected failure to qualify as a REIT, the company would be subject to corporate-level taxation, significantly reducing the return to the Fund on its investment in such company.

REITs are sometimes informally characterized as equity REITs, mortgage REITs and hybrid REITs. An equity REIT invests primarily in the fee ownership or leasehold ownership of land and buildings and derives its income primarily from rental income. An equity REIT may also realize capital gains (or losses) by selling real estate properties in its portfolio that have appreciated (or depreciated) in value. A mortgage REIT invests primarily in mortgages on real estate, which may secure construction, development or long-term loans. A mortgage REIT generally derives its income primarily from interest payments on the credit it has extended. A hybrid REIT combines the characteristics of equity REITs and mortgage REITs, generally by holding both ownership interests and mortgage interests in real estate. It is anticipated, although not required, that under normal circumstances a majority of the Fund’s investments in REITs will consist of securities issued by equity REITs. In addition to the risks of securities linked to the real estate industry, equity REITs may be affected by changes in the value of the underlying property owned by the trusts, while mortgage REITs may be affected by the quality of any credit extended. Further, REITs are dependent upon management skills and generally may not be diversified. REITs are also subject to heavy cash flow dependency, defaults by borrowers and self-liquidation.

In addition, U.S. REITs could possibly fail to qualify for pass-through of income under the Code, or to maintain their exemptions from registration under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”). The above factors may also adversely affect a borrower’s or a lessee’s ability to meet its obligations to the REIT. In the event of a default by a borrower or lessee, the REIT may experience delays in enforcing its rights as a mortgagee or lessor and may incur substantial costs associated with protecting its investments.

 

 

UTILITY COMPANIES

Utility companies in which the Fund may invest generally are involved in the generation, transmission, sale or distribution of electric energy; distribution, purification and treatment of water; or production, transmission or distribution of oil or natural gas. The Fund may invest significantly in securities of utility companies and may be susceptible to adverse economic or regulatory occurrences affecting that sector. Investing in the utility sector includes the following risks:

 

·  

high interest costs in connection with capital construction and improvement programs;

 

·  

difficulty in raising capital in adequate amounts on reasonable terms in periods of high inflation and unsettled capital markets;

 

·  

governmental regulation of rates charged to customers;

 

·  

costs associated with compliance with and changes in environmental and other regulations;

 

·  

effects of economic slowdowns and surplus capacity;

 

·  

increased competition from other providers of utility services;

 

17


·  

inexperience with and potential losses resulting from a developing deregulatory environment;

 

·  

costs associated with reduced availability of certain types of fuel, occasionally reduced availability and high costs of natural gas for resale and the effects of energy conservation policies, and the potential that costs incurred by the utility, such as the cost of fuel, change more rapidly than the rate the utility is permitted to charge its customers;

 

·  

effects of a national energy policy and lengthy delays and greatly increased costs and other problems associated with the design, construction, licensing, regulation and operation of nuclear facilities for electric generation, including, among other considerations, the problems associated with the use of radioactive materials and the disposal of radioactive wastes;

 

·  

technological innovations that may render existing plants, equipment or products obsolete; and

 

·  

potential impact of terrorist activities on utility companies and their customers and the impact of natural or man-made disasters.

Issuers in the utility sector may be subject to regulation by various governmental authorities and may be affected by the imposition of special tariffs and changes in tax laws, regulatory policies and accounting standards. In addition, there are substantial differences between the regulatory practices and policies of various jurisdictions, and any given regulatory agency may make major shifts in policy from time to time. There is no assurance that regulatory authorities will, in the future, grant rate increases or that such increases will be adequate to permit the payment of dividends on preferred or common stocks. Prolonged changes in climatic conditions can also have a significant impact on both the revenues of an electric or gas utility as well as its expenses.

 

 

TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND MEDIA COMPANIES

Telecommunications companies in which the Fund may invest include companies principally engaged in the development, manufacture, or sale of communications services or communications equipment or provision of communications services, including cable television, satellite, microwave, radio, telephone and other communications media. Media companies invest create, own, and distribute various forms of printed, visual, audio, and interactive content, as well as information databases that they sell or lease to others. Examples include the Internet, newspaper, magazine, and book publishers, movie and television studios, advertising agencies, radio and television broadcasters, as well as cable television and direct satellite broadcast system operators. Risks of investing in the telecommunications and media sector includes many of the risks of investing in the utilities sector, including government regulation of rates of return and services that may be offered. Telecommunications products and services also may be subject to rapid obsolescence resulting from changes in consumer tastes, intense competition and strong market reactions to technological development.

 

 

ENERGY COMPANIES

Energy companies in which the Fund may invest include companies in the discovery, development, production or distribution of energy or other natural resources, the development of technologies for the production or efficient use of energy and other natural resources, or the furnishing of related supplies or services. The energy industries can be significantly affected by fluctuations in energy prices and supply and demand of energy fuels, energy conservation, exploration and production spending, the success of exploration projects, tax and other government regulations, weather or meteorological events, world events and economic conditions. The energy industries also may be affected by

 

18


fluctuations in energy prices, energy conservation, exploration and production spending, government regulations, weather, world events and economic conditions.

 

 

HEALTHCARE COMPANIES

Healthcare companies in which the Fund may invest encompass two main groups. The first group includes companies that manufacture health care supplies or provide health care-related services, including distributors of products, providers of basic health care services and owners and operators of care facilities and organizations. The second group includes companies in the research, development, production and marketing of pharmaceuticals and biotechnology products. Events affecting the health care industries include technological advances that make existing products and services obsolete, and changes in regulatory policies concerning approvals of new drugs, medical devices or procedures. In addition, changes in governmental payment systems and private payment systems, such as increased use of managed care arrangements, are risks in investing in the health care industries.

 

 

INDUSTRIAL COMPANIES

Industrial companies that the Fund may invest in include companies involved in the research, development, manufacture, distribution, supply or sale of industrial products, services or equipment. These companies may include manufacturers of civil or military aerospace and defense equipment, building components and home improvement products and equipment, civil engineering firms and large-scale contractors, companies producing electrical components or equipment, manufacturers of industrial machinery and industrial components and products, providers of commercial printing services, and companies providing transportation services. A company is in industrial products, services or equipment industries if at the time of investment it is determine that at least 50% of the company’s assets, revenues or profits are derived from these industries.

The industrial products, services and equipment industries can be significantly affected by general economic trends, changes in consumer sentiment and spending, commodity prices, technological obsolescence, labor relations, legislation, government regulations and spending, import controls, and worldwide competition, and can be subject to liability for environmental damage, depletion of resources, and mandated expenditures for safety and pollution control.

 

 

DERIVATIVE INSTRUMENTS

The Fund may, but is not required to, use derivative instruments to seek to generate return, facilitate portfolio management and mitigate risks. The Fund may also enter into derivatives transactions, including, among others, interest rate and other swap transactions, and other transactions to manage the Fund’s duration In an interest rate swap, the Fund agrees to pay to the counterparty a fixed rate payment in exchange for the counterparty agreeing to pay to the Fund a variable rate payment that is intended to approximate the Fund’s variable rate payment obligation on the preferred shares it has issued or any variable rate borrowing it has incurred. The payment obligation would be based on the notional amount of the swap. In an interest rate cap, the Fund pays a premium to the counterparty to the interest rate swap, and to the extent that a specified variable rate index exceeds a predetermined fixed rate, receives from the counterparty payments of the difference based on the notional amount of such cap.

The Fund may enter into derivatives transactions, including, among others, interest rate and other swap transactions, denominated in or that provide exposure to foreign currencies for hedging, duration

 

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management or portfolio management purposes. The Fund may also enter into forward currency contracts to hedge all or a portion of the Fund’s foreign currency exposure in the event the Fund borrows or holds securities denominated in, or has exposure to, foreign (non-U.S.) currencies.

The Fund may also enter into exchange-listed and over-the-counter (“OTC”) put and call options on securities (including securities of investment companies and baskets of securities), indexes, and other financial instruments; purchase and sell financial futures contracts and options thereon; enter into various interest rate transactions, such as swaps, caps, floors or collars or credit transactions; equity index, total return and credit default swaps; forward contracts; and structured investments. In addition, the Fund may enter into various currency transactions, such as forward currency contracts, currency futures contracts, currency swaps or options on currency or currency futures. The Fund also may purchase and sell derivative instruments that combine features of these instruments. The Fund may invest in other types of derivatives, structured and similar instruments which are not currently available but which may be developed in the future.

Derivatives transactions can be highly volatile and involve various types and degrees of risk, depending upon the characteristics of the particular derivative, including the imperfect correlation between the value of such instruments and the underlying assets, the possible default of the other party to the transaction and illiquidity of the derivative instruments. Derivatives transactions may entail investment exposures that are greater than their cost would suggest, meaning that a small investment in derivatives could have a large potential impact on the Fund’s performance, effecting a form of investment leverage on the Fund’s portfolio. In certain types of derivatives transactions the Fund could lose the entire amount of its investment; in other types of derivatives transactions the potential loss is theoretically unlimited.

The market for many derivatives is, or suddenly can become, illiquid. Changes in liquidity may result in significant, rapid and unpredictable changes in the prices for derivatives transactions. The Fund could experience losses if it were unable to liquidate a derivative position because of an illiquid secondary market. Successful use of derivatives transactions also is subject to the ability of the Investment Manager to predict correctly movements in the direction of the relevant market and, to the extent the transaction is entered into for hedging purposes, to ascertain the appropriate correlation between the transaction being hedged and the price movements of the derivatives. Derivatives transactions entered into to seek to manage the risks of the Fund’s portfolio of securities may have the effect of limiting gains from otherwise favorable market movements. The use of derivatives transactions may result in losses greater than if they had not been used (and a loss on a Derivatives transaction position may be larger than the gain in a portfolio position being hedged), may require the Fund to sell or purchase portfolio securities at inopportune times or for prices other than current market values, may limit the amount of appreciation the Fund can realize on an investment, or may cause the Fund to hold a security that it might otherwise sell. Amounts paid by the Fund as premiums and cash or other assets held as collateral with respect to derivatives transactions may not otherwise be available to the Fund for investment purposes.

The use of currency transactions can result in the Fund incurring losses as a result of the imposition of exchange controls, political developments, government intervention or failure to intervene, suspension of settlements or the inability of the Fund to deliver or receive a specified currency.

The Fund will be subject to credit risk with respect to the counterparties to certain derivatives transactions entered into by the Fund. Derivatives may be purchased on established exchanges or through privately negotiated transactions referred to as OTC derivatives. Exchange-traded derivatives generally are guaranteed by the clearing agency which is the issuer or counterparty to such derivatives.

 

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However, many futures exchanges and boards of trade limit the amount of fluctuation permitted in futures contract prices during a single trading day and once the daily limit has been reached in a particular contract no trades may be made that day at a price beyond that limit or trading may be suspended. There also is no assurance that sufficient trading interest to create a liquid secondary market on an exchange will exist at any particular time and no such secondary market may exist or may cease to exist. Each party to an OTC derivative bears the risk that the counterparty will default. OTC derivatives are less liquid than exchange-traded derivatives because the other party to the transaction may be the only investor with sufficient understanding of the derivative to be interested in bidding for it. If a counterparty becomes bankrupt or otherwise fails to perform its obligations under a derivative contract due to financial difficulties, the Fund may experience significant delays in obtaining any recovery under the derivative contract in bankruptcy or other reorganization proceeding. The Fund may obtain only a limited recovery or may obtain no recovery in such circumstances.

The Fund will not be a commodity pool (i.e., a pooled investment vehicle which trades in commodity futures contracts and options thereon and the operator of which is registered with the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (the “CFTC”)). The Investment Manager has claimed an exclusion from the definition of the term “commodity pool operator” with respect to the Fund and, therefore, is not subject to registration with the CFTC pursuant to CFTC Rule 4.5 or regulation as a commodity pool operator under the Commodity Exchange Act with respect to the Fund.

The Fund’s intention to qualify as a RIC under the Code will potentially limit the extent to which the Fund can engage in certain derivatives transactions.

 

 

FOREIGN CURRENCY AND CURRENCY HEDGING TRANSACTIONS

In order to hedge against foreign currency exchange rate risks from adverse changes in the relationship between the U.S. dollar and foreign currencies (including to hedge against anticipated future changes which otherwise might adversely affect the prices of securities that the Fund intends to purchase at a later date), the Fund may enter into forward foreign currency exchange contracts (forward contracts), foreign currency futures contracts (foreign currency futures) and foreign currency swap agreements (foreign currency swaps), as well as purchase put or call options on foreign currencies, as described below. Preferred Securities and Income SMA Shares, Alternative Income Fund, Low Duration Preferred and Income Fund and Preferred Securities and Income Fund also may enter into options on currency futures contracts and are not limited to entering into currency transactions for hedging purposes. The Fund may also conduct its foreign currency exchange transactions on a spot (i.e., cash) basis at the spot rate prevailing in the foreign currency exchange market.

A forward currency contract is an obligation to purchase or sell a specific currency for an agreed price on a future date which is individually negotiated and privately traded by currency traders and their customers. A foreign currency future is an exchange-traded contract for the purchase or sale of a specified foreign currency at a specified price at a future date. A foreign currency swap is an agreement between two parties to exchange principal and interest payments on a loan made in one currency for principal and interest payments of a loan of equal value in another currency. The Fund may enter into a foreign currency forward contract, foreign currency futures contract or foreign currency swap, or purchase a currency option, for example, when it enters into a contract for the purchase or sale of a security denominated in a foreign currency or expects to receive a dividend or interest payment on a portfolio holding, in order to “lock in” the U.S. dollar value of the security or payment. In addition, the Fund may enter into a foreign currency forward contract, futures contract or swap or purchase a currency option in respect of a currency which acts as a proxy for a currency in which the Fund’s

 

21


portfolio holdings or anticipated holdings are denominated. This second investment practice is generally referred to as “cross-hedging.” Because in connection with the Fund’s foreign currency transactions an amount of that Fund’s assets equal to the amount of that Fund’s current commitment will be segregated to be used to pay for the commitment, the Fund will always have cash or other liquid assets available that are sufficient to cover any commitments under these transactions. The segregated assets will be marked-to-market on a daily basis.

The Fund may enter into a forward contract to attempt to minimize the risk to the Fund from adverse changes in the relationship between the U.S. dollar and foreign currencies. Forward contracts may limit potential gain from a positive change in the relationship between the U.S. dollar and foreign currencies. Unanticipated changes in currency prices may result in poorer overall performance for the Fund than if it had not engaged in such contracts.

The Fund may enter into exchange-traded foreign currency futures for the purchase or sale for future delivery of foreign currencies. U.S. exchange-traded futures are regulated by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”). This investment technique will be used only to hedge against anticipated future changes in exchange rates which otherwise might adversely affect the value of the Fund’s portfolio securities or adversely affect the prices of securities that the Fund intends to purchase at a later date.

 

 

FUTURES CONTRACTS AND OPTIONS ON FUTURES CONTRACTS

The Fund may purchase and sell financial futures contracts and options on such contracts. A financial futures contract is an agreement to buy or sell a specific security or financial instrument at a particular price on a stipulated future date. Although some financial futures contracts call for making or taking delivery of the underlying securities or instruments, in most cases these obligations are closed out before the settlement date. The closing of a contractual obligation may be accomplished by purchasing or selling an identical offsetting futures contract. Other financial futures contracts by their terms call for cash settlements.

The Fund may also buy and sell index futures contracts with respect to any stock or bond index traded on a recognized stock exchange or board of trade. An index futures contract is a contract to buy or sell units of an index on a specified future date at a price agreed upon when the contract is made. The stock index futures contract specifies that no delivery of the actual stocks making up the index will take place. Instead, settlement in cash must occur upon the termination of the contract, with the settlement being the difference between the contract price and the actual level of the stock index at the expiration of the contract. In addition, the Fund may enter into foreign currency futures contracts as described under “Foreign Currency and Currency Hedging Transactions.”

At the time the Fund purchases or sells a futures contract, it will designate on its records cash or liquid portfolio securities it believes to be adequate to ensure that it has sufficient liquid assets to meet its obligations under the contract. Depending on the nature of the transaction, the amounts that are designated may be based on the notional value of the futures contract or on the daily mark-to-market obligation under the futures contract and may be reduced by amounts on deposit with the broker. Alternatively, the Fund may “cover” its position by owning an offsetting position, for example, holding the instruments underlying the contract (or, in the case of an index futures contract, a portfolio with a volatility substantially similar to that of the index on which the futures contract is based), or holding a call option permitting the Fund to purchase the same futures contract at a price no higher than the price of the contract written by the Fund (or at a higher price if the difference is maintained in liquid assets with the Fund’s custodian).

 

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The Fund will be authorized to use financial futures contracts and related options for hedging and non-hedging purposes, for example to enhance total return or provide market exposure pending the investment of cash balances. The Fund may lose the expected benefit of transactions in financial contracts if currency exchange rates or securities prices change in an unanticipated manner. Such unanticipated changes in currency exchange rates or securities prices may also result in poorer overall performance than if the Fund had not entered into any futures transactions.

When purchasing stocks or bonds, the buyer acquires ownership in the security, however buyers of futures contracts are not entitled to ownership of the underlying asset until and unless they decide to accept delivery at expiration of the contract. In practice, delivery of the underlying asset to satisfy a futures contract rarely occurs because most futures traders use the liquidity of the central marketplace to sell their futures contract before expiration.

 

·  

Price Limits. Some (not all exchanges have price change limits) futures exchanges impose on each futures contract traded on that exchange a maximum permissible price movement for each trading session. If the maximum permissible price movement is achieved on any trading day, no more trades may be executed above (or below, if the price has moved downward) that limit. If the Fund wishes to execute a trade outside the daily permissible price movement, it would be prevented from doing so by exchange rules, and would have to wait for another trading session to execute its transaction.

 

·  

Price Volatility. Despite the daily price limits on various futures exchanges, the price volatility of futures contracts has been historically greater than that for traditional securities such as stocks and bonds. To the extent that the Fund invests in futures contracts, the assets of the Fund, and therefore the prices of Fund shares, may be subject to greater volatility.

 

·  

Marking-to-Market Futures Positions. The futures clearinghouse marks every futures contract to market at the end of each trading day, to ensure that the outstanding futures obligations are limited to the mark-to-market change in price from one day for any given futures contract. This process of marking-to-market is designed to prevent losses from accumulating in any futures account. Therefore, if the Fund’s futures positions have declined in value, the Fund may be required to post additional margin to cover this decline. Alternatively, if the Fund’s futures positions have increased in value, this increase will be credited to the Fund’s account. Futures contracts, when entered into directly by the Fund on a qualified board or exchange, as defined in the Code, are taxed on the “marked-to-market” basis applicable to section 1256 contracts. To the extent Real Assets Fund invest in futures contracts indirectly through its Subsidiary, income from such contracts will be taxable to Real Assets Fund as ordinary income when it includes in its income its pro rata share of its Subsidiary’s income, as described in “Taxation—Investment in the Subsidiary” and “Taxation—Controlled Foreign Corporations.”

 

·  

Margin. In connection with futures contracts and options on futures contracts, the Fund (directly or through its Subsidiary) typically posts margin directly to a futures commission merchant (“FCM”), who is expected typically to re-hypothecate the margin to an exchange or clearinghouse. Prior to re-hypothecation, such margin may be held by the FCM in commingled accounts with margin from other clients of the FCM. The margin maintained by the FCM is not subject to the regulatory protections provided by bank custody arrangements. If margin is posted to the FCM and re-hypothecated, neither the Fund nor the FCM to whom the margin was posted will have custody of the margin. If margin posted by the Fund is not maintained with the Fund’s custodian, the Fund is fully exposed to the fraud and unsecured credit risk of the FCM to whom the margin is posted.

 

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SHORT SALES

The Fund may enter into short sales, provided the dollar amount of short sales at any one time would not exceed [25]% of the Managed Assets of the Fund, [and the value of securities of any one issuer in which the Fund is short would not exceed the lesser of 2% of the value of the Fund’s Managed Assets or 2% of the securities of any class of any issuer.] The Fund must designate collateral consisting of cash or liquid portfolio securities with a value equal to the current market value of the shorted securities, which is marked-to-market daily. If the Fund owns an equal amount of such securities or securities convertible into or exchangeable for, without payment of any further consideration, securities of the same issuer as, and equal in amount to, the securities sold short (which sales are commonly referred to as short sales against the box), the above requirements are not applicable.

 

 

SWAP TRANSACTIONS

The Fund may, but is not required to, use, without limit, various Swap Transactions described in this SAI and in the Fund’s Prospectus to seek to generate return, facilitate portfolio management and mitigate risks. Although the Investment Manager may seek to use these kinds of transactions to further the Fund’s investment objective(s), no assurance can be given that they will achieve this result.

Swap agreements are two party over-the-counter contracts entered into primarily by institutional investors that agree to exchange the returns (or differentials in rates of return) earned or realized on particular predetermined investments or instruments. The gross returns to be exchanged or “swapped” between the parties are generally calculated with respect to a “notional amount,” i.e., the return on or increase in value of a particular dollar amount invested at a particular interest rate, in a particular foreign currency, or in a “basket” of credit default swaps or securities representing a particular index. The “notional amount” of the swap agreement is only used as a basis upon which to calculate the obligations that the parties to a swap agreement have agreed to exchange.

Swap agreements will tend to shift investment exposure from one type of investment to another. For example, if the Fund agreed to exchange payments in U.S. dollars for payments in a foreign currency, the swap agreement would tend to decrease the Fund’s exposure to U.S. interest rates and increase its exposure to foreign currency and interest rates. Depending on how they are used, swap agreements may increase or decrease the overall volatility of the Fund’s investments and its share price and yield. Caps and floors have an effect similar to buying or writing options.

Most swap agreements entered into are cash settled and calculate the obligations of the parties to the agreement on a “net basis.” Thus, the Fund’s current obligations (or rights) under a swap agreement generally will be equal only to the net amount to be paid or received under the agreement based on the relative values of the positions held by each party to the agreement (the “net amount”). The Fund’s current obligations under a swap agreement will be accrued daily (offset against any amounts owed to the Fund) and any accrued but unpaid net amounts owed to a swap counterparty will be covered by the segregation of permissible liquid assets of the Fund.

Specific swap agreements include foreign currency swaps (discussed above under “Foreign Currency Transactions and Currency Hedging Transactions”); index swaps; interest rate swaps (including interest rate locks, caps, floors and collars); credit default swaps; and total return swaps (including equity swaps).

 

·  

Interest Rate Swap Transactions. An interest rate swap agreement involves the exchange of cash flows based on interest rate specifications and a specified principal amount, often a fixed payment for a floating payment that is linked to an interest rate. In an interest rate cap one party receives

 

24


 

payments at the end of each period in which a specified interest rate on a specified principal amount exceeds an agreed rate; conversely, in an interest rate floor one party may receive payments if a specified interest rate on a specified principal amount falls below an agreed rate. Interest rate collars involve selling a cap and purchasing a floor, or vice versa, to protect the Fund against interest rate movements exceeding given minimum or maximum levels.

 

·  

Credit Default Swap Transactions. Credit default swap agreements and similar agreements may have as reference obligations debt securities that are or are not currently held by the Fund. The protection “buyer” in a credit default contract may be obligated to pay the protection “seller” an upfront payment or a periodic stream of payments over the term of the contract provided generally that no credit event on a reference obligation has occurred. If a credit event occurs, the seller generally must pay the buyer the “par value” (full notional value) of the swap in exchange for an equal face amount of deliverable obligations of the reference entity described in the swap, or the seller may be required to deliver the related net cash amount, if the swap is cash settled.

 

·  

Total Return Swap Transactions. In a total return or “equity” swap agreement, one party makes payments based on a set rate, either fixed or variable, while the other party makes payments based on the return of an underlying asset, which includes both the income it generates and any capital gains. The underlying reference asset of a total return swap may include an individual security, an equity index, loans or bonds.

 

 

ILLIQUID SECURITIES

The Fund may invest in investments that may be illiquid (i.e., securities that are not readily marketable). For the Fund, illiquid securities include, among others, securities that are illiquid by virtue of the absence of a readily available market or legal or contractual restrictions on resale.

Limitations on resale may have an adverse effect on the marketability of portfolio securities and the Fund might be unable to dispose of restricted or other illiquid securities promptly or at reasonable prices. The Fund might also have to register such restricted securities in order to dispose of them, resulting in additional expense and delay. Adverse market conditions could impede such a public offering of securities.

In recent years, however, a large institutional market has developed for certain securities that are not registered under the Securities Act, including repurchase agreements, commercial paper, foreign securities, municipal securities and corporate bonds and notes. Institutional investors depend on an efficient institutional market in which the unregistered security can be readily resold or on an issuer’s ability to honor a demand for repayment. The fact that there are contractual or legal restrictions on resale to the general public or to certain institutions may not be indicative of the liquidity of such investments.

Rule 144A under the Securities Act allows a broader institutional trading market for securities otherwise subject to restriction on resale to the general public. Rule 144A establishes a safe harbor from the registration requirements of the Securities Act of resales of certain securities to qualified institutional buyers, which generally creates a more liquid market for securities eligible for resale under Rule 144A than other types of restricted securities.

The Board has delegated to the Investment Manager the day-to-day determination of the illiquidity of any security held by the Fund, although it has retained general oversight and ultimate responsibility for such determinations. The Board and/or the Investment Manager will consider factors such as (i) the nature of the market for a security (including the institutional private resale market; the frequency of

 

25


trades and quotes for the security; the number of dealers willing to purchase or sell the security; the amount of time normally needed to dispose of the security; and the method of soliciting offers and the mechanics of transfer), (ii) the terms of certain securities or other instruments allowing for the disposition to a third party or the issuer thereof (e.g., certain repurchase obligations and demand instruments) and (iii) other permissible relevant factors.

 

 

CASH RESERVES

The Fund’s cash reserves, held to provide sufficient flexibility to take advantage of new opportunities for investments and for other cash needs, will generally be invested in money market instruments. If the Investment Manager has difficulty finding an adequate number of undervalued equity securities, all or any portion of the Fund’s assets may also be invested temporarily in money market instruments. For temporary defensive purposes or to keep cash on hand fully invested, and following the offering of the Common Shares pending investment in securities that meet the Fund’s investment objectives, the Fund may invest up to 100% of its total assets in cash, cash equivalents, government securities and short-term fixed-income securities.

Money market instruments in which the Fund may invest its cash reserves will generally consist of high quality short-term debt securities, including, without limitation, obligations issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government, its agencies or instrumentalities, repurchase agreements relating to such obligations and commercial paper.

Repurchase agreements may be entered into with member banks of the Federal Reserve System or primary dealers (as designated by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York) in U.S. Government securities. Other acceptable money market instruments include commercial paper rated by any NRSRO, such as Moody’s or S&P, certificates of deposit, bankers’ acceptances issued by domestic banks having total assets in excess of one billion dollars and money market mutual funds.

In entering into a repurchase agreement for the Fund, the Investment Manager will evaluate and monitor the creditworthiness of the counterparty. In the event that a counterparty should default on its repurchase obligation, the Fund might suffer a loss to the extent that the proceeds from the sale of the collateral were less than the repurchase price. If the counterparty becomes bankrupt, the Fund might be delayed, or may incur costs or possible losses of principal and income, in selling the collateral.

 

 

SECURITIES LENDING

The Fund may lend portfolio securities to broker/dealers or other institutions. The borrower must maintain with the Fund cash or equivalent collateral equal to at least [100]% of the market value of the securities loaned. During the time portfolio securities are on loan, the borrower pays the Fund any dividends or interest paid on the securities. The Fund may invest the collateral and earn additional income or receive an agreed upon amount of interest income from the borrower. Loans are subject to termination at the option of the Fund or the borrower. The Fund may pay reasonable administrative and custodial fees in connection with a loan. The Fund does not have the right to vote securities on loan, but would terminate the loan and regain the right to vote if that were considered important with respect to the investment. The Fund may lose money if a borrower defaults on its obligation to return securities and the value of the collateral held by the Fund is insufficient to replace the loaned securities. In addition, the Fund is responsible for any loss that might result from its investment of the borrower’s collateral.

 

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OTHER INVESTMENT COMPANIES

The Fund may invest in other investment companies, including shares of open-end, management investment companies (commonly called mutual funds), closed-end funds and ETFs. The Fund also may invest in other investment companies either during periods when it has large amounts of uninvested cash, such as the period shortly after the Fund receives the proceeds of the offering of its Common Shares, or during periods when there is a shortage of attractive opportunities in the market. As a shareholder in an investment company, the Fund would bear its ratable share of that investment company’s expenses, and would remain subject to payment of the Fund’s investment management and other fees and expenses with respect to assets so invested. Holders of Common Shares (“Common Shareholders”) would therefore be subject to duplicative expenses to the extent the Fund invests in other investment companies. The securities of other investment companies may also be leveraged and will therefore be subject to the same leverage risks to which the Fund is subject. As described in the Prospectus in the sections entitled “Use of Leverage” and “Use of Leverage—Leverage Risk,” the NAV and market value of leveraged shares will be more volatile and the yield to shareholders will tend to fluctuate more than the yield generated by unleveraged shares. Investment companies may have investment policies that differ from those of the Fund. In addition, to the extent the Fund invests in other investment companies, the Fund will be dependent upon the investment and research abilities of persons other than the Investment Manager.

[Under the 1940 Act, the Fund may be limited in the amount the Fund and its affiliates can invest in any one fund (a “Portfolio Fund”). As a result, the Fund may hold a smaller position in a Portfolio Fund than if it were not subject to these restrictions. On any matter upon which Portfolio Fund shareholders are solicited to vote the Investment Manager may be required to vote Portfolio Fund shares in the same general proportion as shares held by other shareholders of the Portfolio Fund. The SEC has proposed changes to the rules governing investments in Portfolio Fund. The impact, if any, such rule changes would have on the Fund is unclear. ]

ETFs are open-end investment companies whose shares are listed for trading on a national securities exchange or the Nasdaq National Market System. Some ETF shares provide investment results that are intended to correspond to the price and yield performance of the component securities of a securities index, while others are actively managed. ETFs are subject to a number of risks, generally corresponding to the risks of the securities in which they invest. Individual shares of an ETF are generally not redeemable at their NAV, but trade on an exchange during the day at prices that are normally close to, but not the same as, their NAV. ETF shares may trade at a discount or premium to their NAV. There is no assurance that an active trading market will be maintained for the shares of an ETF or that market prices of the shares of an ETF will be close to their NAVs.

 

 

PORTFOLIO TRADING AND TURNOVER RATE

The Fund may engage in portfolio trading when considered appropriate, but short-term trading will not be used as the primary means of achieving the Fund’s investment objectives. There are no limits on portfolio turnover, and investments may be sold without regard to length of time held when, in the opinion of the Investment Manager, investment considerations warrant such action. A higher portfolio turnover rate results in correspondingly greater brokerage commissions and other transactional expenses that are borne by the Fund. High portfolio turnover may result in the realization of net short-term capital gains by the Fund that, when distributed to Common Shareholders, would be taxable to such shareholders as ordinary income.

 

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INVESTMENT RESTRICTIONS

 

 

The investment objectives and the general investment policies and investment techniques of the Fund are described in the Prospectus. The Fund has also adopted certain investment restrictions limiting the following activities except as specifically authorized.

The Fund may not:

1. Issue senior securities (including borrowing money for other than temporary purposes) except in conformity with the limits set forth in the 1940 Act or pursuant to exemptive relief therefrom; or pledge, mortgage or hypothecate its assets other than to secure such issuances or borrowings or in connection with permitted investment strategies; provided that, notwithstanding the foregoing, the Fund may borrow up to an additional 5% of its total assets for temporary purposes;

2. Act as an underwriter of securities issued by other persons, except insofar as the Fund may be deemed an underwriter in connection with the disposition of securities;

3. Purchase or sell real estate, except that the Fund may invest in securities of companies that deal in real estate or are engaged in the real estate business, including REITs, and loans and other securities secured by real estate or interests therein, and the Fund may hold and sell real estate acquired through default, liquidation, or other distributions of an interest in real estate as a result of the Fund’s ownership of such securities and loans;

4. Make loans to other persons except through the lending of securities held by it (but not to exceed a value of one-third of total assets), through the use of repurchase agreements, and by the purchase of debt securities;

5. Invest more than 25% of its total assets in securities of issuers in any one industry (except as discussed herein); provided, however, that such limitation shall not apply to obligations issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government or by its agencies or instrumentalities.

The Fund may:

6. Purchase and sell commodities or commodity contracts, including futures contracts, to the maximum extent permitted by law.

The investment restrictions above have been adopted as fundamental policies of the Fund. Under the 1940 Act, a fundamental policy may not be changed without the approval of the holders of a “majority of the outstanding” Common Shares and Preferred Shares voting together as a single class, and of the holders of a “majority of the outstanding” Preferred Shares voting as a separate class. When used with respect to particular shares of the Fund, a “majority of the outstanding” shares means (i) 67% or more of the shares present at a meeting, if the holders of more than 50% of the shares are present or represented by proxy, or (ii) more than 50% of the shares, whichever is less. With respect to investment restriction number 5, the Fund will invest 25% or more of its total assets in the financial sector, which is comprised of the banking, diversified financials, real estate (including REITs) and insurance industries. From time to time, the Fund may have 25% or more of its total assets invested in any one or more of those industries that make up the financials sector.

Under the 1940 Act, the Fund is not permitted to issue Preferred Shares unless immediately after the issuance the value of the Fund’s total assets is at least 200% of the liquidation value of the outstanding Preferred Shares (i.e., such liquidation value may not exceed 50% of the Fund’s total assets less liabilities other than borrowing). In addition, the Fund is not permitted to declare any cash dividend or

 

28


other distribution on its Common Shares unless, at the time of such declaration, the value of the Fund’s total assets less liabilities other than borrowing is at least 200% of such liquidation value. If Preferred Shares are issued, the Fund intends, to the extent possible, to purchase or redeem Preferred Shares from time to time to the extent necessary in order to maintain coverage of any Preferred Shares of at least 200%. If the Fund has Preferred Shares outstanding, two of the Fund’s Directors will be elected by the holders of Preferred Shares, voting separately as a class. The remaining Directors of the Fund will be elected by holders of Common Shares and Preferred Shares voting together as a single class. In the event the Fund failed to pay dividends on Preferred Shares for two years, Preferred Shareholders would be entitled to elect a majority of the Directors of the Fund.

 

 

MANAGEMENT OF THE FUND

 

 

The business and affairs of the Fund are managed under the direction of the Board (the “Directors”). The Directors approve all significant agreements between the Fund and persons or companies furnishing services to it, including the Fund’s agreements with its Investment Manager, administrator, co-administrator, custodian and transfer agent. The management of the Fund’s day-to-day operations is delegated to its officers, the Investment Manager and the Fund’s administrator, subject always to the investment objectives and policies of the Fund and to the general supervision of the Directors.

Basic information about the identity and experience of each Director and officer is set forth in the charts below. The Investment Manager is a wholly owned subsidiary of Cohen & Steers, Inc., a publicly traded company whose common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange (the “NYSE”) under the symbol “CNS.”

The Directors of the Fund, their addresses, their ages, the length of time served, their principal occupations for at least the past five years, the number of portfolios they oversee within the fund complex, and other directorships held by the Director are set forth below.

 

Name, Address(1)
and Year of Birth

 

Position(s) Held
with Fund

 

Term of
Office(5)

 

Principal Occupation During
At Least The Past 5 Years
(Including  Other Directorships Held)

 

Number of
Funds Within
Fund Complex
Overseen by Director
(Including  the Fund)

 

Length of
Time Served(2)

Interested Directors(3)

         

Robert H. Steers

1953

  Director and
Chairman
  (4)   Chief Executive Officer of the Investment Manager and its parent, Cohen & Steers, Inc. (CNS), since 2014. Prior to that, Co-Chairman and Co-Chief Executive Officer of the Investment Manager since 2003 and CNS since 2004.   21   Since
1991

 

(1)

The address for each Director is 280 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10017.

(2)

The length of time served represents the year in which the Director was first elected or appointed to any fund in the Cohen & Steers Fund Complex.

(3)

“Interested person,” as defined in the 1940 Act, of the Fund because of affiliation with the Investment Manager (Interested Directors).

(4)

Beginning with the first annual meeting of shareholders of the Fund held after the initial public offering of the Common Shares, and if at such time, the number of Directors shall be three (3) or more, the Board shall be

 

29


 

divided into three classes: Class I, Class II and Class III. At the first annual meeting, Directors of Class I shall be elected to the Board for a term expiring at the next succeeding annual meeting of shareholders, Directors of Class II shall be elected to the Board for a term expiring at the second succeeding annual meeting of shareholders and Directors of Class III shall be elected to the Board for a term expiring at the third succeeding annual meeting of shareholders. At each subsequent annual meeting of shareholders, the Directors chosen to succeed those whose terms are expiring shall be identified as being of the same class as the Directors whom they succeed and shall be elected for a term expiring at the time of the third succeeding annual meeting of shareholders subsequent to their election, or thereafter in each case when their respective successors are elected and qualified.

(5)

The Board has adopted a mandatory retirement policy stating a Director must retire from the Board on December 31st of the year in which he or she turns 75 years of age.

[TABLE TO BE UPDATED BY AMENDMENT]

Each Director has been a Director of the Fund since its inception. Additional information follows (supplementing the information provided in the table above) that describes some of the specific experiences, qualifications, attributes or skills that each Independent Director possesses which the Board believes has prepared him or her to be an effective Director.

[TABLE TO BE UPDATED BY AMENDMENT]

The Board believes that the significance of each Director’s experience, qualifications, attributes or skills is an individual matter (meaning that experience that is important for one Director may not have the same value for another) and that these factors are best evaluated at the board level, with no single Director, or particular factor, being indicative of board effectiveness. However, the Board believes that Directors need to have the ability to critically review, evaluate, question and discuss information provided to them, and to interact effectively with Fund management, service providers and counsel, in order to exercise effective business judgment in the performance of their duties; the Board believes that their members satisfy this standard. Experience relevant to having this ability may be achieved through a Director’s educational background; business, professional training or practice (e.g., accounting or law), public service or academic positions; experience from service as a board member (including the boards of other funds in the Cohen & Steers Fund Complex) or as an executive of investment funds, public companies or significant private or not-for-profit entities or other organizations; and/or other life experiences. The charter for the Board’s Nominating Committee contains certain other specific requirements and factors considered by the Committee in identifying and selecting Director candidates.

To assist them in evaluating matters under federal and state law, the Directors are counseled by their own independent legal counsel, who participates in Board meetings and interacts with the Investment Manager, and also may benefit from information provided by the Fund’s and the Investment Manager’s counsel; both Board and Fund counsel have significant experience advising funds and fund board members. The Board and its committees have the ability to engage other experts as appropriate. The Board evaluates its performance on an annual basis.

Board Composition and Leadership Structure. The 1940 Act requires that at least 40% of a Fund’s directors not be “interested persons” (as defined in the 1940 Act) of the Fund and, as such, not affiliated with the Investment Manager (“Independent Directors”). To rely on certain exemptive rules under the 1940 Act, a majority of a Fund’s Directors must be Independent Directors, and for certain important matters, such as the approval of investment advisory agreements or transactions with affiliates, the 1940 Act or the rules thereunder require the approval of a majority of the Independent Directors. Currently, [a majority] of the Fund’s Directors are Independent Directors. The Chairman of the Board is an interested person of the Fund. The Board does not have a lead Independent Director.

 

30


The Board has determined that its leadership structure is appropriate in light of the services that the Investment Manager and its affiliates provide to the Fund and potential conflicts of interest that could arise from these relationships.

The officers of the Fund (other than Mr. Steers, whose biography is provided above) their addresses, their years of birth, and their principal occupations for at least the past five years are set forth below.

 

Name, Address(1) and
Year of Birth

  

Position(s)
Held with Fund(2)

  

Principal Occupation(s) During At Least The Past Five Years

  

Length of
Time Served(3)

Adam M. Derechin

1964

   President and Chief Executive Officer    Chief Operating Officer of the Investment Manager since 2003 and prior to that, Senior Vice President of the Investment Manager.    2005

Dana A. DeVivo

1981

   Secretary and Chief Legal Officer    Senior Vice President of the Investment Manager since 2019. Prior to that, Vice President of the Investment Manager since 2013.    2015

James Giallanza

1966

   Chief Financial Officer    Executive Vice President of the Investment Manager since 2014. Prior to that, Senior Vice President of the Investment Manager since 2006.    2006

Lisa D. Phelan

1968

   Chief Compliance Officer    Executive Vice President of the Investment Manager since 2015. Prior to that, Senior Vice President of the Investment Manager since 2008. Chief Compliance Officer of the Investment Manager, the Cohen & Steers funds, Cohen & Steers Asia Limited and Cohen & Steers Securities, LLC since 2007, 2006, 2005 and 2004, respectively.    2006

Albert Laskaj

1977

   Treasurer    Senior Vice President of the Investment Manager since 2019. Vice President of the Investment Manager since 2015. Prior to that, Director of Legg Mason & Co. since 2013.    2015

 

(1)

The address for all officers is 280 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10017.

(2)

Each appointed by the Board and serves at the pleasure of the Board.

(3)

The length of time served represents the year in which the officer was first appointed to any fund in the Cohen & Steers Fund Complex.

The following table provides information concerning the dollar range of the Fund’s equity securities owned by each Director and the aggregate dollar range of securities owned in the Cohen & Steers Fund Complex, each as of [•].

A—None

B—$1-$10,000

C—$10,001-$50,000

D—$50,001-$100,000

E—Over $100,000

 

   

Dollar Range of Equity
Securities in the Fund as
of  [•]*

 

Aggregate Dollar Range
of Equity Securities in
the Cohen &  Steers
Fund Complex as of
[•]

Robert H. Steers

  [•]   [•]

 

*

The Fund is newly organized and has no operating history.

 

31


[TABLE TO BE UPDATED BY AMENDMENT]

Conflicts of Interest. No Independent Director and none of their immediate family members, own any securities issued by the Investment Manager or the Distributor, or any person or entity (other than the Fund and other funds in the Cohen & Steers Fund Complex) directly or indirectly controlling, controlled by, or under common control with the Investment Manager or the Distributor.

 

 

BOARDS ROLE IN FUND GOVERNANCE

Committees. The Fund’s Board has five standing committees, the Audit Committee, the Nominating Committee, the Contract Review Committee, the Governance Committee and the Dividend Committee. Each Committee is composed solely of Independent Directors. [All of the Independent Directors] are members of the Nominating and Contract Review Committees. The members of the Governance Committee are [•]. The members of the Audit Committee are [•]. [•] was elected to serve as Audit Committee Chair. The members of the Dividend Committee are [•].

The function of the Audit Committee is to assist the Board in its oversight of the Fund’s accounting and financial reporting process. The functions of the Nominating Committee are to identify individuals qualified to become members of the Board in the event that a position is vacated or created, to select the Director nominees for any future meeting of shareholders and to set any necessary standards or qualifications for service on the Board. The Nominating Committee will consider nominees properly recommended by the Fund’s shareholders. Shareholders who wish to recommend a nominee should send nominations that include, among other things, biographical data and the qualifications of the proposed nominee to the Fund’s Secretary. The main functions of the Contract Review Committee are to make recommendations to the Board after reviewing investment management and other contracts that the Fund has with the Investment Manager and to select third parties to provide evaluative reports and other information regarding the services provided by the Investment Manager to the Board. The main function of the Governance Committee is to assist the Board in the oversight of appropriate and effective governance of the Fund. The Governance Committee will oversee, among other things, the structure and composition of the Board committees, the size of the Board, including the number of Independent Directors, and the compensation of Independent Directors for service on the Board and any Board committee.

Board’s Oversight Role in Management. The Board’s role in management of the Fund is oversight. As is the case with virtually all investment companies (as distinguished from operating companies), service providers to the Fund, primarily the Investment Manager and its affiliates, have responsibility for the day-to-day management of the Fund, which includes responsibility for risk management (including management of investment performance and investment risk, valuation risk, issuer and counterparty credit risk, compliance risk and operational risk). As part of its oversight, the Board, acting at its scheduled meetings, regularly interacts with and receives reports from senior personnel of service providers, including the Fund’s and the Investment Manager’s Chief Compliance Officer and portfolio management personnel. The Board’s Audit Committee meets during its scheduled meetings, and between meetings the Audit Committee Chairman maintains contact, with the Fund’s independent registered public accounting firm and the Fund’s Treasurer and Chief Financial Officer. The Board also receives periodic presentations from senior personnel of the Investment Manager or its affiliates regarding risk management generally, as well as periodic presentations regarding specific operational, compliance or investment areas such as business continuity, anti-money laundering, personal trading, valuation, credit, investment research and securities lending. The Board has adopted policies and procedures designed to address certain risks to the Fund. In addition, the Investment Manager and

 

32


certain service providers to the Fund have adopted a variety of policies, procedures and controls designed to address particular risks to the Fund. However, it is not possible to eliminate all of the risks to the Fund. The Board also receives reports from counsel to the Fund and the Investment Manager and the Board’s own independent legal counsel regarding regulatory compliance and governance matters. The Board’s oversight role does not make the Board a guarantor of the Fund’s investments or activities.

 

 

COMPENSATION OF DIRECTORS AND CERTAIN OFFICERS

The following table sets forth estimated information regarding compensation expected to be paid to the Directors by the Fund for the fiscal year ending October 31, 2020 and the aggregate compensation paid by the Cohen & Steers Fund Complex for the calendar year ended December 31, 2019. Officers of the Funds and Interested Directors do not receive any compensation from any Fund or any other fund in the Cohen & Steers Fund Complex, except for the Chief Compliance Officer, who receives less than $60,000 from the Fund. The Independent Directors are paid an annual base retainer of $149,500, paid quarterly, and a $10,000 per meeting fee per quarter ($40,000 annually). Such fees are allocated over the Cohen & Steers Fund Complex based on average net assets of each fund. Independent Directors are also reimbursed their out-of-pocket expenses in connection with attendance at Board and Committee meetings. The Audit Committee Chairman is paid $25,000 per year in the aggregate for his service as Chairman of the Audit Committees of the Cohen & Steers Fund Complex, and the Contract Review and Governance Committee Chairman are each paid $20,000 per year in the aggregate for their work in connection with the Cohen & Steers Fund Complex. The Chairman of the Dividend Committee is not paid. The Nominating Committee Chairperson is paid $20,000 per year, to the extent a Board seat will be filled in that year and potential Board candidates are being interviewed and considered, for his work in connection with the Cohen & Steers Fund Complex. The Lead Independent Director is paid $50,000 per year in the aggregate for his service as lead Independent Director of the Cohen & Steers Fund Complex. Directors also may be paid additional compensation for services related to the Board or its committees, as approved by the Board. The column headed “Total Compensation Paid to Director or Officer by Fund Complex,” represents the compensation paid by the twenty-one funds that each Director served in the Fund Complex during the calendar year ended December 31, 2019. The Directors do not receive any pension or retirement benefits from the Cohen & Steers Fund Complex.

[Table to be updated by amendment]

 

Name of Person, Position

  

Aggregate
Compensation
From Fund

    

Total
Compensation
From Fund and
Fund Complex
Paid to Directors(2)

 

Robert H. Steers(1), Director and Chairman

     None      $ [ •] 

 

(1)

Interested Director.

(2)

Total Compensation includes compensation paid by Cohen & Steers open-end and closed-end funds.

 

 

PRINCIPAL SHAREHOLDERS

 

 

The Fund is a newly organized investment company. Accordingly, as of the date of this SAI, none of the directors beneficially owns any securities issued by the Fund.

 

33


As of the date of this SAI, the Investment Manager owns 100% of the outstanding common shares and therefore controls the Fund.

 

 

INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT AND OTHER SERVICES [TO BE UPDATED BY AMENDMENT]

 

 

INVESTMENT MANAGER

Cohen & Steers Capital Management, Inc., with offices located at 280 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10017, is the Investment Manager to the Fund. The Investment Manager, a registered investment adviser, was formed in 1986. Its current clients include pension plans of leading corporations, endowment funds and mutual funds, including each of the open-end and closed-end Cohen & Steers funds. The Investment Manager is a wholly owned subsidiary of Cohen & Steers, Inc., a publicly traded company whose common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “CNS.” Mr. Steers is a “controlling person” of the Investment Manager on the basis of his ownership of the stock of Cohen & Steers, Inc.

For its services under the Investment Management Agreement, the Fund will pay the Investment Manager a monthly investment management fee computed at the annual rate of [1.00]% of the Fund’s average daily Managed Assets. In addition to the monthly management fee, the Fund pays all other costs and expenses of its operations, including compensation of its Directors, administration, custodian, transfer agency and dividend disbursing expenses, legal fees, expenses of independent auditors, expenses of repurchasing shares, expenses of issuing any Preferred Shares, listing expenses, expenses of preparing, printing and distributing shareholder reports, notices, proxy statements and reports to governmental agencies and taxes, if any. If the Fund utilizes leverage, the fees paid to the Investment Manager for investment advisory and administration services will be higher than if the Fund did not utilize leverage because the fees paid will be calculated based on the Fund’s Managed Assets, which includes the NAV of the Common Shares, the principal amount of loans from financial institutions or debt securities issued by the Fund, the liquidation preference of Preferred Shares issued by the Fund, if any, and the proceeds of any Reverse Repurchase Agreements entered into by the Fund. The Fund’s investment management fees and other expenses are paid only by the Common Shareholders and not by holders of the Preferred Shares. See “Use of Leverage” in the Prospectus.

 

 

PORTFOLIO MANAGERS [TO BE UPDATED BY AMENDMENT]

Portfolio Managers. The Fund’s portfolio managers (each referred to as a “portfolio manager”) are listed below. Each portfolio manager manages other investment companies and/or investment vehicles and accounts in addition to the Fund. The following tables show, as of [August 31], 2019, the number of accounts each portfolio manager managed in each of the listed categories and the total assets in the accounts managed within each category.

William Scapell

 

    

Number of
All Accounts

  

Total Assets
(in millions) of
All Accounts

 

Registered Investment Companies

   10    $ 18,617  

Other Pooled Investment Vehicles

   16    $ 2,605  

Other Accounts

   22    $ 3,401  

 

34


Elaine Zaharis-Nikas

 

    

Number of
All Accounts

  

Total Assets
(in millions) of
All Accounts

 

Registered Investment Companies

   7    $ 14,625  

Other Pooled Investment Vehicles

   15    $ 2,284  

Other Accounts

   19    $ 2,801  

Share Ownership. The Fund is a newly organized investment company. Accordingly, as of the date of this Statement of Additional Information, none of the portfolio managers beneficially owns any securities issued by the Fund.

Conflicts of Interest. Although the potential for conflicts of interest exist when an investment adviser and portfolio managers manage other accounts that invest in securities in which the Fund may invest or that may pursue a strategy similar to the Fund’s strategies, the Investment Manager has procedures in place that are designed to ensure that all accounts are treated fairly and that the Fund is not disadvantaged.

For example, a portfolio manager may have conflicts of interest in allocating management time, resources and investment opportunities among the Fund and the other accounts or vehicles he advises. In addition, due to differences in the investment strategies or restrictions among the Fund and the other accounts, a portfolio manager may take action with respect to another account that differs from the action taken with respect to the Fund. In some cases, another account managed by a portfolio manager may provide more revenue to the Investment Manager. While this may appear to create additional conflicts of interest for the portfolio manager in the allocation of management time, resources and investment opportunities, the Investment Manager strives to ensure that portfolio managers endeavor to exercise their discretion in a manner that is equitable to all interested persons. In this regard, in the absence of specific account-related limitations (such as client-imposed restrictions or lack of available cash), it is the general policy of the Investment Manager to allocate investment ideas pro rata to all accounts with the same primary investment strategy, except where an allocation would not produce a meaningful position size. In addition, the Fund, as a registered investment company, is subject to different regulations than certain of the other accounts, and, consequently, may not be permitted to engage in all the investment techniques or transactions, or to engage in such techniques or transactions to the same degree, as the other accounts.

Certain of the portfolio managers may from time to time manage one or more accounts on behalf of the Investment Manager and its affiliated companies (the “CNS Accounts”). Certain securities held and traded in the CNS Accounts also may be held and traded in one or more client accounts. It is the policy of the Investment Manager, however, not to put the interests of the CNS Accounts ahead of the interests of client accounts. The Investment Manager may aggregate orders of client accounts with those of the CNS Accounts; however, under no circumstances will preferential treatment be given to the CNS Accounts. For all orders involving the CNS Accounts, purchases or sales will be allocated prior to trade placement, and orders that are only partially filled will be allocated across all accounts in proportion to the shares each account, including the CNS Accounts, was designated to receive prior to trading, except as noted below. As a result, it is expected that the CNS Accounts will receive the same average price as other accounts included in the aggregated order. Shares will not normally be allocated or re-allocated to the CNS Accounts after trade execution or after the average price is known. However, in the event so few shares of an order are executed that a pro-rata allocation is not practical, a rotational system of allocation may be used; however, the CNS Accounts will never be part of that rotation or receive shares of a partially filled order other than on a pro-rata basis.

 

35


Because certain CNS Accounts are managed with a cash management objective, it is possible that a security will be sold out of the CNS Accounts but continue to be held for one or more client accounts. In situations when this occurs, such security will remain in a client account only if the Investment Manager, acting in its reasonable judgment and consistent with its fiduciary duties, believes this is appropriate for, and consistent with the objectives and profile of, the client account.

Certain accounts managed by the Investment Manager may compensate the Investment Manager using performance based fees. Orders for these accounts will be aggregated, to the extent possible, with any other account managed by the Investment Manager, regardless of the method of compensation. In the event such orders are aggregated, allocation of partially-filled orders will be made on a pro-rata basis in accordance with pre-trade indications. An account’s fee structure is not considered when making allocation decisions.

Finally, the structure of a portfolio manager’s compensation may give rise to potential conflicts of interest. A portfolio manager’s base pay and bonus tend to increase with additional and more complex responsibilities that include increased assets under management. As such, there may be an indirect relationship between a portfolio manager’s marketing or sales efforts and his or her bonus.

The Investment Manager and the Fund, have adopted certain compliance procedures that are designed to address the above conflicts as well as other types of conflicts of interests. However, there is no guarantee that such procedures will detect each and every situation where a conflict arises.

Investment Manager Compensation Structure. Compensation of portfolio managers and other investment professionals has three primary components: (1) a base salary, (2) an annual cash bonus and (3) long-term stock-based compensation consisting generally of restricted stock units of the Investment Manager and parent, CNS. All investment professionals, including the portfolio managers, also receive certain retirement, insurance and other benefits that are broadly available to all of its employees. Compensation of investment professionals is reviewed primarily on an annual basis. Cash bonuses, stock-based compensation awards, and adjustments in base salary are typically paid or put into effect in the January following the fiscal year-end of CNS. The Investment Manager compensates its portfolio managers based primarily on the scale and complexity of their portfolio responsibilities and the total return performance of funds and accounts managed by the portfolio manager compared with appropriate peer groups or benchmarks.

In evaluating the performance of a portfolio manager, primary emphasis is normally placed on one- and three-year performance. Performance is evaluated on a pre-tax and pre-expense basis. In addition to rankings within peer groups of funds on the basis of absolute performance, consideration may also be given to risk-adjusted performance. For funds and accounts with a primary investment objective of high current income, consideration will also be given to the funds’ and accounts’ success in achieving this objective. For managers responsible for multiple funds and accounts, investment performance is evaluated on an aggregate basis. Portfolio managers are also evaluated on the basis of their success in managing their dedicated team of analysts. Base compensation for portfolio managers of the Investment Manager varies in line with the portfolio manager’s seniority and position with the firm.

Salaries, bonuses and stock-based compensation are also influenced by the operating performance of the Investment Manager and CNS. While the annual salaries of the Investment Manager’s portfolio managers are fixed, cash bonuses and stock based compensation may fluctuate significantly from year to year, based on changes in manager performance and other factors.

 

36


 

ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES [TO BE UPDATED BY AMENDMENT]

Pursuant to an Administration Agreement, the Investment Manager also performs certain administrative and accounting functions for the Fund, including: (i) providing office space, telephone, office equipment and supplies for the Fund; (ii) paying compensation of the Fund’s officers for services rendered as such; (iii) authorizing expenditures and approving bills for payment on behalf of the Fund; (iv) supervising preparation of the periodic updating of the Fund’s registration statement, including Prospectus and SAI, for the purpose of filings with the SEC and state securities administrators and monitoring and maintaining the effectiveness of such filings, as appropriate; (v) supervising preparation of periodic reports to the Fund’s shareholders and filing of these reports with the SEC, Forms N-CEN filed with the SEC, notices of dividends, capital gains distributions and tax credits, and attending to routine correspondence and other communications with individual shareholders; (vi) supervising the daily pricing of the Fund’s investment portfolio and the publication of the NAV of the Fund’s shares, earnings reports and other financial data; (vii) monitoring relationships with organizations providing services to the Fund, including the custodian, transfer agent and printers; (viii) providing trading desk facilities for the Fund; (ix) supervising compliance by the Fund with record-keeping requirements under the Act and regulations thereunder, maintaining books and records for the Fund (other than those maintained by the custodian and transfer agent) and preparing and filing of tax reports other than the Fund’s income tax returns; and (x) providing executive, clerical and secretarial help needed to carry out these responsibilities. Under the Administration Agreement, the Fund pays the Investment Manager an amount equal to, on an annual basis, [•]% of the Fund’s average daily Managed Assets.

In accordance with the terms of the Administration Agreement and with the approval of the Fund’s Board, the Investment Manager has caused the Fund to retain [•] (“[•]”) as co-administrator under a fund accounting and administration agreement (the “Co-Administration Agreement”). Under the Co-Administration Agreement, [•] has assumed responsibility for performing certain of the foregoing administrative functions, including (i) determining the Fund’s NAV and preparing these figures for publication; (ii) maintaining certain of the Fund’s books and records that are not maintained by the Investment Manager, custodian or transfer agent; (iii) preparing financial information for the Fund’s income tax returns, proxy statements, shareholders reports, and SEC filings; and (iv) responding to shareholder inquiries.

[Under the terms of the Co-Administration Agreement, the Fund pays [•] a monthly co-administration fee. The co-administration fee paid by the Fund to [•] is computed on the basis of the average daily Managed Assets of the Fund at an annual rate equal to [•]% of the first $[•] billion in assets, [•]% of the next $[•] billion and [•]% of assets in excess of $[•] billion, with a minimum fee of $[•]. The aggregate fee paid by the Fund and the other funds advised by the Investment Manager to [•] is computed by multiplying the total number of funds by each break point in the above schedule in order to determine the aggregate break points to be used in calculating the total fee paid by the Cohen & Steers family of funds. The Fund is then responsible for its pro rata amount of the aggregate administration fee.

The Investment Manager remains responsible for monitoring and overseeing the performance by [•] as co-administrator and custodian, and [•] (“[•]”) as transfer and disbursing agent, of their obligations to the Fund under their respective agreements with the Fund, subject to the overall authority of the Fund’s Board.]

 

37


 

CUSTODIAN AND TRANSFER AND DIVIDEND DISBURSING AGENT [TO BE UPDATED BY AMENDMENT]

 

 

[•], which has its principal business office at [•], has been retained to act as custodian of the Fund’s investments and [•], which has its principal business office at [•], as the Fund’s transfer and dividend disbursing agent. Neither [•] nor [•], has any part in deciding the Fund’s investment policies or which securities are to be purchased or sold for the Fund’s portfolio.

 

 

CODE OF ETHICS

 

 

The Fund and the Investment Manager have adopted codes of ethics pursuant to Rule 17j-1 under the 1940 Act and with respect to the Investment Manager, Rule 204A-1 under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, as amended, addressing personal securities transactions and other conduct by investment personnel and access persons who may have access to information about the Fund’s securities transactions. The codes are intended to address potential conflicts of interest that can arise in connection with personal trading activities of such persons. Persons subject to the codes are generally permitted to engage in personal securities transactions, including investing in securities eligible for investment by the Fund, subject to certain prohibitions, which may include prohibitions on investing in certain types of securities, pre-clearance requirements, blackout periods, annual and quarterly reporting of personal securities holdings and limitations on personal trading of initial public offerings. Violations of the codes are subject to review by the Board and could result in severe penalties. The codes of ethics can be reviewed and copied at the SEC’s Public Reference Room in Washington, D.C. (information on the Public Reference Room can be obtained by calling the SEC at 1-202-551-5850), is available on the EDGAR Database on the SEC’s web site at http://www.sec.gov, and copies may be obtained, after paying a duplicating fee, by electronic request at publicinfo@sec.gov or writing the SEC at Public Reference Section, Washington, D.C. 20549.

 

 

PROXY VOTING

 

 

The Fund’s Board has delegated to the Investment Manager the responsibility for voting proxies on behalf of the Fund, and has determined that the Investment Manager will vote proxies with respect to those portfolio securities for which they have investment responsibility. A summary of the Investment Manager’s Proxy Voting Policies and Procedures is set forth in Appendix A.

The Fund is required to file Form N-PX, with its complete proxy voting record for the 12 months ended June 30th, no later than August 31st of each year. The Fund’s Form N-PX filings are available (i) without charge, upon request, by calling the Fund toll-free at (800) 437-9912 and (ii) on the SEC’s website (http://www.sec.gov).

 

38


 

PORTFOLIO TRANSACTIONS AND BROKERAGE

 

 

Subject to the supervision of the Directors, decisions to buy and sell securities for the Fund and negotiation of its brokerage commission rates are made by the Investment Manager. Transactions on U.S. and, as applicable, non-U.S. stock exchanges involve the payment by the Fund of negotiated brokerage commissions. Generally, commissions relating to securities traded on foreign exchanges will be higher than commissions relating to securities traded on U.S. exchanges. Fixed-income securities are purchased and sold (including certain preferred securities) through principal transactions, meaning the securities are normally purchased on a net basis directly from the issuer or a primary market-maker acting as principal for the securities. The Fund generally does not pay a stated brokerage commission on these transactions, although the purchase price for such securities usually includes an undisclosed compensation. Purchases of securities from underwriters typically include a commission or concession paid by the issuer to the underwriter, and purchases from dealers serving as market-makers typically include a dealer’s mark-up (i.e., a spread between the bid and asked prices). There is generally no stated commission in the case of equity securities traded in the OTC market but the price paid by the Fund usually includes an undisclosed dealer commission or mark-up. In certain instances, the Fund may make purchases of underwritten or agency placed issues at prices that reflect underwriting or placement fees. The Investment Manager will only cause the Fund to engage in these transactions if they deem such participation to be in the best interests of the Fund. In certain circumstances, regulatory restrictions may prevent the Fund from purchasing securities in an offering in which an affiliate serves as placement agent of the issuer, and the Fund’s inability to participate could be deemed to be to the detriment of the Fund.

The Investment Manager has the responsibility of selecting brokers and dealers to execute portfolio transactions. In selecting a broker to execute each particular transaction, the Investment Manager generally will take the following into consideration (if and as relevant to the transaction): the best net price available; the reliability, integrity and financial condition of the broker; the size and difficulty in executing the order; and the value of the expected contribution of the broker to the investment performance of the Fund on a continuing basis. Accordingly, the cost of the brokerage commissions to the Fund in any transaction may be greater than that available from other brokers if the difference is reasonably justified by other aspects of the portfolio execution and other services offered.

In transactions to buy and sell fixed-income securities, the selection of the broker-dealer is determined by the availability of the desired security and its offering price, as well as the broker-dealer’s general execution and operational and financial capabilities in the type of transaction involved. The Investment Manager will seek to obtain prompt execution of orders at the most favorable prices or yields and may consider other factors as appropriate.

In addition, the Investment Manager may receive research services from a broker in connection with initiating portfolio transactions for the Fund. Research services include pricing and market data services. The Investment Manager shall not be deemed to have acted unlawfully or to have breached any duty solely by reason of its having caused the Fund to pay a broker an amount of commission for effecting a portfolio investment transaction in excess of the amount of commission another broker would have charged solely for execution services for that transaction if the Investment Manager, as the case may be, determines in good faith that the commission was reasonable in relation to the value of the research service provided.

 

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Research and investment information may be provided by brokers at no cost to the Investment Manager and is available for the benefit of other accounts advised by the Investment Manager and its affiliates, and not all of the information will be used in connection with the Fund. While this information may be useful in varying degrees and may tend to reduce the Investment Manager’s expenses, it is not possible to estimate its value, and in the opinion of the Investment Manager, it does not reduce the Investment Manager’s expenses in a determinable amount.

The extent to which the Investment Manager makes use of statistical, research and other services furnished by brokers is considered by the Investment Manager in the allocation of brokerage business but there is no formula by which such business is allocated. The Investment Manager does so in accordance with its judgment of the best interests of the Fund. The Investment Manager may also take into account payments made by brokers effecting transactions for the Fund to other persons on behalf of the Fund for services provided to it for which it would be obligated to pay (such as custodial and professional fees).

Pursuant to its internal procedures, the Investment Manager regularly evaluates the brokerage and research services provided by each broker-dealer that it uses.

 

 

DETERMINATION OF NET ASSET VALUE

 

 

The Fund will determine the NAV of its shares as of the close of trading of the NYSE (currently 4:00 p.m. New York time) no less frequently than the last business day of each week and at such other times as the Board may determine. [The Fund intends to make its NAV available for publication weekly.] NAV of the Common Shares is computed by dividing the value of all assets of the Fund (including accrued interest and dividends and current and deferred income tax assets), less all liabilities (including accrued expenses, distributions payable, any Borrowings, and liabilities under Reverse Repurchase Agreements) and less the liquidation preference of any outstanding Preferred Shares, by the total number of Common Shares outstanding. Any interest rate swap transaction that the Fund enters into may, depending on the applicable interest rate environment, have a positive or negative value for purposes of calculating NAV. Any cap transaction that the Fund enters into may, depending on the applicable interest rate environment, have no value or a positive value. In addition, accrued payments to the Fund under such transactions will be assets of the Fund and accrued payments by the Fund will be liabilities of the Fund.

For purposes of determining the NAV per share of the Fund, readily marketable portfolio securities principally traded on any exchange or similar regulated market reporting contemporaneous transaction prices are valued, except as indicated below, at the last sale price reflected on such principal market on the business day as of which such value is being determined. If there has been no sale on such day, the securities are valued at the mean of the closing bid and asked prices on such day, or if no asked price is available, the bid price may be used. If no bid or asked prices are quoted on such day, then the security is valued by such method as the Fund’s Board shall determine in good faith to reflect its fair market value. Portfolio securities traded on more than one securities exchange are valued at the last sale price on the business day as of which such value is being determined as reflected on the tape at the close of the exchange representing the principal market for such securities.

Readily marketable securities traded in the OTC market, including listed securities or assets whose primary market is believed by the Investment Manager to be OTC, are valued at the official closing prices as reported by sources as the Fund’s Board deem appropriate to reflect their fair market value. If

 

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there has been no sale on such day, the securities are valued at the mean of the closing bid and asked prices on such day, or if no asked price is available, at the bid price. However, certain fixed-income securities may be valued on the basis of prices provided by a pricing service when such prices are believed by the Investment Manager, pursuant to a delegation by the Board, to reflect the fair market value of such securities. In addition, certain swap agreements may be valued on the basis of the prices of the underlying reference assets.

Securities or assets for which market prices are unavailable, or for which the Investment Manager determines that bid and/or ask price or a counterparty valuation does not reflect market value, will be valued at fair value pursuant to procedures approved by the Fund’s Board. Circumstances in which market prices may be unavailable include, but are not limited to, when trading in a security or asset is suspended, the exchange on which the security or asset is traded is subject to an unscheduled close or disruption or material events occur after the close of the exchange on which the security or asset is principally traded. In these circumstances, the Fund determines fair value in a manner that fairly reflects the market value of the security or asset on the valuation date based on consideration of any information or factors it deems appropriate. These may include, but are not limited to, recent transactions in comparable securities or assets, information relating to the specific security or asset and developments in the markets.

The Fund’s use of fair value pricing may cause the NAV of the Common Shares to differ from the NAV that would be calculated using market quotations. Fair value pricing involves subjective judgments and it is possible that the fair value determined for a security may be materially different than the value that could be realized upon the sale of that security.

Short-term debt securities, which have a maturity date of 60 days or less, are valued at amortized cost, which approximates value. Investments in open-end mutual funds are valued at their closing NAV.

Because the Fund may hold securities that are primarily listed on foreign exchanges that trade on weekends or days when the Fund does not price its shares, the value of securities held in the Fund may change on days when you will not be able to purchase or sell Fund shares on the NYSE Exchange.

 

 

REPURCHASE OF SHARES

 

 

The Fund is a closed-end investment company and as such its shareholders will not have the right to cause the Fund to redeem their shares. Instead the Fund’s shares will trade in the open market at a price that will be a function of several factors, including dividend levels (which are in turn affected by expenses), NAV, call protection, price, dividend stability, relative demand for and supply of such shares in the market, market and economic conditions and other factors. Because shares of a closed-end investment company may frequently trade at prices lower than NAV, the Fund’s Board may consider action that might be taken to reduce or eliminate any material discount from NAV in respect of shares, which may include the repurchase of such shares in the open market, private transactions, the making of a tender offer for such shares at NAV, or the conversion of the Fund to an open-end investment company. The Board may not decide to take any of these actions. During the pendency of a tender offer, the Fund will publish how Common Shareholders may readily ascertain the NAV. In addition, there can be no assurance that share repurchases or tender offers, if undertaken, will reduce market discount.

 

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Subject to its investment limitations, the Fund may use the accumulation of cash to finance repurchase of shares or to make a tender offer. Interest on any Borrowings to finance share repurchase transactions or the accumulation of cash by the Fund in anticipation of share repurchases or tenders will reduce the Fund’s income. Any share repurchase, tender offer or borrowing that might be approved by the Board would have to comply with the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the 1940 Act and the rules and regulations under each of those Acts.

Although the decision to take action in response to a discount from NAV will be made by the Board at the time it considers the issue, it is the Board’s present policy, which may be changed by the Board, not to authorize repurchases of Common Shares or a tender offer for such shares if (1) such transactions, if consummated, would (a) result in delisting of the Common Shares from the NYSE, or (b) impair the Fund’s status as a registered closed-end investment company under the 1940 Act; (2) the Fund would not be able to liquidate portfolio securities in an orderly manner and consistent with the Fund’s investment objectives and policies in order to repurchase shares; or (3) there is, in the Board’s judgment, any (a) material legal action or proceeding instituted or threatened challenging such transactions or otherwise materially adversely affecting the Fund, (b) general suspension of or limitation on prices for trading securities on the NYSE, (c) declaration of a banking moratorium by Federal or state authorities or a suspension of payment by U.S. banks in which the Fund invests, (d) material limitation affecting the Fund or the issuers of its portfolio securities by Federal or state authorities on the extension of credit by institutions or on the exchange of foreign currency, (e) commencement of armed hostilities or other international or national calamity directly or indirectly involving the United States, or (f) other event or condition which would have a material adverse effect (including any adverse tax effect) on the Fund or its shareholders if shares were repurchased. The Board may in the future modify these conditions in light of experience.

The repurchase by the Fund of its shares at prices below NAV will result in an increase in the NAV of those shares that remain outstanding. However, there can be no assurance that share repurchases or tenders at or below NAV will result in the Fund’s shares trading at a price equal to their NAV. Nevertheless, the fact that the shares may be the subject of repurchase or tender offers at NAV from time to time, or that the Fund may be converted to an open-end investment company, may reduce any spread between market price and NAV that might otherwise exist.

In addition, a purchase by the Fund of its Common Shares will decrease the Fund’s total assets which would likely have the effect of increasing the Fund’s expense ratio. Any purchase by the Fund of its Common Shares at a time when Preferred Shares are outstanding will increase the leverage applicable to the outstanding Common Shares then remaining.

Before deciding whether to take any action, the Fund’s Board would likely consider all relevant factors, including the extent and duration of the discount, the liquidity of the Fund’s portfolio, the impact of any action on the Fund or its shareholders and market considerations. Based on the considerations, even if the Fund’s shares should trade at a discount, the Board may determine that, in the interest of the Fund and its shareholders, no action should be taken.

 

 

TAXATION [TO BE UPDATED BY AMENDMENT]

 

 

The following is a summary discussion of certain U.S. federal income tax consequences that may be relevant to a Common Shareholder that acquires, holds and/or disposes of Common Shares of the Fund, and reflects provisions of the Code, existing Treasury regulations, rulings published by the

 

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Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”), and other applicable authority, as of the date of this SAI. These authorities are subject to change by legislative or administrative action, possibly with retroactive effect. The following discussion is only a summary of some of the important tax considerations generally applicable to investments in the Fund and the discussion set forth herein does not constitute tax advice. There may be other tax considerations applicable to particular investors, such as insurance companies, financial institutions, tax-deferred retirement plans, broker-dealers and foreign shareholders (defined below). In addition, income earned through an investment in the Fund may be subject to state, local and foreign taxes. Common Shareholders should consult their own tax advisers regarding their particular situation and the possible application of U.S. federal, state, local, foreign or other tax laws.

 

 

TAXATION OF THE FUND

The Fund intends to elect to be treated as, and intends to qualify annually for treatment as a RIC under Subchapter M of the Code. In order for the Fund to qualify as a RIC, it must meet an income and asset diversification test each year. To satisfy the income test, the Fund must derive at least 90% of its gross income for each taxable year from (i) dividends, interest, payments with respect to certain securities loans, and gains from the sale or other disposition of stock, securities or foreign currencies, or other income (including but not limited to gains from options, futures, or forward contracts) derived with respect to its business of investing in such stock, securities, or currencies and (ii) net income derived from interests in “qualified publicly traded partnerships” (as defined in the Code). To satisfy the asset diversification test, the Fund must diversify its holdings so that at the end of each fiscal quarter, (a) at least 50% of the value of its total assets consists of cash and cash items (including receivables), U.S. Government securities, securities of other RICs, and other securities limited, with respect to any one issuer, to a value not greater than 5% of the value of the Fund’s total assets and not more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of such issuer, and (b) not more than 25% of the value of the Fund’s total assets is invested in the securities (other than those of the U.S. Government or other RICs) of any one issuer or of two or more issuers which the Fund controls and which are engaged in the same, similar or related trades or businesses, or in the securities of one or more qualified publicly traded partnerships..

In general, for purposes of the 90% gross income requirement described above, income derived from a partnership will be treated as qualifying income only to the extent such income is attributable to items of income of the partnership that would be qualifying income if realized directly by the RIC. However, 100% of the net income derived from an interest in a qualified publicly traded partnership (a partnership (a) the interests in which are traded on an established securities market or are readily tradable on a secondary market or the substantial equivalent thereof and (b) that derives less than 90% of its income from the qualifying income described in (i) above) will be treated as qualifying income. In general, such entities will be treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes because they meet the passive income requirement under Code Section 7704(c)(2). In addition, although in general the passive loss rules of the Code do not apply to RICs, such rules do apply to a RIC with respect to items attributable to an interest in a qualified publicly traded partnership. For purposes of the diversification test in (b) above, the term “outstanding voting securities of such issuer” will include the equity securities of a qualified publicly traded partnership. Also, for purposes of the diversification test in (b) above, the identification of the issuer (or, in some cases, issuers) of a particular Fund investment can depend on the terms and conditions of that investment. In some cases, identification of the issuer (or issuers) is uncertain under current law, and an adverse determination or future guidance by the IRS with respect to issuer identification for a particular type of investment may adversely affect the Fund’s ability to meet the diversification test in (b) above.

 

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For each taxable year that the Fund otherwise qualifies as a RIC, it will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax on that part of its investment company taxable income (as that term is defined in the Code) and net capital gain (the excess of net long-term capital gain over net short-term capital loss, in each case determined with reference to any loss carryforwards) that it distributes to its shareholders, if it distributes at least 90% of the sum of its investment company taxable income and any net tax-exempt interest income for that year in the form of deductible dividends. The Fund intends to make sufficient distributions of its investment company taxable income and net tax-exempt interest income, if any, each taxable year to meet this requirement.

Failure to qualify as a RIC would likely materially reduce the investment return to the shareholders. If the Fund were to fail to meet the income diversification or distribution test described above, the Fund could in some cases cure such failure, including by paying a Fund-level tax, paying interest, making additional distributions, or disposing of certain assets. If the Fund were ineligible to or otherwise did not cure such failure for any taxable year, or if the Fund were otherwise to fail to qualify as a RIC accorded special tax treatment for such year, the Fund would be subject to tax on its taxable income at corporate rates, and all distributions from earnings and profits, including any distributions of net tax-exempt income and net long-term capital gains, would be taxable to shareholders as dividend income. In addition, the Fund could be required to recognize unrealized gains, pay substantial taxes and interest and make substantial distributions before re-qualifying as a RIC that is accorded special tax treatment.

The Fund also currently intends to distribute all realized net capital gain each year. If, however, the Fund’s Board of Trustees determines for any taxable year to retain all or a portion of the Fund’s net capital gain, that decision will not affect the Fund’s ability to qualify for treatment as a RIC, but will subject the Fund to a maximum tax rate of 21% of the amount retained. In that event, the Fund expects to designate the retained amount as undistributed capital gains in a notice to its Common Shareholders, who (i) will be required to include their proportionate share of the undistributed amount in their gross income as long-term capital gain, and (ii) will be entitled to credit their proportionate shares of the tax paid by the Fund against their U.S. federal income tax liabilities, if any, and to claim refunds on a properly-filed U.S. tax return to the extent the credit exceeds such liabilities. If the Fund makes this designation, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, the tax basis of shares owned by a shareholder of the Fund would be increased by an amount equal under current law to the difference between the amount of undistributed capital gains included in the shareholder’s gross income under clause (i) of the preceding sentence and the tax deemed paid by the shareholder under clause (ii) of the preceding sentence.

The Fund will be subject to a nondeductible 4% excise tax to the extent it fails to distribute by the end of any calendar year an amount at least equal to the sum of (i) 98% of its ordinary income for that calendar year (ii) 98.2% of its capital gain net income for the one-year period ending on October 31 of that calendar year (or November 30 or December 31 if the Fund is eligible to elect and so elects) and (iii) any ordinary income and capital gains from previous years that were not distributed during those years and on which the Fund paid no U.S. federal income tax. For this and other purposes, a distribution will be treated as paid by the Fund and received by the shareholders on December 31 if it is declared by the Fund in October, November or December of such year, made payable to shareholders of record on a date in such a month and paid by the Fund during January of the following year. Any such distribution thus will be taxable to shareholders whose taxable year is the calendar year in the year the distribution is declared, rather than the year in which the distribution is received. The Fund intends to make distributions sufficient to avoid imposition of the excise tax, although there can be no assurance that it will be able to do so.

 

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Capital losses in excess of capital gains (“net capital losses”) are not permitted to be deducted against the Fund’s net investment income. Instead, potentially subject to certain limitations, the Fund may carry net capital losses from any taxable year forward to subsequent taxable years to offset capital gains, if any, realized during such subsequent taxable years. Capital loss carryforwards are reduced to the extent they offset current-year net realized capital gains, whether the Fund retains or distributes such gains. Capital loss carryforwards will be carried forward to one or more subsequent taxable years without expiration to offset capital gains realized during such subsequent taxable years; any such carryforward losses will retain their character as short-term or long-term. The Fund’s available capital loss carryforwards, if any, will be set forth in its annual shareholder report for each fiscal year.

Certain of the Fund’s investment practices are subject to special and complex U.S. federal income tax provisions that may, among other things, (i) treat Fund investments as producing income that is not qualifying income for purposes of the 90% gross income requirement, (ii) disallow, suspend or otherwise limit the allowance of certain losses or deductions, (iii) convert lower taxed long-term capital gain into higher taxed short-term capital gain or ordinary income, (iv) convert an ordinary loss or a deduction into a capital loss (the deductibility of which is more limited), (v) cause the Fund to recognize income or gain without a corresponding receipt of cash, (vi) adversely affect the time at which a purchase or sale of stock or securities is deemed to occur, and (vii) adversely alter the characterization for U.S. federal income tax purposes of certain complex financial transactions.

The U.S. federal income tax treatment of certain Fund investments is unclear with respect to the timing and character of income recognized by a Fund. An adverse determination by the IRS could require a Fund to purchase or sell securities or to make additional distributions in order to comply with the tax rules applicable to RICs. Further, the application of the diversification, gross income and distribution requirements for treatment as a RIC under the Code can be unclear with respect to certain investments. As a result, there can be no assurance that the Fund will be able to maintain its status as a RIC.

[The Fund may carry net capital losses forward to one or more subsequent taxable years without expiration. The Fund must apply such carryforwards first against gains of the same character. The Fund’s available capital loss carryforwards, if any, will be set forth in its annual shareholder report for each fiscal year.]

The Fund’s transactions in non-U.S. currencies, non-U.S. currency-denominated debt obligations and certain non-U.S. currency options, futures contracts and forward contracts (and similar instruments) may give rise to ordinary income or loss to the extent such income or loss results from fluctuations in the value of the foreign currency concerned.

The Fund’s investment in non-U.S. securities may be subject to withholding and other taxes imposed by countries outside the United States. In that case, the Fund’s yield on those securities would be decreased. Tax conventions between certain countries and the United States may reduce or eliminate such taxes. If more than 50% of the Fund’s assets at year-end consists of the securities of foreign corporations, the Fund may elect to permit shareholders to claim a credit or deduction on their income tax returns for their pro rata portion of qualified taxes paid by the Fund to foreign countries in respect of foreign securities the Fund has held for at least the minimum period specified in the Code. In such a case, Common Shareholders will include in gross income from foreign sources their pro rata shares of such taxes. If the Fund does not meet this 50% test, shareholders of the Fund generally will not be entitled to claim a credit or deduction with respect to foreign taxes.

Equity investments by the Fund in certain “passive foreign investment companies” could subject the Fund to a U.S. federal income tax (including interest charges) on distributions received from the

 

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company or on proceeds received from the disposition of shares in the company, even if such income is distributed to the Fund’s shareholders. The Fund may make certain elections in order to avoid such tax, which may cause the Fund to recognize taxable income without a corresponding receipt of cash. The Fund may be required to liquidate other investments (including when it is not otherwise advantageous to do so) to meet its distribution requirements for qualification as a RIC. Because it is not always possible to identify a foreign corporation as a “passive foreign investment company,” the Fund may incur the tax and interest charges described above in some instances.

Some debt obligations (potentially including, in certain circumstances, preferred securities taxable as debt instruments for U.S. federal income tax purposes) acquired by the Fund, including any zero-coupon debt obligations, may be treated as debt obligations that are issued originally at a discount, or, if acquired by the Fund in the secondary market, as having market discount or acquisition discount. Generally, the amount of the original issue discount, market discount, or acquisition discount is treated as interest income and is included in the Fund’s income (and required to be distributed by the Fund) over the term of the debt security, even though payment of that amount is not received until a later time, upon partial or full repayment or disposition of the debt security. In addition, payment-in-kind securities will give rise to income which is required to be distributed and is taxable even though the Fund holding the security receives no interest payment in cash on the security during the year.

Investments in debt obligations that are at risk of or in default present special tax issues for the Fund. Tax rules are not entirely clear about issues such as whether or to what extent the Fund should recognize market discount on a debt obligation, when the Fund may cease to accrue interest, original issue discount or market discount, when and to what extent the Fund may take deductions for bad debts or worthless securities and how the Fund should allocate payments received on obligations in default between principal and income. These and other related issues will be addressed by the Fund when, as and if it invests in such securities, in order to seek to ensure that it distributes sufficient income to preserve its status as a RIC and does not become subject to U.S. federal income or excise tax.

 

 

DISTRIBUTIONS

For U.S. federal income tax purposes, distributions of investment income are generally taxable as ordinary income. Taxes on distributions of capital gains are determined by how long the Fund owned the investments that generated them, rather than how long a shareholder has owned his or her shares. In general, the Fund will recognize long-term capital gain or loss on investments it has owned for more than one year, and short-term capital gain or loss on investments it has owned for one year or less. Tax rules can alter the Fund’s holding period in investments and thereby affect the tax treatment of gain or loss on such investments. Distributions of net capital gain (that is, the excess of net long-term capital gain over net short-term capital loss, in each case determined with reference to any loss carryforwards) that are properly reported by the Fund as capital gain dividends (“Capital Gain Dividends”) will be taxable to shareholders as long-term capital gains. Distributions from capital gains are generally made after applying any available capital loss carryovers. Long-term capital gain rates applicable to individuals have been temporarily reduced—in general, to 15% with a 0% rate applying to taxpayers in the 10% and 15% rate brackets—for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2013. These reduced rates will expire for taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2013, unless Congress enacts legislation providing otherwise. Distributions of net short-term capital gain (as reduced by any net long-term capital loss for the taxable year) will be taxable to shareholders as ordinary income. For taxable years beginning before January 1, 2013, distributions of investment income reported by the

 

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Fund as derived from QDI will be taxed in the hands of individuals at the rates applicable to long-term capital gain, provided holding period and other requirements are met at both the shareholder and Fund level (as described in more detail below). This provision will expire for taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2013, unless Congress enacts legislation providing otherwise.

The Code generally imposes a 3.8% Medicare contribution tax on the net investment income of certain individuals, trusts and estates to the extent their income exceeds certain threshold amounts. For these purposes, “net investment income” generally includes, among other things, (i) distributions paid by the Fund of net investment income and capital gains as described above, and (ii) any net gain from the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of Fund shares. Shareholders are advised to consult their tax advisors regarding the possible implications of this additional tax on their investment in the Fund.

If the Fund makes a distribution to a shareholder in excess of the Fund’s current and accumulated earnings and profits in any taxable year, the excess distribution will be treated as a return of capital to the extent of such shareholder’s tax basis in its shares, and thereafter as capital gain. A return of capital is not taxable, but it reduces a shareholder’s tax basis in its shares, thus reducing any loss or increasing any gain on a subsequent taxable disposition by the shareholder of its shares.

Distributions are taxable as described herein whether shareholders receive them in cash or reinvest them in additional shares. A shareholder whose distributions are reinvested in shares under the Dividend Reinvestment Plan generally will be treated as having received a dividend equal to either (i) if the shares are trading below NAV, the amount of cash allocated to the shareholder for the purchase of shares on its behalf in the open market, or (ii) if shares are trading at or above NAV, generally the fair market value of the new shares issued to the shareholder.

A dividend paid to shareholders in January generally is deemed to have been paid by the Fund on December 31 of the preceding year, if the dividend was declared and payable to shareholders of record on a date in October, November or December of that preceding year.

Distributions on the Fund’s shares are generally subject to U.S. federal income tax as described herein to the extent they do not exceed the Fund’s realized income and gains, even though such distributions may economically represent a return of a particular shareholder’s investment. Such distributions are likely to occur in respect of shares purchased at a time when the Fund’s NAV reflects either unrealized gains, or realized but undistributed income or gains, that were therefore included in the price the shareholder paid. Such distributions may reduce the fair market value of the Fund’s shares below the shareholder’s cost basis in those shares. As described above, the Fund is required to distribute realized income and gains regardless of whether the Fund’s NAV also reflects unrealized losses.

As required by federal law, detailed U.S. federal tax information with respect to each calendar year will be furnished to each shareholder early in the succeeding year.

In order for some portion of the dividends received by a Fund shareholder to be QDI that is eligible for taxation at long-term capital gain rates, the Fund must meet holding period and other requirements with respect to some portion of the dividend-paying stocks in its portfolio and the shareholder must meet holding period and other requirements with respect to the Fund’s shares. A dividend will not be treated as QDI (at either the Fund or shareholder level) (1) if the dividend is received with respect to any share of stock held for fewer than 61 days during the 121-day period beginning on the date which is 60 days before the date on which such share becomes ex-dividend with respect to such dividend (or, in the case of certain preferred stock, 91 days during the 181-day period beginning 90 days before such date), (2) to the extent that the recipient is under an obligation (whether pursuant to a short sale or otherwise) to make related payments with respect to positions in substantially similar or related

 

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property, (3) if the recipient elects to have the dividend income treated as investment income for purposes of the limitation on deductibility of investment interest, or (4) if the dividend is received from a foreign corporation that is (a) not eligible for the benefits of a comprehensive income tax treaty with the United States (with the exception of dividends paid on stock of such a foreign corporation readily tradable on an established securities market in the United States) or (b) treated as a passive foreign investment company. In general, distributions of investment income reported by the Fund as derived from QDI will be treated as QDI in the hands of a shareholder taxed as an individual, provided the shareholder meets the holding period and other requirements described above with respect to the Fund’s shares.

As noted above, the special tax treatment of QDI applies only to taxable years beginning before January 1, 2013, unless Congress enacts tax legislation providing otherwise.

If the aggregate qualified dividends received by the Fund during a taxable year are 95% or more of its gross income (excluding net long-term capital gain over net short-term capital loss), then 100% of the Fund’s dividends (other than dividends properly reported as Capital Gain Dividends) will be eligible to be treated as QDI.

In general, dividends of net investment income received by corporate shareholders of the Fund will qualify for the 70% DRD generally available to corporations to the extent of the amount of eligible dividends received by the Fund from domestic corporations for the taxable year. A dividend received by the Fund will not be treated as a dividend eligible for the DRD (1) if it has been received with respect to any share of stock that the Fund has held for less than 46 days (91 days in the case of certain preferred stock) during the 91-day period beginning on the date which is 45 days before the date on which such share becomes ex-dividend with respect to such dividend (during the 181-day period beginning 90 days before such date in the case of certain preferred stock) or (2) to the extent that the Fund is under an obligation (pursuant to a short sale or otherwise) to make related payments with respect to positions in substantially similar or related property. Moreover, the DRD may otherwise be disallowed or reduced (1) if the corporate shareholder fails to satisfy the foregoing requirements with respect to its shares of the Fund or (2) by application of various provisions of the Code (for instance, the DRD is reduced in the case of a dividend received on debt-financed portfolio stock (generally, stock acquired with borrowed funds)).

Any distribution of income that is attributable to (i) income received by the Fund in lieu of dividends with respect to securities on loan pursuant to a securities lending transaction or (ii) dividend income received by the Fund on securities it temporarily purchased from a counterparty pursuant to a repurchase agreement that is treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a loan by the Fund, will not constitute QDI to individual shareholders and will not be eligible for the DRD for corporate shareholders.

Foreign shareholders. Distributions by the Fund to shareholders that are not “U.S. persons” within the meaning of the Code (“foreign shareholders”) properly reported by the Fund as (1) Capital Gain Dividends, (2) short-term capital gain dividends, and (3) interest-related dividends, each as defined and subject to certain conditions described below, generally are not subject to withholding of U.S. federal income tax. In general, the Code defines (1) “short-term capital gain dividends” as distributions of net short-term capital gains in excess of net long-term capital losses and (2) “interest-related dividends” as distributions from U.S.-source interest income of types similar to those not subject to U.S. federal income tax if earned directly by an individual foreign shareholder, in each case to the extent such distributions are properly reported as such by the Fund in a written notice to shareholders. The exceptions to withholding for Capital Gain Dividends and short-term capital gain dividends do not

 

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apply to (A) distributions to an individual foreign shareholder who is present in the United States fora period or periods aggregating 183 days or more during the year of the distribution and(B) distributions attributable to gain that is treated as effectively connected with the conduct by the foreign shareholder of a trade or business within the United States, under special rules regarding the disposition of U.S. real property interests as described below. The exception to withholding for interest-related dividends does not apply to distributions to a foreign shareholder (A) that has not provided a satisfactory statement that the beneficial owner is not a U.S. person, (B) to the extent that the dividend is attributable to certain interest on an obligation if the foreign shareholder is the issuer or is a 10% shareholder of the issuer, (C) that is within certain foreign countries that have inadequate information exchange with the United States, or (D) to the extent the dividend is attributable to interest paid by a person that is a related person of the foreign shareholder and the foreign shareholder is a controlled foreign corporation. If the Fund invests in a RIC that pays Capital Gain Dividends, short-term capital gain dividends or interest-related dividends to the Fund, such distributions retain their character as not subject to withholding if properly reported when paid by the Fund to foreign shareholders. The Fund is permitted to report such part of its dividends as interest-related and/or short-term capital gain dividends as are eligible, but is not required to do so.

In the case of shares held through an intermediary, the intermediary may withhold even if the Fund reports all or a portion of a payment as an interest-related or short-term capital gain dividend to shareholders. Foreign shareholders should contact their intermediaries regarding the application of these rules to their accounts. Foreign shareholders with respect to whom income from the Fund is effectively connected with a trade or business conducted by the foreign shareholder within the United States will in general be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the income derived from the Fund at the graduated rates applicable to U.S. citizens, residents or domestic corporations, whether such income is received in cash or reinvested in shares of the Fund and, in the case of a foreign corporation, may also be subject to a branch profits tax. If the foreign shareholder is eligible for the benefits of a tax treaty, any effectively connected income or gain will generally be subject to U.S. federal income tax on a net basis only if it is also attributable to a permanent establishment maintained by the shareholder in the United States. More generally, foreign shareholders who are residents in a country with an income tax treaty with the United States may obtain different tax results than those described herein, and are urged to consult their tax advisors. Distributions by the Fund to foreign shareholders other than Capital Gain Dividends, short-term capital gain dividends, and interest-related dividends (e.g., dividends attributable to foreign-source dividend and interest income or to short-term capital gains or U.S. source interest income to which the exception from withholding described above does not apply) are generally subject to withholding of U.S. federal income tax at a rate of 30% (or lower applicable treaty rate).

A foreign shareholder is not, in general, subject to U.S. federal income tax on gains (and is not allowed a deduction for losses) realized on the sale of shares of the Fund unless (i) such gain is effectively connected with the conduct by the foreign shareholder of a trade or business within the United States, (ii) in the case of a foreign shareholder that is an individual, the shareholder is present in the United States for a period or periods aggregating 183 days or more during the year of the sale and certain other conditions are met, or (iii) the special rules relating to gain attributable to the sale or exchange of “U.S. real property interests” (“USRPIs”) apply to the foreign shareholder’s sale of shares of the Fund (as described below). Special rules would apply if a Fund were a qualified investment entity (“QIE”) because it is either a “U.S. real property holding corporation” (“USRPHC”) or would be a USRPHC but for the operation of certain exceptions to the definition of USRPIs described below. Very generally, a USRPHC is a domestic corporation that holds USRPIs the fair market value of which equals or exceeds 50% of the sum of the fair market values of the corporation’s USRPIs, interests in real property

 

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located outside the United States, and other trade or business assets. USRPIs are generally defined as any interest in U.S. real property and any interest (other than solely as a creditor) in a USRPHC or, very generally, an entity that has been a USRPHC in the last five years. A Fund that holds, directly or indirectly, significant interests in real estate investment trusts (“REITs”) may be a USRPHC. Interests in domestically controlled QIEs, including REITs and RICs that are QIEs, not-greater-than 10% interests in publicly traded classes of stock in REITs and not-greater-than-5% interests in publicly traded classes of stock in RICs generally are not USRPIs, but these exceptions do not apply for purposes of determining whether the Fund is a QIE. If an interest in a Fund were a USRPI, the Fund would be required to withhold U.S. tax on the proceeds of a share redemption by a greater-than-5% foreign shareholder, in which case such foreign shareholder generally would also be required to file U.S. tax returns and pay any additional taxes due in connection with the redemption.

If the Fund were a QIE, under a special “look-through” rule, any distributions by the Fund to a foreign shareholder (including, in certain cases, distributions made by the Fund in redemption of its shares) attributable directly or indirectly to (i) distributions received by the Fund from a lower-tier RIC or REIT that the Fund is required to treat as USRPI gain in its hands, and (ii) gains realized on the disposition of USRPIs by a Fund would retain their character as gains realized from USRPIs in the hands of the Fund’s foreign shareholders and would be subject to U.S. tax withholding. In addition, such distributions could result in the foreign shareholder being required to file a U.S. tax return and pay tax on the distributions at regular U.S. federal income tax rates. The consequences to a foreign shareholder, including the rate of such withholding and character of such distributions (e.g., as ordinary income or USRPI gain), would vary depending upon the extent of the foreign shareholder’s current and past ownership of a Fund.

Foreign shareholders of the Fund also may be subject to “wash sale” rules to prevent the avoidance of the tax-filing and -payment obligations discussed above through the sale and repurchase of Fund shares. The Fund generally does not expect shares of the Fund to be considered USRPIs.

Foreign shareholders should consult their tax advisers and, if holding shares through intermediaries, their intermediaries, concerning the application of these rules to their investment in the Fund.

In order to qualify for any exemptions from withholding described above or for lower withholding tax rates under income tax treaties, or to establish an exemption from backup withholding, a foreign shareholder must comply with special certification and filing requirements relating to its non-U.S. status (including, in general, furnishing an IRS Form W-8BEN, W-8BEN-E or substitute form). Foreign shareholders should consult their tax advisers in this regard.

Special rules (including withholding and reporting requirements) apply to foreign partnerships and those holding Fund shares through foreign partnerships. Additional considerations may apply to foreign trusts and estates. Investors holding Fund shares through foreign entities should consult their tax advisers about their particular situation.

A foreign shareholder may be subject to state and local tax and to the U.S. federal estate tax in addition to the U.S. federal income tax referred to above.

 

 

SALE OR EXCHANGE OF FUND SHARES

The sale or exchange of Fund shares may give rise to a gain or loss. In general, any gain or loss realized upon a taxable disposition of shares will be treated as long-term capital gain or loss if the shares have been held for more than one year. Otherwise, the gain or loss on the taxable disposition of Fund shares will be treated as short-term capital gain or loss. However, any loss realized upon a taxable disposition

 

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of Fund shares held by a shareholder for six months or less will be treated as long-term, rather than short-term, to the extent of any Capital Gain Dividends received (or deemed received) by the shareholder with respect to the shares. Further, all or a portion of any loss realized upon a taxable disposition of Fund shares will be disallowed under the Code’s “wash-sale” rule if other substantially identical shares are purchased, including by means of dividend reinvestment, within 30 days before or after the disposition. In such a case, the basis of the newly purchased shares will be adjusted to reflect the disallowed loss.

From time to time, the Fund may make a tender offer for its common shares. It is expected that the terms of any such offer will require a tendering shareholder to tender all common shares held, or considered under certain attribution rules of the Code to be held, by such shareholder. Shareholders who tender all common shares held, or considered to be held, by them and do not hold (directly or by attribution) any other Fund shares (namely, preferred shares, if any such shares of the Fund are outstanding) will be treated as having sold their shares and generally will realize a capital gain or loss. If a shareholder tenders fewer than all of its common shares, or continues to hold (directly or by attribution) other Fund shares (preferred shares, if any such shares of the Fund are outstanding), such shareholder may be treated as having received a taxable dividend upon the tender of its common shares. In such a case, there is a remote risk that non-tendering shareholders whose interests in the Fund increase as a result of such tender will be treated as having received a taxable distribution from the Fund. The extent of such risk will vary depending upon the particular circumstances of the tender offer, in particular whether such offer is a single and isolated event or is part of a plan for periodically redeeming the common shares of the Fund; if isolated, any such risk is likely remote. If the Fund repurchases common shares on the open market, such that a selling shareholder would have no specific knowledge that he or she is selling his or her shares to the Fund, it is less likely that shareholders whose percentage share interests in the Fund increase as a result of any such open-market sale will be treated as having received a taxable distribution from the Fund. To the extent that the Fund recognizes net gains on the liquidation of portfolio securities to meet such tenders or otherwise repurchases Fund shares, the Fund will be required to make additional distributions to its common shareholders.

 

 

NATURE OF FUNDS INVESTMENTS

Certain of the Fund’s investment practices are subject to special and complex U.S. federal income tax provisions that may, among other things, (i) convert dividends that would otherwise constitute QDI into ordinary income, (ii) treat dividends that would otherwise be eligible for the DRD as ineligible for such treatment, (iii) disallow, suspend or otherwise limit the allowance of certain losses or deductions, (iv) convert long-term capital gain into short-term capital gain or ordinary income, (v) convert an ordinary loss or deduction into a capital loss (the deductibility of which is more limited), (vi) cause the Fund to recognize income or gain without a corresponding receipt of cash, (vii) adversely affect the time as to when a purchase or sale of stock or securities is deemed to occur, (viii) adversely alter the characterization of certain complex financial transactions and (ix) produce income that will not be qualifying income for purposes of the 90% gross income requirement that applies to RICs.

 

 

ORIGINAL ISSUE DISCOUNT SECURITIES

Some debt obligations with a fixed maturity date of more than one year from the date of issuance (and zero-coupon debt obligations with a fixed maturity date of more than one year from the date of issuance) that are acquired by the Fund will be treated as debt obligations that are issued originally at a discount. Generally, the amount of the OID is treated as interest income and is included in the Fund’s

 

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income (and required to be distributed by the Fund) over the term of the debt security, even though payment of that amount is not received until a later time, upon partial or full repayment or disposition of the debt security. In addition, payment-in-kind securities will give rise to income which is required to be distributed and is taxable even though the Fund holding the security receives no interest payment in cash on the security during the year.

Some debt obligations with a fixed maturity date of more than one year from the date of issuance that are acquired by the Fund in the secondary market may be treated as having “market discount.” Very generally, market discount is the excess of the stated redemption price of a debt obligation (or in the case of an obligation issued with OID, its “revised issue price”) over the purchase price of such obligation. Generally, any gain recognized on the disposition of, and any partial payment of principal on, a debt security having market discount is treated as ordinary income to the extent the gain, or principal payment, does not exceed the “accrued market discount” on such debt security. Alternatively, the Fund may elect to accrue market discount currently, in which case the Fund will be required to include the accrued market discount in the Fund’s income (as ordinary income) and thus distribute it over the term of the debt security, even though payment of that amount is not received until a later time, upon partial or full repayment or disposition of the debt security. The rate at which the market discount accrues, and thus is included in the Fund’s income, will depend upon which of the permitted accrual methods the Fund elects.

Some debt obligations with a fixed maturity date of one year or less from the date of issuance that are acquired by the Fund may be treated as having OID or, in certain cases, “acquisition discount” (very generally, the excess of the stated redemption price over the purchase price). The Fund will be required to include the OID or acquisition discount in income (as ordinary income) and thus distribute it over the term of the debt security, even though payment of that amount is not received until a later time, upon partial or full repayment or disposition of the debt security. The rate at which OID or acquisition discount accrues, and thus is included in the Fund’s income, will depend upon which of the permitted accrual methods the Fund elects. If the Fund holds the foregoing kinds of securities, it may be required to pay out as an income distribution each year an amount which is greater than the total amount of cash interest the Fund actually received. Such distributions may be made from the cash assets of the Fund or, if necessary, by disposition of portfolio securities including at a time when it may not be advantageous to do so. These dispositions may cause the Fund to realize higher amounts of short-term capital gains (generally taxed to shareholders at ordinary income tax rates) and, in the event the Fund realizes net capital gains from such transactions, its shareholders may receive a larger Capital Gain Dividend than if the Fund had not held such securities.

A portion of the OID accrued on certain high yield discount obligations may not be deductible to the issuer and will instead be treated as a dividend paid by the issuer for purposes of the dividends received deduction. In such cases, if the issuer of the high yield discount obligations is a domestic corporation, dividend payments by the Fund may be eligible for the dividends received deduction to the extent attributable to the deemed dividend portion of such OID.

 

 

CERTAIN HIGHER-RISK AND HIGH-YIELD SECURITIES

Investments in debt obligations that are at risk of or are in default present special tax issues for the Fund. The tax rules are not entirely clear on the treatment of such debt obligations, including as to whether and to what extent a shareholder of such obligations should recognize market discount on the debt obligations, when the holder may cease to accrue interest, original issue discount or market discount, when and to what extent a holder may take deductions for bad debts or worthless securities,

 

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and how a holder should allocate payments received on obligations in default between principal and interest. These and other related issues will be addressed by the Fund as part of the Fund’s efforts to ensure that it distributes sufficient income to preserve its status as a RIC and does not become subject to U.S. federal income or excise tax.

 

 

INVESTMENT IN NON-U.S. SECURITIES

Investment income that may be received by the Fund from sources within foreign countries may be subject to foreign taxes withheld at the source. The United States has entered into tax treaties with many foreign countries, which may entitle the Fund to a reduced rate of, or exemption from, taxes on such income. If more than 50% of the value of the Fund’s total assets at the close of the taxable year consists of stock or securities of foreign corporations, the Fund may elect to “pass through” to the Fund’s shareholders the amount of foreign taxes paid by the Fund. If the Fund so elects, each shareholder would be required to include in gross income, even though not actually received, his or her pro rata share of the foreign taxes paid by the Fund, but would be treated as having paid his or her pro rata share of such foreign taxes and would therefore be allowed to either deduct such amount in computing taxable income or use such amount (subject to various Code limitations) as a foreign tax credit against Federal income tax (but not both). For purposes of the foreign tax credit limitation rules of the Code, each shareholder would treat as foreign source income his or her pro rata share of such foreign taxes plus the portion of dividends received from the Fund representing income derived from foreign sources. No deduction for foreign taxes could be claimed by an individual shareholder who does not itemize deductions. In certain circumstances, a shareholder that (i) has held shares of the Fund for less than a specified minimum period during which it is not protected from risk of loss or (ii) is obligated to make payments related to the dividends will not be allowed a foreign tax credit for foreign taxes deemed imposed on dividends paid on such shares. Additionally, the Fund must also meet this holding period requirement with respect to its foreign stocks and securities in order for “creditable” taxes to flow-through. Shareholders that are not subject to U.S. federal income tax, and those who invest in the Fund through tax-exempt accounts including individual retirement accounts or other tax-advantaged retirement plans), generally will receive no benefit from any tax credit or deduction passed through by the Fund. Each shareholder should consult his or her own tax adviser regarding the potential application of foreign tax credits. If the Fund does not meet the requirements described above, the Fund will not be able to pass through foreign taxes paid by the Fund to its shareholders.

 

 

PASSIVE FOREIGN INVESTMENT COMPANY

Equity investments by the Fund in certain “passive foreign investment companies” (“PFICs”) could potentially subject the Fund to a U.S. federal income tax (including interest charges) on distributions received from the company or on proceeds received from the disposition of shares in the company. This tax cannot be eliminated by making distributions to Fund shareholders. However, the Fund may elect to avoid the imposition of that tax. For example, the Fund may elect to treat a PFIC as a “qualified electing fund” (i.e., make a “QEF election”), in which case the Fund will be required to include its share of the PFIC’s income and net capital gains annually, regardless of whether it receives any distribution from the PFIC. The Fund also may make an election to mark the gains (and to a limited extent losses) in such holdings “to the market” as though it had sold (and, solely for purposes of this mark-to-market election, repurchased) its holdings in those PFICs on the last day of the Fund’s taxable year. Such gains and losses are treated as ordinary income and loss. The QEF and mark-to-market elections may accelerate the recognition of income (without the receipt of cash) and increase the amount required to

 

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be distributed by the Fund to avoid taxation. Making either of these elections therefore may require the Fund to liquidate other investments (including when it is not advantageous to do so) to meet its distribution requirement, which also may accelerate the recognition of gain and affect the Fund’s total return. Dividends paid by PFICs will not be eligible to be treated as QDI.

Because it is not always possible to identify a foreign corporation as a PFIC, the Fund may incur the tax and interest charges described above in some instances.

 

 

OPTIONS AND HEDGING TRANSACTIONS

In general, option premiums received by the Fund are not immediately included in the income of the Fund. Instead, the premiums are recognized when the option contract expires, the option is exercised by the holder, or the Fund transfers or otherwise terminates the option (e.g., through a closing transaction). If a call option written by the Fund is exercised and the Fund sells or delivers the underlying stock, the Fund generally will recognize capital gain or loss equal to (a) sum of the strike price and the option premium received by the Fund minus (b) the Fund’s basis in the stock. Such gain or loss generally will be short-term or long-term depending upon the holding period of the underlying stock. If securities are purchased by the Fund pursuant to the exercise of a put option written by it, the Fund generally will subtract the premium received for purposes of computing its cost basis in the securities purchased. Gain or loss arising in respect of a termination of the Fund’s obligation under an option other than through the exercise of the option will be short-term gain or loss depending on whether the premium income received by the Fund is greater or less than the amount paid by the Fund (if any) in terminating the transaction. Thus, for example, if an option written by the Fund expires unexercised, the Fund generally will recognize short-term gain equal to the premium received.

Certain covered call writing activities of the Fund may trigger the U.S. federal income tax straddle rules of Section 1092 of the Code, requiring that losses be deferred and holding periods be tolled on offsetting positions in options and stocks deemed to constitute substantially similar or related property. Options on single stocks that are not “deep in the money” may constitute qualified covered calls, which generally are not subject to the straddle rules; the holding period on stock underlying qualified covered calls that are “in the money” although not “deep in the money” will be suspended during the period that such calls are outstanding. Thus, the straddle rules and the rules governing qualified covered calls could cause gains that would otherwise constitute long-term capital gains to be treated as short-term capital gains, and distributions that would otherwise constitute “QDI” or qualify for the DRD to fail to satisfy the holding period requirements and therefore to be taxed as ordinary income or to fail to qualify for the DRD, as the case may be.

The tax treatment of certain contracts (including regulated futures contracts and non-equity options) entered into by the Fund will be governed by Section 1256 of the Code (“Section 1256 contracts”). Gains or losses on Section 1256 contracts generally are considered 60% long-term and 40% short-term capital gains or losses (“60/40”), although certain foreign currency gains and losses from such contracts may be treated as ordinary in character. Also, Section 1256 contracts held by the Fund at the end of each taxable year (and, for purposes of the 4% excise tax, on certain other dates as prescribed under the Code) are “marked to market” with the result that unrealized gains or losses are treated as though they were realized and the resulting gain or loss is treated as ordinary or 60/40 gain or loss, as applicable.

In addition to the special rules described above, the Fund’s transactions in derivative instruments (e.g., forward contracts and swap agreements), as well as any of its hedging, short sale, securities loan or similar transactions, may be subject to one or more special tax rules (e.g., notional principal contract, straddle, constructive sale, wash sale and short sale rules). These rules may affect whether gains and

 

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losses recognized by the Fund are treated as ordinary or capital, accelerate the recognition of income or gains to the Fund, defer losses to the Fund, and cause adjustments in the holding periods of the Fund’s securities, thereby affecting whether capital gains and losses are treated as short-term or long-term. These rules could therefore affect the amount, timing and/or character of distributions to shareholders.

Because these and other tax rules applicable to these types of transactions are in some cases uncertain under current law, an adverse determination or future guidance by the IRS with respect to these rules (which determination or guidance could be retroactive) may affect whether the Fund has made sufficient distributions, and otherwise satisfied the relevant requirements, to maintain its qualification as a RIC and avoid a Fund-level tax.

 

 

FOREIGN CURRENCY TRANSACTIONS

Under Section 988 of the Code, gains or losses attributable to fluctuations in exchange rates between the time the Fund accrues income or receivables or expenses or other liabilities denominated in a foreign currency and the time the Fund actually collects such income or receivables or pays such liabilities are generally treated as ordinary income or loss. Similarly, gains or losses on foreign currency forward contracts and the disposition of debt securities denominated in a foreign currency, to the extent attributable to fluctuations in exchange rates between the acquisition and disposition dates, are also treated as ordinary income or loss. Any such net gains could require a larger dividend toward the end of the calendar year. Any such net losses will generally reduce and potentially require the recharacterization of prior ordinary income distributions. Such ordinary income treatment may accelerate Fund distributions to shareholders and increase the distributions taxed to shareholders as ordinary income. Any net ordinary losses so created cannot be carried forward by the Fund to offset income or gains earned in subsequent taxable years.

 

 

INVESTMENTS IN SECURITIES OF UNCERTAIN TAX CHARACTER

The Fund may invest in preferred securities or other securities the U.S. federal income tax treatment of which may not be clear or may be subject to recharacterization by the IRS. To the extent the tax treatment of such securities or the income from such securities differs from the tax treatment expected by the Fund, it could affect the timing or character of income recognized by the Fund, requiring the Fund to purchase or sell securities, or otherwise change its portfolio, in order to comply with the tax rules applicable to RICs under the Code.

 

 

INVESTMENTS IN MORTGAGE-RELATED SECURITIES

The Fund may invest directly or indirectly in residual interests in real estate mortgage investment conduits (“REMICs”) (including by investing in residual interests in collateralized mortgage obligations (“CMOs”) with respect to which an election to be treated as a REMIC is in effect) or equity interests in taxable mortgage pools (“TMPs”). Under a notice issued by the IRS in October 2006 and Treasury regulations that have yet to be issued but may apply retroactively, a portion of the Fund’s income (including income allocated to the Fund from a REIT or other pass-through entity) that is attributable to a residual interest in a REMIC or an equity interest in a TMP (referred to in the Code as an “excess inclusion”) will be subject to U.S. federal income tax in all events. This notice also provides, and the regulations are expected to provide, that excess inclusion income of a RIC will be allocated to shareholders of the RIC in proportion to the dividends received by such shareholders, with the same consequences as if the shareholders held the related interest directly. As a result, a fund investing in such interests may not be a suitable investment for charitable remainder trusts, as noted below.

 

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In general, excess inclusion income allocated to shareholders (i) cannot be offset by net operating losses (subject to a limited exception for certain thrift institutions), (ii) will constitute unrelated business taxable income (“UBTI”) to entities (including a qualified pension plan, an individual retirement account, a 401(k) plan, a Keogh plan or other tax-exempt entity) subject to tax on UBTI, thereby potentially requiring such an entity that is allocated excess inclusion income, and otherwise might not be required to file a tax return, to file a tax return and pay tax on such income, and (iii) in the case of a foreign shareholder, will not qualify for any reduction in U.S. federal withholding tax.

 

 

BOOK-TAX DIFFERENCES

Certain of the Fund’s investments in derivative instruments and foreign currency-denominated instruments, and any of the Fund’s transactions in foreign currencies and hedging activities, are likely to produce a difference between its book income and the sum of its taxable income and net tax-exempt income (if any). If such a difference arises, and the Fund’s book income is less than the sum of its taxable income and net tax-exempt income, the Fund could be required to make distributions exceeding book income to qualify as a RIC that is accorded special tax treatment and to avoid an entity-level tax. In the alternative, if the Fund’s book income exceeds the sum of its taxable income (including realized capital gains) and net tax-exempt income, the distribution (if any) of such excess generally will be treated as (i) a dividend to the extent of the Fund’s remaining earnings and profits (including earnings and profits arising from tax-exempt income), (ii) thereafter, as a return of capital to the extent of the recipient’s basis in its shares, and (iii) thereafter as gain from the sale or exchange of a capital asset.

 

 

INVESTMENTS IN OTHER RICS

If the Fund receives dividends from a mutual fund, an ETF or another company that qualifies as a RIC (each, an “investment company”), and the investment company reports such dividends as QDI, then the Fund is permitted in turn to report a portion of its distributions as QDI, provided the Fund meets holding period and other requirements with respect to shares of the investment company.

If the Fund receives dividends from an investment company and the investment company reports such dividends as eligible for the DRD, then the Fund is permitted in turn to report its distributions derived from those dividends as eligible for the DRD as well, provided the Fund meets holding period and other requirements with respect to shares of the investment company.

 

 

TAX-EXEMPT SHAREHOLDERS

Income of a RIC that would be UBTI if earned directly by a tax-exempt entity will not generally be attributed as UBTI to a tax-exempt shareholder of the RIC. Notwithstanding this “blocking” effect, a tax-exempt shareholder could realize UBTI by virtue of its investment in the Fund if shares in the Fund constitute debt-financed property in the hands of the tax-exempt shareholder within the meaning of Code Section 514(b). A tax-exempt shareholder may also recognize UBTI if the Fund recognizes “excess inclusion income” derived from direct or indirect investments in residual interests in REMICs or equity interests in TMPs as described above, if the amount of such income recognized by the Fund exceeds the Fund’s investment company taxable income (after taking into account deductions for dividends paid by the Fund).

In addition, special tax consequences apply to charitable remainder trusts (“CRTs”) that invest in RICs that invest directly or indirectly in residual interests in REMICs or equity interests in TMPs. Under legislation enacted in December 2006, a CRT (as defined in Section 664 of the Code) that realizes any

 

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UBTI for a taxable year must pay an excise tax annually of an amount equal to such UBTI. Under IRS guidance issued in the fall of 2006, a CRT will not recognize UBTI as a result of investing in the Fund that recognizes “excess inclusion income.” Rather, if at any time during any taxable year a CRT (or one of certain other tax-exempt shareholders, such as the United States, a state or political subdivision, or an agency or instrumentality thereof, and certain energy cooperatives) is a record holder of a share in the Fund that recognizes “excess inclusion income,” then the Fund will be subject to a tax on that portion of its “excess inclusion income” for the taxable year that is allocable to such shareholders at the highest federal corporate income tax rate. The extent to which this IRS guidance remains applicable in light of the December 2006 legislation is unclear. To the extent permitted under the 1940 Act, the Fund may elect to specially allocate any such tax to the applicable CRT, or other shareholder, and thus reduce such shareholder’s distributions for the year by the amount of the tax that relates to such shareholder’s interest in the Fund.

CRTs and other tax-exempt investors are urged to consult their tax advisers concerning the consequences of investing in the Fund.

 

 

TAX SHELTER REPORTING

Under Treasury regulations, if a shareholder recognizes a loss of $2 million or more for an individual shareholder or $10 million or more for a corporate shareholder, the shareholder must file with the IRS a disclosure statement on Form 8886. Direct holders of portfolio securities are in many cases excepted from this reporting requirement, but under current guidance, shareholders of a RIC are not excepted. Future guidance may extend the current exception from this reporting requirement to shareholders of most or all RICs. The fact that a loss is reportable under these regulations does not affect the legal determination of whether the taxpayer’s treatment of the loss is proper. Shareholders should consult their tax advisers to determine the applicability of these regulations in light of their individual circumstances.

 

 

BACKUP WITHHOLDING

The Fund generally is required to withhold and remit to the U.S. Treasury a percentage of the taxable distributions and redemption proceeds paid to any individual shareholder who fails to properly furnish the Fund with a correct taxpayer identification number, who has under-reported dividend or interest income, or who fails to certify to the Fund that he or she is not subject to such withholding. The backup withholding tax rate is 28% for amounts paid through 2012. This rate will expire and the backup withholding rate will be 31% for amounts paid after December 31, 2012, unless Congress enacts tax legislation providing otherwise. Corporate shareholders and certain other shareholders specified in the Code generally are exempt from such backup withholding.

Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amounts withheld may be credited against the shareholder’s U.S. federal income tax liability if the appropriate information is timely provided to the IRS.

 

 

FOREIGN SHAREHOLDERS

Absent a specific statutory exemption, dividends other than Capital Gain Dividends paid by the Fund to a shareholder that is not a “U.S. person” within the meaning of the Code (a “foreign shareholder”) are subject to withholding of U.S. federal income tax at a rate of 30% (or lower applicable treaty rate) even if they are funded by income or gains (such as portfolio interest, short-term capital gains, or

 

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foreign source dividend and interest income) that, if paid to a foreign shareholder directly, would not be subject to withholding. Distributions properly reported as capital gain dividends generally are not subject to withholding of U.S. federal income tax. For distributions with respect to taxable years of a RIC beginning before January 1, 2012, the RIC was not required to withhold any amounts (i) with respect to distributions from U.S.-source interest income of types similar to those not subject to U.S. federal income tax if earned directly by an individual foreign shareholder, to the extent such distributions were properly reported as such by the Fund in a written notice to shareholders (“interest-related dividends”), and (ii) with respect to distributions of net short-term capital gains in excess of net long-term capital losses to the extent such distributions were properly reported as such by the Fund in a written notice to shareholders (“short-term capital gain dividends”). This exception to withholding for interest-related dividends did not apply to distributions to a foreign shareholder (A) that has not provided a satisfactory statement that the beneficial owner was not a U.S. person, (B) to the extent that the dividend was attributable to certain interest on an obligation if the foreign shareholder is the issuer or was a 10% shareholder of the issuer, (C) that was within certain foreign countries that had inadequate information exchange with the United States, or (D) to the extent the dividend was attributable to interest paid by a person that was a related person of the foreign shareholder and the foreign shareholder was a controlled foreign corporation. The exception to withholding for short-term capital gain dividends did not apply to (A) distributions to an individual foreign shareholder who was present in the United States for a period or periods aggregating 183 days or more during the year of the distribution and (B) distributions subject to special rules regarding the disposition of U.S. real property interests as described below. The RIC was permitted to report such part of its dividends as interest-related and/or short-term capital gain dividends as were eligible, but was not required to do so. In the case of shares held through an intermediary, the intermediary may have withheld even if the RIC reported all or a portion of a payment as an interest-related or short-term capital gain dividend to shareholder.

The exemption from withholding for interest-related and short-term capital gain dividends has expired for distributions with respect to taxable years of the RIC beginning on or after January 1, 2012, unless Congress enacts legislation providing otherwise. Therefore, as of the date of this SAI, the Fund (or intermediary, as applicable) is currently required to withhold on distributions to foreign shareholders attributable to net interest or short-term capital gains that formerly would have been eligible for this withholding exemption. It is currently unclear whether Congress will extend these exemptions for distributions with respect to taxable years of a RIC beginning on or after January 1, 2012, or what the terms of such an extension would be, including whether such extension would have retroactive effect.

Foreign shareholders should contact their intermediaries regarding the application of these rules to their accounts.

Foreign shareholders with respect to whom income from the Fund is effectively connected with a trade or business conducted by the foreign shareholder within the United States will in general be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the income derived from the Fund at the graduated rates applicable to U.S. citizens, residents or domestic corporations, whether such income is received in cash or reinvested in shares of the Fund and, in the case of a foreign corporation, may also be subject to a branch profits tax.

If a foreign shareholder is eligible for the benefits of a tax treaty, any effectively connected income or gain will generally be subject to U.S. federal income tax on a net basis only if it is also attributable to a permanent establishment maintained by the shareholder in the United States. More generally, foreign shareholders who are residents in a country with an income tax treaty with the United States may obtain different tax results than those described herein, and are urged to consult their tax advisers.

 

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A foreign shareholder is not, in general, subject to U.S. federal income tax on gains (and is not allowed a deduction for losses) realized on the sale of shares of the Fund or on Capital Gain Dividends unless (i) such gain or dividend is effectively connected with the conduct by the foreign shareholder of a trade or business within the United States (ii) in the case of a foreign shareholder that is an individual, the shareholder is present in the United States for a period or periods aggregating 183 days or more during the year of the sale or the receipt of the Capital Gain Dividend and certain other conditions are met or (iii) the special rules relating to gain attributable to the sale or exchange of “U.S. real property interests” (“USRPIs”) apply to the foreign shareholder’s sale of shares of the Fund or to the Capital Gain Dividend the foreign shareholder received (as described below).

Special rules would apply if the Fund were either a “U.S. real property holding corporation” (“USRPHC”) or would be a USRPHC but for the operation of certain exceptions to the definition thereof. Very generally, a USRPHC is a domestic corporation that holds USRPIs the fair market value of which equals or exceeds 50% of the sum of the fair market values of the corporation’s USRPIs, interests in real property located outside the United States, and other trade or business assets. USRPIs are generally defined as any interest in U.S. real property and any interest (other than solely as a creditor) in a USRPHC or former USRPHC.

If the Fund were a USRPHC or would be a USRPHC but for the exceptions referred to above, under a special “look-through” rule, any distributions by the Fund to a foreign shareholder attributable directly or indirectly to distributions received by the Fund from a lower-tier REIT that the Fund is required to treat as USRPI gain in its hands generally would be subject to U.S. withholding tax. In addition, such distributions could result in the foreign shareholder being required to file a U.S. tax return and pay tax on the distributions at regular U.S. federal income tax rates. The consequences to a foreign shareholder, including the rate of such withholding and character of such distributions (e.g., as ordinary income or USRPI gain), would vary depending upon the extent of the foreign shareholder’s current and past ownership of the Fund. Prior to January 1, 2012, the special “look-through” rule discussed above for distributions by the Fund to foreign shareholders also applied to distributions attributable to (i) gains realized on the disposition of USRPIs by the Fund and (ii) distributions received by the Fund from a lower-tier RIC that the Fund was required to treat as USRPI gain in its hands. It is currently unclear whether Congress will extend these former “look-through” provisions to distributions made on or after January 1, 2012, and what the terms of any such extension would be, including whether any such extension would have retroactive effect.

In addition, if the Fund were a USRPHC or former USRPHC, a greater-than-5% foreign shareholder generally would be required to file a U.S. tax return in connection with the sale of its Fund shares, and pay related taxes due on any gain realized on the sale.

Foreign shareholders should consult their tax advisers and, if holding shares through intermediaries, their intermediaries, concerning the application of these rules to their investment in the Fund.

In order to qualify for any exemptions from withholding described above or for lower withholding tax rates under income tax treaties, or to establish an exemption from backup withholding, a foreign shareholder must comply with special certification and filing requirements relating to its non-US status (including, in general, furnishing an IRS Form W-8BEN or substitute form). Foreign shareholders should consult their tax advisers in this regard.

Special rules (including withholding and reporting requirements) apply to foreign partnerships and those holding Fund shares through foreign partnerships. Additional considerations may apply to foreign trusts and estates. Investors holding Fund shares through foreign entities should consult their tax advisers about their particular situation.

 

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A foreign shareholder may be subject to state and local tax and to the U.S. federal estate tax in addition to the U.S. federal income tax referred to above.

 

 

SHAREHOLDER REPORTING OBLIGATIONS WITH RESPECT TO FOREIGN BANK AND FINANCIAL ACCOUNTS

Shareholders that are U.S. persons and own, directly or indirectly, more than 50% of the Fund could be required to report annually their “financial interest” in the Fund’s “foreign financial accounts,” if any, on Treasury Department Form TD F 90-22.1, Report of Foreign Bank and Financial Accounts (FBAR). Shareholders should consult a tax adviser, and persons investing in the Fund through an intermediary should contact their intermediary, regarding the applicability to them of this reporting requirement.

 

 

THE HIRING INCENTIVES TO RESTORE EMPLOYMENT ACT

Rules enacted in March 2010 as part of the Hiring Incentives to Restore Employment Act (the “HIRE Act”) require the reporting to the IRS of direct and indirect ownership of foreign financial accounts and foreign entities by U.S. persons. Failure to provide this required information can result in a 30% withholding tax on certain payments of U.S. source income (“withholdable payments”); this withholding tax will be phased in beginning with certain withholdable payments made on January 1, 2014. Specifically, withholdable payments subject to this 30% withholding tax include payments of U.S.-source dividends or interest and payments of gross proceeds from the sale or other disposal of property that can produce U.S.—source dividends or interest. The IRS has issued preliminary guidance with respect to these rules; this guidance is potentially subject to material change. Pursuant to this guidance, distributions made by the Fund to a shareholder subject to the phase in noted above, including a distribution in redemption of shares and a distribution of income or gains otherwise exempt from withholding under the rules applicable to non-U.S. shareholders described above (e.g., Capital Gain Dividends and short-term capital gain and interest-related dividends (if such treatment is extended), as described above)], will be withholdable payments subject to withholding. Payments to shareholders will generally not be subject to withholding, so long as such shareholders provide the Fund with (and consent to the disclosure of) such certifications or other documentation as the Fund requires to comply with these rules, including, to the extent required, with regard to their direct and indirect owners. In general, it is expected that a shareholder that is a U.S. person or foreign individual will be able to avoid being withheld upon by timely providing the Fund with a valid IRS Form W-9 or W-8, respectively. Payments to a foreign shareholder that is a “foreign financial institution” (as defined under these rules) will generally be subject to withholding unless such shareholder (i)(a) enters into a valid agreement with the IRS to, among other requirements, report required information about certain direct and indirect U.S. investors or accounts, or (b) qualifies for an exception from entering into such an agreement and (ii) provides the Fund with appropriate certifications or other documentation concerning its status.

The Fund may disclose the information that it receives from its shareholders to the IRS or other parties as necessary to comply with the HIRE Act. Each prospective investor is urged to consult its tax adviser regarding the applicability of the HIRE Act and any other reporting requirements with respect to the prospective investor’s own situation. Persons investing in the Fund through an intermediary should contact their intermediary regarding the application of this reporting and withholding regime to their investments in the Fund.

 

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GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

The U.S. federal income tax discussion set forth above is for general information only. Prospective investors should consult their tax advisers regarding the specific federal tax consequences of purchasing, holding, and disposing of shares of the Fund, as well as the effects of state, local, foreign, and other tax law and any proposed tax law changes.

 

 

COUNSEL AND INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

 

 

Ropes & Gray LLP serves as counsel to the Fund, and is located at 1211 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10036-8704. [•], located at [•], has been appointed as independent registered public accounting firm for the Fund. The statement of assets and liabilities of the Fund as of [•], 2019 included in this Statement of Additional Information has been so included in reliance on the report of [•], independent registered public accounting firm, given on the authority of the firm as experts in auditing and accounting.

 

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REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

 

 

[TO BE ADDED BY AMENDMENT]

 

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COHEN & STEERS GLOBAL LIMITED DURATION PREFERRED AND INCOME FUND, INC. STATEMENT OF ASSETS AND LIABILITIES

 

 

AS OF [•], 2013

[TO BE ADDED BY AMENDMENT]

 

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NOTES TO FINANCIAL STATEMENT

 

 

[TO BE ADDED BY AMENDMENT]

 

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APPENDIX A: PROXY VOTING PROCEDURES AND GUIDELINES

 

 

A. Responsibility. The Investment Manager shall seek to ensure that there is an effective means in place to hold companies accountable for their actions. While management must be accountable to its board, the board must be accountable to a company’s shareholders. Although accountability can be promoted in a variety of ways, protecting shareholder voting rights may be among our most important tools.

B. Rationalizing Management and Shareholder Concerns. The Investment Manager seeks to ensure that the interests of a company’s management and board are aligned with those of the company’s shareholders. In this respect, compensation must be structured to reward the creation of shareholder value.

C. Shareholder Communication. Since companies are owned by their shareholders, the Investment Manager seeks to ensure that management effectively communicates with its owners about the company’s business operations and financial performance. It is only with effective communication that shareholders will be able to assess the performance of management and to make informed decisions on when to buy, sell or hold a company’s securities. In exercising voting rights, the Investment Manager follows the general principles set forth below.

 

·  

The ability to exercise a voting right with respect to a security is a valuable right and, therefore, must be viewed as part of the asset itself.

 

·  

In exercising voting rights, the Investment Manager shall engage in a careful evaluation of issues that may materially affect the rights of shareholders and the value of the security.

 

·  

Consistent with general fiduciary principles, the exercise of voting rights shall always be conducted with reasonable care, prudence and diligence.

 

·  

In exercising voting rights on behalf of clients, the Investment Manager shall conduct itself in the same manner as if the Investment Manager was the constructive owner of the securities.

 

·  

To the extent reasonably possible, the Investment Manager shall participate in each shareholder voting opportunity.

 

·  

Voting rights shall not automatically be exercised in favor of management-supported proposals.

 

·  

The Investment Manager, and its officers and employees, shall never accept any item of value in consideration of a favorable proxy voting decision.

Set forth below are general guidelines followed by the Investment Manager in exercising proxy voting rights:

Prudence. In making a proxy voting decision, the Investment Manager shall give appropriate consideration to all relevant facts and circumstances, including the value of the securities to be voted and the likely effect any vote may have on that value. Since voting rights must be exercised on the basis of an informed judgment, investigation shall be a critical initial step.

Third Party Views. While the Investment Manager may consider the views of third parties, the Investment Manager shall never base a proxy voting decision solely on the opinion of a third party. Rather, decisions shall be based on a reasonable and good faith determination as to how best to maximize shareholder value.

 

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Shareholder Value. Just as the decision whether to purchase or sell a security is a matter of judgment, determining whether a specific proxy resolution will increase the market value of a security is a matter of judgment as to which informed parties may differ. In determining how a proxy vote may affect the economic value of a security, the Investment Manager shall consider both short-term and long-term views about a company’s business and prospects, especially in light of its projected holding period on the stock (e.g., the Investment Manager may discount long-term views on a short-term holding).

Set forth below are guidelines as to how specific proxy voting issues shall be analyzed and assessed by the Investment Manager. While these guidelines will provide a framework for the Investment Manager decision making process, the mechanical application of these guidelines can never address all proxy voting decisions. When new issues arise or old issues present nuances not encountered before, the Investment Manager must be guided by its reasonable judgment to vote in a manner that the Investment Manager deems to be in the best interests of the Fund and its shareholders. In addition, because the regulatory framework and the business cultures and practices vary from region to region, the below general guidelines may be inconsistent in certain circumstances for proxies of issuers of securities in Europe and Asia.

UNCONTESTED DIRECTOR ELECTIONS

Votes on director nominees should be made on a case-by-case basis using a “mosaic” approach, where all factors are considered in director elections and where no single issue is deemed to be determinative. For example, a nominee’s experience and business judgment may be critical to the long-term success of the portfolio company, notwithstanding the fact that he or she may serve on the board of more than four public companies. In evaluating nominees, the Investment Manager considers the following factors:

 

·  

Whether the nominee attended less than 75 percent of the board and committee meetings without a valid excuse for the absences;

 

·  

Whether the nominee is an inside or affiliated outside director and sits on the audit, compensation, or nominating committees;

 

·  

Whether the nominee ignored a significant shareholder proposal that was approved by a (i) majority of the shares outstanding or (ii) majority of the votes cast for two consecutive years;

 

·  

Whether the nominee, without shareholder approval, to the Investment Manager’s knowledge instituted a new poison pill plan, extended an existing plan, or adopted a new plan upon the expiration of an existing plan during the past year;

 

·  

Whether the nominee is an inside or affiliated outside director and the full board serves as the audit, compensation, or nominating committee or the company does not have one of these committees;

 

·  

Whether the nominee is an insider or affiliated outsider on boards that are not at least majority independent;

 

·  

Whether the nominee is the CEO of a publicly-traded company who serves on more than two public boards;

 

·  

Whether the nominee serves on more than four public company boards;

 

·  

Whether the nominee serves on the audit committee where there is evidence (such as audit reports or reports mandated under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act) that there exists material weaknesses in the company’s internal controls;

 

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·  

Whether the nominee serves on the compensation committee if that director was present at the time of the grant of backdated options or options the pricing or the timing of which Investment Manager believes may have been manipulated to provide additional benefits to executives;

 

·  

Whether the nominee is believed by the Investment Manager to have a material conflict of interest with the portfolio company;

 

·  

Whether the nominee (or the overall board) in the Investment Manager’s view has a record of making poor corporate or strategic decisions or has demonstrated an overall lack of good business judgment;

 

·  

Material failures of governance, stewardship, risk oversight, or fiduciary responsibilities at the company;

 

·  

Failure to replace management as appropriate; and

 

·  

Egregious actions related to a director’s service on other boards that raise substantial doubt about his or her ability to effectively oversee management and serve the best interests of shareholders at any company.

The Investment Manager votes on a case-by-case basis for shareholder proposals requesting companies to amend their bylaws in order to create access to the proxy so as to nominate candidates for directors. Investment Manager recognizes the importance of shareholder access to the ballot process as a means to ensure that boards do not become self-perpetuating and self-serving. However, the Investment Manager is also aware that some proposals may promote certain interest groups and could be disruptive to the nomination process. Special attention will be paid to companies that display a chronic lack of shareholder accountability.

PROXY ACCESS

The Investment Manager recognizes the importance of shareholder access to the ballot process as a means to ensure that boards do not become self-perpetuating and self-serving. However, it is also aware that some proposals may promote certain interest groups and could be disruptive to the nomination process. The Investment Manager will generally vote against proxy access except in instances where companies have displayed a lack of shareholder accountability and where the proposal is specifically defined (i.e. minimum ownership threshold, duration, etc.).

PROXY CONTESTS

Director Nominees in a Contested Election. By definition, this type of board candidate or slate runs for the purpose of seeking a significant change in corporate policy or control. Therefore, the economic impact of the vote in favor of or in opposition to that director or slate must be analyzed using a higher standard such as is normally applied to changes in control. Criteria for evaluating director nominees as a group or individually should also include: the underlying reason why the new slate (or individual director) is being proposed; performance; compensation; corporate governance provisions and takeover activity; criminal activity; attendance at meetings; investment in the company; interlocking directorships; inside, outside and independent directors; number of other board seats; and other experience. It is impossible to have a general policy regarding director nominees in a contested election.

Reimbursement of Proxy Solicitation Expenses. Decisions to provide full reimbursement for dissidents waging a proxy contest should be made on a case-by-case basis.

 

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RATIFICATION OF AUDITORS

The Investment Manager votes for proposals to ratify auditors, unless an auditor has a financial interest in or association with the company, and are therefore not indepen