N-2 1 d768379dn2.htm N-2 N-2
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As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on September 11, 2019

Securities Act File No. []

Investment Company Act File No. 811-23474

 

 

 

U.S. SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM N-2

(CHECK APPROPRIATE BOX OR BOXES)

  REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

  Pre-Effective Amendment No.    

  Post-Effective Amendment No.    

  REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940

  Amendment No.    

 

 

KKR CREDIT OPPORTUNITIES PORTFOLIO

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in Charter)

 

 

555 California Street

50th Floor

San Francisco, California 94104

(Address of principal executive offices)

 

 

(415) 315-3620

(Registrant’s Telephone Number, including Area Code)

 

 

Daniel O’Neill, Esq.

KKR Credit Advisors (US) LLC

555 California Street

50th Floor

San Francisco, California 94104

(Name and address of agent for service)

 

 

COPY TO:

Kenneth E. Young, Esq.

William J. Bielefeld, Esq.

Dechert LLP

1095 Avenue of the Americas

New York, New York 10036

 

 

Approximate Date of Proposed Public Offering:

As soon as practicable after the effective date of this Registration Statement

 

 

If any securities being registered on this form will be offered on a delayed or continuous basis in reliance on Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, other than securities offered in connection with a dividend reinvestment plan, check the following box.  

It is proposed that this filing will become effective (check appropriate box)

 

 

when declared effective pursuant to section 8(c)

If appropriate, check the following box:

 

 

This [post-effective] amendment designates a new effective date for a previously filed [post-effective amendment] [registration statement].

 

This form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act and the Securities Act registration number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering is .

 

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

Title of Securities Being Registered  

Amount

Being

Registered

 

Proposed
Maximum

Aggregate

Offering Price

per Unit

 

Proposed

Maximum

Aggregate

Offering Price1

 

Amount of
Registration

Fee1

Common Shares of Beneficial Interest

  40,000   $25   $1,000,000   $121.20

 

 

1

Estimated pursuant to Rule 457 solely for the purpose of determining the registration fee. The proposed maximum offering price per security will be determined, from time to time, by the Registrant in connection with the sale by the Registrant of the securities registered under this Registration Statement.

 

 

The Registrant hereby amends this Registration Statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this Registration Statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until this Registration Statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 

 


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The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION

PRELIMINARY PROSPECTUS DATED SEPTEMBER 11, 2019

PROSPECTUS

KKR CREDIT OPPORTUNITIES PORTFOLIO

CLASS I SHARES

CLASS D SHARES

CLASS T SHARES

CLASS M SHARES

The Fund. KKR Credit Opportunities Portfolio (the “Fund”) is a newly organized, diversified, closed-end management investment company that continuously offers its shares (the “Shares”) and is operated as an “interval fund.”

Securities Offered. The Fund intends to offer four classes of Shares: Class I Shares, Class D Shares, Class T Shares and Class M Shares. The Fund has applied for exemptive relief from the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) that, if granted, will permit the Fund to issue multiple classes of Shares and to impose asset-based distribution fees; there is no assurance, however, that the relief will be granted.

Investment Objective. The Fund’s investment objective is to seek to provide attractive risk-adjusted returns and high current income. There can be no assurance that the Fund will achieve its investment objective.

Investment Strategies. The Fund will invest in a select portfolio the Fund’s adviser’s publicly traded and private credit through exposure to two of its primary credit strategies: (a) Opportunistic Credit, a conviction-based approach investing in a portfolio consisting primarily of publicly traded high yield bonds, first- and second-lien secured bank loans and structured credit (e.g., collateralized loan obligation (“CLO”) mezzanine debt) and (b) Private Credit, which includes directly originated hard and financial asset-based lending, corporate mezzanine debt, as well as directly originated first-lien, second-lien and unitranche senior loans to upper middle-market companies.

In pursuing its investment objective, the Fund will invest, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of its Managed Assets in senior and subordinated corporate debt and debt related instruments. During an initial ramp period, the Fund will invest substantially all of its assets in the Opportunistic Credit Strategy. Following that initial period, the Fund expects, under normal circumstances, to invest 70-80% of its Managed Assets in the Opportunistic Credit strategy and 20%-30% of its Managed Assets in the Private Credit Strategy, though the Fund’s allocation in investments could vary from these guidelines at any time in the Fund’s discretion. On at least a quarterly basis, the Fund’s Investment Committee will meet to, among other things, review and establish the allocation percentage between the Opportunistic Credit Strategy and Private Credit Strategy for the ensuing period. The Investment Committee will consider factors such as KKR’s macro-economic and market outlooks, assessment of the relative risk and return of each strategy, and other factors in making its determination. “Managed Assets” means the total assets of the Fund (including any assets attributable to borrowings for investment purposes) minus the sum of the Fund’s accrued liabilities (other than liabilities representing borrowings for investment purposes).

Opportunistic Credit Strategy

The Opportunistic Credit Strategy’s investment objective is to provide an attractive risk-adjusted return through investment in a diversified portfolio of fixed income securities and financial instruments. To achieve its investment objective, the Adviser utilizes a high conviction credit strategy with a broad mandate and flexibility to toggle among various asset classes including, but not limited to, publicly traded high yield bonds, first- and second-lien secured bank loans and structured credit (i.e., CLO mezzanine debt) and thematic approaches to investing depending on the credit market environment. Themes include (in order of expected weighting):

 

   

Market Dislocations and Relative Value—Positions in higher-yielding investments resulting from a broader market dislocation and volatility, or a credit specific dislocation.


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Event Driven—Positions in securities with near term catalysts that are expected to lead to price appreciation/depreciation. Catalysts include refinancings, restructurings, mergers and acquisitions and rating upgrades, among others.

 

   

Proprietary Sourcing—Trades that leverage broader firm relationships with private equity sponsors and Wall Street firms. These include reverse inquiry, secondary opportunities and/or larger block trades and potential anchor positions.

 

   

Stressed Credits—Positions in companies under financial strain that could have a restructuring need and/or companies in out of favor industries that could be under market pressure.

 

   

Structured Products—Trading in securitized products, including tranches of CLOs, other securitizations and indices, as well as capital relief trades.

 

   

Illiquidity Premium—Credit investments in situations that offer a market premium, either in contractual rate or structure. These are expected to include small, less liquid trades as well as investments in misunderstood businesses or industries.

Private Credit Strategy

The Private Credit Strategy’s investment objective is to deliver attractive returns primarily in the form of contractual interest or coupon payments with a focus on principal protection, diversification, and, to a lesser degree, potential capital appreciation. The strategy makes investments in directly originated and negotiated financing instruments in what we believe are underserved and/or mispriced asset classes resultant from the withdrawal of global financial institutions from the financing market place and seeks to earn a premium for originating and holding a loan or other instrument to maturity. Private Credit strategies can include:

 

   

Private Opportunistic Credit—in addition to targeting traditional corporate mezzanine investments, Private Opportunistic Credit will focus on other attractive private credit investments with mezzanine-like returns in asset-based investment opportunities to either directly finance certain hard or financial assets or to invest in origination and/or servicing platforms of those assets. We believe that these asset-based opportunities offer mezzanine-like structural downside protection as well as asset collateral, and equity-like upside that can be achieved through appreciation at the asset level or, in the case of platforms, through growth of the enterprise value. Key areas of focus include, but are not limited to the Aircraft, Shipping, Renewables, Real Estate, Consumer Finance, Equipment Financing and Leasing sectors.

 

   

Direct Lending—focus on investments typically in the most senior tranches of a corporate or other issuer’s capital structure. Generally, these investments take the form of privately negotiated first-, second-lien or unitranche senior loans established through custom financing agreements entered into with corporate or other borrowers.

KKR (defined below) employs a holistic approach toward origination that is focused on partnering with high-quality borrowers and sponsors and serving as a solutions provider for their capital needs. We strive to understand the goals of borrowers and structure appropriate financing solutions that are tailored to meet their specific objectives. The breadth of our credit and capital markets platforms is crucial to exploring and creating these opportunities, as it enables us to provide a “one-stop” solution for a borrower’s entire capital structure. KKR’s credit team (the “KKR Credit Team”) will seek to conduct deep due diligence on each investment, with a focus on investing in debt instruments of companies where it believes KKR has a competitive advantage or a differentiated view.

The Adviser, a subsidiary of KKR & Co. L.P. (together with the Adviser and its other affiliates, “KKR”), uses KKR’s global network of resources, due diligence skills, intellectual capital and experience in seeking to achieve the Fund’s investment objective. The Adviser employs a fundamentally-driven investment approach that is based on deep credit underwriting and rigorous financial analysis. Because KKR has deep experience in credit and private equity underwriting, the Adviser’s investment approach is designed to incorporate valuable characteristics of both. The

 

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Adviser will seek to reallocate the portfolio of the Fund to opportunistically emphasize those investments, categories of investments and geographic exposures believed to be best suited to contribute to the achievement of the Fund’s investment objective under the market conditions existing at the time of investment.

The Fund seeks to leverage the diverse backgrounds and many years of experience in portfolio management, investing, finance and economics of the KKR Credit Team, as well as the global network and proprietary resources of KKR to source, diligence and execute attractive investment opportunities.

The Fund will rely on an exemptive order from the SEC that permits it to, among other things, co-invest with certain other persons, including certain affiliates of the Adviser and certain public or private funds managed by the Adviser and its affiliates, subject to certain terms and conditions.

The Fund’s investment strategies are not fundamental and may be changed by the Board without Shareholder approval.

 

 

Investing in the Shares involves certain risks. See “Risks.”

 

     Offering
Price1
     Maximum
Sales
Load
  Proceeds
to the
Fund2
 

Class I Shares

   $                    None   $                

Class D Shares

   $        None   $    

Class T Shares

   $        []%   $    

Class M Shares

   $        []%   $    

 

1

Each class of Shares is continuously offered at a price equal to net asset value, plus, in the case of Class T Shares, a maximum sales load of [●]% of the offering price and, in the case of Class M Shares, a maximum sales load of [●]% of the offering price. Information in the table reflects the initial offering price.

2

Offering and organizational expenses are estimated to be approximately $[]. Through [], the Adviser has agreed to waive its fees and/or reimburse expenses of the Fund so that certain of the Fund’s expenses (“Specified Expenses”) will not exceed []% of net assets (annualized). The Fund has agreed to repay these amounts, when and if requested by the Adviser, but only if and to the extent that Specified Expenses are less than []% of net assets (annualized) (or, if a lower expense limit is then in effect, such lower limit) within the three-year period after the Adviser bears the expense; provided, however, that the Adviser is entitled to recapture a Specified Expense in the same year it is incurred.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

Prospectus dated [], 2019.

 

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Interval Fund/Repurchase Offers. The Fund is an “interval fund,” a type of fund that, in order to provide liquidity to Shareholders, conducts periodic repurchase offers.

Risks. Investing in the Fund involves a high degree of risk. See “Risks.” In particular:

 

   

The Fund is suitable only for investors who can bear the risks associated with the limited liquidity of the Fund and should be viewed as a long-term investment.

 

   

The Fund will ordinarily accrue distributions from its net investment income, if any, daily and distribute them quarterly; however, the amount of distributions that the Fund will pay, if any, is uncertain.

 

   

The Fund will, from time to time, pay distributions in significant part from sources that may not be available in the future and that are unrelated to the Fund’s performance, such as a return of capital.

 

   

An investor could be subject to a sales load of up to [] for Class T Share and [] for Class M shares.

 

   

The Shares have no history of public trading, nor is it intended at this time that the Shares will be listed on a public exchange. No secondary market is expected to develop for the Shares, liquidity for the Shares will be provided only through repurchase offers at net asset value and there is no guarantee that an investor will be able to sell all the Shares the investor desires to sell in a repurchase offer. Due to these restrictions, an investor should consider an investment in the Fund to be illiquid. Investing in Shares is speculative and involves a high degree of risk, including the risks associated with leverage.

Leverage. In pursuing the Fund’s investment objective, the Adviser will seek to enhance the Fund’s return by the use of leverage. The Fund is permitted to obtain leverage using any form or combination of financial leverage instruments, including through funds borrowed from banks or other financial institutions (i.e., a credit facility), margin facilities, the issuance of preferred Shares or notes and leverage attributable to reverse repurchase agreements, dollar rolls or similar transactions. The Fund will, from time to time, use leverage opportunistically and will choose to increase or decrease its leverage, or use different types or combinations of leveraging instruments, from time to time based on the Fund’s assessment of market conditions and the investment environment. There can be no assurance that the Fund will use leverage or that its leveraging strategy will be successful during any period in which it is employed. See “Risks—Leverage Risk.”

Investment Adviser. The Adviser, KKR Credit Advisors (US) LLC, serves as the Fund’s investment adviser pursuant to the terms of an investment advisory agreement with the Fund. The Adviser, a subsidiary of KKR & Co. L.P. (together with the Adviser and its other affiliates, “KKR”), is a leading manager of non-investment grade debt and public equities. The Adviser was formed as a limited liability company under the laws of the State of Delaware on June 24, 2004, and is a registered investment adviser under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, as amended. The Adviser currently serves as an investment adviser of certain unregistered private investment companies and a registered investment company. The Adviser has access to KKR’s global network of resources, due diligence skills, intellectual capital and experience. KKR is a leading global investment firm that operates an integrated global platform for sourcing and executing investments across multiple industries, asset classes and geographies.

This prospectus, together with any applicable prospectus supplement, sets forth concisely information about the Fund you should know before investing. Please read this prospectus carefully before deciding whether to invest and retain it for future reference. A Statement of Additional Information (the “SAI”) dated [], 2019 has been filed with the SEC. The table of contents of the SAI is located on page [] of this prospectus. This prospectus incorporates by reference the entire SAI. The SAI, along with other Fund-related materials, are available on the EDGAR database on the SEC’s website (http://www.sec.gov), and copies of this information may be obtained, after paying a duplicating fee, by electronic request at publicinfo@sec.gov.

 

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You may also request a free copy of the SAI, annual and semi-annual reports to Shareholders (when available) and additional information about the Fund, and may make other Shareholder inquiries, by calling [], by writing to the Fund or visiting the Fund’s website (http://www.kkrfunds.com). The information contained in, or accessed through, the Fund’s website is not part of this prospectus.

The Shares do not represent a deposit or obligation of and are not guaranteed or endorsed by any bank or other insured depository institution and are not federally insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the Federal Reserve Board or any other government agency.

Beginning on January 1, 2021, as permitted by regulations adopted by the SEC, paper copies of the Fund’s annual and semi-annual Shareholder reports will not be sent by mail, unless you specifically request paper copies of the reports from the Fund or from your financial intermediary, such as a broker-dealer or bank. Instead, the reports will be made available on the Fund’s website (http://www.kkrfunds.com), and you will be notified by mail each time a report is posted and provided with a website link to access the report. If you already elected to receive Shareholder reports electronically, you will not be affected by this change and you need not take any action. You may elect to receive Shareholder reports and other communications from the Fund electronically by visiting the Fund’s website or by contacting your financial intermediary, such as a broker-dealer or bank. You may elect to receive all future reports in paper free of charge. If you own these Shares through a financial intermediary, such as a broker-dealer or bank, you may contact your financial intermediary to request that you continue to receive paper copies of your Shareholder reports. If you invest directly with the Fund, you can inform the Fund that you wish to continue receiving paper copies of your Shareholder reports by calling []. Your election to receive reports in paper will apply to all funds held with the fund complex if you invest directly with the Fund or to all funds held in your account if you invest through your financial intermediary.

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

     1  

SUMMARY OF FUND EXPENSES

     56  

THE FUND

     58  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     58  

THE FUND’S INVESTMENTS

     59  

LEVERAGE

     82  

RISKS

     85  

CONFLICTS OF INTEREST

     115  

MANAGEMENT OF THE FUND

     121  

PURCHASE OF SHARES

     124  

PERIODIC REPURCHASE OFFERS

     129  

NET ASSET VALUE

     131  

DISTRIBUTIONS

     132  

DIVIDEND REINVESTMENT PLAN

     134  

DESCRIPTION OF SHARES

     135  

CERTAIN PROVISIONS IN THE DECLARATION OF TRUST

     136  

TAX CONSIDERATIONS

     137  

CUSTODIAN AND TRANSFER AGENT

     140  

LEGAL MATTERS

     140  

INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

     140  

TABLE OF CONTENTS FOR THE STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

     141  

APPENDIX A: SUPPLEMENTAL PERFORMANCE INFORMATION OF RELATED FUNDS AND ACCOUNTS

     A-1  

You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus. The Fund has not authorized anyone to provide you with different information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. The Fund is not making an offer of these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer is not permitted.


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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

This is only a summary. This summary does not contain all of the information that you should consider before investing in KKR Credit Opportunities Portfolio. You should review the more detailed information contained in this prospectus and in the Statement of Additional Information (the “SAI”).

 

The Fund

KKR Credit Opportunities Portfolio is a newly organized, diversified, closed-end management investment company that continuously offers its shares (the “Shares”) and is operated as an “interval fund.” Throughout the prospectus, we refer to KKR Credit Opportunities Portfolio as the “Fund” or as “we.”

 

Investment Objective

The Fund’s investment objective is to seek to provide attractive risk-adjusted returns and high current income. There can be no assurance that the Fund will achieve its investment objective. The Fund’s investment objective is not fundamental and may be changed by the Board of Trustees of the Fund (the “Board”) without Shareholder approval.

 

Investment Strategies

The Fund will invest in a select portfolio of the Fund’s adviser’s publicly traded and private credit through exposure to two of its primary credit strategies: (a) Opportunistic Credit, a conviction-based approach investing in a portfolio consisting primarily of publicly traded high yield bonds, first- and second-lien secured bank loans and structured credit (e.g., collateralized loan obligation (“CLO”) mezzanine debt) and (b) Private Credit, which includes directly originated hard and financial asset-based lending, corporate mezzanine debt, as well as directly originated first-lien, second-lien and unitranche senior loans to upper middle-market companies.

 

  In pursuing its investment objective, the Fund will invest, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of its Managed Assets in senior and subordinated corporate debt and debt related instruments. During an initial ramp period, the Fund will invest substantially all of its assets in the Opportunistic Credit Strategy. Following that initial period, the Fund expects, under normal circumstances, to invest 70-80% of its Managed Assets in the Opportunistic Credit strategy and 20%-30% of its Managed Assets in the Private Credit Strategy, though the Fund’s allocation in investments could vary from these guidelines at any time in the Fund’s discretion. On at least a quarterly basis, the Fund’s Investment Committee will meet to, among other things, review and establish the allocation percentage between the Opportunistic Credit Strategy and Private Credit Strategy for the ensuing period. The Investment Committee will consider factors such as KKR’s macro-economic and market outlooks, assessment of the relative risk and return of each strategy, and other factors in making its determination. “Managed Assets” means the total assets of the Fund (including any assets attributable to borrowings for investment purposes) minus the sum of the Fund’s accrued liabilities (other than liabilities representing borrowings for investment purposes).


 

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  Opportunistic Credit Strategy

 

  The Opportunistic Credit Strategy’s investment objective is to provide an attractive risk-adjusted return through investment in a diversified portfolio of fixed income securities and financial instruments. To achieve its investment objective, the Adviser utilizes a high conviction credit strategy with a broad mandate and flexibility to toggle among various asset classes including, but not limited to, publicly traded high yield bonds, first- and second-lien secured bank loans and structured credit (i.e., CLO mezzanine debt) and thematic approaches to investing depending on the credit market environment. Themes include (in order of expected weighting):

 

   

Market Dislocations and Relative Value—Positions in higher-yielding investments resulting from a broader market dislocation and volatility, or a credit specific dislocation.

 

   

Event Driven—Positions in securities with near term catalysts that are expected to lead to price appreciation/depreciation. Catalysts include refinancings, restructurings, mergers and acquisitions and rating upgrades, among others.

 

   

Proprietary Sourcing—Trades that leverage broader firm relationships with private equity sponsors and Wall Street firms. These include reverse inquiry, secondary opportunities and/or larger block trades and potential anchor positions.

 

   

Stressed Credits—Positions in companies under financial strain that could have a restructuring need and/or companies in out of favor industries that could be under market pressure.

 

   

Structured Products—Trading in securitized products, including tranches of CLOs, other securitizations and indices, as well as capital relief trades.

 

   

Illiquidity Premium—Credit investments in situations that offer a market premium, either in contractual rate or structure. These are expected to include small, less liquid trades as well as investments in misunderstood businesses or industries.

 

  Private Credit Strategy

 

  The Private Credit Strategy’s investment objective is to deliver attractive returns primarily in the form of contractual interest or coupon payments with a focus on principal protection, diversification, and, to a lesser degree, potential capital appreciation. The strategy makes investments in directly originated and negotiated financing instruments in what we believe are underserved and/or mispriced asset classes resultant from the withdrawal of global financial institutions from the financing market place and seeks to earn a premium for originating and holding a loan or other instrument to maturity. Private Credit strategies can include:

 

   

Private Opportunistic Credit—in addition to targeting traditional corporate mezzanine investments, Private Opportunistic Credit will



 

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focus on other attractive private credit investments with mezzanine-like returns in asset-based investment opportunities to either directly finance certain hard or financial assets or to invest in origination and/or servicing platforms of those assets. We believe that these asset-based opportunities offer mezzanine-like structural downside protection as well as asset collateral, and equity-like upside that can be achieved through appreciation at the asset level or, in the case of platforms, through growth of the enterprise value. Key areas of focus include, but are not limited to the Aircraft, Shipping, Renewables, Real Estate, Consumer Finance, Equipment Financing and Leasing sectors.

 

   

Direct Lending—focus on investments typically in the most senior tranches of a corporate or other issuer’s capital structure. Generally, these investments take the form of privately negotiated first-, second-lien or unitranche senior loans established through custom financing agreements entered into with corporate or other borrowers.

 

  KKR (defined below) employs a holistic approach toward origination that is focused on partnering with high-quality borrowers and sponsors and serving as a solutions provider for their capital needs. We strive to understand the goals of borrowers and structure appropriate financing solutions that are tailored to meet their specific objectives. The breadth of our credit and capital markets platforms is crucial to exploring and creating these opportunities, as it enables us to provide a “one-stop” solution for a borrower’s entire capital structure. KKR’s credit team (the “KKR Credit Team”) will seek to conduct deep due diligence on each investment, with a focus on investing in debt instruments of companies where it believes KKR has a competitive advantage or a differentiated view.

 

  The Adviser, a subsidiary of KKR & Co. L.P. (together with the Adviser and its other affiliates, “KKR”), uses KKR’s global network of resources, due diligence skills, intellectual capital and experience in seeking to achieve the Fund’s investment objective. The Adviser employs a fundamentally-driven investment approach that is based on deep credit underwriting and rigorous financial analysis. Because KKR has deep experience in credit and private equity underwriting, the Adviser’s investment approach is designed to incorporate valuable characteristics of both. The Adviser will seek to reallocate the portfolio of the Fund to opportunistically emphasize those investments, categories of investments and geographic exposures believed to be best suited to contribute to the achievement of the Fund’s investment objective under the market conditions existing at the time of investment.

 

 

The Fund seeks to leverage the diverse backgrounds and many years of experience in portfolio management, investing, finance and economics of the KKR Credit Team, as well as the global network



 

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and proprietary resources of KKR to source, diligence and execute attractive investment opportunities.

The Fund will rely on an exemptive order from the SEC that permits it to, among other things, co-invest with certain other persons, including certain affiliates of the Adviser and certain public or private funds managed by the Adviser and its affiliates, subject to certain terms and conditions.

 

  The Fund’s investment strategies are not fundamental and may be changed by the Board without Shareholder approval.

 

The Offering

The Fund intends to offer four classes of Shares: Institutional Class I Shares (“Class I Shares”), Advisory Class D Shares (“Class D Shares”), Brokerage Class T Shares (“Class T Shares”) and Class M Shares. The Fund has applied for exemptive relief from the SEC that, if granted, will permit the Fund to issue multiple classes of Shares and to impose asset-based distribution fees and early-withdrawal fees; there is no assurance, however, that the relief will be granted.

 

  Class I Shares and Class D Shares will be offered on a continuous basis at net asset value (“NAV”) per Share. Class T Shares will be offered on a continuous basis at NAV per Share, plus a maximum sales load of []%. Class M Shares will be offered on a continuous basis at NAV per Share, plus a maximum sales load of []%. Proceeds from the offering will be held by the Fund’s Custodian (defined below). Class I Shares, Class D Shares, Class T Shares and Class M Shares have equal rights and privileges with each other.

 

  The Fund and the Distributor (defined below) reserve the right to reject a purchase order for any reason. Shareholders will not have the right to redeem their Shares. However, as described below, in order to provide some liquidity to Shareholders, the Fund will conduct periodic repurchase offers for a portion of its outstanding Shares.

 

Minimum Investment

The minimum initial investment for Class D Shares, Class T Shares and Class M Shares is $10,000 per account and the minimum initial investment for Class I Shares is $1,000,000 per account. The minimum subsequent investment in the Fund per account is $[]. The minimum investment for each class of Shares can be modified or waived in the sole discretion of the Fund or the Distributor (defined below), including for certain financial firms that submit orders on behalf of their customers, the Trustees of the Fund and certain employees of KKR, including its affiliates, vehicles controlled by such employees and their extended family members.

 

Periodic Repurchase Offers

The Fund has adopted a fundamental policy, which may only be changed with Shareholder approval, to provide liquidity to Shareholders by conducting quarterly repurchase offers of 10% to 25% of its outstanding Shares at net asset value.


 

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  Notification of each quarterly repurchase offer will be made available to Shareholders at least 21 calendar days before the repurchase request deadline (i.e., the date by which Shareholders must tender their Shares in response to a repurchase offer) (the “Repurchase Request Deadline”).

 

  The Fund does not intend to list its Shares for trading on any securities exchange. There is currently no secondary market for its Shares and the Fund does not expect any secondary market to develop for its Shares. Accordingly, you may not be able to sell Shares when and/or in the amount that you desire. Thus, the Shares are appropriate only for long-term investors who can bear the risks associated with the limited liquidity of the Shares. Investors should consider their investment goals, time horizons and risk tolerance before investing in the Fund. In addition, the Fund’s repurchase offers could subject the Fund and Shareholders to special risks. See “Risks—Repurchase Offers Risk.”

 

Leverage

In pursuing the Fund’s investment objective, the Adviser will seek to enhance the Fund’s return by the use of leverage. The Fund is permitted to obtain leverage using any form or combination of financial leverage instruments, including through funds borrowed from banks or other financial institutions (i.e., a credit facility), margin facilities, the issuance of preferred shares or notes and leverage attributable to reverse repurchase agreements, dollar rolls or similar transactions. The Fund will, from time to time, use leverage opportunistically and will choose to increase or decrease its leverage, or use different types or combinations of leveraging instruments, from time to time based on the Fund’s assessment of market conditions and the investment environment. There can be no assurance that the Fund will use leverage or that its leveraging strategy will be successful during any period in which it is employed. See “Risks—Leverage Risk.”

 

Distributions

The Fund intends to distribute substantially all of its net investment income to Shareholders in the form of dividends. The Fund intends to accrue distributions from its net investment income, if any, daily and distribute them quarterly.

 

  If the Fund realizes a long-term capital gain, it will be required to allocate such gain between the Shares and any preferred shares issued by the Fund in proportion to the total distributions paid to each class for the year in which the income is realized.

 

 

Various factors affect the level of the Fund’s income, including the asset mix, the average maturity of the Fund’s portfolio, the amount of leverage used by the Fund and the Fund’s use of hedging. To permit the Fund to maintain a more stable quarterly distribution, the Fund will, from time to time, distribute less than the entire amount of income earned in a particular period. The undistributed income would be available to supplement future distributions. As a result, the distributions paid by the Fund for any particular quarterly period



 

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could be more or less than the amount of income actually earned by the Fund during that period. Undistributed income will add to the Fund’s NAV (and indirectly benefit the Adviser and the Administrator (defined below) by increasing their fees) and, correspondingly, distributions from the Fund’s income will reduce the Fund’s NAV.

 

  In the event that for any calendar year the total distributions on the Fund’s preferred shares exceed the Fund’s current and accumulated earnings and profits allocable to such shares, the excess distributions will generally be treated as a tax free return of capital (to the extent of the shareholder’s tax basis in the shares). The amount treated as a tax free return of capital will reduce a shareholder’s adjusted tax basis in the preferred shares, thereby increasing the shareholder’s potential taxable gain or reducing the potential taxable loss on the sale of the shares. Any amount in excess of a shareholder’s remaining outstanding basis will constitute gain to such shareholder.

 

Adviser

The Adviser serves as the Fund’s investment adviser pursuant to the terms of an investment advisory agreement with the Fund. The Adviser, a subsidiary of KKR & Co. L.P. (together with the Adviser and its other affiliates, “KKR”), is a leading manager of non-investment grade debt and public equities. The Adviser was formed as a limited liability company under the laws of the State of Delaware on June 24, 2004, and is a registered investment adviser under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”). The Adviser currently serves as an investment adviser of certain unregistered private investment companies and a registered investment company. The Adviser uses KKR’s global network of resources, due diligence skills, intellectual capital and experience in seeking to achieve the Fund’s investment objective. KKR is a leading global investment firm that operates an integrated global platform for sourcing and executing investments across multiple industries, asset classes and geographies.

 

  As of [], KKR had $[] in assets under management. As of [], the Adviser had $[] in assets under management.

 

  Pursuant to an investment advisory agreement, the Adviser receives an annual fee, payable monthly by the Fund, in an amount equal to [1.30]% of the Fund’s average daily Managed Assets (the “Management Fee”). The Adviser has voluntarily agreed to temporarily reduce its Management Fee to an annual rate of []% of the Fund’s average daily Managed Assets from [] until []. Effective [], the Adviser’s agreement to temporarily reduce its Management Fee will terminate and the Adviser will receive a Management Fee at an annual rate of [1.30]% of the Fund’s average daily Managed Assets. The foregoing fee schedule may be extended, terminated or modified by the Adviser in its sole discretion and at any time, including prior to any such date listed above. See “Management of the Fund—Investment Advisory Agreement.”


 

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Administrator

[] (the “Administrator”), located at [], serves as administrator to the Fund. Under the administration agreement, the Administrator is responsible for calculating the NAV of the Shares and generally managing the administrative affairs of the Fund.

 

  The Administrator is entitled to receive a monthly fee at the annual rate of up to []% of the average daily value of the Fund’s net assets, subject to a minimum annual fee of $[], plus out-of-pocket expenses. See “Management of the Fund—The Administrator.”

 

Custodian and Transfer Agent

[] (the “Custodian”) will serve as the Fund’s custodian. [] will serve as Fund’s transfer agent.

 

Distributor

KKR Capital Markets LLC (the “Distributor”) is the principal underwriter and distributor of Class I Shares, Class D Shares, Class T Shares and Class M Shares and serves in that capacity on a best efforts basis, subject to various conditions. Shares will be offered through other brokers, dealers and other financial intermediaries (referred to as “selling agents”) that have entered into selling agreements with the Distributor. Selling agents typically receive the sales load with respect to Class T Shares and Class M Shares purchased by their clients. The Distributor does not retain any portion of the sales load. Class T Shares are sold subject to a maximum sales load of up to []% of the offering price. Class M Shares are sold subject to a maximum sales load of up to []% of the offering price. However, purchases of Class T Shares and Class M Shares may be eligible for a sales load discount. See “Purchase of Shares—Sales Loads.” The selling agents may, in their sole discretion, reduce or waive the sales load on a non-scheduled basis in individual cases. Class I Shares and Class D Shares are each not subject to a sales load; however, investors could be required to pay brokerage commissions on purchases and sales of Class I Shares and Class D Shares to their selling agents. Investors should consult with their selling agents about the sales load and any additional fees or charges their selling agents might impose on each class of Shares.

 

  [The Fund pays the Distributor an ongoing fee (the “Service Fee”) that is calculated and accrued monthly at an annualized rate of [●]% of the net assets of the Fund attributable to Class T Shares and Class D Shares, respectively, and at an annualized rate of [●]% of the net assets of the Fund attributable to Class M Shares. The Service Fee is for personal services provided to Shareholders and/or the maintenance of Shareholder accounts services and to reimburse the Distributor for related expenses incurred. The Distributor will generally pay all or a portion of the Service Fee to the selling agents that sell Class T Shares, Class D Shares and Class M Shares. Payment of the Service Fee is governed by the Fund’s Distribution and Service Plan.]

 

 

[In addition, the Fund pays the Distributor an ongoing distribution fee (the “Distribution Fee”) that is calculated and accrued monthly at an annualized rate of [●]% of the net assets of the Fund attributable to



 

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Class T Shares. The Distribution Fee is for the sale and marketing of the Class T Shares and to reimburse the Distributor for related expenses incurred. The Distributor will generally pay all or a portion of the Distribution Fee to the selling agents that sell Class T Shares. Payment of the Distribution Fee is governed by the Fund’s Distribution and Service Plan.]

 

  Class I Shares do not incur a Service Fee or Distribution Fee.

 

[Expenses Limitation and Reimbursement Agreement]

Pursuant to [an Expense Limitation and Reimbursement Agreement], through [], the Adviser has agreed to waive its fees and/or reimburse expenses of the Fund so that certain of the Fund’s expenses (“Specified Expenses”) will not exceed []% of net assets (annualized). The Fund has agreed to repay these amounts, when and if requested by the Adviser, but only if and to the extent that Specified Expenses are less than []% of net assets (annualized) (or, if a lower expense limit is then in effect, such lower limit) within the 36-month period after the Adviser bears the expense; provided, however, that the Adviser is entitled to recapture a Specified Expense in the same year it is incurred. This arrangement cannot be terminated prior to without the Board’s consent. “Specified Expenses” is defined to include all expenses incurred in the business of the Fund, including organizational costs, with the exception of [(i) the Management Fee, (ii) the Service Fee, (iii) the Distribution Fee, (iv) brokerage costs, (v) dividend/interest payments (including any dividend payments, interest expenses, commitment fees, or other expenses related to any leverage incurred by the Fund), (vi) taxes, and (vii) extraordinary expenses (as determined in the sole discretion of the Adviser).]

 

Investor Suitability

An investment in the Fund involves a considerable amount of risk. It is possible that you will lose money. An investment in the Fund is suitable only for long-term investors who can bear the risks associated with the limited liquidity of the Shares. Before making your investment decision, you should (i) consider the suitability of this investment with respect to your investment objective and personal financial situation and (ii) consider factors such as your personal net worth, income, age, risk tolerance and liquidity needs. An investment in the Fund should not be viewed as a complete investment program.

 

Risks

Investing in the Fund involves risks, including the risk that you may receive little or no return on your investment or that you may lose part or all of your investment. Below is a summary of the principal risks of investing in the Fund. You should consider carefully the following principal risks before investing in the Fund.

 

  No Operating History. The Fund is a diversified, closed-end management investment company with no operating history. As a result, prospective investors have no track record or history on which to base their investment decision. The Fund is subject to all of the business risks and uncertainties associated with any new business.


 

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  Repurchase Offers Risk. As described under “Periodic Repurchase Offers” above, the Fund is an interval fund and, in order to provide liquidity to Shareholders, the Fund, subject to applicable law, will conduct repurchase offers for the Fund’s outstanding Shares at NAV, subject to approval of the Board. The Fund believes that these repurchase offers are generally beneficial to the Fund’s Shareholders, and repurchases generally will be funded from available cash, cash from the sale of Shares or sales of portfolio securities. However, repurchase offers and the need to fund repurchase obligations will affect the ability of the Fund to be fully invested or force the Fund to maintain a higher percentage of its assets in liquid investments, which could harm the Fund’s investment performance. Moreover, it is possible that diminution in the size of the Fund through repurchases will result in an increased expense ratio for Shareholders who do not tender their Shares for repurchase, will result in untimely sales of portfolio securities (with associated imputed transaction costs, which could be significant) and will limit the ability of the Fund to participate in new investment opportunities or to achieve its investment objective. The Fund will, from time to time, accumulate cash by holding back (i.e., not reinvesting) payments received in connection with the Fund’s investments and cash from the sale of Shares. The Fund believes that it can meet the maximum potential amount of the Fund’s repurchase obligations. If at any time cash and other liquid assets held by the Fund are not sufficient to meet the Fund’s repurchase obligations, the Fund intends, if necessary, to sell investments. In addition, if the Fund borrows to finance repurchases, interest on that borrowing will negatively affect Shareholders who do not tender their Shares by increasing the Fund’s expenses and reducing any net investment income.

 

  If a repurchase offer is oversubscribed, the Board has authority to increase the amount repurchased by up to 2% of the Fund’s outstanding Shares as of the date of the Repurchase Request Deadline. In the event that the Board determines not to repurchase more than the repurchase offer amount, or if Shareholders tender more than the repurchase offer amount plus 2% of the Fund’s outstanding Shares as of the date of the Repurchase Request Deadline, the Fund will repurchase the Shares tendered on a pro rata basis, and Shareholders will have to wait until the next repurchase offer to make another repurchase request. As a result, Shareholders could be unable to liquidate all or a given percentage of their investment in the Fund during a particular repurchase offer. Some Shareholders, in anticipation of proration, may tender more Shares than they wish to have repurchased in a particular month, thereby increasing the likelihood that proration will occur. Between the Repurchase Request Deadline and the date on which the NAV for tendered Shares is determined, the Fund is subject to market and other risks and the NAV of Shares tendered in a repurchase offer could decline. In addition, the repurchase of Shares by the Fund will generally be a taxable event to Shareholders.


 

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  Investment and Market Risk. An investment in the Fund involves a considerable amount of risk. Before making an investment decision, a prospective investor should (i) consider the suitability of this investment with respect to the his or her investment objectives and personal situation and (ii) consider factors such as his or her personal net worth, income, age, risk tolerance and liquidity needs. An investment in Shares represents an indirect investment in the portfolio of loans and fixed-income instruments, short positions and other securities and derivative instruments owned by the Fund, and the value of these securities and instruments will fluctuate, sometimes rapidly and unpredictably, and such investment is subject to investment risk, including the possible loss of the entire principal amount invested. At any point in time, an investment in Shares could be worth less than the original amount invested, even after taking into account distributions paid by the Fund and the ability of Shareholders to reinvest dividends. The Fund will also use leverage, which would magnify the Fund’s investment, market and certain other risks.

 

  The Fund will be materially affected by market, economic and political conditions globally and in the jurisdictions and sectors in which it invests or operates, including factors affecting interest rates, the availability of credit, currency exchange rates and trade barriers. These factors are outside the Adviser’s control and could adversely affect the liquidity and value of the Fund’s investments and reduce the ability of the Fund to make attractive new investments.

 

 

Ongoing events in the subprime mortgage market and other areas of the fixed income markets have caused significant dislocations, illiquidity and volatility in the leveraged loan and bond markets, as well as in the wider global financial markets. To the extent portfolio companies and other issuers of the Fund’s portfolio investments participate in or have exposure to such markets, the results of their operations could be adversely affected. In addition, to the extent that such economic and market events and conditions reoccur, this would have a further adverse impact on the availability of credit to businesses generally. Although financial markets have shown intermittent signs of improvement, global economic conditions remain tenuous, and to the extent that they do not improve, this could adversely impact the financial resources and credit quality of corporate and other borrowers in which the Fund has invested and result in the inability of such borrowers to make principal and interest payments on, or refinance, outstanding debt when due. In the event of such defaults, the Fund could suffer a partial or total loss of their investment in such borrowers, which would, in turn, have an adverse effect on the Fund’s returns. Such economic and market events and conditions also could restrict the ability of the Fund to sell or liquidate investments at favorable times or for favorable prices (although such events and conditions would not necessarily foreclose the Fund’s ability to hold such investments until maturity). In particular, the Fund’s investment strategies rely, in part, on the stabilization or improvement of the conditions in the global economy and markets generally and credit



 

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markets specifically. Absent such a recovery, it is possible that the value of the Fund’s investments will not generate expected current proceeds or appreciate as anticipated and could suffer a loss. Trends and historical events do not imply, forecast or predict future events and past performance is not necessarily indicative of future results. There can be no assurance that the assumptions made or the beliefs and expectations currently held by the Adviser will prove correct, and actual events and circumstances can vary significantly.

 

  The Fund will, from time to time, be subject to risk arising from a default by one of several large institutions that are dependent on one another to meet their liquidity or operational needs, so that a default by one institution could cause a series of defaults by the other institutions. This is sometimes referred to as “systemic risk” and could adversely affect financial intermediaries, such as clearing agencies, clearing houses, banks, securities firms and exchanges, with which the Fund interacts on a daily basis.

 

  Illiquid and Long-Term Investments Risk. Investment in the Fund requires a long-term commitment, with no certainty of return. A significant portion of the Fund’s investments generally will be in private, illiquid securities, which are typically subject to restrictions on resale. There can be no assurance that the Fund will be able to generate returns for Shareholders, that the returns will be commensurate with the risks of investing in the type of transactions and issuers described herein or that the Adviser’s methodology for evaluating risk-adjusted return profiles for investments will achieve its objectives. In some cases, the Fund will be legally, contractually or otherwise prohibited from selling certain investments for a period of time or otherwise be restricted from disposing of them, and illiquidity could also result from the absence of an established market for certain investments. The realizable value of a highly illiquid investment, at any given time, could be less than its intrinsic value. In addition, it is anticipated that certain types of investments made by the Fund will require a substantial length of time to liquidate. As a result, from time to time, the Fund will be unable to realize its investment objective by sale or other disposition at attractive prices or will otherwise be unable to complete any exit strategy.

 

 

Although investments by the Fund are expected to generate current income, the return of capital and the realization of gains, if any, from an investment generally will occur only upon the partial or complete repayment or disposition of such investment, as to which there can be no certainty. The Fund’s investments are speculative in nature and, particularly where leverage is used by the Fund, there can be no assurance that current income received by the Fund will be sufficient to service the Fund’s debt or that any investor will receive a return of his or her invested capital or any distribution from the Fund. While an investment can be sold or repaid at any time, this will occur typically a number of years after the investment is made, and investors should



 

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expect that they will not receive a return of their capital for a long period of time even if the Fund’s investments prove successful.

 

  Certain investments by the Fund could be in securities that are or become publicly traded and are therefore subject to the risks inherent in investing in public companies (including new issues of securities). These factors are outside the Adviser’s control and could adversely affect the liquidity and value of the Fund’s investments and reduce the ability of the Fund to make attractive new investments. In addition, in some cases the Fund could be prohibited by contract or other limitations from selling such securities for a period of time so that the Fund is unable to take advantage of favorable market prices. The Fund will likely not have the same access to information in connection with investments in public companies, either when investigating a potential investment or after making an investment, as with investments in private companies. Furthermore, it can be expected from time to time that the Fund will be limited in its ability to make investments, and to sell existing investments, in public or private companies because KKR could be deemed to have material, non-public information regarding the issuers of those securities or as a result of other internal policies. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that the Fund will be able to make investments in public companies that the Adviser otherwise deems appropriate or, if it does, as to the amount it will so invest. Moreover, the inability to sell investments in public or private companies in these circumstances could materially adversely affect the investment results of the Fund. The Fund will also invest in 144A securities, which investment is likely to raise many of the same issues and risks discussed above. It is possible that the Adviser, in its sole discretion, will decline to receive material nonpublic information in respect of a public company in which the Fund has invested that would otherwise be available to it to avoid being restricted from trading in securities issued by such public company or to avoid the Adviser or its affiliates being so restricted on behalf of other funds, vehicles or accounts sponsored, managed or advised by KKR or any of its affiliates (see also “—Conflicts of Interest” below).

 

  Fixed-Income Instruments Risk. The Fund invests in loans and other types of fixed-income instruments and securities. Such investments will be secured, partially secured or unsecured, can be unrated and, whether or not rated, can have speculative characteristics. The market price of the Fund’s investments will change in response to changes in interest rates and other factors. Generally, when interest rates rise, the values of fixed-income instruments fall and vice versa. In typical interest rate environments, the prices of longer-term fixed-income instruments generally fluctuate more than the prices of shorter-term fixed-income instruments as interest rates change. These risks are more pronounced in the current market environment of historically low interest rates. Most high yield investments pay a fixed rate of interest and are therefore vulnerable to inflation risk.


 

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  From time to time, the obligor of a fixed-income instrument will not be able or willing to pay interest or to repay principal when due in accordance with the terms of the associated agreement. An obligor’s willingness and ability to pay interest or to repay principal due in a timely manner will be affected by, among other factors, its cash flow. Commercial bank lenders could be able to contest payments to the holders of other debt obligations of the same obligor in the event of default under their commercial bank loan agreements.

 

  Interest Rate Risk. The Fund’s investments will expose the Fund to interest rate risks, meaning that changes in prevailing market interest rates could negatively affect the value of such investments. Factors that can affect market interest rates include, without limitation, inflation, slow or stagnant economic growth or recession, unemployment, money supply, governmental monetary policies, international disorders and instability in U.S. and non-U.S. financial markets. The Fund expects that it will periodically experience imbalances in the interest rate sensitivities of its assets and liabilities and the relationships of various interest rates to each other. In a changing interest rate environment, the Adviser might not be able to manage this risk effectively. If the Adviser is unable to manage interest rate risk effectively, the Fund’s performance could be adversely affected.

 

  Senior Loans Risk. Senior secured floating rate and fixed-rate loans (“Senior Loans”) hold the most senior position in the capital structure of a corporation, partnership or other business entity (a “Borrower”). Senior Loans in most circumstances are fully collateralized by assets of the borrower. Thus, they are generally repaid before unsecured bank loans, corporate bonds, subordinated debt, trade creditors and preferred or common stockholders. Substantial increases in interest rates could cause an increase in loan defaults as borrowers might lack resources to meet higher debt service requirements. The value of the Fund’s assets could also be affected by other uncertainties such as economic developments affecting the market for senior secured term loans or affecting borrowers generally. Moreover, the security for the Fund’s investments in secured debt might not be recognized for a variety of reasons, including the failure to make required filings by lenders, trustees or other responsible parties and, as a result, the Fund might not have priority over other creditors as anticipated.

 

 

Senior Loans usually include restrictive covenants, which must be maintained by the borrower. The Fund will, from time to time, have an obligation with respect to certain senior secured term loan investments to make additional loans upon demand by the borrower. Such instruments, unlike certain bonds, usually do not have call protection. This means that such interests, although having a stated term, can be prepaid, often without penalty. The rate of such prepayments will be affected by, among other things, general business and economic conditions, as well as the financial status of the



 

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borrower. Prepayment would cause the actual duration of a Senior Loan to be shorter than its stated maturity.

 

  Senior Loans typically will be secured by pledges of collateral from the borrower in the form of tangible and intangible assets. In some instances, the Fund will invest in Senior Loans that are secured only by stock of the borrower or its subsidiaries or affiliates. The value of the collateral could decline below the principal amount of the senior secured term loans subsequent to an investment by the Fund.

 

  Senior Loans generally are not registered with the SEC or any state securities commission and are not listed on any national securities exchange. There is less readily available or reliable information about most Senior Loans than is the case for many other types of securities, including securities issued in transactions registered under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), or registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). No active trading market exists for some Senior Loans, and some Senior Loans are subject to restrictions on resale. A secondary market could be subject to irregular trading activity, wide bid/ask spreads and extended trade settlement periods, which could impair the Fund’s ability to realize full value and thus cause a material decline in the Fund’s NAV. In addition, at times, the Fund will not be able to readily dispose of its Senior Loans at prices that approximate those at which the Fund could sell such loans if they were more widely traded and, as a result of such illiquidity, the Fund will, from time to time, have to sell other investments or engage in borrowing transactions if necessary to raise cash to meet its obligations. During periods of limited supply and liquidity of Senior Loans, the Fund’s yield could be lower. See “Risks—Below Investment Grade Instruments Risk.”

 

  If legislation or government regulations impose additional requirements or restrictions on the ability of financial institutions to make loans, the availability of Senior Loans for investment by the Fund will be adversely affected. In addition, such requirements or restrictions could reduce or eliminate sources of financing for certain Borrowers. This would increase the risk of default. See “Investment Objectives and Investment Strategies—Portfolio Composition—Senior Loans” and “Risks—Senior Loans Risk.”

 

  Credit Risk. The Fund’s debt investments will be subject to the risk of non-payment of scheduled interest or principal by the borrowers with respect to such investments. Such non-payment would likely result in a reduction of income to the Fund and a reduction in the value of the debt investments experiencing non-payment.

 

 

Although the Fund will, from time to time, invest in investments that the Adviser believes are secured by specific collateral, the value of which exceeds the principal amount of the investments at the time of initial investment, there can be no assurance that the liquidation of



 

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any such collateral would satisfy the borrower’s obligation in the event of non-payment of scheduled interest or principal payments with respect to such investment or that such collateral could be readily liquidated. In addition, in the event of bankruptcy of a borrower, the Fund could experience delays or limitations with respect to its ability to realize the benefits of the collateral securing an investment. Under certain circumstances, collateral securing an investment will be released without the consent of the Fund. The Fund will, from time to time, also invest in high yield instruments and other unsecured investments, each of which involves a higher degree of risk than Senior Loans. The Fund’s right to payment and its security interest, if any, could be subordinated to the payment rights and security interests of more senior creditors. Certain of these investments will have an interest-only payment schedule, with the principal amount remaining outstanding and at risk until the maturity of the investment. In this case, a portfolio company’s ability to repay the principal of an investment could be dependent upon a liquidity event or the long-term success of the company, the occurrence of which is uncertain.

 

  Companies in which the Fund invests could deteriorate as a result of, among other factors, an adverse development in their business, a change in the competitive environment or an economic downturn. As a result, companies that the Fund expected to be stable could operate, or expect to operate, at a loss or have significant variations in operating results, could require substantial additional capital to support their operations or maintain their competitive position or could otherwise have a weak financial condition or be experiencing financial distress.

 

  Leverage Risk. The Fund is permitted to obtain leverage using any form or combination of financial leverage instruments, including through funds borrowed from banks or other financial institutions (i.e., a credit facility), margin facilities, the issuance of preferred shares or notes and leverage attributable to reverse repurchase agreements, dollar rolls or similar transactions. The Fund will, from time to time, use leverage opportunistically and will choose to increase or decrease its leverage, or use different types or combinations of leveraging instruments, at any time based on the Fund’s assessment of market conditions and the investment environment.

 

 

The 1940 Act generally limits the extent to which the Fund is able to use borrowings and “uncovered” transactions that give rise to a form of leverage, including reverse repurchase agreements, dollar rolls, swaps, futures and forward contracts, options and other derivative transactions, together with any other senior securities representing indebtedness, to 33 and 1/3% of the Fund’s Managed Assets at the time used. In addition, the 1940 Act limits the extent to which the Fund is able issue preferred shares to 50% of the Fund’s Managed Assets (less the Fund’s obligations under senior securities representing indebtedness). “Covered” reverse



 

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repurchase agreements, dollar rolls, swaps, futures and forward contracts, options and other derivative transactions will not be counted against the foregoing limits under the 1940 Act. The Fund will “cover” its derivative positions by segregating an amount of cash and/or liquid securities as required by the 1940 Act and applicable SEC interpretations and guidance from time to time. Alternatively, the Fund can enter into an offsetting position or own positions covering its obligations with respect to the transaction; otherwise, this transaction will be considered “uncovered.” The Fund generally will not cover an applicable derivative transaction if it does not need to do so to comply with the foregoing 1940 Act requirements and, in the view of the Adviser, the assets that would have been used to cover could be better used for a different purpose. However, these transactions, even if covered, could represent a form of economic leverage and will create risks. The potential loss on derivative instruments can be substantial relative to the initial investment therein. In addition, these segregation and coverage requirements could result in the Fund maintaining securities positions that it would otherwise liquidate, segregating assets at a time when it might be disadvantageous to do so or otherwise restricting portfolio management. Such segregation and cover requirements will not limit or offset losses on related positions.

 

 

Use of leverage creates an opportunity for increased income and return for Shareholders but, at the same time, creates risks, including the likelihood of greater volatility in the NAV and market price of, and distributions on, the Shares. Increases and decreases in the value of the Fund’s portfolio will be magnified if the Fund uses leverage. In particular, leverage can magnify interest rate risk, which is the risk that the prices of portfolio securities will fall (or rise) if market interest rates for those types of securities rise (or fall). As a result, leverage can cause greater changes in the Fund’s NAV, which will be borne entirely by the Fund’s Shareholders. There can be no assurance that the Fund will use leverage or that its leveraging strategy will be successful during any period in which it is employed. The Fund will, from time to time, be subject to investment restrictions of one or more NRSROs and/or credit facility lenders as a result of its use of financial leverage. These restrictions could impose asset coverage or portfolio composition requirements that are more stringent than those imposed on the Fund by the 1940 Act. It is not anticipated that these covenants or portfolio requirements will significantly impede the Adviser in managing the Fund’s portfolio in accordance with its investment objectives and policies. Nonetheless, if these covenants or guidelines are more restrictive than those imposed by the 1940 Act, the Fund will not be able to use as much leverage as it otherwise could have, which could reduce the Fund’s investment returns. In addition, the Fund expects that any notes it issues or credit facility it enters into would contain covenants that, among other things, impose geographic exposure limitations, credit quality minimums, liquidity minimums, concentration limitations and currency hedging requirements on the Fund. These covenants would also likely limit the Fund’s ability to pay distributions in certain circumstances, incur additional debt, change



 

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fundamental investment policies and engage in certain transactions, including mergers and consolidations. Such restrictions could cause the Adviser to make different investment decisions than if there were no such restrictions and could limit the ability of the Board and Shareholders to change fundamental investment policies.

 

  The costs of a financial leverage program (including the costs of offering preferred shares and notes) will be borne entirely by Shareholders and consequently will result in a reduction of the NAV of the Shares. During periods in which the Fund is using leverage, the fees paid by the Fund for investment advisory services will be higher than if the Fund did not use leverage because the investment advisory fees paid will be calculated on the basis of the Fund’s Managed Assets, which includes proceeds from (and assets subject to) any credit facility, margin facility, any issuance of preferred shares or notes, any reverse repurchase agreements, dollar rolls or similar transactions. This will create a conflict of interest between the Adviser, on the one hand, and Shareholders, on the other hand. To monitor this potential conflict, the Board intends to periodically review the Fund’s use of leverage, including its impact on Fund performance and on the Adviser’s fees. See “Conflicts of Interest” and “Risks—Conflicts of Interest Risk.”

 

  The Fund can also offset derivative positions against one another or against other assets to manage the effective market exposure resulting from derivatives in its portfolio. In addition, to the extent that any offsetting positions do not behave in relation to one another as expected, the Fund could perform as if it were leveraged. The Fund’s use of leverage could create the opportunity for a higher return for Shareholders but would also result in special risks for Shareholders and can magnify the effect of any losses. If the income and gains earned on the securities and investments purchased with leverage proceeds are greater than the cost of the leverage, the return on the Shares will be greater than if leverage had not been used. Conversely, if the income and gains from the securities and investments purchased with such proceeds do not cover the cost of leverage, the return on the Shares will be less than if leverage had not been used. There is no assurance that a leveraging strategy will be successful.

 

 

Subordinated and Unsecured or Partially Secured Loans Risk. The Fund will, from time to time, invest in unsecured loans and secured subordinated loans, including second and lower lien loans. Second lien loans are generally second in line in terms of repayment priority. A second lien loan could have a claim on the same collateral pool as the first lien or it could be secured by a separate set of assets. Second lien loans generally give investors priority over general unsecured creditors in the event of an asset sale. The priority of the collateral claims of third or lower lien loans ranks below holders of second lien loans and so on. Such junior loans are subject to the same general risks inherent to any loan investment, including credit risk, market



 

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and liquidity risk and interest rate risk. Due to their lower place in the borrower’s capital structure and possible unsecured or partially secured status, such loans involve a higher degree of overall risk than Senior Loans of the same borrower.

 

  Mezzanine Securities Risk. The Fund expects most of its mezzanine securities and other investments, if any, to be unsecured and made in companies whose capital structures have significant indebtedness ranking ahead of the investments, all or a significant portion of which could be secured. Although the securities and other investments could benefit from the same or similar financial and other covenants as those enjoyed by the indebtedness ranking ahead of the investments and could benefit from cross-default provisions and security over the portfolio company’s assets, some or all of such terms might not be part of particular investments. Mezzanine securities and other investments generally are subject to various risks including, without limitation: (i) a subsequent characterization of an investment as a “fraudulent conveyance;” (ii) the recovery as a “preference” of liens perfected or payments made on account of a debt in the 90 days before a bankruptcy filing; (iii) equitable subordination claims by other creditors; (iv) so-called “lender liability” claims by the issuer of the obligations; and (v) environmental liabilities that arise with respect to collateral securing the obligations.

 

 

Below Investment Grade Instruments Risk. The Fund will, from time to time, invest in debt securities and instruments that are rated below investment grade by recognized rating agencies or will be unrated and face ongoing uncertainties and exposure to adverse business, financial or economic conditions and the issuer’s failure to make timely interest and principal payments. Such securities and instruments are generally not exchange-traded and, as a result, trade in the over-the-counter (“OTC”) marketplace, which is less transparent than the exchange-traded marketplace. In addition, the Fund will, from time to time, invest in bonds of issuers that do not have publicly traded equity securities, making it more difficult to hedge the risks associated with such investments. The Fund’s investments in high yield instruments expose it to a substantial degree of credit risk and interest rate risk. The market for high yield securities has recently experienced periods of significant volatility and reduced liquidity. The market values of certain of these lower-rated and unrated debt investments could reflect individual corporate developments to a greater extent and tend to be more sensitive to economic conditions than those of higher-rated investments, which react primarily to fluctuations in the general level of interest rates. Companies that issue such securities are often highly leveraged and might not have available to them more traditional methods of financing. General economic recession or a major decline in the demand for products and services in which the borrower operates would likely have a materially adverse impact on the value of such securities and the ability of the issuers of such securities to repay principal and interest



 

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thereon, thereby increasing the incidence of default of such securities. In addition, adverse publicity and investor perceptions, whether or not based on fundamental analysis, could also decrease the value and liquidity of these high yield debt investments.

 

  Stressed and Distressed Investments. The Fund intends to invest in securities and other obligations of companies that are in significant financial or business distress, including companies involved in bankruptcy or other reorganization and liquidation proceedings. Although such investments could result in significant returns for the Fund, they involve a substantial degree of risk. The level of analytical sophistication, both financial and legal, necessary for successful investment in distressed assets is unusually high. There is no assurance that the Fund will correctly evaluate the value of the assets collateralizing the Fund’s investments or the prospects for a successful reorganization or similar action in respect of any company. In any reorganization or liquidation proceeding relating to a company in which the Fund invests, the Fund could lose its entire investment, could be required to accept cash or securities with a value less than the Fund’s original investment and/or could be required to accept payment over an extended period of time. Troubled company investments and other distressed asset-based investments require active monitoring.

 

 

Investments in Highly Leveraged Companies Risk. The Fund’s investments are expected to include investments in issuers whose capital structures have significant leverage (including substantial leverage senior to the Fund’s investments, a considerable portion of which could be secured and/or could be at floating interest rates). Such investments are inherently more sensitive to declines in revenues, competitive pressures and increases in expenses and interest rates. The leveraged capital structure of such issuers will increase their exposure to adverse economic factors, such as downturns in the economy or deterioration in the condition of the issuers or their industries, and such companies could be subject to restrictive financial and operating covenants in more senior debt instruments and contracts that adversely impact the Fund’s investments. This leverage could result in more serious adverse consequences to such companies (including their overall profitability or solvency) in the event these factors or events occur than would be the case for less leveraged companies. If an issuer of the Fund’s portfolio investments cannot generate adequate cash flow to meet debt obligations, the issuer could default on its loan agreements or be forced into bankruptcy resulting in a restructuring of the company’s capital structure or liquidation of the company. The debt investments acquired by the Fund generally will be the most junior in what will typically be a complex capital structure, and thus subject to the greatest risk of loss. Furthermore, to the extent issuers in which the Fund is invested have become insolvent, the Fund could determine, in cooperation with other debtholders or on its own, to engage, at the Fund’s expense, in whole



 

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or in part, counsel and other advisors in connection therewith. In addition to leverage in the capital structure of the issuer, the Fund can incur leverage. See “Risks—Leverage Risk.”

 

  Risk of Investments in Companies in Regulated Industries. Certain industries are heavily regulated. To the extent that the Fund makes investments in industries that are subject to greater amounts of regulation than other industries generally, portfolio companies that are subject to greater amounts of governmental regulation would pose additional risks relative to investments in other companies. Changes in applicable laws or regulations, or in the interpretations of these laws and regulations, could result in increased compliance costs or the need for additional capital expenditures. If a portfolio company fails to comply with these requirements, it could also be subject to civil or criminal liability and the imposition of fines. Portfolio companies also could be materially and adversely affected as a result of statutory or regulatory changes or judicial or administrative interpretations of existing laws and regulations that impose more comprehensive or stringent requirements on such issuer. Governments have considerable discretion in implementing regulations that could impact a portfolio company’s business, and governments could be influenced by political considerations and make decisions that adversely affect a portfolio company’s business. Additionally, certain portfolio companies could have a unionized workforce or employees who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement, which could subject any such issuer’s activities and labor relations matters to complex laws and regulations relating thereto. Moreover, a portfolio company’s operations and profitability could suffer if it experiences labor relations problems. Upon the expiration of any such portfolio company’s collective bargaining agreements, it could be unable to negotiate new collective bargaining agreements on terms favorable to it, and its business operations at one or more of its facilities could be interrupted as a result of labor disputes or difficulties and delays in the process of renegotiating its collective bargaining agreements. A work stoppage at one or more of any such portfolio company’s facilities could have a material adverse effect on its business, results of operations and financial condition. Any such problems additionally could bring scrutiny and attention to the Fund itself, which could adversely affect the Fund’s ability to implement its investment objective.

 

 

Risk of Investments in the Airline Industry. The Fund will, from time to time, make equity, debt or hybrid investments in companies that acquire financial and/or hard assets in the airline industry. The airline industry is cyclical and highly competitive. Airlines and related companies could be affected by political or economic instability, terrorist activities, changes in national policy, competitive pressures on certain air carriers, fuel prices and shortages, labor stoppages, insurance costs, recessions, world health issues and other political or economic events adversely affecting world or regional trading. The airline industry is highly sensitive to general economic



 

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trends, and any downturn in the global economy or in the relevant local economy could adversely affect results of operations and financial conditions. The airline industry is subject to significant regulation, including increasing environmental regulations that could lead to increased costs and affect profitability.

 

  Risk of Investments in the Shipping Industry. The Fund will, from time to time, make equity, debt or hybrid investments in companies that acquire financial and/or hard assets in the shipping industry, which are subject to, among others, the following risks, which might not be insurable: (i) extensive and changing safety, environmental protection and other international, national, state and local governmental laws, regulations, treaties and conventions in force in international waters, the jurisdictional waters of the countries in which a shipping company’s vessels operate, as well as the countries of such vessels’ registration, compliance with which could require ship modifications and changes in operating procedure; (ii) risks associated with non-U.S. investments and force majeure risks (for example, international sanctions, embargoes, restrictions, nationalizations, and wars or acts of piracy or terrorist attacks and severe weather and natural disasters; see“ Risks—Non-U.S. Securities Risks”); (iii) labor-related risks; (iv) adverse changes in maintenance and other fixed costs and/or capital expenditure requirements; and (v) counterparty risks, including risks of adverse changes affecting chartering agreements from which a shipping company derives income.

 

  Energy-Related Investments Risk. The Fund will, from time to time, invest in debt related securities of the energy industry. Electric generation and transmission, as well as oil, natural gas, and coal storage, handling, processing and transportation, are typically regulated to varying degrees. In addition to restrictions imposed by environmental regulators, statutory and regulatory requirements include those imposed by energy, zoning, land use, safety, labor and other regulatory or political authorities. It is possible that changes to applicable regulations or regulatory practice could have adverse consequences for an investment of the Fund.

 

 

Ordinary operation or the occurrence of an accident, with respect to an energy asset, could cause major environmental damage, which could result in significant financial distress to such asset. Certain environmental laws and regulations require that an owner or operator of an energy asset address prior environmental contamination, which could involve substantial cost. As a result, certain of the Fund’s investments in the energy sector could be exposed to substantial risk of loss from environmental claims. Furthermore, changes in environmental laws or regulations or the environmental condition of an energy investment could create liabilities that did not exist at the time of the investment by the Fund and that could not have been foreseen. Community and environmental groups might protest about



 

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the development or operation of energy assets, which could induce government action to the detriment of the Fund. New and more stringent environmental or health and safety laws, regulations and permit requirements, or stricter interpretations of current laws, regulations or requirements, could impose substantial additional costs on the issuer of a portfolio investment. Some of the most onerous environmental requirements regulate air emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases; these requirements particularly affect companies in the power and energy industry.

 

  Real Estate Investments Risk. The Fund will, from time to time, make investments for which real estate is a significant portion of the investment’s asset base or value. Real estate values are affected by a number of factors, including changes in the general economic climate, local conditions (such as an oversupply of or a reduction in demand for real estate), the quality and philosophy of management, competition based on rental rates, attractiveness and location of the properties, financial condition of tenants, buyers and sellers or properties, quality of maintenance, insurance and management services and changes in operating costs. Real estate values are also affected by and sensitive to factors such as government regulations (including those governing usage, improvements, zoning and taxes), interest rate levels, the availability of financing and potential liability under changing environmental and other laws.

 

  Real estate assets generally will be subject to the risks incident to the ownership and operation of real estate and real estate-related assets and/or risks incident to the making of nonrecourse mortgage loans secured by real estate, including risks associated with both the domestic and international general economic climates; local real estate conditions; risks due to dependence on cash flow; risks and operating problems arising out of the absence of certain construction materials; changes in supply of, or demand for, competing properties in an area (as a result, for instance, of overbuilding); the financial condition of tenants, buyers and sellers of properties; changes in availability of debt financing; energy and supply shortages; changes in the tax, real estate, environmental and zoning laws and regulations; various uninsured or uninsurable risks; natural disasters; and the ability of the Fund or third-party borrowers to manage the real properties. The Fund could incur the burdens of ownership of real property, which include the paying of expenses and taxes, maintaining such property and any improvements thereon, and ultimately disposing of such property.

 

 

The Fund will invest in a real estate asset on a passive basis, giving a third-party operating partner and/or property manager a large degree of authority and responsibility for daily management of the assets and, therefore, will, in large part, be dependent on the ability of third parties to successfully operate the underlying real estate assets. There is no assurance that there will be a ready market for resale of investments



 

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because investments in real estate generally are not liquid; holding periods accordingly are difficult to predict, particularly as business plans can be revised to adapt to changing economic, business and financial conditions.

 

  Significant expenditures associated with real estate assets, such as mortgage payments, real estate taxes and maintenance costs, are generally not reduced when circumstances cause a reduction in income from the assets.

 

  The insurance coverage applicable to real estate assets contains policy specifications and insured limits customarily carried for similar properties, business activities and markets. There could be certain losses, including losses from floods and losses from earthquakes, acts of war, acts of terrorism or riots, that are not generally insured against or that are not generally fully insured against because it is not deemed to be economically feasible or prudent to do so. If an uninsured loss or a loss in excess of insured limits occurs with respect to a real estate asset, the Fund could experience a significant loss and could potentially remain obligated under any recourse debt associated with the property.

 

  Under various U.S., state and local laws, ordinances and regulations, a current or previous owner, developer or operator of real estate could be liable for the costs of removal or remediation of certain hazardous or toxic substances at, on, under or in its property. The costs of removal or remediation of such substances could be substantial. Such laws often impose liability without regard to whether the owner or operator knew of, or was responsible for, the release or presence of such hazardous substances. The Fund will attempt to assess such risks as part of their due diligence activities, but cannot give any assurance that such conditions do not exist or might not arise in the future. The presence of such substances on the real estate assets could adversely affect the ability to sell such investments or to borrow using such assets as collateral.

 

  Certain loans acquired or made by the Fund could be secured by real estate. To the extent the Fund needs to foreclose on such loans, the Fund could, directly or indirectly, own such real estate and would be subject to the risks incident to the ownership and operation of real estate.

 

 

From time to time, real estate loans or participation interests therein acquired by the Fund will at the time of their acquisition be, or may become after acquisition, non-performing for a wide variety of reasons. Such non-performing real estate loans could require a substantial amount of workout negotiations and/or restructuring, which could entail, among other things, a substantial reduction in the interest rate and a substantial write down of the principal of such loans. However, even if a restructuring were successfully accomplished, a risk exists that



 

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upon maturity of such real estate loan, replacement “takeout” financing will not be available. Purchases of participations in real estate loans raise many of the same risks as investments in real estate loans and also carry risks of illiquidity and lack of control.

 

  The foreclosure process varies jurisdiction by jurisdiction can be lengthy and expensive. Borrowers often resist foreclosure actions by asserting numerous claims, counterclaims and defenses against the holder of a real estate loan including, without limitation, lender liability claims and defenses, even when such assertions have no basis in fact, in an effort to prolong the foreclosure action. In some jurisdictions, foreclosure actions can take up to several years or more to conclude. During the foreclosure proceedings, a borrower could have the ability to file for bankruptcy, potentially staying the foreclosure action and further delaying the foreclosure process. Foreclosure litigation tends to create a negative public image of the collateral property and could result in disrupting ongoing leasing and management of the property.

 

  Short Selling Risk. Short selling involves a number of risks. Short sales are transactions in which the Fund sells a security or other instrument that it does not own but can borrow in the market. If a security sold short increases in price, the Fund could have to cover its short position at a higher price than the short sale price, resulting in a loss. It is possible that the Fund will not be able to borrow a security that it needs to deliver, or it will not be able to close out a short position at an acceptable price and could have to sell related long positions earlier than it had expected. Thus, the Fund might not be able to successfully implement its short sale strategy due to limited availability of desired securities or for other reasons. Also, there is the risk that the counterparty to a short sale could fail to honor its contractual terms, causing a loss to the Fund.

 

  Until the Fund replaces a security borrowed in connection with a short sale, it could be required to maintain a segregated account of cash or liquid assets with a broker or custodian to cover the Fund’s short position. Generally, securities held in a segregated account cannot be sold unless they are replaced with other liquid assets. The Fund’s ability to access the pledged collateral might also be impaired in the event the broker becomes bankrupt, insolvent or otherwise fails to comply with the terms of the contract. In such instances, the Fund will not be able to substitute or sell the pledged collateral and could experience significant delays in obtaining any recovery in a bankruptcy or other reorganization proceeding. It is likely that the Fund could obtain only a limited recovery or could obtain no recovery in these circumstances. Additionally, the Fund must maintain sufficient liquid assets (less any additional collateral pledged to the broker), marked-to-market daily, to cover the borrowed securities obligations. This could limit the Fund’s investment flexibility, as well as its ability to meet other current obligations.


 

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  Because losses on short sales arise from increases in the value of the security sold short, such losses are theoretically unlimited. By contrast, a loss on a long position arises from decreases in the value of the security and is limited by the fact that a security’s value cannot decrease below zero. In addition, engaging in short selling could limit the Fund’s ability to fully benefit from increases in the fixed-income markets.

 

  By investing the proceeds received from selling securities short, the Fund could be deemed to be employing a form of leverage, which creates special risks. The use of leverage would increase the Fund’s exposure to long securities positions and make any change in the Fund’s NAV greater than it would be without the use of leverage. This could result in increased volatility of returns. There is no guarantee that any leveraging strategy the Fund employs will be successful during any period in which it is employed. See “Risks—Leverage Risk.”

 

  In times of unusual or adverse market, economic, regulatory or political conditions, the Fund might not be able, fully or partially, to implement its short selling strategy.

 

 

Prepayment Risk. Prepayment risk occurs when a debt investment held by the Fund can be repaid in whole or in part prior to its maturity. The amount of prepayable obligations in which the Fund invests from time to time will be affected by general business conditions, market interest rates, borrowers’ financial conditions and competitive conditions among lenders. In a period of declining interest rates, borrowers are more likely to prepay investments more quickly than anticipated, reducing the yield to maturity and the average life of the relevant investment. Moreover, when the Fund reinvests the proceeds of a prepayment in these circumstances, it will likely receive a rate of interest that is lower than the rate on the security that was prepaid. To the extent that the Fund purchases the relevant investment at a premium, prepayments could result in a loss to the extent of the premium paid. If the Fund buys such investments at a discount, both scheduled payments and unscheduled prepayments will increase current and total returns and unscheduled prepayments will also accelerate the recognition of income which could be taxable as ordinary income to Shareholders. In a period of rising interest rates, prepayments of investments could occur at a slower than expected rate, creating maturity extension risk. This particular risk could effectively change an investment that was considered short- or intermediate-term at the time of purchase into a longer-term investment. Because the value of longer-term investments generally fluctuates more widely in response to changes in interest rates than shorter-term investments, maturity extension risk could increase the volatility of the Fund. When interest rates decline, the value of an investment with prepayment features might not increase as much as that of other fixed-income instruments, and, as noted above, changes



 

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in market rates of interest could accelerate or delay prepayments and thus affect maturities.

 

  Credit Derivatives Risk. The use of credit derivatives is a highly specialized activity which involves strategies and risks different from those associated with ordinary portfolio security transactions. If the Adviser is incorrect in its forecasts of default risks, liquidity risk, counterparty risk, market spreads or other applicable factors, the investment performance of the Fund would diminish compared with what it would have been if these techniques were not used. Moreover, even if the Adviser is correct in its forecasts, there is a risk that a credit derivative position will correlate imperfectly with the price of the asset or liability being protected. The Fund’s risk of loss in a credit derivative transaction varies with the form of the transaction. For example, if the Fund sells protection under a credit default swap, it would collect periodic fees from the buyer and would profit if the credit of the underlying issuer or reference entity remains stable or improves while the swap is outstanding, but the Fund would be required to pay an agreed upon amount to the buyer (which could be the entire notional amount of the swap) if the reference entity defaults on the reference security. Credit default swap agreements involve greater risks than if the Fund invested in the reference obligation directly.

 

  Derivatives Risk. The Fund’s derivative investments have risks, including the imperfect correlation between the value of such instruments and the underlying assets of the Fund, which creates the possibility that the loss on such instruments will be greater than the gain in the value of the underlying assets in the Fund’s portfolio; the loss of principal; the possible default of the other party to the transaction; and illiquidity of the derivative investments. If a counterparty becomes bankrupt or otherwise fails to perform its obligations under a derivative contract due to financial difficulties, the Fund could experience significant delays in obtaining any recovery under the derivative contract in a bankruptcy or other reorganization proceeding. In addition, in the event of the insolvency of a counterparty to a derivative transaction, the derivative contract would typically be terminated at its fair market value. If the Fund is owed this fair market value in the termination of the derivative contract and its claim is unsecured, the Fund will be treated as a general creditor of such counterparty and will not have any claim with respect to the underlying security.

 

 

The counterparty risk for cleared derivative transactions should generally be lower than for uncleared OTC derivatives since generally a clearing organization becomes substituted for each counterparty to a cleared derivative contract and, in effect, guarantees the parties’ performance under the contract as each party to a trade looks only to the clearing house for performance of financial obligations. However, there can be no assurance that the clearing house, or its members, will



 

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satisfy its obligations to the Fund. Exchange trading will generally increase market transparency and liquidity but could cause the Fund to incur increased expenses. In addition, depending on the size of the Fund and other factors, the margin required under the rules of a clearing house and by a clearing member could be in excess of the collateral required to be posted by the Fund to support its obligations under a similar OTC derivative transaction. However, the U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”) and other applicable regulators have adopted rules imposing certain margin requirements, including minimums, on uncleared OTC derivative transactions which could result in the Fund and its counterparties posting higher margin amounts for uncleared OTC derivative transactions.

 

  Certain of the derivative investments in which the Fund will invest will, in certain circumstances, give rise to a form of financial leverage, which magnifies the risk of owning such instruments. The ability to successfully use derivative investments depends on the ability of the Adviser to predict pertinent market movements, which cannot be assured. In addition, amounts paid by the Fund as premiums and cash or other assets held in margin accounts with respect to the Fund’s derivative investments would not be available to the Fund for other investment purposes, which could result in lost opportunities for gain.

 

 

OTC derivatives generally are more difficult to purchase, sell or value than other investments. Although both OTC and exchange-traded derivatives markets can experience a lack of liquidity, OTC non-standardized derivative transactions are generally less liquid than exchange-traded instruments. The illiquidity of the derivatives markets can be due to various factors, including congestion, disorderly markets, limitations on deliverable supplies, the participation of speculators, government regulation and intervention, and technical and operational or system failures. In addition, the liquidity of a secondary market in an exchange-traded derivative contract could be adversely affected by “daily price fluctuation limits” established by the exchanges which limit the amount of fluctuation in an exchange-traded contract price during a single trading day. Once the daily limit has been reached in the contract, no trades may be entered into at a price beyond the limit, thus preventing the liquidation of open positions. Prices have in the past moved beyond the daily limit on a number of consecutive trading days. If it is not possible to close an open derivative position entered into by the Fund, the Fund would continue to be required to make cash payments of variation (or mark-to-market) margin in the event of adverse price movements. In such a situation, if the Fund has insufficient cash, it could have to sell portfolio securities to meet variation margin requirements at a time when it is disadvantageous to do so. The absence of liquidity generally would also make it more difficult for the Fund to ascertain a market value for such instruments. The



 

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inability to close derivatives transactions positions also could have an adverse impact on the Fund’s ability to effectively hedge its portfolio. OTC derivatives that are not cleared are also subject to counterparty risk, which is the risk that the other party to the contract will not fulfill its contractual obligation to complete the transaction with the Fund. If a counterparty were to default on its obligations, the Fund’s contractual remedies against such counterparty could be subject to bankruptcy and insolvency laws, which could affect the Fund’s rights as a creditor (e.g., the Fund might not receive the net amount of payments that it is contractually entitled to receive). In addition, the use of certain derivatives could cause the Fund to realize higher amounts of income or short-term capital gains (generally taxed at ordinary income tax rates).

 

  The derivatives markets have become subject to comprehensive statutes, regulations and margin requirements. In particular, in the United States the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd-Frank Act”) regulates the OTC derivatives market by, among other things, requiring many derivative transactions to be cleared and traded on an exchange, expanding entity registration requirements, imposing business conduct requirements on dealers and requiring banks to move some derivatives trading units to a non-guaranteed affiliate separate from the deposit-taking bank or divest them altogether. Rulemaking proposed or implemented under the Dodd-Frank Act could potentially limit or completely restrict the ability of the Fund to use these instruments as a part of its investment strategy, increase the costs of using these instruments or make them less effective. Limits or restrictions applicable to the counterparties with which the Fund engages in derivative transactions could also prevent the Fund from using these instruments or affect the pricing or other factors relating to these instruments, or could change availability of certain investments.

 

  The Fund’s investments in regulated derivatives instruments, such as swaps, futures and options, will be subject to maximum position limits established by the CFTC and U.S. and foreign futures exchanges. Under the exchange rules all accounts owned or managed by advisers, such as the Adviser, their principals and affiliates would be combined for position limit purposes. In order to comply with the position limits established by the CFTC and the relevant exchanges, the Adviser could in the future reduce the size of positions that would otherwise be taken for the Fund or not trade in certain markets on behalf of the Fund in order to avoid exceeding such limits. A violation of position limits by the Adviser could lead to regulatory action resulting in mandatory liquidation of certain positions held by the Adviser on behalf of the Fund. There can be no assurance that the Adviser will liquidate positions held on behalf of all the Adviser’s accounts in a proportionate manner or at favorable prices, which could result in substantial losses to the Fund. Such policies could affect the nature and extent of derivatives use by the Fund.


 

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  Structured Products Risk. The Fund will invest in Structured Products, consisting of CLOs, CDOs, CBOs and credit-linked notes. Holders of Structured Products bear risks of the underlying investments, index or reference obligation and are subject to counterparty risk.

 

  Structured Products are subject to the normal interest rate, default and other risks associated with fixed-income securities and asset-backed securities. Additionally, the risks of an investment in a Structured Product depend largely on the type of the collateral securities and the class of the Structured Product or other asset-backed security in which the Fund invests. The Fund generally will have the right to receive payments only from the Structured Product, and generally does not have direct rights against the issuer or the entity that sold the underlying collateral assets. Such collateral could be insufficient to meet payment obligations and the quality of the collateral might decline in value or default. Also, the class of the Structured Product could be subordinate to other classes, values could be volatile, and disputes with the issuer could produce unexpected investment results. While certain Structured Products enable the investor to acquire interests in a pool of securities without the brokerage and other expenses associated with directly holding the same securities, investors in Structured Products generally pay their share of the Structured Product’s administrative and other expenses. Although it is difficult to predict whether the prices of indices and securities underlying Structured Products will rise or fall, these prices (and, therefore, the prices of Structured Products) will be influenced by the same types of political and economic events that affect issuers of securities and capital markets generally. If the issuer of a Structured Product uses shorter-term financing to purchase longer term securities, the issuer could be forced to sell its securities at below market prices if it experiences difficulty in obtaining short-term financing, which could adversely affect the value of the Structured Products owned by the Fund.

 

 

Structured Products issue classes or “tranches” that offer various maturity, risk and yield characteristics. Losses caused by defaults on underlying assets are borne first by the holders of subordinate tranches. If there are defaults or the Structured Product’s collateral otherwise underperforms, scheduled payments to more senior tranches take precedence over those of subordinate tranches. The riskiest portion is the “equity” tranche which bears the bulk of defaults from the collateral and serves to protect the other, more senior tranches from default in all but the most severe circumstances. Despite the protection from the subordinate tranches, more senior tranches of structured products can experience substantial losses due to actual defaults, downgrades of the underlying collateral by rating agencies, forced liquidation of the collateral pool due to a failure of coverage tests, increased sensitivity to defaults due to collateral



 

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default and disappearance of protecting tranches, market anticipation of defaults as well as investor aversion to Structured Product securities as a class.

 

  In addition to the general risks associated with debt securities discussed herein, Structured Products carry additional risks, including, but not limited to the risk that: (i) distributions from collateral securities might not be adequate to make interest or other payments; (ii) the collateral could default or decline in value or be downgraded, if rated by a NRSRO; (iii) the Fund is likely to invest in tranches of Structured Products that are subordinate to other tranches; (iv) the structure and complexity of the transaction and the legal documents could lead to disputes among investors regarding the characterization of proceeds; (v) the investment return achieved by the Fund could be significantly different than those predicted by financial models; (vi) there will be no readily available secondary market for Structured Products; (vii) technical defaults, such as coverage test failures, could result in forced liquidation of the collateral pool; and (viii) the Structured Product’s manager could perform poorly.

 

  Typically, Structured Products are privately offered and sold, and thus, are not registered under the securities laws and can be thinly traded or have a limited trading market. As a result, investments in Structured Products could be characterized as illiquid investments and could have limited independent pricing transparency. However, an active dealer market could exist for Structured Products that qualify under the Rule 144A “safe harbor” from the registration requirements of the Securities Act for resales of certain securities to qualified institutional buyers, and such Structured Products could be characterized by the Fund as liquid investments.

 

  Mortgage-Backed and Asset-Backed Securities Risk. The price paid by the Fund for asset-backed securities, including CLOs, the yield the Fund expects to receive from such securities and the average life of such securities are based on a number of factors, including the anticipated rate of prepayment of the underlying assets. The value of these securities could be significantly affected by changes in interest rates, the market’s perception of issuers, and the creditworthiness of the parties involved. The ability of the Fund to successfully utilize these instruments could depend on the ability of the Adviser to forecast interest rates and other economic factors correctly. These securities could have a structure that makes their reaction to interest rate changes and other factors difficult to predict, making their value highly volatile.

 

 

In addition to the risks associated with other asset-backed securities as described above, mortgage-backed securities are subject to the general risks associated with investing in real estate securities; that is, they could lose value if the value of the underlying real estate to



 

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which a pool of mortgages relates declines. In addition, mortgage-backed securities comprised of subprime mortgages and investments in other asset-backed securities collateralized by subprime loans could be subject to a higher degree of credit risk and valuation risk. Additionally, such securities could be subject to a higher degree of liquidity risk, because the liquidity of such investments could vary dramatically over time.

 

  Mortgage-backed securities can be issued by governments or their agencies and instrumentalities, such as, in the United States, Ginnie Mae, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. They can also be issued by private issuers but represent an interest in or are collateralized by pass-through securities issued or guaranteed by a government or one of its agencies or instrumentalities. In addition, mortgage-backed securities can be issued by private issuers and collateralized by securities without a government guarantee. Such securities typically have some form of private credit enhancement.

 

  Pools created by private issuers generally offer a higher rate of interest than government and government-related pools because there are no direct or indirect government or agency guarantees of payments. Notwithstanding that such pools can be supported by various forms of private insurance or guarantees, there can be no assurance that the private insurers or guarantors will be able to meet their obligations under the insurance policies or guarantee arrangements. From time to time, the Fund will invest in private mortgage pass-through securities without such insurance or guarantees. Any mortgage-backed securities that are issued by private issuers are likely to have some exposure to subprime loans as well as to the mortgage and credit markets generally. In addition, such securities are not subject to the underwriting requirements for the underlying mortgages that would generally apply to securities that have a government or government-sponsored entity guarantee, thereby increasing their credit risk. The risk of non-payment is greater for mortgage-related securities that are backed by mortgage pools that contain subprime loans, but a level of risk exists for all loans. Market factors adversely affecting mortgage loan repayments include a general economic downturn, high unemployment, a general slowdown in the real estate market, a drop in the market prices of real estate or an increase in interest rates resulting in higher mortgage payments by holders of adjustable rate mortgages.

 

 

Repurchase Agreements Risk. Subject to its investment objectives and policies, the Fund will, from time to time, invest in repurchase agreements as a buyer for investment purposes. Repurchase agreements typically involve the acquisition by the Fund of debt securities from a selling financial institution such as a bank, savings and loan association or broker-dealer. The agreement provides that the Fund will sell the securities back to the institution at a fixed time in the future. The Fund does not bear the risk of a decline in the value of the underlying security



 

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unless the seller defaults under its repurchase obligation. In the event of the bankruptcy or other default of a seller of a repurchase agreement, the Fund could experience both delays in liquidating the underlying securities and losses, including (i) possible decline in the value of the underlying security during the period in which the Fund seeks to enforce its rights thereto; (ii) possible lack of access to income on the underlying security during this period; and (iii) expenses of enforcing its rights. In addition, the value of the collateral underlying the repurchase agreement will be at least equal to the repurchase price, including any accrued interest earned on the repurchase agreement. In the event of a default or bankruptcy by a selling financial institution, the Fund generally will seek to liquidate such collateral. However, the exercise of the Fund’s right to liquidate such collateral could involve certain costs or delays and, to the extent that proceeds from any sale upon a default of the obligation to repurchase were less than the repurchase price, the Fund could suffer a loss.

 

  Reverse Repurchase Agreements and Dollar Rolls Risk. The use of reverse repurchase agreements and dollar rolls involve many of the same risks involved in the use of leverage, as the proceeds from reverse repurchase agreements and dollar rolls generally will be invested in additional securities. There is a risk that the market value of the securities acquired in the reverse repurchase agreement or dollar roll will decline below the price of the securities that the Fund has sold but remains obligated to repurchase. In addition, there is a risk that the market value of the securities retained by the Fund will decline. If the buyer of securities under a reverse repurchase agreement or dollar roll were to file for bankruptcy or experience insolvency, the Fund could be adversely affected. Also, in entering into reverse repurchase agreements, the Fund would bear the risk of loss to the extent that the proceeds of the reverse repurchase agreement are less than the value of the underlying securities. In addition, due to the interest costs associated with reverse repurchase agreements and dollar roll transactions, the Fund’s NAV will decline, and, in some cases, the Fund could be worse off than if it had not used such instruments.

 

 

Swap Risk. The Fund will, from time to time, also invest in credit default swaps, total return swaps, interest rate swaps and other types of swaps. Such transactions are subject to market risk, liquidity risk, risk of default by the other party to the transaction, known as “counterparty risk,” regulatory risk and risk of imperfect correlation between the value of such instruments and the underlying assets and could involve commissions or other costs. When buying protection under a credit default swap, the risk of market loss with respect to the swap generally is limited to the net amount of payments that the Fund is contractually obligated to make. However, when selling protection under a swap, the risk of loss is often the notional value of the underlying asset, which can result in a loss substantially greater than the amount invested in the swap itself. As a seller, the Fund would be incurring a form of leverage. The



 

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Fund will “cover” its swap positions by segregating an amount of cash and/or liquid securities as required by the 1940 Act and applicable SEC interpretations and guidance from time to time.

 

  The Dodd-Frank Act and related regulatory developments ultimately will require the clearing and exchange-trading of many OTC derivative instruments that the CFTC and SEC recently defined as “swaps.” Mandatory exchange-trading and clearing will occur on a phased-in basis based on the type of market participant and CFTC determination of contracts for central clearing. The Adviser will continue to monitor these developments, particularly to the extent regulatory changes affect a Fund’s ability to enter into swap agreements.

 

  The swap market has matured in recent years with a large number of banks and investment banking firms acting both as principals and as agents utilizing standardized swap documentation. As a result, the swap market has become relatively liquid; however there is no guarantee that the swap market will continue to provide liquidity, and it could be subject to liquidity risk, which exists when a particular swap is difficult to purchase or sell. The absence of liquidity could also make it more difficult for the Fund to ascertain a market value for such instruments. The inability to close derivative positions also could have an adverse impact on the Fund’s ability to effectively hedge its portfolio. If the Adviser is incorrect in its forecasts of market values, interest rates or currency exchange rates, the investment performance of the Fund would be less favorable than it would have been if these investment techniques were not used. In a total return swap, the Fund pays the counterparty a floating short-term interest rate and receives in exchange the total return of underlying loans or debt securities. The Fund bears the risk of default on the underlying loans or debt securities, based on the notional amount of the swap and, therefore, incurs a form of leverage. The Fund would typically have to post collateral to cover this potential obligation.

 

  Options and Futures Risk. The Fund will, from time to time, use options and futures contracts and so-called “synthetic” options or other derivatives written by broker-dealers or other permissible financial intermediaries. Options transactions can be effected on securities exchanges or in the OTC market. When options are purchased OTC, the Fund’s portfolio bears the risk that the counterparty that wrote the option will be unable or unwilling to perform its obligations under the option contract. Options can also be illiquid and, in such cases, the Fund could have difficulty closing out its position. OTC options can also include options on baskets of specific securities.

 

 

The Fund will, from time to time, purchase call and put options on specific securities and write and sell covered or uncovered call and put options for hedging purposes in pursuing its investment



 

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objectives. A put option gives the purchaser of the option the right to sell, and obligates the writer to buy, the underlying security at a stated exercise price, typically at any time prior to the expiration of the option for American options or only at expiration for European options. A call option gives the purchaser of the option the right to buy, and obligates the writer to sell, the underlying security at a stated exercise price, typically at any time prior to the expiration of the option. A covered call option is a call option with respect to which the seller of the option owns the underlying security. The sale of such an option exposes the seller during the term of the option to possible loss of opportunity to realize appreciation in the market price of the underlying security or to possible continued holding of a security that might otherwise have been sold to protect against depreciation in the market price of the security. A covered put option is a put option with respect to which cash or liquid securities have been placed in a segregated account on the books of or with a custodian to fulfill the obligation undertaken. The sale of such an option exposes the seller during the term of the option to a decline in price of the underlying security while depriving the seller of the opportunity to invest the segregated assets.

 

  The Fund might close out a position when writing options by purchasing an option on the same underlying security with the same exercise price and expiration date as the option that it has previously written on the security. In such a case, the Fund will realize a profit or loss if the amount paid to purchase an option is less or more than the amount received from the sale of the option.

 

  Engaging in transactions in futures contracts and options involves risk of loss to the Fund. No assurance can be given that a liquid market will exist for any particular futures contract or option at any particular time. Many futures exchanges and boards of trade limit the amount of fluctuation permitted in futures contract prices during a single trading day. Once the daily limit has been reached in a particular contract, no trades may be made that day at a price beyond that limit or trading can be suspended for specified periods during the trading day. Futures contract prices could move to the limit for several consecutive trading days with little or no trading, preventing prompt liquidation of futures positions and potentially subjecting the Fund to substantial losses.

 

  A market could become unavailable if one or more exchanges were to stop trading options or it could become unavailable with respect to options on a particular underlying security if the exchanges stopped trading options on that security. In addition, a market could become temporarily unavailable if unusual events (e.g., volume exceeds clearing capability) were to interrupt normal exchange operations. If an options market were to become illiquid or otherwise unavailable, an option holder would be able to realize profits or limit losses only by exercising and an options seller or writer would remain obligated until it is assigned an exercise or until the option expires.


 

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  If trading is interrupted in an underlying security, the trading of options on that security is usually halted as well. Holders and writers of options will then be unable to close out their positions until options trading resumes, and they could be faced with considerable losses if the security reopens at a substantially different price. Even if options trading is halted, holders of options will generally be able to exercise them. However, if trading has also been halted in the underlying security, option holders face the risk of exercising options without knowing the security’s current market value. If exercises do occur when trading of the underlying security is halted, the party required to deliver the underlying security could be unable to obtain it, which could necessitate a postponed settlement and/or the fixing of cash settlement prices.

 

  Investment Companies Risk. The Fund will, from time to time, invest in securities of exchange-traded funds (“ETFs”) and other closed-end funds. Investments in ETFs and closed-end funds are subject to a variety of risks, including all of the risks of a direct investment in the underlying securities that the ETF or closed-end fund holds. ETFs are also subject to certain additional risks, including, without limitation, the risk that their prices might not correlate perfectly with changes in the prices of the underlying securities they are designed to track, and the risk of trading in an ETF halting due to market conditions or other reasons, based on the policies of the exchange upon which the ETF trades. Shares of ETFs and closed-end funds at times trade at a premium or discount to their NAV because the supply and demand in the market for their shares at any point in time might not be identical to the supply and demand in the market for their underlying securities. Some ETFs and closed-end funds are highly leveraged and therefore would subject the Fund to the additional risks associated with leverage. See “Risks—Leverage Risk.” In addition, the Fund will bear, along with other shareholders of an investment company, its pro rata portion of the investment company’s expenses, including management fees. Accordingly, in addition to bearing their proportionate share of the Fund’s expenses, Shareholders also indirectly bear similar expenses of an investment company.

 

 

Counterparty Risk. Certain Fund investments will be exposed to the credit risk of the counterparties with which, or the dealers, brokers and exchanges through which, the Fund deals, whether in exchange-traded or OTC transactions. The Fund will be subject to the risk of loss of Fund assets on deposit or being settled or cleared with a broker in the event of the broker’s bankruptcy, the bankruptcy of any clearing broker through which the broker executes and clears transactions on behalf of the Fund, the bankruptcy of an exchange clearing house or the bankruptcy of any other counterparty. In the case of any such bankruptcy, the Fund might recover, even in respect of property specifically traceable to the Fund, only a pro rata share of all property available for distribution to all of the counterparty’s customers and counterparties. Such an amount could be less than the



 

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amounts owed to the Fund. Such events would have an adverse effect on the NAV of the Fund. Certain counterparties have general custody of, or title to, the Fund’s assets (including, without limitation, the Fund’s Custodian). The failure of any such counterparty could result in adverse consequences to the NAV of the Fund.

 

  Counterparty and Prime Brokerage Risk. Changes in the credit quality of the companies that serve as the Fund’s prime brokers or counterparties with respect to derivatives or other transactions supported by another party’s credit will affect the value of those instruments. Certain entities that have served as prime brokers or counterparties in the markets for these transactions have recently incurred significant financial hardships including bankruptcy and losses as a result of exposure to sub-prime mortgages and other lower quality credit investments that have experienced recent defaults or otherwise suffered extreme credit deterioration. As a result, such hardships have reduced such entities’ capital and called into question their continued ability to perform their obligations under such transactions. By using derivatives, swaps or other transactions, the Fund assumes the risk that its counterparties could experience similar financial hardships. If a prime broker or counterparty becomes bankrupt or otherwise fails to perform its obligations under a derivative contract due to financial difficulties, the Fund could experience significant delays in obtaining any recovery under the derivative contract in a bankruptcy or other reorganization proceeding; if the Fund’s claim is unsecured, the Fund will be treated as a general creditor of such prime broker or counterparty and will not have any claim with respect to the underlying security. It is possible that the Fund will obtain only a limited recovery or no recovery in such circumstances.

 

  Lender Liability Risk. A number of U.S. judicial decisions have upheld judgments obtained by Borrowers against lending institutions on the basis of various evolving legal theories, collectively termed “lender liability.” Generally, lender liability is founded on the premise that a lender has violated a duty (whether implied or contractual) of good faith, commercial reasonableness and fair dealing, or a similar duty owed to the Borrower or has assumed an excessive degree of control over the Borrower resulting in the creation of a fiduciary duty owed to the Borrower or its other creditors or shareholders. Because of the nature of its investments, the Fund will, from time to time, be subject to allegations of lender liability.

 

 

In addition, under common law principles that in some cases form the basis for lender liability claims, if a lender or bondholder (i) intentionally takes an action that results in the undercapitalization of a Borrower to the detriment of other creditors of such Borrower; (ii) engages in other inequitable conduct to the detriment of such other creditors; (iii) engages in fraud with respect to, or makes misrepresentations to, such other creditors; or (iv) uses its influence



 

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as a stockholder to dominate or control a Borrower to the detriment of other creditors of such Borrower, a court might elect to subordinate the claim of the offending lender or bondholder to the claims of the disadvantaged creditor or creditors, a remedy called “equitable subordination.”

 

  Because affiliates of, or persons related to, the Adviser will, at times, hold equity or other interests in obligors of the Fund, the Fund could be exposed to claims for equitable subordination or lender liability or both based on such equity or other holdings.

 

  Borrower Fraud; Breach of Covenant. The Fund will seek to obtain structural, covenant and other contractual protections with respect to the terms of its investments as determined appropriate under the circumstances. There can be no assurance that such attempts to provide downside protection with respect to its investments will achieve their desired effect and potential investors should regard an investment in the Fund as being speculative and having a high degree of risk. Of paramount concern in originating or acquiring the financing contemplated by the Fund is the possibility of material misrepresentation or omission on the part of borrower or other credit support providers or breach of covenant by such parties. Such inaccuracy or incompleteness or breach of covenants could adversely affect the valuation of the collateral underlying the loans or the ability of the Fund to perfect or effectuate a lien on the collateral securing the loan or otherwise realize on the investment. The Fund will rely upon the accuracy and completeness of representations made by borrowers to the extent reasonable, but cannot guarantee such accuracy or completeness.

 

  Distressed Debt, Litigation, Bankruptcy and Other Proceedings. The Fund will, from time to time, be invested in debt securities and other obligations of companies that are experiencing significant financial or business distress. Investments in distressed securities involve a material risk of involving the Fund in a related litigation. Such litigation can be time-consuming and expensive, and can frequently lead to unpredicted delays or losses. Litigation expenses, including payments pursuant to settlements or judgments, generally will be borne by the Fund.

 

 

From time to time, the Adviser will make investments for the Fund in companies involved in bankruptcy proceedings. There are a number of significant risks when investing in companies involved in bankruptcy proceedings, and many events in a bankruptcy are the product of contested matters and adversary proceedings which are beyond the control of the creditors. A bankruptcy filing could have adverse and permanent effects on a company. Further, if the proceeding is converted to a liquidation, the liquidation value of the company might not equal the liquidation value that was believed to exist at the time of the investment. In addition, the duration of a



 

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bankruptcy proceeding is difficult to predict. A creditor’s return on investment can be impacted adversely by delays while the plan of reorganization is being negotiated, approved by the creditors and confirmed by the bankruptcy court, and until it ultimately becomes effective. Certain claims, such as claims for taxes, wages and certain trade claims, could have priority by law over the claims of certain creditors and administrative costs in connection with a bankruptcy proceeding are frequently high and will be paid out of the debtor’s estate prior to any return to creditors.

 

  Certain investments of the Fund could be subject to federal bankruptcy law and state fraudulent transfer laws, which vary from state to state, if the debt obligations relating to such investments were issued with the intent of hindering, delaying or defrauding creditors or, in certain circumstances, if the issuer receives less than reasonably equivalent value or fair consideration in return for issuing such debt obligations. If the debt is used for a buyout of shareholders, this risk is greater than if the debt proceeds are used for day-to-day operations or organic growth. If a court were to find that the issuance of the debt obligations was a fraudulent transfer or conveyance, the court could void or otherwise refuse to recognize the payment obligations under the debt obligations or the collateral supporting such obligations, further subordinate the debt obligations or the liens supporting such obligations to other existing and future indebtedness of the issuer or require the Fund to repay any amounts received by it with respect to the debt obligations or collateral. In the event of a finding that a fraudulent transfer or conveyance occurred, the Fund might not receive any repayment on the debt obligations.

 

  Under certain circumstances, payments to the Fund could be reclaimed if any such payment or distribution is later determined to have been a fraudulent conveyance, preferential payment or similar transaction under applicable bankruptcy and insolvency laws. Furthermore, investments in restructurings could be adversely affected by statutes relating to, among other things, fraudulent conveyances, voidable preferences, lender liability and the court’s discretionary power to disallow, subordinate or disenfranchise particular claims or recharacterize investments made in the form of debt as equity contributions.

 

 

Under Title 11 of the United States Code, as amended (the “Bankruptcy Code”), a lender that has inappropriately exercised control of the management and policies of a company that is a debtor under the Bankruptcy Code could have its claims against the company subordinated or disallowed or could be found liable for damages suffered by parties as a result of such actions. Such claims could also be disallowed or subordinated to the claims of other creditors if the lender (e.g., the Fund) (i) is found to have engaged in other inequitable conduct resulting in harm to other parties, (ii) intentionally takes action that results in the undercapitalization of



 

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a borrower, (iii) engages in fraud with respect to, or makes misrepresentations to other creditors, or (iv) uses its influence as a shareholder to dominate or control a borrower to the detriment of other creditors of such borrower. The lender’s investment could also be recharacterized or treated as equity if it is deemed to be a contribution to capital, or if the lender attempts to control the outcome of the business affairs of a company prior to its filing under the Bankruptcy Code. While the Fund will attempt to avoid taking the types of action that would lead to the subordination, disallowance and liability described above, there can be no assurance that such claims will not be asserted or that the Fund will be able successfully to defend against them.

 

  From time to time, the Fund will seek to place its representatives on the boards of certain companies in which the Fund has invested. The Fund could also invest in companies in which KKR and/or other KKR clients or accounts will have representatives on the boards of such companies. While such representation could enable the Fund to enhance the sale value of its debt investments in a company, such involvement (and/or an equity stake by the Fund, KKR or other KKR clients or accounts in such company) could also prevent the Fund from freely disposing of its debt investments and could subject the Fund to additional liability or result in recharacterization of the Fund’s debt investments as equity. The Fund will attempt to balance the advantages and disadvantages of such representation when deciding whether and how to exercise its rights with respect to such companies, but the exercise of such rights could produce adverse consequences in particular situations.

 

  Insofar as the Fund’s portfolio includes obligations of non-U.S. obligors, the laws of certain foreign jurisdictions could provide for avoidance remedies under factual circumstances similar to those described above or under different circumstances, with consequences that might or might not be analogous to those described above under U.S. federal or state laws. Changes in bankruptcy laws (including U.S. federal and state laws and applicable non-U.S. laws) could adversely impact the Fund’s securities.

 

 

Convertible Securities Risk. Convertible securities are bonds, debentures, notes, preferred stocks or other securities that can be converted into or exchanged for a specified amount of common stock of the same or a different issuer within a particular period of time at a specified price or formula. A convertible security entitles its holder to receive interest that is generally paid or accrued on debt or a dividend that is paid or accrued on preferred stock until the convertible security matures or is redeemed, converted or exchanged. Convertible securities have unique investment characteristics in that they generally (i) have higher yields than common stocks, but lower yields than comparable non-convertible securities; (ii) are less subject to fluctuation in value than the underlying common stock due to their



 

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fixed-income characteristics; and (iii) provide the potential for capital appreciation if the market price of the underlying common stock increases.

 

  The value of a convertible security is a function of its “investment value” (determined by its yield in comparison with the yields of other securities of comparable maturity and quality that do not have a conversion privilege) and its “conversion value” (the security’s worth, at market value, if converted into the underlying common stock). The investment value of a convertible security is influenced by changes in interest rates, with investment value declining as interest rates increase and increasing as interest rates decline. The credit standing of the issuer and other factors also could have an effect on the convertible security’s investment value. The conversion value of a convertible security is determined by the market price of the underlying common stock. If the conversion value is low relative to the investment value, the price of the convertible security is governed principally by its investment value. To the extent the market price of the underlying common stock approaches or exceeds the conversion price, the price of the convertible security will be increasingly influenced by its conversion value. A convertible security generally will sell at a premium over its conversion value by the extent to which investors place value on the right to acquire the underlying common stock while holding a fixed-income instrument. Generally, the amount of the premium decreases as the convertible security approaches maturity. Although under normal market conditions longer-term convertible debt securities have greater yields than do shorter-term convertible debt securities of similar quality, they are subject to greater price fluctuations.

 

  When-Issued Securities and Forward Commitments. From time to time, the Fund will purchase securities on a “forward commitment” or “when-issued” basis (meaning securities are purchased or sold with payment and delivery taking place in the future) in order to secure what is considered to be an advantageous price and yield at the time of entering into the transaction. However, the return on a comparable security when the transaction is consummated could vary from the return on the security at the time that the forward commitment or when-issued transaction was made. From the time of entering into the transaction until delivery and payment is made at a later date, the securities that are the subject of the transaction are subject to market fluctuations. In forward commitment or when-issued transactions, if the seller or buyer, as the case may be, fails to consummate the transaction, the counterparty could miss the opportunity of obtaining a price or yield considered to be advantageous. Forward commitment or when-issued transactions can occur a month or more before delivery is due. However, no payment or delivery is made until payment is received or delivery is made from the other party to the transaction.


 

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  Non-Controlling Equity Investments; Investments in Equity Securities; Investments and Joint Ventures with Third Parties. While the Fund intends to invest primarily in debt investments, it will, from time to time, also make non-controlling equity investments and investments in equity and equity-linked securities. The value of equity securities, including common stock, preferred stock and convertible stock, will fluctuate in response to factors affecting the particular company, as well as broader market and economic conditions. Prices of equity securities fluctuate for many reasons, including changes in investors’ perceptions of the financial condition of an issuer or the general condition of the relevant stock market, or when political or economic events affecting the issuer occur. Moreover, in the event of a company’s bankruptcy, claims of certain creditors, including bondholders, will have priority over claims of common stock holders and are likely to have varying types of priority over holders of preferred and convertible stock. These risks could increase fluctuations in the Fund’s NAV. If the Fund’s investments in equity securities are incidental to the Fund’s investments in loans or fixed-income instruments, the Fund frequently could possess material non-public information about a Borrower or issuer as a result of its ownership of a loan or fixed-income instrument of a Borrower or issuer. Because of prohibitions on trading in securities while in possession of material non-public information, the Fund might be unable to enter into a transaction in a security of the Borrower or issuer when it would otherwise be advantageous to do so.

 

  The Fund also could be exposed to risks that issuers will not fulfill contractual obligations such as, in the case of convertible instruments or private placements, delivering marketable common stock upon conversions of convertible instruments and registering restricted securities for public resale. With respect to non-controlling equity investments, the Fund could have a limited ability to protect its position in such investments.

 

 

From time to time, the Fund will also co-invest with third parties through partnerships, joint ventures or other entities, thereby acquiring jointly-controlled or non-controlling interests in certain investments in conjunction with participation by one or more third parties in such investment. As a co-investor, the Fund could have interests or objectives that are inconsistent with those of the third-party partners or co-venturers. Although the Fund might not have full control over these investments and, therefore, could have a limited ability to protect its position therein, the Adviser expects that appropriate rights will be negotiated to protect the Fund’s interests. Nevertheless, such investments can involve risks not present in investments where a third party is not involved, including the possibility that a third-party partner or co-venturer could have financial difficulties resulting in a negative impact on such investment, could have economic or business interests or goals which are inconsistent with those of the Fund, or could be in a position to



 

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take (or block) action in a manner contrary to the Fund’s investment objectives or the increased possibility of default by, diminished liquidity or insolvency of, the third party, due to a sustained or general economic downturn. Third-party partners or co-venturers could opt to liquidate an investment at a time during which such liquidation is not optimal for the Fund. In addition, the Fund could in certain circumstances be liable for the actions of its third-party partners or co-venturers. In those circumstances where such third parties involve a management group, such third parties could receive compensation arrangements relating to such investments, including incentive compensation arrangements.

 

  U.S. Government Debt Securities Risk. U.S. government debt securities generally do not involve the credit risks associated with investments in other types of debt securities, although, as a result, the yields available from U.S. government debt securities are generally lower than the yields available from other securities. Like other debt securities, however, the values of U.S. government securities change as interest rates fluctuate. Fluctuations in the value of portfolio securities will not affect interest income on existing portfolio securities but will be reflected in the Fund’s NAV. Since the magnitude of these fluctuations will generally be greater at times when the Fund’s average maturity is longer, under certain market conditions the Fund will for temporary defensive purposes, accept lower current income from short-term investments rather than investing in higher yielding long-term securities. In 2008, the Federal Housing Finance Agency (“FHFA”) placed the Federal National Mortgage Association (“Fannie Mae”) and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“Freddie Mac”) into conservatorship. As conservator, FHFA succeeded to all rights, titles, powers and privileges of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac and of any stockholder, officer or director of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac and the assets of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac are continuing to operate as going concerns while in conservatorship and each remains liable for all of its respective obligations, including guaranty obligations, associated with its mortgage-backed securities. There is no assurance that the obligations of such entities will be satisfied in full, or that such obligations will not lose value or default. Any Fund investments issued by Federal Home Loan Banks and Fannie Mae could ultimately lose value.

 

 

Non-U.S. Securities Risk. The Fund invests in securities or other instruments, including secured loans and unsecured loans, of non-U.S. issuers or Borrowers. Such investments involve certain factors not typically associated with investing in the United States or other developed countries, including risks relating to: (i) differences between U.S. and non-U.S. securities markets, including potential price volatility in and relative illiquidity of some non-U.S. securities markets; the absence of uniform accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards, practices, and disclosure requirements; and less



 

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government supervision and regulation; (ii) other differences in law and regulation, including fewer investor protections, less stringent fiduciary duties, less developed bankruptcy laws and difficulty in enforcing contractual obligations; (iii) certain economic and political risks, including potential economic, political or social instability; exchange control regulations; restrictions on foreign investment and repatriation of capital (possibly requiring government approval); expropriation or confiscatory taxation; higher rates of inflation; and reliance on a more limited number of commodity inputs, service providers, and/or distribution mechanisms; and (iv) the possible imposition of foreign taxes on income and gains recognized with respect to securities and other assets. The risks of investments in emerging markets (if any) including the risks described above, are usually greater than the risks involved in investing in more developed markets. Because non-U.S. securities could trade on days when the Fund’s Shares are not priced, the Fund’s NAV could change at times when Shares cannot be sold.

 

  Emerging Markets Risk. Because of less developed markets and economies and, in some countries, less mature governments and governmental institutions, the risks of investing in foreign securities set forth above can be intensified in the case of investments in issuers domiciled or doing substantial business in emerging market countries. These risks include high concentration of market capitalization and trading volume in a small number of issuers representing a limited number of industries, as well as a high concentration of investors and financial intermediaries; political and social uncertainties; over-dependence on exports, especially with respect to primary commodities, making these economies vulnerable to changes in commodity prices; overburdened infrastructure and obsolete or unseasoned financial systems; environmental problems; less developed legal systems; and less reliable custodial services and settlement practices. Investing in securities of companies in emerging markets also entails risks of expropriation, nationalization, confiscation or the imposition of restrictions on foreign investment, the lack of hedging instruments, and the repatriation of capital invested. Emerging securities markets are substantially smaller, less developed, less liquid and more volatile than the major securities markets. The limited size of emerging securities markets and limited trading value compared to the volume of trading in U.S. securities could cause prices to be erratic for reasons apart from factors that affect the quality of the securities. For example, limited market size generally causes prices to be unduly influenced by traders who control large positions.

 

 

Foreign Currency Risk. Investments made by the Fund, and the income received by the Fund with respect to such investments, will, from time to time, be denominated in various non-U.S. currencies. However, the books of the Fund are maintained in U.S. dollars. Accordingly, changes in currency values could adversely affect the



 

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U.S. dollar value of portfolio investments, interest and other revenue streams received by the Fund, gains and losses realized on the sale of portfolio investments, and the amount of distributions, if any, made by the Fund. In addition, the Fund will incur costs in converting investment proceeds from one currency to another. The Fund will, from time to time, enter into derivative transactions designed to reduce such currency risks. Furthermore, the portfolio companies in which the Fund invests are subject to risks relating to changes in currency values, as described above. If a portfolio company suffers adverse consequences as a result of such changes, the Fund could also be adversely affected as a result.

 

  Eurozone Risk. The Fund will, from time to time, invest in European companies and companies that have operations that are affected by the Eurozone economy. For example, concerns regarding the sovereign debt of various Eurozone countries and proposals for investors to incur substantial write-downs and reductions in the face value of certain countries’ sovereign debt have given rise to new concerns about sovereign defaults, following the vote by the United Kingdom (“UK”) to leave the European Union (“EU”). The outcome of this situation cannot yet be predicted. Sovereign debt defaults and EU and/or Eurozone exits, generally, could have material adverse effects on investments by the Fund in European companies, including but not limited to the availability of credit to support such companies’ financing needs, uncertainty and disruption in relation to financing, customer and supply contracts denominated in the Euro and wider economic disruption in markets served by those companies, while austerity and other measures introduced in order to limit or contain these issues could themselves lead to economic contraction and resulting adverse effects for the Fund. It is possible that a number of the Fund’s securities will be denominated in the Euro. Legal uncertainty about the funding of Euro denominated obligations following any breakup or exits from the Eurozone (particularly in the case of investments in companies in affected countries) could also have material adverse effects on the Fund.

 

 

On June 23, 2016, the UK voted, via referendum, to exit from the EU, triggering political, economic and legal uncertainty. While such uncertainty most directly affects the UK and the EU, global markets suffered immediate and significant disruption. On March 29, 2017, the UK made a formal notification to the European Council under Article 50 of the Treaty on EU, which triggers a two year period during which the terms of an exit will be negotiated. The withdrawal agreement between the United Kingdom and the EU, endorsed by the European Council on November 25, 2018, sets out the basis on which the United Kingdom will withdraw from the EU and includes certain transitional provisions which have the effect of preserving the application of European Union law in the United Kingdom until December 2020 (or such other later date as may be agreed). The



 

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withdrawal agreement, and the associated transitional provisions, will only become effective once approved by the United Kingdom parliament which approval has not yet happened and may not happen, meaning that the United Kingdom could leave the EU without any transitional period (a so-called “hard Brexit”). On April 11, 2019, the United Kingdom came to an agreement with the EU to delay the deadline for withdrawal. Unless the United Kingdom parliament approves the withdrawal agreement by October 31, 2019, it is expected that there will be a hard Brexit on that date absent any further agreements to delay the withdrawal. The UK’s possible exit from the EU could impact the Fund and its investments (and their underlying issuers) in a variety of ways, not all of which are currently readily apparent. The Fund will, from time to time, invest in portfolio companies and other issuers with significant operations and/or assets in the UK, any of which could be adversely impacted by any new legal, tax and regulatory environment, whether by increased costs or impediments to the implementation of their business plan.

 

  The effects on the UK, European and global economies of the exit of the UK (and/or other EU members) from the EU, or the exit of other EU members from the European monetary area and/or the redenomination of financial instruments from the Euro to a different currency, are difficult to predict and to protect fully against. Many of the foregoing risks are outside of the control of the Fund and the Adviser. These risks could affect the Fund, the Adviser and other service providers given economic, political and regulatory uncertainty created by the British exit from the EU “Brexit”.

 

 

LIBOR Risk. Certain instruments in which the Fund invests pay interest at floating rates based on the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) or are subject to interest caps or floors based on LIBOR. The Fund and/or certain issuers of instruments in which the Fund invests also will obtain financing at floating rates based on LIBOR. Certain derivative instruments utilized by the Fund and/or issuers of instruments in which the Fund invests also reference LIBOR. It is possible that the Fund will also utilize leverage or borrowings primarily based on LIBOR. In July 2017, the head of the United Kingdom Financial Conduct Authority announced the desire to phase out the use of LIBOR by the end of 2021. There is currently no definitive information regarding the future utilization of LIBOR or of any particular replacement rate. Abandonment of or modifications to LIBOR could have adverse impacts on newly issued financial instruments and existing financial instruments that reference LIBOR. While some instruments contemplate a scenario where LIBOR is no longer available by providing for an alternative rate setting methodology, not all instruments have such provisions, and there is significant uncertainty regarding the effectiveness of any such alternative methodologies. Abandonment of or modifications to LIBOR could lead to significant short-term and long-term uncertainty and market instability. It remains uncertain how such changes would be implemented and the



 

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effects such changes would have on the Fund, issuers of instruments in which the Fund invests and financial markets generally.

 

  Legal and Regulatory Risk. Legal and regulatory changes could occur that would materially adversely affect the Fund. The regulation of the U.S. and non-U.S. securities and futures markets and investment funds such as the Fund has undergone substantial change in recent years, and such change could continue.

 

  The Dodd-Frank Act contains changes to the existing regulatory structure in the United States and is intended to establish rigorous oversight standards to protect the U.S. economy and American consumers, investors and businesses, including provisions that would significantly alter the regulation of commodity interests and comprehensively regulate the OTC derivatives markets for the first time in the United States. The Dodd-Frank Act and the rules that have been or will be promulgated thereunder by relevant regulators could negatively impact the ability of the Fund to meet its investment objectives either through limits or requirements imposed on it or upon its counterparties. The implementation of the Dodd-Frank Act will occur over a period of time, and it is unknown in what form, when and in what order significant regulatory initiatives will be implemented or the impact any such implemented regulations will have on the Fund, the markets or instruments in which the Fund invests or the counterparties with which the Fund conducts business. The effect of the Dodd-Frank Act or other regulatory change on the Fund, while impossible to predict, could be substantial, adverse and potentially limit or completely restrict the ability of the Fund to use derivative instruments as a part of its investment strategy, increase the costs of using these instruments or make them less effective. In addition, the practice of short selling has been the subject of numerous temporary restrictions, and similar restrictions could be promulgated at any time. Such restrictions could adversely affect the returns of the Fund.

 

  In Europe, the Financial Stability Board, which monitors and makes recommendations about the global financial system, issued a report in October 2011 that recommended strengthening oversight and regulation of the so-called “shadow banking” system in Europe, broadly described as credit intermediation involving entities and activities outside the regular banking system. The report outlined initial steps to define the scope of the shadow banking system and proposed general governing principles for a monitoring and regulatory framework. While at this stage it is difficult to predict the scope of any new regulations, if such regulations were to extend the regulatory and supervisory requirements, such as capital and liquidity standards, currently applicable to banks, or the Fund was considered to be engaged in “shadow banking,” the regulatory and operating costs associated therewith could adversely impact the implementation of the Fund’s investment strategy and returns and could become prohibitive.


 

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  Event Driven Investing. The Fund will, from time to time, invest in companies in expectation of a specific event or catalyst, which could be external (e.g., a macro event impacting relevant markets) or an event that is idiosyncratic to the company (e.g., a future capital markets event). Such event-driven investing requires the investor to make predictions about (i) the likelihood that an event will occur and (ii) the impact such event will have on the value of the Fund’s investment in the relevant company. If the event fails to occur or it does not have the effect foreseen, losses can result. For example, the adoption of new business strategies or completion of asset dispositions or debt reduction programs by a company might not be valued as highly by the market as the Adviser had anticipated, resulting in losses. In addition, a company could announce a plan of restructuring which promises to enhance value and fail to implement it, resulting in losses to investors. In liquidations and other forms of corporate reorganization, the risk exists that the reorganization either will be unsuccessful, will be delayed or will result in a distribution of cash or a new security, the value of which will be less than the purchase price to the Fund of the investment in respect of which such distribution was made.

 

  Valuation Risk. Unlike publicly traded common stock which trades on national exchanges, there is no central place or exchange for loans or fixed-income instruments to trade. Loans and fixed-income instruments generally trade on an OTC market which could be anywhere in the world where the buyer and seller can settle on a price. Due to the lack of centralized information and trading, the valuation of loans or fixed-income instruments generally carries more risk than that of common stock. Uncertainties in the conditions of the financial market, unreliable reference data, lack of transparency and inconsistency of valuation models and processes could lead to inaccurate asset pricing. In addition, other market participants value securities differently than the Fund. As a result, the Fund will, from time to time, be subject to the risk that when a loan or fixed-income instrument is sold in the market, the amount received by the Fund is less than the value of such loans or fixed-income instruments carried on the Fund’s books.

 

  Liquidity Risk. The Fund intends to invest without limit in securities that, at the time of investment, are illiquid. The Fund will, from time to time, also invest in restricted securities. Investments in restricted securities could have the effect of increasing the amount of the Fund’s assets invested in illiquid securities if qualified institutional buyers are unwilling to purchase these securities.

 

 

Illiquid and restricted securities can be difficult to dispose of at a fair price at the times when the Fund believes it is desirable to do so. The market price of illiquid and restricted securities generally is more volatile than that of more liquid securities, which could adversely affect the price that the Fund pays for or recovers upon the sale of such securities. Illiquid and restricted securities are also more difficult to value, especially in challenging markets, and the Adviser’s judgment



 

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will play a greater role in the valuation process. Investment of the Fund’s assets in illiquid and restricted securities could restrict the Fund’s ability to take advantage of market opportunities. In order to dispose of an unregistered security, the Fund, where it has contractual rights to do so, could have to cause such security to be registered. A considerable period could elapse between the time the decision is made to sell the security and the time the security is registered, thereby enabling the Fund to sell it. Contractual restrictions on the resale of securities vary in length and scope and are generally the result of a negotiation between the issuer and acquiror of the securities. In either case, the Fund would bear market risks during that period.

 

  Some loans and fixed-income instruments are not readily marketable and could be subject to restrictions on resale. Loans and fixed-income instruments might not be listed on any national securities exchange and no active trading market might exist for certain of the loans and fixed-income instruments in which the Fund invests. Where a secondary market exists, the market for some loans and fixed-income instruments could be subject to irregular trading activity, wide bid/ask spreads and extended trade settlement periods. In addition, events occurring subsequent to an investment by the Fund, including, for example, withdrawals, changes in market, political or other relevant circumstances, could cause some loans and fixed-income instruments that were liquid at the time of acquisition to become illiquid or otherwise cause the Fund’s concentration in illiquid investments to increase.

 

  Inflation/Deflation Risk. Inflation risk is the risk that the value of certain assets or income from the Fund’s investments will be worth less in the future as inflation decreases the value of money. As inflation increases, the real value of the Shares and distributions on the Shares can decline. In addition, during any periods of rising inflation, the dividend rates or borrowing costs associated with the Fund’s use of leverage would likely increase, which would tend to further reduce returns to Shareholders.

 

  Deflation risk is the risk that prices throughout the economy decline over time—the opposite of inflation. Deflation could have an adverse effect on the creditworthiness of issuers and could make issuer defaults more likely, which could result in a decline in the value of the Fund’s portfolio.

 

 

Conflicts of Interest Risk. The Adviser will experience conflicts of interest in connection with the management of the Fund, relating to the allocation of the Adviser’s time and resources between the Fund and other investment activities; the allocation of investment opportunities by the Adviser and its affiliates; compensation to the Adviser; services provided by the Adviser and its affiliates to issuers in which the Fund invests; investments by the Fund and other clients of the Adviser, subject to the limitations of the 1940 Act; the formation of additional investment funds by the Adviser; differing recommendations given by



 

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the Adviser to the Fund versus other clients; and the Adviser’s use of information gained from issuers in the Fund’s portfolio to aid investments by other clients, subject to applicable law.

 

  In addition, the Adviser’s investment professionals will, from time to time, acquire confidential or material, non-public information concerning an entity in which the Fund has invested, or propose to invest, and the possession of such information generally will limit the Adviser’s ability to buy or sell particular securities of such entity on behalf of the Fund, thereby limiting the investment opportunities or exit strategies available to the Fund. In addition, holdings in the securities of an issuer by the Adviser or its affiliates will affect the ability of the Fund to make certain acquisitions of, or enter into certain transactions with, such issuer. From time to time, broker-dealers and investment advisers affiliated with the Adviser will also acquire confidential or material non-public information concerning entities in which the Fund has invested or proposes to invest, which could restrict the Adviser’s ability to buy or sell (or otherwise transact in) securities of such entities, thus limiting investment opportunities or exit strategies available to the Fund. See “Conflicts of Interest.”

 

  Uncertain Tax Treatment. The Fund will, from time to time, invest a portion of its net assets in below investment grade instruments. Investments in these types of instruments present special tax issues for the Fund. U.S. federal income tax rules are not entirely clear about issues such as when the Fund will cease to accrue interest, original issue discount (“OID”) or market discount, when and to what extent deductions can be taken for bad debts or worthless instruments, how payments received on obligations in default should be allocated between principal and income and whether exchanges of debt obligations in a bankruptcy or workout context are taxable. These and other issues will be addressed by the Fund to the extent necessary in order to seek to ensure that it distributes sufficient income to ensure that it does not become subject to U.S. federal income or excise tax.

 

 

Complex Transactions/Contingent Liabilities/Guarantees and Indemnities. The Adviser will pursue certain complex investment opportunities for the Fund, which could involve substantial business, regulatory or legal complexity. Such complexity presents risks, as such transactions can be more difficult, expensive and time-consuming to finance and execute; it can be more difficult to manage or realize value from the assets acquired in such transactions; and such transactions sometimes entail a higher level of regulatory scrutiny or a greater risk of contingent liabilities. Additionally, in connection with certain transactions, the Fund will be required to make representations about the business and financial affairs of a portfolio company, provide guarantees in respect of payments by portfolio companies and other third parties and provide indemnities against losses caused by portfolio companies and other third parties. The Fund will, from time to time, also be required to indemnify the



 

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purchasers of such investment to the extent that any such representations are inaccurate. These arrangements could result in the incurrence of contingent liabilities by the Fund, even after the disposition of an investment and ultimately in material losses.

 

  Availability of Investment Opportunities; Competition. The activity of identifying, completing and realizing the types of investment opportunities targeted by the Adviser for the Fund is highly competitive and involves a significant degree of uncertainty.

 

  The Fund competes for investment opportunities with other investment companies and private investment vehicles, as well as the public debt markets, individuals and financial institutions, including investment banks, commercial banks and insurance companies, business development companies, strategic industry acquirers, hedge funds and other institutional investors, investing directly or through affiliates. Over the past several years, a number of such investment vehicles have been formed (and many such existing entities have grown in size). Additional entities with similar investment objectives could be formed in the future by other unrelated parties. It is possible that competition for appropriate investment opportunities could increase, thus reducing the number of opportunities available to the Fund. Such supply-side competition could adversely affect the terms upon which investments can be made by the Fund. Moreover, transaction sponsors unaffiliated with the Fund or KKR could be reluctant to present investment opportunities to the Fund because of its affiliation with KKR. There can be no assurance that the Adviser will be able to locate and complete investments which satisfy the Fund’s primary investment objectives or to realize upon their values.

 

  Dependence on Key Personnel Risk. The Adviser depends on the efforts, skills, reputations and business contacts of its key personnel, the information and deal flow they and others generate during the normal course of their activities and the synergies among the diverse fields of expertise and knowledge held by the Adviser’s professionals. The loss of the services of any of them could have a material adverse effect on the Fund and could harm the Adviser’s ability to manage the Fund.

 

  The Adviser’s principals and other key personnel possess substantial experience and expertise and have strong business relationships with members of the business community. The loss of these personnel could jeopardize the Adviser’s relationships with members of the business community and could result in fewer investment opportunities for the Fund. For example, if any of the Adviser’s principals were to join or form a competing firm, the Fund’s results and financial condition could suffer.

 

 

Material Risks of Significant Methods of Analysis. The Adviser seeks to conduct reasonable and appropriate due diligence based on the facts



 

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and circumstances applicable to each investment. When conducting due diligence and making an assessment regarding an investment for the Fund, the Adviser relies on available resources, including information provided by the target of the investment and, in some circumstances, third-party investigations. As a result, the due diligence process can at times be subjective with respect to companies for which only limited information is available. Accordingly, the Adviser cannot be certain that due diligence investigations with respect to any investment opportunity for the Fund will reveal or highlight all relevant facts (including fraud) that could be necessary or helpful in evaluating such investment opportunity, or that its due diligence investigations will result in investments for the Fund being successful. There can be no assurance that the projected results of an investment opportunity will be achieved for the Fund, and actual results could vary significantly from the projections. General economic, natural, and other conditions, which are not predictable, can have an adverse impact on the reliability of such projections. Assumptions or projections about asset lives; the stability, growth, or predictability of costs; demand; or revenues generated by an investment or other factors associated therewith could, due to various risks and uncertainties including those described herein, differ materially from actual results.

 

  Market Developments. Periods of market volatility remain, and could continue to occur in the future, in response to various political, social and economic events both within and outside of the United States. Instability in the credit markets could make it more difficult for a number of issuers of debt securities to obtain financing or refinancing for their investment or lending activities or operations. In particular, because of volatile conditions in the credit markets, issuers of debt securities could be subject to increased cost for debt, tightening underwriting standards and reduced liquidity for loans they make, securities they purchase and securities they issue.

 

 

For example, certain Borrowers could, due to macroeconomic conditions, be unable to repay secured loans. A Borrower’s failure to satisfy financial or operating covenants imposed by lenders could lead to defaults and, potentially, termination of the secured loans and foreclosure on its secured assets, which could trigger cross-defaults under other agreements and jeopardize the Borrower’s ability to meet its obligations under its debt securities. The Fund will, from time to time, incur expenses to the extent necessary to seek recovery upon default or to negotiate new terms with a defaulting Borrower. In addition, if one of the Borrowers were to commence bankruptcy proceedings, even though the Fund will have structured its interest as senior debt, depending on the facts and circumstances, a bankruptcy court might recharacterize the Fund’s debt holding and subordinate all or a portion of its claim to that of other creditors. Adverse economic conditions also could decrease the value of collateral securing some of the Fund’s loans and the value of its equity investments. A



 

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recession could lead to financial losses in our portfolio and a decrease in revenues, net income and the value of the Fund’s assets.

 

  These developments could increase the volatility of the value of securities owned by the Fund. These developments also could make it more difficult for the Fund to accurately value its securities or to sell its securities on a timely basis. These developments could adversely affect the ability of the Fund to use leverage for investment purposes and increase the cost of such leverage, which would reduce returns to the holders of Shares. These developments also could adversely affect the broader economy, which in turn could adversely affect the ability of issuers of securities owned by the Fund to make payments of principal and interest when due, leading to lower credit ratings of the issuer and increased defaults by the issuer. Such developments could, in turn, reduce the value of securities owned by the Fund and adversely affect the NAV and market price of the Shares.

 

  Market Disruptions from Natural Disasters or Geopolitical Risks. Political instability in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Egypt, Libya, Syria, Russia, Ukraine and the Middle East, the ongoing epidemics of infectious diseases in certain parts of the world, terrorist attacks in the United States and around the world, natural disasters, social and political discord, debt crises (such as the Greek crisis), sovereign debt downgrades, or the exit or potential exit of one or more countries from the EU (such as the UK) or the European Economic and Monetary Union, among others, could result in market volatility, could have long term effects on the United States and worldwide financial markets, and could cause further economic uncertainties in the United States and worldwide. The Fund cannot predict the effects of natural disasters or geopolitical events in the future on the economy and securities markets.

 

  Government Intervention in the Financial Markets. During the global financial crisis, the U.S. government took a number of unprecedented actions designed to support certain financial institutions and segments of the financial markets that have experienced extreme volatility, and in some cases a lack of liquidity. Federal, state, and other governments, their regulatory agencies or self-regulatory organizations could take additional actions that affect the regulation of the securities or Structured Products in which the Fund invests, or the issuers of such securities or Structured Products, in ways that are unforeseeable. Borrowers under secured loans held by the Fund could seek protection under the bankruptcy laws. Legislation or regulation could also change the way in which the Fund itself is regulated. Such legislation or regulation could limit or preclude the Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objectives. The Adviser will monitor developments and seek to manage the Fund’s portfolio in a manner consistent with achieving the Fund’s investment objectives, but there can be no assurance that it will be successful in doing so.


 

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  Portfolio Turnover Risk. The Fund’s annual portfolio turnover rate could vary greatly from year to year, as well as within a given year. Portfolio turnover rate is not considered a limiting factor in the execution of investment decisions for the Fund. High portfolio turnover could result in the realization of net short-term capital gains by the Fund which, when distributed to Shareholders, will be taxable as ordinary income. A high portfolio turnover could increase the Fund’s current and accumulated earnings and profits, resulting in a greater portion of the Fund’s distributions being treated as a dividend to the Shareholders. In addition, a higher portfolio turnover rate results in correspondingly greater brokerage commissions and other transactional expenses that are borne by the Fund. See “Tax Considerations.”

 

  Anti-Takeover Provisions. The Fund’s Declaration of Trust includes provisions that could limit the ability of other entities or persons to acquire control of the Fund or convert the Fund to open-end status. These provisions could deprive the holders of Shares of opportunities to sell their Shares at a premium over the then current market price of the Shares or at NAV. See “Description of Capital Structure—Anti-Takeover and Certain Other Provisions in the Declaration of Trust.”

 

  Duration Risk. Duration is the sensitivity, expressed in years, of the price of a fixed income security to changes in the general level of interest rates (or yields). Securities with longer durations tend to be more sensitive to interest rate (or yield) changes than securities with shorter durations. Duration differs from maturity in that it considers potential changes to interest rates, a security’s coupon payments, yield, price and par value and call features, in addition to the amount of time until the security matures. The duration of a security will be expected to change over time with changes in market factors and time to maturity.

 

 

Risks Relating to Funds RIC Status. To qualify and remain eligible for the special tax treatment accorded to regulated investment companies (“RICs”) and their shareholders under the Internal Revenue Code (the “Code”), the Fund must meet certain source-of-income, asset diversification and annual distribution requirements. Very generally, in order to qualify as a RIC, the Fund must derive at least 90% of its gross income for each taxable year from dividends, interest, payments with respect to certain securities loans, gains from the sale or other disposition of stock, securities or foreign currencies, or other income derived with respect to its business of investing in stock or other securities and currencies. The Fund must also meet certain asset diversification requirements at the end of each quarter of each of its taxable years. Failure to meet these diversification requirements on the last day of a quarter could result in the Fund having to dispose of certain investments quickly in order to prevent the loss of RIC status. Any such dispositions could be made at disadvantageous prices or times and could result in substantial losses to the Fund. In addition, in order to be eligible for the special



 

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tax treatment accorded RICs, the Fund must meet the annual distribution requirement, requiring it to distribute with respect to each taxable year at least 90% of the sum of its “investment company taxable income” (generally its taxable ordinary income and realized net short-term capital gains in excess of realized net long-term capital losses, if any) and its net tax-exempt income (if any) to its Shareholders. If the Fund fails to qualify as a RIC for any reason and becomes subject to corporate tax, the resulting corporate taxes could substantially reduce its net assets, the amount of income available for distribution and the amount of its distributions. Such a failure would have a material adverse effect on the Fund and its Shareholders. In addition, the Fund could be required to recognize unrealized gains, pay substantial taxes and interest and make substantial distributions in order to re-qualify as a RIC.

 

  RIC-Related Risks of Investments Generating Non-Cash Taxable Income. Certain of the Fund’s investments will require the Fund to recognize taxable income in a taxable year in excess of the cash generated on those investments during that year. In particular, the Fund invests in loans and other debt obligations that will be treated as having “market discount” and/or OID for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Because the Fund will, from time to time, be required to recognize income in respect of these investments before, or without receiving, cash representing such income, the Fund will have difficulty satisfying the annual distribution requirements applicable to RICs and avoiding Fund-level U.S. federal income and/or excise taxes in such circumstances. Accordingly, the Fund will, from time to time, be required to sell assets, including at potentially disadvantageous times or prices, borrow, raise additional equity capital, make taxable distributions of its Shares or debt securities, or reduce new investments, to obtain the cash needed to make these income distributions. If the Fund liquidates assets to raise cash, the Fund will, from time to time, realize gain or loss on such liquidations; in the event the Fund realizes net capital gains from such liquidation transactions, its Shareholders could receive larger capital gain distributions than they would in the absence of such transactions.

 

 

Cybersecurity. Increased reliance on internet-based programs and applications to conduct transactions and store data creates growing operational and security risks. Targeted cyber-attacks or accidental events can lead to breaches in computer and data systems security, and subsequent unauthorized access to sensitive transactional and personal information held or maintained by KKR, its affiliates, and third party service providers or counterparties. Any breaches that occur could result in a failure to maintain the security, confidentiality, or privacy of sensitive data, including personal information relating to investors and the beneficial owners of investors, and could lead to theft, data corruption, or overall disruption in operational systems. Criminals could use data taken in breaches in identity theft, obtaining loans or payments under false identities and other crimes that have the



 

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potential to affect the value of assets in which the Fund invests. These risks have the potential to disrupt KKR’s ability to engage in transactions, cause direct financial loss and reputational damage or lead to violations of applicable laws related to data and privacy protection and consumer protection. Cybersecurity risks also necessitate ongoing prevention and compliance costs.

 

  Private and Middle Market Companies. The Fund will, from time to time, acquire loans from issuers, including, but not limited to, private and middle-market companies, which involve a number of particular risks that might not exist in the case of large public companies, including:

 

   

these companies could have limited financial resources and limited access to additional financing, which could increase the risk of their defaulting on their obligations, leaving creditors dependent on any guarantees or collateral they have obtained;

 

   

these companies frequently have shorter operating histories, narrower product lines and smaller market shares than larger businesses, which render them more vulnerable to competitors’ actions and market conditions, as well as general economic downturns;

 

   

there will not be as much information publicly available about these companies as would be available for public companies and such information might not be of the same quality;

 

   

these companies are more likely to depend on the management talents and efforts of a small group of persons; as a result, the death, disability, resignation or termination of one or more of these persons could have a material adverse impact on these companies’ ability to meet their obligations; and

 

   

the frequency and volume of the trading of these companies generally is substantially less than is typical of larger companies and as such it could be more difficult for the Fund to exit the investment in the company at its then fair value.

 

  Risks Arising from Purchases of Debt on a Secondary Basis. The Fund will, from time to time, invest in loans and debt securities acquired on a secondary basis. The Fund is unlikely to be able to negotiate the terms of such debt as part of its acquisition and, as a result, these investments might not include some of the covenants and protections the Fund would generally seek. Even if such covenants and protections are included in the investments held by the Fund, the terms of the investments could provide portfolio companies substantial flexibility in determining compliance with such covenants. In addition, the terms on which debt is traded on the secondary market could represent a combination of the general state of the market for such investments and either favorable or unfavorable assessments of particular investments by the sellers thereof.


 

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SUMMARY OF FUND EXPENSES

This table illustrates the fees and expenses of the Fund that you will incur if you buy and hold Shares of the Fund (“Shares”). Because the Fund has no operating history, many of these expenses are estimates.

 

     Class I
Shares
    Class D
Shares
    Class T
Shares
    Class M
Shares
 

Shareholder Transaction Expenses:

        

Maximum Sales Load (as a percentage of the offering price)1

     None       None       [ ]%      [ ]% 

Maximum Repurchase Fee[2]

     [ ]%      [ ]%      [ ]%      [ ]% 

Annual Expenses (Percentage of Net Assets Attributable to Shares)

        

Management Fee3

     1.30     1.30     1.30     1.30

Service Fee4

     None       [ ]%      [ ]%      [ ]% 

Distribution Fee5

     None       None       [ ]%      None

Interest Payments on Borrowed Funds6

     [ ]%      [ ]%      [ ]%      [ ]% 

Other Expenses7

     [ ]%      [ ]%      [ ]%      [ ]% 

Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses

     [ ]%      [ ]%      [ ]%      [ ]% 

Fees Waived and/or Expenses Reimbursed8

     [ ]%      [ ]%      [ ]%      [ ]% 

Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses After Fee Waiver and/or Expense Reimbursement

     [ ]%      [ ]%      [ ]%      [ ]% 

 

1

[●] is the principal underwriter and distributor of the Class I Shares, Class D Shares, Class T Shares and Class M Shares and serves in that capacity on a best efforts basis, subject to various conditions. Shares may be offered through selling agents that have entered into selling agreements with the Distributor. Selling agents typically receive the sales load with respect to Class T Shares and Class M Shares purchased by their clients. The Distributor does not retain any portion of the sales load. Class T Shares are sold subject to a maximum sales load of up to []% of the offering price. Class M Shares are sold subject to a maximum sales load of up to []% of the offering price. [However, purchases of Class T Shares and Class M Shares may be eligible for a sales load discount.] See “Purchase of Shares—Sales Loads.” The selling agents may, in their sole discretion, reduce or waive the sales load on a non-scheduled basis in individual cases. Class I Shares and Class D Shares are each not subject to a sales load; however, investors may be required to pay brokerage commissions on purchases and sales of Class I Shares and Class D Shares to their selling agents. Investors should consult with their selling agents about the sales load and any additional fees or charges their selling agents might impose on each class of shares.

2

[The Fund may impose repurchase fees of up to []% on Shares accepted for repurchase that have been held by an investor for less than one year. Payment of the repurchase fee is made by netting the fee against the repurchase proceeds. The repurchase fee is retained by the Fund for the benefit of remaining Shareholders. If a Shareholder has made multiple purchases and tenders a portion of its Shares, the repurchase fee is calculated on a first-in/first-out basis. See “Periodic Repurchase Offers” below for additional information about Share repurchases.]

3

Pursuant to an investment advisory agreement, the Adviser receives an annual fee, payable monthly by the Fund, in an amount equal to [1.30]% of the Fund’s average daily Managed Assets (the “Management Fee”). The Management Fee percentage calculation assumes the use of leverage by the Fund. To derive the annual Management Fee as a percentage of the Fund’s net assets (which are the Fund’s total assets less all of the Fund’s liabilities), the Fund’s estimated Managed Assets (approximately $[]) were multiplied by the annual Management Fee rate and then divided by the Fund’s estimated net assets (approximately $[]). The Adviser has voluntarily agreed to temporarily reduce its Management Fee to an annual rate of []% of the Fund’s average daily Managed Assets from [] until []. Effective [], the Adviser’s agreement to temporarily reduce its Management Fee will terminate and the Adviser will receive a Management Fee at an annual rate of [1.30]% of the Fund’s average daily Managed Assets. The foregoing fee schedule may be extended, terminated

 

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  or modified by the Adviser in its sole discretion and at any time, including prior to any such date listed above. See “Management of the Fund—Investment Advisory Agreement.”
4

The Fund pays the Distributor a Service Fee that is calculated monthly and accrued daily at an annualized rate of []% of the net assets of the Fund attributable to Class D Shares and Class T Shares, respectively, and at an annualized rate of []% of the net assets of the Fund attributable to Class M Shares for services to shareholders. The Service Fee is for personal services provided to shareholders and/or the maintenance of shareholder accounts and to reimburse the Distributor for related expenses incurred. The Distributor generally will pay all or a portion of the Service Fee to the selling agents that sell Class D Shares, Class T Shares and Class M Shares. The Service Fee is governed by the Fund’s Distribution and Service Plan.

5

The Fund pays the Distributor a Distribution Fee that is calculated monthly and accrued daily at an annualized rate of []% of the net assets of the Fund attributable to Class T Shares. The Distribution Fee is for the sale and marketing of the Class T Shares and to reimburse the Distributor for related expenses incurred. The Distributor generally will pay all or a portion of the Distribution Fee to the selling agents that sell Class T Shares. Payment of the Distribution Fee is governed by the Fund’s Distribution and Service Plan.

6

The table assumes the use of leverage in an amount equal to 33 and 1/3% of the Fund’s Managed Assets (after the leverage is incurred) and assumes the annual interest rate on borrowings is []%. “Managed Assets” means the total assets of the Fund (including any assets attributable to borrowings for investment purposes) minus the sum of the Fund’s accrued liabilities (other than liabilities representing borrowings for investment purposes). The Fund’s actual interest costs associated with leverage may differ from the estimates above.

7

“Other Expenses” are estimated based on Fund net assets of $[] million and anticipated expenses for the first year of the Fund’s operations. “Other Expenses” include professional fees and other expenses, including, without limitation, filing fees, printing fees, administration fees, investor servicing fees, custody fees, trustee fees, insurance costs and financing costs.

8

Pursuant to [an Expense Limitation and Reimbursement Agreement], through [], the Adviser has agreed to waive its fees and/or reimburse expenses of the Fund so that certain of the Fund’s expenses (“Specified Expenses”) will not exceed []% of net assets (annualized). The Fund has agreed to repay these amounts, when and if requested by the Adviser, but only if and to the extent that Specified Expenses are less than []% of net assets (annualized) (or, if a lower expense limit is then in effect, such lower limit) within the 36-month period after the Adviser bears the expense; provided, however, that the Adviser may recapture a Specified Expense in the same year it is incurred. This arrangement cannot be terminated prior to without the Board’s consent. “Specified Expenses” is defined to include all expenses incurred in the business of the Fund, including organizational costs, with the exception of [(i) the Management Fee, (ii) the Service Fee, (iii) the Distribution Fee, (iv) brokerage costs, (v) dividend/interest payments (including any dividend payments, interest expenses, commitment fees, or other expenses related to any leverage incurred by the Fund), (vi) taxes, and (vii) extraordinary expenses (as determined in the sole discretion of the Adviser).]

Class I Example1

The following example illustrates the expenses that you would pay on a $1,000 investment in Class I Shares and assuming (i) the Fund issues an aggregate offering amount of approximately $[] million of Class I Shares each year, (ii) total annual expenses of []% of net assets attributable to the Class I Shares in years one through ten, (iii) a 5% annual return, (iv) reinvestment of all dividends and distributions at net asset value and (v) application of the [Expense Limitation and Reimbursement Agreement]:

 

     1 Year     3 Years     5 Years     10 Years  

Total Expenses Incurred

   $ [ ]    $ [ ]    $ [ ]    $ [

Class D Example1

The following example illustrates the expenses that you would pay on a $1,000 investment in Class D Shares and assuming (i) the Fund issues an aggregate offering amount of approximately $[] million of Class D Shares each year, (ii) total annual expenses of []% of net assets attributable to the Class D Shares in years one through ten,

 

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(iii) a 5% annual return, (iv) reinvestment of all dividends and distributions at net asset value and (v) application of the [Expense Limitation and Reimbursement Agreement]:

 

     1 Year     3 Years     5 Years     10 Years  

Total Expenses Incurred

   $ [   $ [   $ [   $ [

Class T Example1

The following example illustrates the expenses that you would pay on a $1,000 investment in Class T Shares and assuming (i) the maximum sales load, (ii) the Fund issues an aggregate offering amount of approximately $[] million of Class T Shares each year, (iii) total annual expenses of []% of net assets attributable to the Class T Shares in years one through ten, (iv) a 5% annual return, (v) reinvestment of all dividends and distributions at net asset value and (vi) application of the [Expense Limitation and Reimbursement Agreement]:

 

     1 Year     3 Years     5 Years     10 Years  

Total Expenses Incurred

   $ [   $ [   $ [   $ [

Class M Example1

The following example illustrates the expenses that you would pay on a $1,000 investment in Class M Shares and assuming (i) the maximum sales load, (ii) the Fund issues an aggregate offering amount of approximately $[] million of Class M Shares each year, (iii) total annual expenses of []% of net assets attributable to the Class M Shares in years one through ten, (iv) a 5% annual return, (v) reinvestment of all dividends and distributions at net asset value and (vi) application of the [Expense Limitation and Reimbursement Agreement]:

 

     1 Year     3 Years     5 Years     10 Years  

Total Expenses Incurred

   $ [   $ [   $ [   $ [

 

1

The example should not be considered a representation of future expenses. Actual expenses may be greater or less than those shown.

THE FUND

The Fund is a newly organized, diversified, closed-end management investment company that continuously offers its Shares and is operated as an “interval fund.” The Fund was organized as a Delaware statutory trust on September 5, 2019. The Fund has no operating history. The Fund’s principal office is located at 555 California Street, 50th Floor, San Francisco, California, 94104, and its telephone number is (415) 315-3620.

USE OF PROCEEDS

The Fund will invest the net proceeds of the sale of its Shares in accordance with the Fund’s investment objective and policies as stated below. Pending the investment of the proceeds pursuant to the Fund’s investment objective and policies, Adviser expects that it will initially invest the proceeds of the offering in temporary investments. The Adviser anticipates that the investment of the proceeds will be made in accordance with the Fund’s investment objective and policies as appropriate investment opportunities are identified, which is expected to substantially be completed within [three months]; however, changes in market conditions could result in the Fund’s anticipated investment period extending to as long as [six months].

 

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THE FUND’S INVESTMENTS

Investment Objective

The Fund’s investment objective is to seek to provide attractive risk-adjusted returns and high current income. There can be no assurance that the Fund will achieve its investment objective. The Fund’s investment objective is not fundamental and may be changed by the Board of Trustees of the Fund (the “Board”) without the Shareholder approval.

Investment Strategies

The Fund will invest in a select portfolio of the Fund’s adviser’s publicly traded and private credit through exposure to two of its primary credit strategies: (a) Opportunistic Credit, a conviction-based approach investing in a portfolio consisting primarily of publicly traded high yield bonds, first- and second-lien secured bank loans and structured credit (e.g., collateralized loan obligation (“CLO”) mezzanine debt) and (b) Private Credit, which includes directly originated hard and financial asset-based lending, corporate mezzanine debt, as well as directly originated first-lien, second-lien and unitranche senior loans to upper middle-market companies.

In pursuing its investment objective, the Fund will invest, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of its Managed Assets in senior and subordinated corporate debt and debt related instruments. During an initial ramp period, the Fund will invest substantially all of its assets in the Opportunistic Credit Strategy. Following that initial period, the Fund expects, under normal circumstances, to invest 70-80% of its Managed Assets in the Opportunistic Credit strategy and 20%-30% of its Managed Assets in the Private Credit Strategy, though the Fund’s allocation in investments could vary from these guidelines at any time in the Fund’s discretion. On at least a quarterly basis, the Fund’s Investment Committee will meet to, among other things, review and establish the allocation percentage between the Opportunistic Credit Strategy and Private Credit Strategy for the ensuing period. The Investment Committee will consider factors such as KKR’s macro-economic and market outlooks, assessment of the relative risk and return of each strategy, and other factors in making its determination. “Managed Assets” means the total assets of the Fund (including any assets attributable to borrowings for investment purposes) minus the sum of the Fund’s accrued liabilities (other than liabilities representing borrowings for investment purposes).

Opportunistic Credit Strategy

The Opportunistic Credit Strategy’s investment objective is to provide an attractive risk-adjusted return through investment in a diversified portfolio of fixed income securities and financial instruments. To achieve its investment objective, the Adviser utilizes a high conviction credit strategy with a broad mandate and flexibility to toggle among various asset classes including, but not limited to, publicly traded high yield bonds, first- and second-lien secured bank loans and structured credit (i.e., CLO mezzanine debt) and thematic approaches to investing depending on the credit market environment. Themes include (in order of expected weighting):

 

   

Market Dislocations and Relative Value—Positions in higher-yielding investments resulting from a broader market dislocation and volatility, or a credit specific dislocation.

 

   

Event Driven—Positions in securities with near term catalysts that are expected to lead to price appreciation/depreciation. Catalysts include refinancings, restructurings, mergers and acquisitions and rating upgrades, among others.

 

   

Proprietary Sourcing—Trades that leverage broader firm relationships with private equity sponsors and Wall Street firms. These include reverse inquiry, secondary opportunities and/or larger block trades and potential anchor positions.

 

   

Stressed Credits—Positions in companies under financial strain that could have a restructuring need and/or companies in out of favor industries that could be under market pressure.

 

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Structured Products—Trading in securitized products, including tranches of CLOs, other securitizations and indices, as well as capital relief trades.

 

   

Illiquidity Premium—Credit investments in situations that offer a market premium, either in contractual rate or structure. These are expected to include small, less liquid trades as well as investments in misunderstood businesses or industries.

Private Credit Strategy

The Private Credit Strategy’s investment objective is to deliver attractive returns primarily in the form of contractual interest or coupon payments with a focus on principal protection, diversification, and, to a lesser degree, potential capital appreciation. The strategy makes investments in directly originated and negotiated financing instruments in what we believe are underserved and/or mispriced asset classes resultant from the withdrawal of global financial institutions from the financing market place and seeks to earn a premium for originating and holding a loan or other instrument to maturity. Private Credit strategies can include:

 

   

Private Opportunistic Credit—in addition to targeting traditional corporate mezzanine investments, Private Opportunistic Credit will focus on other attractive private credit investments with mezzanine-like returns in asset-based investment opportunities to either directly finance certain hard or financial assets or to invest in origination and/or servicing platforms of those assets. We believe that these asset-based opportunities offer mezzanine-like structural downside protection as well as asset collateral, and equity-like upside that can be achieved through appreciation at the asset level or, in the case of platforms, through growth of the enterprise value. Key areas of focus include, but are not limited to the Aircraft, Shipping, Renewables, Real Estate, Consumer Finance, Equipment Financing and Leasing sectors.

 

   

Direct Lending—focus on investments typically in the most senior tranches of a corporate or other issuer’s capital structure. Generally, these investments take the form of privately negotiated first-, second-lien or unitranche senior loans established through custom financing agreements entered into with corporate or other borrowers.

KKR (defined below) employs a holistic approach toward origination that is focused on partnering with high-quality borrowers and sponsors and serving as a solutions provider for their capital needs. We strive to understand the goals of borrowers and structure appropriate financing solutions that are tailored to meet their specific objectives. The breadth of our credit and capital markets platforms is crucial to exploring and creating these opportunities, as it enables us to provide a “one-stop” solution for a borrower’s entire capital structure. KKR’s credit team (the “KKR Credit Team”) will seek to conduct deep due diligence on each investment, with a focus on investing in debt instruments of companies where it believes KKR has a competitive advantage or a differentiated view.

The Adviser, a subsidiary of KKR & Co. L.P. (together with the Adviser and its other affiliates, “KKR”), uses KKR’s global network of resources, due diligence skills, intellectual capital and experience in seeking to achieve the Fund’s investment objective. The Adviser employs a fundamentally-driven investment approach that is based on deep credit underwriting and rigorous financial analysis. Because KKR has deep experience in credit and private equity underwriting, the Adviser’s investment approach is designed to incorporate valuable characteristics of both. The Adviser will seek to reallocate the portfolio of the Fund to opportunistically emphasize those investments, categories of investments and geographic exposures believed to be best suited to contribute to the achievement of the Fund’s investment objective under the market conditions existing at the time of investment.

The Fund seeks to leverage the diverse backgrounds and many years of experience in portfolio management, investing, finance and economics of the KKR Credit Team, as well as the global network and proprietary resources of KKR to source, diligence and execute attractive investment opportunities.

 

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The Fund will rely on an exemptive order from the SEC that permits it to, among other things, co-invest with certain other persons, including certain affiliates of the Adviser and certain public or private funds managed by the Adviser and its affiliates, subject to certain terms and conditions.

The Fund’s investment strategies are not fundamental and may be changed by the Board without Shareholder approval.

Investment Philosophy

With more than 280 employees, including approximately 120 dedicated investment professionals across nine cities and in eight countries, the Adviser has deep expertise in the global credit markets and in investing in corporate debt across a range of industries. The Adviser’s investment professionals manage and evaluate credit opportunities across capital structures in public and private credit, and have access to an established platform for evaluating investments, managing risk and focusing on opportunities that seek to generate attractive returns with appropriate levels of risk. This platform allows for intensive due diligence to filter investment opportunities and help select investments that the Adviser believes offer the most favorable risk/reward characteristics.

The Opportunistic Credit strategy incorporates a fundamentally-driven investment philosophy which is based on deep credit underwriting and rigorous financial analysis, focus on capital preservation and understanding the risks/downside protections of each position, and performing active portfolio management. Given that the Adviser has deep experience in credit and private equity underwriting, its investment approach was designed to incorporate valuable characteristics of both. The Adviser believes that this analytically-intense process differentiates the level of credit work that it performs. The Adviser generally seeks to invest in companies where it has what it regards as a differentiated view through its proprietary research and due diligence capabilities, including, for example, where the Adviser has performed detailed due diligence on the relevant company or its competitors, service providers or industry by leveraging the full resources of KKR.

The Private Credit investment philosophy is rooted in the Adviser’s view that its size, scale and high degree of credit selectivity are the best means of sourcing opportunities and managing risk. Within Private Opportunistic Credit, this view is evident in the objective of identifying and developing proprietary financing platforms to exploit idiosyncratic investment opportunities. In these situations, the Adviser structures customized assets, terms, and subordination to meet its specific investment objectives and risk tolerance. Within Direct Lending, the philosophy drives a business objective of lending to larger companies with tailored financing solutions and sourcing more opportunities from existing borrowers and sponsors. The Adviser views the upper middle market segment as offering attractive risk-adjusted returns as larger corporate borrowers in general are better capitalized, have stronger and deeper management teams, and greater access to capital markets for financial flexibility. In addition, the Adviser seeks to be the sole or at minimum, lead lender, that generally results in a greater ability to dictate deal structure and terms and control all or a majority of the credit tranche.

The Adviser is part of the broader KKR organization. KKR is a long-term fundamental investor focused on producing attractive risk-adjusted returns. Within the Fund’s investment strategies specifically, KKR seeks out complexity, dislocation and uncertainty, which it believes creates attractive risk/reward opportunities in the marketplace. KKR believes that its credit platform is differentiated by:

 

   

a “One-Firm” approach to investing, which integrates KKR’s resources across regions and asset classes and KKR’s history of investing across more than three decades of economic cycles and market fluctuations;

 

   

a global presence, where KKR is “local” in major markets in North America, Europe and Asia, enhancing the Adviser’s ability to identify market dislocations early, move capital to the most attractive regions and efficiently and effectively execute on corresponding investment opportunities;

 

   

Access to approximately 300 non-credit investment professionals from across the broader KKR global platform responsible for private equity, infrastructure, and real estate investing, among others;

 

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a stressed and distressed investments team housed within the Adviser, located in New York and London, that has extensive experience in identifying, evaluating and structuring investments up and down the capital structure from secured debt to equity and bespoke structured credits;

 

   

a global macro and asset allocation team, which provides the Adviser with research and outlooks on the changing dynamics in the global economy. This capability augments research conducted by its investment professionals and helps the Adviser to quickly develop formal macro views in its due diligence, whether around broad macro themes or specific regional, country or market opportunities;

 

   

dynamic trading ability, which allows the Adviser to move quickly into liquid credit and equity markets and take advantage of real-time market movements and dislocations with a view to creating incremental value for the Fund;

 

   

stakeholder management capabilities, including a dedicated Public Affairs team, which the Adviser believes provides it with an advantage in conducting due diligence, proactively managing its portfolio through governmental, regulatory, labor or environmental issues and sourcing new investments;

 

   

a network of approximately 20 Senior Advisors, who have held leading executive roles in major global corporations and provide KKR with operational and strategic insights and help it evaluate individual investment opportunities; and

 

   

a “One-Firm” compensation and incentive structure and approach to investing, which allows KKR to act as a single team focused on finding the best investments and creating the best returns for its investors.

The Investment Process

The Adviser uses a fundamentally-driven investment approach which is based on deep credit underwriting and rigorous financial analysis. Because KKR has deep experience in credit and private equity underwriting, the Adviser’s investment approach is designed to incorporate valuable characteristics of both. Prior to making an investment, The Adviser conducts due diligence analysis and a comprehensive review and discussion with respect to the Adviser’s sourcing advantages, analysis and diligence findings.

Once an investment is made, the Adviser carefully monitors the position and formally re-underwrites its credit decision using a Portfolio Management Committee process approximately every three months. If the committee is not convinced that capital is still best invested in a position, a plan to intelligently exit is developed and implemented.

The central step in the Adviser’s investment process is the performance of company, industry, capital structure and legal analysis on each Fund investment. Key elements of this exercise include:

Corporate and Debt Structure

The Adviser generally reviews the corporate structure of a target company in an effort to understand which entities own what assets, which subsidiaries have the support of those assets and how outstanding guarantees, liens and pledges interrelate with the various claims on the company’s cash flows and to understand the covenants, terms and conditions of the company’s outstanding debt and equity securities.

Legal and Regulatory Environment

Defining and understanding the legal, regulatory and tax regimes in which a target company operates, including, in particular, having a deep understanding of the intricacies of the insolvency regimes applicable to the company, is a key focus of the due diligence process. Engaging in regulatory and corporate affairs analysis to ensure the Fund is properly positioned with respect to labor, political and other key constituencies applicable to its investments is also, where appropriate, an important part of the Adviser’s due diligence process.

 

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Key Valuation Drivers

The Adviser generally seeks to analyze a target company’s historical performance and prospects with a view toward understanding the sustainable margins and strengths and weaknesses in a company’s cost structure and analyzing the quality of cash flows of the underlying investment, including capital intensity needed to sustain its asset base, requirements for growth, degrees of flexibility to reduce its cost base if volumes or prices decline, and requirements for debt amortization or other external payments. The Adviser also seeks to define the market in which a company competes and, in particular, to assess what the company does, including what products and services it provides and to whom; to understand threats it faces for pricing or cost structure; and to identify drivers of market growth or decline, including changes in industry structure, technology or demographics.

Macro Environment

The Adviser also generally examines the broader environment in order to understand and consider potential macroeconomic head or tailwinds relevant to a target company utilizing scenario-based analysis. In this effort, the Adviser generally works closely with the Adviser’s global macro and asset allocation team around views and data related to the macro environment, in addition to working with this team when conducting due diligence on specific opportunities, whether they be regional, country or market specific.

Tax Environment

Defining the tax regime in which a company operates is another key aspect of the due diligence process. The Adviser generally undertakes a tax analysis of Fund investments with a view to optimizing structure and returns. As appropriate, the team will engage specialist third party advisors for this purpose. KKR has strong relationships with tax advisors around the world who advise it on current key issues regarding existing portfolio investments and on trends and evolving legislation and practices in their respective jurisdictions and areas of expertise.

Issuer Investment Profile

While the Adviser considers each investment opportunity in an issuer on its own merits, the Adviser generally focuses on companies that share the following characteristics:

 

   

Leading Market Positions. The Adviser seeks to invest in companies with more defensible market positions, stronger franchises and operations and better credit characteristics than their peers. The Adviser focuses on the quality of product, employees, managers, facilities, systems and processes.

 

   

Strong Cash Flow. The Adviser seeks to invest in companies that generate free cash flow, and that benefit from material investments from well-known equity investors. The ability of a company to meet interest obligations, repay debt and deleverage over time generally is a function of its ability to generate free cash flow. An ability to generate stable and predictable cash flows is an indicator of long-term financial health.

 

   

Experienced Management Teams. The Adviser intends to prioritize companies with strong, existing management teams that it believes have a clear strategic vision, long-standing experience in their industry and a successful operating track record. The Adviser expects to favor companies in which management’s incentives appear to be closely aligned with major capital providers.

 

   

Stage of Business Life Cycle. The Adviser intends to seek mature, public and privately owned businesses that have long track records of stable, positive cash flow. The Adviser does not intend to invest in start-up companies or companies with speculative business plans.

 

   

Attractive Industries. While the Adviser considers opportunities within all industries, it prioritizes industries having, in its view, favorable characteristics from a lending perspective. For example, the Adviser seeks companies in established industries with stable competitive and regulatory frameworks, where the main participants enjoy predictable, low volatility earnings. The Adviser gives less emphasis to industries that are frequently characterized by less predictable and more volatile earnings.

 

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Distressed Investments and Stressed Investments. The Adviser will, from time to time, also invest in companies that are under stress and do not meet the above criteria. In such circumstances, the Adviser invests based on the Adviser’s view of strong risk-adjusted return. These opportunities can present an attractive risk-reward profile for the Fund based on the Adviser’s due diligence process. The Adviser considers distressed investments in corporate debt or equity issued by companies that have defaulted on their debt obligations, have filed for insolvency or are selling at sufficiently discounted prices where the Adviser believes that if the companies do not default, such investments will yield attractive risk-adjusted returns. From time to time, the Adviser will also acquire “dislocated” fixed-income instruments of companies that are rated below investment grade and selling at a discount to par or yield greater than what the Adviser believes is typical for companies in similar situations. Market inefficiencies in these circumstances could, for example, be due to a lack of financial market following, a misunderstanding in the market of particular industries or companies or industries that are out of favor with the investor community. In times of particular dislocation and irrational market behavior, the Adviser could attempt to trade around specific portfolio positions opportunistically to capture excess returns based on its fundamental research-driven process.

Although the Adviser believes that the criteria listed above are important in identifying and investing in portfolio companies, the Adviser considers each investment on a case-by-case basis. It is possible that not all of these criteria will be met by each company in which the Fund invests.

Portfolio Composition

The Fund’s portfolio will be composed principally of the following investments. A more detailed description of the Fund’s investment policies and restrictions and more detailed information about the Fund’s portfolio investments are contained in the SAI.

Fixed-Income Instruments

The Fund will invest in fixed-income instruments, such as high-yield corporate debt securities, or bonds, or U.S. government debt securities. The issuer of a fixed-income instrument pays the investor a fixed- or variable-rate of interest and normally must repay the amount borrowed on or before maturity. Certain bonds are “perpetual” in that they have no maturity date. Holders of fixed-income bonds, as creditors, have a prior legal claim over common and preferred stockholders as to both income and assets of the issuer for the principal and interest due them and could have a prior claim over other creditors but would be subordinate to any existing secured lenders with higher priority in the issuer’s capital structure. Fixed-income instruments can be secured or unsecured. The investment return of corporate bonds reflects interest on the security and changes in the market value of the security. The market value of a corporate bond, especially a fixed-rate bond, will generally rise and fall inversely with interest rates. The value of intermediate- and longer-term corporate bonds normally fluctuates more in response to changes in interest rates than does the value of shorter-term corporate bonds. The market value of a corporate bond also can be affected by the credit rating of the corporation, the corporation’s performance and perceptions of the corporation in the market place. There is a risk that the issuers of the securities will not be able to meet their obligations on interest or principal payments at the time called for by an instrument. Corporate fixed-income instruments usually yield more than government or agency bonds due to the presence of credit risk.

Senior Loans

Senior Loans hold the most senior position in the capital structure of a corporation, partnership or other business entity (a “Borrower”). Senior Loans are secured with specific collateral and have a claim on the assets and/or stock of the Borrower that is senior to that held by unsecured creditors, subordinated debt holders and stockholders of the Borrower. The proceeds of Senior Loans primarily are used to refinance existing debt and for acquisitions, dividends, leveraged buyouts and general corporate purposes.

Interest rates on Senior Loans can be fixed or can float periodically. On floating rate Senior Loans, the interest rates typically are adjusted based on a base rate plus a premium or spread over the base rate. The base rate

 

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usually is a standard inter-bank offered rate, such as the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”), the prime rate offered by one or more major U.S. banks, or the certificate of deposit rate or other base lending rates used by commercial lenders. Floating rate Senior Loans adjust over different time periods, including daily, monthly, quarterly, semi-annually or annually. The Fund will, from time to time, use interest rate swaps and other investment practices to shorten the effective interest rate adjustment period of floating rate Senior Loans or to adjust the overall interest rate exposure of the Fund.

When interest rates rise, the values of fixed-rate income instruments generally decline. When interest rates fall, the values of fixed-rate income instruments generally increase. The prices of floating rate Senior Loans tend to have less fluctuation in response to changes in interest rates, but will have some fluctuation, particularly when the next interest rate adjustment on such security is further away in time or adjustments are limited in amount over time. For floating rate Senior Loans, interest payable to the Fund from its investments in Senior Loans should increase as short-term interest rates increase, and as short-term interest rates decrease, interest payable to the Fund from its investments in Senior Loans should decrease. Longer interest rate reset periods generally increase fluctuations in the Fund’s net asset value (“NAV”) as a result of changes in market interest rates.

Senior Loans are subject to the risk of non-payment of scheduled interest or principal. Such non-payment would result in a reduction of income to the Fund, a reduction in the value of the investment and a potential decrease in the NAV of the Fund. There can be no assurance that the liquidation of any collateral securing a Senior Loan would satisfy the Borrower’s obligation in the event of non-payment of scheduled interest or principal payments, or that such collateral could be readily liquidated. In the event of bankruptcy or insolvency of a Borrower, the Fund could experience delays or limitations with respect to its ability to realize the benefits of the collateral securing a Senior Loan. The collateral securing a Senior Loan could lose all or substantially all of its value in the event of the bankruptcy or insolvency of a Borrower.

Senior Loans might not be rated by a rating agency. The amount of public information available with respect to Senior Loans will generally be less extensive than that available for registered or exchange-listed securities. In evaluating the creditworthiness of Borrowers, the Adviser will consider, and could rely in part, on analyses performed by others. To the extent that they are rated by a rating agency, many of the Senior Loans in which the Fund invests will have been assigned below investment grade ratings by independent rating agencies. In the event Senior Loans are not rated, they are likely to be the equivalent of below investment grade quality. The Adviser does not view ratings as the determinative factor in their investment decisions and rely more upon their credit analysis abilities than upon ratings.

Senior Loans generally are not registered with the SEC, or any state securities commission, and are not listed on any national securities exchange. There is less readily available or reliable information about most Senior Loans than is the case for many other types of securities, including securities issued in transactions registered under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), or registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). No active trading market exists for some Senior Loans, and some Senior Loans will be subject to restrictions on resale. A secondary market could be subject to irregular trading activity, wide bid/ask spreads and extended trade settlement periods, which could impair the Fund’s ability to realize full value and thus cause a material decline in the Fund’s NAV. In addition, at times, the Fund will not be able to readily dispose of its Senior Loans at prices that approximate those at which the Fund could sell such loans if they were more widely traded and, as a result of such illiquidity, the Fund will, from time to time, have to sell other investments or engage in borrowing transactions if necessary to raise cash to meet its obligations. During periods of limited supply and liquidity of Senior Loans, the Fund’s yield could be lower.

The floating or variable rate feature of most Senior Loans is a significant difference from typical fixed-income investments that carry significant interest rate risk. To the extent the Fund invests in variable rate Senior Loans, the Fund can normally be expected to have less significant interest rate-related fluctuations in its NAV per Share than investment companies investing primarily in fixed-income instruments (other than money market funds and some short-term bond funds). When interest rates decline, the value of a fixed-income portfolio can normally be

 

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expected to rise. Conversely, when interest rates rise, the value of a fixed-income portfolio can normally be expected to decline.

Although the income available to the Fund will vary, the Adviser expects the Fund’s policy of acquiring interests in floating rate Senior Loans to reduce fluctuations in the NAV of the Fund resulting from changes in market interest rates. However, because floating or variable rates on Senior Loans only reset periodically, changes in prevailing interest rates can be expected to cause some fluctuations in the Fund’s NAV. Similarly, a sudden and significant increase in market interest rates could cause a decline in the Fund’s NAV. A material decline in the Fund’s NAV could impair the Fund’s ability to maintain required levels of asset coverage. Other factors (including, but not limited to, rating downgrades, credit deterioration, a large downward movement in stock prices, a disparity in supply and demand of certain securities or market conditions that reduce liquidity) can reduce the value of Senior Loans and other debt obligations, impairing the Fund’s NAV.

The Fund will, from time to time, purchase and retain in its portfolio Senior Loans where the Borrower has experienced, or is perceived to be likely to experience, credit problems, including involvement in or recent emergence from bankruptcy court proceedings or other forms of debt restructuring. Such investments can provide opportunities for enhanced income as well as capital appreciation, although they also will be subject to greater risk of loss. At times, in connection with the restructuring of a Senior Loan either outside of bankruptcy court or in the context of bankruptcy court proceedings, the Fund will determine or be required to accept equity securities or junior credit securities in exchange for all or a portion of a Senior Loan.

At times, the Adviser will use an independent pricing service or prices provided by dealers to value loans and other credit securities at their market value. The Adviser will use the fair value method to value Senior Loans or other securities if market quotations for them are not readily available or are deemed unreliable. A security that is fair valued could be valued at a price higher or lower than actual market quotations or the value determined by other funds using their own fair valuation procedures.

Direct Assignments. The Fund will, from time to time, purchase Senior Loans on a direct assignment basis. If the Fund purchases a Senior Loan on direct assignment, it typically succeeds to all the rights and obligations under the loan agreement of the assigning lender and becomes a lender under the loan agreement with the same rights and obligations as the assigning lender. Investments in Senior Loans on a direct assignment basis involve additional risks to the Fund. For example, if such loan is foreclosed, the Fund could become part owner of any collateral, and would bear the costs and liabilities associated with owning and disposing of the collateral.

Loan Participations. The Fund will, from time to time, also purchase, without limitation, participations in Senior Loans, but does not plan to do so extensively. The participation by the Fund in a lender’s portion of a Senior Loan typically will result in the Fund having a contractual relationship only with such lender, not with the Borrower. As a result, the Fund will, from time to time, have the right to receive payments of principal, interest and any fees to which it is entitled only from the lender selling the participation and only upon receipt by such lender of payments from the Borrower. Such indebtedness can be secured or unsecured. Loan participations typically represent direct participations in a loan to a Borrower, and generally are offered by banks, other financial institutions or lending syndicates. The Fund will, from time to time, participate in such syndications, or can buy part of a loan, becoming a part lender. When purchasing loan participations, the Fund assumes the credit risk of both the Borrower and the institution that sells the participation. The participation interests in which the Fund intends to invest might not be rated by any rating agency.

Pre-Funded Letter of Credit Loans. The Fund will, from time to time, purchase participations in prefunded letter of credit loans (a “prefunded L/C loan”), but does not plan to do so extensively. A prefunded L/C loan is a facility created by the Borrower in conjunction with the agent bank as issuer of a loan, and the prefunded L/C loan is backed by letters of credit (each letter, an “L/C”). Each participant in a prefunded L/C loan (sometimes referred to as a funded letter of credit facility) fully funds its commitment amount to the agent bank for the facility. The funds are invested by the agent bank and held solely to satisfy a prefunded L/C loan lender’s obligation to the agent bank under the facility. The funds paid by the lenders are invested by the agent bank in deposits that pay interest, usually approximating a benchmark rate, such as LIBOR, which goes to the Borrower.

 

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Generally, the Borrower, via the agent bank, pays the lenders an interest rate, equivalent to the fully drawn spread plus the benchmark rate, usually LIBOR. The funds are returned to the lender upon termination of the prefunded L/C loan (and upon satisfaction of all obligations). Under the terms of the prefunded L/C loan agreement, a lender could sell and assign all or a portion of its interest in the loan to another lender so long as the other lender is eligible and agrees to the terms and conditions of the prefunded L/C loan agreement. When the Borrower needs funds, it can draw against the prefunded L/C loan and the agent bank makes payment to the Borrower by withdrawing some of the amount invested as deposits. Consequently, the lenders do not have to advance any additional funds at the time the Borrower draws against the prefunded L/C loan facility. The prefunded L/C loan can be structured from the standpoint of the Borrower as either (i) a revolving credit facility, where the Borrower can reborrow, during the term of the loan, moneys it has paid back to the facility during the term of the loan, or (ii) a delayed draw term loan where the Borrower may not reborrow moneys it has repaid to the facility during the term of the loan.

When the Fund purchases a participation in a prefunded L/C loan, the proceeds of the purchase are deposited in a collateral account, which backs an L/C loan by the agent bank to the Borrower to support trade or other financing. The Fund typically receives interest on the cash collateral account equal to LIBOR. In addition, the Fund will, from time to time, also receive a fee, typically similar to the spread paid on the Borrower’s institutional loan. Participations by the Fund in a prefunded L/C loan typically will result in the Fund having a contractual relationship only with the agent bank, not with the Borrower. As a result, the Fund will, from time to time, have the right to receive interest, fees and any repayments, if any, to which it is entitled only from the agent bank selling the participation and only upon receipt by the agent bank of such payments from the Borrower. In connection with purchasing the participation in a prefunded L/C loan, the Fund generally will have no right to enforce compliance by the Borrower with the terms of the prefunded L/C loan. As a result, the Fund will, from time to time, assume the credit risk of both the Borrower and the agent bank selling the participation in a prefunded L/C loan. In the event of the insolvency of the agent bank selling a participation in a prefunded L/C loan, the Fund will, from time to time, be treated as a general creditor of such agent bank. The agent bank will likely conduct its principal business activities in the banking, finance and financial services industries. Persons engaged in such industries could be more susceptible to, among other things, fluctuations in interest rates, changes in the Federal Reserve Open Market Committee’s monetary policy, governmental regulations concerning such industries and concerning capital raising activities generally and fluctuations in the financial markets generally.

Subordinated and Unsecured or Partially Secured Loans

Unsecured loans or subordinated are loans made by public and private corporations and other non-governmental entities and issuers for a variety of purposes. Unsecured loans generally have lower priority in right of payment compared to holders of secured debt of the borrower. Unsecured loans are not secured by a security interest or lien to or on specified collateral securing the borrower’s obligation under the loan. Unsecured loans by their terms are or may become subordinate in right of payment to other obligations of the borrower, including Senior Loans and other secured loans. Unsecured loans can have fixed or adjustable floating rate interest payments.

Because unsecured loans are subordinate to the secured debt of the borrower, they present a greater degree of investment risk but often pay interest at higher rates reflecting this additional risk. Such investments generally are of below investment grade quality. Other than their subordinated and unsecured status, such investments have many characteristics and risks similar to Senior Loans and other secured loans discussed above. In addition, unsecured loans of below investment grade quality share many of the risk characteristics of non-investment grade bonds. As in the case of secured loans, the Fund will, from time to time, purchase interests in unsecured loans through assignments or participations. Unsecured loans are subject to the same risks associated with investment in Senior Loans and other secured loans and non-investment grade bonds. However, because unsecured loans rank lower in right of payment to any secured obligations of the borrower, they therefore are subject to additional risk that the cash flow of the borrower and available assets will be insufficient to meet scheduled payments after giving effect to the secured obligations of the borrower. Unsecured loans are also expected to have greater price volatility than secured loans and can be less liquid.

 

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Second lien loans are generally second in line in terms of repayment priority. A second lien loan could have a claim on the same collateral pool as the first lien or it could be secured by a separate set of assets. Second lien loans generally give investors priority over general unsecured creditors in the event of an asset sale. The priority of the collateral claims of third or lower lien loans ranks below holders of second lien loans and so on. Such junior loans are subject to the same general risks inherent to any loan investment, including credit risk, market and liquidity risk, and interest rate risk. Due to their lower place in the borrower’s capital structure and possible unsecured or partially secured status, such loans involve a higher degree of overall risk than Senior Loans of the same borrower.

Mezzanine Securities

The Fund will, from time to time, invest in certain lower grade securities known as “mezzanine securities,” which are subordinated debt securities that are generally issued in private placements in connection with an equity security (e.g., with attached warrants) or may be convertible into equity securities. Mezzanine securities can be issued with or without registration rights. Similar to other lower grade securities, maturities of mezzanine securities are typically seven to ten years, but the expected average life is significantly shorter at three to five years. Mezzanine securities are usually unsecured and subordinated to other obligations of the issuer.

Bank Loans

A significant portion of the first- and second-lien loans in which the Fund invests will consist of bank loans. A bank loan is a debt financing obligation issued by a bank or other financial institution to a borrower that generally holds legal claim to the borrower’s assets. Bank loans are fixed and floating rate loans arranged through private negotiations between a company or a non-U.S. government and one or more financial institutions (lenders). The Fund will, from time to time, acquire bank loans directly through the lending agent or as an assignment from another lender who holds a direct interest in the loan. To the extent the Fund invests in bank loans, it is exposed to additional risks beyond those normally associated with more traditional debt securities. The Fund’s ability to receive payments or principal and interest in connection with a bank loan will depend primarily on the financial condition of the borrower, and whether or not a loan is secured by collateral, although there is no assurance that the collateral securing the loan will be sufficient to satisfy the loan obligation. At times, the market for bank loans might not be highly liquid, and the Fund will, from time to time, have difficulty selling them.

Unlike publicly traded common stocks which trade on national exchanges, there is no central place or exchange for bank loans to trade. Bank loans trade in an over-the-counter market, and confirmation and settlement, which are effected through standardized procedures and documentation, generally takes significantly longer than traditional fixed-income security transactions to complete. The secondary market for loans also can be subject to irregular trading activity and wider bid/ask spreads. The lack of an active trading market for certain bank loans and restrictions on transfers in loan agreements, a lack of publicly available information and other factors can make bank loans more difficult to sell at an advantageous time or price than other types of securities or instruments.

Bank loans are typically issued in the form of first lien and/or second lien loans. Although many bank loans are secured by the assets of the borrowing entity as collateral, some loans are not secured.

Bank loans are subject to unique risks, including (i) so-called “lender liability” claims by the issuer of the obligations, (ii) environmental liabilities that can arise with respect to collateral securing the obligations, and (iii) the contractual nature of participations where the Fund takes on the credit risk of the agent bank rather than the actual borrower.

Direct Lending

Direct Lending loans are Senior Loans directly arranged / originated between a fund (i.e. non-bank or financial institution) and a borrower or sponsor. Direct Lending loans are generally first lien senior secured loans

 

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(including “unitranche” loans, which are loans that combine both senior and mezzanine debt, generally in a first lien position), second lien senior secured loans and mezzanine debt extended to upper middle-market companies. Direct Lending loans are generally made with the expectation of being held to the earlier of repayment or maturity given the lack of an exchange or over-the-counter market for the trading of these types of loans.

Below Investment Grade Instruments

The Fund anticipates that a majority of the Fund’s assets, including its investments in secured loans and other debt securities, will be invested in instruments that are classified as “higher-yielding” (and, therefore, higher-risk) investments. In most cases, such investments will be rated below investment grade by recognized rating agencies or will be unrated instruments determined by the Adviser to be appropriate investments for the Fund. While generally providing greater income and opportunity for gain, non-investment grade debt securities and similar debt instruments generally are subject to greater risks than securities or instruments that have higher credit ratings, including a high risk of default. The credit rating of a high yield security does not necessarily address its market value risk, and ratings could from time to time change, positively or negatively, to reflect developments regarding the issuer’s financial condition. High yield securities and similar instruments often are considered to be speculative with respect to the capacity of the issuer to timely repay principal and pay interest or dividends in accordance with the terms of the obligation and could have more credit risk than higher rated securities. Lower grade securities and similar debt instruments could be particularly susceptible to economic downturns. It is likely that a prolonged or deepening economic recession could adversely affect the ability of Borrowers issuing such securities and similar debt instruments to repay principal and pay interest on the instrument, increase the incidence of default and severely disrupt the market value of the securities and similar debt instruments.

The prices of credit instruments generally are inversely related to interest rate changes; however, the price volatility caused by fluctuating interest rates of instruments also is inversely related to the interest rate of such instruments. Accordingly, lower grade instruments can be relatively less sensitive to interest rate changes than higher quality instruments of comparable maturity, because of their higher interest rate. This higher interest rate is what the investor receives in return for bearing greater credit risk. The higher credit risk associated with lower grade instruments potentially can have a greater effect on the value of such instruments than is the case with higher quality issues of comparable maturity, and can be a substantial factor in the Fund’s relative Share price volatility.

Distressed and Defaulted Instruments

The repayment of defaulted obligations is subject to significant uncertainties. Defaulted obligations might be repaid only after lengthy workout or bankruptcy proceedings, during which the issuer might not make any interest or other payments.

Distressed and defaulted instruments generally present the same risks as investment in below investment grade instruments. However, in most cases, these risks are of a greater magnitude because of the uncertainties of investing in an issuer undergoing financial distress. As discussed above, an issuer of distressed instruments could be in bankruptcy or undergoing some other form of financial restructuring. Interest and/or principal payments on distressed instruments could be in default. Distressed instruments present a risk of loss of principal value, including potentially a total loss of value. Distressed instruments generally are highly illiquid and the prices at which distressed instruments may be sold typically represent a substantial discount to what the Adviser believes to be the ultimate value of such obligations.

Convertible Securities

Convertible securities include bonds, debentures, notes, preferred stocks and other securities that entitle the holder to acquire common stock or other equity securities of the same or a different issuer. Convertible securities

 

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have general characteristics similar to both debt and equity securities. A convertible security generally entitles the holder to receive interest or preferred dividends paid or accrued until the convertible security matures or is redeemed, converted or exchanged. Before conversion, convertible securities have characteristics similar to non-convertible debt obligations. Convertible securities rank senior to common stock in a corporation’s capital structure and, therefore, generally entail less risk than the corporation’s common stock, although the extent to which such risk is reduced depends in large measure upon the degree to which the convertible security sells above its value as a debt obligation. A convertible security could be subject to redemption at the option of the issuer at a predetermined price. If a convertible security held by the Fund is called for redemption, the Fund would be required to permit the issuer to redeem the security and convert it to underlying common stock, or would sell the convertible security to a third party, which could have an adverse effect on the Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objectives. The price of a convertible security often reflects variations in the price of the underlying common stock in a way that non-convertible debt would not. The value of a convertible security is a function of (i) its yield in comparison to the yields of other securities of comparable maturity and quality that do not have a conversion privilege and (ii) its worth if converted into the underlying common stock.

Non-U.S. Securities

The Fund invests in securities or other instruments, including secured loans and unsecured loans, of non-U.S. issuers or Borrowers. Some non-U.S. securities are less liquid and more volatile than securities of comparable U.S. issuers. Similarly, there is less volume and liquidity in most foreign securities markets than in the United States and, at times, greater price volatility than in the United States.

Because evidences of ownership of such securities usually are held outside the United States, the Fund will be subject to additional risks if it invests in non-U.S. securities, which include possible adverse political and economic developments, seizure or nationalization of foreign deposits and adoption of governmental restrictions which might adversely affect or restrict the payment of principal and interest on the foreign securities to investors located outside the country of the issuer, whether from currency blockage or otherwise. Because non-U.S. securities may trade on days when the Shares are not priced, the Fund’s NAV can change at times when Shares cannot be sold.

Certain of the Fund’s investments in foreign fixed-income instruments could be denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. To the extent the Fund invests in such instruments, the value of the assets of the Fund as measured in U.S. dollars will be affected by changes in exchange rates. Generally, the Fund’s currency exchange transactions will be conducted on a spot (i.e., cash) basis at the spot rate prevailing in the currency exchange market. The cost of the Fund’s currency exchange transactions will generally be the difference between the bid and offer spot rate of the currency being purchased or sold. In order to protect against uncertainty in the level of future currency exchange rates, the Fund is authorized to enter into various currency exchange transactions. See “Risks—Foreign Currency Risk.”

Illiquid and Restricted Securities

The Fund will, from time to time, invest in securities that, at the time of investment, are illiquid. Investments currently considered to be illiquid include, among others, repurchase agreements not entitling the holder to repayment of principal and payment of interest within seven days, non-government stripped fixed-rate mortgage-backed securities, and over-the-counter (“OTC”) options and other derivatives. In the absence of readily available market quotations, the Board, a committee appointed by the Board or a designee of the Board will price illiquid investments at a fair value as determined in good faith. Valuing illiquid securities typically requires greater judgment than valuing securities for which there is an active trading market. The market price of illiquid securities generally is more volatile than that of more liquid securities, which could adversely affect the price that the Fund pays for or recovers upon the sale of illiquid securities. Investment of the Fund’s assets in illiquid securities could restrict the Fund’s ability to take advantage of market opportunities.

 

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The Fund will, from time to time, invest in restricted securities, which are securities that may not be sold to the public without an effective registration statement under the Securities Act. The restriction on public sale could make it more difficult to value such securities, limit the Fund’s ability to dispose of them and lower the amount the Fund could realize upon their sale. Because they are not registered, restricted securities may be sold only in a privately negotiated transaction or pursuant to an exemption from registration. In recognition of the increased size and liquidity of the institutional market for unregistered securities and the importance of institutional investors in the formation of capital, the SEC adopted Rule 144A under the Securities Act. Rule 144A is designed to facilitate efficient trading among institutional investors by permitting the sale of certain unregistered securities to qualified institutional buyers. To the extent privately placed securities held by the Fund qualify under Rule 144A and an institutional market develops for those securities, the Fund likely will be able to dispose of the securities without registering them under the Securities Act. To the extent that institutional buyers become, for a time, uninterested in purchasing these securities, investing in Rule 144A securities could increase the level of the Fund’s illiquidity.

When-Issued Securities and Forward Commitments

The Fund will, from time to time, purchase securities on a when-issued basis or purchase or sell securities on a forward commitment basis beyond the customary settlement time. These transactions involve a commitment by the Fund to purchase or sell securities at a future date. The price of the underlying securities (usually expressed in terms of yield) and the date when the securities will be delivered and paid for (the settlement date) are fixed at the time the transaction is negotiated. When-issued purchases and forward commitment transactions are negotiated directly with the other party, and such commitments are not traded on exchanges. The Fund will generally purchase securities on a when-issued basis or purchase or sell securities on a forward commitment basis only with the intention of completing the transaction and actually purchasing or selling the securities. If deemed advisable as a matter of investment strategy, however, the Fund will, from time to time, dispose of or negotiate a commitment after entering into it. From time to time, the Fund will also sell securities it has committed to purchase before those securities are delivered to the Fund on the settlement date. The Fund will, from time to time, realize capital gains or losses in connection with these transactions. The Fund is generally required to segregate, until three days prior to settlement date, cash and liquid assets in an amount sufficient to meet the purchase price unless the Fund’s obligations are otherwise covered. Alternatively, the Fund could enter into offsetting contracts for the forward sale of other securities that it owns. Securities purchased or sold on a when-issued or forward commitment basis involve a risk of loss if the value of the security to be purchased declines prior to the settlement date or if the value of the security to be sold increases prior to the settlement date.

Equity Securities

From time to time, the Fund also will invest in or hold common stock and other equity securities. Common stock represents an equity ownership interest in a company. Historical trends would indicate that common stock is subject to higher levels of volatility and market and issuer-specific risk than debt securities. The value of the equity securities generally will be affected more rapidly, and to a greater extent, by company-specific developments and general market conditions. These risks could increase fluctuations in the Fund’s NAV. In addition, if the Fund’s investments in equity securities are incidental to the Fund’s investments in loans or fixed-income instruments, the Fund frequently will possess material non-public information about a Borrower or issuer as a result of its ownership of a loan or fixed-income instrument of a Borrower or issuer. Because of prohibitions on trading in instruments while in possession of material non-public information, the Fund might be unable to enter into a transaction in a security of the Borrower or issuer when it would otherwise be advantageous to do so.

Preferred Stocks

The Fund will, from time to time, also invest in preferred stocks. Preferred stocks represent the senior residual interest in the assets of an issuer after meeting all claims, with priority to corporate income and liquidation payments over the issuer’s common stock. As such, preferred stock is inherently more risky than the bonds and

 

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loans of the issuer, but less risky than its common stock. Preferred stocks often contain provisions that allow for redemption in the event of certain tax or legal changes or at the issuers’ call. Preferred stocks typically do not provide any voting rights, except in cases when dividends are in arrears beyond a certain time period. Preferred stock in some instances is convertible into common stock.

Although they are equity securities, preferred stocks have certain characteristics of both debt and common stock. They are debt-like in that their promised income is contractually fixed. They are common stock-like in that they do not have rights to precipitate bankruptcy proceedings or collection activities in the event of missed payments. Furthermore, they have many of the key characteristics of equity due to their subordinated position in an issuer’s capital structure and because their quality and value are heavily dependent on the profitability of the issuer rather than on any legal claims to specific assets or cash flows. In order to be payable, dividends on preferred stock must be declared by the issuer’s board of directors or trustees. In addition, distributions on preferred stock could be subject to deferral and thus might not be automatically payable. Income payments on some preferred stocks are cumulative, causing dividends and distributions to accrue even if not declared by the board or otherwise made payable. Other preferred stocks are non-cumulative, meaning that skipped dividends and distributions do not continue to accrue. There is no assurance that dividends on preferred stocks in which the Fund invests will be declared or otherwise made payable. If the Fund owns preferred stock that is deferring its distributions, the Fund will be required to report income for U.S. federal income tax purposes while it is not receiving cash payments corresponding to such income. When interest rates fall below the rate payable on an issue of preferred stock or for other reasons, the issuer could redeem the preferred stock, generally after an initial period of call protection in which the stock is not redeemable. Preferred stocks can be significantly less liquid than many other securities, such as U.S. government securities, corporate bonds and common stock.

Structured Products

Cash flows in Structured Products, including CDOs, CLOs, CBOs and other similarly structured issuers, are split into two or more tranches, varying in risk and yield. The risks of an investment in a Structured Product depend largely on the type of the collateral securities and the class of the CLO in which the Fund invests. Some Structured Products have credit ratings, but are typically issued in various classes with various priorities. The riskiest portion is the “equity” tranche, which bears the first loss from defaults from the underlying pool of bonds and serves to protect the other, more senior tranches from default (though such protection is not complete). Since it is partially protected from defaults, a senior tranche from a Structured Product typically has higher ratings and lower yields than its underlying securities, and could be rated investment grade. Despite the protection from the subordinate tranches, more senior tranches of structured products can experience substantial losses due to actual defaults, downgrades of the underlying collateral by rating agencies, forced liquidation of the collateral pool due to a failure of coverage tests, increased sensitivity to defaults due to collateral default and disappearance of protecting tranches, market anticipation of defaults as well as investor aversion to Structured Product securities as a class.

Asset-Backed Securities

The value of asset-backed securities (“ABSs”) like that of traditional fixed-income instruments, typically increases when interest rates fall and decreases when interest rates rise. However, ABSs differ from traditional fixed-income instruments because of their potential for prepayment. The price paid by the Fund for such securities, the yield the Fund expects to receive from such securities and the average life of such securities are based on a number of factors, including the anticipated rate of prepayment of the underlying assets.

Asset-Based Lending

Asset-Based Lending is directly originated private credit investments with mezzanine-like returns to either directly finance certain hard or financial assets or to invest in origination and / or servicing platforms of those hard assets. These asset-based opportunities can offer mezzanine-like structural downside protection as well as

 

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asset collateral, and equity-like upside that can be achieved through appreciation at the asset-level or, in the case of platforms, through growth of the enterprise value. Key areas of focus include, but are not limited to the Aircraft, Shipping, Renewables, Real Estate, and Consumer Finance sectors. From time to time, the Advisor will partner with an asset operator to pursue these types of asset-based opportunities. Investments in this category are structured in a variety of ways, including without limitation, as senior or subordinated asset-backed securities, structured credit notes or loans, private, preferred or common equity.

Mortgage-Backed Securities

In addition to the risks associated with other ABSs as described above, mortgage-backed securities are subject to the general risks associated with investing in real estate securities; that is, they could lose value if the value of the underlying real estate to which a pool of mortgages relates declines. Mortgage-backed securities can be issued by governments or their agencies and instrumentalities, such as, in the United States, the Government National Mortgage Association (“Ginnie Mae”), the Federal National Mortgage Association (“Fannie Mae”) and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“Freddie Mac”). They can also be issued by private issuers but represent an interest in or are collateralized by pass-through securities issued or guaranteed by a government or one of its agencies or instrumentalities. In addition, mortgage-backed securities can be issued by private issuers and be collateralized by securities without a government guarantee. Such securities usually have some form of private credit enhancement.

Pools created by private issuers generally offer a higher rate of interest than government and government-related pools because there are no direct or indirect government or agency guarantees of payments. Notwithstanding that such pools could be supported by various forms of private insurance or guarantees, there can be no assurance that the private insurers or guarantors will be able to meet their obligations under the insurance policies or guarantee arrangements. The Fund will, from time to time, invest in private mortgage pass-through securities without such insurance or guarantees. Any mortgage-backed securities that are issued by private issuers are likely to have some exposure to subprime loans as well as to the mortgage and credit markets generally. In addition, such securities are not subject to the underwriting requirements for the underlying mortgages that would generally apply to securities that have a government or government-sponsored entity guarantee, thereby increasing their credit risk. The risk of non-payment is greater for mortgage-related securities that are backed by mortgage pools that contain subprime loans, but a level of risk exists for all loans. Market factors adversely affecting mortgage loan repayments include a general economic downturn, high unemployment, a general slowdown in the real estate market, a drop in the market prices of real estate, or an increase in interest rates resulting in higher mortgage payments by holders of adjustable rate mortgages.

Zero Coupon and PIK Bonds

Because investors in zero coupon or PIK bonds receive no cash prior to the maturity or cash payment date applicable thereto, an investment in such securities generally has a greater potential for complete loss of principal and/or return than an investment in debt securities that make periodic interest payments. Such investments are more vulnerable to the creditworthiness of the issuer and any other parties upon which performance relies.

Temporary Investments

During the period in which the net proceeds of the offering of Shares are being invested or during periods in which the Adviser determines that economic, market or political conditions are unfavorable to investors and a defensive strategy would benefit the Fund, the Fund could deviate from its investment objectives and strategies. During such periods, the Fund will invest all or a portion of its assets in certain short-term (less than one year to maturity) and medium-term (not greater than five years to maturity) debt securities or hold cash and cash equivalents. The short- and medium-term debt securities in which the Fund will invest in such circumstances include: (i) obligations of the U.S. government, its agencies or instrumentalities; (ii) bank deposits and bank obligations (including certificates of deposit, time deposits and bankers’ acceptances) of U.S. or foreign banks

 

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denominated in any currency; (iii) floating rate securities and other instruments denominated in any currency issued by various governments or international development agencies; (iv) finance company and corporate commercial paper and other short-term corporate debt obligations of U.S. or foreign corporations; (v) repurchase agreements with banks and broker- dealers with respect to such securities; and (vi) shares of money market funds and money market instruments. It is likely that the Fund would not achieve its investment objectives when it does so. It is impossible to predict when, or for how long, the Fund will use these alternative strategies. There can be no assurance that such strategies will be successful.

Commercial Paper. Commercial paper represents short-term unsecured promissory notes issued in bearer form by corporations such as banks or bank holding companies and finance companies. The rate of return on commercial paper can be linked or indexed to the level of exchange rates between the U.S. dollar and a foreign currency or currencies.

Certificates of Deposit. Certificates of deposit are certificates that are issued against funds deposited in a commercial bank for a definite period of time and that earn a specified return and are normally negotiable. The issuer of a certificate of deposit agrees to pay the amount deposited plus interest to the bearer of the certificate on the date specified thereon. Certificates of deposit purchased by the Fund might not be fully insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.

Fixed Time Deposits. Fixed time deposits are bank obligations payable at a stated maturity date and bearing interest at a fixed-rate. Fixed time deposits may be withdrawn on demand by the investor, but can be subject to early withdrawal penalties which vary depending upon market conditions and the remaining maturity of the obligation. There are generally no contractual restrictions on the right to transfer a beneficial interest in a fixed time deposit to a third party, although there is no market for such deposits. The Fund will, from time to time, also hold funds on deposit with its custodian bank in an interest-bearing account for temporary purposes.

Bankers’ Acceptances. Bankers’ acceptances are negotiable drafts or bills of exchange, normally drawn by an importer or exporter to pay for specific merchandise, which are “accepted” by a bank, meaning, in effect, that the bank unconditionally agrees to pay the face value of the instrument on maturity.

Other Investment Techniques

Short Sales

The Fund will, from time to time, engage in short sales for investment and risk management purposes, including when the Adviser believes an investment will underperform due to a greater sensitivity to earnings growth of the issuer, default risk or interest rates.

Short sales are transactions in which the Fund sells a security or other instrument (such as an option, forward or futures contract) that it does not own but can borrow in the market. Short selling allows the Fund to profit from a decline in market price to the extent such decline exceeds the transaction costs and the costs of borrowing the securities and to obtain a low cost means of financing long investments that the Adviser believes are attractive. When the Fund engages in a short sale of a security, it must borrow the security sold short and deliver it to the counterparty. The Fund will ordinarily have to pay a fee or premium to borrow particular securities and be obligated to repay the lender of the security any coupon or interest that accrued on the securities during the period of the loan. The amount of any gain from a short sale will be decreased, and the amount of any loss increased, by the amount of the premium, dividends, interest or expenses the Fund pays in connection with the short sale.

During the period of the short sale, the Fund will, from time to time, be required to maintain the short sale proceeds that the broker holds and any additional assets the lending broker requires as collateral. The Fund will also be required to designate, on its books or the books of the Custodian, liquid assets (less any additional

 

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collateral held by the broker) to cover the short sale obligation, marked-to-market daily. Depending on the arrangements made with the broker or Custodian, the Fund might or might not receive any payments (including interest) on collateral it has deposited with the broker.

Dollar Rolls

The Fund will, from time to time, enter into “dollar rolls” in which the Fund sells securities for delivery in the current month and simultaneously contracts with the same counterparty to repurchase similar, but not identical securities on a specified future date. During the roll period, the Fund loses the right to receive principal and interest paid on the securities sold. However, the Fund would benefit to the extent of any difference between the price received for the securities sold and the lower forward price for the future purchase or fee income plus the interest earned on the cash proceeds of the securities sold until the settlement date of the forward purchase. All cash proceeds will be invested in instruments that are permissible investments for the Fund. The Fund will segregate until the settlement date cash or liquid assets, as permitted by applicable law, in an amount equal to its forward purchase price.

For financial reporting and tax purposes, the Fund treats dollar rolls as two separate transactions; one involving the purchase of a security and a separate transaction involving a sale. The Fund does not currently intend to enter into dollar rolls for financing and does not treat them as borrowings.

Dollar rolls involve certain risks including the following: if the broker-dealer to whom the Fund sells the security becomes insolvent, the Fund’s right to purchase or repurchase the securities subject to the dollar roll could be restricted. Also, the instrument which the Fund is required to repurchase could be worth less than an instrument which the Fund originally held. Successful use of dollar rolls will depend upon the Adviser’s ability to manage the Fund’s interest rate and prepayments exposure. For these reasons, there is no assurance that dollar rolls can be successfully employed. The use of this technique could diminish the investment performance of the Fund compared with what such performance would have been without the use of dollar rolls.

Derivatives

The Fund currently anticipates investing in (or considering for investment) the following types of derivative instruments:

Swap Agreements. The Fund will, from time to time, enter into swap agreements. A swap is a financial instrument that typically involves the exchange of cash flows between two parties on specified dates (settlement dates), where the cash flows are based on agreed-upon prices, rates, indices, etc. The nominal amount on which the cash flows are calculated is called the notional amount. Swaps are often individually negotiated and structured to include exposure to a variety of different types of investments or market factors, such as interest rates, commodity prices, non-U.S. currency rates, mortgage securities, corporate borrowing rates, security prices, indexes or inflation rates.

Swap agreements can increase or decrease the overall volatility of the investments of the Fund and its Share price. The performance of swap agreements could be affected by a change in the specific interest rate, currency, or other factors that determine the amounts of payments due to and from the Fund. If a swap agreement calls for payments by the Fund, the Fund must be prepared to make such payments when due. In addition, if the counterparty’s creditworthiness declines, the value of a swap agreement would likely decline, potentially resulting in losses.

Generally, swap agreements have fixed maturity dates that are agreed upon by the parties to the swap. An agreement can be terminated before the maturity date only under limited circumstances, such as default by or insolvency of one of the parties and can be transferred by a party only with the prior written consent of the other party. The Fund will, from time to time, be able to eliminate its exposure under a swap agreement either by assignment or other disposition, or by entering into an offsetting swap agreement with the same party or a

 

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similarly creditworthy party. If the counterparty is unable to meet its obligations under the contract, declares bankruptcy, defaults or becomes insolvent, it is possible that the Fund will not be able to recover the money it expected to receive under the contract.

A swap agreement can be a form of leverage, which can magnify the Fund’s gains or losses. With respect to cash-settled swaps, the Fund will set aside liquid assets in an amount equal to the Fund’s daily marked-to-market net obligations (i.e., the Fund’s daily net liability) under the swaps.

The Fund will monitor any swaps with a view towards ensuring that the Fund remains in compliance with all applicable regulatory investment and tax requirements.

Credit Derivatives. The Fund will, from time to time, engage in credit derivative transactions. There are two broad categories of credit derivatives: default price risk derivatives and market spread derivatives. Default price risk derivatives are linked to the price of reference securities or loans after a default by the issuer or Borrower, respectively. Market spread derivatives are based on the risk that changes in market factors, such as credit spreads, can cause a decline in the value of a security, loan or index. There are three basic transactional forms for credit derivatives: swaps, options and structured instruments. A credit default swap is an agreement between two counterparties that allows one counterparty (the “seller”) to sell protection under the swap and or be “long” on a third party’s credit risk and the other party (the “buyer”) to purchase protection under the swap and be “short” on the credit risk. In essence, an institution which owns corporate fixed-income instruments can purchase a limited form of default protection by entering into a credit default swap with another bank, broker-dealer or financial intermediary. Typically, the buyer agrees to make regular fixed payments to the seller with the same frequency as the underlying reference instrument. In exchange, the buyer typically has the right upon a credit event on the underlying instrument to deliver the instrument to the seller in exchange for the instrument’s par value plus interest. Credit default swaps can be used as a substitute for purchasing or selling a credit security and sometimes are preferable to purchasing the security. The Fund currently intends to invest primarily in credit default swaps as a buyer, but could also act as a seller. As a buyer of credit default swaps, the Fund is able to express a negative credit view on a particular instrument; as a seller, the Fund can express a positive view on the credit quality of a company. The Fund does not intend to leverage its investments through the use of credit default swaps, but it could incur effective leverage to the extent it acts as a seller of a credit default swap. Among other risks, a party to a credit default swap is subject to counterparty risk. The Fund will monitor any such swaps or derivatives with a view towards ensuring that the Fund remains in compliance with all applicable regulatory investment policy and tax requirements.

Options. The Fund will, from time to time, purchase put and call options on currencies or securities. A put option embodies the right of its purchaser to compel the writer of the option to purchase from the option holder an underlying currency or security or its equivalent at a specified price at any time during the option period. In contrast, a call option gives the purchaser the right to buy the underlying currency or security covered by the option or its equivalent from the writer of the option at the stated exercise price.

As a holder of a put option, the Fund will have the right to sell the securities underlying the option and as the holder of a call option, the Fund will have the right to purchase the currencies or securities underlying the option, in each case at their exercise price at any time prior to the option’s expiration date for American options or only at expiration for European options. The Fund could seek to terminate its option positions prior to their expiration by entering into closing transactions. The ability of the Fund to enter into a closing sale transaction depends on the existence of a liquid secondary market. There can be no assurance that a closing purchase or sale transaction can be effected when the Fund so desires. A successful use of equity options and options on stock indices will be subject to the Adviser’s ability to predict correctly movements in volatility and the direction of the stock market generally or of a particular industry or market segment. This requires different skills and techniques than predicting changes in the price of individual stocks.

Futures Contracts. The Fund will, from time to time, enter into securities-related futures contracts, including security futures contracts as an anticipatory hedge. The Fund’s derivative investments could include sales of

 

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futures as an offset against the effect of expected declines in securities prices and purchases of futures as an offset against the effect of expected increases in securities prices. A security futures contract is a legally binding agreement between two parties to purchase or sell in the future a specific quantity of a security or of the component securities of a narrow-based security index, at a certain price. A person who buys a security futures contract enters into a contract to purchase an underlying security and is said to be “long” the contract. A person who sells a security futures contact enters into a contract to sell the underlying security and is said to be “short” the contract. The price at which the contract trades (the “contract price”) is determined by relative buying and selling interest on a regulated exchange.

Interest Rate Transactions. The Fund can normally be expected to have less significant interest rate-related fluctuations in its NAV per Share than investment companies investing primarily in fixed-income instruments (other than money market funds and some short-term bond funds). However, because floating or variable rates on secured loans only reset periodically, changes in prevailing interest rates can be expected to cause some fluctuations in the Fund’s NAV. Similarly, a sudden and significant increase in market interest rates could cause a decline in the Fund’s NAV. In addition, secured loans could allow a borrower to opt between LIBOR-based interest rates and interest rates based on bank prime rates, which could have an impact the Fund’s NAV.

The Fund will, from time to time, use interest rate swaps for risk management purposes only and not as a speculative investment and would typically use interest rate swaps to shorten the average interest rate reset time of the Fund’s holdings. Interest rate swaps involve the exchange by the Fund with another party of their respective commitments to pay or receive interest (e.g., an exchange of fixed-rate payments for floating rate payments). The Fund will only enter into interest rate swaps on a net basis. If the other party to an interest rate swap defaults, the Fund’s risk of loss consists of the net amount of payments that the Fund is contractually entitled to receive. The counterparty risk for cleared interest rate swap transactions is generally lower than for uncleared over-the-counter interest rate swaps since generally a clearing organization becomes substituted for each counterparty to a cleared swap contract and, in effect, guarantees the parties’ performance under the contract as each party to a trade looks only to the clearing house for performance of financial obligations. However, there can be no assurance that the clearing house, or its members, will satisfy its obligations to the Fund. The net amount of the excess, if any, of the Fund’s obligations over its entitlements will be maintained in a segregated account by the Custodian. The Fund will not enter into an interest rate swap unless the claims-paying ability of the other party thereto is considered to be investment grade by the Adviser. If there is a default by the other party to such a transaction, the Fund will have contractual remedies pursuant to the agreements related to the transaction. These instruments are typically traded in the OTC market.

The use of interest rate swaps is a highly specialized activity which involves investment techniques and risks different from those associated with ordinary portfolio securities transactions. If the Adviser is incorrect in its forecasts of market values, interest rates and other applicable factors, the investment performance of the Fund would be unfavorably affected.

Foreign Currency Transactions. The Fund will, from time to time, engage in foreign currency transactions in connection with its investments in foreign securities. The Fund will conduct its foreign currency transactions either on a spot (i.e., cash) basis at the rate then-prevailing in the foreign currency markets or through forward contracts to purchase or sell foreign currencies.

Foreign Currency Forward Contracts. The Fund will, from time to time, enter into foreign currency forward contracts in order to protect against possible losses on non-U.S. dollar denominated investments resulting from adverse changes in the relationship between the U.S. dollar and foreign currencies. A foreign currency forward exchange contract is an obligation to purchase or sell a specific currency at a future date, which can be any fixed number of days (usually less than one year) from the date of the contract agreed upon by the parties, at a price and for an amount set at the time of the contract. These contracts are often traded in the interbank market directly between currency traders (usually large commercial banks) and their customers. A forward contract generally has a margin requirement, and no commissions are charged at any stage for trades. Although foreign exchange

 

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dealers do not charge a fee for conversion, they do realize a profit based on the difference (the spread) between the price at which they are buying and selling various currencies. However, foreign currency forward contracts could limit potential gains which could result from a positive change in such currency relationships. The Fund does not speculate in foreign currency.

Except for cross-hedges, the Fund will not enter into foreign currency forward contracts or maintain a net exposure in such contracts when it would be obligated to deliver an amount of foreign currency in excess of the value of its portfolio securities or other assets denominated in that currency or, in the case of a “cross-hedge,” denominated in a currency or currencies that the Adviser believes will tend to be closely correlated with that currency with regard to price movements. At the consummation of a forward contract, the Fund could either make delivery of the foreign currency or terminate its contractual obligation to deliver the foreign currency by purchasing an offsetting contract obligating it to purchase, at the same maturity date, the same amount of such foreign currency. If the Fund chooses to make delivery of the foreign currency, it could be required to obtain such currency through the sale of portfolio securities denominated in such currency or through conversion of other assets of the Fund into such currency. If the Fund engages in an offsetting transaction, the Fund will incur a gain or loss to the extent that there is a difference between the forward contract price and the offsetting forward contract price.

It should be realized that this method of protecting the value of the Fund’s portfolio securities against a decline in the value of a currency does not eliminate fluctuations in the underlying prices of the securities. It simply establishes a rate of exchange which can be achieved at some future point in time. Additionally, although such contracts tend to minimize the risk of loss due to a decline in the value of the hedged currency, at the same time they tend to limit any potential gain should the value of such currency increase. Generally, the Fund will not enter into a foreign currency forward contract with a term longer than one year.

Commodities-Related Derivatives. The Fund will, from time to time, use commodities-related derivatives to hedge a position in a commodity-related issuer or industry. Commodities-related derivatives include, but are not limited to, commodities contracts, commodity futures or options thereon (investments in contracts for the future purchase or sale of commodities); total return swaps based on a commodity index (permitting one party to receive/pay the total return on a commodity index against payment/receipt of an agreed upon spread/interest rate); commodity-linked notes (providing a return based on a formula referenced to a commodity index); commodity exchange traded notes (non-interest paying debt instruments whose price fluctuates (by contractual commitment) with an underlying commodities index); sovereign issued oil warrants (a sovereign obligation the coupon on which is contingent on the price of oil); and any other commodities-related derivative permitted by law.

Equity Swaps. In a typical equity swap, one party agrees to pay another party the return on a security, security index or basket of securities in return for a specified interest rate. By entering into an equity index swap, the index receiver can gain exposure to securities making up the index of securities without actually purchasing those securities. Equity index swaps involve not only the risk associated with investment in the securities represented in the index, but also the risk that the performance of such securities, including dividends, will not exceed the interest that the Fund will be committed to pay under the swap.

Structured Products

The Fund will invest in structured products, including the following:

Collateralized Loan Obligations. A collateralized loan obligation (“CLO”) is a financing company (generally called a Special Purpose Vehicle or “SPV”), created to reapportion the risk and return characteristics of a pool of assets. While the assets underlying CLOs are typically secured loans, the assets could also include (i) unsecured loans, (ii) debt securities that are rated below investment grade, (iii) debt tranches of other CLOs and (iv) equity securities incidental to investments in secured loans. When investing in CLOs, the Fund will not invest in equity

 

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tranches, which are the lowest tranche. However, the Fund will, from time to time, invest in lower tranches of CLOs, which typically experience a lower recovery, greater risk of loss or deferral or non-payment of interest than more senior tranches of the CLO. In addition, the Fund intends to invest in CLOs consisting primarily of individual secured loans of Borrowers and not repackaged CLO obligations from other high risk pools. The underlying secured loans purchased by CLOs are generally performing at the time of purchase but could become non-performing, distressed or defaulted. CLOs with underlying assets of non-performing, distressed or defaulted loans are not contemplated to comprise a significant portion of the Fund’s investments in CLOs. The key feature of the CLO structure is the prioritization of the cash flows from a pool of debt securities among the several classes of the CLO. The SPV is a company founded solely for the purpose of securitizing payment claims arising out of this diversified asset pool. On this basis, marketable securities are issued by the SPV which, due to the diversification of the underlying risk, generally represent a lower level of risk than the original assets. The redemption of the securities issued by the SPV typically takes place at maturity out of the cash flow generated by the collected claims.

Credit-Linked Notes. The Fund will, from time to time, purchase credit-linked notes for risk management purposes. A credit-linked note is a form of funded credit derivative instrument. It is a synthetic obligation between two or more parties where the payment of principal and/or interest is based on the performance of some obligation (a reference obligation). Credit-linked notes are created by embedding a credit default swap in a funded asset to form an investment whose credit risk and cash flow characteristics resemble those of a bond or loan. These credit-linked notes pay an enhanced coupon to the investor for taking on the added credit risk of the reference issuer. In addition to the credit risk of the reference obligations and interest rate risk, the buyer/seller of credit-linked notes is subject to counterparty risk.

Securities Lending

The Fund will, from time to time, make secured loans of its marginable securities to brokers, dealers and other financial institutions. The risks in lending portfolio securities, as with other extensions of credit, consist of possible delay in recovery of the securities or possible loss of rights in the collateral should the borrower fail financially. However, such loans will be made only to broker-dealers and other financial institutions that are believed by the Adviser to be of relatively high credit standing. Securities loans are made to broker-dealers pursuant to agreements requiring that loans be continuously secured by collateral consisting of U.S. government securities, cash or cash equivalents (negotiable certificates of deposit, bankers’ acceptances or letters of credit) maintained on a daily mark-to-market basis in an amount at least equal at all times to the market value of the securities lent. The borrower pays to the Fund, as the lender, an amount equal to any dividends or interest received on the securities lent.

The Fund will, from time to time, invest only the cash collateral received in accordance with its investment objectives, subject to the Fund’s agreement with the borrower of the securities. In the case of cash collateral, the Fund will, from time to time, pay a rebate to the borrower. The reinvestment of cash collateral will result in a form of effective leverage for the Fund.

Although voting rights or rights to consent with respect to the loaned securities pass to the borrower, the Fund, as the lender, retains the right to call the loans and obtain the return of the securities loaned at any time on reasonable notice, and it will do so in order that the securities can be voted by the Fund if the holders of such securities are asked to vote upon or consent to matters materially affecting the investment. The Fund will, from time to time, also call such loans in order to sell the securities involved. When engaged in securities lending, the Fund’s performance will continue to reflect changes in the value of the securities loaned and will also reflect the receipt of interest through investment of cash collateral by the Fund in permissible investments.

Reverse Repurchase Agreements and Dollar Rolls

The Fund will, from time to time, enter into reverse repurchase agreements, under which the Fund will effectively pledge its assets as collateral to secure a short-term loan. Generally, the other party to the agreement

 

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makes the loan in an amount equal to a percentage of the market value of the pledge collateral. At the maturity of the reverse repurchase agreement, the Fund will be required to repay the loan and correspondingly receive back its collateral. While used as collateral, the assets continue to pay principal and interest, which are for the benefit of the Fund.

A dollar roll transaction involves a sale by the Fund of a security concurrently with an agreement by the Fund to repurchase a similar security at a later date at an agreed-upon price. The securities that are repurchased will bear the same interest rate and a similar maturity as those sold, but the assets collateralizing those securities could have different prepayment histories than those sold. During the period between the sale and repurchase, the Fund will not be entitled to receive interest and principal payments on the securities sold. Proceeds of the sale will be invested in additional investments, and the income from these investments will generate income for the Fund. If such income does not exceed the income, capital appreciation and gain or loss that would have been realized on the securities sold as part of the dollar roll, the use of this technique will diminish the investment performance of the Fund compared with what the performance would have been without the use of dollar rolls. Dollar rolls involve the risk that the market value of the securities subject to the Fund’s forward purchase commitment could decline below, or the market value of the securities subject to the Fund’s forward sale commitment could increase above, the exercise price of the forward commitment. In the event the buyer of the securities files for bankruptcy or becomes insolvent, the Fund’s use of the proceeds of the current sale portion of the transaction could be restricted.

Repurchase Agreements

The Fund will, from time to time, enter into repurchase agreements, in which the Fund purchases a security from a bank or broker-dealer and the bank or broker-dealer agrees to repurchase the security at the Fund’s cost plus interest within a specified time. If the party agreeing to repurchase should default, the Fund will seek to sell the securities which it holds. This could involve transaction costs or delays in addition to a loss on the securities if their value should fall below their repurchase price. Repurchase agreements maturing in more than seven days are considered to be illiquid securities.

Other Investment Companies

The Fund will, from time to time, invest in securities issued by other investment companies within the limits prescribed by the Investment Company Act of 1940 (the “1940 Act”), the rules and regulations thereunder and any exemptive orders currently or in the future obtained by the Fund from the SEC. These securities include shares of other closed-end funds, open-end investment companies (i.e., mutual funds) and ETFs. As a stockholder in an investment company, the Fund will bear its ratable share of that investment company’s expenses, and would remain subject to payment of the Fund’s management fees with respect to assets so invested. Shareholders would therefore be subject to duplicative expenses to the extent the Fund invests in other investment companies. In addition, the securities of other investment companies could also be leveraged and will therefore be subject to the same leverage risks described herein. See “Risks—Leverage Risk.”

Investment Policies

Credit Ratings and Unrated Securities

Rating agencies are private services that provide ratings of the credit quality of debt obligations, including convertible securities, based upon their assessment of the likelihood of the receipt of principal and interest payments. Appendix A to the SAI describes the various ratings assigned to debt obligations by Standard & Poor’s Corporation Rating Group (“S&P”), Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. (“Moody’s”) and Fitch Ratings, Inc. (“Fitch”). Ratings assigned by a rating agency are not absolute standards of credit quality and do not consider the risks of fluctuations in market value or other factors that influence the value of debt securities. Rating agencies could fail to make timely changes in credit ratings and an issuer’s current financial condition could be better or

 

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worse than a rating indicates. Therefore, the credit rating assigned to a particular instrument might not fully reflect the true risks of an investment in such instrument. Credit rating agencies can change their methods of evaluating credit risk and determining ratings. These changes can occur quickly and often. Credit rating agencies can be paid by the companies whose debt they analyze and grade. To the extent that the issuer of a security pays a rating agency for the analysis of its security, an inherent conflict of interest exists that could affect the reliability of the rating. The Adviser does not rely solely on credit ratings; rather, it develops its own analysis of issuer credit quality. The ratings of a debt security can change over time. S&P, Moody’s and Fitch monitor and evaluate the ratings assigned to securities on an ongoing basis. As a result, securities held by the Fund could receive a higher rating (which would tend to increase their value) or a lower rating (which would tend to decrease their value) during the period in which they are held.

The Fund will, from time to time, purchase unrated securities (securities which are not rated by a rating agency) if the Adviser determines that the securities are an appropriate investment for the Fund. Unrated securities generally are less liquid than comparable rated securities and involve the risk that the Adviser might not accurately evaluate the security’s comparative credit rating. To the extent that the Fund invests in high yield and/or unrated securities, the Fund’s success in achieving its investment objectives could depend more heavily on the Adviser’s analysis than if the Fund invested exclusively in higher-quality and rated securities. The Adviser will attempt to reduce the risks of investing in lower rated or unrated debt instruments through active portfolio management, credit analysis and attention to current developments and trends in the economy and the financial markets.

The Fund is not required to dispose of a security in the event that a rating agency downgrades its assessment of the credit characteristics of a particular issue or withdraws its assessment, including in the event of a default. In determining whether to retain or sell such a security, the Adviser considers such factors as Adviser’s assessment of the credit quality of the issuers of such security, the price at which such security could be sold and the rating, if any, assigned to such security by other rating agencies.

Percentage Limitations

Compliance with any policy or limitation of the Fund that is expressed as a percentage of assets is determined at the time of purchase of portfolio securities. The policy will not be violated if these limitations are exceeded because of changes in the market value or investment rating of the Fund’s assets or if a Borrower or issuer distributes equity securities incident to the purchase or ownership of a loan or fixed-income instrument or in connection with a reorganization of a Borrower or issuer.

 

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LEVERAGE

The Fund intends to use financial leverage for investment purposes (i.e., to purchase additional portfolio securities consistent with the Fund’s investment objectives and strategies). Although the Fund intends to use leverage as discussed below, there can be no assurance that the Fund will use financial leverage or that, if used, the Fund will be successful during any period in which leverage is employed. Generally speaking, if the Fund can invest the proceeds from financial leverage in portfolio securities that have higher rates of return than the costs of such financial leverage and other expenses of the Fund, then the Shareholders would have a net benefit.

The Fund is permitted to obtain leverage using any form or combination of financial leverage instruments, including through funds borrowed from banks or other financial institutions (i.e., a credit facility), margin facilities, the issuance of preferred shares or notes and leverage attributable to reverse repurchase agreements, dollar rolls or similar transactions. The Fund will, add financial leverage to its portfolio representing up to approximately 33 and 1/3% of the Fund’s Managed Assets (which includes the assets subject to, and obtained with the proceeds of, the leveraging activity). The level of the Fund’s use of financial leverage is not a fundamental policy of the Fund and may be changed without notice to the Shareholders. The Fund intends to use leverage opportunistically and may choose to increase or decrease its leverage, or use different types or combinations of leveraging instruments, at any time based on the Fund’s assessment of market conditions and the investment environment.

Under the 1940 Act, the Fund generally may not declare any dividend or other distribution upon any class of its Shares, or purchase any such Shares, unless the aggregate indebtedness of the Fund has, at the time of the declaration of such dividend or distribution, or at the time of any such purchase, an asset coverage of at least 300% after deducting the amount of such dividend, distribution or purchase price, as the case may be. With respect to asset coverage for preferred shares, under the 1940 Act, the Fund is not permitted to issue preferred shares unless immediately after such issuance the NAV of the Fund’s portfolio is at least 200% of the liquidation value of the outstanding preferred shares (i.e., such liquidation value may not exceed 50% of the Fund’s Managed Assets (less the Fund’s obligations under senior securities representing indebtedness)). In addition, the Fund is not permitted to declare any cash dividend or other distribution on its Shares unless, at the time of such distribution, the NAV of the Fund’s portfolio (determined after deducting the amount of such dividend or other distribution) is at least 200% of such liquidation value. If the Fund uses a combination of borrowing (including notes and other securities representing indebtedness) and issuing preferred shares, the maximum asset coverage required would be between 300% and 200% depending on the relative amounts of borrowings and preferred shares.

Leverage creates risks for holders of the Shares, including the likelihood of greater volatility in the NAV of the Shares. There is a risk that fluctuations in the distribution rates on any outstanding preferred shares or notes will adversely affect the return to the holders of the Shares. If the income from the investments purchased with such funds is not sufficient to cover the cost of leverage, the return on the Fund will be less than if leverage had not been used, and therefore the amount available for distribution to Shareholders will be reduced. The Fund in its reasonable judgment nevertheless may determine to maintain the Fund’s leveraged position if it deems such action to be appropriate in the circumstances.

Changes in the value of the Fund’s investment portfolio (including investments bought with the proceeds of leverage) will be borne entirely by the Shareholders. If there is a net decrease (or increase) in the value of the Fund’s investment portfolio, the leverage will decrease (or increase) the NAV per Shares to a greater extent than if the Fund were not leveraged. The use of leverage by the Fund will magnify the Fund’s losses when there is a decrease in the value of a Fund investment and even totally eliminate the Fund’s equity in its portfolio or a Common Shareholder’s equity in the Fund. During periods in which the Fund is using leverage, the fees paid by the Fund for investment advisory services will be higher than if the Fund did not use leverage because the investment advisory fees paid will be calculated on the basis of the Fund’s Managed Assets, which include proceeds from leverage. As discussed under “Description of Shares,” if preferred shares are used, holders of

 

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preferred shares will have rights to elect a minimum of two trustees. This voting power could negatively affect holders of Shares, and the interests of holders of preferred shares could otherwise differ from the interests of holders of Shares. Any trustees elected by preferred shareholders will represent both holders of Shares and holders of preferred shares. Such trustees could have a conflict of interest when the interests of holders of Shares differ from those of holders of preferred shares.

Capital raised through leverage will be subject to distribution and/or interest payments, which could exceed the income and appreciation on the assets purchased. The issuance of preferred shares or notes involves offering expenses and other costs and could limit the Fund’s freedom to pay distributions on Shares or to engage in other activities. All costs of offering and servicing any of the leverage methods the Fund uses will be borne entirely by the Fund’s Shareholders. The interests of persons with whom the Fund enters into leverage arrangements (such as bank lenders, note holders and preferred shareholders) will not necessarily be aligned with the interests of the holders of Shares, and such persons will have claims on the Fund’s assets that are senior to those of the holders of Shares. Leverage creates an opportunity for a greater return per Shares, but at the same time it is a speculative technique that will increase the Fund’s exposure to capital risk.

In connection with a credit facility, any lender may impose specific restrictions as a condition to borrowing. The credit facility fees could include, among other things, up front structuring fees and ongoing commitment fees (including fees on amounts undrawn on the facility) in addition to the traditional interest expense on amounts borrowed. The credit facility could involve a lien on the Fund’s assets. Similarly, to the extent the Fund issues preferred shares or notes, the Fund currently intends to seek an AAA or equivalent credit rating from one or more NRSROs on any preferred shares or notes it issues and the Fund will, from time to time, be subject to fees, covenants and investment restrictions required by the NRSRO as a result. Such covenants and restrictions imposed by a NRSRO or lender can include asset coverage or portfolio composition requirements that are more stringent than those imposed on the Fund by the 1940 Act. It is not anticipated that these covenants or restrictions will significantly impede the Adviser in managing the Fund’s portfolio in accordance with its investment objectives and policies. Nonetheless, if these covenants or guidelines are more restrictive than those imposed by the 1940 Act, the Fund might not be able to use as much leverage as it otherwise could have, which could reduce the Fund’s investment returns. In addition, the Fund expects that any notes it issues or credit facility it enters into would contain covenants that, among other things, could impose geographic exposure limitations, credit quality minimums, liquidity minimums, concentration limitations and currency hedging requirements on the Fund. These covenants would also likely limit the Fund’s ability to pay distributions in certain circumstances, incur additional debt, change fundamental investment policies and engage in certain transactions, including mergers and consolidations. Such restrictions could cause the Adviser to make different investment decisions than if there were no such restrictions and could limit the ability of the Board and Shareholders to change fundamental investment policies.

As a closed-end investment company registered with the SEC, the Fund is subject to the federal securities laws, including the 1940 Act, the rules thereunder, and various SEC and SEC staff interpretive positions. In accordance with these laws, rules and positions, the Fund will, from time to time, “set aside” liquid assets (often referred to as “asset segregation”), or engage in other SEC- or staff-approved measures, to “cover” open positions with respect to certain portfolio management techniques, such as engaging in reverse repurchase agreements, dollar rolls, entering into credit default swaps or futures contracts, or purchasing securities on a when-issued or delayed delivery basis, that could be considered senior securities under the 1940 Act. The Fund intends to “cover” its derivative positions by segregating an amount of cash and/or liquid securities as required by the 1940 Act and applicable SEC interpretations and guidance from time to time. When the Fund is a seller of a credit default swap, the Fund will segregate assets to cover the full notional value of any obligation under the credit default swap. The Fund will not, from time to time, cover an applicable derivative transaction if it does not need to do so to comply with the 1940 Act limitations on the issuance of senior securities and, in the view of the Adviser, the assets that would have been used to cover could be better used for a different purpose. However, these transactions, even if covered, could represent a form of economic leverage and will create risks. The potential loss on derivative instruments could be substantial relative to the initial investment therein. In addition, these

 

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segregation and coverage requirements could result in the Fund maintaining securities positions that it would otherwise liquidate, segregating assets at a time when it might be disadvantageous to do so or otherwise restricting portfolio management. Such segregation and cover requirements will not limit or offset losses on related positions.

The Fund’s willingness to use leverage, and the amount of leverage the Fund will assume, will depend on many factors, the most important of which are market conditions and interest rates. Successful use of a leveraging strategy can depend on the Fund’s ability to predict correctly interest rates and market movements, and there is no assurance that a leveraging strategy will be successful during any period in which it is employed. Any leveraging of the Shares cannot be achieved until the proceeds resulting from the use of leverage have been invested in accordance with the Fund’s investment objective and policies.

Effects of Leverage

The following table is designed to illustrate the effects of leverage on Share total return, assuming hypothetical annual investment portfolio total returns, net of expenses (consisting of income and changes in the value of investments held in the Fund’s portfolio) of –10%, –5%, 0%, 5% and 10%. These assumed investment portfolio returns are hypothetical figures and are not necessarily indicative of the investment portfolio returns expected to be experienced by the Fund. The table further assumes that the Fund uses borrowings representing 33 and 1/3% of the Fund’s Managed Assets (which includes the amounts of leverage obtained through such borrowings) and a projected annual rate of interest on the borrowings of [●]%.

 

Assumed Portfolio Total Return (net of expenses)

     (10.00)     (5.00)     0.00     5.00     10.00

Share Total Return

     [●]     [●]     [●]     [●]     [●]

Share Total Return is composed of two elements: the Shares dividends paid by the Fund (the amount of which is largely determined by the net investment income of the Fund after paying dividends or interest on its leverage) and gains or losses on the value of the securities the Fund owns. As required by SEC rules, the table above assumes that the Fund is more likely to suffer capital losses than to enjoy capital appreciation. For example, to assume a total return of [0%] the Fund must assume that the interest it receives on its debt security investments is entirely offset by losses in the value of those investments.

If the Fund uses leverage, the amount of fees paid to the Adviser for its services will be higher than if the Fund does not use leverage because the fees paid are calculated based on Managed Assets, which includes assets purchased with leverage. Therefore, the Adviser has a financial incentive to use leverage, which creates a conflict of interest between the Adviser and Shareholders, because only the Shareholders would bear the fees and expenses incurred through the Fund’s use of leverage. See “Conflicts of Interest.” The Fund’s willingness to use leverage, and the extent to which leverage is used at any time, will depend on many factors, including among other things, the Adviser’s assessment of the yield curve, interest rate trends, market conditions and other factors. See “Summary of Fund Expenses.”

 

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RISKS

An investment in Shares may be speculative in that it involves a high degree of risk and should not constitute a complete investment program. Before making an investment decision, you should carefully consider the following risks, together with the other information contained in the prospectus. If any of these risks discussed in this prospectus occurs, the Fund’s results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. If this were to happen, the price of Shares could decline significantly and you could lose all or a part of your investment.

No Operating History. The Fund is a diversified, closed-end management investment company with no operating history. As a result, prospective investors have no track record or history on which to base their investment decision. The Fund is subject to all of the business risks and uncertainties associated with any new business.

Repurchase Offers Risk. As described under “Periodic Repurchase Offers” above, the Fund is an interval fund and, in order to provide liquidity to Shareholders, the Fund, subject to applicable law, will conduct repurchase offers for the Fund’s outstanding Shares at NAV, subject to approval of the Board. The Fund believes that these repurchase offers are generally beneficial to the Fund’s Shareholders, and repurchases generally will be funded from available cash, cash from the sale of Shares or sales of portfolio securities. However, repurchase offers and the need to fund repurchase obligations will affect the ability of the Fund to be fully invested or force the Fund to maintain a higher percentage of its assets in liquid investments, which could harm the Fund’s investment performance. Moreover, it is possible that diminution in the size of the Fund through repurchases will result in an increased expense ratio for Shareholders who do not tender their Shares for repurchase, will result in untimely sales of portfolio securities (with associated imputed transaction costs, which could be significant) and will limit the ability of the Fund to participate in new investment opportunities or to achieve its investment objective. The Fund will, from time to time, accumulate cash by holding back (i.e., not reinvesting) payments received in connection with the Fund’s investments and cash from the sale of Shares. The Fund believes that it can meet the maximum potential amount of the Fund’s repurchase obligations. If at any time cash and other liquid assets held by the Fund are not sufficient to meet the Fund’s repurchase obligations, the Fund intends, if necessary, to sell investments. In addition, if the Fund borrows to finance repurchases, interest on that borrowing will negatively affect Shareholders who do not tender their Shares by increasing the Fund’s expenses and reducing any net investment income.

If a repurchase offer is oversubscribed, the Board has authority to increase the amount repurchased by up to 2% of the Fund’s outstanding Shares as of the date of the Repurchase Request Deadline. In the event that the Board determines not to repurchase more than the repurchase offer amount, or if Shareholders tender more than the repurchase offer amount plus 2% of the Fund’s outstanding Shares as of the date of the Repurchase Request Deadline, the Fund will repurchase the Shares tendered on a pro rata basis, and Shareholders will have to wait until the next repurchase offer to make another repurchase request. As a result, Shareholders could be unable to liquidate all or a given percentage of their investment in the Fund during a particular repurchase offer. Some Shareholders, in anticipation of proration, may tender more Shares than they wish to have repurchased in a particular month, thereby increasing the likelihood that proration will occur. Between the Repurchase Request Deadline and the date on which the NAV for tendered Shares is determined, the Fund is subject to market and other risks and the NAV of Shares tendered in a repurchase offer could decline. In addition, the repurchase of Shares by the Fund will generally be a taxable event to Shareholders.

Investment and Market Risk. An investment in the Fund involves a considerable amount of risk. Before making an investment decision, a prospective investor should (i) consider the suitability of this investment with respect to the his or her investment objectives and personal situation and (ii) consider factors such as his or her personal net worth, income, age, risk tolerance and liquidity needs. An investment in Shares represents an indirect investment in the portfolio of loans and fixed-income instruments, short positions and other securities and derivative instruments owned by the Fund, and the value of these securities and instruments will fluctuate, sometimes rapidly and unpredictably, and such investment is subject to investment risk, including the possible loss of the entire principal amount invested. At any point in time, an investment in Shares could be worth less than the

 

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original amount invested, even after taking into account distributions paid by the Fund and the ability of Shareholders to reinvest dividends. The Fund will also use leverage, which would magnify the Fund’s investment, market and certain other risks.

The Fund will be materially affected by market, economic and political conditions globally and in the jurisdictions and sectors in which it invests or operates, including factors affecting interest rates, the availability of credit, currency exchange rates and trade barriers. These factors are outside the Adviser’s control and could adversely affect the liquidity and value of the Fund’s investments and reduce the ability of the Fund to make attractive new investments.

Ongoing events in the subprime mortgage market and other areas of the fixed income markets have caused significant dislocations, illiquidity and volatility in the leveraged loan and bond markets, as well as in the wider global financial markets. To the extent portfolio companies and other issuers of the Fund’s portfolio investments participate in or have exposure to such markets, the results of their operations could be adversely affected. In addition, to the extent that such economic and market events and conditions reoccur, this would have a further adverse impact on the availability of credit to businesses generally. Although financial markets have shown intermittent signs of improvement, global economic conditions remain tenuous, and to the extent that they do not improve, this could adversely impact the financial resources and credit quality of corporate and other borrowers in which the Fund has invested and result in the inability of such borrowers to make principal and interest payments on, or refinance, outstanding debt when due. In the event of such defaults, the Fund could suffer a partial or total loss of their investment in such borrowers, which would, in turn, have an adverse effect on the Fund’s returns. Such economic and market events and conditions also could restrict the ability of the Fund to sell or liquidate investments at favorable times or for favorable prices (although such events and conditions would not necessarily foreclose the Fund’s ability to hold such investments until maturity). In particular, the Fund’s investment strategies rely, in part, on the stabilization or improvement of the conditions in the global economy and markets generally and credit markets specifically. Absent such a recovery, it is possible that the value of the Fund’s investments will not generate expected current proceeds or appreciate as anticipated and could suffer a loss. Trends and historical events do not imply, forecast or predict future events and past performance is not necessarily indicative of future results. There can be no assurance that the assumptions made or the beliefs and expectations currently held by the Adviser will prove correct, and actual events and circumstances can vary significantly.

The Fund will, from time to time, be subject to risk arising from a default by one of several large institutions that are dependent on one another to meet their liquidity or operational needs, so that a default by one institution could cause a series of defaults by the other institutions. This is sometimes referred to as “systemic risk” and could adversely affect financial intermediaries, such as clearing agencies, clearing houses, banks, securities firms and exchanges, with which the Fund interacts on a daily basis.

Illiquid and Long-Term Investments Risk. Investment in the Fund requires a long-term commitment, with no certainty of return. A significant portion of the Fund’s investments generally will be in private, illiquid securities, which are typically subject to restrictions on resale. There can be no assurance that the Fund will be able to generate returns for Shareholders, that the returns will be commensurate with the risks of investing in the type of transactions and issuers described herein or that the Adviser’s methodology for evaluating risk-adjusted return profiles for investments will achieve its objectives. In some cases, the Fund will be legally, contractually or otherwise prohibited from selling certain investments for a period of time or otherwise be restricted from disposing of them, and illiquidity could also result from the absence of an established market for certain investments. The realizable value of a highly illiquid investment, at any given time, could be less than its intrinsic value. In addition, it is anticipated that certain types of investments made by the Fund will require a substantial length of time to liquidate. As a result, from time to time, the Fund will be unable to realize its investment objective by sale or other disposition at attractive prices or will otherwise be unable to complete any exit strategy.

 

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Although investments by the Fund are expected to generate current income, the return of capital and the realization of gains, if any, from an investment generally will occur only upon the partial or complete repayment or disposition of such investment, as to which there can be no certainty. The Fund’s investments are speculative in nature and, particularly where leverage is used by the Fund, there can be no assurance that current income received by the Fund will be sufficient to service the Fund’s debt or that any investor will receive a return of his or her invested capital or any distribution from the Fund. While an investment can be sold or repaid at any time, this will occur typically a number of years after the investment is made, and investors should expect that they will not receive a return of their capital for a long period of time even if the Fund’s investments prove successful.

Certain investments by the Fund could be in securities that are or become publicly traded and are therefore subject to the risks inherent in investing in public companies (including new issues of securities). These factors are outside the Adviser’s control and could adversely affect the liquidity and value of the Fund’s investments and reduce the ability of the Fund to make attractive new investments. In addition, in some cases the Fund could be prohibited by contract or other limitations from selling such securities for a period of time so that the Fund is unable to take advantage of favorable market prices. The Fund will likely not have the same access to information in connection with investments in public companies, either when investigating a potential investment or after making an investment, as with investments in private companies. Furthermore, it can be expected from time to time that the Fund will be limited in its ability to make investments, and to sell existing investments, in public or private companies because KKR could be deemed to have material, non-public information regarding the issuers of those securities or as a result of other internal policies. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that the Fund will be able to make investments in public companies that the Adviser otherwise deems appropriate or, if it does, as to the amount it will so invest. Moreover, the inability to sell investments in public or private companies in these circumstances could materially adversely affect the investment results of the Fund. The Fund will also invest in 144A securities, which investment is likely to raise many of the same issues and risks discussed above. It is possible that the Adviser, in its sole discretion, will decline to receive material nonpublic information in respect of a public company in which the Fund has invested that would otherwise be available to it to avoid being restricted from trading in securities issued by such public company or to avoid the Adviser or its affiliates being so restricted on behalf of other funds, vehicles or accounts sponsored, managed or advised by KKR or any of its affiliates (see also “—Conflicts of Interest” below).

Fixed-Income Instruments Risk. The Fund invests in loans and other types of fixed-income instruments and securities. Such investments will be secured, partially secured or unsecured, can be unrated and, whether or not rated, can have speculative characteristics. The market price of the Fund’s investments will change in response to changes in interest rates and other factors. Generally, when interest rates rise, the values of fixed-income instruments fall and vice versa. In typical interest rate environments, the prices of longer-term fixed-income instruments generally fluctuate more than the prices of shorter-term fixed-income instruments as interest rates change. These risks are more pronounced in the current market environment of historically low interest rates. Most high yield investments pay a fixed rate of interest and are therefore vulnerable to inflation risk.

From time to time, the obligor of a fixed-income instrument will not be able or willing to pay interest or to repay principal when due in accordance with the terms of the associated agreement. An obligor’s willingness and ability to pay interest or to repay principal due in a timely manner will be affected by, among other factors, its cash flow. Commercial bank lenders could be able to contest payments to the holders of other debt obligations of the same obligor in the event of default under their commercial bank loan agreements.

Interest Rate Risk. The Fund’s investments will expose the Fund to interest rate risks, meaning that changes in prevailing market interest rates could negatively affect the value of such investments. Factors that can affect market interest rates include, without limitation, inflation, slow or stagnant economic growth or recession, unemployment, money supply, governmental monetary policies, international disorders and instability in U.S. and non-U.S. financial markets. The Fund expects that it will periodically experience imbalances in the interest rate sensitivities of its assets and liabilities and the relationships of various interest rates to each other. In a changing interest rate environment, the Adviser might not be able to manage this risk effectively. If the Adviser is unable to manage interest rate risk effectively, the Fund’s performance could be adversely affected.

 

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Senior Loans Risk. Senior secured floating rate and fixed-rate loans (“Senior Loans”) hold the most senior position in the capital structure of a corporation, partnership or other business entity (a “Borrower”). Senior Loans in most circumstances are fully collateralized by assets of the borrower. Thus, they are generally repaid before unsecured bank loans, corporate bonds, subordinated debt, trade creditors and preferred or common stockholders. Substantial increases in interest rates could cause an increase in loan defaults as borrowers might lack resources to meet higher debt service requirements. The value of the Fund’s assets could also be affected by other uncertainties such as economic developments affecting the market for senior secured term loans or affecting borrowers generally. Moreover, the security for the Fund’s investments in secured debt might not be recognized for a variety of reasons, including the failure to make required filings by lenders, trustees or other responsible parties and, as a result, the Fund might not have priority over other creditors as anticipated.

Senior Loans usually include restrictive covenants, which must be maintained by the borrower. The Fund will, from time to time, have an obligation with respect to certain senior secured term loan investments to make additional loans upon demand by the borrower. Such instruments, unlike certain bonds, usually do not have call protection. This means that such interests, although having a stated term, can be prepaid, often without penalty. The rate of such prepayments will be affected by, among other things, general business and economic conditions, as well as the financial status of the borrower. Prepayment would cause the actual duration of a Senior Loan to be shorter than its stated maturity.

Senior Loans typically will be secured by pledges of collateral from the borrower in the form of tangible and intangible assets. In some instances, the Fund will invest in Senior Loans that are secured only by stock of the borrower or its subsidiaries or affiliates. The value of the collateral could decline below the principal amount of the senior secured term loans subsequent to an investment by the Fund.

Senior Loans generally are not registered with the SEC or any state securities commission and are not listed on any national securities exchange. There is less readily available or reliable information about most Senior Loans than is the case for many other types of securities, including securities issued in transactions registered under the Securities Act or registered under the Exchange Act. No active trading market exists for some Senior Loans, and some Senior Loans are subject to restrictions on resale. A secondary market could be subject to irregular trading activity, wide bid/ask spreads and extended trade settlement periods, which could impair the Fund’s ability to realize full value and thus cause a material decline in the Fund’s NAV. In addition, at times, the Fund will not be able to readily dispose of its Senior Loans at prices that approximate those at which the Fund could sell such loans if they were more widely traded and, as a result of such illiquidity, the Fund will, from time to time, have to sell other investments or engage in borrowing transactions if necessary to raise cash to meet its obligations. During periods of limited supply and liquidity of Senior Loans, the Fund’s yield could be lower. See “Risks—Below Investment Grade Instruments Risk.”

If legislation or government regulations impose additional requirements or restrictions on the ability of financial institutions to make loans, the availability of Senior Loans for investment by the Fund will be adversely affected. In addition, such requirements or restrictions could reduce or eliminate sources of financing for certain Borrowers. This would increase the risk of default. See “Investment Objectives and Investment Strategies—Portfolio Composition—Senior Loans” and “Risks—Senior Loans Risk.”

Credit Risk. The Fund’s debt investments will be subject to the risk of non-payment of scheduled interest or principal by the borrowers with respect to such investments. Such non-payment would likely result in a reduction of income to the Fund and a reduction in the value of the debt investments experiencing non-payment.

Although the Fund will, from time to time, invest in investments that the Adviser believes are secured by specific collateral, the value of which exceeds the principal amount of the investments at the time of initial investment, there can be no assurance that the liquidation of any such collateral would satisfy the borrower’s obligation in the event of non-payment of scheduled interest or principal payments with respect to such investment or that such collateral could be readily liquidated. In addition, in the event of bankruptcy of a borrower, the Fund could

 

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experience delays or limitations with respect to its ability to realize the benefits of the collateral securing an investment. Under certain circumstances, collateral securing an investment will be released without the consent of the Fund. The Fund will, from time to time, also invest in high yield instruments and other unsecured investments, each of which involves a higher degree of risk than Senior Loans. The Fund’s right to payment and its security interest, if any, could be subordinated to the payment rights and security interests of more senior creditors. Certain of these investments will have an interest-only payment schedule, with the principal amount remaining outstanding and at risk until the maturity of the investment. In this case, a portfolio company’s ability to repay the principal of an investment could be dependent upon a liquidity event or the long-term success of the company, the occurrence of which is uncertain.

Companies in which the Fund invests could deteriorate as a result of, among other factors, an adverse development in their business, a change in the competitive environment or an economic downturn. As a result, companies that the Fund expected to be stable could operate, or expect to operate, at a loss or have significant variations in operating results, could require substantial additional capital to support their operations or maintain their competitive position or could otherwise have a weak financial condition or be experiencing financial distress.

Leverage Risk. The Fund is permitted to obtain leverage using any form or combination of financial leverage instruments, including through funds borrowed from banks or other financial institutions (i.e., a credit facility), margin facilities, the issuance of preferred shares or notes and leverage attributable to reverse repurchase agreements, dollar rolls or similar transactions. The Fund will, from time to time, use leverage opportunistically and will choose to increase or decrease its leverage, or use different types or combinations of leveraging instruments, at any time based on the Fund’s assessment of market conditions and the investment environment.

The 1940 Act generally limits the extent to which the Fund is able to use borrowings and “uncovered” transactions that give rise to a form of leverage, including reverse repurchase agreements, dollar rolls, swaps, futures and forward contracts, options and other derivative transactions, together with any other senior securities representing indebtedness, to 33 and 1/3% of the Fund’s Managed Assets at the time used. In addition, the 1940 Act limits the extent to which the Fund is able issue preferred shares to 50% of the Fund’s Managed Assets (less the Fund’s obligations under senior securities representing indebtedness). “Covered” reverse repurchase agreements, dollar rolls, swaps, futures and forward contracts, options and other derivative transactions will not be counted against the foregoing limits under the 1940 Act. The Fund will “cover” its derivative positions by segregating an amount of cash and/or liquid securities as required by the 1940 Act and applicable SEC interpretations and guidance from time to time. Alternatively, the Fund can enter into an offsetting position or own positions covering its obligations with respect to the transaction; otherwise, this transaction will be considered “uncovered.” The Fund generally will not cover an applicable derivative transaction if it does not need to do so to comply with the foregoing 1940 Act requirements and, in the view of the Adviser, the assets that would have been used to cover could be better used for a different purpose. However, these transactions, even if covered, could represent a form of economic leverage and will create risks. The potential loss on derivative instruments can be substantial relative to the initial investment therein. In addition, these segregation and coverage requirements could result in the Fund maintaining securities positions that it would otherwise liquidate, segregating assets at a time when it might be disadvantageous to do so or otherwise restricting portfolio management. Such segregation and cover requirements will not limit or offset losses on related positions.

Use of leverage creates an opportunity for increased income and return for Shareholders but, at the same time, creates risks, including the likelihood of greater volatility in the NAV and market price of, and distributions on, the Shares. Increases and decreases in the value of the Fund’s portfolio will be magnified if the Fund uses leverage. In particular, leverage can magnify interest rate risk, which is the risk that the prices of portfolio securities will fall (or rise) if market interest rates for those types of securities rise (or fall). As a result, leverage can cause greater changes in the Fund’s NAV, which will be borne entirely by the Fund’s Shareholders. There can be no assurance that the Fund will use leverage or that its leveraging strategy will be successful during any period in which it is employed. The Fund will, from time to time, be subject to investment restrictions of one or

 

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more NRSROs and/or credit facility lenders as a result of its use of financial leverage. These restrictions could impose asset coverage or portfolio composition requirements that are more stringent than those imposed on the Fund by the 1940 Act. It is not anticipated that these covenants or portfolio requirements will significantly impede the Adviser in managing the Fund’s portfolio in accordance with its investment objectives and policies. Nonetheless, if these covenants or guidelines are more restrictive than those imposed by the 1940 Act, the Fund will not be able to use as much leverage as it otherwise could have, which could reduce the Fund’s investment returns. In addition, the Fund expects that any notes it issues or credit facility it enters into would contain covenants that, among other things, impose geographic exposure limitations, credit quality minimums, liquidity minimums, concentration limitations and currency hedging requirements on the Fund. These covenants would also likely limit the Fund’s ability to pay distributions in certain circumstances, incur additional debt, change fundamental investment policies and engage in certain transactions, including mergers and consolidations. Such restrictions could cause the Adviser to make different investment decisions than if there were no such restrictions and could limit the ability of the Board and Shareholders to change fundamental investment policies.

The costs of a financial leverage program (including the costs of offering preferred shares and notes) will be borne entirely by Shareholders and consequently will result in a reduction of the NAV of the Shares. During periods in which the Fund is using leverage, the fees paid by the Fund for investment advisory services will be higher than if the Fund did not use leverage because the investment advisory fees paid will be calculated on the basis of the Fund’s Managed Assets, which includes proceeds from (and assets subject to) any credit facility, margin facility, any issuance of preferred shares or notes, any reverse repurchase agreements, dollar rolls or similar transactions. This will create a conflict of interest between the Adviser, on the one hand, and Shareholders, on the other hand. To monitor this potential conflict, the Board intends to periodically review the Fund’s use of leverage, including its impact on Fund performance and on the Adviser’s fees. See “Conflicts of Interest” and “Risks—Conflicts of Interest Risk.”

The Fund can also offset derivative positions against one another or against other assets to manage the effective market exposure resulting from derivatives in its portfolio. In addition, to the extent that any offsetting positions do not behave in relation to one another as expected, the Fund could perform as if it were leveraged. The Fund’s use of leverage could create the opportunity for a higher return for Shareholders but would also result in special risks for Shareholders and can magnify the effect of any losses. If the income and gains earned on the securities and investments purchased with leverage proceeds are greater than the cost of the leverage, the return on the Shares will be greater than if leverage had not been used. Conversely, if the income and gains from the securities and investments purchased with such proceeds do not cover the cost of leverage, the return on the Shares will be less than if leverage had not been used. There is no assurance that a leveraging strategy will be successful.

Subordinated and Unsecured or Partially Secured Loans Risk. The Fund will, from time to time, invest in unsecured loans and secured subordinated loans, including second and lower lien loans. Second lien loans are generally second in line in terms of repayment priority. A second lien loan could have a claim on the same collateral pool as the first lien or it could be secured by a separate set of assets. Second lien loans generally give investors priority over general unsecured creditors in the event of an asset sale. The priority of the collateral claims of third or lower lien loans ranks below holders of second lien loans and so on. Such junior loans are subject to the same general risks inherent to any loan investment, including credit risk, market and liquidity risk and interest rate risk. Due to their lower place in the borrower’s capital structure and possible unsecured or partially secured status, such loans involve a higher degree of overall risk than Senior Loans of the same borrower.

Mezzanine Securities Risk. The Fund expects most of its mezzanine securities and other investments, if any, to be unsecured and made in companies whose capital structures have significant indebtedness ranking ahead of the investments, all or a significant portion of which could be secured. Although the securities and other investments could benefit from the same or similar financial and other covenants as those enjoyed by the indebtedness ranking ahead of the investments and could benefit from cross-default provisions and security over the portfolio company’s assets, some or all of such terms might not be part of particular investments. Mezzanine securities and

 

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other investments generally are subject to various risks including, without limitation: (i) a subsequent characterization of an investment as a “fraudulent conveyance;” (ii) the recovery as a “preference” of liens perfected or payments made on account of a debt in the 90 days before a bankruptcy filing; (iii) equitable subordination claims by other creditors; (iv) so-called “lender liability” claims by the issuer of the obligations; and (v) environmental liabilities that arise with respect to collateral securing the obligations.

Below Investment Grade Instruments Risk. The Fund will, from time to time, invest in debt securities and instruments that are rated below investment grade by recognized rating agencies or will be unrated and face ongoing uncertainties and exposure to adverse business, financial or economic conditions and the issuer’s failure to make timely interest and principal payments. Such securities and instruments are generally not exchange-traded and, as a result, trade in the over-the-counter (“OTC”) marketplace, which is less transparent than the exchange-traded marketplace. In addition, the Fund will, from time to time, invest in bonds of issuers that do not have publicly traded equity securities, making it more difficult to hedge the risks associated with such investments. The Fund’s investments in high yield instruments expose it to a substantial degree of credit risk and interest rate risk. The market for high yield securities has recently experienced periods of significant volatility and reduced liquidity. The market values of certain of these lower-rated and unrated debt investments could reflect individual corporate developments to a greater extent and tend to be more sensitive to economic conditions than those of higher-rated investments, which react primarily to fluctuations in the general level of interest rates. Companies that issue such securities are often highly leveraged and might not have available to them more traditional methods of financing. General economic recession or a major decline in the demand for products and services in which the borrower operates would likely have a materially adverse impact on the value of such securities and the ability of the issuers of such securities to repay principal and interest thereon, thereby increasing the incidence of default of such securities. In addition, adverse publicity and investor perceptions, whether or not based on fundamental analysis, could also decrease the value and liquidity of these high yield debt investments.

Stressed and Distressed Investments Risk. The Fund intends to invest in securities and other obligations of companies that are in significant financial or business distress, including companies involved in bankruptcy or other reorganization and liquidation proceedings. Although such investments could result in significant returns for the Fund, they involve a substantial degree of risk. The level of analytical sophistication, both financial and legal, necessary for successful investment in distressed assets is unusually high. There is no assurance that the Fund will correctly evaluate the value of the assets collateralizing the Fund’s investments or the prospects for a successful reorganization or similar action in respect of any company. In any reorganization or liquidation proceeding relating to a company in which the Fund invests, the Fund could lose its entire investment, could be required to accept cash or securities with a value less than the Fund’s original investment and/or could be required to accept payment over an extended period of time. Troubled company investments and other distressed asset-based investments require active monitoring.

Risk of Investments in Highly Leveraged Companies. The Fund’s investments are expected to include investments in issuers whose capital structures have significant leverage (including substantial leverage senior to the Fund’s investments, a considerable portion of which could be secured and/or could be at floating interest rates). Such investments are inherently more sensitive to declines in revenues, competitive pressures and increases in expenses and interest rates. The leveraged capital structure of such issuers will increase their exposure to adverse economic factors, such as downturns in the economy or deterioration in the condition of the issuers or their industries, and such companies could be subject to restrictive financial and operating covenants in more senior debt instruments and contracts that adversely impact the Fund’s investments. This leverage could result in more serious adverse consequences to such companies (including their overall profitability or solvency) in the event these factors or events occur than would be the case for less leveraged companies. If an issuer of the Fund’s portfolio investments cannot generate adequate cash flow to meet debt obligations, the issuer could default on its loan agreements or be forced into bankruptcy resulting in a restructuring of the company’s capital structure or liquidation of the company. The debt investments acquired by the Fund generally will be the most junior in what will typically be a complex capital structure, and thus subject to the greatest risk of loss.

 

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Furthermore, to the extent issuers in which the Fund is invested have become insolvent, the Fund could determine, in cooperation with other debtholders or on its own, to engage, at the Fund’s expense, in whole or in part, counsel and other advisors in connection therewith. In addition to leverage in the capital structure of the issuer, the Fund can incur leverage. See “Risks—Leverage Risk.”

Risk of Investments in Companies in Regulated Industries. Certain industries are heavily regulated. To the extent that the Fund makes investments in industries that are subject to greater amounts of regulation than other industries generally, portfolio companies that are subject to greater amounts of governmental regulation would pose additional risks relative to investments in other companies. Changes in applicable laws or regulations, or in the interpretations of these laws and regulations, could result in increased compliance costs or the need for additional capital expenditures. If a portfolio company fails to comply with these requirements, it could also be subject to civil or criminal liability and the imposition of fines. Portfolio companies also could be materially and adversely affected as a result of statutory or regulatory changes or judicial or administrative interpretations of existing laws and regulations that impose more comprehensive or stringent requirements on such issuer. Governments have considerable discretion in implementing regulations that could impact a portfolio company’s business, and governments could be influenced by political considerations and make decisions that adversely affect a portfolio company’s business. Additionally, certain portfolio companies could have a unionized workforce or employees who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement, which could subject any such issuer’s activities and labor relations matters to complex laws and regulations relating thereto. Moreover, a portfolio company’s operations and profitability could suffer if it experiences labor relations problems. Upon the expiration of any such portfolio company’s collective bargaining agreements, it could be unable to negotiate new collective bargaining agreements on terms favorable to it, and its business operations at one or more of its facilities could be interrupted as a result of labor disputes or difficulties and delays in the process of renegotiating its collective bargaining agreements. A work stoppage at one or more of any such portfolio company’s facilities could have a material adverse effect on its business, results of operations and financial condition. Any such problems additionally could bring scrutiny and attention to the Fund itself, which could adversely affect the Fund’s ability to implement its investment objective.

Risk of Investments in the Airline Industry. The Fund will, from time to time, make equity, debt or hybrid investments in companies that acquire financial and/or hard assets in the airline industry. The airline industry is cyclical and highly competitive. Airlines and related companies could be affected by political or economic instability, terrorist activities, changes in national policy, competitive pressures on certain air carriers, fuel prices and shortages, labor stoppages, insurance costs, recessions, world health issues and other political or economic events adversely affecting world or regional trading. The airline industry is highly sensitive to general economic trends, and any downturn in the global economy or in the relevant local economy could adversely affect results of operations and financial conditions. The airline industry is subject to significant regulation, including increasing environmental regulations that could lead to increased costs and affect profitability.

Risk of Investments in the Shipping Industry. The Fund will, from time to time, make equity, debt or hybrid investments in companies that acquire financial and/or hard assets in the shipping industry, which are subject to, among others, the following risks, which might not be insurable: (i) extensive and changing safety, environmental protection and other international, national, state and local governmental laws, regulations, treaties and conventions in force in international waters, the jurisdictional waters of the countries in which a shipping company’s vessels operate, as well as the countries of such vessels’ registration, compliance with which could require ship modifications and changes in operating procedure; (ii) risks associated with non-U.S. investments and force majeure risks (for example, international sanctions, embargoes, restrictions, nationalizations, and wars or acts of piracy or terrorist attacks and severe weather and natural disasters; see“ Risks—Non-U.S. Securities Risks”); (iii) labor-related risks; (iv) adverse changes in maintenance and other fixed costs and/or capital expenditure requirements; and (v) counterparty risks, including risks of adverse changes affecting chartering agreements from which a shipping company derives income.

Energy-Related Investments Risk. The Fund will, from time to time, invest in debt related securities of the energy industry. Electric generation and transmission, as well as oil, natural gas, and coal storage, handling,

 

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processing and transportation, are typically regulated to varying degrees. In addition to restrictions imposed by environmental regulators, statutory and regulatory requirements include those imposed by energy, zoning, land use, safety, labor and other regulatory or political authorities. It is possible that changes to applicable regulations or regulatory practice could have adverse consequences for an investment of the Fund.

Ordinary operation or the occurrence of an accident, with respect to an energy asset, could cause major environmental damage, which could result in significant financial distress to such asset. Certain environmental laws and regulations require that an owner or operator of an energy asset address prior environmental contamination, which could involve substantial cost. As a result, certain of the Fund’s investments in the energy sector could be exposed to substantial risk of loss from environmental claims. Furthermore, changes in environmental laws or regulations or the environmental condition of an energy investment could create liabilities that did not exist at the time of the investment by the Fund and that could not have been foreseen. Community and environmental groups might protest about the development or operation of energy assets, which could induce government action to the detriment of the Fund. New and more stringent environmental or health and safety laws, regulations and permit requirements, or stricter interpretations of current laws, regulations or requirements, could impose substantial additional costs on the issuer of a portfolio investment. Some of the most onerous environmental requirements regulate air emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases; these requirements particularly affect companies in the power and energy industry.

Real Estate Investments Risk. The Fund will, from time to time, make investments for which real estate is a significant portion of the investment’s asset base or value. Real estate values are affected by a number of factors, including changes in the general economic climate, local conditions (such as an oversupply of or a reduction in demand for real estate), the quality and philosophy of management, competition based on rental rates, attractiveness and location of the properties, financial condition of tenants, buyers and sellers or properties, quality of maintenance, insurance and management services and changes in operating costs. Real estate values are also affected by and sensitive to factors such as government regulations (including those governing usage, improvements, zoning and taxes), interest rate levels, the availability of financing and potential liability under changing environmental and other laws.

Real estate assets generally will be subject to the risks incident to the ownership and operation of real estate and real estate-related assets and/or risks incident to the making of nonrecourse mortgage loans secured by real estate, including risks associated with both the domestic and international general economic climates; local real estate conditions; risks due to dependence on cash flow; risks and operating problems arising out of the absence of certain construction materials; changes in supply of, or demand for, competing properties in an area (as a result, for instance, of overbuilding); the financial condition of tenants, buyers and sellers of properties; changes in availability of debt financing; energy and supply shortages; changes in the tax, real estate, environmental and zoning laws and regulations; various uninsured or uninsurable risks; natural disasters; and the ability of the Fund or third-party borrowers to manage the real properties. The Fund could incur the burdens of ownership of real property, which include the paying of expenses and taxes, maintaining such property and any improvements thereon, and ultimately disposing of such property.

The Fund will invest in a real estate asset on a passive basis, giving a third-party operating partner and/or property manager a large degree of authority and responsibility for daily management of the assets and, therefore, will, in large part, be dependent on the ability of third parties to successfully operate the underlying real estate assets. There is no assurance that there will be a ready market for resale of investments because investments in real estate generally are not liquid; holding periods accordingly are difficult to predict, particularly as business plans can be revised to adapt to changing economic, business and financial conditions.

Significant expenditures associated with real estate assets, such as mortgage payments, real estate taxes and maintenance costs, are generally not reduced when circumstances cause a reduction in income from the assets.

The insurance coverage applicable to real estate assets contains policy specifications and insured limits customarily carried for similar properties, business activities and markets. There could be certain losses,

 

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including losses from floods and losses from earthquakes, acts of war, acts of terrorism or riots, that are not generally insured against or that are not generally fully insured against because it is not deemed to be economically feasible or prudent to do so. If an uninsured loss or a loss in excess of insured limits occurs with respect to a real estate asset, the Fund could experience a significant loss and could potentially remain obligated under any recourse debt associated with the property.

Under various U.S., state and local laws, ordinances and regulations, a current or previous owner, developer or operator of real estate could be liable for the costs of removal or remediation of certain hazardous or toxic substances at, on, under or in its property. The costs of removal or remediation of such substances could be substantial. Such laws often impose liability without regard to whether the owner or operator knew of, or was responsible for, the release or presence of such hazardous substances. The Fund will attempt to assess such risks as part of their due diligence activities, but cannot give any assurance that such conditions do not exist or might not arise in the future. The presence of such substances on the real estate assets could adversely affect the ability to sell such investments or to borrow using such assets as collateral.

Certain loans acquired or made by the Fund could be secured by real estate. To the extent the Fund needs to foreclose on such loans, the Fund could, directly or indirectly, own such real estate and would be subject to the risks incident to the ownership and operation of real estate.

From time to time, real estate loans or participation interests therein acquired by the Fund will at the time of their acquisition be, or may become after acquisition, non-performing for a wide variety of reasons. Such non-performing real estate loans could require a substantial amount of workout negotiations and/or restructuring, which could entail, among other things, a substantial reduction in the interest rate and a substantial write down of the principal of such loans. However, even if a restructuring were successfully accomplished, a risk exists that upon maturity of such real estate loan, replacement “takeout” financing will not be available. Purchases of participations in real estate loans raise many of the same risks as investments in real estate loans and also carry risks of illiquidity and lack of control.

The foreclosure process varies jurisdiction by jurisdiction can be lengthy and expensive. Borrowers often resist foreclosure actions by asserting numerous claims, counterclaims and defenses against the holder of a real estate loan including, without limitation, lender liability claims and defenses, even when such assertions have no basis in fact, in an effort to prolong the foreclosure action. In some jurisdictions, foreclosure actions can take up to several years or more to conclude. During the foreclosure proceedings, a borrower could have the ability to file for bankruptcy, potentially staying the foreclosure action and further delaying the foreclosure process. Foreclosure litigation tends to create a negative public image of the collateral property and could result in disrupting ongoing leasing and management of the property.

Short Selling Risk. Short selling involves a number of risks. Short sales are transactions in which the Fund sells a security or other instrument that it does not own but can borrow in the market. If a security sold short increases in price, the Fund could have to cover its short position at a higher price than the short sale price, resulting in a loss. It is possible that the Fund will not be able to borrow a security that it needs to deliver, or it will not be able to close out a short position at an acceptable price and could have to sell related long positions earlier than it had expected. Thus, the Fund might not be able to successfully implement its short sale strategy due to limited availability of desired securities or for other reasons. Also, there is the risk that the counterparty to a short sale could fail to honor its contractual terms, causing a loss to the Fund.

Until the Fund replaces a security borrowed in connection with a short sale, it could be required to maintain a segregated account of cash or liquid assets with a broker or custodian to cover the Fund’s short position. Generally, securities held in a segregated account cannot be sold unless they are replaced with other liquid assets. The Fund’s ability to access the pledged collateral might also be impaired in the event the broker becomes bankrupt, insolvent or otherwise fails to comply with the terms of the contract. In such instances, the Fund will not be able to substitute or sell the pledged collateral and could experience significant delays in obtaining any

 

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recovery in a bankruptcy or other reorganization proceeding. It is likely that the Fund could obtain only a limited recovery or could obtain no recovery in these circumstances. Additionally, the Fund must maintain sufficient liquid assets (less any additional collateral pledged to the broker), marked-to-market daily, to cover the borrowed securities obligations. This could limit the Fund’s investment flexibility, as well as its ability to meet other current obligations.

Because losses on short sales arise from increases in the value of the security sold short, such losses are theoretically unlimited. By contrast, a loss on a long position arises from decreases in the value of the security and is limited by the fact that a security’s value cannot decrease below zero. In addition, engaging in short selling could limit the Fund’s ability to fully benefit from increases in the fixed-income markets.

By investing the proceeds received from selling securities short, the Fund could be deemed to be employing a form of leverage, which creates special risks. The use of leverage would increase the Fund’s exposure to long securities positions and make any change in the Fund’s NAV greater than it would be without the use of leverage. This could result in increased volatility of returns. There is no guarantee that any leveraging strategy the Fund employs will be successful during any period in which it is employed. See “Risks—Leverage Risk.”

In times of unusual or adverse market, economic, regulatory or political conditions, the Fund might not be able, fully or partially, to implement its short selling strategy.

Prepayment Risk. Prepayment risk occurs when a debt investment held by the Fund can be repaid in whole or in part prior to its maturity. The amount of prepayable obligations in which the Fund invests from time to time will be affected by general business conditions, market interest rates, borrowers’ financial conditions and competitive conditions among lenders. In a period of declining interest rates, borrowers are more likely to prepay investments more quickly than anticipated, reducing the yield to maturity and the average life of the relevant investment. Moreover, when the Fund reinvests the proceeds of a prepayment in these circumstances, it will likely receive a rate of interest that is lower than the rate on the security that was prepaid. To the extent that the Fund purchases the relevant investment at a premium, prepayments could result in a loss to the extent of the premium paid. If the Fund buys such investments at a discount, both scheduled payments and unscheduled prepayments will increase current and total returns and unscheduled prepayments will also accelerate the recognition of income which could be taxable as ordinary income to Shareholders. In a period of rising interest rates, prepayments of investments could occur at a slower than expected rate, creating maturity extension risk. This particular risk could effectively change an investment that was considered short- or intermediate-term at the time of purchase into a longer-term investment. Because the value of longer-term investments generally fluctuates more widely in response to changes in interest rates than shorter-term investments, maturity extension risk could increase the volatility of the Fund. When interest rates decline, the value of an investment with prepayment features might not increase as much as that of other fixed-income instruments, and, as noted above, changes in market rates of interest could accelerate or delay prepayments and thus affect maturities.

Credit Derivatives Risk. The use of credit derivatives is a highly specialized activity which involves strategies and risks different from those associated with ordinary portfolio security transactions. If the Adviser is incorrect in its forecasts of default risks, liquidity risk, counterparty risk, market spreads or other applicable factors, the investment performance of the Fund would diminish compared with what it would have been if these techniques were not used. Moreover, even if the Adviser is correct in its forecasts, there is a risk that a credit derivative position will correlate imperfectly with the price of the asset or liability being protected. The Fund’s risk of loss in a credit derivative transaction varies with the form of the transaction. For example, if the Fund sells protection under a credit default swap, it would collect periodic fees from the buyer and would profit if the credit of the underlying issuer or reference entity remains stable or improves while the swap is outstanding, but the Fund would be required to pay an agreed upon amount to the buyer (which could be the entire notional amount of the swap) if the reference entity defaults on the reference security. Credit default swap agreements involve greater risks than if the Fund invested in the reference obligation directly.

 

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Derivatives Risk. The Fund’s derivative investments have risks, including the imperfect correlation between the value of such instruments and the underlying assets of the Fund, which creates the possibility that the loss on such instruments will be greater than the gain in the value of the underlying assets in the Fund’s portfolio; the loss of principal; the possible default of the other party to the transaction; and illiquidity of the derivative investments. If a counterparty becomes bankrupt or otherwise fails to perform its obligations under a derivative contract due to financial difficulties, the Fund could experience significant delays in obtaining any recovery under the derivative contract in a bankruptcy or other reorganization proceeding. In addition, in the event of the insolvency of a counterparty to a derivative transaction, the derivative contract would typically be terminated at its fair market value. If the Fund is owed this fair market value in the termination of the derivative contract and its claim is unsecured, the Fund will be treated as a general creditor of such counterparty and will not have any claim with respect to the underlying security.

The counterparty risk for cleared derivative transactions should generally be lower than for uncleared OTC derivatives since generally a clearing organization becomes substituted for each counterparty to a cleared derivative contract and, in effect, guarantees the parties’ performance under the contract as each party to a trade looks only to the clearing house for performance of financial obligations. However, there can be no assurance that the clearing house, or its members, will satisfy its obligations to the Fund. Exchange trading will generally increase market transparency and liquidity but could cause the Fund to incur increased expenses. In addition, depending on the size of the Fund and other factors, the margin required under the rules of a clearing house and by a clearing member could be in excess of the collateral required to be posted by the Fund to support its obligations under a similar OTC derivative transaction. However, the U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”) and other applicable regulators have adopted rules imposing certain margin requirements, including minimums, on uncleared OTC derivative transactions which could result in the Fund and its counterparties posting higher margin amounts for uncleared OTC derivative transactions.

Certain of the derivative investments in which the Fund will invest will, in certain circumstances, give rise to a form of financial leverage, which magnifies the risk of owning such instruments. The ability to successfully use derivative investments depends on the ability of the Adviser to predict pertinent market movements, which cannot be assured. In addition, amounts paid by the Fund as premiums and cash or other assets held in margin accounts with respect to the Fund’s derivative investments would not be available to the Fund for other investment purposes, which could result in lost opportunities for gain.

OTC derivatives generally are more difficult to purchase, sell or value than other investments. Although both OTC and exchange-traded derivatives markets can experience a lack of liquidity, OTC non-standardized derivative transactions are generally less liquid than exchange-traded instruments. The illiquidity of the derivatives markets can be due to various factors, including congestion, disorderly markets, limitations on deliverable supplies, the participation of speculators, government regulation and intervention, and technical and operational or system failures. In addition, the liquidity of a secondary market in an exchange-traded derivative contract could be adversely affected by “daily price fluctuation limits” established by the exchanges which limit the amount of fluctuation in an exchange-traded contract price during a single trading day. Once the daily limit has been reached in the contract, no trades may be entered into at a price beyond the limit, thus preventing the liquidation of open positions. Prices have in the past moved beyond the daily limit on a number of consecutive trading days. If it is not possible to close an open derivative position entered into by the Fund, the Fund would continue to be required to make cash payments of variation (or mark-to-market) margin in the event of adverse price movements. In such a situation, if the Fund has insufficient cash, it could have to sell portfolio securities to meet variation margin requirements at a time when it is disadvantageous to do so. The absence of liquidity generally would also make it more difficult for the Fund to ascertain a market value for such instruments. The inability to close derivatives transactions positions also could have an adverse impact on the Fund’s ability to effectively hedge its portfolio. OTC derivatives that are not cleared are also subject to counterparty risk, which is the risk that the other party to the contract will not fulfill its contractual obligation to complete the transaction with the Fund. If a counterparty were to default on its obligations, the Fund’s contractual remedies against such counterparty could be subject to bankruptcy and insolvency laws, which could affect the Fund’s rights as a

 

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creditor (e.g., the Fund might not receive the net amount of payments that it is contractually entitled to receive). In addition, the use of certain derivatives could cause the Fund to realize higher amounts of income or short-term capital gains (generally taxed at ordinary income tax rates).

The derivatives markets have become subject to comprehensive statutes, regulations and margin requirements. In particular, in the United States the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd-Frank Act”) regulates the OTC derivatives market by, among other things, requiring many derivative transactions to be cleared and traded on an exchange, expanding entity registration requirements, imposing business conduct requirements on dealers and requiring banks to move some derivatives trading units to a non-guaranteed affiliate separate from the deposit-taking bank or divest them altogether. Rulemaking proposed or implemented under the Dodd-Frank Act could potentially limit or completely restrict the ability of the Fund to use these instruments as a part of its investment strategy, increase the costs of using these instruments or make them less effective. Limits or restrictions applicable to the counterparties with which the Fund engages in derivative transactions could also prevent the Fund from using these instruments or affect the pricing or other factors relating to these instruments, or could change availability of certain investments.

The Fund’s investments in regulated derivatives instruments, such as swaps, futures and options, will be subject to maximum position limits established by the CFTC and U.S. and foreign futures exchanges. Under the exchange rules all accounts owned or managed by advisers, such as the Adviser, their principals and affiliates would be combined for position limit purposes. In order to comply with the position limits established by the CFTC and the relevant exchanges, the Adviser could in the future reduce the size of positions that would otherwise be taken for the Fund or not trade in certain markets on behalf of the Fund in order to avoid exceeding such limits. A violation of position limits by the Adviser could lead to regulatory action resulting in mandatory liquidation of certain positions held by the Adviser on behalf of the Fund. There can be no assurance that the Adviser will liquidate positions held on behalf of all the Adviser’s accounts in a proportionate manner or at favorable prices, which could result in substantial losses to the Fund. Such policies could affect the nature and extent of derivatives use by the Fund.

Structured Products Risk. The Fund will invest in Structured Products, consisting of CLOs, CDOs, CBOs and credit-linked notes. Holders of Structured Products bear risks of the underlying investments, index or reference obligation and are subject to counterparty risk.

Structured Products are subject to the normal interest rate, default and other risks associated with fixed-income securities and asset-backed securities. Additionally, the risks of an investment in a Structured Product depend largely on the type of the collateral securities and the class of the Structured Product or other asset-backed security in which the Fund invests. The Fund generally will have the right to receive payments only from the Structured Product, and generally does not have direct rights against the issuer or the entity that sold the underlying collateral assets. Such collateral could be insufficient to meet payment obligations and the quality of the collateral might decline in value or default. Also, the class of the Structured Product could be subordinate to other classes, values could be volatile, and disputes with the issuer could produce unexpected investment results. While certain Structured Products enable the investor to acquire interests in a pool of securities without the brokerage and other expenses associated with directly holding the same securities, investors in Structured Products generally pay their share of the Structured Product’s administrative and other expenses. Although it is difficult to predict whether the prices of indices and securities underlying Structured Products will rise or fall, these prices (and, therefore, the prices of Structured Products) will be influenced by the same types of political and economic events that affect issuers of securities and capital markets generally. If the issuer of a Structured Product uses shorter-term financing to purchase longer term securities, the issuer could be forced to sell its securities at below market prices if it experiences difficulty in obtaining short-term financing, which could adversely affect the value of the Structured Products owned by the Fund.

Structured Products issue classes or “tranches” that offer various maturity, risk and yield characteristics. Losses caused by defaults on underlying assets are borne first by the holders of subordinate tranches. If there are defaults

 

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or the Structured Product’s collateral otherwise underperforms, scheduled payments to more senior tranches take precedence over those of subordinate tranches. The riskiest portion is the “equity” tranche which bears the bulk of defaults from the collateral and serves to protect the other, more senior tranches from default in all but the most severe circumstances. Despite the protection from the subordinate tranches, more senior tranches of structured products can experience substantial losses due to actual defaults, downgrades of the underlying collateral by rating agencies, forced liquidation of the collateral pool due to a failure of coverage tests, increased sensitivity to defaults due to collateral default and disappearance of protecting tranches, market anticipation of defaults as well as investor aversion to Structured Product securities as a class.

In addition to the general risks associated with debt securities discussed herein, Structured Products carry additional risks, including, but not limited to the risk that: (i) distributions from collateral securities might not be adequate to make interest or other payments; (ii) the collateral could default or decline in value or be downgraded, if rated by a NRSRO; (iii) the Fund is likely to invest in tranches of Structured Products that are subordinate to other tranches; (iv) the structure and complexity of the transaction and the legal documents could lead to disputes among investors regarding the characterization of proceeds; (v) the investment return achieved by the Fund could be significantly different than those predicted by financial models; (vi) there will be no readily available secondary market for Structured Products; (vii) technical defaults, such as coverage test failures, could result in forced liquidation of the collateral pool; and (viii) the Structured Product’s manager could perform poorly.

Typically, Structured Products are privately offered and sold, and thus, are not registered under the securities laws and can be thinly traded or have a limited trading market. As a result, investments in Structured Products could be characterized as illiquid investments and could have limited independent pricing transparency. However, an active dealer market could exist for Structured Products that qualify under the Rule 144A “safe harbor” from the registration requirements of the Securities Act for resales of certain securities to qualified institutional buyers, and such Structured Products could be characterized by the Fund as liquid investments.

Mortgage-Backed and Asset-Backed Securities Risk. The price paid by the Fund for asset-backed securities, including CLOs, the yield the Fund expects to receive from such securities and the average life of such securities are based on a number of factors, including the anticipated rate of prepayment of the underlying assets. The value of these securities could be significantly affected by changes in interest rates, the market’s perception of issuers, and the creditworthiness of the parties involved. The ability of the Fund to successfully utilize these instruments could depend on the ability of the Adviser to forecast interest rates and other economic factors correctly. These securities could have a structure that makes their reaction to interest rate changes and other factors difficult to predict, making their value highly volatile.

In addition to the risks associated with other asset-backed securities as described above, mortgage-backed securities are subject to the general risks associated with investing in real estate securities; that is, they could lose value if the value of the underlying real estate to which a pool of mortgages relates declines. In addition, mortgage-backed securities comprised of subprime mortgages and investments in other asset-backed securities collateralized by subprime loans could be subject to a higher degree of credit risk and valuation risk. Additionally, such securities could be subject to a higher degree of liquidity risk, because the liquidity of such investments could vary dramatically over time.

Mortgage-backed securities can be issued by governments or their agencies and instrumentalities, such as, in the United States, Ginnie Mae, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. They can also be issued by private issuers but represent an interest in or are collateralized by pass-through securities issued or guaranteed by a government or one of its agencies or instrumentalities. In addition, mortgage-backed securities can be issued by private issuers and collateralized by securities without a government guarantee. Such securities typically have some form of private credit enhancement.

Pools created by private issuers generally offer a higher rate of interest than government and government-related pools because there are no direct or indirect government or agency guarantees of payments. Notwithstanding that

 

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such pools can be supported by various forms of private insurance or guarantees, there can be no assurance that the private insurers or guarantors will be able to meet their obligations under the insurance policies or guarantee arrangements. From time to time, the Fund will invest in private mortgage pass-through securities without such insurance or guarantees. Any mortgage-backed securities that are issued by private issuers are likely to have some exposure to subprime loans as well as to the mortgage and credit markets generally. In addition, such securities are not subject to the underwriting requirements for the underlying mortgages that would generally apply to securities that have a government or government-sponsored entity guarantee, thereby increasing their credit risk. The risk of non-payment is greater for mortgage-related securities that are backed by mortgage pools that contain subprime loans, but a level of risk exists for all loans. Market factors adversely affecting mortgage loan repayments include a general economic downturn, high unemployment, a general slowdown in the real estate market, a drop in the market prices of real estate or an increase in interest rates resulting in higher mortgage payments by holders of adjustable rate mortgages.

Repurchase Agreements Risk. Subject to its investment objectives and policies, the Fund will, from time to time, invest in repurchase agreements as a buyer for investment purposes. Repurchase agreements typically involve the acquisition by the Fund of debt securities from a selling financial institution such as a bank, savings and loan association or broker-dealer. The agreement provides that the Fund will sell the securities back to the institution at a fixed time in the future. The Fund does not bear the risk of a decline in the value of the underlying security unless the seller defaults under its repurchase obligation. In the event of the bankruptcy or other default of a seller of a repurchase agreement, the Fund could experience both delays in liquidating the underlying securities and losses, including (i) possible decline in the value of the underlying security during the period in which the Fund seeks to enforce its rights thereto; (ii) possible lack of access to income on the underlying security during this period; and (iii) expenses of enforcing its rights. In addition, the value of the collateral underlying the repurchase agreement will be at least equal to the repurchase price, including any accrued interest earned on the repurchase agreement. In the event of a default or bankruptcy by a selling financial institution, the Fund generally will seek to liquidate such collateral. However, the exercise of the Fund’s right to liquidate such collateral could involve certain costs or delays and, to the extent that proceeds from any sale upon a default of the obligation to repurchase were less than the repurchase price, the Fund could suffer a loss.

Reverse Repurchase Agreements and Dollar Rolls Risk. The use of reverse repurchase agreements and dollar rolls involve many of the same risks involved in the use of leverage, as the proceeds from reverse repurchase agreements and dollar rolls generally will be invested in additional securities. There is a risk that the market value of the securities acquired in the reverse repurchase agreement or dollar roll will decline below the price of the securities that the Fund has sold but remains obligated to repurchase. In addition, there is a risk that the market value of the securities retained by the Fund will decline. If the buyer of securities under a reverse repurchase agreement or dollar roll were to file for bankruptcy or experience insolvency, the Fund could be adversely affected. Also, in entering into reverse repurchase agreements, the Fund would bear the risk of loss to the extent that the proceeds of the reverse repurchase agreement are less than the value of the underlying securities. In addition, due to the interest costs associated with reverse repurchase agreements and dollar roll transactions, the Fund’s NAV will decline, and, in some cases, the Fund could be worse off than if it had not used such instruments.

Swap Risk. The Fund will, from time to time, also invest in credit default swaps, total return swaps, interest rate swaps and other types of swaps. Such transactions are subject to market risk, liquidity risk, risk of default by the other party to the transaction, known as “counterparty risk,” regulatory risk and risk of imperfect correlation between the value of such instruments and the underlying assets and could involve commissions or other costs. When buying protection under a credit default swap, the risk of market loss with respect to the swap generally is limited to the net amount of payments that the Fund is contractually obligated to make. However, when selling protection under a swap, the risk of loss is often the notional value of the underlying asset, which can result in a loss substantially greater than the amount invested in the swap itself. As a seller, the Fund would be incurring a form of leverage. The Fund will “cover” its swap positions by segregating an amount of cash and/or liquid securities as required by the 1940 Act and applicable SEC interpretations and guidance from time to time.

 

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The Dodd-Frank Act and related regulatory developments ultimately will require the clearing and exchange-trading of many OTC derivative instruments that the CFTC and SEC recently defined as “swaps.” Mandatory exchange-trading and clearing will occur on a phased-in basis based on the type of market participant and CFTC determination of contracts for central clearing. The Adviser will continue to monitor these developments, particularly to the extent regulatory changes affect a Fund’s ability to enter into swap agreements.

The swap market has matured in recent years with a large number of banks and investment banking firms acting both as principals and as agents utilizing standardized swap documentation. As a result, the swap market has become relatively liquid; however there is no guarantee that the swap market will continue to provide liquidity, and it could be subject to liquidity risk, which exists when a particular swap is difficult to purchase or sell. The absence of liquidity could also make it more difficult for the Fund to ascertain a market value for such instruments. The inability to close derivative positions also could have an adverse impact on the Fund’s ability to effectively hedge its portfolio. If the Adviser is incorrect in its forecasts of market values, interest rates or currency exchange rates, the investment performance of the Fund would be less favorable than it would have been if these investment techniques were not used. In a total return swap, the Fund pays the counterparty a floating short-term interest rate and receives in exchange the total return of underlying loans or debt securities. The Fund bears the risk of default on the underlying loans or debt securities, based on the notional amount of the swap and, therefore, incurs a form of leverage. The Fund would typically have to post collateral to cover this potential obligation.

Options and Futures Risk. The Fund will, from time to time, use options and futures contracts and so-called “synthetic” options or other derivatives written by broker-dealers or other permissible financial intermediaries. Options transactions can be effected on securities exchanges or in the OTC market. When options are purchased OTC, the Fund’s portfolio bears the risk that the counterparty that wrote the option will be unable or unwilling to perform its obligations under the option contract. Options can also be illiquid and, in such cases, the Fund could have difficulty closing out its position. OTC options can also include options on baskets of specific securities.

The Fund will, from time to time, purchase call and put options on specific securities and write and sell covered or uncovered call and put options for hedging purposes in pursuing its investment objectives. A put option gives the purchaser of the option the right to sell, and obligates the writer to buy, the underlying security at a stated exercise price, typically at any time prior to the expiration of the option for American options or only at expiration for European options. A call option gives the purchaser of the option the right to buy, and obligates the writer to sell, the underlying security at a stated exercise price, typically at any time prior to the expiration of the option. A covered call option is a call option with respect to which the seller of the option owns the underlying security. The sale of such an option exposes the seller during the term of the option to possible loss of opportunity to realize appreciation in the market price of the underlying security or to possible continued holding of a security that might otherwise have been sold to protect against depreciation in the market price of the security. A covered put option is a put option with respect to which cash or liquid securities have been placed in a segregated account on the books of or with a custodian to fulfill the obligation undertaken. The sale of such an option exposes the seller during the term of the option to a decline in price of the underlying security while depriving the seller of the opportunity to invest the segregated assets.

The Fund might close out a position when writing options by purchasing an option on the same underlying security with the same exercise price and expiration date as the option that it has previously written on the security. In such a case, the Fund will realize a profit or loss if the amount paid to purchase an option is less or more than the amount received from the sale of the option.

Engaging in transactions in futures contracts and options involves risk of loss to the Fund. No assurance can be given that a liquid market will exist for any particular futures contract or option at any particular time. Many futures exchanges and boards of trade limit the amount of fluctuation permitted in futures contract prices during a single trading day. Once the daily limit has been reached in a particular contract, no trades may be made that day at a price beyond that limit or trading can be suspended for specified periods during the trading day. Futures

 

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contract prices could move to the limit for several consecutive trading days with little or no trading, preventing prompt liquidation of futures positions and potentially subjecting the Fund to substantial losses.

A market could become unavailable if one or more exchanges were to stop trading options or it could become unavailable with respect to options on a particular underlying security if the exchanges stopped trading options on that security. In addition, a market could become temporarily unavailable if unusual events (e.g., volume exceeds clearing capability) were to interrupt normal exchange operations. If an options market were to become illiquid or otherwise unavailable, an option holder would be able to realize profits or limit losses only by exercising and an options seller or writer would remain obligated until it is assigned an exercise or until the option expires.

If trading is interrupted in an underlying security, the trading of options on that security is usually halted as well. Holders and writers of options will then be unable to close out their positions until options trading resumes, and they could be faced with considerable losses if the security reopens at a substantially different price. Even if options trading is halted, holders of options will generally be able to exercise them. However, if trading has also been halted in the underlying security, option holders face the risk of exercising options without knowing the security’s current market value. If exercises do occur when trading of the underlying security is halted, the party required to deliver the underlying security could be unable to obtain it, which could necessitate a postponed settlement and/or the fixing of cash settlement prices.

Investment Companies Risk. The Fund will, from time to time, invest in securities of exchange-traded funds (“ETFs”) and other closed-end funds. Investments in ETFs and closed-end funds are subject to a variety of risks, including all of the risks of a direct investment in the underlying securities that the ETF or closed-end fund holds. ETFs are also subject to certain additional risks, including, without limitation, the risk that their prices might not correlate perfectly with changes in the prices of the underlying securities they are designed to track, and the risk of trading in an ETF halting due to market conditions or other reasons, based on the policies of the exchange upon which the ETF trades. Shares of ETFs and closed-end funds at times trade at a premium or discount to their NAV because the supply and demand in the market for their shares at any point in time might not be identical to the supply and demand in the market for their underlying securities. Some ETFs and closed-end funds are highly leveraged and therefore would subject the Fund to the additional risks associated with leverage. See “Risks—Leverage Risk.” In addition, the Fund will bear, along with other shareholders of an investment company, its pro rata portion of the investment company’s expenses, including management fees. Accordingly, in addition to bearing their proportionate share of the Fund’s expenses, Shareholders also indirectly bear similar expenses of an investment company.

Counterparty Risk. Certain Fund investments will be exposed to the credit risk of the counterparties with which, or the dealers, brokers and exchanges through which, the Fund deals, whether in exchange-traded or OTC transactions. The Fund will be subject to the risk of loss of Fund assets on deposit or being settled or cleared with a broker in the event of the broker’s bankruptcy, the bankruptcy of any clearing broker through which the broker executes and clears transactions on behalf of the Fund, the bankruptcy of an exchange clearing house or the bankruptcy of any other counterparty. In the case of any such bankruptcy, the Fund might recover, even in respect of property specifically traceable to the Fund, only a pro rata share of all property available for distribution to all of the counterparty’s customers and counterparties. Such an amount could be less than the amounts owed to the Fund. Such events would have an adverse effect on the NAV of the Fund. Certain counterparties have general custody of, or title to, the Fund’s assets (including, without limitation, the Fund’s Custodian). The failure of any such counterparty could result in adverse consequences to the NAV of the Fund.

Counterparty and Prime Brokerage Risk. Changes in the credit quality of the companies that serve as the Fund’s prime brokers or counterparties with respect to derivatives or other transactions supported by another party’s credit will affect the value of those instruments. Certain entities that have served as prime brokers or counterparties in the markets for these transactions have recently incurred significant financial hardships including bankruptcy and losses as a result of exposure to sub-prime mortgages and other lower quality credit

 

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investments that have experienced recent defaults or otherwise suffered extreme credit deterioration. As a result, such hardships have reduced such entities’ capital and called into question their continued ability to perform their obligations under such transactions. By using derivatives, swaps or other transactions, the Fund assumes the risk that its counterparties could experience similar financial hardships. If a prime broker or counterparty becomes bankrupt or otherwise fails to perform its obligations under a derivative contract due to financial difficulties, the Fund could experience significant delays in obtaining any recovery under the derivative contract in a bankruptcy or other reorganization proceeding; if the Fund’s claim is unsecured, the Fund will be treated as a general creditor of such prime broker or counterparty and will not have any claim with respect to the underlying security. It is possible that the Fund will obtain only a limited recovery or no recovery in such circumstances.

Lender Liability Risk. A number of U.S. judicial decisions have upheld judgments obtained by Borrowers against lending institutions on the basis of various evolving legal theories, collectively termed “lender liability.” Generally, lender liability is founded on the premise that a lender has violated a duty (whether implied or contractual) of good faith, commercial reasonableness and fair dealing, or a similar duty owed to the Borrower or has assumed an excessive degree of control over the Borrower resulting in the creation of a fiduciary duty owed to the Borrower or its other creditors or shareholders. Because of the nature of its investments, the Fund will, from time to time, be subject to allegations of lender liability.

In addition, under common law principles that in some cases form the basis for lender liability claims, if a lender or bondholder (i) intentionally takes an action that results in the undercapitalization of a Borrower to the detriment of other creditors of such Borrower; (ii) engages in other inequitable conduct to the detriment of such other creditors; (iii) engages in fraud with respect to, or makes misrepresentations to, such other creditors; or (iv) uses its influence as a stockholder to dominate or control a Borrower to the detriment of other creditors of such Borrower, a court might elect to subordinate the claim of the offending lender or bondholder to the claims of the disadvantaged creditor or creditors, a remedy called “equitable subordination.”

Because affiliates of, or persons related to, the Adviser will, at times, hold equity or other interests in obligors of the Fund, the Fund could be exposed to claims for equitable subordination or lender liability or both based on such equity or other holdings.

Borrower Fraud; Breach of Covenant. The Fund will seek to obtain structural, covenant and other contractual protections with respect to the terms of its investments as determined appropriate under the circumstances. There can be no assurance that such attempts to provide downside protection with respect to its investments will achieve their desired effect and potential investors should regard an investment in the Fund as being speculative and having a high degree of risk. Of paramount concern in originating or acquiring the financing contemplated by the Fund is the possibility of material misrepresentation or omission on the part of borrower or other credit support providers or breach of covenant by such parties. Such inaccuracy or incompleteness or breach of covenants could adversely affect the valuation of the collateral underlying the loans or the ability of the Fund to perfect or effectuate a lien on the collateral securing the loan or otherwise realize on the investment. The Fund will rely upon the accuracy and completeness of representations made by borrowers to the extent reasonable, but cannot guarantee such accuracy or completeness.

Distressed Debt, Litigation, Bankruptcy and Other Proceedings. The Fund will, from time to time, be invested in debt securities and other obligations of companies that are experiencing significant financial or business distress. Investments in distressed securities involve a material risk of involving the Fund in a related litigation. Such litigation can be time-consuming and expensive, and can frequently lead to unpredicted delays or losses. Litigation expenses, including payments pursuant to settlements or judgments, generally will be borne by the Fund.

From time to time, the Adviser will make investments for the Fund in companies involved in bankruptcy proceedings. There are a number of significant risks when investing in companies involved in bankruptcy proceedings, and many events in a bankruptcy are the product of contested matters and adversary proceedings

 

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which are beyond the control of the creditors. A bankruptcy filing could have adverse and permanent effects on a company. Further, if the proceeding is converted to a liquidation, the liquidation value of the company might not equal the liquidation value that was believed to exist at the time of the investment. In addition, the duration of a bankruptcy proceeding is difficult to predict. A creditor’s return on investment can be impacted adversely by delays while the plan of reorganization is being negotiated, approved by the creditors and confirmed by the bankruptcy court, and until it ultimately becomes effective. Certain claims, such as claims for taxes, wages and certain trade claims, could have priority by law over the claims of certain creditors and administrative costs in connection with a bankruptcy proceeding are frequently high and will be paid out of the debtor’s estate prior to any return to creditors.

Certain investments of the Fund could be subject to federal bankruptcy law and state fraudulent transfer laws, which vary from state to state, if the debt obligations relating to such investments were issued with the intent of hindering, delaying or defrauding creditors or, in certain circumstances, if the issuer receives less than reasonably equivalent value or fair consideration in return for issuing such debt obligations. If the debt is used for a buyout of shareholders, this risk is greater than if the debt proceeds are used for day-to-day operations or organic growth. If a court were to find that the issuance of the debt obligations was a fraudulent transfer or conveyance, the court could void or otherwise refuse to recognize the payment obligations under the debt obligations or the collateral supporting such obligations, further subordinate the debt obligations or the liens supporting such obligations to other existing and future indebtedness of the issuer or require the Fund to repay any amounts received by it with respect to the debt obligations or collateral. In the event of a finding that a fraudulent transfer or conveyance occurred, the Fund might not receive any repayment on the debt obligations.

Under certain circumstances, payments to the Fund could be reclaimed if any such payment or distribution is later determined to have been a fraudulent conveyance, preferential payment or similar transaction under applicable bankruptcy and insolvency laws. Furthermore, investments in restructurings could be adversely affected by statutes relating to, among other things, fraudulent conveyances, voidable preferences, lender liability and the court’s discretionary power to disallow, subordinate or disenfranchise particular claims or recharacterize investments made in the form of debt as equity contributions.

Under Title 11 of the United States Code, as amended (the “Bankruptcy Code”), a lender that has inappropriately exercised control of the management and policies of a company that is a debtor under the Bankruptcy Code could have its claims against the company subordinated or disallowed or could be found liable for damages suffered by parties as a result of such actions. Such claims could also be disallowed or subordinated to the claims of other creditors if the lender (e.g., the Fund) (i) is found to have engaged in other inequitable conduct resulting in harm to other parties, (ii) intentionally takes action that results in the undercapitalization of a borrower, (iii) engages in fraud with respect to, or makes misrepresentations to other creditors, or (iv) uses its influence as a shareholder to dominate or control a borrower to the detriment of other creditors of such borrower. The lender’s investment could also be recharacterized or treated as equity if it is deemed to be a contribution to capital, or if the lender attempts to control the outcome of the business affairs of a company prior to its filing under the Bankruptcy Code. While the Fund will attempt to avoid taking the types of action that would lead to the subordination, disallowance and liability described above, there can be no assurance that such claims will not be asserted or that the Fund will be able successfully to defend against them.

From time to time, the Fund will seek to place its representatives on the boards of certain companies in which the Fund has invested. The Fund could also invest in companies in which KKR and/or other KKR clients or accounts will have representatives on the boards of such companies. While such representation could enable the Fund to enhance the sale value of its debt investments in a company, such involvement (and/or an equity stake by the Fund, KKR or other KKR clients or accounts in such company) could also prevent the Fund from freely disposing of its debt investments and could subject the Fund to additional liability or result in recharacterization of the Fund’s debt investments as equity. The Fund will attempt to balance the advantages and disadvantages of such representation when deciding whether and how to exercise its rights with respect to such companies, but the exercise of such rights could produce adverse consequences in particular situations.

 

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Insofar as the Fund’s portfolio includes obligations of non-U.S. obligors, the laws of certain foreign jurisdictions could provide for avoidance remedies under factual circumstances similar to those described above or under different circumstances, with consequences that might or might not be analogous to those described above under U.S. federal or state laws. Changes in bankruptcy laws (including U.S. federal and state laws and applicable non-U.S. laws) could adversely impact the Fund’s securities.

Convertible Securities Risk. Convertible securities are bonds, debentures, notes, preferred stocks or other securities that can be converted into or exchanged for a specified amount of common stock of the same or a different issuer within a particular period of time at a specified price or formula. A convertible security entitles its holder to receive interest that is generally paid or accrued on debt or a dividend that is paid or accrued on preferred stock until the convertible security matures or is redeemed, converted or exchanged. Convertible securities have unique investment characteristics in that they generally (i) have higher yields than common stocks, but lower yields than comparable non-convertible securities; (ii) are less subject to fluctuation in value than the underlying common stock due to their fixed-income characteristics; and (iii) provide the potential for capital appreciation if the market price of the underlying common stock increases.

The value of a convertible security is a function of its “investment value” (determined by its yield in comparison with the yields of other securities of comparable maturity and quality that do not have a conversion privilege) and its “conversion value” (the security’s worth, at market value, if converted into the underlying common stock). The investment value of a convertible security is influenced by changes in interest rates, with investment value declining as interest rates increase and increasing as interest rates decline. The credit standing of the issuer and other factors also could have an effect on the convertible security’s investment value. The conversion value of a convertible security is determined by the market price of the underlying common stock. If the conversion value is low relative to the investment value, the price of the convertible security is governed principally by its investment value. To the extent the market price of the underlying common stock approaches or exceeds the conversion price, the price of the convertible security will be increasingly influenced by its conversion value. A convertible security generally will sell at a premium over its conversion value by the extent to which investors place value on the right to acquire the underlying common stock while holding a fixed-income instrument. Generally, the amount of the premium decreases as the convertible security approaches maturity. Although under normal market conditions longer-term convertible debt securities have greater yields than do shorter-term convertible debt securities of similar quality, they are subject to greater price fluctuations.

When-Issued Securities and Forward Commitments. From time to time, the Fund will purchase securities on a “forward commitment” or “when-issued” basis (meaning securities are purchased or sold with payment and delivery taking place in the future) in order to secure what is considered to be an advantageous price and yield at the time of entering into the transaction. However, the return on a comparable security when the transaction is consummated could vary from the return on the security at the time that the forward commitment or when-issued transaction was made. From the time of entering into the transaction until delivery and payment is made at a later date, the securities that are the subject of the transaction are subject to market fluctuations. In forward commitment or when-issued transactions, if the seller or buyer, as the case may be, fails to consummate the transaction, the counterparty could miss the opportunity of obtaining a price or yield considered to be advantageous. Forward commitment or when-issued transactions can occur a month or more before delivery is due. However, no payment or delivery is made until payment is received or delivery is made from the other party to the transaction.

Non-Controlling Equity Investments; Investments in Equity Securities; Investments and Joint Ventures with Third Parties. While the Fund intends to invest primarily in debt investments, it will, from time to time, also make non-controlling equity investments and investments in equity and equity-linked securities. The value of equity securities, including common stock, preferred stock and convertible stock, will fluctuate in response to factors affecting the particular company, as well as broader market and economic conditions. Prices of equity securities fluctuate for many reasons, including changes in investors’ perceptions of the financial condition of an issuer or the general condition of the relevant stock market, or when political or economic events affecting the

 

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issuer occur. Moreover, in the event of a company’s bankruptcy, claims of certain creditors, including bondholders, will have priority over claims of common stock holders and are likely to have varying types of priority over holders of preferred and convertible stock. These risks could increase fluctuations in the Fund’s NAV. If the Fund’s investments in equity securities are incidental to the Fund’s investments in loans or fixed-income instruments, the Fund frequently could possess material non-public information about a Borrower or issuer as a result of its ownership of a loan or fixed-income instrument of a Borrower or issuer. Because of prohibitions on trading in securities while in possession of material non-public information, the Fund might be unable to enter into a transaction in a security of the Borrower or issuer when it would otherwise be advantageous to do so.

The Fund also could be exposed to risks that issuers will not fulfill contractual obligations such as, in the case of convertible instruments or private placements, delivering marketable common stock upon conversions of convertible instruments and registering restricted securities for public resale. With respect to non-controlling equity investments, the Fund could have a limited ability to protect its position in such investments.

From time to time, the Fund will also co-invest with third parties through partnerships, joint ventures or other entities, thereby acquiring jointly-controlled or non-controlling interests in certain investments in conjunction with participation by one or more third parties in such investment. As a co-investor, the Fund could have interests or objectives that are inconsistent with those of the third-party partners or co-venturers. Although the Fund might not have full control over these investments and, therefore, could have a limited ability to protect its position therein, the Adviser expects that appropriate rights will be negotiated to protect the Fund’s interests. Nevertheless, such investments can involve risks not present in investments where a third party is not involved, including the possibility that a third-party partner or co-venturer could have financial difficulties resulting in a negative impact on such investment, could have economic or business interests or goals which are inconsistent with those of the Fund, or could be in a position to take (or block) action in a manner contrary to the Fund’s investment objectives or the increased possibility of default by, diminished liquidity or insolvency of, the third party, due to a sustained or general economic downturn. Third-party partners or co-venturers could opt to liquidate an investment at a time during which such liquidation is not optimal for the Fund. In addition, the Fund could in certain circumstances be liable for the actions of its third-party partners or co-venturers. In those circumstances where such third parties involve a management group, such third parties could receive compensation arrangements relating to such investments, including incentive compensation arrangements.

U.S. Government Debt Securities Risk. U.S. government debt securities generally do not involve the credit risks associated with investments in other types of debt securities, although, as a result, the yields available from U.S. government debt securities are generally lower than the yields available from other securities. Like other debt securities, however, the values of U.S. government securities change as interest rates fluctuate. Fluctuations in the value of portfolio securities will not affect interest income on existing portfolio securities but will be reflected in the Fund’s NAV. Since the magnitude of these fluctuations will generally be greater at times when the Fund’s average maturity is longer, under certain market conditions the Fund will for temporary defensive purposes, accept lower current income from short-term investments rather than investing in higher yielding long-term securities. In 2008, the Federal Housing Finance Agency (“FHFA”) placed the Federal National Mortgage Association (“Fannie Mae”) and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“Freddie Mac”) into conservatorship. As conservator, FHFA succeeded to all rights, titles, powers and privileges of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac and of any stockholder, officer or director of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac and the assets of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac are continuing to operate as going concerns while in conservatorship and each remains liable for all of its respective obligations, including guaranty obligations, associated with its mortgage-backed securities. There is no assurance that the obligations of such entities will be satisfied in full, or that such obligations will not lose value or default. Any Fund investments issued by Federal Home Loan Banks and Fannie Mae could ultimately lose value.

Non-U.S. Securities Risk. The Fund invests in securities or other instruments, including secured loans and unsecured loans, of non-U.S. issuers or Borrowers. Such investments involve certain factors not typically

 

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associated with investing in the United States or other developed countries, including risks relating to: (i) differences between U.S. and non-U.S. securities markets, including potential price volatility in and relative illiquidity of some non-U.S. securities markets; the absence of uniform accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards, practices, and disclosure requirements; and less government supervision and regulation; (ii) other differences in law and regulation, including fewer investor protections, less stringent fiduciary duties, less developed bankruptcy laws and difficulty in enforcing contractual obligations; (iii) certain economic and political risks, including potential economic, political or social instability; exchange control regulations; restrictions on foreign investment and repatriation of capital (possibly requiring government approval); expropriation or confiscatory taxation; higher rates of inflation; and reliance on a more limited number of commodity inputs, service providers, and/or distribution mechanisms; and (iv) the possible imposition of foreign taxes on income and gains recognized with respect to securities and other assets. The risks of investments in emerging markets (if any) including the risks described above, are usually greater than the risks involved in investing in more developed markets. Because non-U.S. securities could trade on days when the Fund’s Shares are not priced, the Fund’s NAV could change at times when Shares cannot be sold.

Emerging Markets Risk. Because of less developed markets and economies and, in some countries, less mature governments and governmental institutions, the risks of investing in foreign securities set forth above can be intensified in the case of investments in issuers domiciled or doing substantial business in emerging market countries. These risks include high concentration of market capitalization and trading volume in a small number of issuers representing a limited number of industries, as well as a high concentration of investors and financial intermediaries; political and social uncertainties; over-dependence on exports, especially with respect to primary commodities, making these economies vulnerable to changes in commodity prices; overburdened infrastructure and obsolete or unseasoned financial systems; environmental problems; less developed legal systems; and less reliable custodial services and settlement practices. Investing in securities of companies in emerging markets also entails risks of expropriation, nationalization, confiscation or the imposition of restrictions on foreign investment, the lack of hedging instruments, and the repatriation of capital invested. Emerging securities markets are substantially smaller, less developed, less liquid and more volatile than the major securities markets. The limited size of emerging securities markets and limited trading value compared to the volume of trading in U.S. securities could cause prices to be erratic for reasons apart from factors that affect the quality of the securities. For example, limited market size generally causes prices to be unduly influenced by traders who control large positions.

Foreign Currency Risk. Investments made by the Fund, and the income received by the Fund with respect to such investments, will, from time to time, be denominated in various non-U.S. currencies. However, the books of the Fund are maintained in U.S. dollars. Accordingly, changes in currency values could adversely affect the U.S. dollar value of portfolio investments, interest and other revenue streams received by the Fund, gains and losses realized on the sale of portfolio investments, and the amount of distributions, if any, made by the Fund. In addition, the Fund will incur costs in converting investment proceeds from one currency to another. The Fund will, from time to time, enter into derivative transactions designed to reduce such currency risks. Furthermore, the portfolio companies in which the Fund invests are subject to risks relating to changes in currency values, as described above. If a portfolio company suffers adverse consequences as a result of such changes, the Fund could also be adversely affected as a result.

Eurozone Risk. The Fund will, from time to time, invest in European companies and companies that have operations that are affected by the Eurozone economy. For example, concerns regarding the sovereign debt of various Eurozone countries and proposals for investors to incur substantial write-downs and reductions in the face value of certain countries’ sovereign debt have given rise to new concerns about sovereign defaults, following the vote by the United Kingdom (“UK”) to leave the European Union (“EU”). The outcome of this situation cannot yet be predicted. Sovereign debt defaults and EU and/or Eurozone exits, generally, could have material adverse effects on investments by the Fund in European companies, including but not limited to the availability of credit to support such companies’ financing needs, uncertainty and disruption in relation to financing, customer and supply contracts denominated in the Euro and wider economic disruption in markets

 

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served by those companies, while austerity and other measures introduced in order to limit or contain these issues could themselves lead to economic contraction and resulting adverse effects for the Fund. It is possible that a number of the Fund’s securities will be denominated in the Euro. Legal uncertainty about the funding of Euro denominated obligations following any breakup or exits from the Eurozone (particularly in the case of investments in companies in affected countries) could also have material adverse effects on the Fund.

On June 23, 2016, the UK voted, via referendum, to exit from the EU, triggering political, economic and legal uncertainty. While such uncertainty most directly affects the UK and the EU, global markets suffered immediate and significant disruption. On March 29, 2017, the UK made a formal notification to the European Council under Article 50 of the Treaty on EU, which triggers a two year period during which the terms of an exit will be negotiated. The withdrawal agreement between the United Kingdom and the EU, endorsed by the European Council on November 25, 2018, sets out the basis on which the United Kingdom will withdraw from the EU and includes certain transitional provisions which have the effect of preserving the application of European Union law in the United Kingdom until December 2020 (or such other later date as may be agreed). The withdrawal agreement, and the associated transitional provisions, will only become effective once approved by the United Kingdom parliament which approval has not yet happened and may not happen, meaning that the United Kingdom could leave the EU without any transitional period (a so-called “hard Brexit”). On April 11, 2019, the United Kingdom came to an agreement with the EU to delay the deadline for withdrawal. Unless the United Kingdom parliament approves the withdrawal agreement by October 31, 2019, it is expected that there will be a hard Brexit on that date absent any further agreements to delay the withdrawal. The UK’s possible exit from the EU could impact the Fund and its investments (and their underlying issuers) in a variety of ways, not all of which are currently readily apparent. The Fund will, from time to time, invest in portfolio companies and other issuers with significant operations and/or assets in the UK, any of which could be adversely impacted by any new legal, tax and regulatory environment, whether by increased costs or impediments to the implementation of their business plan.

The effects on the UK, European and global economies of the exit of the UK (and/or other EU members) from the EU, or the exit of other EU members from the European monetary area and/or the redenomination of financial instruments from the Euro to a different currency, are difficult to predict and to protect fully against. Many of the foregoing risks are outside of the control of the Fund and the Adviser. These risks could affect the Fund, the Adviser and other service providers given economic, political and regulatory uncertainty created by the British exit from the EU “Brexit”.

LIBOR Risk. Certain instruments in which the Fund invests pay interest at floating rates based on the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) or are subject to interest caps or floors based on LIBOR. The Fund and/or certain issuers of instruments in which the Fund invests also will obtain financing at floating rates based on LIBOR. Certain derivative instruments utilized by the Fund and/or issuers of instruments in which the Fund invests also reference LIBOR. It is possible that the Fund will also utilize leverage or borrowings primarily based on LIBOR. In July 2017, the head of the United Kingdom Financial Conduct Authority announced the desire to phase out the use of LIBOR by the end of 2021. There is currently no definitive information regarding the future utilization of LIBOR or of any particular replacement rate. Abandonment of or modifications to LIBOR could have adverse impacts on newly issued financial instruments and existing financial instruments that reference LIBOR. While some instruments contemplate a scenario where LIBOR is no longer available by providing for an alternative rate setting methodology, not all instruments have such provisions, and there is significant uncertainty regarding the effectiveness of any such alternative methodologies. Abandonment of or modifications to LIBOR could lead to significant short-term and long-term uncertainty and market instability. It remains uncertain how such changes would be implemented and the effects such changes would have on the Fund, issuers of instruments in which the Fund invests and financial markets generally.

Legal and Regulatory Risk. Legal and regulatory changes could occur that would materially adversely affect the Fund. The regulation of the U.S. and non-U.S. securities and futures markets and investment funds such as the Fund has undergone substantial change in recent years, and such change could continue.

 

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The Dodd-Frank Act contains changes to the existing regulatory structure in the United States and is intended to establish rigorous oversight standards to protect the U.S. economy and American consumers, investors and businesses, including provisions that would significantly alter the regulation of commodity interests and comprehensively regulate the OTC derivatives markets for the first time in the United States. The Dodd-Frank Act and the rules that have been or will be promulgated thereunder by relevant regulators could negatively impact the ability of the Fund to meet its investment objectives either through limits or requirements imposed on it or upon its counterparties. The implementation of the Dodd-Frank Act will occur over a period of time, and it is unknown in what form, when and in what order significant regulatory initiatives will be implemented or the impact any such implemented regulations will have on the Fund, the markets or instruments in which the Fund invests or the counterparties with which the Fund conducts business. The effect of the Dodd-Frank Act or other regulatory change on the Fund, while impossible to predict, could be substantial, adverse and potentially limit or completely restrict the ability of the Fund to use derivative instruments as a part of its investment strategy, increase the costs of using these instruments or make them less effective. In addition, the practice of short selling has been the subject of numerous temporary restrictions, and similar restrictions could be promulgated at any time. Such restrictions could adversely affect the returns of the Fund.

In Europe, the Financial Stability Board, which monitors and makes recommendations about the global financial system, issued a report in October 2011 that recommended strengthening oversight and regulation of the so-called “shadow banking” system in Europe, broadly described as credit intermediation involving entities and activities outside the regular banking system. The report outlined initial steps to define the scope of the shadow banking system and proposed general governing principles for a monitoring and regulatory framework. While at this stage it is difficult to predict the scope of any new regulations, if such regulations were to extend the regulatory and supervisory requirements, such as capital and liquidity standards, currently applicable to banks, or the Fund was considered to be engaged in “shadow banking,” the regulatory and operating costs associated therewith could adversely impact the implementation of the Fund’s investment strategy and returns and could become prohibitive.

Event Driven Investing. The Fund will, from time to time, invest in companies in expectation of a specific event or catalyst, which could be external (e.g., a macro event impacting relevant markets) or an event that is idiosyncratic to the company (e.g., a future capital markets event). Such event-driven investing requires the investor to make predictions about (i) the likelihood that an event will occur and (ii) the impact such event will have on the value of the Fund’s investment in the relevant company. If the event fails to occur or it does not have the effect foreseen, losses can result. For example, the adoption of new business strategies or completion of asset dispositions or debt reduction programs by a company might not be valued as highly by the market as the Adviser had anticipated, resulting in losses. In addition, a company could announce a plan of restructuring which promises to enhance value and fail to implement it, resulting in losses to investors. In liquidations and other forms of corporate reorganization, the risk exists that the reorganization either will be unsuccessful, will be delayed or will result in a distribution of cash or a new security, the value of which will be less than the purchase price to the Fund of the investment in respect of which such distribution was made.

Valuation Risk. Unlike publicly traded common stock which trades on national exchanges, there is no central place or exchange for loans or fixed-income instruments to trade. Loans and fixed-income instruments generally trade on an OTC market which could be anywhere in the world where the buyer and seller can settle on a price. Due to the lack of centralized information and trading, the valuation of loans or fixed-income instruments generally carries more risk than that of common stock. Uncertainties in the conditions of the financial market, unreliable reference data, lack of transparency and inconsistency of valuation models and processes could lead to inaccurate asset pricing. In addition, other market participants value securities differently than the Fund. As a result, the Fund will, from time to time, be subject to the risk that when a loan or fixed-income instrument is sold in the market, the amount received by the Fund is less than the value of such loans or fixed-income instruments carried on the Fund’s books.

Liquidity Risk. The Fund intends to invest without limit in securities that, at the time of investment, are illiquid. The Fund will, from time to time, also invest in restricted securities. Investments in restricted securities could

 

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have the effect of increasing the amount of the Fund’s assets invested in illiquid securities if qualified institutional buyers are unwilling to purchase these securities.

Illiquid and restricted securities can be difficult to dispose of at a fair price at the times when the Fund believes it is desirable to do so. The market price of illiquid and restricted securities generally is more volatile than that of more liquid securities, which could adversely affect the price that the Fund pays for or recovers upon the sale of such securities. Illiquid and restricted securities are also more difficult to value, especially in challenging markets, and the Adviser’s judgment will play a greater role in the valuation process. Investment of the Fund’s assets in illiquid and restricted securities could restrict the Fund’s ability to take advantage of market opportunities. In order to dispose of an unregistered security, the Fund, where it has contractual rights to do so, could have to cause such security to be registered. A considerable period could elapse between the time the decision is made to sell the security and the time the security is registered, thereby enabling the Fund to sell it. Contractual restrictions on the resale of securities vary in length and scope and are generally the result of a negotiation between the issuer and acquiror of the securities. In either case, the Fund would bear market risks during that period.

Some loans and fixed-income instruments are not readily marketable and could be subject to restrictions on resale. Loans and fixed-income instruments might not be listed on any national securities exchange and no active trading market might exist for certain of the loans and fixed-income instruments in which the Fund invests. Where a secondary market exists, the market for some loans and fixed-income instruments could be subject to irregular trading activity, wide bid/ask spreads and extended trade settlement periods. In addition, events occurring subsequent to an investment by the Fund, including, for example, withdrawals, changes in market, political or other relevant circumstances, could cause some loans and fixed-income instruments that were liquid at the time of acquisition to become illiquid or otherwise cause the Fund’s concentration in illiquid investments to increase.

Inflation/Deflation Risk. Inflation risk is the risk that the value of certain assets or income from the Fund’s investments will be worth less in the future as inflation decreases the value of money. As inflation increases, the real value of the Shares and distributions on the Shares can decline. In addition, during any periods of rising inflation, the dividend rates or borrowing costs associated with the Fund’s use of leverage would likely increase, which would tend to further reduce returns to Shareholders.

Deflation risk is the risk that prices throughout the economy decline over time—the opposite of inflation. Deflation could have an adverse effect on the creditworthiness of issuers and could make issuer defaults more likely, which could result in a decline in the value of the Fund’s portfolio.

Conflicts of Interest Risk. The Adviser will experience conflicts of interest in connection with the management of the Fund, relating to the allocation of the Adviser’s time and resources between the Fund and other investment activities; the allocation of investment opportunities by the Adviser and its affiliates; compensation to the Adviser; services provided by the Adviser and its affiliates to issuers in which the Fund invests; investments by the Fund and other clients of the Adviser, subject to the limitations of the 1940 Act; the formation of additional investment funds by the Adviser; differing recommendations given by the Adviser to the Fund versus other clients; and the Adviser’s use of information gained from issuers in the Fund’s portfolio to aid investments by other clients, subject to applicable law.

In addition, the Adviser’s investment professionals will, from time to time, acquire confidential or material, non-public information concerning an entity in which the Fund has invested, or propose to invest, and the possession of such information generally will limit the Adviser’s ability to buy or sell particular securities of such entity on behalf of the Fund, thereby limiting the investment opportunities or exit strategies available to the Fund. In addition, holdings in the securities of an issuer by the Adviser or its affiliates will affect the ability of the Fund to make certain acquisitions of, or enter into certain transactions with, such issuer. From time to time, broker-dealers and investment advisers affiliated with the Adviser will also acquire confidential or material

 

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non-public information concerning entities in which the Fund has invested or proposes to invest, which could restrict the Adviser’s ability to buy or sell (or otherwise transact in) securities of such entities, thus limiting investment opportunities or exit strategies available to the Fund. See “Conflicts of Interest.”

Uncertain Tax Treatment. The Fund will, from time to time, invest a portion of its net assets in below investment grade instruments. Investments in these types of instruments present special tax issues for the Fund. U.S. federal income tax rules are not entirely clear about issues such as when the Fund will cease to accrue interest, original issue discount (“OID”) or market discount, when and to what extent deductions can be taken for bad debts or worthless instruments, how payments received on obligations in default should be allocated between principal and income and whether exchanges of debt obligations in a bankruptcy or workout context are taxable. These and other issues will be addressed by the Fund to the extent necessary in order to seek to ensure that it distributes sufficient income to ensure that it does not become subject to U.S. federal income or excise tax.

Complex Transactions/Contingent Liabilities/Guarantees and Indemnities. The Adviser will pursue certain complex investment opportunities for the Fund, which could involve substantial business, regulatory or legal complexity. Such complexity presents risks, as such transactions can be more difficult, expensive and time-consuming to finance and execute; it can be more difficult to manage or realize value from the assets acquired in such transactions; and such transactions sometimes entail a higher level of regulatory scrutiny or a greater risk of contingent liabilities. Additionally, in connection with certain transactions, the Fund will be required to make representations about the business and financial affairs of a portfolio company, provide guarantees in respect of payments by portfolio companies and other third parties and provide indemnities against losses caused by portfolio companies and other third parties. The Fund will, from time to time, also be required to indemnify the purchasers of such investment to the extent that any such representations are inaccurate. These arrangements could result in the incurrence of contingent liabilities by the Fund, even after the disposition of an investment and ultimately in material losses.

Availability of Investment Opportunities; Competition. The activity of identifying, completing and realizing the types of investment opportunities targeted by the Adviser for the Fund is highly competitive and involves a significant degree of uncertainty.

The Fund competes for investment opportunities with other investment companies and private investment vehicles, as well as the public debt markets, individuals and financial institutions, including investment banks, commercial banks and insurance companies, business development companies, strategic industry acquirers, hedge funds and other institutional investors, investing directly or through affiliates. Over the past several years, a number of such investment vehicles have been formed (and many such existing entities have grown in size). Additional entities with similar investment objectives could be formed in the future by other unrelated parties. It is possible that competition for appropriate investment opportunities could increase, thus reducing the number of opportunities available to the Fund. Such supply-side competition could adversely affect the terms upon which investments can be made by the Fund. Moreover, transaction sponsors unaffiliated with the Fund or KKR could be reluctant to present investment opportunities to the Fund because of its affiliation with KKR. There can be no assurance that the Adviser will be able to locate and complete investments which satisfy the Fund’s primary investment objectives or to realize upon their values.

Dependence on Key Personnel Risk. The Adviser depends on the efforts, skills, reputations and business contacts of its key personnel, the information and deal flow they and others generate during the normal course of their activities and the synergies among the diverse fields of expertise and knowledge held by the Adviser’s professionals. The loss of the services of any of them could have a material adverse effect on the Fund and could harm the Adviser’s ability to manage the Fund.

The Adviser’s principals and other key personnel possess substantial experience and expertise and have strong business relationships with members of the business community. The loss of these personnel could jeopardize the Adviser’s relationships with members of the business community and could result in fewer investment

 

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opportunities for the Fund. For example, if any of the Adviser’s principals were to join or form a competing firm, the Fund’s results and financial condition could suffer.

Material Risks of Significant Methods of Analysis. The Adviser seeks to conduct reasonable and appropriate due diligence based on the facts and circumstances applicable to each investment. When conducting due diligence and making an assessment regarding an investment for the Fund, the Adviser relies on available resources, including information provided by the target of the investment and, in some circumstances, third-party investigations. As a result, the due diligence process can at times be subjective with respect to companies for which only limited information is available. Accordingly, the Adviser cannot be certain that due diligence investigations with respect to any investment opportunity for the Fund will reveal or highlight all relevant facts (including fraud) that could be necessary or helpful in evaluating such investment opportunity, or that its due diligence investigations will result in investments for the Fund being successful. There can be no assurance that the projected results of an investment opportunity will be achieved for the Fund, and actual results could vary significantly from the projections. General economic, natural, and other conditions, which are not predictable, can have an adverse impact on the reliability of such projections. Assumptions or projections about asset lives; the stability, growth, or predictability of costs; demand; or revenues generated by an investment or other factors associated therewith could, due to various risks and uncertainties including those described herein, differ materially from actual results.

Market Developments. Periods of market volatility remain, and could continue to occur in the future, in response to various political, social and economic events both within and outside of the United States. Instability in the credit markets could make it more difficult for a number of issuers of debt securities to obtain financing or refinancing for their investment or lending activities or operations. In particular, because of volatile conditions in the credit markets, issuers of debt securities could be subject to increased cost for debt, tightening underwriting standards and reduced liquidity for loans they make, securities they purchase and securities they issue.

For example, certain Borrowers could, due to macroeconomic conditions, be unable to repay secured loans. A Borrower’s failure to satisfy financial or operating covenants imposed by lenders could lead to defaults and, potentially, termination of the secured loans and foreclosure on its secured assets, which could trigger cross-defaults under other agreements and jeopardize the Borrower’s ability to meet its obligations under its debt securities. The Fund will, from time to time, incur expenses to the extent necessary to seek recovery upon default or to negotiate new terms with a defaulting Borrower. In addition, if one of the Borrowers were to commence bankruptcy proceedings, even though the Fund will have structured its interest as senior debt, depending on the facts and circumstances, a bankruptcy court might recharacterize the Fund’s debt holding and subordinate all or a portion of its claim to that of other creditors. Adverse economic conditions also could decrease the value of collateral securing some of the Fund’s loans and the value of its equity investments. A recession could lead to financial losses in our portfolio and a decrease in revenues, net income and the value of the Fund’s assets.

These developments could increase the volatility of the value of securities owned by the Fund. These developments also could make it more difficult for the Fund to accurately value its securities or to sell its securities on a timely basis. These developments could adversely affect the ability of the Fund to use leverage for investment purposes and increase the cost of such leverage, which would reduce returns to the holders of Shares. These developments also could adversely affect the broader economy, which in turn could adversely affect the ability of issuers of securities owned by the Fund to make payments of principal and interest when due, leading to lower credit ratings of the issuer and increased defaults by the issuer. Such developments could, in turn, reduce the value of securities owned by the Fund and adversely affect the NAV and market price of the Shares.

Market Disruptions from Natural Disasters or Geopolitical Risks. Political instability in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Egypt, Libya, Syria, Russia, Ukraine and the Middle East, the ongoing epidemics of infectious diseases in certain parts of the world, terrorist attacks in the United States and around the world, natural disasters, social and political discord, debt crises (such as the Greek crisis), sovereign debt downgrades, or the exit or potential exit of one or more countries from the EU (such as the UK) or the European Economic and Monetary Union, among

 

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others, could result in market volatility, could have long term effects on the United States and worldwide financial markets, and could cause further economic uncertainties in the United States and worldwide. The Fund cannot predict the effects of natural disasters or geopolitical events in the future on the economy and securities markets.

Government Intervention in the Financial Markets. During the global financial crisis, the U.S. government took a number of unprecedented actions designed to support certain financial institutions and segments of the financial markets that have experienced extreme volatility, and in some cases a lack of liquidity. Federal, state, and other governments, their regulatory agencies or self-regulatory organizations could take additional actions that affect the regulation of the securities or Structured Products in which the Fund invests, or the issuers of such securities or Structured Products, in ways that are unforeseeable. Borrowers under secured loans held by the Fund could seek protection under the bankruptcy laws. Legislation or regulation could also change the way in which the Fund itself is regulated. Such legislation or regulation could limit or preclude the Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objectives. The Adviser will monitor developments and seek to manage the Fund’s portfolio in a manner consistent with achieving the Fund’s investment objectives, but there can be no assurance that it will be successful in doing so.

Portfolio Turnover Risk. The Fund’s annual portfolio turnover rate could vary greatly from year to year, as well as within a given year. Portfolio turnover rate is not considered a limiting factor in the execution of investment decisions for the Fund. High portfolio turnover could result in the realization of net short-term capital gains by the Fund which, when distributed to Shareholders, will be taxable as ordinary income. A high portfolio turnover could increase the Fund’s current and accumulated earnings and profits, resulting in a greater portion of the Fund’s distributions being treated as a dividend to the Shareholders. In addition, a higher portfolio turnover rate results in correspondingly greater brokerage commissions and other transactional expenses that are borne by the Fund. See “Tax Considerations.”

Anti-Takeover Provisions. The Fund’s Declaration of Trust includes provisions that could limit the ability of other entities or persons to acquire control of the Fund or convert the Fund to open-end status. These provisions could deprive the holders of Shares of opportunities to sell their Shares at a premium over the then current market price of the Shares or at NAV. See “Description of Capital Structure—Anti-Takeover and Certain Other Provisions in the Declaration of Trust.”

Duration Risk. Duration is the sensitivity, expressed in years, of the price of a fixed income security to changes in the general level of interest rates (or yields). Securities with longer durations tend to be more sensitive to interest rate (or yield) changes than securities with shorter durations. Duration differs from maturity in that it considers potential changes to interest rates, a security’s coupon payments, yield, price and par value and call features, in addition to the amount of time until the security matures. The duration of a security will be expected to change over time with changes in market factors and time to maturity.

Risks Relating to Fund’s RIC Status. To qualify and remain eligible for the special tax treatment accorded to regulated investment companies (“RICs”) and their shareholders under the Internal Revenue Code (the “Code”), the Fund must meet certain source-of-income, asset diversification and annual distribution requirements. Very generally, in order to qualify as a RIC, the Fund must derive at least 90% of its gross income for each taxable year from dividends, interest, payments with respect to certain securities loans, gains from the sale or other disposition of stock, securities or foreign currencies, or other income derived with respect to its business of investing in stock or other securities and currencies. The Fund must also meet certain asset diversification requirements at the end of each quarter of each of its taxable years. Failure to meet these diversification requirements on the last day of a quarter could result in the Fund having to dispose of certain investments quickly in order to prevent the loss of RIC status. Any such dispositions could be made at disadvantageous prices or times and could result in substantial losses to the Fund. In addition, in order to be eligible for the special tax treatment accorded RICs, the Fund must meet the annual distribution requirement, requiring it to distribute with respect to each taxable year at least 90% of the sum of its “investment company taxable income” (generally its

 

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taxable ordinary income and realized net short-term capital gains in excess of realized net long-term capital losses, if any) and its net tax-exempt income (if any) to its Shareholders. If the Fund fails to qualify as a RIC for any reason and becomes subject to corporate tax, the resulting corporate taxes could substantially reduce its net assets, the amount of income available for distribution and the amount of its distributions. Such a failure would have a material adverse effect on the Fund and its Shareholders. In addition, the Fund could be required to recognize unrealized gains, pay substantial taxes and interest and make substantial distributions in order to re-qualify as a RIC.

RIC-Related Risks of Investments Generating Non-Cash Taxable Income. Certain of the Fund’s investments will require the Fund to recognize taxable income in a taxable year in excess of the cash generated on those investments during that year. In particular, the Fund invests in loans and other debt obligations that will be treated as having “market discount” and/or OID for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Because the Fund will, from time to time, be required to recognize income in respect of these investments before, or without receiving, cash representing such income, the Fund will have difficulty satisfying the annual distribution requirements applicable to RICs and avoiding Fund-level U.S. federal income and/or excise taxes in such circumstances. Accordingly, the Fund will, from time to time, be required to sell assets, including at potentially disadvantageous times or prices, borrow, raise additional equity capital, make taxable distributions of its Shares or debt securities, or reduce new investments, to obtain the cash needed to make these income distributions. If the Fund liquidates assets to raise cash, the Fund will, from time to time, realize gain or loss on such liquidations; in the event the Fund realizes net capital gains from such liquidation transactions, its Shareholders could receive larger capital gain distributions than they would in the absence of such transactions.

Cybersecurity. Increased reliance on internet-based programs and applications to conduct transactions and store data creates growing operational and security risks. Targeted cyber-attacks or accidental events can lead to breaches in computer and data systems security, and subsequent unauthorized access to sensitive transactional and personal information held or maintained by KKR, its affiliates, and third party service providers or counterparties. Any breaches that occur could result in a failure to maintain the security, confidentiality, or privacy of sensitive data, including personal information relating to investors and the beneficial owners of investors, and could lead to theft, data corruption, or overall disruption in operational systems. Criminals could use data taken in breaches in identity theft, obtaining loans or payments under false identities and other crimes that have the potential to affect the value of assets in which the Fund invests. These risks have the potential to disrupt KKR’s ability to engage in transactions, cause direct financial loss and reputational damage or lead to violations of applicable laws related to data and privacy protection and consumer protection. Cybersecurity risks also necessitate ongoing prevention and compliance costs.

Private and Middle Market Companies. The Fund will, from time to time, acquire loans from issuers, including, but not limited to, private and middle-market companies, which involve a number of particular risks that might not exist in the case of large public companies, including:

 

   

these companies could have limited financial resources and limited access to additional financing, which could increase the risk of their defaulting on their obligations, leaving creditors dependent on any guarantees or collateral they have obtained;

 

   

these companies frequently have shorter operating histories, narrower product lines and smaller market shares than larger businesses, which render them more vulnerable to competitors’ actions and market conditions, as well as general economic downturns;

 

   

there will not be as much information publicly available about these companies as would be available for public companies and such information might not be of the same quality;

 

   

these companies are more likely to depend on the management talents and efforts of a small group of persons; as a result, the death, disability, resignation or termination of one or more of these persons could have a material adverse impact on these companies’ ability to meet their obligations; and

 

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the frequency and volume of the trading of these companies generally is substantially less than is typical of larger companies and as such it could be more difficult for the Fund to exit the investment in the company at its then fair value.

Risks Arising from Purchases of Debt on a Secondary Basis. The Fund will, from time to time, invest in loans and debt securities acquired on a secondary basis. The Fund is unlikely to be able to negotiate the terms of such debt as part of its acquisition and, as a result, these investments might not include some of the covenants and protections the Fund would generally seek. Even if such covenants and protections are included in the investments held by the Fund, the terms of the investments could provide portfolio companies substantial flexibility in determining compliance with such covenants. In addition, the terms on which debt is traded on the secondary market could represent a combination of the general state of the market for such investments and either favorable or unfavorable assessments of particular investments by the sellers thereof.

 

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CONFLICTS OF INTEREST

The Adviser will experience conflicts of interest in connection with the management of the Fund, including, but not limited to, those discussed below. Dealing with conflicts of interest is complex and difficult, and new and different types of conflicts may subsequently arise.

 

   

The members, officers and other personnel of the Adviser allocate their time, resources and other services between the Fund and other investment and business activities in which they are involved, including other funds, investment vehicles and accounts managed by KKR. The Adviser intends to devote such time as shall be necessary to conduct the Fund’s business affairs in an appropriate manner. However, the Adviser will continue to devote the time, resources and other services necessary to managing its other investment and business activities, and the Adviser is not precluded from conducting activities unrelated to the Fund. Substantial time will be spent by such members, officers and personnel monitoring the investments of other funds, investment vehicles and accounts managed by KKR.

 

   

The Adviser will, at times, compete with certain of its affiliates, including other entities it manages, for investments for the Fund, subjecting the Adviser to certain conflicts of interest in evaluating the suitability of investment opportunities and making or recommending acquisitions on the Fund’s behalf. The Adviser will receive advisory and other fees from the other entities it manages, and due to fee-offset provisions contained in the management agreements for such entities, the fees, at times, will not be proportionate to such entities’ investment accounts for any given transaction and the Adviser will have an incentive to favor entities from which it receives higher fees.

 

   

The Fund has adopted the Adviser’s allocation policy, which is designed to fairly and equitably distribute investment opportunities over time among funds or pools of capital managed by the Adviser. The Adviser’s allocation policy provides that once an investment has been approved and is deemed to be in the Fund’s best interest, the Fund will receive a pro rata share of the investment based on capital available for investment in the asset class being allocated. Determinations as to the amount of capital available for investment are based on such factors as: the amount of cash on-hand, existing commitments and reserves, the targeted leverage level, the targeted asset mix and diversification requirements, other investment policies and restrictions and limitations imposed by applicable laws, rules, regulations or interpretations. The outcome of this determination will result in the allocation of all, some or none of an investment opportunity to the Fund. In addition, subject to applicable law, affiliates of the Adviser will, from time to time, invest in one of the Fund’s portfolio companies and hold a different class of securities than the Fund. To the extent that an affiliate of the Adviser holds a different class of securities than the Fund, its interests might not be aligned with the Fund’s. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Adviser will act in the best interest of the Fund in accordance with its fiduciary duty to the Fund.

 

   

The appropriate allocation among the Fund and other KKR funds and accounts of expenses and fees generated in the course of evaluating and making investments often will not be clear, especially where more than one KKR fund or account participates. The Adviser will determine, in its sole discretion, the appropriate allocation of investment-related expenses, including broken deal expenses incurred in respect of unconsummated investments and expenses more generally relating to a particular investment strategy, among the funds and accounts participating or that would have participated in such investments or that otherwise participate in the relevant investment strategy, as applicable, which could result in the Fund bearing more or less of these expenses than other participants or potential participants in the relevant investments.

 

   

The compensation payable by the Fund to the Adviser will be approved by the Board consistent with the exercise of the requisite standard of care applicable to trustees under state law. Such compensation is payable, in most cases, regardless of the quality of the assets acquired, the services provided to the Fund or whether the Fund makes distributions to Shareholders.

 

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The Adviser and its affiliates will, at times, provide a broad range of financial services to companies in which the Fund invests, in compliance with applicable law, and will generally be paid fees for such services. In addition, affiliates of the Adviser could act as an underwriter or placement agent in connection with an offering of securities by one of the companies in the Fund’s portfolio. Any compensation received by the Adviser and its affiliates for providing these services will not be shared with the Fund and could be received before the Fund realizes a return on its investment. The Adviser will face conflicts of interest with respect to services performed for these companies, on the one hand, and investments recommended to the Fund, on the other hand.

 

   

KKR engages in a broad range of business activities and invests in portfolio companies and other issuers whose operations could be be substantially similar to the issuers of the Fund’s portfolio investments. The performance and operation of such competing businesses could conflict with and adversely affect the performance and operation of the issuers of the Fund’s portfolio investments and could adversely affect the prices and availability of business opportunities or transactions available to these issuers.

 

   

From time to time, to the extent consistent with the 1940 Act and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder, or with exemptive relief the Fund receives from the SEC, if any, the Fund and other clients for which the Adviser provides investment management services or carries on investment activities (including, among others, clients that are employee benefit plans subject to the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (“ERISA”) and related regulations) will make investments at different levels of an investment entity’s capital structure or otherwise in different classes of an issuer’s securities. These investments inherently give rise to conflicts of interest or perceived conflicts of interest between or among the various classes of securities held by the Fund and such other clients, including in the case of financial distress of the investment entity.

 

   

KKR and the Adviser sponsor and advise, and expect in the future to sponsor and advise, a broad range of investment funds, vehicles and other accounts, including proprietary vehicles, that make investments worldwide. KKR will, from time to time, also make investments for its own account, including, for example, through investment and co-investment vehicles established for KKR personnel and associates. The Adviser and its affiliates are not restricted from forming additional investment funds, from entering into other investment advisory relationships (including, among others, relationships with clients that are employee benefit plans subject to ERISA and related regulations) or from engaging in other business activities, even to the extent such activities are in competition with the Fund and/or involve substantial time and resources of the Adviser. For example, the Adviser could invest, on behalf of an affiliated fund, in a company that is a competitor of one of the Fund’s portfolio companies or that is a service provider, supplier, customer or other counterparty with respect to one of the Fund’s portfolio companies. In providing advice and recommendations to, or with respect to, such investments and in dealing in such investments on behalf of such other affiliated fund, to the extent permitted by law, the Adviser or its affiliates will not take into consideration the interests of the Fund and its portfolio investments and issuers thereof. Accordingly, such advice, recommendations and dealings will result in conflicts of interest for the Adviser. In addition, the Adviser’s ability to effectively implement the Fund’s investment strategies will be limited to the extent that contractual obligations relating to these permitted activities restrict the Adviser’s ability to engage in transactions that it would otherwise be interested in pursuing. Affiliates of the Adviser, whose primary business includes the origination of investments, engage in investment advisory business with accounts that compete with the Fund.

 

   

The Adviser and its affiliates will, from time to time, give advice and recommend securities to other clients that differs from, or is contrary to, advice given to or securities recommended or bought for the Fund even though their investment objectives are similar to the Fund’s.

 

   

To the extent not restricted by confidentiality requirements or applicable law, the Adviser will, from time to time, apply experience and information gained in providing services to the Fund’s portfolio

 

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companies in providing services to competing companies invested in by affiliates’ other clients, which could have adverse consequences for the Fund or its portfolio investments. In addition, in providing services in respect of such portfolio companies and other issuers of portfolio investments, the Adviser or its affiliates will, from time to time, come into possession of information that it is prohibited from acting on (including on behalf of the Fund) or disclosing as a result of applicable confidentiality requirements or applicable law, even though such action or disclosure would be in the interests of the Fund.

 

   

As a registered investment company, the Fund will be limited in its ability to invest in any investment in which the Adviser or its affiliates’ other clients have an investment. The Fund will also be limited in its ability to co-invest with the Adviser or one or more of its affiliates. Some of these co-investments would only be permitted pursuant to an exemptive order from the SEC. On June 19, 2017, the SEC issued an exemptive order granting exemptive relief that expanded the Fund’s ability to co-invest with certain of its affiliates in privately negotiated transactions subject to the conditions specified in the exemptive order.

 

   

The Fund depends to a significant extent on the Adviser’s access to the investment professionals and senior management of KKR and the information and deal flow generated by the KKR investment professionals and senior management during the normal course of their investment and portfolio management activities. The senior management and the investment professionals of the Adviser source, evaluate, analyze and monitor the Fund’s investments. The Fund’s future success will depend on the continued service of the senior management team and investment professionals of the Adviser.

 

   

The Adviser’s relationship with other advisory clients and with KKR could create a conflict of interest to the extent the Adviser becomes aware of inside information concerning investments or potential investment targets. KKR has adopted information-sharing policies and procedures which address both (i) the handling of confidential information and (ii) the information barrier that exists between the public and private sides of KKR. KKR has compliance functions to administer KKR’s information-sharing policies and procedures and monitor potential conflicts of interest. The Fund cannot assure its investors, however, that these procedures and practices will be effective. Although the Fund plans to leverage KKR’s firm-wide resources to help source, conduct due diligence on, structure, syndicate and create value for the Fund’s investments (to the extent permitted by applicable law), KKR’s information-sharing policies and procedures referenced above, as well as certain legal, contractual and tax constraints, could significantly limit KKR’s ability to do so. For example, from time to time KKR’s personnel will be in possession of material non-public information with respect to the Fund’s investments or potential investments, and as a result, such professionals will be restricted by KKR’s information-sharing policies or by law or contract, from sharing such information with the KKR professionals responsible for making the Fund’s investment decisions, even where the disclosure of such information would be in the best interest of the Fund or would otherwise influence the decisions taken by such investment professionals with respect to such investment or potential investment. In addition, this conflict and these procedures and practices could limit the freedom of the Adviser to enter into or exit from potentially profitable investments for the Fund which could have an adverse effect on the Fund’s results of operations. Conversely, the Adviser could pursue investments for the Fund without obtaining access to confidential information otherwise in its or KKR’s possession, which information, if reviewed, might otherwise impact the Adviser’s judgment with respect to such investments. Accordingly, as a result of such restrictions, the investment activities of KKR’s other businesses will differ from, or be inconsistent with, the interests of and activities that are undertaken for the Fund and there can be no assurance that the Fund will be able to fully leverage all of the available resources and industry expertise of KKR’s other businesses. Additionally, there will be circumstances in which one or more individuals associated with the Adviser will be precluded from providing services to the Fund because of certain confidential information available to those individuals or to other parts of KKR.

 

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The nature of the Adviser’s businesses and the participation by its employees in creditors’ committees, steering committees or boards of directors of portfolio companies will, from time to time, result in the Adviser receiving material non-public information from time to time with respect to publicly held companies or otherwise becoming an “insider” with respect to such companies. With limited exceptions, KKR does not establish information barriers between its internal investment teams. Trading by KKR on the basis of such information, or improperly disclosing such information, could be restricted pursuant to applicable law and/or internal policies and procedures adopted by KKR to promote compliance with applicable law. Accordingly, the possession of “inside information” or “insider” status with respect to such an issuer by KKR or KKR personnel could, including where an appropriate information barrier does not exist between the relevant investment professionals or has been “crossed” by such professionals, significantly restrict the ability of the Adviser to deal in the securities of that issuer on behalf of the Fund, which could adversely impact the Fund, including by preventing the execution of an otherwise advisable purchase or sale transaction in a particular security until such information ceases to be regarded as material non-public information, which could have an adverse effect on the overall performance of such investment. In addition, affiliates of KKR in possession of such information could be prevented from disclosing such information to the Adviser, even where the disclosure of such information would be in the interests of the Fund. From time to time, the Adviser will also be subject to contractual “stand-still” obligations and/or confidentiality obligations that restrict its ability to trade in certain securities on behalf of the Fund. In certain circumstances, the Fund or the Adviser will engage an independent agent to dispose of securities of issuers in which KKR could be deemed to have material non-public information on behalf of the Fund. Such independent agent could dispose of the relevant securities for a price that is lower than the Adviser’s valuation of such securities which could take into account the material non-public information known to KKR in respect of the relevant issuer

 

   

The Adviser could develop new businesses such as providing investment banking, advisory and other services to corporations, financial sponsors, management or other persons. Such services could relate to transactions that could give rise to investment opportunities that are suitable for the Fund. In such case, the Adviser’s client would typically require the Adviser to act exclusively on its behalf, thereby precluding the Fund from participating in such investment opportunities. The Adviser would not be obligated to decline any such engagements in order to make an investment opportunity available to the Fund. In addition, the Adviser could come into the possession of information through these new businesses that limits the Fund’s ability to engage in potential transactions.

 

   

The 1940 Act limits the Fund’s ability to invest in, or hold securities of, companies that are controlled by funds managed by KKR. Any such investments could create conflicts of interest between the Fund, the Adviser and KKR. The Adviser will also have, or enter into, advisory relationships with other advisory clients (including, among others, employee benefit plans subject to ERISA and related regulations) that could lead to circumstances in which a conflict of interest between the Adviser’s advisory clients could exist or develop. In addition, to the extent that another client of the Adviser or KKR holds a different class of securities than the Fund, the interest of such client and the Fund might not be aligned. As a result of these conflicts and restrictions, the Adviser could be unable to implement the Fund’s investment strategies as effectively as it could have in the absence of such conflicts or restrictions. In order to avoid these conflicts and restrictions, the Adviser could choose to exit these investments prematurely and, as a result, the Fund would forgo any future positive returns associated with such investments.

 

   

Certain other KKR client accounts or proprietary accounts have investment objectives, programs, strategies and positions that are similar to, or conflict with, those of the Fund, or compete with, or have interests adverse to, the Fund. This type of conflict could affect the prices and availability of the securities or interests in which the Fund invests. KKR will, from time to time, give advice or take action with respect to the investments held by, and transactions of, other KKR client accounts or proprietary accounts that could be different from or otherwise inconsistent with the advice given or

 

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timing or nature of any action taken with respect to the investments held by, and timing or nature of any action taken with respect to the investments held by, and transactions of, the Fund. Such different advice and/or inconsistent actions could be due to a variety of reasons, including, without limitation, the differences between the investment objective, program, strategy and tax treatment of the other KKR client accounts or proprietary accounts and the Fund or the regulatory status of other KKR client accounts and any related restrictions or obligations imposed on KKR as a fiduciary thereof. Such advice and actions could adversely impact the Fund.

 

   

KKR, for its own account or for the account of other KKR clients, could enter into real estate-related transactions with Fund portfolio companies. Such transactions could include, for example, buying or selling real estate assets, acquiring or entering into leasing arrangements or amending such arrangements or transferring options or rights of first refusal to acquire real estate assets. Such transactions, which do not involve securities, are not governed by restrictions on principal transactions and cross transactions but are subject to specific policies and procedures established by KKR to manage related conflicts.

 

   

The 1940 Act prohibits the Fund from participating in certain transactions with certain of its affiliates including an Adviser-affiliated broker-dealer. The Fund generally is prohibited, for example, from buying or selling any securities from or to another client of the Adviser or of KKR. The 1940 Act also prohibits certain “joint” transactions with certain of the Fund’s affiliates, which in certain circumstances could include investments in the same portfolio company (whether at the same or different times to the extent the transaction involves jointness) or transactions in which a broker-dealer affiliated with the Adviser participates as principal with the Fund. If a person acquires more than 25% of the Fund’s voting securities, the Fund will generally be prohibited from buying or selling any security from or to such person or certain of that person’s affiliates, or entering into prohibited joint transactions with such persons. Similar restrictions limit the Fund’s ability to transact business with its officers or trustees or their affiliates. The SEC has interpreted the 1940 Act rules governing transactions with affiliates to prohibit certain “joint transactions” involving entities that share a common investment adviser. As a result of these restrictions, the scope of investment opportunities that would otherwise be available to the Fund will be limited. These investment opportunities will generally be made available to other funds, vehicles and accounts advised by the Adviser that are not subject to similar restrictions under the 1940 Act.

 

   

Shareholders of the Fund are based in a wide variety of jurisdictions and take a wide variety of forms. Accordingly, they could have conflicting regulatory, legal, investment, tax and other interests with respect to their investments in the Fund. The conflicting interests of individual Shareholders relate to or arise from, among other things, the nature of investments made by the Fund, the selection, structuring, acquisition and management of investments, the timing of disposition of investments, internal investment policies of the Shareholders and their target risk/return profiles. As a consequence, conflicts of interest could arise in connection with decisions made by the Adviser, including with respect to the nature or structuring of investments, which could be more beneficial for one Shareholder than for another Shareholder, especially with respect to Shareholders’ individual tax situations. In addition, the Fund could make investments that have a negative impact on related investments made by the Fund in separate transactions. In selecting and structuring investments appropriate for the Fund, the Adviser will consider the investment and tax objectives of the Fund and its Shareholders as a whole, not the investment, tax or other objectives of any Shareholder individually.

Each of the Adviser and the other investment advisers and/or investment managers affiliated with KKR will deal with conflicts of interest using its best judgment, but in its sole discretion. When conflicts arise between the Fund and another affiliated fund, the Adviser will represent the interests of the Fund and the other participating affiliated adviser will represent the interests of the affiliated fund it sponsors, manages or advises. In resolving conflicts, the Adviser and the other affiliated advisers will consider various factors, including applicable restrictions under the 1940 Act, the interests of the funds and accounts they advise in the context of both the

 

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immediate issue at hand and the longer term course of dealing among the Fund and the other affiliated fund. As with all conflicts involving the Fund, the Adviser’s determination as to which factors are relevant and the resolution of such conflicts will be made in the Adviser’s sole discretion except as required by the 1940 Act or by the governing documents of the Fund. Although the Adviser has established procedures and policies addressing conflicts of interest, there can be no assurance that the Adviser will be able to resolve all conflicts in a manner that is favorable to the Fund.

 

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MANAGEMENT OF THE FUND

Board of Trustees

The responsibilities of the Board include, among other things, the oversight of the Adviser’s investment activities, oversight of the Adviser’s financing arrangements and corporate governance activities. The Board currently has an audit committee and a nominating committee and may establish additional committees from time to time as necessary. As is the case with virtually all registered investment companies, the Fund’s service providers, primarily the Adviser and its affiliates, have responsibility for the Fund’s day-to-day management, subject to the investment objectives, restrictions and policies of the Fund and to the general oversight of the Board.

There currently are [] trustees of the Fund. A majority of the trustees are not “interested persons” (as defined in the 1940 Act) of the Fund. The name and business address of the trustees and officers of the Fund and their principal occupations and other affiliations during the past five years are set forth under “Management of the Fund” in the SAI.

Adviser

KKR Credit Advisors (US) LLC serves as the Fund’s Adviser, subject to the ultimate oversight of, and any policies established by, the Board, pursuant to the terms of an investment advisory agreement with the Fund. Under the terms of the investment advisory agreement, the Adviser allocates the Fund’s assets in accordance with the Fund’s investment objective. The Adviser may reallocate the Fund’s assets subject to the ultimate oversight of, and any policies established by, the Board.

Launched in 2004, the Adviser is a subsidiary of KKR & Co. L.P., a leading global investment firm with a 41-year history of leadership, innovation and investment excellence. The Adviser is a leading manager of non-investment grade debt and public equities. The Adviser was formed as a limited liability company under the laws of the State of Delaware on June 24, 2004, and is a registered investment adviser under the 1940 Act. The Adviser currently serves as an investment adviser of certain unregistered private investment companies and a registered investment company, and may in the future serve as an investment adviser of other registered and unregistered investment companies. The Adviser is located at 555 California Street, 50th Floor, San Francisco, CA 94104, and its telephone number is (415) 315-3620.

About KKR

KKR operates with a single culture that rewards investment discipline, creativity, determination and patience and the sharing of information, resources, expertise and best practices across offices and asset classes, subject to well-defined information sharing policies and compliance procedures. Its investment professionals provide access to an established platform for evaluating investments, managing risk and focusing on opportunities that seek to generate attractive returns with appropriate levels of risk. This platform allows for intensive due diligence to filter investment opportunities and help select investments that offer the most favorable risk/reward characteristics. Because KKR believes that deep industry knowledge is integral to sourcing deals and creating value for investors, KKR’s investment professionals are organized in industry-specific teams. These teams conduct their own primary research, develop views on industry themes and trends and proactively work to identify companies in which to invest, often on an exclusive basis. KKR believes the industry-specific team approach allows investment teams to become experts within their sectors and build strong relationships with companies needing capital, while covering the full corporate credit space.

Founded in 1976, KKR is a leading global investment firm with 20 offices and over 1,400 people, including over [425] investment professionals. It operates an integrated global platform for sourcing and executing investments across multiple industries, asset classes and geographies. KKR is a long-term fundamental investor focused on producing attractive risk-adjusted returns for its clients. As of [], 2019, KKR had $[] billion in assets under management.

 

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Investment Management Team

The Fund is positioned, under the management of the Adviser, to take advantage of the full resources of KKR’s global network. With more than [280] employees in its business, including approximately 120 dedicated investment professionals, located in San Francisco, New York, Orlando, London, Dublin, Madrid, Hong Kong, Mumbai, Singapore and Sydney, the Adviser’s investment teams seek to leverage KKR’s private equity experience and extensive industry relationships in making strong investment choices on behalf of its clients. The investment professionals of the Adviser who have primary responsibility for day-to-day management and oversight of the Fund are Christopher A. Sheldon, Jeremiah S. Lane and Daniel Pietrzak. Additionally, certain members of the Adviser’s U.S. Leveraged Credit Investment Committee and the Adviser’s Global Private Credit Investment Committee, which exercises oversight over, and provides insight to, the investment activities of the Fund, is comprised of:

Christopher A. Sheldon joined KKR in 2004 and is a Member of KKR. Mr. Sheldon serves as the Head of Leveraged Credit. Mr. Sheldon is a Portfolio Manager for the Adviser’s Leveraged Credit and Private Credit funds and portfolios. Mr. Sheldon is a member of the Adviser’s U.S. Leveraged Credit Investment Committee, Global Private Credit Investment Committee and the Adviser’s Portfolio Management Committee. Prior to joining KKR, Mr. Sheldon was a vice president and senior investment analyst with Wells Fargo’s high yield securities group. Previously, Mr. Sheldon worked at Young & Rubicam Advertising and SFM Media Corporation in their media-planning departments. Mr. Sheldon holds a B.A. from Denison University.

Jeremiah S. Lane joined KKR in 2005, and is a Member of KKR. Mr. Lane is a Portfolio Manager for the Adviser’s Leveraged Credit funds and portfolios. Mr. Lane is a member of the Adviser’s U.S. Leveraged Investment Committee, as well as a member of the Adviser’s Portfolio Management Committee. Prior to joining KKR, Mr. Lane worked as an associate in the investment banking/technology, media and telecom group at J.P. Morgan Chase. Mr. Lane holds an A.B. with honors in History from Harvard University.

John M. Reed joined KKR in 2008 and is a Member of KKR. Mr. Reed serves as the Head of Credit Trading and is a member of the Adviser’s U.S. Leveraged Credit Investment Committee, Special Situations Investment Committee for Public Markets and the Adviser’s Portfolio Management Committee. Mr. Reed is also a member of the Adviser’s Trade Review Committee and Valuation Committee. Prior to joining KKR, Mr. Reed was a Director at Bear Stearns & Co. in its institutional fixed income department. Previously, he was an analyst at BNY Capital Markets in the syndicated loan, private placement and high yield groups, and also worked in the Asset Strategies Group and The Office of Management & Budget of New York City. Mr. Reed received a B.A. in Business Administration and Psychology from the University of South Carolina and a Global Professional M.B.A. from the Fordham University School of Business Administration.

Daniel Pietrzak joined KKR in 2016 and is a Member of KKR. Mr. Pietrzak is a portfolio manager for KKR’s private credit funds and portfolios and a member of the Global Private Credit Investment Committee, Europe Direct Lending Investment Committee and KKR Credit Portfolio Management Committee. Mr. Pietrzak is Chief Investment Officer of the KKR / FS Investments joint venture and of the business development companies managed by the joint venture, including FS KKR Capital Corp., which trades on the NYSE. Prior to joining KKR, Mr. Pietrzak was a managing director and the co-head of Deutsche Bank’s structured finance business across the Americas and Europe. Previously, Mr. Pietrzak held various roles in the credit businesses of Societe Generale and CIBC World Markets. Mr. Pietrzak started his career at Price Waterhouse in New York and is a CPA. Mr. Pietrzak holds an M.B.A. in Finance from The Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania and a B.S. in Accounting from Lehigh University.

The Fund’s SAI provides additional information about the portfolio manager’s compensation structure, other accounts managed by the portfolio manager and the portfolio manager’s ownership of securities in the Fund.

The investment professionals who have day-to-day responsibility for the Fund are supported not only by personnel of the Adviser, but also by having access to the global platform of KKR, which has approximately

 

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[425] investment professionals across public and private markets. KKR’s investment professionals provide access to an established platform for evaluating investments, managing risk and focusing on opportunities and are organized in industry-specific teams that conduct their own primary research and develop views on industry themes and trends. These investment professionals are also supported by an Investment Committee comprised of senior personnel that exercises oversight over, and provides insight to, the investment activities of the Fund.

Investment Advisory Agreement

Pursuant to an investment advisory agreement, the Adviser receives an annual fee, payable monthly by the Fund, in an amount equal to [1.30]% of the Fund’s average daily Managed Assets (the “Management Fee”). The Adviser has voluntarily agreed to temporarily reduce its Management Fee to an annual rate of []% of the Fund’s average daily Managed Assets from [] until []. Effective [], the Adviser’s agreement to temporarily reduce its Management Fee will terminate and the Adviser will receive a Management Fee at an annual rate of [1.30]% of the Fund’s average daily Managed Assets. The foregoing fee schedule may be extended, terminated or modified by the Adviser in its sole discretion and at any time, including prior to any such date listed above.

A discussion regarding the basis for the approval of the renewal of the investment advisory agreement by the Board will be available in the Fund’s [annual] report to Shareholders for the period ending [].

In addition to the fees paid to the Adviser, the Fund pays all other costs and expenses of its operations, including compensation of its trustees (other than those affiliated with the Adviser), custodial expenses, leveraging expenses, transfer and dividend disbursing agent expenses, legal fees, rating agency fees, listing fees and expenses, expenses of independent auditors, expenses of repurchasing Shares, expenses of preparing, printing and distributing prospectuses, Shareholder reports, notices, proxy statements and reports to governmental agencies and taxes, if any.

During periods when the Fund is using leverage, the Management Fee paid to the Adviser will be higher than if the Fund did not use leverage because the Management Fee paid is calculated on the basis of the Fund’s Managed Assets, which includes the assets purchased through leverage.

Administrator

[] (the “Administrator”), located at [], serves as administrator to the Fund. Pursuant to the administration agreement, the Administrator is responsible for calculating the NAV of Shares and generally managing the administrative affairs of the Fund.

The Administrator is entitled to receive a monthly fee at the annual rate of up to []% of the average daily value of the Fund’s net assets, subject to a minimum annual fee of $[], plus out-of-pocket expenses.

Control Person

A control person is a person who beneficially owns more than 25% of the voting securities of a company. KKR an initial investment in the Fund. For so long as KKR has a greater than 25% interest in the Fund, KKR may be deemed be a “control person” of the Fund for purposes of the 1940 Act.

 

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PURCHASE OF SHARES

Shares

The Fund intends to offer four classes of Shares: Class I Shares, Class D Shares, Class T Shares and Class M Shares. The Fund intends to rely on exemptive relief from the SEC that, if granted, will permit the Fund to issue multiple classes of Shares and to impose asset-based distribution fees and early-withdrawal fees; there is no assurance, however, that the relief will be granted.

Minimum Investment

The minimum initial investment for Class D Shares, Class T Shares and Class M Shares is $10,000 per account and the minimum initial investment for Class I Shares is $1,000,000 per account. The minimum subsequent investment in the Fund per account is $[]. The minimum investment for each class of Shares may be modified or waived in the sole discretion of the Fund or the Distributor (defined below), including for certain financial firms that submit orders on behalf of their customers, the Trustees of the Fund and certain employees of KKR, including its affiliates, vehicles controlled by such employees and their extended family members.

Distributor

KKR Capital Markets LLC (the “Distributor”) is the principal underwriter and distributor of Class I Shares, Class D Shares, Class T Shares and Class M Shares. The Distributor, located at [], is a broker-dealer registered with the SEC and is a member of FINRA. Additional dealers or other financial intermediaries may be appointed by the Distributor.

Class I Shares and Class D Shares will be offered on a continuous basis at NAV per Share. Class T Shares will be offered on a continuous basis at NAV per Share, plus a maximum sales load of []%. Class M Shares will be offered on a continuous basis at NAV per Share, plus a maximum sales load of []%. The Distributor acts as the distributor of Class I Shares, Class D Shares, Class T Shares and Class M Shares for the Fund on a best efforts basis, subject to various conditions, pursuant to the terms of the Distribution Agreement. The Distributor is not obligated to sell any specific amount of Class I Shares, Class D Shares, Class T Shares or Class M Shares of the Fund. The Distribution Agreement also provides that the Fund will indemnify the Distributor and its affiliates and certain other persons against certain liabilities, including certain liabilities arising under the Securities Act.

Shares may be offered through other brokers, dealers and other financial intermediaries (referred to as “selling agents”) that have entered into selling agreements with the Distributor. Selling agents typically receive the sales load with respect to Class T Shares or Class M Shares purchased by their clients. The Distributor does not retain any portion of the sales load. Class T Shares are sold subject to a maximum sales load of up to []% of the offering price. Class M Shares are sold subject to a maximum sales load of up to []% of the offering price. [However, purchases of Class T Shares and Class M Shares may be eligible for a sales load discount.] The availability of sales charge waivers, discounts, and/or breakpoints may depend on the particular selling agent or type of account through which an investor purchases or holds Shares. Investors should contact their selling agent for more information regarding applicable sales charge waivers and discounts available to them and the selling agent’s related policies and procedures. Class I Shares and Class D Shares are each not subject to a sales load; however, investors may be required to pay brokerage commissions on purchases and sales of Class I Shares and Class D Shares to their selling agents. Investors should consult with their selling agents about the sales load and any additional fees or charges their selling agents might impose on each class of Shares.

[The Fund pays the Distributor an ongoing fee (the “Service Fee”) that is calculated and accrued monthly at an annualized rate of [●]% of the net assets of the Fund attributable to Class T Shares and Class D Shares, respectively, and at an annualized rate of [●]% of the net assets of the Fund attributable to Class M Shares. The Service Fee is for personal services provided to Shareholders and/or the maintenance of Shareholder accounts

 

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services and to reimburse the Distributor for related expenses incurred. The Distributor generally will pay all or a portion of the Service Fee to the selling agents that sell Class T Shares, Class D Shares and Class M Shares. Payment of the Service Fee is governed by the Fund’s Distribution and Service Plan.]

[In addition, the Fund pays the Distributor an ongoing distribution fee (the “Distribution Fee”) that is calculated and accrued monthly at an annualized rate of [●]% of the net assets of the Fund attributable to Class T Shares. The Distribution Fee is for the sale and marketing of the Class T Shares and to reimburse the Distributor for related expenses incurred. The Distributor generally will pay all or a portion of the Distribution Fee to the selling agents that sell Class T Shares. Payment of the Distribution Fee is governed by the Fund’s Distribution and Service Plan.]

Class I Shares do not incur a Service Fee or Distribution Fee.

How to Purchase Shares

The following section provides basic information about how to purchase Shares of the Fund.

The Distributor acts as the distributor of Shares for the Fund on a best efforts basis, subject to various conditions, pursuant to the terms of the Distribution Agreement. The Distributor is not obligated to sell any specific amount of Shares of the Fund. Shares of the Fund will be continuously offered through the Distributor. As discussed below, the Fund may authorize one or more intermediaries (e.g., broker-dealers and other financial firms) to receive orders on its behalf. The Shares will be offered at NAV per Share calculated each regular business day, plus any applicable sales charge. Intermediaries may establish different minimum investment requirements than the Fund and may also independently charge you transaction fees and additional amounts (which may vary) in return for its services, which will reduce your return. Shares you purchase through intermediaries will normally be held in your account with that firm.

The Fund and the Distributor will have the sole right to accept orders to purchase Shares and reserve the right to reject any order in whole or in part.

No market currently exists for the Shares. The Fund does not intend to list its Shares for trading on any securities exchange. There is currently no secondary market for the Shares and the Fund does not anticipate that a secondary market will develop for its Shares. Neither the Adviser nor the Distributor intends to make a market in the Shares.

[Class T Shares are available through brokerage, transactional-based accounts and through certain fee-based programs. Class I Shares and Class D Shares are generally available only (1) to endowments, foundations, pension funds and other institutional investors for purchase in this offering, (2) through fee-based programs, also known as wrap accounts, that provide access to Class I Shares and Class D Shares, (3) through participating broker-dealers that have alternative fee arrangements with their clients to provide access to Class I Shares and Class D Shares, (4) through certain registered investment advisers, (4) through bank trust departments or any other organization or person authorized to act in a fiduciary capacity for its clients or customers or (5) to other categories of investors that we name in an amendment or supplement to this prospectus, or (6) to our executive officers and directors and their immediate family members, as well as officers and employees of the Adviser, KKR or other affiliates and their immediate family members, and, if approved by our board of directors, joint venture partners, consultants and other service providers. Class M Shares are available through [].]

Acceptance and Timing of Purchase Orders

A purchase order received by the Fund or its designee prior to the close of the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”), on a day the Fund is open for business, together with payment made in one of the ways described above will be effected at that day’s NAV plus any applicable sales charge. An order received after the close of

 

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the NYSE will be effected at the NAV determined on the next business day. However, orders received by certain retirement plans and other financial firms on a business day prior to the close of the NYSE and communicated to the Fund or its designee prior to such time as agreed upon by the Fund and financial firm will be effected at the NAV determined on the business day the order was received by the financial firm. The Fund is “open for business” on each day the NYSE is open for trading, which excludes the following holidays: New Year’s Day, Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, Presidents’ Day, Good Friday, Memorial Day, Independence Day, Labor Day, Thanksgiving Day and Christmas Day. If the NYSE is closed due to weather or other extenuating circumstances on a day it would typically be open for business, the Fund reserves the right to treat such day as a business day and accept purchase orders in accordance with applicable law. The Fund reserves the right to close if the primary trading markets of the Fund’s portfolio instruments are closed and the Fund’s management believes that there is not an adequate market to meet purchase requests. On any business day when the Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association recommends that the securities markets close trading early, the Fund may close trading early. Purchase orders will be accepted only on days which the Fund is open for business.

For Shares purchased through the Distributor, order instructions must be received in good order prior to the close of regular trading on the NYSE (ordinarily 4:00 p.m., Eastern time) in order to receive the current day’s NAV. Instructions must include the name and signature of an appropriate person designated on the account application, account name, account number, name of the Fund and dollar amount. Payments received without order instructions could result in a processing delay or a return of wire. Failure to send the accompanying payment on the same day may result in the cancellation of the order.

The Fund and the Distributor each reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to accept or reject any order for purchase of Shares. The sale of Shares may be suspended during any period in which the NYSE is closed other than weekends or holidays, or if permitted by the rules of the SEC, when trading on the NYSE is restricted or during an emergency which makes it impracticable for the Fund to dispose of its securities or to determine fairly the value of its net assets, or during any other period as permitted by the SEC for the protection of investors.

Sales Load

This section includes important information about sales load and sales load reductions available to investors in the Fund’s Class T Shares and Class M Shares.

The public offering price you pay when you buy Class T Shares or Class M Shares of the Fund is the NAV of the Shares at the time of purchase, plus an initial sales load. The initial sales load varies depending on the size of your purchase, as set forth in the tables below. The actual sales load paid may vary among and within selling agents, as described herein. No sales load is imposed when Class T Shares or Class M Shares are issued to you pursuant to the automatic reinvestment of income dividends or capital gains distributions. It is the responsibility of you and/or your financial intermediary to ensure that you obtain the proper breakpoint sales load discount, if any.

Because the offering price is calculated to two decimal places, the dollar amount of the sales charge as a percentage of the offering price and your net amount invested for any particular purchase of Fund Shares may be higher or lower depending on whether downward or upward rounding was required during the calculation process.

Class T Shares of the Fund are sold subject to the following sales load:

 

Your Investment

   As a % of the
offering price
    As a %
of NAV
 

Up to $[●]

     [ ●]%      [ ●]% 

$[●] to $[●]

     [ ●]%      [ ●]% 

$[●] to $[●]

     [ ●]%      [ ●]% 

$[●] and over

     [ ●]%      [ ●]% 

 

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Class M Shares of the Fund are sold subject to the following sales load:

 

Your Investment

   As a % of the
offering price
    As a %
of NAV
 

Up to $[●]

     [ ●]%      [ ●]% 

$[●] to $[●]

     [ ●]%      [ ●]% 

$[●] to $[●]

     [ ●]%      [ ●]% 

$[●] and over

     [ ●]%      [ ●]% 

A person eligible for a sales load reduction includes an individual, his or her spouse or equivalent, children under 21 years of age and any corporation, partnership or sole proprietorship which is 100% owned, either alone or in combination, by any of the foregoing, a trustee or other fiduciary purchasing for a single trust or for a single fiduciary account, or a “company” as defined in Section 2(a)(8) of the 1940 Act. Investors must notify the Fund or their selling agent at the time of the purchase order whenever a sales load reduction is applicable to purchases and may be required to provide the Fund, or their selling agent, with certain information or records to verify eligibility for a sales load reduction. Such information or records may include account statements or other records for Shares of the Fund of the investor and other eligible persons, as described above.

Upon such notification, an investor will pay the lowest applicable sales load. Shareholders should retain any records necessary to substantiate the purchase price of the Class T Shares or Class M Shares, as the Fund and Selling Agents may not retain this information. Sales load reductions may be modified or terminated at any time. Selling agents may, in their sole discretion, reduce or waive the sales load on a non-scheduled basis in individual cases. For more information about sales load reductions, investors should contact the Distributor or their selling agent

Payments to Financial Intermediaries

The Fund may pay service fees to selling agents for sub-administration, sub-transfer agency and other shareholder services associated with Shareholders whose Shares are held of record in omnibus accounts, other group accounts or accounts traded through registered securities clearing agents.

The Adviser, out of its own resources and without additional cost to the Fund or its Shareholders, may provide additional cash payments to intermediaries, including affiliates of the Adviser, for the sale of Shares and related services. These payments and compensation are in addition to service fees paid by the Fund, if any. Payments are generally made to intermediaries that provide shareholder servicing, marketing and related sales support or access to sales meetings, sales representatives and management representatives of the intermediary. Payments may also be paid to intermediaries for inclusion of the Fund on a sales list, including a preferred or select sales list or in other sales programs. Compensation may be paid as an expense reimbursement in cases in which the intermediary provides shareholder services to the Fund. The Adviser may also pay cash compensation in the form of finder’s fees that vary depending on the dollar amount of the Shares sold. The level of such payments may be substantial and may be different for different selling agents. These payments may create incentives on the part of a selling agents to view the Fund favorably compared with investment funds that do not make these payments, or that make smaller payments.

Share Class Considerations

The Fund intends to offer four classes of Shares: Class I Shares, Class D Shares, Class T Shares and Class M Shares. When selecting a Share class, you should consider the following:

 

   

Which Share classes are available to you;

 

   

The amount you intend to invest;

 

   

How long you expect to own the Shares; and

 

   

Total costs and expenses associated with a particular Share class.

 

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Each investor’s financial considerations are different. You should speak with your selling agent to help you decide which Share class is best for you. Not all selling agents offer all classes of Shares. In addition, selling agents may vary the actual sales load charged, if applicable, as well as impose additional fees and charges on each class of Shares. If your selling agent offers more than one class of Shares, you should carefully consider which class of Shares to purchase.

Distribution in Foreign Jurisdictions

The distribution of this prospectus and the offer and sale of the Shares in certain jurisdictions may be restricted by law. Please see the various non-U.S. securities laws legends that are found in [●] to this prospectus. It is the responsibility of any persons wishing to purchase Shares to inform themselves of and to observe all applicable laws and regulations of any relevant jurisdictions. Prospective investors should inform themselves as to the legal requirements and tax consequences within the countries of their citizenship, residence, domicile and place of business with respect to the acquisition, holding or disposal of Shares, and any foreign exchange restrictions that may be relevant thereto.

 

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PERIODIC REPURCHASE OFFERS

The Fund is an “interval fund,” a type of fund that, in order to provide liquidity to Shareholders conducts periodic repurchase offers.

Repurchase Offers

As a fundamental policy, which may not be changed without Shareholder approval, the Fund offers Shareholders the opportunity to request the repurchase of their Shares on a quarterly basis. The Fund is required to offer to repurchase not less than 10% of its outstanding Shares with each repurchase offer and under normal market conditions, the Board expects to authorize a 10% offer. The Fund may not offer to repurchase more than 25% of its outstanding Shares during any offer.

Quarterly repurchases will occur in the months of [], [], [] and []. At least 21 calendar days prior to the Repurchase Request Deadline, the Fund will send notice to each Shareholder setting forth (i) the percentage of Shares the Fund will repurchase; (ii) the Repurchase Request Deadline and other terms of the offer to repurchase; and (iii) the procedures for Shareholders to follow to request a repurchase.

The time and dates by which repurchase offers must be received in good order (“Repurchase Request Deadline”) are 4:00 p.m. Eastern time on the [third Friday of the month in which the repurchase occurs]. Shareholders and financial intermediaries must submit repurchase requests in good order by the Repurchase Request Deadline. The Repurchase Request Deadline will be strictly observed. Shareholders and financial intermediaries failing to submit repurchase requests in good order by such deadline will be unable to liquidate Shares until a subsequent repurchase offer.

The repurchase price will be the Fund’s NAV determined on the repurchase pricing date, which will be a date not more than 14 calendar days following the Repurchase Request Deadline (“Repurchase Offer Amount”). Payment for all Shares repurchased pursuant to these offers will be made not later than 7 calendar days after the repurchase pricing date (“Repurchase Payment Deadline”). Under normal circumstances, it is expected that the repurchase pricing date will be [one to three] business days after the Repurchase Request Deadline. If the tendered Shares have been purchased immediately prior to the tender, the Fund will not release repurchase proceeds until payment for the tendered Shares has settled. During the period the offer to repurchase is open, Shareholders may obtain the current NAV by calling [●].

If more Shares are tendered for repurchase than the Fund has offered to repurchase, the Board may, but is not obligated to, increase the number of Shares to be repurchased by up to 2% of the Shares outstanding on the Repurchase Request Deadline. If there are still more Shares tendered than are offered for repurchase, Shares will be repurchased on a pro rata basis. However, the Fund may determine to alter the pro rata allocation and the Fund may accept all Shares tendered by persons who own, in the aggregate, [fewer than 100 Shares] and who tender all of their Shares, before prorating Shares tendered by others.

Because of the foregoing, Shareholders may be unable to liquidate all, or a given percentage, of their Shares and some Shareholders may tender more Shares than they wish to have repurchased in order to ensure repurchase of at least a specific number of Shares. Shareholders may withdraw Shares tendered for repurchase at any time prior to the Repurchase Request Deadline.

Repurchase offers and the need to fund repurchase obligations may affect the ability of the Fund’s portfolio to be fully invested, which may reduce returns. Moreover, diminution in the size of the Fund’s portfolio through repurchases without offsetting new sales, may result in untimely sales of portfolio securities and a higher expense ratio, and may limit the ability of the Fund to participate in new investment opportunities. Repurchases resulting in portfolio turnover will result in additional expenses being borne by the Fund. The Fund may also sell portfolio securities to meet repurchase obligations which, in certain circumstances, may adversely affect the market for

 

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loans and reduce the Fund’s value. Notwithstanding the foregoing, it is the Adviser’s intention to fund repurchases with the proceeds of borrowings whenever practical. Use of the borrowing facility entails certain risks and costs. See “Liquidity Requirements” below.

The repurchase of Shares by the Fund will generally be a taxable event to Shareholders and may be a taxable event to those Shareholders that do not participate in the repurchase. See “Tax Considerations” for a general summary of U.S. federal income tax considerations for U.S. Shareholders. Investors should rely on their own tax adviser for advice about the particular federal, state and local tax consequences of investing in the Fund and participating in the Fund’s repurchase offer program.

Suspension or Postponement of a Repurchase Offer

The Fund may suspend or postpone a repurchase offer only: (i) if making or effecting the repurchase offer would cause the Fund to lose its status as a regulated investment company under the Code; (ii) for any period during which the NYSE or any market in which the securities owned by the Fund are principally traded is closed, other than customary weekend and holiday closings, or during which trading in such market is restricted; (iii) for any period during which an emergency exists as a result of which disposal by the Fund of securities owned by it is not reasonably practicable or during which it is not reasonably practicable for the Fund fairly to determine the value of its net assets; or (iv) for such other periods as the SEC may by order permit for the protection of Shareholders of the Fund.

Liquidity Requirements

From the time that the notification is sent to Shareholders until the Repurchase Payment Deadline, the Fund will ensure that a percentage of its net assets equal to at least 100% of the Repurchase Offer Amount consists of assets: (i) that can be sold or disposed of in the ordinary course of business at approximately the price at which the Fund has valued the investment within the time period between the Repurchase Request Deadline and the Repurchase Payment Deadline; or (ii) that mature by the Repurchase Payment Deadline.

The Board has adopted procedures that are reasonably designed to ensure that the Fund’s assets are sufficiently liquid so that the Fund can comply with the repurchase policy and the liquidity requirements described in the previous paragraph.

The Fund intends to finance repurchase offers with cash on hand, cash raised through borrowings or the liquidation of portfolio securities. There is some risk that the need to sell loans to fund repurchase offers may affect the market for those loans. In turn, this could diminish the Fund’s NAV.

Redemption of Senior Securities

In order to permit the Fund to repurchase Shares, the borrowing or other indebtedness issued by the Fund, as well as the terms of preferred shares, if any, must either mature by the next Repurchase Request Deadline or provide for their redemption, call or repayment by the next Repurchase Request Deadline without penalty or premium. Although the Fund ordinarily does not expect to redeem any senior security, including preferred shares, if any, it may be required to redeem such securities if, for example, the Fund does not meet an asset coverage ratio required by law or correct a failure to meet a rating agency guideline in a timely manner.

 

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NET ASSET VALUE

The NAV of the Shares is computed based upon the value of the Fund’s Managed Assets. NAV per Share is determined daily on each day that the NYSE is open for business as of the close of the regular trading session on the NYSE. The Fund calculates NAV per Share by subtracting liabilities from the total assets of the Fund and dividing the result by the total number of outstanding Shares. The Fund’s assets and liabilities are valued in accordance with the principles set forth herein.

For purposes of calculating NAV, portfolio securities and other assets for which market quotes are readily available are valued at market value. Market value is generally determined on the basis of last reported sales prices, or if no sales are reported, based on quotes obtained from a quotation reporting system, established market makers or pricing services. Short-term investments having a maturity of 60 days or less are generally valued at amortized cost. Securities and other assets for which market quotes are not readily available are valued at fair value as determined in good faith by the Board or persons acting at their direction. The Board has adopted methods for valuing securities and other assets in circumstances where market quotes are not readily available and has delegated the responsibility for applying the valuation methods to the Adviser. When the Fund uses fair value pricing to determine its NAV, securities will not be priced on the basis of quotes from the primary market in which they are traded, but rather may be priced by another method that the Board or persons acting at their direction believe accurately reflects fair value. Fair value pricing may require subjective determinations about the value of a security.

Domestic and foreign fixed-income instruments and non-exchange traded derivatives are normally valued on the basis of quotes obtained from brokers and dealers or pricing services using data reflecting the earlier closing of the principal markets for those securities. Bank loans, including Senior Loans, are valued by using readily available market quotations or another commercially reasonable method selected by an independent, third party pricing service that has been approved by the Board, or, if such independent, third-party valuations are not available, by using broker quotations. Senior secured adjustable, variable or floating rate loans for which an active secondary market exists to a reliable degree will be valued at the bid price in the market for such loans, as provided by a loan pricing service. Prices obtained from independent pricing services use information provided by market makers or estimates of market values obtained from yield data relating to investments or securities with similar characteristics. Exchange traded options, futures and options on futures are valued at the settlement price determined by the relevant exchange. The value of swaps, including credit default swaps, total return swaps and interest rate swaps will be determined by obtaining at least one dealer quotation (including information from counterparties) or valuations from third-party pricing services. If no quotations or valuations are available, or if such quotations or valuations are believed to be unreliable, swaps will be fair valued pursuant to procedures adopted by the Board.

The Fund will normally use pricing data for domestic or foreign equity securities received shortly after the close of the primary securities exchange on which such securities trade and does not normally take into account trading, clearances or settlements that take place after the close of the exchange.

If events materially affecting the price of foreign portfolio securities occur between the time when their price was last determined on such foreign securities exchange or market and the time when the Fund’s NAV was last calculated (for example, movements in certain U.S. securities indices which demonstrate strong correlation to movements in certain foreign securities markets), such securities may be valued at their fair value as determined in good faith in accordance with procedures established by the Board. For purposes of calculating NAV, all assets and liabilities initially expressed in foreign currencies will be converted into U.S. dollars at prevailing exchange rates as may be determined in good faith by, or under the supervision of, the Board. Although the Fund’s policy is intended to result in a calculation of the Fund’s NAV that fairly reflects security values as of the time of pricing, the Fund cannot ensure that fair values determined by the Board or persons acting at their direction would accurately reflect the price that the Fund could obtain for a security if it were to dispose of that security as of the time of pricing (for instances, in a forced or distressed sale). The prices used by the Fund may differ from the value that would be realized if the securities were sold.

 

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DISTRIBUTIONS

The Fund must distribute in each taxable year at least 90% of its net investment income (including net interest income and net short-term gain) to qualify for the special tax treatment available to RICs. The Fund is also required to distribute annually substantially all of its income and capital gain, if any, to avoid imposition of a 4% nondeductible federal excise tax. Prohibitions on dividends and other distributions on the Shares could impair the Fund’s ability to qualify as a RIC under the Code.

If the Fund is precluded from making distributions on the Shares because of any applicable asset coverage requirements, the terms of the preferred shares (if any) may provide that any amounts so precluded from being distributed, but required to be distributed for the Fund to meet the distribution requirements for qualification as a RIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes, will be paid to the holders of the preferred shares as a special distribution. This distribution can be expected to decrease the amount that holders of preferred shares would be entitled to receive upon redemption or liquidation of the shares.

If the Fund failed to qualify as a RIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes or failed to satisfy the 90% distribution requirement in any taxable year, the Fund would be subject to U.S. federal income tax at regular corporate rates on its taxable income, including its net capital gain, even if such income were distributed to its Shareholders, and all distributions out of earnings and profits would be taxed to Shareholders as ordinary dividend income. Requalifying as a RIC could subject the Fund to significant tax costs. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations” in the SAI.

The Fund currently intends to make regular quarterly cash distributions of all or a portion of its net investment income to Shareholders. The Fund will pay Shareholders at least [annually] all or substantially all of its net investment income after the payment of interest, fees or dividends, if any, owed with respect to any forms of leverage used by the Fund. The Fund intends to pay any capital gains distributions at least [annually].

The U.S. federal income tax treatment and characterization of the Fund’s distributions may vary significantly from time to time because of the varied nature of the Fund’s investments. In light of the Fund’s investment policies, the Fund anticipates that the 1940 Act will require it to accompany each monthly distribution with a statement setting forth the estimated source (as between net income, capital gains and return of capital) of the distribution made. The Fund will indicate the proportion of its capital gains distributions that constitute long-term and short-term gains annually. The ultimate U.S. federal income tax characterization of the Fund’s distributions made in a calendar or fiscal year cannot finally be determined until after the end of that taxable year. As a result, there is a possibility that the Fund may make total distributions during a calendar or taxable year in an amount that exceeds the Fund’s net investment company taxable income and net capital gains for the relevant taxable year. In such situations, if a distribution exceeds the Fund’s current and accumulated earnings and profits (as determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes), such distribution would generally be treated as a tax-free return of capital reducing the amount of a Shareholder’s tax basis in such Shareholder’s Shares. When you sell your Shares in the Fund, the amount, if any, by which your sales price exceeds your basis in the Fund’s Shares is gain subject to tax. Because a return of capital reduces your basis in the Shares, it will increase the amount of your gain or decrease the amount of your loss when you sell the Shares, all other things being equal. To the extent that the amount of any return of capital distribution exceeds the Shareholder’s basis in such Shareholder’s Shares, the excess will be treated as gain from a sale or exchange of the Shares. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations” in the SAI.

Various factors affect the level of the Fund’s income, including the asset mix, the average maturity of the Fund’s portfolio, the amount of leverage used by the Fund and the Fund’s use of hedging. To permit the Fund to maintain a more stable monthly distribution, the Fund may from time to time distribute less than the entire amount of income earned in a particular period. The undistributed income would be available to supplement future distributions. As a result, the distributions paid by the Fund for any particular monthly period may be more or less than the amount of income actually earned by the Fund during that period. Undistributed income will add

 

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to the Fund’s NAV (and indirectly benefit the Adviser by increasing its fees) and, correspondingly, distributions from undistributed income will reduce the Fund’s NAV.

Section 19(b) of the 1940 Act and Rule 19b-1 thereunder generally limit the Fund to one long-term capital gain distribution per year, subject to certain exceptions.

 

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DIVIDEND REINVESTMENT PLAN

Pursuant to the Fund’s Dividend Reinvestment Plan (the “DRIP”), income dividends and/or capital gain distributions to Shareholders will automatically be reinvested in additional Shares of the Fund by [] (the “DRIP Administrator”) unless the Shareholder elects to receive cash. A Shareholder may terminate participation in the DRIP at any time by notifying the DRIP Administrator before the record date of the next distribution through the Internet, by telephone or in writing. Shareholders whose Shares are held in the name of a broker or other nominee and who wish to elect to receive any dividends and distributions in cash must contact their broker or nominee. All distributions to Shareholders who do not participate in the DRIP, or have elected to terminate their participation in the DRIP, are paid by check mailed directly to the record holder by or under the direction of the DRIP Administrator when the Board declares a distribution.

The DRIP Administrator maintains all Shareholder accounts in the DRIP and furnishes written confirmations of all transactions in the account, including information needed by Shareholders for tax records. Shares in the account of each DRIP participant are held by the DRIP Administrator in non-certificated form in the name of the participant, and each Shareholder’s proxy includes Shares purchased pursuant to the DRIP. The DRIP Administrator will forward all proxy solicitation materials to participants and vote proxies for Shares held under the DRIP in accordance with the instructions of the participants

There is no charge to participants for reinvesting regular distributions and capital gains distributions; however, the Fund reserves the right to amend the DRIP to include a service charge payable by the participants. The fees of the DRIP Administrator for handling the reinvestment of regular distributions and capital gains distributions are included in the fee to be paid by us to our transfer agent. There are no brokerage charges with respect to Shares issued directly by us as a result of regular distributions or capital gains distributions payable either in Shares or in cash.

The automatic reinvestment of such dividends or distributions does not relieve participants of any income tax that may be payable on such dividends or distributions. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations” in the SAI.

The Fund reserves the right to amend or terminate the DRIP at any time. Any expenses of the DRIP will be borne by the Fund. All correspondence or questions concerning the DRIP should be directed to [] in writing to [].

 

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DESCRIPTION OF SHARES

Shares

The Fund is a statutory trust organized under the laws of Delaware pursuant to the Declaration of Trust dated as of []. The Fund is authorized to issue an unlimited number of Shares. Each Share has one vote and, when issued and paid for in accordance with the terms of this offering, will be fully paid and non-assessable. The holders of Shares will not be entitled to receive any distributions from the Fund unless all accrued interest, fees and dividends, if any, with respect to the Fund’s leverage have been paid, unless certain asset coverage tests with respect to the leverage employed by the Fund are satisfied after giving effect to the distributions and unless certain other requirements imposed by any rating agencies rating any preferred shares issued by the Fund have been met. All Shares are equal as to dividends, assets and voting privileges and have no conversion, preemptive or other subscription rights. The Fund will send annual and semi-annual reports, including financial statements, to all holders of its Shares.

Any additional offerings of Shares will require approval by the Board. Any additional offering of Shares will be subject to the requirements of the 1940 Act, which provides that Shares may not be issued at a price below the then current NAV, exclusive of the sales load, except in connection with an offering to existing holders of Shares or with the consent of a majority of the Fund’s outstanding voting securities.

The Fund’s NAV per Share generally increases when interest rates decline and decreases when interest rates rise. However, because the secured loans that the Fund invests in may be floating rate in nature, the Fund’s NAV per Share may be less affected by interest rate fluctuations than if it were investing in other forms of securities. The Fund’s NAV will be reduced immediately following the offering of Shares by the amount of the sales load and the amount of the organizational costs and offering expenses paid by the Fund. See “Summary of Fund Expenses.”

Preferred Shares

The Fund’s Declaration of Trust provides that the Board of the Fund may authorize and issue preferred shares, with rights as determined by the Board, without the approval of the holders of Shares. Holders of Shares have no preemptive right to purchase any preferred shares that might be issued. The Fund may elect to issue preferred shares as part of a leveraging strategy. The terms of any preferred shares, including dividend rate, liquidation preference and redemption provisions restrictions on the declaration of dividends, maintenance of asset ratios and restrictions while dividends are in arrears will be determined by the Board, subject to applicable law and the Declaration of Trust.

In the event of any voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the Fund, the holders of any preferred shares will be entitled to receive a preferential liquidating distribution. After payment of the full amount of the liquidating distribution to which they are entitled, the holders of preferred shares will not be entitled to any further participation in any distribution of assets by the Fund.

The 1940 Act, among other things, requires that the holders of outstanding preferred shares, voting separately as a single class, have the right to elect at least two trustees at all times. The remaining trustees will be elected by holders of Shares and preferred shares, voting together as a single class. In addition, subject to the prior rights, if any, of the holders of any other class of senior securities outstanding, the holders of any preferred shares have the right to elect a majority of the trustees of the Fund at any time two years’ dividends on any preferred shares are unpaid.

The discussion above describes the possible offering of preferred shares by the Fund. If the Board determines to proceed with such an offering, the terms of the preferred shares may be the same as, or different from, the terms described above, subject to applicable law and the terms of the Fund’s Declaration of Trust. The Board, without the approval of the holders of Shares, may authorize an offering of preferred shares or may determine not to authorize such an offering, and may fix the terms of the preferred shares to be offered.

 

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CERTAIN PROVISIONS IN THE DECLARATION OF TRUST

[The Fund’s Declaration of Trust includes provisions that could have the effect of limiting the ability of other entities or persons to acquire control of the Fund or to change the composition of its Board. This could have the effect of depriving Shareholders of an opportunity to sell their Shares at a premium over prevailing market prices by discouraging a third party from seeking to obtain control over the Fund. Such attempts could have the effect of increasing the expenses of the Fund and disrupting the normal operation of the Fund.

The Declaration of Trust, subject to certain exceptions, provides that the Fund may merge or consolidate with any other corporation, association, trust or other organization or may sell, lease or exchange all or substantially all of the its property, including its goodwill, upon such terms and conditions and for such consideration when and as authorized by two-thirds of the Trustees and approved by a majority of the outstanding voting securities and any such merger, consolidation, sale, lease or exchange shall be determined for all purposes to have been accomplished under and pursuant to the statutes of the State of Delaware. The Declaration of Trust also requires the affirmative vote or consent of two-thirds of the Trustees and of holders of a majority of the outstanding voting securities of the Fund (as defined in the 1940 Act) to authorize a conversion of the Fund from a closed-end to an open-end investment company. Also, the Declaration of Trust provides that the Fund may dissolve upon the approval of not less than a majority of Trustees. See “Risks—Anti-Takeover Provisions.”

The trustees may from time to time grant other voting rights to Shareholders with respect to these and other matters, certain of which are required by the 1940 Act.

The overall effect of these provisions is to render more difficult the accomplishment of a merger or the assumption of control by a third party. These provisions also provide, however, the advantage of potentially requiring persons seeking control of the Fund to negotiate with its management regarding the price to be paid and facilitating the continuity of the Fund’s investment objectives and policies. The provisions of the Declaration of Trust described above could have the effect of discouraging a third party from seeking to obtain control of the Fund in a tender offer or similar transaction. The Board has considered the foregoing anti-takeover provisions and concluded that they are in the best interests of the Fund and its Shareholders.

The foregoing is intended only as a summary and is qualified in its entirety by reference to the full text of the Fund’s Declaration of Trust and Bylaws, both of which will be on file with the SEC.

The Declaration of Trust contains an express disclaimer of Shareholder personal liability for debts or obligations or any other form of personal liability in connection with the property or actions of the Fund.

For the purposes of calculating “a majority of the outstanding voting securities” under the Declaration of Trust, each class and series of the Fund, if any, will vote together as a single class, except to the extent required by the 1940 Act or the Declaration of Trust, with respect to any class or series of Shares. If a separate class vote is required, the applicable proportion of Shares of the class or series, voting as a separate class or series, also will be required.

The Board has determined that provisions with respect to the Board and the Shareholder voting requirements described above, which voting requirements are greater than the minimum requirements under Delaware law or the 1940 Act, are in the best interest of Shareholders generally. For a more complete explanation, see the full text of these provisions in the Declaration of Trust, which is on file with the SEC.]

 

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TAX CONSIDERATIONS

The discussion below and certain disclosure in the SAI provide general tax information related to an investment in Shares of the Fund. Because tax laws are complex and often change, Shareholders should consult their tax advisors about the tax consequences of an investment in the Fund. Unless otherwise noted, the following tax discussion applies only to U.S. Shareholders that hold the Shares as capital assets. A U.S. Shareholder is an individual who is a citizen or resident of the United States, a U.S. corporation, a trust if it (a) is subject to the primary supervision of a court in the United States and one or more U.S. persons have the authority to control all substantial decisions of the trust or (b) has made a valid election to be treated as a U.S. person, or any estate the income of which is subject to U.S. federal income tax regardless of its source.

The Fund will elect to be treated, and intends to qualify each taxable year, as a regulated investment company (a “RIC”) under Subchapter M of the Code. To qualify under Subchapter M for the favorable tax treatment accorded to RICs, the Fund must, among other things: (1) distribute to its Shareholders in each taxable year at least 90% of the sum of its investment company taxable income (as that term is defined in the Code, but without regard to the deduction for dividends paid) and its net tax-exempt income; (2) derive in each taxable year at least 90% of its gross income from (a) dividends, interest, payments with respect to certain securities loans, and gains from the sale or other disposition of stock, securities or foreign currencies, or other income (including but not limited to gain from options, futures and forward contracts) derived with respect to its business of investing in such stock, securities or foreign currencies; and (b) net income derived from interests in certain publicly traded partnerships that are treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes and that derive less than 90% of their gross income from the items described in (a) above (each, a “Qualified Publicly Traded Partnership”); and (3) diversify its holdings so that, at the end of each quarter of each taxable year of the Fund (a) at least 50% of the value of the Fund’s total assets is represented by cash, cash items, U.S. government securities and securities of other RICs, and other securities, with these other securities limited, with respect to any one issuer, to an amount not greater in value than 5% of the value of the Fund’s total assets, and to not more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of such issuer, and (b) not more than 25% of the value of the Fund’s total assets is represented by the securities (other than U.S. government securities or securities of other RICs) of (I) any one issuer, (II) any two or more issuers that the Fund controls and that are determined to be engaged in the same or similar trades or businesses or related trades or businesses or (III) any one or more Qualified Publicly Traded Partnerships. As a RIC, the Fund generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax on its investment company taxable income and net capital gain (the excess of net long-term capital gain over net short-term capital loss), if any, that it distributes in each taxable year to its Shareholders. The Fund intends to distribute to its Shareholders, at least annually, substantially all of its investment company taxable income and net capital gain.

If the Fund failed to qualify for the favorable tax treatment accorded to RICs in any taxable year, the Fund would be subject to U.S. federal income tax at regular corporate rates on its taxable income (including distributions of net capital gain), even if such income were distributed to its Shareholders, and all distributions out of earnings and profits would be taxed to Shareholders as ordinary dividend income. Such distributions generally would be eligible (i) to be treated as “qualified dividend income” in the case of individual and other non-corporate Shareholders and (ii) for the dividends received deduction in the case of corporate Shareholders. In addition, the Fund could be required to recognize unrealized gains, pay taxes and make distributions (which could be subject to interest charges) before requalifying for taxation as a RIC.

A RIC that fails to distribute, by the close of each calendar year, an amount at least equal to the sum of 98% of its ordinary taxable income for such calendar year and 98.2% of its capital gain net income (adjusted for certain ordinary losses) for the one-year period ending on October 31 of such calendar year, plus any shortfalls from any prior year’s required distribution, is liable for a 4% excise tax on the portion of the undistributed amounts of such income that are less than the required distributions. For these purposes, the Fund will be deemed to have distributed any income or gain on which it paid U.S. federal income tax.

Distributions to Shareholders by the Fund of ordinary income (including “market discount” realized by the Fund on the sale of debt securities), and of net short-term capital gains, if any, realized by the Fund will generally be

 

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taxable to Shareholders as ordinary income to the extent such distributions are paid out of the Fund’s current or accumulated earnings and profits. Distributions, if any, of net capital gains properly reported as “capital gain dividends” will be taxable as long-term capital gains, regardless of the length of time the Shareholder has owned Shares of the Fund. A distribution of an amount in excess of the Fund’s current and accumulated earnings and profits (as determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes) will be treated by a Shareholder as a return of capital which will be applied against and reduce the Shareholder’s basis in his or her Shares. To the extent that the amount of any such distribution exceeds the Shareholder’s basis in his or her Shares, the excess will be treated by the Shareholder as gain from a sale or exchange of the Shares. Distributions paid by the Fund generally will not be eligible for the dividends received deduction allowed to corporations or for the reduced rates applicable to certain qualified dividend income received by non-corporate Shareholders.

Distributions will be treated in the manner described above regardless of whether such distributions are paid in cash or invested in additional Shares of the Fund pursuant to the Plan. Shareholders receiving distributions in the form of additional Shares of the Fund will be treated as receiving a distribution in the amount of cash that they would have received if they had elected to receive the distribution in cash, unless the Fund issues additional Shares with a fair market value equal to or greater than net asset value, in which case, such Shareholders will be treated as receiving a distribution in the amount of the fair market value of the distributed Shares. The additional Shares received by a Shareholder pursuant to the Plan will have a new holding period commencing on the day following the day on which the Shares were credited to the Shareholder’s account.

Although dividends generally will be treated as distributed when paid, dividends declared in October, November or December, payable to Shareholders of record on a specified date in one of those months, and paid during the following January, will be treated as having been distributed by the Fund (and received by Shareholders) on December 31 of the year in which declared.

In general, the sale or other disposition of Shares (except pursuant to a repurchase by the Fund, as described below) will result in capital gain or loss to Shareholders. A holder’s gain or loss generally will be a long-term capital gain or loss if the Shares have been held for more than one year. Present law taxes both long- and short-term capital gains of corporations at the rates applicable to ordinary income. For non-corporate taxpayers, however, long-term capital gains are currently eligible for reduced rates of taxation. Losses realized by a holder on the sale or exchange of Shares held for six months or less are treated as long-term capital losses to the extent of any distribution of long-term capital gain received (or amounts designated as undistributed capital gains, as discussed under “Taxes—Distributions” in the SAI) with respect to such Shares. In addition, no loss will be allowed on the sale or other disposition of Shares if the owner acquires (including pursuant to the Plan) or enters into a contract or option to acquire securities that are substantially identical to such Shares within 30 days before or after the disposition. In such case, the basis of the securities acquired will be adjusted to reflect the disallowed loss.

From time to time, the Fund may offer to repurchase its outstanding Shares. Shareholders who tender all Shares held, or considered to be held, by them will be treated as having sold their Shares and generally will realize a capital gain or loss. If a Shareholder tenders fewer than all of its Shares or fewer than all Shares tendered are repurchased, such Shareholder may be treated as having received a taxable dividend upon the tender of its Shares. In such a case, there is a risk that non-tendering Shareholders, and Shareholders who tender some but not all of their Shares or fewer than all of whose Shares are repurchased, in each case whose percentage interests in the Fund increase as a result of such tender, will be treated as having received a taxable distribution from the Fund. The extent of such risk will vary depending upon the particular circumstances of the tender offer, and in particular whether such offer is a single and isolated event or is part of a plan for periodically redeeming Shares of the Fund.

The Fund may be required to withhold from all distributions and redemption proceeds payable to U.S. Shareholders who fail to provide the Fund with their correct taxpayer identification numbers or to make required certifications, or who have been notified by the Internal Revenue Service that they are subject to backup

 

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withholding. Certain Shareholders specified in the Code generally are exempt from such backup withholding. This backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amounts withheld may be refunded or credited against the Shareholder’s U.S. federal income tax liability, provided the required information is timely furnished to the Internal Revenue Service.

If a Shareholder (other than a partnership) is not a U.S. Shareholder (other than such a Shareholder whose ownership of Shares is effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business), certain dividends received by such Shareholder from the Fund may be subject to U.S. federal withholding tax. To the extent that Fund distributions consist of ordinary dividends that are subject to withholding, the applicable withholding agent will generally be required to withhold U.S. federal income tax at the rate of 30% (or such lower rate as may be determined in accordance with any applicable treaty). However, dividends paid by the Fund that are “interest-related dividends” or “short-term capital gain dividends” will generally be exempt from such withholding, in each case to the extent the Fund properly reports such dividends to Shareholders. For these purposes, interest-related dividends and short-term capital gain dividends generally represent distributions of interest or short-term capital gains that would not have been subject to U.S. federal withholding tax at the source if they had been received directly by a non-U.S. Shareholder, and that satisfy certain other requirements. Net capital gain dividends (that is, distributions of the excess of net long-term capital gain over net short-term capital loss) distributed by the Fund to a non-U.S. Shareholder will not be subject to U.S. federal withholding tax.

The Fund may be required to withhold from distributions to a non-U.S. Shareholder that are otherwise exempt from U.S. federal withholding tax (or taxable at a reduced treaty rate) unless the non-U.S. Shareholder certifies his or her foreign status under penalties of perjury or otherwise establishes an exemption.

Under Sections 1471 through 1474 of the Code (such Sections commonly referred to as “FATCA”), a 30% United States federal withholding tax may apply to any ordinary dividends and other distributions that the Fund pays to (i) a “foreign financial institution” (as specifically defined in the Code), whether such foreign financial institution is the beneficial owner or an intermediary, unless such foreign financial institution agrees to verify, report and disclose its United States “account” holders (as specifically defined in the Code) and meets certain other specified requirements or (ii) a non-financial foreign entity, whether such non-financial foreign entity is the beneficial owner or an intermediary, unless such entity provides a certification that the beneficial owner of the payment does not have any substantial United States owners or provides the name, address and taxpayer identification number of each such substantial United States owner and certain other specified requirements are met. In certain cases, the relevant foreign financial institution or non-financial foreign entity may qualify for an exemption from, or be deemed to be in compliance with, these rules. In addition, foreign financial institutions located in jurisdictions that have an intergovernmental agreement with the United States governing FATCA may be subject to different rules. You should consult your own tax advisor regarding FATCA and whether it may be relevant to your ownership and disposition of Shares.

The foregoing tax discussion is for general information only. The provisions of the Code and regulations thereunder presently in effect as they directly govern the taxation of the Fund and its Shareholders are subject to change by legislative or administrative action, and any such change may be retroactive with respect to the Fund’s transactions. The foregoing does not represent a detailed description of the U.S. federal income tax considerations relevant to special classes of taxpayers including, without limitation, financial institutions, insurance companies, investors in pass-through entities, U.S. Shareholders whose “functional currency” is not the U.S. dollar, tax-exempt organizations, dealers in securities or currencies, traders in securities or commodities that elect mark to market treatment, or persons that will hold Shares as a position in a “straddle,” “hedge” or as part of a “constructive sale” for U.S. federal income tax purposes. In addition, this discussion does not address the application of the Medicare tax on net investment income or the U.S. federal alternative minimum tax.

Shareholders are advised to consult with their own tax advisors for more detailed information concerning federal income tax matters.

 

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CUSTODIAN AND TRANSFER AGENT

[] serves as Custodian for the Fund. The Custodian holds cash, securities, and other assets of the Fund as required by the 1940 Act. The principal business address of the Custodian is []. [] acts as the Fund’s dividend paying agent, transfer agent and the registrar for the Shares. The principal address of the transfer agent and dividend paying agent is [].

LEGAL MATTERS

Certain legal matters in connection with the offering of the Fund’s securities will be passed on for the Fund by Dechert LLP.

INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

[] serves as the independent registered public accounting firm of the Fund and audits the financial statements of the Fund. [] is located at [].

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS FOR THE STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

[]

 

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APPENDIX A

SUPPLEMENTAL PERFORMANCE INFORMATION OF RELATED FUNDS AND ACCOUNTS

RELATED FUNDS AND ACCOUNTS

The performance information presented below reflects the historical performance of the Adviser’s composite that contains all investments funds or separately managed accounts (each, an “Account” and, collectively, the “Accounts”) that have an investment program substantially similar to that of the Fund [and the Predecessor Fund], are managed by the KKR Leveraged Credit Team that have inception dates prior to the most recent calendar year end (the “Composite”). The Composite does not reflect the performance record of the Fund and should not be considered a substitute for the Fund’s own performance. Past returns are not indicative of future performance.

This supplemental performance information is provided to illustrate the past performance of the KKR Leveraged Credit Team, including Christopher Sheldon, John Reed and Jeremiah Lane, in managing substantially similar Accounts; it does not represent the performance of the Fund. We have stated below the average annual total return information over the [three-month, year-to-date, one-, three- and five-year periods ended [September 30, 2019]], the calendar year returns and the historical statistics for the Composite. The returns of the Composite are shown net of the actual fees and expenses incurred by the Accounts comprising the Composite. Returns are calculated on a total return basis and include all dividends and interest, accrued income, and realized and unrealized gains and losses.

The anticipated fees and expenses of each class of the Fund are different than the historical fees and expenses of the Composite; had the Composite’s performance records reflected the anticipated fees and expenses of any class of the Fund, the Composite’s performance would have also been different. In addition, although the Fund and the Composite have substantially similar investment programs, the Fund may not necessarily make the same investments as the Accounts comprising the Composite, and, therefore, the investment performance of the Fund and the Composite will differ in the future.

As of [September 30, 2019]

 

Total NAV Returns    3-Mo      YTD      1-Yr      3-Yr      5-Yr      10-Yr  

Composite Net

     [●]%        [●]%        [●]%        [●]%        [●]%        [●]%  

Note: Returns for periods greater than one year are annualized.

 

Calendar Year NAV Returns    2008      2009      2010      2011      2012      2013      2014      2015      2016      2017      2018  

Composite Net

     [●]%        [●]%        [●]%        [●]%        [●]%        [●]%        [●]%        [●]%        [●]%        [●]%        [●]%  

 

Historical Statistics    Composite Net  

Since Inception Annualized Returns

     [ ●]% 

Standard Deviation

     [ ●]% 

Sharpe Ratio

     [ ●] 

Note: Inception date of May 2008.

Note: The Sharpe Ratio uses the 3-Month Yield US T-Bill as a reference for the risk free rate.

Sharpe Ratio: Measures risk-adjusted return as a ratio of returns to risk. The Sharpe ratio (i) is used to express how much return is achieved for the amount of risk taken in an investment and (ii) may be used to compare hedge funds with similar return characteristics. The higher a Sharpe ratio, the less risk is taken per unit return. The Sharpe ratio formula is the investment return less the risk free return divided by the standard deviation of the investment.

 

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Standard Deviation: Standard deviation is a measure of volatility, or how far returns stray from the mean. It is a historical measure of the variability of return earned by an investment. The higher the standard deviation, the larger the variance of returns and the greater the financial risk. Low volatility means the returns are tightly clustered around the mean return and higher volatility means the returns are dispersed at greater distances from the mean.

 

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KKR CREDIT OPPORTUNITIES PORTFOLIO

CLASS I SHARES

CLASS D SHARES

CLASS T SHARES

CLASS M SHARES

 

 

PROSPECTUS

[], 2019

 

 

All dealers that buy, sell or trade the Fund’s Shares, whether or not participating in this offering, may be required to deliver a prospectus in accordance with the terms of the dealers’ agreements with the Fund’s Distributor.

You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus. The Fund has not authorized anyone to provide you with different information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. The Fund is not making an offer of these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer is not permitted.

 

 

 


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The information in this Statement of Additional Information is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This Statement of Additional Information is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION

DATED SEPTEMBER 11, 2019

KKR CREDIT OPPORTUNITIES PORTFOLIO

STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

KKR Credit Opportunities Portfolio (the “Fund”) is a newly organized, diversified, closed-end management investment company that continuously offers its shares (the “Shares”) and is operated as an “interval fund.” This Statement of Additional Information does not constitute a prospectus, but should be read in conjunction with the prospectus relating thereto dated                 . This Statement of Additional Information does not include all information that a prospective investor should consider before purchasing Shares, and investors should obtain and read the prospectus prior to purchasing such Shares. A copy of the prospectus may be obtained without charge by calling [●]. You may also obtain a copy of the prospectus on the Securities and Exchange Commission’s (“SEC”) website (http://www.sec.gov). Capitalized terms used but not defined in this Statement of Additional Information have the meanings ascribed to them in the prospectus.

This Statement of Additional Information is dated                 , 2019.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

INVESTMENT OBJECTIVE

     1  

INVESTMENT RESTRICTIONS

     1  

INVESTMENT POLICIES AND TECHNIQUES

     4  

MANAGEMENT OF THE FUND

     27  

PORTFOLIO TRANSACTIONS AND BROKERAGE

     40  

MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

     42  

CONTROL PERSONS AND PRINCIPAL HOLDERS OF SECURITIES

     52  

INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

     52  

CUSTODIAN AND TRANSFER AGENT

     52  

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

     52  

REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

     53  

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

     54  

APPENDIX A—DESCRIPTION OF S&P, MOODY’S AND FITCH RATINGS

     A-1  


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INVESTMENT OBJECTIVE

The Fund’s investment objective is to seek to provide attractive risk-adjusted returns and high current income. There can be no assurance that the Fund will achieve its investment objective.

INVESTMENT RESTRICTIONS

Fundamental Restrictions

The following are fundamental investment restrictions of the Fund and may not be changed without the approval of the holders of a majority of the Fund’s outstanding voting securities (which for this purpose and under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”), means the lesser of (i) 67% or more of the Fund’s voting securities present at a meeting at which more than 50% of the Fund’s outstanding voting securities are present or represented by proxy or (ii) more than 50% of the Fund’s outstanding voting securities). Except as otherwise noted, all percentage limitations set forth below apply immediately after a purchase and any subsequent change in any applicable percentage resulting from market fluctuations does not require any action. With respect to the limitations on the issuance of senior securities and in the case of borrowings, the percentage limitations apply at the time of issuance and on an ongoing basis. The Fund’s fundamental policies are as follows:

 

  1.

Borrowing Money. The Fund will not borrow money, except to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act, as such may be interpreted or modified by regulatory authorities having jurisdiction, from time to time.

 

  2.

Senior Securities. The Fund will not issue senior securities, except to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act, as such may be interpreted or modified by regulatory authorities having jurisdiction, from time to time.

 

  3.

Underwriting. The Fund will not act as an underwriter of securities within the meaning of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, except to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act, as such may be interpreted or modified by regulatory authorities having jurisdiction, from time to time.

 

  4.

Concentration. The Fund will not “concentrate” its investments in an industry, except to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act, as such may be interpreted or modified by regulatory authorities having jurisdiction, from time to time

 

  5.

Real Estate. The Fund will not purchase or sell real estate, except to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act, as such may be interpreted or modified by regulatory authorities having jurisdiction, from time to time.

 

  6.

Commodities. The Fund will not purchase or sell commodities, except to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act, as such may be interpreted or modified by regulatory authorities having jurisdiction, from time to time.

 

  7.

Loans. The Fund will not make loans to other persons, except to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act, as such may be interpreted or modified by regulatory authorities having jurisdiction, from time to time.

The following are interpretations of the fundamental investment policies of the Funds and may be revised without shareholder approval, consistent with current laws and regulations as such may be interpreted or modified by regulatory authorities having jurisdiction, from time to time:

Borrowing Money. Under current law as interpreted by the SEC and its staff, the Fund may borrow from: (a) a bank, provided that immediately after such borrowing there is an asset coverage of 300% for all borrowings of the Fund; or (b) a bank or other persons for temporary purposes only, provided that such temporary borrowings are in an amount not exceeding 5% of the Fund’s total assets at the time when the borrowing is made. This


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limitation does not preclude the Fund from entering into reverse repurchase transactions, provided that the Fund has an asset coverage of 300% for all borrowings and repurchase commitments of the Fund pursuant to reverse repurchase transactions.

Senior Securities. Senior securities may include any obligation or instrument issued by an investment company evidencing indebtedness. The Fund’s limitation with respect to issuing senior securities is not applicable to activities that may be deemed to involve the issuance or sale of a senior security by the Fund, provided that the Fund’s engagement in such activities is consistent with or permitted by the 1940 Act, the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder or interpretations of the SEC or its staff. In particular, the SEC and its staff currently have interpreted the 1940 Act and developed an approach that allows a Fund to “cover” certain transactions that create leverage or enter into offsetting transactions to avoid causing such leveraged transactions to be deemed senior securities.

Underwriting. Under the 1940 Act, underwriting securities generally involves an investment company purchasing securities directly from an issuer for the purpose of selling (distributing) them or participating in any such activity either directly or indirectly. The Fund’s limitation with respect to underwriting securities is not applicable to the extent that, in connection with the disposition of portfolio securities (including restricted securities), the Fund may be deemed an underwriter under certain federal securities laws.

Concentration. Under current SEC and SEC staff interpretation, the Fund would “concentrate” its investments if more than 25% of the Fund’s total assets would be invested in securities of issuers conducting their principal business activities in the same industry. For purposes of this limitation, there is no limit on: (1) investments in securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government and its agencies and instrumentalities or securities of state and municipal governments or their political subdivisions, in repurchase agreements collateralized by U.S. Government securities, or in tax-exempt securities issued by the states, territories, or possessions of the United States (“municipal securities”), excluding private activity municipal securities whose principal and interest payments are derived principally from the assets and revenues of a non-governmental entity (which will be subject to restriction 4); (2) investments in issuers domiciled in a single jurisdiction provided that the Fund does not invest greater than 25% in a particular industry; or (3) certain asset-backed securities that are backed by a pool of loans issued to companies in a wide variety of industries unrelated to each other such that the economic characteristics of such a security are not predominantly related to a single industry to the extent permitted by the 1940 Act. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary, to the extent permitted by the 1940 Act, the Fund may invest in one or more investment companies; provided that, except to the extent the Fund invests in other investment companies pursuant to Section 12(d)(1)(A) or (F) of the 1940 Act, the Fund treats the assets of the investment companies in which it invests as its own for purposes of this policy.

Real Estate. The 1940 Act does not directly restrict an investment company’s ability to invest in real estate, but does require that every investment company have a fundamental investment policy governing such investments. The Fund’s limitation with respect to investing in real estate is not applicable to investments in securities or mortgages or loans that are secured by or represent interests in real estate. This limitation does not preclude the Fund from purchasing or selling mortgage-related securities or securities of companies engaged in the real estate business or that have a significant portion of their assets in real estate (including real estate investment trusts).

Commodities. The 1940 Act does not directly restrict an investment company’s ability to invest in commodities, but does require that every investment company have a fundamental investment policy governing such investments. The Fund may hold commodities acquired as a result of ownership of securities or other investments. This limitation does not preclude the Fund from purchasing or selling options or futures contracts, from investing in securities or other instruments backed by commodities or from investing in companies that are engaged in a commodities business or have a significant portion of their assets in commodities.

Loans. Under current law as interpreted by the SEC and its staff, the Fund may not lend any security or make any other loan if, as a result, more than 33 1/3% of its total assets would be lent to other parties (this restriction does

 

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not apply to purchases of debt securities or repurchase agreements). Subject to this limitation, the Fund may make loans, for example: (a) by loaning portfolio securities; (b) by engaging in repurchase agreements; (c) by making loans secured by real estate; (d) by making loans to affiliated funds as permitted by the SEC; or (e) by purchasing non-publicly offered debt securities. For purposes of this limitation, the term “loans” shall not include the purchase of a portion of an issue of publicly distributed bonds, debentures or other securities.

Portions of the Fund’s fundamental investment restrictions (i.e., the references to “except to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act, as such may be interpreted or modified by regulatory authorities having jurisdiction, from time to time”) provide the Fund with flexibility to change its limitations in connection with changes in applicable law, rules, regulations or exemptive relief. The language used in these restrictions provides the necessary flexibility to allow the Board of Trustees of the Fund (the “Board”) to respond efficiently to these kinds of developments without the delay and expense of a shareholder meeting.

Repurchase Offer Fundamental Policy

The Board has adopted a repurchase offer fundamental policy resolution setting forth the Fund’s fundamental policy that it will conduct quarterly repurchase offers. This fundamental policy may be changed only with the approval of a majority of the Fund’s outstanding voting securities, including a majority of any holders of preferred shares voting separately as a class. The Fund is required to offer to repurchase between 10% and 25% of its outstanding Shares with each repurchase offer (“Repurchase Offer”).

The time and dates by which Repurchase Offers must be received in good order (“Repurchase Request Deadline”) are 4:00 p.m. Eastern time on the [third Friday of the month in which the repurchase occurs]. The repurchase price will be the Fund’s NAV determined on the repurchase pricing date, which will be a date not more than 14 calendar days following the Repurchase Request Deadline (“Repurchase Offer Amount”). Payment for all Shares repurchased pursuant to these offers will be made not later than 7 calendar days after the repurchase pricing date. Under normal circumstances, it is expected that the repurchase pricing date will be [one to three] business days after the Repurchase Request Deadline. If the tendered shares have been purchased immediately prior to the tender, the Fund will not release repurchase proceeds until payment for the tendered shares has settled.

The Repurchase Offer fundamental policy may be changed only with approval of a majority of the Fund’s outstanding voting securities, including a majority of any holders of preferred shares voting separately as a class.

Non-Fundamental Restrictions

The Fund’s investment objective and investment strategies are not fundamental and may be changed by the Board without shareholder approval. The Fund will provide shareholders with at least 60 days’ notice prior to changing the policy to invest, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of its Managed Assets in credit-related instruments. “Managed Assets” means the total assets of the Fund (including any assets attributable to borrowings for investment purposes) minus the sum of the Fund’s accrued liabilities (other than liabilities representing borrowings for investment purposes).

 

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INVESTMENT POLICIES AND TECHNIQUES

The following information supplements the discussion of the Fund’s investment policies and techniques in the prospectus and does not, by itself, present a complete or accurate explanation of the matters disclosed.

Bank Loans and Participations

The Fund’s investment program will, from time to time, include significant amounts of bank loans and participations. These obligations are subject to unique risks, including (i) the possible avoidance of an investment transaction as a “preferential transfer,” “fraudulent conveyance” or “fraudulent transfer,” among other avoidance actions, under relevant bankruptcy, insolvency and/or creditors’ rights laws, (ii) so-called “lender liability” claims by the issuer of the obligations, (iii) environmental liabilities that may arise with respect to collateral securing the obligations, (iv) limitations on the ability of the Fund to directly enforce its rights with respect to participations and (v) the contractual nature of participations where the Fund takes on the credit risk of the agent bank rather than the actual borrower.

The Fund will, from time to time, acquire interests in loans either directly (by way of assignment) or indirectly (by way of participation). The purchaser of an assignment typically succeeds to all the rights and obligations of the assigning institution and becomes a contracting party under the loan agreement with respect to the loan; however, its rights can be more restricted than those of the assigning institution. Participations in a portion of a loan typically result in a contractual relationship only with the institution participating out the interest and not with the obligor. The Fund would, in such a case, have the right to receive payments of principal and interest to which it is entitled only from the institution selling the participation, and not directly from the obligor, and only upon receipt by such institution of such payments from the obligor. As the owner of a participation, the Fund generally will have no right to enforce compliance by the obligor with the terms of the loan agreement or to vote on amendments to the loan agreement, nor any rights of set-off against the obligor, and the Fund will not, from time to time, directly benefit from collateral supporting the loan in which it has purchased the participation. In addition, in the event of the insolvency of the selling institution, the Fund will, from time to time, be treated as a general creditor of such selling institution, and will not, from time to time, have any exclusive or senior claim with respect to the selling institution’s interest in, or the collateral with respect to, the applicable loan. Consequently, the Fund will assume the credit risk of both the obligor and the institution selling the participation to the Fund. As a result, concentrations of participations from any one selling institution subject the Fund to an additional degree of risk with respect to defaults by such selling institution.

Senior Loans

Senior secured floating rate and fixed-rate loans (“Senior Loans”) are typically originated, negotiated and structured by a U.S. or foreign commercial bank, insurance company, finance company or other financial institution (the “Agent”) for a group of loan investors (“Loan Investors”). The Agent typically administers and enforces the Senior Loan on behalf of the other Loan Investors in the syndicate. In addition, an institution, typically but not always the Agent, holds any collateral on behalf of the Loan Investors.

Senior Loans primarily include senior floating rate loans to corporations and secondarily institutionally traded senior floating rate debt obligations issued by an asset-backed pool and interests therein. Loan interests primarily take the form of assignments purchased in the primary or secondary market. Loan interests may also take the form of participation interests in a Senior Loan. Such loan interests may be acquired from U.S. or foreign commercial banks, insurance companies, finance companies or other financial institutions who have made loans or are Loan Investors or from other investors in loan interests.

The Fund will, from time to time, purchase “assignments” from the Agent or other Loan Investors. The purchaser of an assignment typically succeeds to all the rights and obligations under the Loan Agreement (as defined herein) of the assigning Loan Investor and becomes a Loan Investor under the Loan Agreement with the same

 

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rights and obligations as the assigning Loan Investor. Assignments may, however, be arranged through private negotiations between potential assignees and potential assignors, and the rights and obligations acquired by the purchaser of an assignment may differ from, and be more limited than, those held by the assigning Loan Investor.

The Fund also will, from time to time, invest in “participations.” Participations by the Fund in a Loan Investor’s portion of a Senior Loan typically will result in the Fund having a contractual relationship only with such Loan Investor, not with the borrower. As a result, the Fund will, from time to time, have the right to receive payments of principal, interest and any fees to which it is entitled only from the Loan Investor selling the participation and only upon receipt by such Loan Investor of such payments from the borrower. In connection with purchasing participations, the Fund generally will have no right to enforce compliance by the borrower with the terms of the Loan Agreement, nor any rights with respect to any funds acquired by other Loan Investors through set-off against the borrower and the Fund may not directly benefit from the collateral supporting the Senior Loan in which it has purchased the participation. As a result, the Fund will assume the credit risk of both the borrower and the Loan Investor selling the participation. In the event of the insolvency of the Loan Investor selling a participation, the Fund will, from time to time, be treated as a general creditor of such Loan Investor. The selling Loan Investors and other persons interpositioned between such Loan Investors and the Fund with respect to such participations will likely conduct their principal business activities in the banking, finance and financial services industries. Persons engaged in such industries may be more susceptible to, among other things, fluctuations in interest rates, changes in the Federal Open Market Committee’s monetary policy, governmental regulations concerning such industries and concerning capital raising activities generally and fluctuations in the financial markets generally.

The Fund will only acquire participations if the Loan Investor selling the participation, and any other persons interpositioned between the Fund and the Loan Investor, at the time of investment has outstanding debt or deposit obligations rated investment grade (Baa3 or higher by Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. (“Moody’s”) or BBB- or higher by Standard & Poor’s Corporation Rating Group (“S&P”) or Fitch Ratings, Inc. (“Fitch”), or comparably rated by another nationally recognized rating agency) if determined by KKR Credit Advisors (US) LLC (the “Adviser”) to be an appropriate investment for the Fund. The effect of industry characteristics and market compositions may be more pronounced. Indebtedness of companies whose creditworthiness is poor involves substantially greater risks, and may be highly speculative. Some companies may never pay off their indebtedness, or may pay only a small fraction of the amount owed. Consequently, when investing in indebtedness of companies with poor credit, the Fund bears a substantial risk of losing the entire amount invested.

In order to borrow money pursuant to a Senior Loan, a borrower will for the term of the Senior Loan, pledge collateral, including but not limited to, (i) working capital assets, such as accounts receivable and inventory; (ii) tangible fixed assets, such as real property, buildings and equipment; (iii) intangible assets, such as trademarks and patent rights (but excluding goodwill); and (iv) security interests in shares of stock of subsidiaries or affiliates. In the case of Senior Loans made to non-public companies, the company’s shareholders or owners may provide collateral in the form of secured guarantees and/or security interests in assets that they own. In many instances, a Senior Loan may be secured only by stock in the borrower or its subsidiaries. Collateral may consist of assets that may not be readily liquidated, and there is no assurance that the liquidation of such assets would satisfy fully a borrower’s obligations under a Senior Loan.

In the process of buying, selling and holding Senior Loans, the Fund will, from time to time, receive and/or pay certain fees. These fees are in addition to interest payments received and may include facility fees, commitment fees, amendment fees, commissions and prepayment penalty fees. When the Fund buys a Senior Loan, it could receive a facility fee and when it sells a Senior Loan it may pay a facility fee. On an ongoing basis, the Fund could receive a commitment fee based on the undrawn portion of the underlying line of credit portion of a Senior Loan. In certain circumstances, the Fund will receive a prepayment penalty fee upon the prepayment of a Senior Loan by a borrower. Other fees received by the Fund will, from time to time, include covenant waiver fees, covenant modification fees or other amendment fees.

 

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A borrower must comply with various restrictive covenants contained in a loan agreement or note purchase agreement between the borrower and the holders of the Senior Loan (the “Loan Agreement”). Such covenants, in addition to requiring the scheduled payment of interest and principal, may include restrictions on dividend payments and other distributions to shareholders, provisions requiring the borrower to maintain specific minimum financial ratios and limits on total debt. In addition, the Loan Agreement may contain a covenant requiring the borrower to prepay the Loan with any free cash flow. Free cash flow is generally defined as net cash flow after scheduled debt service payments and permitted capital expenditures, and includes the proceeds from asset dispositions or sales of securities. A breach of a covenant which is not waived by the Agent, or by the Loan Investors directly, as the case may be, is normally an event of acceleration; i.e., the Agent, or the Loan Investors directly, as the case may be, has the right to call the outstanding Senior Loan. The typical practice of an Agent or a Loan Investor in relying exclusively or primarily on reports from the borrower to monitor the borrower’s compliance with covenants may involve a risk of fraud by the borrower. In the case of a Senior Loan in the form of a participation, the agreement between the buyer and seller may limit the rights of the holder to vote on certain changes which may be made to the Loan Agreement, such as waiving a breach of a covenant. However, the holder of the participation will, in almost all cases, have the right to vote on certain fundamental issues such as changes in principal amount, payment dates and interest rate.

In a typical Senior Loan the Agent administers the terms of the Loan Agreement. In such cases, the Agent is normally responsible for the collection of principal and interest payments from the borrower and the apportionment of these payments to the credit of all institutions which are parties to the Loan Agreement. The Fund will generally rely upon the Agent or an intermediate participant to receive and forward to the Fund its portion of the principal and interest payments on the Senior Loan. Furthermore, unless under the terms of a participation agreement the Fund has direct recourse against the borrower, the Fund will rely on the Agent and the other Loan Investors to use appropriate credit remedies against the borrower. The Agent is typically responsible for monitoring compliance with covenants contained in the Loan Agreement based upon reports prepared by the borrower. The seller of the Senior Loan usually does, but is often not obligated to, notify holders of Senior Loans of any failures of compliance. The Agent may monitor the value of the collateral and, if the value of the collateral declines, may accelerate the Senior Loan, may give the borrower an opportunity to provide additional collateral or may seek other protection for the benefit of the participants in the Senior Loan. The Agent is compensated by the borrower for providing these services under a Loan Agreement, and such compensation may include special fees paid upon structuring and funding the Senior Loan and other fees paid on a continuing basis. With respect to Senior Loans for which the Agent does not perform such administrative and enforcement functions, the Fund will perform such tasks on its own behalf, although a collateral bank will typically hold any collateral on behalf of the Fund and the other Loan Investors pursuant to the applicable Loan Agreement.

A financial institution’s appointment as Agent may usually be terminated in the event that it fails to observe the requisite standard of care or becomes insolvent, enters Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) receivership, or, if not FDIC insured, enters into bankruptcy proceedings. A successor Agent would generally be appointed to replace the terminated Agent, and assets held by the Agent under the Loan Agreement should remain available to holders of Senior Loans. However, if assets held by the Agent for the benefit of the Fund were determined to be subject to the claims of the Agent’s general creditors, the Fund might incur certain costs and delays in realizing payment on a Senior Loan, or suffer a loss of principal and/or interest. In situations involving intermediate participants, similar risks may arise.

Senior Loans will usually require, in addition to scheduled payments of interest and principal, the prepayment of the Senior Loan from free cash flow, as defined above. The degree to which borrowers prepay Senior Loans, whether as a contractual requirement or at their election, may be affected by general business conditions, the financial condition of the borrower and competitive conditions among Loan Investors, among others. As such, prepayments cannot be predicted with accuracy. Upon a prepayment, either in part or in full, the actual outstanding debt on which the Fund derives interest income will be reduced. However, the Fund will, from time to time, receive both a prepayment penalty fee from the prepaying borrower and a facility fee upon the purchase of a new Senior Loan with the proceeds from the prepayment of the former.

 

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The Adviser and its affiliates will, from time to time, borrow money from various banks in connection with their business activities. Such banks may also sell interests in Senior Loans to, or acquire them from, the Fund or may be intermediate participants with respect to Senior Loans in which the Fund owns interests. Such banks may also act as Agents for Senior Loans held by the Fund.

The Fund will, from time to time, acquire interests in Senior Loans that are designed to provide temporary or “bridge” financing to a borrower pending the sale of identified assets or the arrangement of longer-term loans or the issuance and sale of debt obligations. The Fund will, from time to time, also invest in Senior Loans of borrowers that have obtained bridge loans from other parties. A borrower’s use of bridge loans involves a risk that the borrower may be unable to locate permanent financing to replace the bridge loan, which may impair the borrower’s perceived creditworthiness.

The Fund will be subject to the risk that collateral securing a loan will decline in value or have no value. Such a decline, whether as a result of bankruptcy proceedings or otherwise, could cause the Senior Loan to be undercollateralized or unsecured. In most credit agreements there is no formal requirement to pledge additional collateral. In addition, the Fund will, from time to time, invest in Senior Loans guaranteed by, or secured by assets of, shareholders or owners, even if the Senior Loans are not otherwise collateralized by assets of the borrower; provided, however, that such guarantees are fully secured. There may be temporary periods when the principal asset held by a borrower is the stock of a related company, which may not legally be pledged to secure a Senior Loan. On occasions when such stock cannot be pledged, the Senior Loan will be temporarily unsecured until the stock can be pledged or is exchanged for or replaced by other assets, which will be pledged as security for the Senior Loan. However, the Borrower’s ability to dispose of such securities, other than in connection with such pledge or replacement, will be strictly limited for the protection of the holders of Senior Loans and, indirectly, Senior Loans themselves.

The failure to perfect a security interest due to faulty documentation or faulty official filings could lead to the invalidation of the Fund’s security interest in loan collateral. If the Fund’s security interest in loan collateral is invalidated or the Senior Loan is subordinated to other debt of a borrower in bankruptcy or other proceedings, the Fund would have substantially lower recovery, and perhaps no recovery, on the full amount of the principal and interest due on the Senior Loan.

The Fund will, from time to time, acquire warrants and other equity securities as part of a unit combining a Senior Loan and equity securities of a borrower or its affiliates. The acquisition of such equity securities will only be incidental to the Fund’s purchase of a Senior Loan. The Fund will, from time to time, also acquire equity securities or credit securities (including non-dollar denominated equity or credit securities) issued in exchange for a Senior Loan or issued in connection with the debt restructuring or reorganization of a borrower, or if such acquisition, in the judgment of the Adviser, may enhance the value of a Senior Loan or would otherwise be consistent with the Fund’s investment policies.

Subordinated Loans

The Fund will, from time to time, invest in subordinated loans, which have the same characteristics as Senior Loans except that such loans are subordinated in payment and/or in lien priority to first lien holders. Accordingly, the risks associated with subordinated loans are higher than the risk of loans with first priority over the collateral. In the event of default on a subordinated loans, the first priority lien holder has first claim to the underlying collateral of the loan. It is possible that no collateral value would remain for the second priority lien holder and therefore result in a loss of investment to the Fund.

Subordinated loans generally are subject to similar risks as those associated with investments in Senior Loans. Because subordinated loans are subordinated and thus lower in priority of payment and/or in priority of lien to Senior Loans, they are subject to the additional risk that the cash flow of the borrower and property securing the loan or debt, if any, may be insufficient to meet scheduled payments after giving effect to the senior unsecured or

 

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senior secured obligations of the borrower. This risk is generally higher for subordinated unsecured loans or debt, which are not backed by a security interest in any specific collateral. Subordinated loans generally have greater price volatility than Senior Loans and may be less liquid. There is also a possibility that originators will not be able to sell participations in subordinated loans, which would create greater credit risk exposure for the holders of such loans. Subordinated loans share the same risks as other below investment grade securities.

Fixed-Income Instruments

The Fund will, from time to time, invest in fixed-income instruments, such as high-yield corporate debt securities, or bonds, or U.S. government securities. Corporate bonds and other fixed-income instruments are typically originated, negotiated and structured by a U.S. or foreign commercial bank, insurance company, finance company or other financial institution (the “underwriter”) for a group of investors (“Bond Investors”). The underwriter typically administers and enforces the fixed-income instrument on behalf of the other Bond Investors. In addition, in secured fixed-income instrument offerings, an institution, typically but not always the Agent, holds any collateral on behalf of the Bond Investors. The Fund will, from time to time, purchase assignments of fixed-income instruments either directly from the underwriter of from a Bond Investor.

An issuer of fixed-income instruments must typically comply with the terms contained in a note purchase agreement between the issuer and the holders of the instruments (the “Bond Agreement”). These Bond Agreements generally detail the schedule of payments and also place certain restrictive financial and other covenants on the issuer, similar to those in Loan Agreements. The underwriter typically administers the terms of the Bond Agreement on behalf of all holders of the instruments.

Fixed-income instruments are generally subject to many of the same risks that affect Senior Loans and subordinated loans. However, holders of fixed-income bonds would be subordinate to any existing secured lenders with higher priority in the issuer’s capital structure and thus have a lower priority in payment than lenders.

Debtor-in-Possession (“DIP”) Loans

The Fund will, from time to time, invest in or extend loans to companies that have filed for protection under Chapter 11 of the United States Bankruptcy Code. DIP financings allow the entity to continue its business operations while reorganizing under Chapter 11 and such financings must be approved by the bankruptcy court. These DIP loans are most often working-capital facilities put into place at the outset of a Chapter 11 case to provide the debtor with both immediate cash and the ongoing working capital that will be required during the reorganization process. DIP financings are typically fully secured by a lien on the debtor’s otherwise unencumbered assets or secured by a junior lien on the debtor’s encumbered assets (so long as the loan is fully secured based on the most recent current valuation or appraisal report of the debtor). DIP financings are often required to close with certainty and in a rapid manner in order to satisfy existing creditors and to enable the issuer to emerge from bankruptcy or to avoid a bankruptcy proceeding. There is a risk that the borrower will not emerge from Chapter 11 bankruptcy proceedings and be forced to liquidate its assets under Chapter 7 of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code. In the event of liquidation, the Fund’s only recourse will be against the property securing the DIP financing.

Lender Liability

Under common law principles that in some cases form the basis for lender liability claims, if a lender (a) intentionally takes an action that results in the undercapitalization of a borrower or issuer to the detriment of other creditors of such borrower or issuer, (b) engages in other inequitable conduct to the detriment of such other creditors or (c) engages in fraud with respect to, or makes misrepresentations to, such other creditors, a court may elect to subordinate the claim of the offending lender or bondholder to the claims of the disadvantaged creditor or creditors (a remedy called “equitable subordination”). The Fund does not intend to engage in conduct that would

 

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form the basis for a successful cause of action based upon the equitable subordination doctrine; however, because of the nature of the debt obligations, the Fund will, from time to time, be subject to claims from creditors of an obligor that debt obligations of such obligor which are held by the issuer should be equitably subordinated.

Restricted and Illiquid Securities

At times, the Fund will not be able to readily dispose of illiquid securities at prices that approximate those at which the Fund could sell such securities if they were more widely traded and, as a result of such illiquidity, the Fund will, from time to time, have to sell other investments or engage in borrowing transactions if necessary to raise cash to meet its obligations.

The Fund will, from time to time, purchase certain securities eligible for resale to qualified institutional buyers as contemplated by Rule 144A under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”) (“Rule 144A Securities”). Rule 144A provides an exemption from the registration requirements of the Securities Act for the resale of certain restricted securities to certain qualified institutional buyers. One effect of Rule 144A is that certain restricted securities may be considered liquid, though no assurance can be given that a liquid market for Rule 144A Securities will develop or be maintained. However, where a substantial market of qualified institutional buyers has developed for certain unregistered securities purchased by the Fund pursuant to Rule 144A under the Securities Act, the Fund intends to treat such securities as liquid securities in accordance with procedures approved by the Board. Because it is not possible to predict with assurance how the market for Rule 144A Securities will develop, the Board has directed the Adviser to monitor carefully the Fund’s investments in such securities with particular regard to trading activity, availability of reliable price information and other relevant information. To the extent that, for a period of time, qualified institutional buyers cease purchasing restricted securities pursuant to Rule 144A, the Fund’s investing in such securities may have the effect of increasing the level of illiquidity in its investment portfolio during such period.

Stressed and Distressed Investments

The Fund intends to invest in securities and other obligations of companies that are in significant financial or business distress, including companies involved in bankruptcy or other reorganization and liquidation proceedings. Although such investments may result in significant returns for the Fund, they involve a substantial degree of risk. The level of analytical sophistication, both financial and legal, necessary for successful investment in distressed assets is unusually high. There is no assurance that the Fund will correctly evaluate the value of the assets collateralizing the Fund’s investments or the prospects for a successful reorganization or similar action in respect of any company. In any reorganization or liquidation proceeding relating to a company in which the Fund invests, the Fund may lose its entire investment, may be required to accept cash or securities with a value less than the Fund’s original investment and/or may be required to accept payment over an extended period of time. Troubled company investments and other distressed asset-based investments require active monitoring.

Certain Bankruptcy and Insolvency Issues

Some of the companies in which the Fund invests may be involved in a complex bankruptcy or insolvency proceeding in the United States or elsewhere. There are a number of significant risks inherent in the bankruptcy or insolvency process. The Fund cannot guarantee the outcome of any bankruptcy or insolvency proceeding.

Under U.S. bankruptcy proceedings or other insolvency proceedings, the Fund will risk taking a loss on its investment and having its claim released or discharged against the debtor and third parties. For example, under a plan of reorganization, the Fund could receive a cash distribution for less than its initial investment or receive securities or other financial instruments in exchange for its claims, which then could be discharged and released against the debtor or other third parties. In addition, under U.S. bankruptcy proceedings, a debtor can effectuate a sale of assets with a purchaser acquiring such assets free and clear of any claims or liens underlying the Fund’s investment with the Fund having only potential recourse to the proceeds of the sale.

 

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Under certain circumstances, payments to the Fund may be reclaimed, recharacterized or avoided if any such payment or distribution is later determined by the applicable court to have been a fraudulent conveyance, fraudulent transfer, a preferential payment or otherwise subject to avoidance under applicable law. In addition, especially in the case of investments made prior to the commencement of bankruptcy proceedings, creditors can lose their ranking and priority if they exercise “domination and control” of a debtor and other creditors can demonstrate that they have been harmed by such actions.

Many events in a bankruptcy are often beyond the control of the creditors. While creditors may be given an opportunity to object to or otherwise participate in significant actions, there can be no assurance that a court in the exercise of its broad powers or discretion would not approve actions that would be contrary to the interests of the Fund as a creditor.

The duration of a bankruptcy or insolvency proceeding is difficult to predict. A creditor’s return on investment can be adversely impacted by delays while a plan of reorganization is being negotiated, approved by the creditors, confirmed by the bankruptcy court and until the plan ultimately becomes effective. Similar delays can occur while a court may be considering a sale or other restructuring transaction. In addition, the administrative costs in connection with a bankruptcy or insolvency proceeding are frequently high and will be paid out of the debtor’s estate prior to any return to unsecured creditors or equity holders. If a proceeding involves protracted or difficult litigation, or turns into a liquidation, substantial assets may be devoted to administrative costs. Also, in the early stages of the bankruptcy process, it is often difficult to estimate the extent of, or even to identify, any contingent claims that might be made. Further, certain claims that have priority by law (for example, claims for taxes) may be quite substantial.

The effect of a bankruptcy filing on or by a portfolio company may adversely and permanently affect the portfolio company. The portfolio company may lose its market position, going concern value and key employees and otherwise become incapable of restoring itself as a viable entity. If for this or any other reason the proceeding is converted to a liquidation, the liquidation value of the portfolio company may not equal the liquidation value that was believed to exist at the time of the investment.

Equity Securities

In addition to common stocks, the Fund will, from time to time, invest in equity securities, including preferred stocks, convertible securities, warrants and depository receipts.

Preferred Stock. Preferred stock generally pays dividends at a defined rate and has a preference over common stock in liquidation (and generally dividends as well) but is subordinated to the liabilities of the issuer in all respects. As a general rule, the market value of preferred stock with a fixed dividend rate and no conversion element varies inversely with interest rates and perceived credit risk, while the market price of convertible preferred stock generally also reflects some element of conversion value. Because preferred stock is junior to credit securities and other obligations of the issuer, deterioration in the credit quality of the issuer will cause greater changes in the value of a preferred stock than in a more senior credit security with similar stated yield characteristics. Unlike interest payments on debt securities, preferred stock dividends are payable only if declared by the issuer’s board of directors or equivalent body. Dividends on preferred stock may be cumulative, meaning that, in the event the issuer fails to make one or more dividend payments on the preferred stock, no dividends may be paid on the issuer’s common stock until all unpaid preferred stock dividends have been paid. Preferred stock also may be subject to optional or mandatory redemption provisions.

Convertible Securities. A convertible security is a bond, debenture, note, preferred stock or other security that may be converted into or exchanged for a prescribed amount of common stock or other equity security of the same or a different issuer within a particular period of time at a specified price or formula. A convertible security entitles the holder to receive interest paid or accrued on debt or the dividend paid on preferred stock until the convertible security matures or is redeemed, converted or exchanged. Before conversion, convertible securities

 

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have characteristics similar to nonconvertible income securities in that they ordinarily provide a stable stream of income with generally higher yields than those of common stocks of the same or similar issuers, but lower yields than comparable nonconvertible securities. The value of a convertible security is influenced by changes in interest rates, with investment value declining as interest rates increase and increasing as interest rates decline. The credit standing of the issuer and other factors also may have an effect on the convertible security’s investment value. Convertible securities rank senior to common stock in a corporation’s capital structure but are usually subordinated to comparable nonconvertible securities. Convertible securities may be subject to redemption at the option of the issuer at a price established in the convertible security’s governing instrument.

Warrants. Warrants are privileges issued by corporations enabling the owners to subscribe to and purchase a specified number of shares of the corporation at a specified price during a specified period of time. Subscription rights normally have a short life span to expiration. The purchase of warrants involves the risk that the Fund could lose the purchase value of a right or warrant if the right to subscribe to additional shares is not exercised prior to the warrants’ expiration. Also, the purchase of warrants involves the risk that the effective price paid for the warrant added to the subscription price of the related security may exceed the value of the subscribed security’s market price such as when there is no movement in the level of the underlying security.

Depository Receipts. The Fund will, from time to time, hold investments in sponsored and unsponsored American Depository Receipts (“ADRs”), European Depository Receipts (“EDRs”), Global Depository Receipts (“GDRs”) and other similar global instruments. ADRs typically are issued by a U.S. bank or trust company and evidence ownership of underlying securities issued by a non-U.S. corporation. EDRs, which are sometimes referred to as Continental Depository

Receipts, are receipts issued in Europe, typically by non-U.S. banks and trust companies, that evidence ownership of either non-U.S. or domestic underlying securities. GDRs are depository receipts structured like global debt issued to facilitate trading on an international basis. Unsponsored ADR, EDR and GDR programs are organized independently and without the cooperation of the issuer of the underlying securities. As a result, available information concerning the issuer may not be as current as for sponsored ADRs, EDRs and GDRs, and the prices of unsponsored ADRs, EDRs and GDRs may be more volatile than if such instruments were sponsored by the issuer. Investments in ADRs, EDRs and GDRs present additional investment considerations of Non-U.S. Securities.

Cash Equivalents and Short-Term Debt Securities

For temporary defensive purposes, the Fund will, from time to time, invest up to 100% of its Managed Assets in cash equivalents and short-term debt securities. Short-term debt investments having a remaining maturity of 60 days or less when purchased will be valued at cost, adjusted for amortization of premiums and accretion of discounts. Short-term debt securities are defined to include, without limitation, the following:

 

  (1)

U.S. government securities, including bills, notes and bonds differing as to maturity and rates of interest that are either issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Treasury or by other U.S. government agencies or instrumentalities. U.S. government securities include securities issued by (a) the Federal Housing Administration, Farmers Home Administration, Export-Import Bank of the United States, Small Business Administration and Government National Mortgage Association, whose securities are supported by the full faith and credit of the United States; (b) the Federal Home Loan Banks, Federal Intermediate Credit Banks and Tennessee Valley Authority, whose securities are supported by the right of the agency to borrow from the U.S. Treasury; (c) the Federal National Mortgage Association (“FNMA”), whose securities are supported by the discretionary authority of the U.S. government to purchase certain obligations of the agency or instrumentality; and (d) the Student Loan Marketing Association, whose securities are supported only by its credit. While the U.S. government provides financial support to such U.S. government-sponsored agencies or instrumentalities, no assurance can be given that it always will do so since it is not so obligated by law. The U.S. government, its agencies

 

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  and instrumentalities do not guarantee the market value of their securities. Consequently, the value of such securities may fluctuate. In 2008, the Federal Housing Finance Agency (“FHFA”) placed FNMA and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“FHLMC”) into conservatorship. As conservator, FHFA succeeded to all rights, titles, powers and privileges of FNMA and FHLMC and of any stockholder, officer or director of FNMA and FHLMC and the assets of FNMA and FHLMC. FNMA and FHLMC are continuing to operate as going concerns while in conservatorship and each remains liable for all of its obligations, including its guaranty obligations, associated with its mortgage-backed securities. There is no assurance that the obligations of such entities will be satisfied in full, or that such obligations will lose value or default. See “Mortgage-Backed Securities—Mortgage Pass-Through Securities” below. The Adviser will monitor developments and seek to manage the Fund’s portfolio in a manner consistent with achieving the Fund’s investment objectives, but there can be no assurance that it will be successful in doing so;

 

  (2)

Certificates of deposit issued against funds deposited in a bank or a savings and loan association. Such certificates are for a definite period of time, earn a specified rate of return and are normally negotiable. The issuer of a certificate of deposit agrees to pay the amount deposited plus interest to the bearer of the certificate on the date specified thereon. Certificates of deposit purchased by the Fund may not be fully insured by the FDIC;

 

  (3)

Repurchase agreements, which involve purchases of debt securities. At the time the Fund purchases securities pursuant to a repurchase agreement, it simultaneously agrees to resell and redeliver such securities to the seller, who also simultaneously agrees to buy back the securities at a fixed price and time. This assures a predetermined yield for the Fund during its holding period, since the resale price is always greater than the purchase price and reflects an agreed-upon market rate. Such actions afford an opportunity for the Fund to invest temporarily available cash. The Fund will, from time to time, enter into repurchase agreements only with respect to obligations of the U.S. government, its agencies or instrumentalities; certificates of deposit; or bankers’ acceptances in which the Fund may invest. Repurchase agreements may be considered loans to the seller, collateralized by the underlying securities. The risk to the Fund is limited to the ability of the seller to pay the agreed-upon sum on the repurchase date; in the event of default, the repurchase agreement provides that the Fund is entitled to sell the underlying collateral. If the value of the collateral declines after the agreement is entered into, and if the seller defaults under a repurchase agreement when the value of the underlying collateral is less than the repurchase price, the Fund could incur a loss of both principal and interest. The Adviser monitors the value of the collateral at the time the action is entered into and at all times during the term of the repurchase agreement. The Adviser does so in an effort to determine that the value of the collateral always equals or exceeds the agreed-upon repurchase price to be paid to the Fund. If the seller were to be subject to a federal bankruptcy proceeding, the ability of the Fund to liquidate the collateral could be delayed or impaired because of certain provisions of the bankruptcy laws; and

 

  (4)

Commercial paper, which consists of short-term unsecured promissory notes, including variable rate master demand notes issued by corporations to finance their current operations. Master demand notes are direct lending arrangements between the Fund and a corporation. There is no secondary market for such notes. However, they are redeemable by the Fund at any time. The Adviser will consider the financial condition of the corporation (e.g., earning power, cash flow and other liquidity ratios) and will continuously monitor the corporation’s ability to meet all of its financial obligations, because the Fund’s liquidity might be impaired if the corporation were unable to pay principal and interest on demand. Investments in commercial paper will be limited to commercial paper rated in the highest categories by a major rating agency and which mature within one year of the date of purchase or carry a variable or floating rate of interest.

Conflicts of Interest

Because the Adviser manages assets for other investment companies, pooled investment vehicles and/or other accounts (including institutional clients, pension plans and certain high net worth individuals), certain conflicts of

 

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interest are present. For instance, the Adviser receives fees from certain accounts that are higher than the fees received from the Fund, or receive a performance-based fee on certain accounts. In those instances, the portfolio manager has an incentive to favor the higher and/or performance-based fee accounts over the Fund. In addition, a conflict of interest exists to the extent the Adviser has proprietary investments in certain accounts, where the portfolio manager or other employees of the Adviser have personal investments in certain accounts or when certain accounts are investment options in the Adviser’s employee benefits plan. The Adviser has an incentive to favor these accounts over the Fund. Because the Adviser manages accounts that engage in short sales of (or otherwise take short positions in) securities or other instruments of the type in which the Fund invests, the Adviser could be seen as harming the performance of the Fund for the benefit of the accounts taking short positions, if such short positions cause the market value of the securities to fall. The Adviser has adopted trade allocation and other policies and procedures that it believes are reasonably designed to address these and other conflicts of interest. These policies and procedures will have the effect of foreclosing certain investment opportunities for the Fund from time to time. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Adviser will act in the best interest of the Fund in accordance with its fiduciary duty to the Fund.

The Adviser manages assets for accounts other than the Fund, including private funds. The Fund will, from time to time, invest in the same credit obligations as other funds advised by the Adviser or its affiliates (for purposes of this section, “KKR Funds”), although their investments may include different obligations of the same issuer. For example, the Fund might invest in senior loans issued by a borrower and one or more KKR Funds might invest in the borrower’s junior debt. In addition, the Adviser manages certain accounts (including CLOs) that invest in certain types of credit obligations in which the Fund may also invest. Investment opportunities appropriate for both the Fund and another KKR Funds generally will be allocated between the Fund and the other KKR Fund in a manner that the Adviser believes to be fair and equitable under the circumstances, in accordance with the Adviser’s trade allocation policies.

Conflicts of interest may arise where the Fund and other KKR Funds simultaneously hold securities representing different parts of the capital structure of a stressed or distressed issuer. In such circumstances, decisions made with respect to the securities held by one KKR Fund may cause (or have the potential to cause) harm to the different class of securities of the issuer held by other KKR Funds (including the Fund). For example, if such an issuer goes into bankruptcy or reorganization, becomes insolvent or otherwise experiences financial distress or is unable to meet its payment obligations or comply with covenants relating to credit obligations held by the Fund or by the other KKR Funds, such other KKR Funds may have an interest that conflicts with the interests of the Fund. If additional financing for such an issuer is necessary as a result of financial or other difficulties, it may not be in the best interests of the Fund to provide such additional financing, but if the other KKR Funds were to lose their respective investments as a result of such difficulties, the Adviser may have a conflict in recommending actions in the best interests of the Fund. In such situations, the Adviser will seek to act in the best interests of each of the KKR Funds (including the Fund) and will seek to resolve such conflicts in accordance with its compliance procedures.

In addition, the 1940 Act limits the Fund’s ability to enter into certain transactions with certain affiliates of the Adviser. As a result of these restrictions, the Fund will, from time to time, be prohibited from buying or selling any security directly from or to any portfolio company of a fund managed by the Adviser or one of its affiliates. Nonetheless, the Fund may under certain circumstances purchase any such portfolio company’s loans or securities in the secondary market, which could create a conflict for the Adviser between the interests of the Fund and the portfolio company, in that the ability of the Adviser to recommend actions in the best interest of the Fund might be impaired. The 1940 Act also prohibits certain “joint” transactions with certain of the Fund’s affiliates (which includes other funds managed by the Adviser), which could be deemed to include certain types of investments, or certain types of restructurings of investments, in the same portfolio company (whether at the same or different times). These limitations may limit the scope of investment opportunities that would otherwise be available to the Fund. The Board has approved various policies and procedures reasonably designed to monitor potential conflicts of interest. The Board will review these policies and procedures and any conflicts that may arise.

 

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Although the professional staff of the Adviser will devote as much time to the management of the Fund as the Adviser deems appropriate to perform their duties in accordance with the investment advisory agreement and in accordance with reasonable commercial standards, the professional staff of the Adviser may have conflicts in allocating their time and services among the Fund and other KKR Funds. The Adviser and its affiliates are not restricted from forming additional investment funds, from entering into other investment advisory relationships or from engaging in other business activities, even though such activities may be in competition with the Fund and/or may involve substantial time and resources of the Adviser and its professional staff. These activities could be viewed as creating a conflict of interest in that the time and effort of the members of the Adviser and its officers and employees will not be devoted exclusively to the business of the Fund but will be allocated between the business of the Fund and the management of the assets of other clients of the Adviser.

The Adviser or its respective members, officers, directors, employees, principals or affiliates may come into possession of material, non-public information. The possession of such information may limit the ability of the Fund to buy or sell a security or otherwise to participate in an investment opportunity. Situations may occur where the Fund could be disadvantaged because of the investment activities conducted by the Adviser for other clients, and the Adviser will not employ information barriers with regard to its operations on behalf of its registered and private funds, or other accounts. In certain circumstances, employees of the Adviser may serve as board members or in other capacities for portfolio or potential portfolio companies, which could restrict the Fund’s ability to trade in the securities of such companies.

Other Portfolio Strategies

Asset-Backed Securities

Asset-backed securities (“ABSs”) represent participations in, or are secured by and payable from, assets such as motor vehicle installment sales, installment loan contracts, leases of various types of real and personal property, receivables from revolving credit (credit card) agreements and other categories of receivables. Such assets are securitized through the use of trusts and special purpose corporations. Payments or distributions of principal and interest may be guaranteed up to certain amounts and for a certain time period by a letter of credit or a pool insurance policy issued by a financial institution unaffiliated with the trust or corporation, or other credit enhancements may be present.

The Fund will, from time to time, invest in ABSs. The investment characteristics of ABSs differ from traditional debt securities. Among the major differences are that interest and principal payments are made more frequently, usually monthly, and that the principal may be prepaid at any time because the underlying loans or other assets generally may be prepaid at any time. ABSs are not secured by an interest in the related collateral. Credit card receivables, for example, are generally unsecured and the debtors are entitled to the protection of a number of U.S. state and federal (and comparable non-U.S.) consumer loan laws, many of which give such debtors the right to set off certain amounts owed on the credit cards, thereby reducing the balance due. Most issuers of ABSs backed by automobile receivables permit the servicers to retain possession of the underlying obligations. If the servicer were to sell these obligations to another party, there is a risk that the purchaser would acquire an interest superior to that of the holders of the related ABSs. In addition, because of the large number of vehicles involved in a typical issuance and technical requirements under state laws, the trustee for the holders of the ABSs may not have a proper security interest in all of the obligations backing such ABSs. Therefore, there is a possibility that recoveries on repossessed collateral may not, in some cases, be available to support payments on these securities. The risk of investing in ABSs is ultimately dependent upon payment of consumer loans by the debtor. Such securities are often subject to more rapid repayment than their stated maturity date would indicate as a result of the pass-through of prepayments of principal on the underlying loans. During periods of declining interest rates, prepayment of loans underlying ABSs can be expected to accelerate. Accordingly, the Fund’s ability to maintain positions in such securities will be affected by reductions in the principal amount of such securities resulting from prepayments, and its ability to reinvest the returns of principal at comparable yields is subject to generally prevailing interest rates at that time. To the extent that the Fund invests in ABSs, the values of the Fund’s

 

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portfolio securities will vary with changes in market interest rates generally and the differentials in yields among various kinds of ABSs.

ABSs present certain additional risks because ABSs generally do not have the benefit of a security interest in collateral that is comparable to mortgage assets. The collateral supporting ABSs is of shorter maturity than certain other types of loans and is less likely to experience substantial prepayments. ABSs are often backed by pools of any variety of assets, including, for example, leases, mobile home loans and aircraft leases, which represent the obligations of a number of different parties and use credit enhancement techniques such as letters of credit, guarantees or preference rights. The value of an ABS is affected by changes in the market’s perception of the asset backing the security and the creditworthiness of the servicing agent for the loan pool, the originator of the loans or the financial institution providing any credit enhancement, as well as by the expiration or removal of any credit enhancement. Credit card receivables are generally unsecured and the debtors on such receivables are entitled to the protection of a number of state and federal consumer credit laws, many of which give such debtors the right to set-off certain amounts owed on the credit cards, thereby reducing the balance due. Automobile receivables generally are secured, but by automobiles rather than residential real property. Most issuers of automobile receivables permit the loan servicers to retain possession of the underlying obligations. If the servicer were to sell these obligations to another party, there is a risk that the purchaser would acquire an interest superior to that of the holders of the ABSs. In addition, because of the large number of vehicles involved in a typical issuance and technical requirements under state laws, the trustee for the holders of the automobile receivables may not have a proper security interest in the underlying automobiles. Therefore, if the issuer of an asset-backed security defaults on its payment obligations, there is the possibility that, in some cases, the Fund will be unable to possess and sell the underlying collateral and that the Fund’s recoveries on repossessed collateral may not be available to support payments on these securities.

In addition, investments in subordinated ABSs involve greater credit risk of default than the senior classes of the issue or series. Default risks are further pronounced in the case of ABSs secured by, or evidencing an interest in, a relatively small or less diverse pool of underlying loans. Certain subordinated securities absorb all losses from default before any other class of securities is at risk, particularly if such securities have been issued with little or no credit enhancement equity. Such securities, therefore, possess some of the attributes typically associated with equity investments.

Structured Products

Cash flows in collateralized debt obligations, collateralized bond obligations and collateralized loan obligations (“CLOs”) and other similarly structured issuers (collectively, “Structured Products”) are split into two or more tranches, varying in risk and yield. The risks of an investment in a Structured Product depend largely on the type of the collateral securities and the class of the CLO in which the Fund invests. Some Structured Products have credit ratings, but are typically issued in various classes with various priorities. The riskiest portion is the “equity” tranche, which bears the first loss from defaults from the underlying pool of bonds and serves to protect the other, more senior tranches from default (though such protection is not complete). Since it is partially protected from defaults, a senior tranche from a Structured Product typically has higher ratings and lower yields than its underlying securities, and may be rated investment grade. Despite the protection from the subordinate tranches, more senior tranches of structured products can experience substantial losses due to actual defaults, downgrades of the underlying collateral by rating agencies, forced liquidation of the collateral pool due to a failure of coverage tests, increased sensitivity to defaults due to collateral default and disappearance of protecting tranches, market anticipation of defaults as well as investor aversion to Structured Product securities as a class.

Mortgage-Backed Securities

The Fund will, from time to time, invest in a variety of mortgage-related and other ABSs issued by government agencies or other governmental entities or by private originators or issuers.

 

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Mortgage-related securities include mortgage pass-through securities, collateralized mortgage obligations (“CMOs”), commercial mortgage-backed securities (“CMBSs”), mortgage dollar rolls, CMO residuals, adjustable rate mortgage-backed securities (“ARMBSs”), stripped mortgage-backed securities (“SMBSs”) and other securities that directly or indirectly represent a participation in, or are secured by and payable from, mortgage loans on real property.

Mortgage Pass-Through Securities. Interests in pools of mortgage-related securities differ from other forms of debt securities, which normally provide for periodic payment of interest in fixed amounts with principal payments at maturity or specified call dates. Instead, these securities provide a monthly payment which consists of both interest and principal payments. In effect, these payments are a “pass through” of the monthly payments made by the individual borrowers on their residential or commercial mortgage loans, net of any fees paid to the issuer or guarantor of such securities. Additional payments are caused by repayments of principal resulting from the sale of the underlying property, refinancing or foreclosure, net of fees or costs that may be incurred. Some mortgage-related securities (such as securities issued by the Government National Mortgage Association (“GNMA”)) are described as “modified pass-through.” These securities entitle the holder to receive all interest and principal payments owed on the mortgage pool, net of certain fees, at the scheduled payment dates regardless of whether or not the mortgagor actually makes the payment.

The rate of pre-payments on underlying mortgages will affect the price and volatility of a mortgage-related security, and may have the effect of shortening or extending the effective duration of the security relative to what was anticipated at the time of purchase. To the extent that unanticipated rates of prepayment on underlying mortgages increase the effective duration of a mortgage-related security, the volatility of such security can be expected to increase. The mortgage market in the United States has experienced heightened difficulties over the past several years that may adversely affect the performance and market value of mortgage-related investments. Delinquencies and losses on residential and commercial mortgage loans (especially subprime and second-lien residential mortgage loans) generally have increased recently and may continue to increase, and a decline in or flattening of property values (as has recently been experienced and may continue to be experienced in many markets) may exacerbate such delinquencies and losses. Borrowers with adjustable-rate mortgage loans are more sensitive to changes in interest rates, which affect their monthly mortgage payments, and may be unable to secure replacement mortgages at comparably low interest rates. Also, a number of residential mortgage loan originators have recently experienced serious financial difficulties or bankruptcy. Owing largely to the foregoing, reduced investor demand for mortgage loans and mortgage-related securities and increased investor yield requirements have caused limited liquidity in the secondary market for mortgage-related securities, which can adversely affect the market value of mortgage-related securities. It is possible that such limited liquidity in such secondary markets could continue or worsen.

The principal U.S. governmental guarantor of mortgage-related securities is GNMA. GNMA is a wholly owned U.S. Government corporation within the Department of Housing and Urban Development. GNMA is authorized to guarantee, with the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government, the timely payment of principal and interest on securities issued by institutions approved by GNMA (such as savings and loan institutions, commercial banks and mortgage bankers) and backed by pools of mortgages insured by the Federal Housing Administration (the “FHA”), or guaranteed by the Department of Veterans Affairs (the “VA”). Government-related guarantors (i.e., not backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government) include FNMA and FHLMC. FNMA is a government-sponsored corporation the common stock of which is owned entirely by private stockholders. FNMA purchases conventional (i.e., not insured or guaranteed by any government agency) residential mortgages from a list of approved seller/servicers which include state and federally chartered savings and loan associations, mutual savings banks, commercial banks and credit unions and mortgage bankers. Pass-through securities issued by FNMA are guaranteed as to timely payment of principal and interest by FNMA, but are not backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government. FHLMC was created by Congress in 1970 for the purpose of increasing the availability of mortgage credit for residential housing. It is a government-sponsored corporation formerly owned by the twelve Federal Home Loan Banks but the common stock of which is now owned entirely by private stockholders. FHLMC issues Participation Certificates (“PCs”), which are pass-through securities, each

 

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representing an undivided interest in a pool of residential mortgages. FHLMC guarantees the timely payment of interest and ultimate collection of principal, but PCs are not backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government.

On September 6, 2008, the Federal Housing Finance Agency (“FHFA”) placed FNMA and FHLMC into conservatorship. As the conservator, FHFA succeeded to all rights, titles, powers and privileges of FNMA and FHLMC and of any stockholder, officer or director of FNMA and FHLMC with respect to FNMA and FHLMC and the assets of FNMA and FHLMC. FHFA selected a new chief executive officer and chairman of the board of directors for each of FNMA and FHLMC. In connection with the conservatorship, the U.S. Treasury entered into a Senior Preferred Stock Purchase Agreement with each of FNMA and FHLMC pursuant to which the U.S. Treasury will purchase up to an aggregate of $100 billion of each of FNMA and FHLMC to maintain a positive net worth in each enterprise. This agreement contains various covenants that severely limit each enterprise’s operations. In exchange for entering into these agreements, the U.S. Treasury received $1 billion of each enterprise’s senior preferred stock and warrants to purchase 79.9% of each enterprise’s common stock. On February 18, 2009, the U.S. Treasury announced that it was doubling the size of its commitment to each enterprise under the Senior Preferred Stock Program to $200 billion. The U.S. Treasury’s obligations under the Senior Preferred Stock Program are for an indefinite period of time for a maximum amount of $200 billion per enterprise. FNMA and FHLMC are continuing to operate as going concerns while in conservatorship and each remain liable for all of its obligations, including its guaranty obligations, associated with its mortgage-backed securities. The Senior Preferred Stock Purchase Agreement is intended to enhance each of FNMA’s and FHLMC’s ability to meet its obligations. The FHFA has indicated that the conservatorship of each enterprise will end when the director of FHFA determines that FHFA’s plan to restore the enterprise to a safe and solvent condition has been completed.

Under the Federal Housing Finance Regulatory Reform Act of 2008 (the “Reform Act”), which was included as part of the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008, FHFA, as conservator or receiver, has the power to repudiate any contract entered into by FNMA or FHLMC prior to FHFA’s appointment as conservator or receiver, as applicable, if FHFA determines, in its sole discretion, that performance of the contract is burdensome and that repudiation of the contract promotes the orderly administration of FNMA’s or FHLMC’s affairs. The Reform Act requires FHFA to exercise its right to repudiate any contract within a reasonable period of time after its appointment as conservator or receiver. FHFA, in its capacity as conservator, has indicated that it has no intention to repudiate the guaranty obligations of FNMA or FHLMC because FHFA views repudiation as incompatible with the goals of the conservatorship. However, in the event that FHFA, as conservator or if it is later appointed as receiver for FNMA or FHLMC, were to repudiate any such guaranty obligation, the conservatorship or receivership estate, as applicable, would be liable for actual direct compensatory damages in accordance with the provisions of the Reform Act. Any such liability could be satisfied only to the extent of FNMA’s or FHLMC’s assets available therefor. In the event of repudiation, the payments of interest to holders of FNMA or FHLMC mortgage-backed securities would be reduced if payments on the mortgage loans represented in the mortgage loan groups related to such mortgage-backed securities are not made by the borrowers or advanced by the servicer. Any actual direct compensatory damages for repudiating these guaranty obligations may not be sufficient to offset any shortfalls experienced by such mortgage-backed security holders. Further, in its capacity as conservator or receiver, FHFA has the right to transfer or sell any asset or liability of FNMA or FHLMC without any approval, assignment or consent. Although FHFA has stated that it has no present intention to do so, if FHFA, as conservator or receiver, were to transfer any such guaranty obligation to another party, holders of FNMA or FHLMC mortgage-backed securities would have to rely on that party for satisfaction of the guaranty obligation and would be exposed to the credit risk of that party. In addition, certain rights provided to holders of mortgage-backed securities issued by FNMA and FHLMC under the operative documents related to such securities may not be enforced against FHFA, or enforcement of such rights may be delayed, during the conservatorship or any future receivership. The operative documents for FNMA and FHLMC mortgage-backed securities may provide (or with respect to securities issued prior to the date of the appointment of the conservator may have provided) that upon the occurrence of an event of default on the part of FNMA or FHLMC, in its capacity as guarantor, which includes the appointment of a conservator or receiver, holders of such mortgage-

 

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backed securities have the right to replace FNMA or FHLMC as trustee if the requisite percentage of mortgage-backed securities holders consent. The Reform Act prevents mortgage-backed security holders from enforcing such rights if the event of default arises solely because a conservator or receiver has been appointed. The Reform Act also provides that no person may exercise any right or power to terminate, accelerate or declare an event of default under certain contracts to which FNMA or FHLMC is a party, or obtain possession of or exercise control over any property of FNMA or FHLMC, or affect any contractual rights of FNMA or FHLMC, without the approval of FHFA, as conservator or receiver, for a period of 45 or 90 days following the appointment of FHFA as conservator or receiver, respectively.

In addition, in a February 2011 report to Congress from the Treasury Department and the Department of Housing and Urban Development, the Obama administration provided a plan to reform America’s housing finance market. The plan would reduce the role of and eventually eliminate FNMA and FHLMC. Notably, the plan does not propose similar significant changes to GNMA, which guarantees payments on mortgage-related securities backed by federally insured or guaranteed loans such as those issued by the Federal Housing Association or guaranteed by the Department of Veterans Affairs. The report also identified three proposals for Congress and the administration to consider for the long-term structure of the housing finance markets after the elimination of FNMA and FHLMC, including implementing: (i) a privatized system of housing finance that limits government insurance to very limited groups of creditworthy low- and moderate-income borrowers; (ii) a privatized system with a government backstop mechanism that would allow the government to insure a larger share of the housing finance market during a future housing crisis; and (iii) a privatized system where the government would offer reinsurance to holders of certain highly-rated mortgage-related securities insured by private insurers and would pay out under the reinsurance arrangements only if the private mortgage insurers were insolvent.

Commercial banks, savings and loan institutions, private mortgage insurance companies, mortgage bankers and other secondary market issuers also create pass-through pools of conventional residential mortgage loans. Such issuers may be the originators and/or servicers of the underlying mortgage loans as well as the guarantors of the mortgage-related securities. Pools created by such non-governmental issuers generally offer a higher rate of interest than government and government-related pools because there are no direct or indirect government or agency guarantees of payments in the former pools. However, timely payment of interest and principal of these pools may be supported by various forms of insurance or guarantees, including individual loan, title, pool and hazard insurance and letters of credit, which may be issued by governmental entities or private insurers. Such insurance and guarantees and the creditworthiness of the issuers thereof will be considered in determining whether a mortgage-related security meets the Fund’s investment quality standards. There can be no assurance that the private insurers or guarantors can meet their obligations under the insurance policies or guarantee arrangements. The Fund may buy mortgage-related securities without insurance or guarantees if, through an examination of the loan experience and practices of the originators/servicers and poolers, the Advisers determine that the securities meet the Fund’s quality standards. Securities issued by certain private organizations may not be readily marketable.

Collateralized Mortgage Obligations. A CMO is a debt obligation of a legal entity that is collateralized by mortgages and divided into classes. Similar to a bond, interest and prepaid principal is paid, in most cases, on a monthly basis. CMOs may be collateralized by whole mortgage loans or private mortgage bonds, but are more typically collateralized by portfolios of mortgage pass-through securities guaranteed by GNMA, FHLMC or FNMA and their income streams. CMOs are structured into multiple classes, often referred to as “tranches,” with each class bearing a different stated maturity and entitled to a different schedule for payments of principal and interest, including prepayments. Actual maturity and average life will depend upon the pre-payment experience of the collateral. In the case of certain CMOs (known as “sequential pay” CMOs), payments of principal received from the pool of underlying mortgages, including prepayments, are applied to the classes of CMOs in the order of their respective final distribution dates. Thus, no payment of principal will be made to any class of sequential pay CMOs until all other classes having an earlier final distribution date have been paid in full. CMOs may be less liquid and may exhibit greater price volatility than other types of mortgage- or ABSs.

 

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Commercial Mortgage-Backed Securities. CMBSs include securities that reflect an interest in, and are secured by, mortgage loans on commercial real property. Many of the risks of investing in commercial mortgage-backed securities reflect the risks of investing in the real estate securing the underlying mortgage loans. These risks reflect the effects of local and other economic conditions on real estate markets, the ability of tenants to make loan payments and the ability of a property to attract and retain tenants. Commercial mortgage-backed securities may be less liquid and exhibit greater price volatility than other types of mortgage- or ABSs.

CMO Residuals. CMO residuals are mortgage securities issued by agencies or instrumentalities of the U.S. Government or by private originators of, or investors in, mortgage loans, including savings and loan associations, homebuilders, mortgage banks, commercial banks, investment banks and special purpose entities of the foregoing. The cash flow generated by the mortgage assets underlying a series of a CMO is applied first to make required payments of principal and interest on the CMO and second to pay the related administrative expenses and any management fee of the issuer. The residual in a CMO structure generally represents the interest in any excess cash flow remaining after making the foregoing payments. Each payment of such excess cash flow to a holder of the related CMO residual represents income and/or a return of capital. The amount of residual cash flow resulting from a CMO will depend on, among other things, the characteristics of the mortgage assets, the coupon rate of each class of CMO, prevailing interest rates, the amount of administrative expenses and the prepayment experience on the mortgage assets. In particular, the yield to maturity on CMO residuals is extremely sensitive to prepayments on the related underlying mortgage assets, in the same manner as an interest-only (“IO”) class of stripped mortgage-backed securities (described below). In addition, if a series of a CMO includes a class that bears interest at an adjustable rate, the yield to maturity on the related CMO residual will also be extremely sensitive to changes in the level of the index upon which interest rate adjustments are based. As described below with respect to stripped mortgage-backed securities, in certain circumstances the Fund may fail to recoup fully its initial investment in a CMO residual. CMO residuals are generally purchased and sold by institutional investors through several investment banking firms acting as brokers or dealers. CMO residuals may, or pursuant to an exemption therefrom, may not, have been registered under the Securities Act. CMO residuals, whether or not registered under the Securities Act, may be subject to certain restrictions on transferability.

Adjustable Rate Mortgage-Backed Securities. ARMBSs have interest rates that reset at periodic intervals. Acquiring ARMBSs permits the Fund to participate in increases in prevailing current interest rates through periodic adjustments in the coupons of mortgages underlying the pool on which ARMBSs are based. Such ARMBSs generally have higher current yield and lower price fluctuations than is the case with more traditional fixed-income instruments of comparable rating and maturity. In addition, when prepayments of principal are made on the underlying mortgages during periods of rising interest rates, the Fund can reinvest the proceeds of such prepayments at rates higher than those at which they were previously invested. Mortgages underlying most ARMBSs, however, have limits on the allowable annual or lifetime increases that can be made in the interest rate that the mortgagor pays. Therefore, if current interest rates rise above such limits over the period of the limitation, the Fund, when holding an ARMBS, does not benefit from further increases in interest rates. Moreover, when interest rates are in excess of coupon rates (i.e., the rates being paid by mortgagors) of the mortgages, ARMBSs behave more like fixed-income instruments and less like adjustable-rate securities and are subject to the risks associated with fixed-income instruments. In addition, during periods of rising interest rates, increases in the coupon rate of adjustable-rate mortgages generally lag current market interest rates slightly, thereby creating the potential for capital depreciation on such securities.

Stripped Mortgage-Backed Securities. SMBSs are derivative multi-class mortgage securities. SMBSs may be issued by agencies or instrumentalities of the U.S. Government, or by private originators of, or investors in, mortgage loans, including savings and loan associations, mortgage banks, commercial banks, investment banks and special purpose entities of the foregoing. SMBSs are usually structured with two classes that receive different proportions of the interest and principal distributions on a pool of mortgage assets. A common type of SMBS will have one class receiving some of the interest and most of the principal from the mortgage assets, while the other class will receive most of the interest and the remainder of the principal. In the most extreme

 

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case, one class will receive all of the interest (the “IO” class), while the other class will receive all of the principal (the principal-only or “PO” class). The yield to maturity on an IO class is extremely sensitive to the rate of principal payments (including prepayments) on the related underlying mortgage assets, and a rapid rate of principal payments may have a material adverse effect on the Fund’s yield to maturity from these securities. If the underlying mortgage assets experience greater than anticipated prepayments of principal, the Fund could fail to recoup some or all of its initial investment in these securities even if the security is in one of the highest rating categories.

Dollar Rolls

The Fund will, from time to time, enter into “dollar rolls” in which the Fund sells securities for delivery in the current month and simultaneously contracts with the same counterparty to repurchase similar, but not identical securities on a specified future date. During the roll period, the Fund loses the right to receive principal and interest paid on the securities sold. However, the Fund would benefit to the extent of any difference between the price received for the securities sold and the lower forward price for the future purchase or fee income plus the interest earned on the cash proceeds of the securities sold until the settlement date of the forward purchase. All cash proceeds will be invested in instruments that are permissible investments for the Fund. The Fund will segregate until the settlement date cash or liquid assets, as permitted by applicable law, in an amount equal to its forward purchase price.

For financial reporting and tax purposes, the Fund treats dollar rolls as two separate transactions; one involving the purchase of a security and a separate transaction involving a sale. The Fund does not currently intend to enter into dollar rolls for financing and does not treat them as borrowings.

Dollar rolls involve certain risks including the following: if the broker-dealer to whom the Fund sells the security becomes insolvent, the Fund’s right to purchase or repurchase the securities subject to the dollar roll may be restricted. Also, the instrument which the Fund is required to repurchase may be worth less than an instrument which the Fund originally held. Successful use of dollar rolls will depend upon the Adviser’s ability to manage the Fund’s interest rate and prepayments exposure. For these reasons, there is no assurance that dollar rolls can be successfully employed. The use of this technique may diminish the investment performance of the Fund compared with what such performance would have been without the use of dollar rolls.

Derivatives

General Limitations on Futures and Options Transactions. The Fund has filed a notice of eligibility with the National Futures Association for exclusion from the definition of the term “commodity pool operator” under the Commodity Exchange Act, as amended (the “CEA”). The Fund is not subject to regulation by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”) as a commodity pool operator.

Asset Coverage for Futures and Options Positions. The Fund will comply with the regulatory requirements of the SEC and the CFTC with respect to coverage of options and futures positions by registered investment companies and, if the guidelines so require, will segregate cash, U.S. government securities, high-grade liquid debt securities and/or other liquid assets permitted by the SEC and CFTC on the Fund’s records in the amount prescribed. Securities segregated on the Fund’s records cannot be sold while the futures or options position is outstanding, unless replaced with other permissible assets, and will be marked-to-market daily.

Options. The Fund will, from time to time, purchase put and call options on currencies or securities. A put option embodies the right of its purchaser to compel the writer of the option to purchase from the option holder an underlying currency or security or its equivalent at a specified price at any time during the option period. In contrast, a call option gives the purchaser the right to buy the underlying currency or security covered by the option or its equivalent from the writer of the option at the stated exercise price.

 

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As a holder of a put option, the Fund will have the right to sell the securities underlying the option and as the holder of a call option, the Fund will have the right to purchase the currencies or securities underlying the option, in each case at their exercise price at any time prior to the option’s expiration date for American options or only at expiration for European options. The Fund could seek to terminate its option positions prior to their expiration by entering into closing transactions. The ability of the Fund to enter into a closing sale transaction depends on the existence of a liquid secondary market. There can be no assurance that a closing purchase or sale transaction can be effected when the Fund so desires.

Certain Considerations Regarding Options. The hours of trading for options may not conform to the hours during which the underlying securities are traded. To the extent that the options markets close before the markets for the underlying securities, significant price and rate movements can take place in the underlying markets that cannot be reflected in the options markets. The purchase of options is a highly specialized activity which involves investment techniques and risks different from those associated with ordinary portfolio securities transactions. The purchase of options involves the risk that the premium and transaction costs paid by the Fund in purchasing an option will be lost as a result of unanticipated movements in prices of the securities on which the option is based. Imperfect correlation between the options and securities markets may detract from the effectiveness of attempted hedging. Options transactions may result in significantly higher transaction costs and portfolio turnover for the Fund.

Some, but not all, of the options may be traded and listed on an exchange. There is no assurance that a liquid secondary market on an options exchange will exist for any particular option at any particular time, and for some options no secondary market on an exchange or elsewhere may exist. If the Fund is unable to effect a closing sale transaction with respect to options on securities that it has purchased, it would have to exercise the option in order to realize any profit and would incur transaction costs upon the purchase and sale of the underlying securities.

Futures Contracts. The Fund will, from time to time, enter into securities-related futures contracts, including security futures contracts as an anticipatory hedge. The Fund’s derivative investments may include sales of futures as an offset against the effect of expected declines in securities prices and purchases of futures as an offset against the effect of expected increases in securities prices. A security futures contract is a legally binding agreement between two parties to purchase or sell in the future a specific quantity of a security or of the component securities of a narrow-based security index, at a certain price. A person who buys a security futures contract enters into a contract to purchase an underlying security and is said to be “long” the contract. A person who sells a security futures contact enters into a contract to sell the underlying security and is said to be “short” the contract. The price at which the contract trades (the “contract price”) is determined by relative buying and selling interest on a regulated exchange.

Transaction costs are incurred when a futures contract is bought or sold and margin deposits must be maintained. In order to enter into a security futures contract, the Fund must deposit funds with its custodian in the name of the futures commodities merchant equal to a specified percentage of the current market value of the contract as a performance bond. Moreover, all security futures contracts are marked-to-market at least daily, usually after the close of trading. At that time, the account of each buyer and seller reflects the amount of any gain or loss on the security futures contract based on the contract price established at the end of the day for settlement purposes.

An open position, either a long or short position, is typically closed or liquidated by entering into an offsetting transaction (i.e., an equal and opposite transaction to the one that opened the position) prior to the contract’s expiration. Traditionally, most futures contracts are liquidated prior to expiration through an offsetting transaction and, thus, holders do not incur a settlement obligation. If the offsetting purchase price is less than the original sale price, a gain will be realized. Conversely, if the offsetting sale price is more than the original purchase price, a gain will be realized; if it is less, a loss will be realized. The transaction costs must also be included in these calculations. There can be no assurance, however, that the Fund will be able to enter into an offsetting transaction with respect to a particular futures contract at a particular time. If the Fund is not able to

 

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