F-1 1 d694712df1.htm FORM F-1 Form F-1
Table of Contents

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on September 4, 2019

Registration No. 333-            

 

 

 

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM F-1

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

Huize Holding Limited

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

Not Applicable

(Translation of Registrant’s name into English)

 

 

 

Cayman Islands   6411   Not Applicable

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

(Primary Standard Industrial

Classification Code Number)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification Number)

5/F, Building 3-4,

Shenzhen Animation Park, Yuehai Road, Nanhai Avenue,

Nanshan District, Shenzhen 518052

People’s Republic of China

+86 755 3689 9088

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of Registrant’s principal executive offices)

 

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

 

 

Copies to:

 

 

Haiping Li, Esq.

Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom LLP

46/F, Jing An Kerry Centre, Tower II

1539 Nanjing West Road

Shanghai 200040, China

+86 021 6193 8200

 

David Zhang, Esq.

Steve Lin, Esq.

Amanda Mi Tang, Esq.

Kirkland & Ellis International LLP

c/o 26/F, Gloucester Tower, The Landmark

15 Queen’s Road Central

Hong Kong

+852 3761-3300

 

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public:

as soon as practicable after the effective date of this registration statement.

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, check the following box.  ☐

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is an emerging growth company as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act of 1933.

Emerging growth company  ☒

If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.  ☐

 

The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.

 

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

 

Title of each class of

securities to be registered

 

Proposed
maximum
aggregate

offering price(2)(3)

 

Amount of

registration fee

Common shares, par value US$0.00001 per share(1)

  US$150,000,000   US$18,180.00

 

 

(1)

American depositary shares issuable upon deposit of common shares registered hereby will be registered under a separate registration statement on Form F-6 (Registration No. 333-            ). Each American depositary share represents              common shares.

(2)

Includes common shares that are issuable upon the exercise of the underwriters’ over-allotment option. Also includes common shares initially offered and sold outside the United States that may be resold from time to time in the United States either as part of their distribution or within 40 days after the later of the effective date of this registration statement and the date the shares are first bona fide offered to the public. These common shares are not being registered for the purpose of sales outside the United States.

(3)

Estimated solely for the purpose of determining the amount of registration fee in accordance with Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act of 1933.

 

 

The Registrant hereby amends this Registration Statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this Registration Statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until the Registration Statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 

 


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The information in this preliminary prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and we are not soliciting offers to buy these securities in any state where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

PROSPECTUS (Subject to Completion)

Issued             , 2019.

American Depositary Shares

 

LOGO

Huize Holding Limited

Representing              Common Shares

 

 

This is an initial public offering of              American depositary shares, or ADSs, by Huize Holding Limited. Each ADS represents              of our common shares, par value US$0.00001 per share. We anticipate the initial public offering price will be between US$             and US$             per ADS.

 

 

Prior to this offering, there has been no public market for the ADSs or our common shares. We intend to apply for the listing of the ADSs on [the New York Stock Exchange/Nasdaq Global Market] under the symbol “HUIZ.”

We are an “emerging growth company” under applicable U.S. federal securities laws and are eligible for reduced public company reporting requirements.

 

 

Investing in the ADSs involves risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 16.

 

 

PRICE US$             PER ADS

 

 

 

      

Initial Public
Offering
Price

      

Underwriting
Discounts and
Commissions(1)

      

Proceeds to
Us

 

Per ADS

       US$                      US$                      US$              

Total

       US$                      US$                      US$              

 

(1)   For a description of compensation payable to the underwriters, see “Underwriting.”

Huize Holding Limited has granted the underwriters an over-allotment option to purchase up to an additional              ADSs from us at the initial public offering price, less the underwriting discounts and commissions, within 30 days from the date of prospectus.

Neither the United States Securities and Exchange Commission nor any other regulatory body has approved or disapproved of these securities, or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

The underwriters expect to deliver the ADSs against payment in U.S. dollars in New York, New York to purchasers on or about             , 2019.

 

 

 

MORGAN STANLEY   CITIGROUP   CICC
  TIGER BROKERS  

Prospectus dated             , 2019.


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LOGO


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Industry

     108  

Business

     116  

Regulation

     142  

Management

     159  

Principal Shareholders

     167  

Related Party Transactions

     169  

Description of Share Capital

     170  

Description of American Depositary Shares

     180  

Shares Eligible for Future Sale

     191  

Taxation

     193  

Underwriting

     200  

Expenses Related to this Offering

     211  

Legal Matters

     212  

Experts

     213  

Where You Can Find Additional Information

     214  

Index to Consolidated Financial Statements

     F-1  
 

 

 

You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus or in any related free writing prospectus. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with information different from that contained in this prospectus or in any related free writing prospectus. We are offering to sell, and seeking offers to buy the ADSs, only in jurisdictions where offers and sales are permitted. The information contained in this prospectus is accurate only as of the date of this prospectus, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any sale of the ADSs.

Neither we nor any of the underwriters has taken any action to permit a public offering of the ADSs outside the United States or to permit the possession or distribution of this prospectus or any filed free writing prospectus outside the United States. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus or any filed free writing prospectus must inform themselves about and observe any restrictions relating to the offering of the ADSs and the distribution of the prospectus or any filed free writing prospectus outside the United States.

Until            , 2019 (the 25th day after the date of this prospectus), all dealers that buy, sell or trade ADSs, whether or not participating in this offering, may be required to deliver a prospectus. This is in addition to the obligation of dealers to deliver a prospectus when acting as underwriters and with respect to their unsold allotments or subscriptions.

 

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

The following summary is qualified in its entirety by, and should be read in conjunction with, the more detailed information and financial statements appearing elsewhere in this prospectus. In addition to this summary, we urge you to read the entire prospectus carefully, especially the risks of investing in the ADSs discussed under “Risk Factors” before deciding whether to invest in the ADSs. This prospectus contains information from an industry report, or the Oliver Wyman Report, commissioned by us and prepared by Oliver Wyman, an independent research firm, to provide information regarding our industry and our market position in China. Unless otherwise specified, industry and market data contained in this prospectus are quoted from the Oliver Wyman Report.

Our Mission

Our mission is to transform the way insurance policies are distributed and to become a trustworthy online insurance product and service platform.

Overview

We are a leading independent online insurance product and service platform in China that is not affiliated with insurance companies or other insurance industry participants. As a licensed insurance intermediary operating an online platform, we do not bear underwriting risks. We distribute on our platform insurance products underwritten by insurance companies we cooperate with, whom we refer to as our insurer partners, and help them reach a large number of purchasers of insurance products, or our insurance clients. We primarily generate revenues from the insurance brokerage fees paid by our insurer partners. We believe, leveraging internet, technology and data analytics expertise, our business model enables us to reach the insurance retail market in a cost-effective manner.

Targeting the younger generation, we are dedicated to serving our insurance clients for their life-long insurance needs. Leveraging our online platform, we offer a wide variety of insurance products with a focus on long-term life and health insurance products with a term that is longer than one year, which are particularly suitable for our clients. A substantial portion of these products have payment terms of 20 years or more. We cooperate with our insurer partners and help them increase insurance sales, improve efficiency and unlock profit potential. According to the Oliver Wyman Report, we were the largest independent online long-term life and health insurance product and service platform in China as measured by gross written premiums, or GWP facilitated in 2018.

We have accumulated a large insurance client base. As of June 30, 2019, we had cumulatively served 5.8 million insurance clients. A substantial portion of our insurance client base are the younger generation, particularly life and health insurance clients. In the six months ended June 30, 2019, the average age of insurance clients who purchased life and health insurance products through our platform was 32. The younger generation are typically tech-savvy, with strong preference to online transactions. Our online platform offers digitalized insurance experience and services efficiently and effectively through various internet and mobile internet channels, attracting the younger generation and meeting the growing trend in online insurance purchase.

In order to serve our clients’ protection needs, we offer a wide variety of insurance products with easy-to-understand terms and focusing on protection. Our products cover two major categories—life and health insurance products, and property & casualty insurance products. In the six months ended June 30, 2019, we offered approximately 214 life and health insurance products and approximately 861 property & casualty insurance products. Our life and health insurance products contributed to approximately 89.8% of our brokerage income in the six months ended June 30, 2019. In particular, long-term life and health insurance products, which typically



 

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generate higher commission fees, served as a driving factor for the significant increase in our operating revenue in 2018 and the six months ended June 30, 2019. The long-term life and health insurance products we offered in the six months ended June 30, 2019 accounted for 79.4% of the total first year premiums we facilitated in the six months ended June 30, 2019. Our long-term life and health insurance products primarily consist of critical illness insurance products, typically offering a lump-sum payment to the insured if the insured is diagnosed with a major life-threatening illness as defined in the insurance policy. A substantial portion of these products have payment terms of 20 years or more. We believe that our insurance clients are at an early stage of establishing insurance protection for both themselves and their families. By focusing on long-term life and health insurance products, we create long-term engagement with our insurance clients, which we believe enables us to provide insurance services to our insurance clients along their life journey, generate long-term recurring revenues from commission fees, and accumulate multi-dimension data from such clients to improve our product development and risk management capabilities.

Our founding team began operating an online insurance intermediary business in 2006. Given our long operating history, we have a deep understanding of insurance clients’ profiles and behavior, which enables us to create accurate profiling, detailed segmentation and to effectively reach and acquire insurance clients. We convert client traffic to our platform through high quality services and efficient client management systems. Our insurance consultants are young professionals with similar age profiles as our insurance clients, and they empathically understand and click with our clients. We offer our insurance consultants with professional training to ensure that they have a solid understanding of insurance products and provide high quality services. We maintain and enhance engagement with our clients through digital channels that are popular among younger generations. We also offer high quality free educational content to the general public, and thereby continually build and enhance our “Huize” brand. We continue to explore our insurance clients’ potential needs throughout the different stages of their lifetime and serve them with the suitable products.

We have established business cooperations with a large group of insurance companies, who we refer to as our insurer partners. As of June 30, 2019, we cooperated with 67 insurer partners, representing a substantial portion of all licensed insurance companies in China. We empower our insurer partners to reach a massive and fragmented client base quickly, and enhance their insurance sales through our online platform. Our distribution capabilities are especially valuable for fast-growing insurance companies seeking efficient distribution channels. Serving as an effective distribution platform to our insurer partners, we have also integrated critical steps in the insurance policy distribution process, such as intelligent underwriting and in-force policy administration, in our system. We believe that this integration not only creates value for our insurer partners, but also enhances our own client data accumulation and risk management capabilities. In addition, supported by our insurance expertise, actuarial capabilities, risk management capabilities and the large amount of client behavior data we possess and analyze, we take initiatives in designing and developing tailor-made insurance products together with our insurer partners. Such collaboration not only solidifies our relationship with insurer partners, but also allows us to better serve clients’ protection needs and to capture evolving market opportunities. In the six months ended June 30, 2019, approximately 35.2% of the GWP facilitated through our platform were contributed by tailor-made insurance products that we developed together with our insurer partners.

Through serving and supporting both insurance clients and insurer partners, we operate as an independent platform with a dual-engine business model. We provide insurance clients with high-quality client services, including suitable product recommendations, consulting service, intelligent underwriting and assistance in claim application and settlement, which significantly improves transaction experience. Meanwhile, we believe we enable our insurer partners to reach a large insurance client base online in a cost-efficient manner, which enhances their sales volume and increase their margins. Leveraging our strong product distribution capabilities, rigorous risk management system and deep market insights, we believe our insurer partners are willing to offer more products with attractive terms on our platform, which in turn attracts more insurance clients, forming a virtuous cycle. Our founding team began operating an online insurance business under the “Huize” brand in



 

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2006. We believe the 13 years of reputable track record in the industry and our powerful dual-engine model pose a significant entry barrier to potential competitors.

We have experienced substantial growth since our inception. The cumulative number of insurance clients we served increased from approximately 3.7 million as of December 31, 2017 to approximately 5.3 million as of December 31, 2018, and further to approximately 5.8 million as of June 30, 2019. The GWP we facilitated increased from RMB617.5 million in 2017 to RMB941.0 million in 2018. The GWP we facilitated in the six months ended June 30, 2019 was approximately RMB825.7 million. We primarily generate revenues from the commission fees that we charge our insurer partners for facilitating insurance policies and generating premiums for them. Our focus on long-term life and health insurance products, which by its nature brings long-term and recurring revenues, enhances our financial visibility. Our total operating revenue increased from RMB263.3 million in 2017 to RMB508.8 million (US$74.1 million) in 2018, and increased from RMB181.8 million in the six months ended June 30, 2018 to RMB451.5 million (US$65.8 million) in the six months ended June 30, 2019. Our net loss was RMB97.0 million in 2017. Our net profit was RMB2.9 million (US$0.4 million) in 2018. We had net profit of RMB4.3 million and RMB6.4 million (US$0.9 million) in the six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2019, respectively. Our adjusted net loss in 2017 was RMB96.2 million, and our adjusted net profit in 2018 was RMB30.1 million (US$4.4 million). Our adjusted net profit was RMB4.8 million and RMB74.2 million (US$10.8 million) in the six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2019, respectively. See “Summary Consolidated Financial and Operating Data—Non-GAAP Financial Measure.”

Our Industry

China has become the second largest insurance market in the world since 2015 as measured by GWP, according to the Oliver Wyman Report. The size of China’s insurance market has increased rapidly from RMB1.7 trillion in 2013 to RMB3.8 trillion in 2018, representing a CAGR of 17%, and is projected to reach RMB6.9 trillion in 2023, representing a CAGR of 13% from 2018 to 2023. According to the Oliver Wyman Report, there are three core opportunities in China’s insurance industry:

 

   

Online insurance market: The rapid development of the Internet has contributed to the younger generation’s habit of purchasing products online. The tech-savvy younger generation has transitioned to a life stage of forming families, which triggers their compelling needs of purchasing insurance products and they prefer to do it online.

 

   

Independent service platform business model: Individual insurance agents are usually affiliated with specific insurance companies. They may not be independent and cannot provide impartial advice to insurance clients. Moreover, Chinese regulatory authorities promote the separation between production and distribution of insurance products to enhance the efficiency of the whole industry, a proven model in U.S. and Europe. Therefore, online independent insurance product and service platforms have been playing an increasingly important role in the industry value chain, especially to younger generation.

 

   

Long-term life and health insurance products focusing on protection: Benefiting from the growing long-term protection needs and enhanced product design capabilities, long-term life and health insurance segments hold the strongest growth potential among all types of insurance products. Multiple policies implemented by the PRC government in recent years have boosted the development of a protection-oriented long-term life and health insurance market. In addition, the cap imposed on the government’s payment for citizens’ medical claims amid the ongoing healthcare reform further heightened the demand for commercial long-term health insurance products.

Key success factors in the online independent insurance service platform market include: brand name, service capabilities, understanding client needs, effective client acquisition, a sizable business volume that enables steady cooperation with insurance companies, expansion of product offerings to achieve high client stickiness and lifetime value, robust risk management capabilities and high operating efficiency.



 

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Our Competitive Strengths

We believe that the following competitive strengths contribute to our success and differentiate us from our competitors:

 

   

leading position in the industry powered by our dual-engine business model;

 

   

quality client base with long-term client engagement;

 

   

effective client acquisition and retention;

 

   

outstanding product design and development capabilities powered by data;

 

   

strong technology infrastructure and data analytics capability; and

 

   

visionary and experienced management and entrepreneurial corporate culture.

Our Strategies

We intend to further grow our business by pursuing the following strategies:

 

   

expand client base and enhance client engagement;

 

   

deepen our cooperative relationships with insurer partners;

 

   

offer more products and develop more co-branded products;

 

   

invest in technology to improve operating efficiency and enhance profitability; and

 

   

selectively grow through mergers & acquisitions and overseas expansion.

Our Challenges

We face challenges, risks and uncertainties in realizing our business objectives and executing our strategies, including those relating to our ability to:

 

   

enhance our market leadership in the online insurance product and service industry;

 

   

navigate in the fast-changing regulatory environment;

 

   

develop and offer insurance products that meet the evolving market demand;

 

   

expand our client base through various channels;

 

   

maintain and improve our relationship with business partners;

 

   

maintain and enhance our “Huize” brand in a cost-effective manner;

 

   

stay compliant with regulatory requirements, and manage impacts of our past and potential non-compliance;

 

   

continuously maintain and enhance our technology and big data edges; and

 

   

compete successfully.

Please see “Risk Factors” and other information included in this prospectus for a discussion of these and other risks and uncertainties that we face.

Corporate History and Structure

Our founding team began operating an online insurance business under the “Huize” brand in 2006. Shenzhen Huize Insurance Brokerage Co., Ltd., or Huize Brokerage, was established in 2011 in preparation for



 

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the launch of our platform. Mr. Cunjun Ma, the chairman of our board of directors and our chief executive officer, was our founder. In 2014, Mr. Cunjun Ma established Shenzhen Huiye Tianze Investment Holding Co., Ltd., or Huiye Tianze, as a holding company in the PRC. We have been operating our business primarily through Huiye Tianze and its subsidiaries, including Huize Brokerage and Shenzhen Huize Shidai Co., Ltd., since 2014.

Our company, Huize Holding Limited, formerly known as Smart Choice Holding Limited, was established in 2014 by three shareholders: (i) Huidz Holding Limited, Mr. Cunjun Ma’s holding company incorporated in the British Virgin Islands; (ii) Crov Global Holding Limited, incorporated in the British Virgin Islands, the investment vehicle of Focus Technology Co., Ltd., an A-share listed company; and (iii) SAIF IV Hong Kong (China Investments) Limited incorporated in Hong Kong. Huize Holding Limited established Smart Choice Ventures Limited in the British Virgin Islands and Hong Kong Smart Choice Ventures Limited, or Hong Kong Smart Choice, in Hong Kong. Hong Kong Smart Choice subsequently established a wholly owned subsidiary in China, Zhixuan International Management Consulting (Shenzhen) Co., Ltd., or our WFOE, in 2015.

In June 2019, in preparation of this offering, we undertook a restructuring in order for shareholders of our VIE to own shares of our company, and we obtained control and became the primary beneficiary of Huiye Tianze, or our VIE, by entering into a series of contractual arrangements with it and its shareholders through our WFOE. Due to the PRC legal restrictions on foreign ownership of internet-based businesses and qualification requirements on foreign investors in the insurance brokerage business, we rely on these contractual arrangements to conduct a significant part of our operations in China. As a result of our direct ownership in our WFOE and the contractual arrangements with Huiye Tianze and its shareholders, we are regarded as the primary beneficiary of our VIE, and we treat our VIE and its subsidiaries as our variable interest entities under U.S. GAAP. We have consolidated the financial results of our VIE and its subsidiaries in our consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP.



 

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The chart below summarizes our corporate structure and identifies our significant subsidiaries, our VIE and its significant subsidiaries, as of the date of this prospectus:

 

LOGO

 

Note: (1)

Shareholders of Shenzhen Huiye Tianze Investment Holding Co., Ltd., or Huiye Tianze, are: (1) Shenzhen Huidecheng Investment Development Limited Partnership and Shenzhen Huideli Consulting Management Limited Partnership, both as our PRC ESOP holding entities, holding an aggregate of 27.56% shares in Huiye Tianze; (2) PRC holding entities of our shareholders, holding shares in Huiye Tianze in a shareholding structure substantially identical to their respective shareholding in our company.

Implication of Being an Emerging Growth Company

As a company with less than US$1.07 billion in revenue for our last fiscal year, we qualify as an “emerging growth company” pursuant to the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, as amended, or the JOBS Act. An emerging growth company may take advantage of specified reduced reporting and other requirements compared to those that are otherwise applicable generally to public companies. These provisions include exemption from the auditor attestation requirement under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 in the assessment of the emerging growth company’s internal control over financial reporting. The JOBS Act also provides that an emerging growth company does not need to comply with any new or revised financial accounting standards until such date that a private company is otherwise required to comply with such new or revised accounting standards.



 

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We will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest of (a) the last day of the fiscal year during which we have total annual gross revenues of at least US$1.07 billion; (b) the last day of our fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the completion of this offering; (c) the date on which we have, during the preceding three-year period, issued more than US$1.0 billion in non-convertible debt; or (d) the date on which we are deemed to be a “large accelerated filer” under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, which would occur if the market value of our ADSs that are held by non-affiliates exceeds US$700 million as of the last business day of our most recently completed second fiscal quarter. Once we cease to be an emerging growth company, we will not be entitled to the exemptions provided in the JOBS Act discussed above.

Corporate Information

Our principal executive offices are located at 5/F, Building 3-4, Shenzhen Animation Park, Yuehai Road, Nanhai Avenue, Nanshan District, Shenzhen 518052, People’s Republic of China. Our telephone number at this address is +86 755 3689 9088. Our registered office in the Cayman Islands is located at Cricket Square, Hutchins Drive, P.O. Box 2681, Grand Cayman KY1-1111, Cayman Islands.

Investors should submit any inquiries to the address and telephone number of our principal executive offices. Our main website is www.huize.com. The information contained on our website is not a part of this prospectus. Our agent for service of process in the United States is Puglisi & Associates, located at 850 Library Avenue, Suite 204, Newark, Delaware 19711.

Conventions that Apply to this Prospectus

Unless otherwise indicated or the context otherwise requires, references in this prospectus to:

 

   

“ADRs” are to the American depositary receipts which may evidence the ADSs;

 

   

“ADSs” are to the American depositary shares, each of which represents              common shares;

 

   

“China” or the “PRC” are to the People’s Republic of China, excluding, for the purposes of this prospectus only, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan;

 

   

“common shares” are to our common shares, par value US$0.00001 per share;

 

   

“GWP” are to gross written premiums, which include first year premiums and renewal premiums where applicable;

 

   

“insurer partners” are to the insurance companies we work with who underwrite insurance products on our platform;

 

   

“insurance clients” are to purchasers of insurance products we distribute through our platform; for travel insurance products, travel agencies usually purchase policies for multiple individuals, and we count each purchasing travel agency as an insurance client, and each such individual protected by any single policy as an insured;

 

   

“insured” are to individuals that are insured under insurance policies; when calculating the number of insured for any given period, we eliminate duplicates so that an insured protected by more than one policy during the period would be counted as one insured for such period; when calculating the cumulative number of insured, we eliminate duplicates so that an insured protected by more than one policy through our platform would be counted as one insured;

 

   

“our VIE” are to Shenzhen Huiye Tianze Investment Holding Co., Ltd.;

 

   

“our WFOE” are to Zhixuan International Management Consulting (Shenzhen) Co., Ltd.;

 

   

“RMB” and “Renminbi” are to the legal currency of China;



 

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“US$,” “U.S. dollars,” “$,” and “dollars” are to the legal currency of the United States;

 

   

“we,” “us,” “our company” and “our” are to Huize Holding Limited, our Cayman Islands holding company and its subsidiaries, its consolidated variable interest entity and the subsidiaries of the consolidated variable interest entity.

When disclosing our operating matrix, we only took into consideration our business operation in mainland China. An insurance product with a term that is longer than one year is categorized as a long-term insurance product. An independent platform refers to a platform that is not affiliated with insurance companies or other insurance industry participants.

Unless the context indicates otherwise, all information in this prospectus assumes no exercise by the underwriters of their over-allotment option.

Our reporting currency is the Renminbi. This prospectus also contains translations of certain foreign currency amounts into U.S. dollars for the convenience of the reader. Unless otherwise stated, all translations of Renminbi into U.S. dollars were made at RMB6.8650 to US$1.00, the exchange rate set forth in the H.10 statistical release of the Federal Reserve Board on June 28, 2019. We make no representation that the Renminbi or U.S. dollar amounts referred to in this prospectus could have been or could be converted into U.S. dollars or Renminbi, as the case may be, at any particular rate or at all. On August 30, 2019, the noon buying rate for Renminbi was RMB7.1543 to US$1.00.



 

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THE OFFERING

 

Offering price

We expect that the initial public offering price will be between US$             and US$             per ADS.

 

ADSs offered by us

             ADSs (or              ADSs if the underwriters exercise their over-allotment option in full).

 

ADSs outstanding immediately after this offering

             ADSs (or              ADSs if the underwriters exercise their over-allotment option in full)

 

Common shares issued and outstanding immediately after this offering

             common shares (or              common shares if the underwriters exercise their over-allotment option in full).

 

The ADSs

Each ADS represents              common shares, par value US$0.00001 per share.

 

  The depositary will hold common shares underlying your ADSs. You will have rights as provided in the deposit agreement among us, the depositary and holders and beneficial owners of ADSs from time to time.

 

  We do not expect to pay dividends in the foreseeable future. If, however, we declare dividends on our common shares, the depositary will pay you the cash dividends and other distributions it receives on our common shares after deducting its fees and expenses in accordance with the terms set forth in the deposit agreement.

 

  You may surrender your ADSs to the depositary in exchange for common shares. The depositary will charge you fees for any exchange.

 

  We may amend or terminate the deposit agreement without your consent. If you continue to hold your ADSs after an amendment to the deposit agreement, you agree to be bound by the deposit agreement as amended.

 

  To better understand the terms of the ADSs, you should carefully read the “Description of American Depositary Shares” section of this prospectus. You should also read the deposit agreement, which is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement that includes this prospectus.

 

Over-allotment option

We have granted the underwriters an option, exercisable within 30 days from the date of this prospectus, to purchase up to an aggregate of additional ADSs.

 

Use of proceeds

We expect that we will receive net proceeds of approximately US$             million from this offering or approximately US$            



 

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million if the underwriters exercise their over-allotment option in full, assuming an initial public offering price of US$             per ADS, which is the midpoint of the estimated range of the initial public offering price, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

 

  We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering for (i) investment in technology and big data analytics to further enhance our client acquisition efficiency and risk management capabilities; (ii) product design and development, and (iii) general corporate purpose and potential investments. See “Use of Proceeds” for more information.

 

Lock-up

We, our directors, executive officers, all of our existing shareholders and certain holders of share incentive awards have agreed with the underwriters, subject to certain exceptions, not to sell, transfer or otherwise dispose of any ADSs, common shares or similar securities for a period of 180 days after the date of this prospectus. In addition, we have instructed             , as depositary, not to accept any deposit of common shares or issue any ADSs for 180 days after the date of this prospectus (other than in connection with this offering), unless we otherwise instruct the depositary with the prior written consent of the representatives of the underwriters. See “Shares Eligible for Future Sale” and “Underwriting” for more information.

 

[Directed Share Program

At our request, the underwriters have reserved for sale, at the initial public offering price, up to an aggregate of ADSs offered in this offering to some of our directors, officers, employees, business associates and related other persons associated with us through a directed share program.]

 

Listing

We intend to apply to have the ADSs listed on the [New York Stock Exchange/Nasdaq Global Market] under the symbol “HUIZ.” The ADSs and our common shares will not be listed on any other stock exchange or traded on any automated quotation system.

 

Payment and settlement

The underwriters expect to deliver the ADSs against payment therefor through the facilities of The Depository Trust Company on             , 2019.

Depositary

The number of common shares that will be outstanding immediately after this offering:

 

   

is based on              common shares outstanding as of the date of this prospectus, assuming the automatic conversion of all of our outstanding preferred shares into common shares immediately prior to the completion of this offering; and

 

   

includes              common shares in the form of ADSs that we will issue and sell in this offering, assuming the underwriters do not exercise their over-allotment option to purchase additional ADSs.

 

   

excludes              common shares reserved for future issuances under our global share incentive plan and our 2019 share incentive plan, including              common shares issuable upon exercise of options outstanding as of the date of this prospectus.

 


 

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SUMMARY CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL AND OPERATING DATA

The following summary consolidated statements of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2018, summary consolidated balance sheets data as of December 31, 2017 and 2018 and summary consolidated statements of cash flow data for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2018 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. The following summary consolidated statements of operations data for the six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2019, summary consolidated balance sheets data as of June 30, 2018 and 2019 and summary consolidated statements of cash flow data for the six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2019 have been derived from our unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. Our consolidated financial statements are prepared and presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of results expected for future periods. You should read this Summary Consolidated Financial and Operating Data section together with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included elsewhere in this prospectus.

 

    For the Year Ended December 31,     For the Six Months Ended June 30,  
    2017     2018     2018     2019  
    RMB     RMB     US$     RMB     RMB     US$  
    (in thousands, except for percentages, share and per share data)  

Summary Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive (Loss)/Income

   

Operating revenue

           

Brokerage income

    251,556       503,547       73,350       179,316       447,954       65,252  

Other income

    11,776       5,281       769       2,479       3,512       511  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total operating revenue

    263,332       508,828       74,119       181,795       451,466       65,763  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating costs and expenses

           

Cost of revenue(1)

    (164,750     (316,397     (46,088     (109,433     (280,312     (40,832

Other cost

    (1,919     (1,905     (278     (938     (815     (119
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total operating costs

    (166,669     (318,302     (46,366 )      (110,371     (281,127     (40,951

Selling expenses(1)

    (104,980     (94,613     (13,782     (39,519     (62,649     (9,126

General and administrative expenses(1)

    (41,877     (46,177     (6,726     (19,101     (96,635     (14,076

Research and development expenses(1)

    (50,107     (24,944     (3,634     (12,032     (13,905     (2,025
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total operating costs and expenses

    (363,633     (484,036     (70,508 )      (181,023     (454,316     (66,178
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating (loss)/profit

    (100,301     24,792       3,611       772       (2,850     (415
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Other income/(expenses)

           

Interest income/(expenses)

    655       (27,111     (3,949     (287     (262     (38

Unrealized exchange income/(loss)

    36       (354     (52     31       369       54  

Investment income

    811                                

Others, net

    1,171       4,569       666       4,118       9,319       1,357  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

(Loss)/profit before income tax, and share of income of equity method investee

    (97,628     1,896       276       4,634       6,576       958  

Income tax expense

    (406     (278     (40     (104     (144     (21

Share of income of equity method investee

    989       1,310       191       (257     (23     (3
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net (loss)/profit

    (97,045     2,928       427       4,273       6,409       934  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net profit/(loss) attributable to non-controlling interests

    128       (224     (33 )      (21     91       13  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net (loss)/profit attributable to Huize Holding Limited

    (97,173     3,152       460       4,294       6,318       921  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Redeemable preferred shares redemption value accretion

    (26,474     (29,118     (4,242     (14,342     (15,108     (2,201
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Allocation to participating redeemable preferred
shares

    47,934       (1,558     (227     (2,118     (3,176     (463
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net loss attributable to common shareholders

    (75,713     (27,524     (4,009 )      (12,166     (11,966     (1,743
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Weighted average number of common shares used in computing net loss per share

           

Basic and diluted

    445,272,000       445,272,000       445,272,000       445,272,000       445,350,614       445,350,614  

Net loss per share attributable to common shareholders

           

Basic and diluted

    (0.17     (0.06     (0.01     (0.03     (0.03     (0.01


 

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(1)

Share-based compensation expenses were allocated in operating costs and expenses as follows:

 

     Year Ended December 31,      Six Months Ended June 30,  
     2017      2018      2018      2019  
     RMB      RMB      US$      RMB      RMB      US$  
     (in thousands)  

Cost of revenue

     26        9        1        4        43        6  

Selling expenses

     196        110        16        54        357        52  

General and administrative expenses

     386        726        106        423        66,953        9,753  

Research and development expenses

     203        122        18        62        421        61  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

     811        967        141        543        67,774        9,872  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

The following table presents our summary consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2017 and 2018:

 

     As of December 31,      As of June 30, 2019      Pro Forma
As of June 30, 2019
(Unaudited)
 
     2017      2018  
     RMB      RMB      US$      RMB      US$      RMB      US$  
     (in thousands)  

Summary Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:

                    

Cash and cash equivalents

     12,261        6,640        967        44,759        6,519        44,759        6,519  

Restricted cash (including amounts of the consolidated VIE of RMB 27,992, RMB 145,599 thousand and RMB 133,237 thousand as of December 31, 2017 and 2018 and June 30, 2019, respectively)

     28,019        145,631        21,214        133,270        19,413        133,270        19,413  

Accounts receivable, net of allowance for doubtful accounts

     70,690        108,434        15,795        116,297        16,941        116,297        16,941  

Long-term investments

     17,765        21,575        3,143        22,552        3,285        22,552        3,285  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total assets

     165,777        334,084        48,666        361,305        52,629        361,305        52,629  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Accounts payable (including amounts of the consolidated VIE and its subsidiaries without recourse to the Company of RMB 15,220 thousand, RMB 72,989 thousand and RMB 81,342 thousand as of December 31, 2017 and 2018 and June 30, 2019, respectively)

     15,453        73,448        10,699        81,604        11,887        81,604        11,887  

Insurance premium payables (including amounts of the consolidated VIE and its subsidiaries without recourse to the Company of RMB 101,694 thousand, RMB 114,447 thousand and RMB 101,048 thousand as of December 31, 2017 and 2018 and June 30, 2019, respectively)

     101,694        114,447        16,671        101,048        14,719        101,048        14,719  


 

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     As of December 31,     As of June 30, 2019     Pro Forma
As of June 30, 2019
(Unaudited)
 
     2017     2018  
     RMB     RMB     US$     RMB     US$     RMB      US$  
     (in thousands)  

Other payables and accrued expenses (including amounts of the consolidated VIE and its subsidiaries without recourse to the Company of RMB25,522 thousand, RMB 60,599 thousand and RMB 29,947 thousand as of December 31, 2017 and 2018 and June 30, 2019, respectively)

     26,036       36,908       5,376       23,042       3,356       23,042        3,356  

Payroll and welfare payable (including amounts of the consolidated VIE and its subsidiaries without recourse to the Company of RMB 17,017 thousand, RMB 31,850 thousand and RMB 20,370 thousand as of December 31, 2017 and 2018 and June 30, 2019, respectively)

     17,017       31,850       4,640       20,514       2,988       20,514        2,988  

Income taxes payable (including amounts of the consolidated VIE and its subsidiaries without recourse to the Company of RMB 206 thousand, RMB 206 thousand and RMB 229 thousand as of December 31, 2017 and 2018 and June 30, 2019, respectively)

     445       250       36       324       47       324        47  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total liabilities

     183,919       297,549       43,343       250,583       36,500       250,583        36,500  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total mezzanine equity

     367,228       421,773       61,438       436,881       63,639               

Total shareholders’ deficit

     (385,370     (385,238     (56,115 )      (326,159     (47,510     110,722        16,129  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total liabilities, mezzanine equity and shareholders’ deficit

     165,777       334,084       48,666       361,305       52,629       361,305        52,629  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 


 

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The following table sets forth our summary consolidated cash flow data for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2018:

 

     For the Year Ended December 31,     For Six Months Ended June 30,  
     2017     2018     2018     2019  
     RMB     RMB     US$     RMB     RMB     US$  
     (in thousands)  

Summary Consolidated Cash Flow Data:

        

Net cash (used in)/ provided by operating activities

     (85,349     66,853       9,739       5,279       55,170       8,036  

Net cash provided by/(used in) investing activities

     57,767       (3,554     (518     (2,533     (2,926     (427

Net cash provided by financing activities

     22,988       48,572       7,075       (5,471     (26,710     (3,891
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents

     (234     120       18       34       224       33  

Net (decrease)/ increase in cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash

     (4,828     111,991       16,314       (2,691     25,758       3,751  

Total cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash at beginning of the year

     45,108       40,280       5,867       40,280       152,271       22,181  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash at end of the year

     40,280       152,271       22,181       37,589       178,029       25,932  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Non-GAAP Financial Measure

In evaluating our business, we consider and use adjusted net profit/(loss) as a supplemental measure to review and assess our operating performance. The presentation of the non-GAAP financial measure is not intended to be considered in isolation or as a substitute for the financial information prepared and presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP. We define adjusted net profit/(loss) as net profit/(loss) excluding share-based compensation expenses and interest on convertible bond. Such adjustments have no impact on income tax because either the non-GAAP adjustments were recorded at entities located in tax free jurisdictions, such as the Cayman Islands or because the non-GAAP adjustments were recorded at operating entities located in the PRC for which the non-GAAP adjustments were not deductible for tax purposes.

We present the non-GAAP financial measure because it is used by our management to evaluate our operating performance and formulate business plans. Adjusted net profit/(loss) enables our management to assess our operating results without considering the impact of share-based compensation expenses and the interest on convertible bond. We also believe that the use of this non-GAAP financial measure facilitate investors’ assessment of our operating performance.

This non-GAAP financial measure is not defined under U.S. GAAP and is not presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP. The non-GAAP financial measure has limitations as an analytical tool. One of the key limitations of using adjusted net profit/(loss) is that it does not reflect all items of income and expense that affect our operations. Further, the non-GAAP financial measure may differ from the non-GAAP financial information used by other companies, including peer companies, and therefore their comparability may be limited.

The non-GAAP financial measure should not be considered in isolation or construed as an alternative to net profit/(loss) or any other measure of performance or as an indicator of our operating performance. Investors are



 

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encouraged to review the historical non-GAAP financial measure in light of the most directly comparable GAAP measure, as shown below. The non-GAAP financial measure presented here may not be comparable to similarly titled measure presented by other companies. Other companies may calculate similarly titled measures differently, limiting the usefulness of such measures when analyzing our data comparatively. We encourage investors and others to review our financial information in its entirety and not rely on a single financial measure.

The table below sets forth a reconciliation of the non-GAAP financial measure for the periods indicated:

 

     For the Year Ended December 31,      For Six Months Ended June 30,  
     2017     2018      2018      2019  
     RMB     RMB      US$      RMB      RMB      US$  
     (in thousands)  

Net (loss)/profit

     (97,045     2,928        427        4,273        6,409        934  

Share-based compensation expenses

     811       967        141        543        67,774        9,872  

Interest on convertible bond

           26,249        3,824                       
  

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Adjusted net (loss)/profit

     (96,234     30,144        4,391        4,816        74,183        10,806  


 

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RISK FACTORS

An investment in our ADSs involves significant risks. You should consider carefully all of the information in this prospectus, including the risks and uncertainties described below, before making an investment in our ADSs. Any of the following risks could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In any such case, the market price of our ADSs could decline, and you may lose all or part of your investment.

Risks Relating to Our Business and Industry

We operate in the emerging, rapidly evolving and highly competitive online insurance product and service industry, which makes it difficult to predict our future prospects. Our historical operating and financial results may not be indicative of future performance.

We operate in China’s online insurance product and service industry, which is rapidly evolving and may not develop as we anticipate. This industry is relatively new, and business models continue to evolve. The regulatory framework governing the insurance industry is also developing and may remain uncertain in the near future. As our business develops and in response to the evolving client needs and market competition, we will continue to introduce new insurance products and services, improve our existing products and services, or adjust and optimize our business model. In response to new regulatory requirements or industry standards, or in connection with the introduction of new products, we may impose more rigorous risk management system and/or policies, which may negatively affect the growth of our business. Any significant change to our business model may not achieve expected results and may have a material and adverse impact on our financial condition and results of operations. It is therefore difficult to effectively predict our future prospects.

The risks and challenges we encounter or may encounter in this emerging, dynamic and competitive market may have impacts on our business and prospects. These risks and challenges include our ability to, among other things:

 

   

navigate in an evolving and complex regulatory environment;

 

   

grow our insurance client base in a cost-efficient manner;

 

   

develop and launch diversified and distinguishable products to effectively address the evolving needs of our insurance clients;

 

   

develop and maintain relationships with our existing business partners and attract new business partners;

 

   

enhance and maintain the recognition of our brand;

 

   

enhance our risk management capabilities;

 

   

maintain a reliable, secure, high-performance and scalable technology infrastructure;

 

   

attract, retain and motivate talented employees; and

 

   

anticipate and adapt to changing market conditions, including technological developments and changes in the competitive landscape.

If we fail to educate business partners and clients about the value of our platform and services, if the market for our products and services does not develop as we expect, if we fail to address the needs of our target clients, or if we are not able to effectively tackle other risks and challenges that we may encounter, our business and results of operations may be harmed.

 

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Our businesses are highly regulated, and the administration, interpretation and enforcement of the laws, regulations and regulatory requirements currently applicable to us are unclear, evolving and involve uncertainties. Non-compliance with applicable laws, regulations and regulatory requirements or failure to respond to legal and regulatory changes may materially and adversely affect our business and prospects.

We operate in a highly regulated industry in China, and the regulatory regime continues to evolve. The China Banking and Insurance Regulatory Commission, or the CBIRC, has extensive authority to supervise and regulate the insurance industry in China. Since the online insurance product and service industry in China has emerged and keeps evolving rapidly, the CBIRC has been enhancing its supervision over this industry in recent years, and new laws, regulations and regulatory requirements have been promulgated and implemented from time to time. We face challenges brought by these new laws, regulations and regulatory requirements, as well as significant uncertainties in the interpretation and application thereof. Moreover, there exist uncertainties as to how the regulatory environment might change. For example, the CBIRC may enact new rules or regulations to replace the Interim Regulatory Measures for Online Insurance Business, promulgated by its predecessor on July 22, 2015, effective on October 1, 2015. We cannot assure you that our current business operations will remain fully compliant with new regulatory requirements that might become effective. In particular, if any new operating licenses or permits are required under the new regulatory requirements, there is no guarantee that we will be able to obtain them on a timely basis, or at all.

China’s insurance regulatory regime is undergoing significant changes. Further development of regulations applicable to us may result in additional restrictions on our business operations or more intensive competition in this industry. We might be required to spend significant time and resources in order to comply with any material changes in the regulatory environment, which could trigger significant changes to the competitive landscape of our industry and we may lose some or all of our competitive advantages during this process. The attention of our management team could be diverted to these efforts to cope with an evolving regulatory or competitive environment. Meanwhile, staying compliant with the restriction may result in limitation to our business scope, limitation to our product and service offerings, and reduction in our attraction to clients. As a result, our business and results of operations might be materially and adversely affected. In addition, there are uncertainties with regard to how the changing laws, regulations and regulatory requirements would apply to our business. The CBIRC and its local counterparts have wide discretion in administration, interpretation and enforcement of these laws, regulations and regulatory requirements, as well as the authority to impose regulatory sanctions on industry participants. In certain circumstances it may be difficult to determine which actions or omissions may be deemed to be in violation of applicable laws, regulations or regulatory requirements. For example, as part of our marketing efforts, we have in the past offered potential insurance clients small amounts of cash rewards to encourage their engagement with our platform before they purchased insurance products. Such amounts were deductible from the premiums payable should such potential clients subsequently purchase insurance products on our platform. It is unclear whether such arrangement might be deemed as additional benefits offered to insurance clients other than those benefits stipulated in the insurance contracts, which is prohibited under relevant PRC laws and regulations. As of the date of this prospectus, we no longer offer these cash rewards, but there is no guarantee that our practice in the past would not subject us to administrative measures retrospectively taken by regulatory authorities. Furthermore, misconduct of our insurer partners, user traffic channels or other business partners in violation of any of these laws, regulations or regulatory requirements might subject us to fines, civil or criminal liabilities, being required to modify or terminate part or all of our business operations or even being disqualified from providing services to our insurer partners or insurance clients. The occurrence of any of the above could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.

Moreover, Chinese regulatory authorities may conduct various reviews and inspections on our business operations from time to time, which could cover a broad range of aspects, including financial reporting, tax reporting, internal control and compliance with applicable laws, rules and regulations. If any non-compliance incidents in our business operation are identified, we may be required to take certain rectification measures in

 

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accordance with applicable laws and regulations, or we may be subject to other regulatory actions such as administrative penalties. For example, the CBIRC and its local counterparts have conducted several inspections, reviews and inquiries on us and identified certain non-compliance incidents in our business operation, risk management and internal control, including incidents with respect to settlement of insurance premiums through and our cooperation with third-party online platforms that have not registered with regulatory authorities. In particular, (i) we have in the past misused funds in the insurance premium accounts; and (ii) some of our business partners, including certain travel agencies and user traffic channels lacking relevant licenses or approvals, have in the past collected a small portion of insurance premiums on our behalf. According to relevant PRC laws, insurance brokerage companies like us are required to set up separate accounts to receive and hold the insurance premiums they receive from insurance clients on behalf of insurance companies and are prohibited from using or misusing such funds. Failure to comply with such regulatory requirements may subject us to making rectifications, warnings, fines, or further, revocation of our Licence for Operating Insurance Brokerage Services, or the Insurance Brokerage Licence, in the case where regulatory authorities consider such action as a material violation. In addition, entities that do not hold licenses required by PRC regulatory authorities are not allowed to collect insurance premiums on behalf of us under relevant PRC laws and regulations. We have taken remedial measures to rectify the aforementioned non-compliance incidents. As of the date of this prospectus, we have returned all of the insurance premiums that we had misused in the past, and we have terminated cooperation with entities that do not hold the relevant licenses required for collecting insurance premiums on our behalf. We plan to adopt a more rigorous internal control system to manage our cooperation with unlicensed business partners with regard to the collection of insurance premiums on our behalf.

We are in the process of rectifying all non-compliance incidents that we are aware of under the unclear and changing regulatory environment. However, we cannot assure you that we will be able to fully rectify all non-compliance incidents in a timely manner or fully satisfy the regulatory requirements, or we will not be subject to any future regulatory reviews and inspections where other non-compliance incidents might be identified, which might materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We incurred net losses in the past. Although we have started generating net profit recently, we may not be able to stay profitable in the future.

We had net loss of RMB97.0 million in 2017 and generated net profit of RMB2.9 million (US$0.4 million) and RMB6.4 million (US$0.9 million) in 2018 and the six months ended June 30, 2019, respectively. We cannot assure you that we will be able to stay profitable in the future. We anticipate that our operating costs and expenses will increase in the foreseeable future as we continue to grow our business, acquire new clients and further develop our insurance product and service offering and increase brand recognition. These efforts may prove more costly than we currently anticipate, and we may not succeed in increasing our revenue sufficiently to offset these higher expenses. There are other factors that could negatively affect our financial condition. For example, if we fail to compete successfully with our existing or potential competitors, or if our tailor-made insurance products are not accepted by the market as we expect, we will receive lower-than-expected insurance brokerage income, and our financial results will be adversely affected. If regulatory authorities promulgate new laws, regulations and regulatory requirements that limit our business operations, especially with regard to our fee or cost model, our results of operations will suffer. As a result of the foregoing and other factors, our net profit margins may decline or we may incur net losses again in the future and may not be able to maintain profitability on a quarterly or annual basis.

Failure to obtain, renew, or retain licenses, permits or approvals may affect our ability to conduct or expand our business.

We are required to obtain applicable licenses, permits and approvals from different PRC regulatory authorities in order to conduct or expand our business. Various governmental authorities in the PRC have promulgated various regulations on the insurance business and internet-based services, including regulations requiring an Insurance Brokerage License and an ICP License. We have obtained, renewed and maintained our Insurance Brokerage License and our ICP License as required by the PRC regulatory authorities. However, there is no assurance that the PRC regulatory authorities will not issue new regulations governing the internet or the

 

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insurance product and service industry that might require us to obtain additional licenses, permits or approvals for our current or future business operations, which may materially and adversely our business operations and financial condition.

If we fail to source, design and develop insurance products catering to the evolving needs of insurance clients, we may not be able to retain existing insurance clients or attract new insurance clients to our online platform.

Our future growth depends on our ability to continue to attract new insurance clients and to generate new purchases from existing clients. We must stay abreast of emerging client preferences and product trends that will appeal to existing and potential insurance clients. Our platform makes personalized recommendations of insurance products to clients based on their needs, and offers a comprehensive suite of services to ensure a smooth and efficient insurance experience. We also develop insurance products in cooperation with our insurer partners to meet the evolving needs of insurance clients. Our ability to provide these products and services is dependent on our insurance expertise and our market data analytical capabilities. However, there is no assurance that the insurance products and services that we design and develop together with our insurer partners will cater to the needs of potential or existing insurance clients, sustain for a period of time that we expect them to, or be welcomed or accepted by the market at all. If insurance clients cannot find their desired products on our platform at attractive prices and terms, or find their experience with us dissatisfactory, they may lose trust in us and turn to other channels for their insurance needs, which in turn may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We leverage our user traffic channels to attract new insurance clients to our platform and incur significant costs on paying our user traffic channels service fees.

In addition to growing our client base organically, we also cooperate with our user traffic channels to convert their user traffic to client base of our platform. Our agreements with user traffic channels are generally one to three years subject to renewal. We believe that we generally maintain good relationships with our user traffic channels. However, we cannot assure you that our relationships with them will remain cooperative. If our user traffic channels terminate their cooperation with us, do not renew their agreements with us, choose to work with our competitors, or terminate their cooperation with us due to regulatory requirements, we may lose potential clients and our business and results of operations will be negatively affected. In addition, if our user traffic channels lose influence over their traffic or otherwise fail to effectively convert their users to our clients, our business and results of operations may suffer.

Furthermore, we have incurred significant expenses on paying our user traffic channels service fees and advertisement fees. If certain of our existing user traffic channels require higher rates of service fees or we fail to negotiate favorable terms with them or find new user traffic channels, our cost of client acquisition costs may increase, and our results of operations may be adversely affected.

Any harm to our brand, failure to maintain and enhance our brand recognition, or failure to do so in a cost-effective manner may materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.

We believe that the recognition and reputation of our “Huize” brand among our insurance clients, insurer partners, user traffic channels and other industry participants have contributed significantly to the growth and success of our business. Maintaining and enhancing the recognition and reputation of our brand are critical to our business and competitiveness. Many factors, some of which are beyond our control, are important to maintain and enhance our brand. These factors include our ability to:

 

   

provide compelling products and insurance experience to clients;

 

   

maintain or improve satisfaction with our client services;

 

   

increase brand awareness through marketing and brand promotion activities;

 

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maintain the reliability of our online platform and technology-based systems;

 

   

preserve our reputation and goodwill in the event of any negative publicity on us, our partners or the industry in general; and

 

   

maintain our cooperative relationships with business partners.

If we are unable to maintain our reputation, enhance our brand recognition or increase positive awareness of our online platform, products and services, it may be difficult to maintain and grow our client base, and our business and growth prospects may be materially and adversely affected.

Furthermore, if we are unable to conduct our branding and marketing activities cost-effectively, our financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected. We have incurred expenses on a variety of different sales and marketing efforts designed to enhance our brand recognition and increase sales of insurance products on our platform. Our marketing and promotional activities may not be well received by clients and may not achieve anticipated results. Marketing approaches and tools in insurance market in China are evolving. This further requires us to enhance our marketing approaches and experiment with new marketing methods to keep pace with industry developments and consumer preferences, which may not be as cost-effective as our marketing activities in the past and may lead to significantly higher marketing expenses in the future. Failure to refine our existing marketing approaches or to introduce new effective marketing approaches in a cost-effective manner could impact our revenues and profitability.

We depend on our cooperation with our insurer partners. Our business may be negatively affected if our insurer partners do not continue their relationship with us or if their operations fail.

Our relationship with insurer partners is crucial to our success. We generate a substantial portion of our revenues from commission fees paid by insurer partners. Certain insurer partners have accounted for a significant portion of our revenues in the past. Our two largest insurer partners in terms of operating revenue contribution in 2018 aggregately accounted for 40% of our total operating revenue in 2018. While we continually seek to diversify our insurer partners, there can be no assurance that the concentration will further decrease. Our ability to attract clients depends on the quantity and quality of insurance products offered by insurer partners on our platform. We provide intelligent underwriting services and integrated solutions to our insurer partners. Our arrangements with our insurer partners are typically not exclusive, and they may have similar arrangements with our competitors. If insurer partners are dissatisfied with our services and solutions or find us ineffective in enhancing their profitability, they may terminate their relationships with us and decide to cooperate with our competitors.

Moreover, insurance companies we work with may develop their own technology capabilities to serve insurance clients online. There can be no assurance that we can maintain relationships with our existing insurer partners on commercially desirable terms. If we fail to prove that our technology capabilities could help improve their operating efficiency or are otherwise valuable to them, our business, financial performance and prospects will be materially and adversely affected.

Furthermore, if our insurer partners or the reinsurance companies they partner with fail to properly fulfil their obligations as insurers under the insurance policies sold on our platform, our clients may lose faith in our platform. If our insurer partners or the reinsurance companies they partner with become insolvent, our clients may not be able to realize the protection expected from the insurance policies, which will negatively affect our reputation and results of operations.

We may not be able to ensure the accuracy and completeness of product information and the effectiveness of our recommendation of insurance products on our platform.

Our insurance clients rely on the insurance product information we provide on our platform. While we believe that such information is generally accurate, complete and reliable, there can be no assurance that the

 

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accuracy, completeness or reliability of the information can be maintained in the future. We had in the past failed to provide legally required disclosure on our platform to the attention of our clients, including how we are paid as an insurance broker, and whether we or our senior management are related parties of our insurer partners and other insurance institutions. If we provide any inaccurate or incomplete information on our platform due to either our own fault or that of our insurer partners, or we fail to present accurate or complete information of any insurance products which could lead to our clients’ failure to get the protection or us being warned or punished by regulatory authorities, our reputation could be harmed and we could experience reduced user traffic to our platform, which may adversely affect our business and financial performance.

We may not be able to recommend suitable insurance products to our clients. Our search and recommendation engine may fail to function properly. The data provided to us by our clients, insurer partners and user traffic channels may not be accurate or up to date. Our professional consultation team may not fully understand the clients’ insurance needs and recommend suitable products to them. If our clients are recommended insurance products that do not suit their protection needs, they may lose trust in our platform. Meanwhile, our insurer partners may find our recommendation ineffective. Our insurance clients and insurer partners may consequently be reluctant to continue to use our platform, and our insurer partners may be hesitant to continue to partner with us. As a result, our business, reputation, financial performance and prospects will be materially and adversely affected.

Our business is subject to intense competition, and we may fail to compete successfully against existing or new competitors, which may reduce demand for our services, reduce operating margins, and further result in loss of market share, departures of qualified employees and increased capital expenditures.

The online independent insurance service industry in China is intensely competitive. Our current or potential competitors include (i) other online independent insurance product and service platforms, (ii) traditional insurance intermediaries, (iii) online direct sales channels of large insurance companies, (iv) major internet companies that have commenced insurance distribution businesses, and (v) other online insurance technology companies. New competitors may emerge at any time. Some of our competitors also offer their insurance products on our platform, so they both compete and cooperate with us. Existing or potential competitors may have substantially greater brand recognition and possess more financial, marketing and research resources than we do. Our competitors may introduce platforms with more attractive products, content and features, or services or solutions with competitive pricing or enhanced performance that we cannot match. Some of our competitors may have more resources to develop or acquire new technologies and react quicker to changing requirements of clients and insurance companies. In addition, our target insurance clients, PRC residents with potential insurance needs, may seek insurance products and services in well-equipped and developed neighboring insurance markets. We may fail to compete effectively with our competitors and industry participants in neighboring insurance markets, even if we take initiatives in developing our insurance service capabilities in these neighboring insurance markets, which may reduce demand for our services, result in loss of market share, and further result in reduction of operating margins and departures of qualified employees.

The proper functioning of our internet platform and technology infrastructure is essential to our business. Any disruption to our IT systems and infrastructure could materially affect our ability to maintain the satisfactory performance of our platform and deliver consistent services to our users.

The reliability, availability and satisfactory performance of our IT systems are critical to our success, our ability to attract and retain clients and our ability to maintain a satisfactory user experience and client service. Our servers may be vulnerable to computer viruses, traffic spike that exceeds the capacity of our servers, electricity power interruptions, physical or electronic break-ins and similar disruptions, which could lead to system interruptions, website slowdown and unavailability, delays in transaction processing, loss of data, and the inability to accept and fulfill client orders. We have not experienced system interruptions that materially affected our operations in the past, but we can provide no assurance that we will not experience unexpected interruptions in the future. We can provide no assurance that our current security mechanisms will be sufficient to protect our

 

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IT systems and technology infrastructure from any third-party intrusions, electricity power interruptions, viruses and hacker attacks, information and data theft, and other similar activities. Any such future occurrences could damage our reputation and result in a material decrease in our revenues.

We have identified deficiencies in our information technology system relating to (i) lack of necessary management and supervision of super user/administrative accounts, and (ii) lack of formal management control during program development and change process. We have engaged risk assurance advisors to help us design and implement IT controls necessary for us, including updating our IT security policy, enhancing management of IT system and database. However, there can be no assurance that the foregoing deficiencies can be cured in a timely and cost-effective manner. We may identify other deficiencies in the future, which may require us to expend significant resources to remediate.

Additionally, we are constantly upgrading our platform and infrastructure to provide increased scale, improved performance and additional built-in functions and additional capacities. Maintaining and upgrading our technology infrastructure require significant investment of time and resources, including adding new hardware, updating software, and recruiting and training new engineering personnel. During updates, our systems may experience interruptions, and the new technologies and infrastructures may not be fully integrated with the existing systems timely, or at all. Any failure to maintain and improve our technology infrastructure could result in unanticipated system disruptions, slower response times, impaired quality of user experience and delays in reporting accurate operating and financial information, which, in turn, could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Failure to prevent cybersecurity breaches will materially and adversely affect our business, reputation, financial condition and results of operations.

The massive volume of data that we process and store makes us or third party service providers who host our servers an attractive target and potentially vulnerable to cyber-attacks, computer viruses, physical or electronic break-ins or similar disruptions. While we have taken steps to protect our database, our security measures could be breached. Because techniques used to sabotage or obtain unauthorized access to systems change frequently and generally are not recognized until they are launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate preventative measures. Any accidental or willful security breaches or other unauthorized access to our platform could cause confidential information to be stolen and used for criminal purposes. Security breaches or unauthorized access to confidential information could also expose us to liability related to the loss of the information, time-consuming and expensive litigation and negative publicity. If security measures are breached because of third-party action, employee error, malfeasance or otherwise, or if design flaws in our technology infrastructure are exposed and exploited, our relationships with users and insurer partners could be severely damaged, we could incur significant liability and our business and operations could be adversely affected. The PRC Network Security Law promulgated by the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress, effective on June 1, 2017, stipulates that a network operator, including internet information services providers among others, must adopt technical measures and other necessary measures in accordance with applicable laws and regulations as well as compulsory national standards to safeguard the safety and stability of network operations, effectively respond to network security incidents, prevent illegal and criminal activities, and maintain the integrity, confidentiality and availability of network data. While we have adopted comprehensive measures to comply with the applicable laws, regulations and standards, there can be no assurance that such measures will be effective. If we were found by the regulatory authorities to have failed to comply with the PRC Network Security Law, we would be subject to warnings, fines, confiscation of illegal gains, revocation of licenses, suspension of our platform or even criminal liabilities and our business, financial condition and results of operations would be adversely affected.

 

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Our business generates and processes a large amount of data. Any failure to protect the confidential information of third parties or improper use or disclosure of such data may subject us to liabilities imposed by data privacy and protection laws and regulations, negatively impact our reputation, and deter our clients from using our online platform.

Our platform stores and processes certain personal and other sensitive data provided by insurance clients, and we make certain personal information provided by clients or third party data providers available to insurer partners with user consent. There are numerous laws regarding privacy and the storing, sharing, use, disclosure and protection of personally identifiable information and data. Specifically, personally identifiable and other confidential information is increasingly subject to legislation and regulations in PRC and numerous foreign jurisdictions. PRC government authorities have enacted a series of laws and regulations relating to the protection of privacy and personal information, under which internet service providers and other network operators are required to clearly indicate the purposes, methods and scope of any information collection and usage, to obtain appropriate user consent and to establish user information protection systems with appropriate remedial measures. However, this regulatory framework for privacy issues in China and worldwide is currently evolving and is likely to remain uncertain for the foreseeable future. We cannot assure you that our existing privacy and personal protection system and technical measures will be considered sufficient under applicable laws and regulations. We could be adversely affected if legislation or regulations in China are expanded to require changes in business practices or privacy policies, or if the PRC governmental authorities interpret or implement their legislation or regulations in ways that negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition to laws, regulations and other applicable rules regarding privacy and privacy advocacy, industry groups or other private parties may propose new and different privacy standards. Because the interpretation and application of privacy and data protection laws and privacy standards are still uncertain, it is possible that these laws or privacy standards may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent with our practices. Any inability to adequately address privacy concerns, even if unfounded, or to comply with applicable privacy or data protection laws, regulations and privacy standards, could result in additional cost and liability for us, damage our reputation, inhibit the use of our platform and harm our business.

The sophisticated and innovative technologies we use for the operation of our business are new and require continuous developments and upgrades. We cannot assure you that these technologies will fully support our business.

We regard technology as critical to our ability to provide high-quality products and superior client services. We have invested substantial resources in developing the sophisticated and innovative technology systems that we use for our daily operations. We expect these technologies to support the smooth performance of key functions in our platform, such as searching for and finding suitable insurance products, intelligent underwriting, and claim application and settlement. To adapt to evolving client needs, requirements of insurer partners, and emerging industry trends, we may need to develop other new technologies or upgrade existing platform and systems. If our efforts to invest in the development of new technologies or the upgrade of existing technologies are unsuccessful, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

In addition, the maintenance and processing of various operating and financial data is essential to our data analytical capabilities and the day-to-day operation of our business. Our ability to provide products and services and to conduct day-to-day business operations depend, in part, on our ability to maintain and make timely and cost-effective enhancement and upgrade to our technology and introduce innovative functions which can meet changing business and operational needs. Failure to do so could put us at a disadvantage to our competitors and cause economic losses. We can provide no assurance that we will be able to keep up with technological improvements or that the technology developed by others will not render our services less competitive or attractive.

 

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Negative publicity about us, our shareholders, insurer partners, user traffic channels and individual and institutional promoters that we cooperate with, and other participants in the insurance industry may harm our brand and reputation and have a material adverse effect on our business and operating results.

Our brand and reputation are critical to our business and competitiveness. Factors that are vital to our reputation include but are not limited to our ability to:

 

   

recommend suitable insurance products to users;

 

   

provide effective and smooth insurance experience to insurance clients;

 

   

enhance risk management capabilities;

 

   

innovate and improve the products and services we provide;

 

   

effectively manage and resolve complaints from users and insurer partners; and

 

   

effectively protect private information and data.

Any negative publicity about the foregoing or other aspects of our company, including but not limited to our directors, management, shareholders, business, legal compliance, financial condition or prospects, whether with merit or not, could severely compromise our reputation and harm our business and operating results. In addition, regulatory inquiries or investigations, lawsuits initiated against us, employee misconduct, among other things, could also result in negative publicity on us. Furthermore, negative publicity with respect to our business partners or the industry in which we operate may materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.

Some user traffic channels that we cooperate with have not obtained operating licenses or completed regulatory registrations that are required to cooperate with us, or have failed to disclose legally required information to clients.

We leverage our user traffic channels to convert their user traffic to our insurance clients. Under the PRC law, these user traffic channels are prohibited to sell any insurance products unless they hold licenses required by regulatory authorities, and are required to register with regulatory authorities as qualified third-party platforms that cooperate with us. Starting from 2015, for user traffic channels that had established strong business relationships with us, which account for a relatively large portion of GWP facilitated on our platform, we assisted them in their registrations with regulatory authorities as qualified third-party online platforms cooperating with us to operate online insurance business. For user traffic channels that have a relatively short history of cooperation with us, or those that contribute a less significant portion of GWP facilitated on our platform, we have determined to change our cooperative business model with them to avoid the requirement for regulatory registration. Currently there are two business models, the CPS (Continuation Passing Style) model and the API (Application Programming Interface) model. Some of these unregistered user traffic channels have adopted the API model that involves transactions through technical integration with our system, which requires them to complete regulatory registrations as our qualified third-party online platforms. We are in the process of assisting user traffic channels that cooperate with us under the API model to complete the required regulatory registration. As of the date of this prospectus, user traffic channels that we cooperate with that had not been registered contributed to an insignificant portion of our total GWP facilitated. Unqualified online platforms may be required to terminate their cooperation with insurance institutions like us. Insurance institutions who cooperate with third-party online platforms that are not compliant with relevant PRC laws are subject to rectification orders, suspension of cooperation until such third-party online platforms become qualified or further, administrative penalties by the regulatory authorities. We cannot guarantee you that all regulatory registrations can be completed in a timely manner, or at all, or the measures we take will timely address non-compliance issues, or that regulatory authorities will not enforce any penalties or take other actions against us. In addition, if we intend to terminate existing cooperative relationships with certain user traffic channels, we may face legal actions taken by them for breaches of existing business agreements or other legitimate reasons, which may adversely affect our business operations and financial condition.

 

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In addition, as of the date of this prospectus, some of our user traffic channels have not obtained the ICP license or had not completed necessary filings or registrations with relevant authorities as required by applicable laws or regulations, the lack of which may result in termination of their internet-based businesses by regulatory authorities. Furthermore, some of our user traffic channels had failed to disclose legally required information to insurance clients on their platforms. Although we have notified the relevant user traffic channels to rectify the situation, there is no assurance that they will be able to rectify the situation and become compliant with regulatory requirements in a timely fashion, or at all. Our user traffic channels who have not been registered with regulatory authorities or have not obtained necessary licenses, or who have failed to disclose legally required information to clients may not be able to continue their cooperation with us, which may reduce the number of new clients attracted to our platform, and our cooperation with these user traffic channels may subject us to fines. As a result, our business, financial performance and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

Furthermore, under our agreements with certain insurer partners, we are not allowed to distribute their insurance products through user traffic channels that have not been registered as qualified third-party online insurance service providers. Therefore, we may breach the agreements with them if we distribute their insurance products through unregistered user traffic channels, which might subject us to defaulting liabilities and adversely affect our financial condition.

Our business model may be replicated by other online insurance distributors or product and service platforms, and internet companies and traditional insurance companies aiming to engage in online insurance distribution business.

The leading Chinese internet companies have experienced the fast-moving internet development in China in past decades and have demonstrated their strong capacities in client-centric and efficiency driven business development and innovation. We are operating in an emerging industry, and we may be exposed to uncertainties and risks. Given the large amount of data and strong capacity of technological development the leading Chinese internet companies have, we believe it is possible that these companies can develop their insurance business to compete with us in a short period of time. In addition, we have seen certain traditional insurance companies and other insurance service providers enter the online insurance service market in order to take advantage of the soaring opportunities emerged from online ecosystems. Considering these internet companies’ strong abilities in promoting their products through their existing abundant online channels and the potential of traditional insurance companies and other insurance service providers to convert their offline resources and clients online, we may face severe competition in the near future from these potential competitors. Moreover, given that terms of insurance product are relatively transparent, our competitors can copy the insurance products we design and develop together with our insurer partners soon after they are launched, possibly at lower prices than what we offer. If we fail to continue to upgrade our insurance product offerings that meet market demand quickly, we may not be able to keep our edge in the competition, and our business and results of operations will be negatively affected.

Because the brokerage income we earn on the sale of insurance products is based on premiums, and commission fee rates agreed between us and our insurer partners, any decrease in these premiums or commission fee rates may have an adverse effect on our results of operations.

We are engaged in the insurance brokerage business and derive revenues primarily from commission fees paid by the insurer partners whose insurance policies our clients purchase. The commission fee rates are set by insurer partners or negotiated between insurer partners and us, and are based on the premiums that the insurer products charge. Commission fee rates and premiums can change based on the prevailing economic, regulatory, taxation and competitive factors that affect our insurer partners. These factors, which are not within our control, include the capacity of insurer partners to place new business, profits of insurer partners, consumer demand for insurance products, the availability of comparable products from other insurance companies at lower costs, and the availability of alternative insurance products, such as government benefits and self-insurance plans, to

 

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consumers. In addition, premium rates for certain insurance products are tightly regulated by the CBIRC. Because we do not determine, and cannot predict, the timing or extent of premium or commission fee rate changes, we cannot predict the effect any of these changes may have on our operations. Any decrease in premiums or commission fee rates may significantly affect our profitability.

We rely on the multi-dimensional data we collect to enhance our business performance and results, and we cannot assure you that we will be able to accumulate or access sufficient data in the future or to analyze the data effectively, the lack of which may materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.

We highly rely on our data in every step of the entire insurance value chain, including research and development of our insurance products, risk management, claim settlement, and client services. We develop our proprietary technologies on top of cloud computing infrastructures of third-party providers to automate and streamline the various processes in our operations, support our day-to-day business analytics and provide periodic or real-time applications in supporting our large amount of transactions and executing our strategies. We have made substantial investments in ensuring the effectiveness of our data analytics that supports our rapid growth and enables us to provide efficient services to insurance clients. We cannot assure you that we will be able to continually collect and retain sufficient data, or improve our data technologies to satisfy our operating needs. Failure to do so will materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.

Failure to maintain accuracy in actuarial statistics, assisting in underwriting, and proposing pricing of insurance products to insurer partners could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

We operate an intelligent underwriting system where we code underwriting criteria set by insurers in our system and the system automatically generates eligibility for purchasing insurance products. For customized insurance products we designed and developed together with our insurer partners, we conduct actuarial and propose pricing range to our insurer partners. Therefore, we rely heavily on the accuracy in actuarial statistics and capabilities in accurate underwriting and proposing pricing of products we offer to conduct our business, including recording and processing our operational and financial data and effectively executing our business plans through accurate actuarial analysis and pricing modeling. The proper functioning of our actuarial analysis, statistical analysis, products pricing suggestion, risk management, financial control, accounting, client database, client service and other data processing systems is highly critical to our business and our ability to compete effectively. We rely on our dedicated talents with actuarial expertise to conduct actuarial analysis, and we rely on our research and development team to enhance our data capabilities to perform pricing modeling. We cannot guarantee you that we will be able to continue to upgrade our technology and maintain our capacity and accuracy, or to successfully retain our employees with actuarial expertise or to hire new ones. Failure of maintaining such capacity and accuracy could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

A significant portion of our brokerage income is contributed by a limited number of insurance products. If we cannot continue to offer these insurance products on our platform for any reason or the popularity of these products declines, our brokerage income may decrease and our financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

We generate a significant portion of our brokerage income from a limited number of popular insurance products, primarily our tailor-made long-term life and health insurance products. In the six months ended June 30, 2019, the top five insurance products in terms of brokerage income contribution aggregately accounted for 46.7% of our total brokerage income, as compared to 39.9% in the six months ended June 30, 2018. We believe the concentration was partially due to the comprehensive protection coverage with reasonable policy terms making these tailor-made insurance products more attractive than others. Although we plan to continue to diversify our product offerings, launch more tailor-made insurance products, expand our client base and generate

 

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brokerage income from a wider variety of insurance products, we cannot guarantee you that we will be able to succeed, and that such concentration will decrease. If we cannot continue to offer these popular insurance products for any reason or the popularity of these products decline, our brokerage income may decrease and our financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

We have in the past sold insurance products on our platform through institutional promoters lacking operating license, and individual promoters who were registered with other insurance institutions or who were not registered with any insurance institutions, which may subject us to potential regulatory risks and may cause breaches of our agreements with insurer partners.

Through www.jumi18.com, www.qixin18.com and www.xiebao18.com, we have in the past engaged institutional promoters lacking insurance operating licenses, and individual promoters whose practice registrations were registered with insurance institutions other than us or who were not registered with any insurance institutions, to promote insurance products we offer on our platform. In return, we paid those promoters service fees. Our cooperation with institutional promoters lacking insurance operating licenses may subject us to regulatory risks, and thus as of the date of this prospectus, we have terminated our cooperation with all institutional promoters. Under relevant PRC laws and regulations, professional insurance intermediaries like us must complete practice registrations for individual promoters as our representatives or agents. Historically, for those individual promoters who had a relatively short history of cooperation with us, or who contributed a less significant portion of GWP facilitated on our platform, we did not complete all their practice registrations with us. As of the date of this prospectus, we have terminated the cooperation with individual promoters that have not been registered with us. However, we may be subject to administrative orders to rectify these historical non-compliance incidents or further, administrative penalties imposed by the regulatory authorities retrospectively, and if so, our business and results of operations might be materially and adversely affected.

In addition, under relevant PRC laws and regulations, an individual insurance agent or insurance broker can only act within the scope of authority granted by the insurance institution that he/she is registered with. Furthermore, an individual insurance agent who sells life insurance products is only eligible to register with and act as the agent of just one licensed insurance company. Consequently, there exist potential regulatory risks with regard to individuals whose activities went beyond the above restrictions in transactions completed for us in the past, and if the regulatory authorities take retrospective actions against us on those transactions, we may be subject to administrative orders for rectifications, administrative penalties or other actions imposed by the regulatory authorities, which will negatively affect our business and results of operations. Moreover, other insurance institutions with which these individuals are registered may take legal actions against us on the ground of unfair competition or breach of contract, where applicable, for transactions these individuals completed for us in the past. As of the date of the prospectus, there has been no such action taken or threatened against us. However, we cannot assure you that we will not face such legal actions in the future. Any such legal actions, regardless of merit, could be expensive and time-consuming to deal with, and could divert resources and the management’s attention from the operation of our business. If we are found liable in any such legal actions, we might be required to pay substantial amounts of damages to these insurance institutions and our business and reputation will suffer.

Furthermore, under our agreements with certain insurer partners, we should not delegate any of our rights or obligations as their insurance service provider to any third party. These insurer partners may consider our cooperation with third-party insurance agents as a breach of their agreements with us, which may subject us to liabilities under the agreements and damage our cooperative relationships with these insurer partners, and in turn adversely affect our business and results of operations.

Our business operation in Hong Kong had been noncompliant with applicable laws and regulations.

In the past, the operations of our Hong Kong subsidiary, Hong Kong Smart Choice Ventures Limited, or Hong Kong Smart Choice, had certain non-compliance incidents under applicable Hong Kong laws and

 

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regulations. Hong Kong Smart Choice, a company that is not a licensed insurance broker in Hong Kong, had engaged certain third parties to provide insurance advisory services to clients, which may be deemed as an offense under the Insurance Ordinance of Hong Kong and may subject Hong Kong Smart Choice to fines or even criminal liabilities. If Hong Kong Smart choice is punished by Hong Kong regulatory authorities, we may bear economic losses, our Hong Kong operations may be partially or wholly suspended, and our reputation, business, results of operations and our financial conditions will suffer. In addition, Hong Kong Smart Choice has in the past held an equity interest in Full Run Insurance Broker Limited, or Full Run, which had been noncompliant with applicable Hong Kong laws and regulations, including carrying out solicitation activities without being authorized and failing to comply with certain corporate governance requirements under the Hong Kong law. Although Hong Kong Smart Choice disposed of its equity interest in Full Run in July 2019, we cannot assure you that Hong Kong Smart Choice will not bear economic loss related to Full Run’s noncompliance during the period when it was a shareholder of Full Run, which will in turn negatively affect our reputation, business, results of operations and our financial conditions will suffer.

We have in the past made claim payments to insurance clients at our own discretion under our agreements with insurer partners.

Prior to early 2019, pursuant to our agreements with certain property & casualty insurer partners, we provided claim payment services to insurance clients for small amount claim applications to expedite the claim settlement and thus enhance user experience. For insurance clients who submitted claim applications on Ding Dong Claim under certain pre-determined amounts, we made advance payments directly to insurance clients, and subsequently claim these payments from our insurer partners. For claim applications that either exceed these amounts, or that we disagreed to pay, we defer the applications to our respective insurance partners to process. According to the PRC law, only licensed insurance companies are eligible to determine the final amounts for claim settlement. Therefore, the claim settlement process we applied through Ding Dong Claim prior to early 2019 may be considered as activities exceeding our business scope, and may subject us to fines and warnings by PRC regulatory authorities. We are in the process of amending our agreements with most of the relevant insurer partners with regard to our claim settlement procedures to ensure that our insurer partners have the sole discretion in determining whether to approve claim applications and the final amounts for claim settlement. However, we cannot guarantee you that our past practice will not expose us to penalties or other regulatory actions, the occurrence of which may negatively affect our reputation, business and results of operations.

In addition, for claim applications that we have made advance payments, our insurer partners may reject reimbursement to us, which will adversely affect our financial condition. If it takes longer time for these insurance partners to reimburse us than we expect, we will be subject to greater pressure on our cash flow, which will adversely affect our results of operations and financial conditions.

If we cannot manage the growth of our business or execute our strategies effectively, our business and prospects may be materially and adversely affected.

We continue to experience rapid growth in our business, which will continue to place significant demands on our management, operational and financial resources. We may encounter difficulties as we expand our operations, data and technology, sales and marketing, and general and administrative functions. We expect our expenses to continue to increase in the future as we acquire more users, launch new technology development projects and build additional technology infrastructure. Continued growth could also strain our ability to maintain the quality and reliability of our platform and services, develop and improve our operational, financial, legal and management controls, and enhance our reporting systems and procedures. Our expenses may grow faster than our revenues, and our expenses may be greater than we anticipate. We may expand into geographic areas where we do not have experience with local regulations or regulators or where local market conditions are unfavorable for our business model. Managing our growth will require significant expenditures and allocation of valuable management resources. If we fail to achieve the necessary level of efficiency in our organization as it grows, our business, operating results and financial condition could be harmed.

 

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Acquisitions, strategic alliances and investments could be difficult to integrate, disrupt our business and lower our results of operations and the value of your investment.

We may enter into selected strategic alliances and potential strategic acquisitions that are complementary to our business and operations, including opportunities that can help us further improve our technology system. These strategic alliances with third parties could subject us to a number of risks, including risks associated with sharing proprietary information, non-performance or default by counterparties, and increased expenses in establishing these new alliances, any of which may materially and adversely affect our business. We may have limited ability to control or monitor the actions of our strategic partners. To the extent a strategic partner suffers any negative publicity as a result of its business operations, our reputation may be negatively affected by virtue of our association with such party.

Strategic acquisitions and subsequent integrations of newly acquired businesses would require significant managerial and financial resources and could result in a diversion of resources from our existing business, which in turn could have an adverse effect on our growth and business operations. Acquired businesses or assets may not generate expected financial results immediately, or at all, and may incur losses. The cost and duration of integrating newly acquired businesses could also materially exceed our expectations, which could negatively affect our results of operation. In addition, certain shareholders operate similar insurance product and service platforms like we do and there remain potential conflicts of interest. If any of such conflicts of interest are not resolved in our favor, we could lose opportunities in strategic acquisitions and alliances, and our business, financial condition and results of operations will be materially and adversely affected.

Our success depends on the continued efforts of our senior management. If one or more of our key executives were unable or unwilling to continue in their present positions, our business may be severely disrupted.

Our business operations depend on the continued services of our senior management, particularly our co-founders and the executive officers named in this prospectus. While we have provided different incentives to our management, we cannot assure you that we can continue to retain their services. If one or more of our key executives were unable or unwilling to continue in their present positions, we may not be able to find suitable replacements, our future growth may be constrained, our business may be severely disrupted and our financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected. In addition, although we have entered into confidentiality and non-competition agreements with our management, there is no assurance that any member of our management team will not join our competitors or form a competing business. If any dispute arises between our current or former officers and us, we may have to incur substantial costs and expenses in order to enforce such agreements in China or we may not be able to enforce them at all.

If we are unable to recruit, train and retain qualified personnel, our business may be materially and adversely affected.

We believe our future success depends on our continued ability to attract, develop, motivate and retain qualified and skilled employees. Competition for personnel with expertise in insurance, sales and marketing, technology and risk management is extremely intense in China. We may not be able to hire and retain these personnel at compensation levels consistent with our existing compensation and salary structure. Some of the companies with which we compete for experienced employees have greater resources than we have and may be able to offer more attractive terms of employment. In addition, we invest significant time and resources in training our employees, which increases their value to competitors who may seek to recruit them. If we fail to retain our employees, we could incur significant expenses in hiring and training new employees, and our ability to serve insurance clients and insurer partners could diminish, resulting in a material adverse effect to our business.

 

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If our user traffic channels, other business partners or employees engage in any misconduct or cause errors to occur in our system, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

We are exposed to many types of operational risks, including the risk of misconduct and errors by our user traffic channels, other parties we collaborate with and by our employees. Our business depends on our employees and/or business partners to interact with clients and provide various services in relation to the purchase of insurance products. Misconduct could include making misrepresentations when marketing or selling insurance products to clients, hiding or falsifying material information in relation to insurance contracts, colluding with applicants, insureds, or beneficiaries to obtain insurance benefits, failing to disclose legally required information to clients, engaging in false claims or otherwise not complying with laws and regulations or our internal policies or procedures. Any of the aforementioned misconduct by parties we cooperate with may cause potential liabilities of us, and further subject us to regulatory actions and penalties. If any third parties that are important to our operations are sanctioned by regulatory actions, our business operations will be disrupted or otherwise negatively affected.

We could also be negatively impacted if an operational breakdown or failure in the processing of transactions occurred, whether as a result of human errors, purposeful sabotage or fraudulent manipulation of our operations or systems. It is not always possible to identify and deter misconduct or errors by employees or business partners, and the precautions we take to detect and prevent this activity may not be effective in controlling unknown or unmanaged risks or losses. If any of our employees or business partners fail to follow our rules and procedures when interacting with clients, we could be liable for damages and subject to regulatory actions and penalties. Any of these occurrences could result in our diminished ability to operate our business, inability to attract users, reputational damage, regulatory intervention and financial harm, which could negatively impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Any failure to protect our intellectual property could harm our business and competitive position.

We regard our software registrations, trademarks, patents, domain names, know-how, proprietary technologies and similar intellectual property as critical to our success, and we rely on a combination of intellectual property laws and contractual arrangements, including confidentiality and non-compete agreements with our employees and others to protect our proprietary rights. See “Business—Intellectual Property.” Despite these measures, any of our intellectual property rights could be challenged, invalidated, circumvented or misappropriated, or such intellectual property may not be sufficient to provide us with competitive advantages. In addition, because of the rapid pace of technological change in our industry, parts of our business rely on technologies developed or licensed by third parties, and we may not be able to obtain or continue to obtain licenses and technologies from these third parties on reasonable terms, or at all.

It is often difficult to maintain and enforce intellectual property rights in China. Statutory laws and regulations are subject to judicial interpretation and enforcement and may not be applied consistently due to the lack of clear guidance on statutory interpretation. Confidentiality, invention assignment and non-compete agreements may be breached by counterparties, and there may not be adequate remedies available to us for any such breach. Accordingly, we may not be able to effectively protect our intellectual property rights or to enforce our contractual rights in China. Preventing any unauthorized use of our intellectual property is difficult and costly and the steps we take may be inadequate to prevent the misappropriation of our intellectual property. In the event that we resort to litigation to enforce our intellectual property rights, such litigation could result in substantial costs and a diversion of our managerial and financial resources. We can provide no assurance that we will prevail in such litigation. In addition, our trade secrets may be leaked or otherwise become available to, or be independently discovered by, our competitors. To the extent that our employees or consultants use intellectual property owned by others in their work for us, disputes may arise as to the rights in related know-how and inventions. Any failure in protecting or enforcing our intellectual property rights could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

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We may be subject to intellectual property infringement claims, which may be expensive to defend and may disrupt our business and operations.

We cannot be certain that our operations or any aspects of our business do not or will not infringe upon or otherwise violate trademarks, patents, copyrights, know-how or other intellectual property rights held by third parties. We may be from time to time in the future subject to legal proceedings and claims relating to the intellectual property rights of others. In addition, there may be third-party trademarks, patents, copyrights, know-how or other intellectual property rights that are infringed by our products, services or other aspects of our business without our awareness. Holders of such intellectual property rights may seek to enforce such intellectual property rights against us in China, the United States or other jurisdictions. If any third-party infringement claims are brought against us, we may be forced to divert management’s time and other resources from our business and operations to defend against these claims, regardless of their merits.

Additionally, the application and interpretation of China’s intellectual property right laws and the procedures and standards for granting trademarks, patents, copyrights, know-how or other intellectual property rights in China are still evolving and are uncertain, and we cannot assure you that PRC courts or regulatory authorities would agree with our analysis. If we were found to have violated the intellectual property rights of others, we may be subject to liability for our infringement activities or may be prohibited from using such intellectual property, and we may incur licensing fees or be forced to develop alternatives of our own. As a result, our business and financial performance may be materially and adversely affected.

Our operations depend on the performance of the internet infrastructure and telecommunications networks in China.

Almost all access to the internet in China is maintained through state-owned telecommunication operators under the administrative control and regulatory supervision of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology. We primarily rely on a limited number of telecommunication service providers to provide us with data communications capacity through local telecommunications lines and internet data centers to host our servers. We have limited access to alternative networks or services in the event of disruptions, failures or other problems with China’s internet infrastructure or the fixed telecommunications networks provided by telecommunication service providers. With the expansion of our business, we may be required to upgrade our technology and infrastructure to keep up with the increasing traffic on our platform. We cannot assure you that the internet infrastructure and the fixed telecommunications networks in China will be able to support the demands associated with the continued growth in internet usage.

In addition, we have no control over the costs of the services provided by telecommunication service providers. If the prices we pay for telecommunications and internet services rise significantly, our financial performance may be adversely affected. Furthermore, if internet access fees or other charges to internet users increase, our user traffic may decline and our business may be harmed.

Our future growth depends on the further acceptance of the internet as an effective platform for disseminating insurance products and content.

The internet, and particularly the mobile internet, has gained increasing popularity in China as a platform for insurance products and content in recent years. However, certain participants in the industry, especially traditional insurance companies, and many insurance clients have limited experience in handling insurance products and content online, and some insurance clients may have reservations about using online platforms. For example, clients may not find online content to be reliable sources of insurance product information. Some insurance companies and reinsurance companies may not believe online platforms are secure for risk assessment and risk management. Others may not find online platforms effective when promoting and providing their products and services, especially to targeted clients in lower-tier cities or rural areas. If we fail to educate clients, insurance companies and reinsurance companies about the value of our platform and our products and services,

 

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our growth will be limited and our business, financial performance and prospects may be materially and adversely affected. The further acceptance of the internet and particularly the mobile internet as an effective and efficient platform for insurance products and content is also affected by factors beyond our control, including negative publicity and restrictive regulatory measures. If online and mobile networks do not achieve adequate acceptance in the market, our growth prospects, results of operations and financial condition could be harmed.

We may not be able to obtain additional capital when desired, on favorable terms or at all.

We need to make continued investments in facilities, hardware, software, technological systems and to retain talents to remain competitive. Due to the unpredictable nature of the capital markets and our industry, there can be no assurance that we will be able to raise additional capital on terms favorable to us, or at all, if and when required, especially if we experience disappointing operating results. If adequate capital is not available to us as required, our ability to fund our operations, take advantage of unanticipated opportunities, develop or enhance our infrastructure or respond to competitive pressures could be significantly limited. If we do raise additional funds through the issuance of equity or convertible debt securities, the ownership interests of our shareholders could be significantly diluted. These newly issued securities may have rights, preferences or privileges senior to those of existing shareholders.

Our current risk management system may not be able to exhaustively assess or mitigate all risks to which we are exposed, which could negatively affect our business and results of operations.

We have established risk management, quality control and internal control systems, consisting of policies and procedures that we believe are appropriate for our business. However, the implementation of such policies and procedures may involve human error and mistakes. Moreover, we may be exposed to fraud or other misconduct committed by our employees, or other third parties, including but not limited to our clients and partners, or other events that are out of our control, that could adversely affect our product quality and reputation and subject us to financial losses and sanctions imposed by government authorities. As a result, despite our efforts to improve the aforementioned systems, we cannot assure you that our risk management, quality control and internal control systems are able to completely eliminate non-compliance matters or product defects.

Failure to deal effectively with any fraud perpetrated on our platform could harm our business.

We face risks with respect to fraudulent activities on our platform. We cannot guarantee that all of the transactions conducted on our platform with insurance clients are commercially fair. We cannot fully eliminate insurance fraud and reverse selection insurance behaviors. Although we have implemented various measures to detect and reduce the occurrence of fraudulent activities on our platform, there can be no assurance that these measures will be effective in combating fraudulent transactions or improving overall satisfaction among our insurance clients and insurer partners. In addition, illegal, fraudulent or collusive activities by our employees or third party agents could also subject us to liability and negative publicity. Any illegal, fraudulent or collusive activity could severely damage our brand and reputation as an operator of a trusted online platform, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our insurance coverage may not be adequate, which could expose us to significant costs and business disruptions.

We maintain certain insurance policies to safeguard us against risks and unexpected events, including insurance broker/agent practice liability insurance. We provide social security insurance including pension insurance, unemployment insurance, work-related injury insurance, maternity insurance and medical insurance for our employees in compliance with applicable PRC laws. We do not maintain business interruption insurance. We consider our insurance coverage to be sufficient for our business operations in China. However, we cannot assure you that our insurance coverage is sufficient to prevent us from any loss or that we will be able to successfully claim our losses under our current insurance policy on a timely basis, or at all. If we incur any loss

 

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that is not covered by our insurance policies, or the compensated amount is significantly less than our actual loss, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

We may be subject to legal proceedings in the ordinary course of our business. If the outcomes of these proceedings are adverse to us, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

We may from time to time be involved in disputes with various parties involved in the development and sale of our products. These disputes may lead to protests or legal or other proceedings and may result in damage to our reputation, substantial costs to our operations, and diversion of our management’s attention. In addition, we may disagree with regulatory bodies in certain aspects in the course of our operations, which may subject us to administrative proceedings and unfavorable decrees that result in liabilities and cause delays to our properly developments. We have been involved in legal proceedings or disputes in the ordinary course of business. In addition, as we change our cooperation model or terminate cooperation with some of our user traffic channels and individual agents to meet regulatory requirements, we cannot assure you that dispute will not arise therefrom or any of these counterparties will not take legal actions against us. We cannot assure you that we will not be involved in any other major legal proceedings in the future. Any involvement on these disputes may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Failure to renew our current leases or locate desirable alternatives for our facilities could materially and adversely affect our business.

Certain of our lease agreements have not been registered with the relevant PRC government authorities as required by PRC law, which will not affect the validity of these lease agreements but may expose us to potential fines if we fail to remediate after receiving any notice from the relevant PRC government authorities. In case of failure to register or file a lease, the parties to the unregistered lease may be ordered to make rectifications (which would involve registering such leases with the relevant authority) before being subject to penalties. The penalty ranges from RMB1,000 to RMB10,000 for each unregistered lease, the specific amount of which is at the discretion of the relevant authority. Out of the eight lease agreements we had as of the date of this prospectus, we had not completed lease agreement registration for six properties, and our maximum exposure to penalties by relevant PRC authorities for failure of registration was approximately RMB 60,000.

If we fail to maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting, we may be unable to accurately report our financial results.

Prior to this offering, we have been a private company with limited accounting personnel and other resources with which to address our internal controls and procedures and we were never required to evaluate our internal control within a specified period. Our management has not completed assessment of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting, and our independent registered public accounting firm has not conducted an audit of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. However, in the course of preparing and auditing our consolidated financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2018, we and our independent registered public accounting firm respectively identified one material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2018. In accordance with reporting requirements set forth by the SEC, a “material weakness” is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our company’s annual consolidated financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis.

The material weakness identified relates to lack of sufficient and competent financial reporting and accounting personnel with appropriate knowledge of U.S. GAAP and SEC reporting requirements to formalize key controls over financial reporting and to prepare consolidated financial statements and related disclosures in accordance with U.S. GAAP and SEC financial reporting requirements. Neither we nor our independent

 

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registered public accounting firm undertook a comprehensive assessment of our internal control under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act for purposes of identifying and reporting any material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting. We and our independent registered public accounting firm are required to do so only after we become a public company. Had we performed a formal assessment of our internal control over financial reporting or had our independent registered public accounting firm performed an audit of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting, additional material weaknesses may have been identified.

Upon completion of this offering, we will become a public company in the United States subject to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. Section 404 of this Act will require that we include a report of management on our internal control over financial reporting in our annual report on Form 20-F beginning with our annual report for the fiscal year ending December 31, 2020. In addition, once we cease to be an “emerging growth company,” as such term is defined in the JOBS Act, our independent registered public accounting firm must attest to and report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. Our management may conclude that our internal control over financial reporting is not effective. Moreover, even if our management concludes that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, our independent registered public accounting firm, after conducting its own independent testing, may issue a report that is qualified if it is not satisfied with our internal controls or the level at which our controls are documented, designed, operated or reviewed, or if it interprets the relevant requirements differently from us. In addition, after we become a public company, our reporting obligations may place a significant strain on our management, operational and financial resources and systems for the foreseeable future. We may be unable to timely complete our evaluation testing and any required remediation.

During the course of documenting and testing our internal control procedures, in order to satisfy the requirements of Section 404, we may identify other weaknesses and deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting. In addition, if we fail to maintain the adequacy of our internal control over financial reporting, as these standards are modified, supplemented or amended from time to time, we may not be able to conclude on an ongoing basis that we have effective internal control over financial reporting in accordance with Section 404. If we fail to achieve and maintain an effective internal control environment, we could suffer material misstatements in our financial statements and fail to meet our reporting obligations, which would likely cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information. This could in turn limit our access to capital markets, harm our results of operations, and lead to a decline in the trading price of our ADSs. Additionally, ineffective internal control over financial reporting could expose us to increased risk of fraud or misuse of corporate assets and subject us to potential delisting from the stock exchange on which we list, regulatory investigations and civil or criminal sanctions. We may also be required to restate our financial statements from prior periods.

We have granted and may continue to grant options, restricted share units and other types of awards under our share option plan, which may result in increased share-based compensation expenses.

We adopted a global share incentive plan in June 2019, which we refer to as the Global Plan, for the purpose of granting share-based compensation awards to employees, directors and consultants to incentivize their performance and align their interests with ours. We recognize expenses in our consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Under our Global Plan, we are authorized to grant options, restricted share units and other types of share incentive awards. As of the date of this prospectus, the maximum aggregate number of common shares which may be issued pursuant to all awards under the Global Plan is 57,501,813 common shares, and 23,809,190 restricted shares and options to purchase a total of 19,463,440 common shares are outstanding. We adopted a 2019 share incentive plan in June 2019, which we refer to as the 2019 Plan. Under the 2019 Plan, the maximum number of common shares that may be issued is 20,351,945 common shares. As of the date of this prospectus, no share incentive award is outstanding under the 2019 Plan. We believe the granting of share-based compensation is of significant importance to our ability to attract and retain key personnel and employees, and we will continue to grant share-based compensation to employees in the future. As a result, our expenses associated with share-based compensation may increase, which may have an adverse effect on our results of operations. We may re-evaluate the vesting schedules, lock-up period, exercise price or other key terms

 

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applicable to the grants under our currently effective share incentive plans from time to time. If we choose to do so, we may experience substantial change in our share-based compensation charges in the reporting periods following this offering.

A severe or prolonged downturn in Chinese or global economy could materially and adversely affect our business and financial condition.

The global macroeconomic environment is facing challenges, including the US-China trade war, the end of quantitative easing and start of interest rate hike by the U.S. Federal Reserve, the economic slowdown in the Eurozone since 2014 and uncertainties over the impact of Brexit. The United States and China have recently been involved in controversy over trade barriers in China that threatened a trade war between the countries and have implemented or proposed to implement tariffs on certain imported products. Sustained tension between the United States and China over trade policies could significantly undermine the stability of the global and Chinese economy. The Chinese economy has shown slower growth since 2012 compared to the previous decade and the trend may continue. There have been concerns over unrest and terrorist threats in the Middle East, Europe and Africa, which have resulted in market volatility in oil and other markets, and over the expansion of terrorist activities into Europe and other regions. There have also been concerns on the relationship between China and other countries, including the surrounding Asian countries, which may potentially have economic effects.

Economic conditions in China are sensitive to global economic conditions, as well as changes in domestic economic and political policies and the expected or perceived overall economic growth rate in China. Our business and operations are primarily based in China and substantially all of our revenues are derived from our operations in China. Accordingly, our financial results have been, and are expected to continue to be, affected by the economy and insurance industry in China. While the economy in China has grown significantly over the past decades, growth has been uneven, both geographically and among various sectors of the economy, and the rate of growth has been slowing down. Any severe or prolonged slowdown in the global or Chinese economy may materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

We face risks related to natural disasters, health epidemics and other outbreaks, which could significantly disrupt our operations.

Our business could be materially and adversely affected by natural disasters, health epidemics or other public safety concerns affecting the PRC, and particularly Shenzhen. Natural disasters may give rise to server interruptions, breakdowns, system failures, technology platform failures or internet failures, which could cause the loss or corruption of data or malfunctions of software or hardware as well as adversely affect our ability to operate our platform and provide services and solutions. Our business could also be adversely affected if our employees are affected by health epidemics. In addition, our results of operations could be adversely affected to the extent that any health epidemic harms the Chinese economy in general. Our headquarters are located in Shenzhen, where most of our management and employees currently reside. Most of our system hardware and back-up systems are hosted in facilities located in Shenzhen. Consequently, if any natural disasters, health epidemics or other public safety concerns were to affect Shenzhen, our operation may experience material disruptions, which may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Risks Relating to Our Corporate Structure

If the PRC government finds that the agreements that establish the structure for operating certain of our operations in China do not comply with PRC regulations relating to insurance brokerage and the relevant industries, or if these regulations or the interpretation of existing regulations change in the future, we could be subject to severe penalties or be forced to relinquish our interests in those operations.

Due to the PRC legal restrictions on foreign ownership of internet-based business and qualification requirements on foreign investors in the insurance brokerage business, we rely on certain contractual arrangements with our VIE and its shareholders to conduct substantially all of our operations in China. For example, foreign investors are not allowed to own more than 50% of the equity interests in a value-added telecommunications service provider (except for e-commerce, domestic multi-party communication, storage and

 

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forwarding classes and call centers) under the the Special Administrative Measures for Access of Foreign Investment (Negative List) (2019 Edition), which was promulgated on June 30, 2019 and implemented on July 30, 2019. and any such foreign investor must have experience in providing value-added telecommunications services overseas and maintain a good track record in accordance with the Administrative Provisions on Foreign-Invested Telecommunications Enterprises (revised in 2016), and other applicable laws and regulations.

We are a Cayman Islands exempted company and our WFOE is considered a foreign-invested enterprise. To comply with PRC laws and regulations, we conduct operations in China through an affiliated PRC entity, Shenzhen Huiye Tianze Investment Holding Co., Ltd., or Huiye Tianze. We have entered into a series of contractual arrangements with Huiye Tianze and its shareholders, which enable us to (i) exercise effective control over Huiye Tianze, (ii) receive substantially all of the economic benefits and bear the obligation to absorb substantially all of the losses of Huiye Tianze, and (iii) have an exclusive option to purchase all or part of the equity interests in or assets of Huiye Tianze when and to the extent permitted by PRC laws. Because of these contractual arrangements, we are deemed the primary beneficiary of Huiye Tianze and hence consolidate its financial results as our variable interest entity, or our VIE, under U.S. GAAP. For a detailed description of these contractual arrangements, see “Corporate History and Structure.”

It is uncertain whether any new PRC laws or regulations relating to variable interest entity structures will be adopted or if adopted, what they would provide. See “—Risks Relating to Doing Business in China—Uncertainties in the interpretation and enforcement of PRC laws and regulations could limit the legal protections available to you and us.”

If the ownership structure, contractual arrangements and businesses of our PRC subsidiary, our VIE and its subsidiaries are found to be in violation of any existing or future PRC laws or regulations, or our PRC subsidiary, our VIE or its subsidiaries fail to obtain or maintain any of the required permits or approvals, the relevant PRC regulatory authorities would have broad discretion to take action in dealing with such violations or failures, including:

 

   

revoking the business licenses and/or operating licenses of such entities;

 

   

shutting down our servers or blocking our website, or discontinuing or placing restrictions or onerous conditions on our operation through any transactions between our WFOE, our VIE and its subsidiaries;

 

   

imposing fines, confiscating the income from our WFOE, our VIE or its subsidiaries, or imposing other requirements with which we or our VIE may not be able to comply;

 

   

requiring us to restructure our ownership structure or operations, including terminating the contractual arrangements with our VIE and deregistering the equity pledge of our VIE, which in turn would affect our ability to consolidate, derive economic interests from, or exert effective control over our VIE; or

 

   

restricting or prohibiting our use of the proceeds of this offering to finance our business and operations in China, and taking other regulatory or enforcement actions that could be harmful to our business.

Any of these actions could cause significant disruption to our business operations and severely damage our reputation, which would in turn materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. If any of these occurrences results in our inability to direct the activities of our VIE that most significantly impact its economic performance, and/or our failure to receive the economic benefits from our VIE, we may not be able to consolidate the entity in our consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP.

Substantial uncertainties exist with respect to the interpretation and implementation of the newly enacted PRC Foreign Investment Law and how it may impact the viability of our current corporate structure, corporate governance, business operations and financial results.

On March 15, 2019, the National People’s Congress approved the Foreign Investment Law, which will come into effect on January 1, 2020 and replace the trio of existing laws regulating foreign investment in China,

 

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namely, the Sino-foreign Equity Joint Venture Enterprise Law, the Sino-foreign Cooperative Joint Venture Enterprise Law and the Wholly Foreign-invested Enterprise Law, together with their implementation rules and ancillary regulations. The Foreign Investment Law embodies an expected PRC regulatory trend to rationalize its foreign investment regulatory regime in line with prevailing international practice and the legislative efforts to unify the corporate legal requirements for both foreign and domestic investments. However, since it is relatively new, uncertainties still exist in relation to its interpretation and implementation. For instance, under the Foreign Investment Law, “foreign investment” refers to the investment activities directly or indirectly conducted by foreign individuals, enterprises or other entities in China. Though it does not explicitly classify contractual arrangements as a form of foreign investment, there is no assurance that foreign investment via contractual arrangements would not be interpreted as a type of indirect foreign investment activities under the definition in the future. In addition, the definition contains a catch-all provision which includes investments made by foreign investors through means stipulated in laws or administrative regulations or other methods prescribed by the State Council. Therefore, it still leaves leeway for future laws, administrative regulations or provisions promulgated by the State Council to provide for contractual arrangements as a form of foreign investment. In any of these cases, it will be uncertain whether our contractual arrangements will be deemed to be in violation of the market access requirements for foreign investment under the PRC laws and regulations. Furthermore, if future laws, administrative regulations or provisions prescribed by the State Council mandate further actions to be taken by companies with respect to existing contractual arrangements, we may face substantial uncertainties as to whether we can complete such actions in a timely manner, or at all. Failure to take timely and appropriate measures to cope with any of these or similar regulatory compliance challenges could materially and adversely affect our current corporate structure, corporate governance and business operations.

Cayman Islands economic substance requirements may have an effect on our business and operations.

Pursuant to the International Tax Cooperation (Economic Substance) Law, 2018 of the Cayman Islands, or the ES Law, that came into force on January 1, 2019, a “relevant entity” is required to satisfy the economic substance test set out in the ES Law. A “relevant entity” includes an exempted company incorporated in the Cayman Islands as is our company. Based on the current interpretation of the ES Law, we believe that our company is a pure equity holding company since our company only holds equity participation in other entities and only earns dividends and capital gains. Accordingly, for so long as our company is a “pure equity holding company”, our company is only subject to the minimum substance requirements, which require us to (i) comply with all applicable filing requirements under the Companies Law; and (ii) has adequate human resources and adequate premises in the Cayman Islands for holding and managing equity participations in other entities. However, there can be no assurance that we will not be subject to more requirements under the ES Law. Uncertainties over the interpretation and implementation of the ES Law may have an adverse impact on our business and operations.

We rely on contractual arrangements with our VIE, and its shareholders for our operations in China, which may not be as effective as direct ownership in providing operational control.

We have relied and expect to continue to rely on variable interest entity arrangements to conduct a significant part of our operations in China. We rely on contractual arrangements with our VIE and its shareholders to conduct a significant part of our operations in China. For a description of these contractual arrangements, see “Corporate History and Structure.” The shareholders of our VIE may not act in the best interests of our company or may not perform their obligations under these contracts. If we had direct ownership of our VIE, we would be able to exercise our rights as a shareholder to effect changes in the board of directors of our VIE, which in turn could implement changes, subject to any applicable fiduciary obligations, at the management and operational level. However, under the contractual arrangements, we would rely on legal remedies under PRC law for breach of contract in the event that our VIE and its shareholders did not perform their obligations under the contracts. These legal remedies may not be as effective as direct ownership in providing us with control over our VIE.

 

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If our VIE or its shareholders fail to perform their obligations under the contractual arrangements, we may have to incur substantial costs and expend additional resources to enforce such arrangements. All the agreements under our contractual arrangements are governed by PRC law and provide for the resolution of disputes through arbitration in China. Accordingly, these contracts would be interpreted in accordance with PRC law and any disputes would be resolved in accordance with PRC legal procedures. The legal system in the PRC is not as developed as in some other jurisdictions, such as the United States. As a result, uncertainties in the PRC legal system could limit our ability to enforce these contractual arrangements. Meanwhile, there are very few precedents and little formal guidance as to how contractual arrangements in the context of a variable interest entity should be interpreted or enforced under PRC law. There remain significant uncertainties regarding the ultimate outcome of such arbitration should legal action become necessary. In addition, under PRC law, rulings by arbitrators are final, parties cannot appeal the arbitration results in courts, and if the losing parties fail to carry out the arbitration awards within a prescribed time limit, the prevailing parties may only enforce the arbitration awards in PRC courts through arbitration award recognition proceedings, which would require additional expenses and delay. In the event we are unable to enforce these contractual arrangements, or if we suffer significant delay or other obstacles in the process of enforcing these contractual arrangements, we may not be able to exert effective control over our VIE, and our ability to conduct our business may be negatively affected. See “—Risks Relating to Doing Business in China—Uncertainties in the interpretation and enforcement of PRC laws and regulations could limit the legal protections available to you and us.”

The directors of our VIE may have potential conflicts of interest with us, and if any such conflicts of interest are not resolved in our favor, our business may be materially and adversely affected.

PRC laws and regulations provide that a director owes a fiduciary duty to the company to which he or she acts as a director. The directors of our VIE, including Mr. Cunjun Ma and Mr. Li Jiang, our Chief Executive officer and our Chief Operating Officer, must act in good faith and in the best interests of our VIE and must not use their respective positions for personal gains. On the other hand, as the directors of our company, Mr. Cunjun Ma and Mr. Li Jiang have a duty of care and loyalty to our company and to our shareholders as a whole under the Cayman Islands law. We control our VIE through contractual arrangements, and the business and operations of our VIE are closely integrated with our subsidiaries’ business and operations. Nevertheless, conflicts of interests for these individuals may arise due to their dual roles both as directors of our VIE and as directors of our company.

We cannot assure you that should any conflicts of interest arise, any or all of these individuals will act in the best interests of our company or such conflicts will be resolved in our favor. Currently, we do not have any arrangements to address potential conflicts of interest between these individuals and our company. If we cannot resolve any conflicts of interest or disputes between us and these individuals, we would have to rely on legal proceedings, which could result in disruption of our business and subject us to substantial uncertainty as to the outcome of any such legal proceedings.

Our ability to enforce the equity pledge agreements between us and the shareholders of our VIE may be subject to limitations based on PRC laws and regulations.

Pursuant to the equity pledge agreements relating to our VIE, shareholders of our VIE pledged their equity interests in our VIE to our WFOE to secure our VIE’s and its shareholders’ performance of the obligations and indebtedness under the Exclusive Business Cooperation Agreement, Exclusive Option and Equity Escrow Agreement. As of the date of this prospectus, we have registered such equity pledges with the relevant local branch of the State Administration for Market Regulation, or the SAMR. Under the PRC Property Law, when an obligor fails to pay its debt when due, the pledgee may choose to either conclude an agreement with the pledger to obtain the pledged equity or seek payments from the proceeds of the auction or sell-off of the pledged equity. If our VIE fails to perform its obligations secured by the pledges under the equity pledge agreements, one remedy in the event of default under the agreements is to require the pledger to sell the equity interests in our VIE, as applicable, in an auction or private sale and remit the proceeds to our subsidiary in China, net of related

 

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taxes and expenses. Such an auction or private sale may not result in our receipt of the full value of the equity interests in our VIE. We consider it very unlikely that the public auction process would be undertaken since, in an event of default, our preferred approach would be to ask our WFOE that is a party to the Exclusive Option and Equity Escrow Agreement to designate another PRC person or entity to acquire the equity interests in such VIE and replace the existing shareholders pursuant to the Exclusive Option and Equity Escrow Agreement.

In addition, in the registration forms of the local branch of the SAMR for the pledges over the equity interests under the equity pledge agreements, the amount of registered equity interests pledged to our WFOE shall be designated as a fixed figure. The equity pledge agreements with the shareholders of our VIE provide that the pledged equity interest constitutes continuing security for any and all of the indebtedness, obligations and liabilities of our VIE under the relevant contractual arrangements, and therefore it is possible that the amount of registered equity interests cannot cover the secured obligation as a whole. However, there is no guarantee that a PRC court will not take the position that the amount listed on the equity pledge registration forms represents the full amount of the collateral that has been registered and perfected. If this is the case, the obligations that are supposed to be secured in the equity pledge agreements in excess of the amount listed on the equity pledge registration forms could be determined by the PRC court to be unsecured debt, which takes last priority among creditors and often does not have to be paid back at all. We do not have agreements that pledge the assets of our VIE and its subsidiaries for the benefit of us or our WFOE, although our VIE grants our WFOE options to purchase the assets of our VIE and its equity interests in its subsidiaries under the Exclusive Option and Equity Escrow Agreement.

If our VIE and its subsidiaries becomes the subject of a bankruptcy or liquidation proceeding, we may lose the ability to use and enjoy their assets, which could reduce the size of our operations and materially and adversely affect our business.

We do not have priority pledges and liens against the assets of our VIE. If our VIE undergoes an involuntary liquidation proceeding, third-party creditors may claim rights to some or all of its assets and we may not have priority against such third-party creditors on the assets of our VIE. If our VIE liquidates, we may take part in the liquidation procedures as a general creditor under the PRC Enterprise Bankruptcy Law and recover any outstanding liabilities owed by our VIE to our WFOE under the applicable service agreement.

If the shareholders of our VIE were to attempt to voluntarily liquidate our VIE without obtaining our prior consent, we could effectively prevent such unauthorized voluntary liquidation by exercising our right to request the shareholders of our VIE to transfer all of their respective equity ownership interests to a PRC entity or an individual designated by us in accordance with the option agreement with the shareholders of our VIE. In addition, under the operation agreement signed by our WFOE, our VIE and its shareholders and according to the PRC Property Law, the shareholders of our VIE do not have the right to issue dividends to themselves or otherwise distribute the retained earnings or other assets of our VIE without our consent. In the event that the shareholders of our VIE initiate a voluntary liquidation proceeding without our authorization or attempts to distribute the retained earnings or assets of our VIE without our prior consent, we may need to resort to legal proceedings to enforce the terms of the contractual arrangements. Any such litigation may be costly and may divert our management’s time and attention away from the operation of our business, and the outcome of such litigation will be uncertain.

Our contractual arrangements with our VIE may result in adverse tax consequences to us.

As a result of our corporate structure and the contractual arrangements among our WFOE, our VIE, its shareholders and us, we are effectively subject to the PRC value-added tax at rates from 3% to 6% and related surcharges on revenues generated by our subsidiary from our contractual arrangements with our VIE. The PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law and its Implementing Regulations require every enterprise in China to submit its annual enterprise income tax return together with a report on transactions with its affiliates or related parties to the relevant tax authorities. According to the Implementing Regulations of the Enterprise Income Tax Law, these

 

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transactions may be subject to audit or challenge by the PRC tax authorities within ten years after the taxable year during which the transactions are conducted. We may be subject to adverse tax consequences if the PRC tax authorities were to determine that the contracts between us and our VIE were not on an arm’s length basis and therefore constitute a favorable transfer pricing arrangements. If this occurs, the PRC tax authorities could request that our VIE and any of its subsidiaries adjust their taxable income upward for PRC tax purposes. Such a pricing adjustment could adversely affect us by reducing expense deductions recorded by such VIE and thereby increasing the VIE’s tax liabilities, which could subject the VIE to late fees and other penalties for the underpayment of taxes. Our results of operations may be materially and adversely affected if our VIE’s tax liabilities increase or if either of them becomes subject to late payment fees or other penalties.

Contractual arrangements we have entered into among our WFOE, our VIE and its shareholders may be subject to scrutiny by the PRC tax authorities and they may determine that we or our VIE and its subsidiaries owe additional taxes, which could substantially reduce our consolidated net profit and the value of your investment.

Under applicable PRC laws and regulations, arrangements and transactions among related parties may be subject to audit or challenge by the PRC tax authorities. We are not able to determine whether the contractual arrangements we have entered into among our WFOE, our VIE and its shareholders will be regarded by the PRC tax authorities as arm’s length transactions. We could face material and adverse tax consequences if the PRC tax authorities determine that the contractual arrangements among our wholly-owned subsidiary in China, Zhixuan International Management Consulting (Shenzhen) Co., Ltd., or our WFOE, our VIE, and our VIE’s shareholders were not entered into on an arm’s length basis or resulted in an impermissible reduction in taxes under applicable PRC laws, rules and regulations, and adjust our VIE’s income in the form of a transfer pricing adjustment. A transfer pricing adjustment could, among other things, result in a reduction, for PRC tax purposes, of expense deductions recorded by our VIE, which could in turn increase their respective tax liabilities. In addition, the PRC tax authorities may impose late fees and other penalties on our VIE for the adjusted but unpaid taxes according to the applicable regulations. Our financial position could be materially and adversely affected if our VIE’s tax liabilities increase or if they are required to pay late fees and other penalties.

We may rely principally on dividends and other distributions on equity paid by our WFOE to fund any cash and financing requirements we may have, and any limitation on the ability of our WFOE to pay dividends to us could have a material adverse effect on our ability to conduct our business.

We are a holding company, and we may rely principally on dividends and other distributions on equity paid by our WFOE, which in turn relies on consulting and other fees paid to us by our VIE, for our cash and financing requirements, including the funds necessary to pay dividends and other cash distributions to our shareholders and service any debt we may incur. If our WFOE incurs debt on its own behalf in the future, the instruments governing the debt may restrict its ability to pay dividends or make other distributions to us. In addition, the PRC tax authorities may require us to adjust our taxable income under the contractual arrangements our WFOE currently has in place with our variable interest entity in a manner that would materially and adversely affect its ability to pay dividends and other distributions to us.

Under PRC laws and regulations, our WFOE, as a wholly foreign-owned enterprise in the PRC, may pay dividends only out of its accumulated profits as determined in accordance with PRC accounting standards and regulations. In addition, a wholly foreign-owned enterprise such as our WFOE is required to set aside at least 10% of its accumulated after-tax profits after making up the previous year’s accumulated losses each year, if any, to fund certain statutory reserve funds, until the aggregate amount of such fund reaches 50% of its registered capital. At its discretion, it may allocate a portion of its after-tax profits based on PRC accounting standards to staff welfare and bonus funds. These reserve funds and staff welfare and bonus funds are not distributable as cash dividends.

 

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Furthermore, if our WFOE and consolidated entities incur debt on their own behalf in the future, the instruments governing the debt may restrict their ability to pay dividends or make other payments to us, which may restrict our ability to satisfy our liquidity requirements.

In addition, the EIT Law and its implementation rules provide that withholding tax rate of 10% will be applicable to dividends payable by PRC companies to non-PRC-resident enterprises unless otherwise exempted or reduced according to treaties or arrangements between the PRC central government and governments of other countries or regions where the non-PRC-resident enterprises are incorporated.

Any limitation on the ability of our WFOE to pay dividends or make other distributions to us could materially and adversely limit our ability to grow, make investments or acquisitions that could be beneficial to our business, pay dividends, or otherwise fund and conduct our business. See also “—Risks Relating to Doing Business in China—The dividends we receive from our WFOE may be subject to PRC tax under the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law, which would have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.”

PRC regulation of loans to and direct investment in PRC entities by offshore holding companies and governmental control of conversion of foreign currencies into Renminbi may delay or prevent us from using the proceeds of this offering to make loans to our WFOE and VIE or to make additional capital contributions to our PRC subsidiaries, which could materially and adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business.

We are an offshore holding company conducting our operations in China through our WFOE, our VIE and its subsidiaries. We may make loans to our WFOE, our VIE and its subsidiaries, or we may make additional capital contributions to our WFOE.

Any loans to our WFOE, which are treated as Foreign Investment Enterprises, or FIEs, under PRC law, are subject to PRC regulations and foreign exchange loan registrations. For example, loans by us to our WFOE, our VIE and its subsidiaries to finance their activities cannot exceed statutory limits and must be registered with the local counterpart of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange, or SAFE, or filed with SAFE in its information system. We may also provide loans to our consolidated affiliated entities or other domestic PRC entities, according to the Circular of the People’s Bank of China on Matters relating to the Comprehensive Macro-prudential Management of Cross-border Financing issued by the People’s Bank of China in January 2017. The limit for the total amount of foreign debt is two times of their respective net assets. Moreover, any medium or long-term loan to be provided by us to our consolidated affiliated entities or other domestic PRC entities must also be filed and registered with the National Development and Reform Commission, or the NDRC. We may also decide to finance our PRC subsidiaries by means of capital contributions. These capital contributions must be recorded with the Ministry of Commerce, or MOFCOM, or its local counterpart.

On March 30, 2015, SAFE issued the Circular of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange on Reforming the Administrative Approach Regarding the Settlement of the Foreign Exchange Capital of Foreign-invested Enterprises, or SAFE Circular 19, which took effect and replaced previous regulations effective on June 1, 2015. Pursuant to SAFE Circular 19, up to 100% of foreign currency capital of a foreign-invested enterprise may be converted into RMB capital according to the actual operation, and within the business scope, of the enterprise at its will. Although SAFE Circular 19 allows for the use of RMB converted from the foreign currency-denominated capital for equity investments in the PRC, the restrictions continue to apply as to FIEs’ use of the converted RMB for purposes beyond the business scope, for entrusted loans or for inter-company RMB loans. On June 9, 2016, SAFE promulgated the Notice of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange on Reforming and Standardizing the Foreign Exchange Settlement Management Policy of Capital Account, or SAFE Circular 16, effective on June 9, 2016, which reiterates some rules set forth in Circular 19, but changes the prohibition against using RMB capital converted from foreign currency-denominated registered capital of a foreign-invested company to issue RMB entrusted loans to a prohibition against using such capital to issue loans

 

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to non-affiliated enterprises. If our VIE requires financial support from us or our wholly owned subsidiary in the future and we find it necessary to use foreign currency-denominated capital to provide such financial support, our ability to fund our variable interest entity’s operations will be subject to statutory limits and restrictions, including those described above.

In light of the various requirements imposed by PRC regulations on loans to and direct investment in PRC entities by offshore holding companies, including SAFE Circular 19, SAFE Circular 16 and other relevant rules and regulations, we cannot assure you that we will be able to complete the necessary government registrations or obtain the necessary government approvals on a timely basis, if at all, with respect to future loans by us to our WFOE, our VIE or its subsidiaries or with respect to future capital contributions by us to our WFOE. If we fail to complete such registrations or obtain such approvals, our ability to use the proceeds we received from our initial public offering and to capitalize or otherwise fund our PRC operations may be negatively affected, which could materially and adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business.

Risks Relating to Doing Business in China

Adverse changes in China’s economic, political and social conditions, as well as laws and government policies, may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.

We conduct businesses in the PRC, and therefore our financial conditions and results of operations are subject to influences from PRC’s economic, political and social conditions to a great extent. The PRC economy differs from the economies of most developed countries in many aspects, including, but not limited to, the degree of government involvement, control level of corruption, control of capital investment, reinvestment control of foreign exchange, allocation of resources, growth rate and development level.

For approximately three decades, the PRC government has implemented economic reform measures to utilize market forces in the development of the PRC economy. We cannot predict whether changes in the PRC’s economic, political and social conditions and in its laws, regulations and policies will have any adverse effect on our current or future business, financial condition or results of operations. In addition, many of the economic reforms carried out by the PRC government are unprecedented or experimental and are expected to be refined and improved over time. This refining and improving process may not necessarily have a positive effect on our operations and business development. For example, the PRC government has in the past implemented a number of measures intended to slow down certain segments of the economy, including the real property industry, which the government believed to be overheating. These actions, as well as other actions and policies of the PRC government, could cause a decrease in the overall level of economic activity in the PRC and, in turn, have an adverse impact on our business and financial condition.

Uncertainties in the interpretation and enforcement of PRC laws and regulations could limit the legal protections available to you and us.

The PRC legal system is based on codified statutes and court decisions have limited precedential value. The PRC legal system is evolving rapidly, and the interpretation of many laws, regulations and rules may contain inconsistencies and enforcement of these laws, regulations and rules involves uncertainties.

From time to time, we may have to resort to administrative and court proceedings to enforce our legal rights. However, since PRC judicial and administrative authorities have significant discretion in interpreting and implementing statutory provisions and contractual terms, it may be more difficult to predict the outcome of a judicial or administrative proceeding than that in more developed jurisdictions. Furthermore, the PRC legal system is based, in part, on government policies and internal rules, some of which are not published in a timely manner, or at all, but which may have retroactive effects. As a result, we may not always be aware of any potential violation of these policies and rules. Such unpredictability towards our contractual, property (including

 

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intellectual property) and procedural rights could adversely affect our business and impede our ability to continue our operations.

We may be adversely affected by the complexity, uncertainties and changes in PRC regulations of internet-related businesses and companies, and any lack of requisite approvals, licenses or permits applicable to our business may have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

The PRC government extensively regulates the internet industry, including foreign ownership of, and the licensing and permit requirements pertaining to, companies in the internet industry. These internet-related laws and regulations are relatively new and evolving, and their interpretation and enforcement involve significant uncertainties. As a result, in certain circumstances it may be difficult to determine what actions or omissions may be deemed to be in violation of applicable laws and regulations.

We only have contractual control over our website and mobile app platform. We do not directly own the website and mobile app platform due to the restriction of foreign investment in businesses providing value-added telecommunications services in China, including internet information provision services. This may significantly disrupt our business, subject us to sanctions, compromise enforceability of related contractual arrangements, or have other harmful effects on us.

The evolving PRC regulatory system for the internet industry may lead to the establishment of new regulatory agencies. For example, in March 2018, the State Council announced the establishment of a new department, the Office of the Central Cyberspace Affairs Commission, (with the involvement of the State Council Information Office, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, or the MIIT, and the Ministry of Public Security). The primary role of this new agency is to facilitate the policy-making and legislative development in this field, to direct and coordinate with the relevant departments in connection with online content administration and to deal with cross-ministry regulatory matters in relation to the internet industry, and the National Computer Network and Information Security Management Center was adjusted to be managed by the Office of the Central Cyberspace Affairs Commission Office instead of the MIIT.

The interpretation and application of existing PRC laws, regulations and policies and possible new laws, regulations or policies relating to the internet industry have created substantial uncertainties regarding the legality of existing and future foreign investments in, and the businesses and activities of, internet businesses in China, including our business. We cannot assure you that we have obtained all the permits or licenses required for conducting our business in China or will be able to maintain our existing licenses or obtain new ones. If the PRC government considers that we were operating without the proper approvals, licenses or permits or promulgates new laws and regulations that require additional approvals or licenses or imposes additional restrictions on the operation of any part of our business, it has the power, among other things, to levy fines, confiscate our income, revoke our business licenses, and require us to discontinue our relevant business or impose restrictions on the affected portion of our business. Any of these actions by the PRC government may have a material adverse effect on our reputation, business and results of operations.

Government control of currency conversion and future fluctuation of Renminbi exchange rates could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition, and may reduce the value of, and dividends payable on, our Shares in foreign currency terms.

Substantially all our income, costs and expenses are denominated in Renminbi, which is not currently a completely freely convertible currency. A portion of these income must be converted into other currencies to meet our foreign currency obligations, including our payments of declared dividends, if any, for our Shares.

Under the PRC’s existing foreign exchange regulations, by complying with certain procedural requirements, following the completion of this Offering, we will be able to undertake current account foreign exchange transactions, including payment of dividends in foreign currencies without prior approval from the State

 

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Administration of Foreign Exchange. However, the PRC government may take measures at its discretion in the future to restrict access to foreign currencies for capital account and current account transactions under certain circumstances. We may not be able to pay dividends in foreign currencies to our Shareholders if the PRC government restricts access to foreign currencies for current account transactions. Under existing PRC foreign exchange regulations, conversion of Renminbi is permitted, without prior approval from the SAFE, for current account transactions, including profit distributions, interest payments and expenditures from trade-related transactions, as long as certain procedural requirements are complied with. However, approval from and registration with the SAFE and other PRC regulatory authorities are required where Renminbi is to be converted into foreign currency and remitted out of China for capital account transactions, which includes foreign direct investment and repayment of loans denominated in foreign currencies. These limitations could affect our ability to obtain foreign exchange through equity financing, or to obtain foreign exchange for capital expenditures.

The value of Renminbi against the HK dollar, the U.S. dollar and other currencies fluctuate, subject to change resulting from the PRC government’s policies, and depends to a large extent on domestic and international economic and political developments as well as supply and demand in the local market. It is difficult to predict how market forces or government policies may impact the exchange rate between the Renminbi and the HK dollar, the U.S. dollar or other currencies in the future. In addition, the PBOC regularly intervenes in the foreign exchange market to limit fluctuations in Renminbi exchange rates and achieve policy goals.

Furthermore, the net proceeds from this Offering are expected to be deposited overseas in currencies other than Renminbi until we obtain necessary approvals from relevant PRC regulatory authorities to convert these proceeds into onshore Renminbi. If the net proceeds cannot be converted into onshore Renminbi in a timely manner, our ability to deploy these proceeds efficiently may be affected, as we will not be able to invest these proceeds on RMB-denominated assets onshore or deploy them in uses onshore where Renminbi is required, which may adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Fluctuations in exchange rates could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and the value of your investment.

The value of Renminbi against the U.S. dollar and other currencies is affected by changes in China’s political and economic conditions and by China’s foreign exchange policies, among other things. In July 2005, the PRC government changed its decades-old policy of pegging the value of Renminbi to the U.S. dollar, and Renminbi appreciated more than 20% against the U.S. dollar over the following three years. Between July 2008 and June 2010, this appreciation halted and the exchange rate between Renminbi and the U.S. dollar remained within a narrow band. Since June 2010, Renminbi has fluctuated against the U.S. dollar, at times significantly and unpredictably. It is difficult to predict how market forces or PRC or U.S. government policies may impact the exchange rate between Renminbi and the U.S. dollar in the future.

To the extent that we need to convert U.S. dollars into Renminbi for capital expenditures and working capital and other business purposes, appreciation of Renminbi against the U.S. dollar would have an adverse effect on Renminbi amount we would receive from the conversion. Conversely, if we decide to convert Renminbi into U.S. dollars for the purpose of making payments for dividends on our common shares, strategic acquisitions or investments or other business purposes, appreciation of the U.S. dollar against Renminbi would have a negative effect on the U.S. dollar amount available to us.

The reporting currency of our company is the U.S. dollar. However, the functional currency of our consolidated operating subsidiaries and variable interest entity is the Renminbi and substantially all of their revenues and expenses are denominated in Renminbi. Fluctuations in exchange rates, primarily those involving the U.S. dollar, may affect the relative purchasing power of these proceeds. In addition, appreciation or depreciation in the value of the Renminbi relative to the U.S. dollar would affect our financial results reported in U.S. dollar terms without giving effect to any underlying change in our business or results of operations.

 

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Fluctuations in the exchange rate will also affect the relative value of earnings from, and the value of any U.S. dollar-denominated investments we make in the future.

Very limited hedging options are available in China to reduce our exposure to exchange rate fluctuations. To date, we have not entered into any hedging transactions in an effort to reduce our exposure to foreign currency exchange risk. While we may decide to enter into hedging transactions in the future, the availability and effectiveness of these hedges may be limited and we may not be able to adequately hedge our exposure or at all. In addition, our currency exchange losses may be magnified by PRC exchange control regulations that restrict our ability to convert Renminbi into foreign currency. As a result, fluctuations in exchange rates may have a material adverse effect on your investment.

PRC regulations relating to investments in offshore companies by PRC residents may subject our PRC-resident beneficial owners or our WFOE to liability or penalties, limit our ability to inject capital into our WFOE or limit our WFOE’s ability to increase their registered capital or distribute profits.

PRC residents are required to file or obtain the certificates of outbound investment from, or register with, regulatory authorities when investing in offshore companies. According to administrative measures for the outbound investment by PRC entities promulgated by the NDRC and MOFCOM, PRC entities shall obtain the approval or file with the NDRC and MOFCOM when investing in offshore companies, and shall update or apply for amendment in respect to the certificates, filings or registrations in the event of any significant changes with respect to the offshore investment. SAFE promulgated the Circular on Relevant Issues Concerning Foreign Exchange Control on Domestic Residents’ Offshore Investment and Financing and Roundtrip Investment through Special Purpose Vehicles, or SAFE Circular 37, on July 4, 2014, which replaced the former circular commonly known as “SAFE Circular 75” promulgated by SAFE on October 21, 2005. SAFE Circular 37 requires PRC residents (including individuals and entities) to register with local branches of SAFE in connection with their direct establishment or indirect control of an offshore entity, for the purpose of overseas investment and financing, with such PRC residents’ legally owned assets or equity interests in domestic enterprises or offshore assets or interests, referred to in SAFE Circular 37 as a “special purpose vehicle.” SAFE Circular 37 further requires amendment to the registration in the event of any significant changes with respect to the special purpose vehicle, such as increase or decrease of capital contributed by PRC individuals, share transfer or exchange, merger, division or other material event. In the event that a PRC resident holding interests in a special purpose vehicle fails to fulfill the required SAFE registration, the PRC subsidiaries of that special purpose vehicle may be prohibited from making profit distributions to the offshore parent and from carrying out subsequent cross-border foreign exchange activities, and the special purpose vehicle may be restricted in its ability to contribute additional capital into its PRC subsidiaries. Moreover, failure to comply with the various SAFE registration requirements described above could result in liability under PRC law for evasion of foreign exchange controls. According to the Notice on Further Simplifying and Improving Policies for the Foreign Exchange Administration of Direct Investment released on February 13, 2015 by SAFE, local banks will examine and handle foreign exchange registration for overseas direct investment, including the initial foreign exchange registration and amendment registration, under SAFE Circular 37 from June 1, 2015.

As of the date of this prospectus, all of our beneficial owners who are PRC individuals have completed SAFE registration or amendment of such registration pursuant to SAFE Circular 37 and our shareholders who are PRC entities have completed SAFE registration under relevant foreign exchange regulations. We have notified and requested all of our shareholders to comply with, or notify their beneficial owners who are PRC residents to comply with applicable PRC regulations, including the requirements of NDRC and MOFCOM and their filing obligation under SAFE Circular 37 and other implementation rules. Nevertheless, we do not have control over our beneficial owners and there can be no assurance that all of our PRC-resident beneficial owners will comply with such requirements and obligations, and there is no assurance that the registration under SAFE Circular 37 will be completed in a timely manner, or will be completed at all. In addition, we cannot assure you that all of our shareholders or beneficial owners who are PRC residents have complied with or will in the future update or apply for amendment with respect to the certificates, filings or registrations in the event of any significant

 

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changes with respect to the offshore investment. The failure of our beneficial owners who are PRC residents to register or amend certificates, filings or registrations in a timely manner pursuant to applicable PRC regulations, or the failure of future beneficial owners of our company who are PRC residents to comply with the registration procedures set forth in applicable PRC laws and regulations, may subject such beneficial owners or our WFOE to fines and legal sanctions. Failure to register or comply with relevant requirements may also limit our ability to contribute additional capital to our WFOE and limit our WFOE’s ability to distribute dividends to our company or conduct other foreign exchange transactions. These risks may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Failure to comply with PRC regulations regarding the registration requirements for employee share ownership plans or share option plans may subject the PRC plan participants or us to fines and other legal or administrative sanctions.

Pursuant to the Notice on Issues Concerning the Foreign Exchange Administration for Domestic Individuals Participating in Stock Incentive Plan of Overseas Publicly Listed Company, issued by SAFE in February 2012, employees, directors, supervisors and other senior management participating in any stock incentive plan of an overseas publicly listed company who are PRC citizens or who are non-PRC citizens residing in China for a continuous period of not less than one year, subject to a few exceptions, are required to register with SAFE through a domestic qualified agent, which could be a PRC subsidiaries of such overseas listed company, and complete certain other procedures. We and our directors, executive officers and other employees who are PRC citizens or who reside in the PRC for a continuous period of not less than one year and who have been granted restricted shares, restricted share units or options will be subject to these regulations if those employees exercise such restricted shares, restricted share units or options. Separately, SAFE Circular 37 also requires certain registration procedures to be completed if those employees exercise restricted shares, restricted share units or options before listing. Failure to complete the SAFE registrations may subject them to fines and legal sanctions and may also limit our ability to contribute additional capital into our wholly foreign-owned subsidiaries in China and limit these subsidiaries’ ability to distribute dividends to us. We also face regulatory uncertainties that could restrict our ability to adopt additional incentive plans for our directors and employees under PRC law.

In addition, the State Administration of Taxation, or the SAT has issued certain circulars concerning employee share options or restricted shares. Under these circulars, the employees working in the PRC who exercise share options or are granted restricted share units will be subject to PRC individual income tax. Our WFOE have obligations to file documents related to employee share options or restricted shares with relevant tax authorities and to withhold individual income taxes of those employees who exercise their share options. If our employees fail to pay or we fail to withhold their income taxes according to relevant laws and regulations, we may face sanctions imposed by the tax authorities or other PRC government authorities.

Failure to make adequate contributions to various employee benefit plans as required by PRC regulations may subject us to penalties.

Companies operating in China are required to participate in various government-mandated employee benefit contribution plans, including certain social insurance, housing funds and other welfare plans, open and register accounts for social insurance accounts and housing funds, and contribute in their own names to the plans in amounts equal to certain percentages of salaries, including bonuses and allowances, of employees up to a maximum amount specified by the local government from time to time at locations where companies operate our businesses. The requirements of employee benefit contribution plans have not been implemented consistently by the local governments in China given the different levels of economic development in different geographical areas.

As of the date of this prospectus, certain PRC subsidiaries of our VIE had not made adequate social insurances and housing fund contributions for their employees, failed to open and register the accounts for social insurance and housing funds or engage third-party agencies to make contributions in such agencies’ names to

 

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such employee benefit plans. We may be required to make up the contributions for these welfare plans as well as late fees and fines. If we are subject to investigations or penalties related to non-compliance with labor laws, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

Inflation and increases in labor costs in China could negatively affect our profitability and growth.

The economy in China has experienced increases in inflation and labor costs in recent years. As a result, average wages in the PRC are expected to continue to increase. In addition, we are required by PRC laws and regulations to pay various statutory employee benefits, including pension, housing fund, medical insurance, work-related injury insurance, unemployment insurance and maternity insurance to designated government agencies for the benefit of our employees. The relevant government agencies may examine whether an employer has made adequate payments to the statutory employee benefits, and those employers who fail to make adequate payments may be subject to late payment fees, fines and/or other penalties. We expect that our labor costs, including wages and employee benefits, will continue to increase. Unless we are able to control our labor costs or pass on these increased labor costs to our users by increasing the fees for our services, our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.

It may be difficult to effect service of process upon us, our directors or our executive officers that reside in China or to enforce against them or us in China any judgments obtained from non-PRC courts.

Most of our directors and executive officers reside in China. In addition, most of our assets and those of our directors and executive officers are located in China. The PRC does not have treaties providing for the reciprocal recognition and enforcement of judgments of courts with the United States, the United Kingdom, Japan and many other jurisdictions. As a result, it may not be possible for investors to serve process upon us or those persons in China, or to enforce against us or them in China, any judgments obtained from non-PRC jurisdictions.

On July 14, 2006, the Supreme People’s Court of China and the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region signed an Arrangement on Reciprocal Recognition and Enforcement of Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters, or the 2006 Arrangement. Under such arrangement, where any designated People’s Court or any designated Hong Kong court has made an enforceable final judgment requiring payment of money in a civil and commercial case pursuant to a choice of court agreement, any party concerned may apply to the relevant People’s Court or Hong Kong court for recognition and enforcement of the judgment. On January 18, 2019, the Supreme Court of the People’s Republic of China and the Department of Justice under the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region signed the Arrangement on Reciprocal Recognition and Enforcement of Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters by the Courts of the Mainland and of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, or the 2019 Arrangement. The 2019 Arrangement, for the reciprocal recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters between the courts in mainland China and those in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, stipulates the scope and particulars of judgments, the procedures and ways of the application for recognition or enforcement, the review of the jurisdiction of the court that issued the original judgment, the circumstances where the recognition and enforcement of a judgment shall be refused, and the approaches towards remedies, among others. After a judicial interpretation has been promulgated by the Supreme People’s Court and the relevant procedures have been completed by the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, both sides shall announce a date on which the 2019 Arrangement shall come into effect. The 2019 Arrangement shall apply to any judgment made on or after its effective date by the courts of both sides. The 2006 Arrangement shall be terminated on the same day when the 2019 Arrangement comes into effect. If a “written choice of court agreement” has been signed by parties according to the 2006 Arrangement prior to the effective date of the 2019 Arrangement, the 2006 Arrangement shall still apply. Although the 2019 Arrangement has been signed, its effective date has yet to be announced. Therefore, there are still uncertainties about the outcomes and effectiveness of enforcement or recognition of judgments under the 2019 Arrangement.

 

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Any failure by us or our third-party service providers to comply with applicable anti-money laundering laws and regulations could damage our reputation.

In collaboration with our third-party service providers, we have adopted various policies and procedures, such as internal controls and “know-your-client” procedures, for anti-money laundering purposes. The Guidelines on Promoting the Healthy Development of Internet Finance Industry, or the Fintech Guidelines purports, among other things, to require internet financial service providers, including us, to comply with certain anti-money laundering requirements, including:

 

   

the establishment of a borrower identification program;

 

   

the monitoring and reporting of the suspicious transaction;

 

   

the preservation of borrower information and transaction records; and

 

   

the provision of assistance to the public security department and judicial authority in investigations and proceedings in relation to anti-money laundering matters.

There is no assurance that our anti-money laundering policies and procedures will protect us from being exploited for money laundering purposes or that we will be deemed to be in compliance with applicable anti-money laundering implementing rules, if and when adopted, given that our anti-money laundering obligations in the Fintech Guidelines. Any new requirement under money laundering laws could increase our costs and may expose us to potential sanctions if we fail to comply.

We have not been subject to fines or other penalties, or suffered business or other reputational harm, as a result of actual or alleged money laundering activities in the past. However, our policies and procedures may not be completely effective in preventing other parties from using us, any of third-party service providers as a conduit for money laundering (including illegal cash operations) without our knowledge. If we were to be associated with money laundering (including illegal cash operations), our reputation could suffer and we could become subject to regulatory fines, sanctions or legal enforcement, including being added to any “blacklists” that would prohibit certain parties from engaging in transactions with us, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. Even if we and our third-party service providers comply with the applicable anti-money laundering laws and regulations, we and our third-party service providers may not be able to fully eliminate money laundering and other illegal or improper activities in light of the complexity and the secrecy of these activities. Any negative perception of the industry, such as that arises from any failure of other insurance service providers to detect or prevent money laundering activities, even if factually incorrect or based on isolated incidents, could compromise our image, undermine the trust and credibility we have established and negatively impact our financial condition and results of operations.

China’s M&A Rules and certain other PRC regulations establish complex procedures for some acquisitions of PRC companies by foreign investors, which could make it more difficult for us to pursue growth through acquisitions in China.

A number of PRC laws and regulations have established procedures and requirements that could make merger and acquisition activities in China by foreign investors more time consuming and complex. In addition to the Anti-monopoly Law itself, these include the Regulations on Mergers and Acquisitions of Domestic Enterprises by Foreign Investors, or the M&A Rules, adopted by six PRC regulatory agencies in 2006 and amended in 2009, and the Rules of the Ministry of Commerce on Implementation of Security Review System of Mergers and Acquisitions of Domestic Enterprises by Foreign Investors, or the Security Review Rules, promulgated in 2011. These laws and regulations impose requirements in some instances that the Ministry of Commerce be notified in advance of any change-of-control transaction in which a foreign investor takes control of a PRC domestic enterprise. In addition, the Anti-Monopoly Law requires that the Ministry of Commerce be notified in advance of any concentration of undertaking if certain thresholds are triggered. Moreover, the Security Review Rules specify that mergers and acquisitions by foreign investors that raise “national defense and

 

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security” concerns and mergers and acquisitions through which foreign investors may acquire de facto control over domestic enterprises that raise “national security” concerns are subject to strict review by the Ministry of Commerce, and prohibit any attempt to bypass a security review, including by structuring the transaction through a proxy or contractual control arrangement. In the future, we may grow our business by acquiring complementary businesses. Complying with the requirements of the relevant regulations to complete such transactions could be time consuming, and any required approval processes, including approval from the Ministry of Commerce, may delay or inhibit our ability to complete such transactions, which could affect our ability to expand our business or maintain our market share.

We face uncertainties with respect to indirect transfers of equity interests in PRC resident enterprises by their non-PRC holding companies.

We face uncertainties regarding the reporting on and consequences of previous private equity financing transactions involving the transfer and exchange of shares in our company by non-resident investors.

In February 2015, the SAT issued the Bulletin on Issues of Enterprise Income Tax on Indirect Transfers of Assets by Non-PRC Resident Enterprises, or SAT Bulletin 7, as amended in 2017. Pursuant to this bulletin, an “indirect transfer” of assets, including equity interests in a PRC resident enterprise, by non-PRC resident enterprises may be re-characterized and treated as a direct transfer of PRC taxable assets, if such arrangement does not have a reasonable commercial purpose and was established for the purpose of avoiding payment of PRC enterprise income tax. As a result, gains derived from such indirect transfer may be subject to PRC enterprise income tax. According to SAT Bulletin 7, “PRC taxable assets” include assets attributed to an establishment in China, immovable properties located in China, and equity investments in PRC resident enterprises, in respect of which gains from their transfer by a direct holder, being a non-PRC resident enterprise, would be subject to PRC enterprise income taxes. When determining whether there is a “reasonable commercial purpose” of the transaction arrangement, features to be taken into consideration include: whether the main value of the equity interest of the relevant offshore enterprise derives from PRC taxable assets; whether the assets of the relevant offshore enterprise mainly consist of direct or indirect investment in China or if its income mainly derives from China; whether the offshore enterprise and its subsidiary directly or indirectly holding PRC taxable assets have real commercial nature which is evidenced by their actual function and risk exposure; the duration of existence of shareholders, the business model and organizational structure; the information about the payment of due income tax outside China on indirect transfer of Chinese taxable property; the substitutability between indirect investment by equity transferor, indirect transfer of Chinese taxable property and direct investment, direct transfer of Chinese taxable property; Chinese tax conventions or arrangements applicable to the proceeds from indirect transfer of Chinese taxable property; and other relevant factors. In respect of an indirect offshore transfer of assets of a PRC establishment, the resulting gain is to be included with the enterprise income tax filing of the PRC establishment or place of business being transferred, and would consequently be subject to PRC enterprise income tax at a rate of 25%. Where the underlying transfer relates to the immovable properties located in China or to equity investments in a PRC resident enterprise, which is not related to a PRC establishment or place of business of a non-resident enterprise, a PRC enterprise income tax of 10% would apply, subject to available preferential tax treatment under applicable tax treaties or similar arrangements, and the party who is obligated to make the transfer payments has the withholding obligation. SAT Bulletin 7 does not apply to transactions of sale of shares by investors through a public stock exchange where such shares were acquired from a transaction through a public stock exchange.

There are uncertainties as to the application of SAT Bulletin 7. We face uncertainties as to the reporting and other implications of certain past and future transactions where PRC taxable assets are involved, such as offshore restructuring, sale of the shares in our offshore subsidiaries or investments. Our company may be subject to filing obligations or taxed if our company is transferor in such transactions, and may be subject to withholding obligations if our company is transferee in such transactions under SAT Bulletin 7. For transfer of shares in our company by investors that are non-PRC resident enterprises, our WFOE may be requested to assist in the filing under SAT Bulletin 7. As a result, we may be required to expend valuable resources to comply with SAT

 

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Bulletin 7 or to request the relevant transferors from whom we purchase taxable assets to comply with these circulars, or to establish that our company should not be taxed under these circulars, which may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

The dividends we receive from our WFOE may be subject to PRC tax under the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law, which would have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

Under the applicable PRC tax laws in effect before January 1, 2008, dividend payments to foreign investors made by foreign-invested enterprises in China were exempt from PRC withholding tax. Pursuant to the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law, however, dividends generated after January 1, 2008 and payable by a foreign-invested enterprise in China to its foreign investors are subject to a 10% withholding tax, unless any such foreign investor’s jurisdiction of incorporation has a tax treaty with China that provides for a different withholding arrangement. We are a Cayman Islands holding company and substantially all of our income may come from dividends we receive from our WFOE. Since there is currently no such tax treaty between China and the Cayman Islands, dividends we receive from our WFOE will generally be subject to a 10% withholding tax, which would have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

If we are classified as a PRC resident enterprise for PRC income tax purposes, such classification could result in unfavorable tax consequences to us and our non-PRC shareholders or ADS holders.

Prior to January 1, 2008, dividends payable to non-PRC investors were exempted from withholding tax. The PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law and its implementation rules provide that PRC enterprise income tax at the rate of 10% will generally be applicable to dividends derived from sources within the PRC and received by non-PRC enterprise shareholders. Similarly, gains derived from the transfer of shares by such shareholders are also subject to PRC enterprise income tax if such gains are regarded as income derived from sources within the PRC. Since there remain uncertainties regarding the interpretation and implementation of the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law and its implementation rules, it is uncertain whether, if we are regarded as a PRC resident enterprise, any dividends to be distributed by us to our non-PRC shareholders and ADS holders which are enterprises would be subject to any PRC withholding tax. If we are required under the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law to withhold PRC income tax on our dividends payable to our non-PRC enterprise shareholders and ADS holders, or if gains on the disposition of our shares by such holders are subject to the EIT Law, your investment in our common shares or ADSs may be materially and adversely affected.

If the custodians or authorized users of controlling non-tangible assets of our company, including our corporate chops and seals, fail to fulfill their responsibilities, or misappropriate or misuse these assets, our business and operations could be materially and adversely affected.

Under PRC law, legal documents for corporate transactions, including contracts such as consulting service agreements we enter into with wealth management product providers, which are important to our business, are executed using the chops (a Chinese stamp or seal) or seals of the signing entity, or with the signature of a legal representative whose designation is registered and filed with the relevant branch of the SAMR.

Although we usually utilize chops to enter into contracts, the designated legal representatives of each of our WFOE and consolidated entities have the power to enter into contracts on behalf of such entities without chops and bind such entities. All designated legal representatives of our WFOE and consolidated entities have signed employment undertaking letters with us or our WFOE and consolidated entities under which they agree to abide by various duties they owe to us. In order to maintain the physical security of our chops and the chops of our PRC entities, we generally store these items in secured locations accessible only by the authorized personnel of each of our WFOE and consolidated entities. Although we monitor such authorized personnel, there is no assurance such procedures will prevent all instances of abuse or negligence. Accordingly, if any of our authorized personnel misuse or misappropriate our corporate chops or seals, we could encounter difficulties in

 

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maintaining control over the relevant entities and experience significant disruption to our operations. If a designated legal representative obtains control of the chops in an effort to obtain control over any of our WFOE or consolidated entities, we, our WFOE or consolidated entities would need to pass a new shareholder or board resolution to designate a new legal representative and we would need to take legal actions to seek the return of the chops, apply for new chops with the relevant authorities, or otherwise seek legal redress for the violation of the representative’s fiduciary duties to us, which could involve significant time and resources and divert management attention away from our regular business. In addition, the affected entity may not be able to recover corporate assets that are sold or transferred out of our control in the event of such a misappropriation if a transferee relies on the apparent authority of the representative and acts in good faith.

The audit report included in this prospectus is prepared by an auditor who is not inspected by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board and, as such, you are deprived of the benefits of such inspection.

Auditors of companies that are registered with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission, and traded publicly in the United States, including our independent registered public accounting firm, must be registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, or the PCAOB, and are required by the laws of the United States to undergo regular inspections by the PCAOB to assess their compliance with the laws of the United States and professional standards. Because we have substantial operations within the PRC and the PCAOB is currently unable to conduct inspections of the work of our auditors as it relates to those operations without the approval of the Chinese authorities, our auditor’s work related to our operations in China is not currently inspected by the PCAOB.

This lack of PCAOB inspections of audit work performed in China prevents the PCAOB from regularly evaluating audit work of any auditors that was performed in China, including that performed by our independent registered public accounting firm. As a result, investors may be deprived of the full benefits of PCAOB inspections.

The inability of the PCAOB to conduct inspections of audit work performed in China makes it more difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of our auditor’s audit procedures as compared to auditors in other jurisdictions that are subject to PCAOB inspections on all of their work. Investors may lose confidence in our reported financial information and procedures and the quality of our financial statements.

Proceedings instituted recently by the SEC against certain PRC-based accounting firms, including our independent registered public accounting firm, could result in financial statements being determined to not be in compliance with the requirements of the Exchange Act.

Starting in 2011, the “big four” PRC-based accounting firms (including our independent registered public accounting firm) were affected by a conflict between U.S. and Chinese law. Specifically, for certain U.S. listed companies operating and audited in China, the SEC and the PCAOB sought to obtain from the PRC firms access to their audit work papers and related documents. The firms were, however, advised and directed that under the PRC law they could not respond directly to the U.S. regulators on those requests, and that requests by foreign regulators for access to such papers in China had to be channeled through the CSRC.

In late 2012, this impasse led the SEC to commence administrative proceedings under Rule 102(e) of its Rules of Practice and also under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 against the Chinese accounting firms, (including our independent registered public accounting firm). A first instance trial of the proceedings in July 2013 in the SEC’s internal administrative court resulted in an adverse judgment against the firms. The administrative law judge proposed penalties on the firms including a temporary suspension of their right to practice before the SEC, although that proposed penalty did not take effect pending review by the SEC. On February 6, 2015, before SEC’s review had taken place, the firms reached a settlement with the SEC. The settlement required the firms to follow detailed procedures to seek to provide the SEC with access to PRC accounting firms’ audit documents via the CSRC. If they failed to meet specified criteria, the SEC retained

 

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the authority to impose a variety of additional remedial measures on the firms depending on the nature of the failure.

Under the terms of the settlement, the underlying proceeding against the four China-based accounting firms was deemed dismissed with prejudice four years after entry of the settlement. The four-year mark occurred on February 6, 2019. We cannot predict if the SEC will further challenge the four China-based accounting firms’ compliance with U.S. law in connection with U.S. regulatory requests for audit work papers or if the results of such a challenge would result in the SEC imposing penalties such as suspensions. If additional remedial measures are imposed on the “big four” PRC-based accounting firms, including our independent registered public accounting firm, we could be unable to timely file future financial statements in compliance with the requirements of the Exchange Act.

In the event that the “big four” PRC-based accounting firm become subject to additional legal challenges by the SEC or PCAOB, listed companies in the United States with major PRC operations may find it difficult or impossible to retain auditors in respect of their operations in China, which could result in financial statements being determined to not be in compliance with the requirements of the Exchange Act, including possible delisting. Moreover, any negative news about any such future proceedings against these audit firms may cause investor uncertainties regarding PRC-based, United States-listed companies and the market price of our ADSs may be adversely affected.

If our independent registered public accounting firm were denied, even temporarily, the ability to practice before the SEC and we were unable to timely find another registered public accounting firm to audit and issue an opinion on our financial statements, our financial statements could be determined not to be in compliance with the requirements of the Exchange Act. Such a determination could ultimately lead to the delisting of our common shares from the NYSE or deregistration from the SEC, or both, which would substantially reduce or effectively terminate the trading of our ADSs in the United States.

Risks Relating to Our ADSs and This Offering

There has been no previous public market for our ADSs prior to this offering, and you may not be able to resell our ADSs at or above the price you paid, or at all.

Prior to this initial public offering, there has been no public market for our common shares or ADSs. We intend to apply to list our ADSs on the [the New York Stock Exchange/Nasdaq Stock Market]. Our common shares will not be listed on any exchange or quoted for trading on any over-the-counter trading system. If an active trading market for our ADSs does not develop after this offering, the market price and liquidity of our ADSs will be materially and adversely affected.

The initial public offering price for our ADSs will be determined by negotiation between us and the underwriters, which may bear no relationship to their market price after the initial public offering. We cannot assure you that an active trading market for our ADSs will develop or that the market price of our ADSs will not decline below the initial public offering price.

The trading price of our ADSs is likely to be volatile, which could result in substantial losses to investors.

The trading price of our ADSs may be volatile and could fluctuate widely due to factors beyond our control. This may happen because of broad market and industry factors, including the performance and fluctuation of the market prices of other companies with business operations located mainly in China that have listed their securities in the United States. In addition to market and industry factors, the price and trading volume for our ADSs may be volatile for factors specific to our own operations, including the following:

 

   

variations in our net revenues, earnings and cash flow;

 

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Our or our competitors’ announcements of new investments, acquisitions, strategic partnerships, or joint ventures;

 

   

Our or our competitors’ announcements of new products and services and expansions;

 

   

changes in financial estimates by securities analysts;

 

   

failure on our part to realize monetization opportunities as expected;

 

   

additions or departures of key personnel;

 

   

release of lock-up or other transfer restrictions on our outstanding equity securities or sales of additional equity securities;

 

   

detrimental negative publicity about us, our management, our competitors or our industry;

 

   

regulatory developments affecting us or our industry; and

 

   

actual or potential litigation or regulatory investigations.

Any of these factors may result in large and sudden changes in the trading volume and price of the ADSs.

In the past, shareholders of public companies have often brought securities class action suits against those companies following periods of instability in the market price of their securities. If we were involved in a class action suit, it could divert a significant amount of our management’s attention and other resources from our business and operations and require us to incur significant expenses to defend the suit, which could harm our results of operations. Any such class action suit, whether or not successful, could harm our reputation and restrict our ability to raise capital in the future. In addition, if a claim is successfully made against us, we may be required to pay significant damages, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

If securities or industry analysts do not publish or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, or if they adversely change their recommendations regarding our ADSs, the market price for our ADSs and trading volume could decline.

The trading market for the ADSs will be influenced by research or reports that industry or securities analysts publish about our business. If one or more analysts who cover us downgrade the ADSs, the market price for the ADSs would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease to cover us or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which, in turn, could cause the market price or trading volume for the ADSs to decline.

The sale or availability for sale of substantial amounts of our ADSs could adversely affect their market price.

Sales of substantial amounts of our ADSs in the public market after the completion of this offering, or the perception that these sales could occur, could adversely affect the market price of our ADSs and could materially impair our ability to raise capital through equity offerings in the future. The ADSs sold in this offering will be freely tradable without restriction or further registration under the [Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act], and shares held by our existing shareholders may also be sold in the public market in the future subject to the restrictions in Rule 144 and Rule 701 under the Securities Act and the applicable lock-up agreements. There will be              ADSs (equivalent to              common shares) outstanding immediately after this offering, or              ADSs (equivalent to              common shares) if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional ADSs in full. In connection with this offering, we, our officers, directors, and existing shareholders [have agreed] not to sell any of our common shares or our ADSs or are otherwise subject to similar lockup restrictions for 180 days after the date of this prospectus without the prior written consent of [the representatives of the underwriters], subject to certain exceptions. However, the underwriters may release these

 

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securities from these restrictions at any time, subject to applicable regulations of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. We cannot predict what effect, if any, market sales of securities held by our significant shareholders or any other shareholder or the availability of these securities for future sale will have on the market price of our ADSs. See “Underwriting” and “Shares Eligible for Future Sale” for a more detailed description of the restrictions on selling our securities after this offering.

Because we do not expect to pay dividends in the foreseeable future after this offering, you must rely on price appreciation of our ADSs for return on your investment.

We currently intend to retain most, if not all, of our available funds and any future earnings after this offering to fund the development and growth of our business. As a result, we do not expect to pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Therefore, you should not rely on an investment in our ADSs as a source for any future dividend income.

Pursuant to our post-offering amended and restated articles of association, our board of directors has absolute discretion as to whether to declare dividends subject to the requirements of the Companies Law, Cap. 22 (Law 3 of 1961, as consolidated and revised) of the Cayman Islands (the “Companies Law”). Our post-offering amended and restated articles of association provides that dividends may be declared and paid out of the profits of our company, realised or unrealised, or from any reserve set aside from profits which the directors determine is no longer needed. Dividends may also be declared and paid out of share premium account or any other fund or account which can be authorised for this purpose in accordance with the Companies Law. Under the Companies Law, no distribution or dividend may be paid out of the share premium account unless, immediately following the date on which the distribution or dividend is proposed to be paid, the company shall be able to pay its debts as they fall due in the ordinary course of business. Even if our board of directors decides to declare and pay dividends, the timing, amount and form of future dividends, if any, will depend on, among other things, our future results of operations and cash flow, our capital requirements and surplus, the amount of distributions, if any, we receive from our WFOE, our financial condition, contractual restrictions and other factors deemed relevant by our board of directors. Accordingly, the return on your investment in our ADSs will likely depend entirely upon any future price appreciation of our ADSs. There is no guarantee that our ADSs will appreciate in value after this offering or even maintain the price at which you purchased the ADSs. You may not realize a return on your investment in our ADSs and you may even lose your entire investment in our ADSs.

Because the initial public offering price is substantially higher than the pro forma net tangible book value per share, you will experience immediate and substantial dilution.

If you purchase ADSs in this offering, you will pay more for your ADSs than the amount paid by existing shareholders for their common shares on a per ADS basis. As a result, you will experience immediate and substantial dilution of approximately US$             per ADS (assuming no exercise of outstanding options to acquire common shares), representing the difference between (i) our pro forma net tangible book value per ADS of US$             as of             , 2019, after giving effect to this offering, and (ii) the assumed initial public offering price per share of US$             per ADS (the midpoint of the estimated initial public offering price range set forth on the front cover page of this prospectus). In addition, you may experience further dilution to the extent that our common shares are issued upon the exercise of share options. Substantially all of the common shares issuable upon the exercise of currently outstanding share options will be issued at a purchase price on a per ADS basis that is less than the initial public offering price per ADS in this offering. See “Dilution” for a more complete description of how the value of your investment in our ADSs will be diluted upon the completion of this offering.

You may not have the same voting rights as the holders of our common shares and may not receive voting materials in time to be able to exercise your right to vote.

Holders of our ADSs do not have the same rights as our registered shareholders. As a holder of ADSs, you will not have any direct right to attend general meetings of our shareholders or to cast any votes at such meetings.

 

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You will only be able to exercise the voting rights that are carried by the underlying common shares represented by your ADSs indirectly by giving voting instructions to the depositary in accordance with the provisions of the deposit agreement. Under the deposit agreement, you may vote only by giving voting instructions to the depositary. If we instruct the depositary to ask for your instructions, then upon receipt of your voting instructions, the depositary will try, as far as practicable, to vote the underlying common shares represented by your ADSs in accordance with your instructions. If we do not instruct the depositary to ask for your instructions, the depositary may still vote in accordance with instructions you give, but it is not required to do so. You will not be able to directly exercise your right to vote with respect to the underlying common shares represented by your ADSs unless you withdraw the shares and become the registered holder of such shares prior to the record date for the general meeting. Under our post-offering amended and restated memorandum and articles of association that will become effective immediately prior to the completion of this offering, the minimum notice period required to be given by our company to our registered shareholders for convening a general meeting is ten days.

When a general meeting is convened, you may not receive sufficient advance notice of the meeting to withdraw the common shares underlying your ADSs and become the registered holder of such shares to allow you to vote directly with respect to any specific matter or resolution to be considered and voted upon at the general meeting. In addition, under our post-offering memorandum and articles of association that will become effective immediately prior to completion of this offering, for the purposes of determining those shareholders who are entitled to attend and vote at any general meeting, our directors may close our register of members and fix in advance a record date for such meeting, and such closure of our register of members or the setting of such a record date may prevent you from withdrawing the common shares underlying your ADSs and becoming the registered holder of such shares prior to the record date, so that you would not be able to attend the general meeting or to vote directly. If we ask for your instructions, the depositary will notify you of the upcoming vote and will arrange to deliver our voting materials to you. We have agreed to give the depositary at least              days’ prior notice of shareholder meetings. Nevertheless, we cannot assure you that you will receive the voting materials in time to ensure that you can instruct the depositary to vote the underlying common shares represented by your ADSs. In addition, the depositary and its agents are not responsible for failing to carry out voting instructions or for their manner of carrying out your voting instructions. This means that you may not be able to exercise your right to direct how the common shares underlying your ADSs are voted and you may have no legal remedy if the common shares underlying your ADSs are not voted as you requested.

The depositary will give us a discretionary proxy to vote the common shares underlying your ADSs if you do not give voting instructions to the depositary to direct how the common shares underlying your ADSs are voted, except in limited circumstances, which could adversely affect your interests.

Under the deposit agreement for the ADSs, if you do not give voting instructions to the depositary to direct how the common shares underlying your ADSs are voted, the depositary will give us a discretionary proxy to vote the common shares underlying your ADSs at shareholders’ meetings unless:

 

   

we have failed to timely provide the depositary with notice of meeting and related voting materials;

 

   

we have instructed the depositary that we do not wish a discretionary proxy to be given;

 

   

we have informed the depositary that there is substantial opposition as to a matter to be voted on at the meeting;

 

   

a matter to be voted on at the meeting would have a material adverse impact on shareholders; or

 

   

the voting at the meeting is to be made on a show of hands.

The effect of this discretionary proxy is that if you do not give voting instructions to the depositary to direct how the common shares underlying your ADSs are voted, you cannot prevent the common shares underlying your ADSs from being voted, except under the circumstances described above. This may make it more difficult for shareholders to influence the management of our company. Holders of our common shares are not subject to this discretionary proxy.

 

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Your right to participate in any future rights offerings may be limited, which may cause dilution to your holdings.

We may from time to time distribute rights to our shareholders, including rights to acquire our securities. However, we cannot make rights available to you in the United States unless we register both the rights and the securities to which the rights relate under the Securities Act or an exemption from the registration requirements is available. Under the deposit agreement, the depositary will not make rights available to you unless both the rights and the underlying securities to be distributed to ADS holders are either registered under the Securities Act or exempt from registration under the Securities Act. We are under no obligation to file a registration statement with respect to any such rights or securities or to endeavor to cause such a registration statement to be declared effective and we may not be able to establish a necessary exemption from registration under the Securities Act. Accordingly, you may be unable to participate in our rights offerings and may experience dilution in your holdings.

You may not receive cash dividends if the depositary decides it is impractical to make them available to you.

The depositary will pay cash dividends on the ADSs only to the extent that we decide to distribute dividends on our common shares or other deposited securities, and we do not have any present plan to pay any cash dividends on our common shares in the foreseeable future. To the extent that there is a distribution, the depositary of our ADSs has agreed to pay to you the cash dividends or other distributions it or the custodian receives on our common shares or other deposited securities after deducting its fees and expenses. You will receive these distributions in proportion to the number of common shares your ADSs represent. However, the depositary may, at its discretion, decide that it is inequitable or impractical to make a distribution available to any holders of ADSs. For example, the depositary may determine that it is not practicable to distribute certain property through the mail, or that the value of certain distributions may be less than the cost of mailing them. In these cases, the depositary may decide not to distribute such property to you.

We and the depository are entitled to amend the deposit agreement and to change the rights of ADS holders under the terms of such agreement, and we may terminate the deposit agreement, without the prior consent of the ADS holders.

We and the depository are entitled to amend the deposit agreement and to change the rights of the ADS holders under the terms of such agreement, without the prior consent of the ADS holders. We and the depositary may agree to amend the deposit agreement in any way we decide is necessary or advantageous to us. Amendments may reflect, among other things, operational changes in the ADS program, legal developments affecting ADSs or changes in the terms of our business relationship with the depositary. In the event that the terms of an amendment are disadvantageous to ADS holders, ADS holders will only receive 30 days’ advance notice of the amendment, and no prior consent of the ADS holders is required under the deposit agreement. Furthermore, we may decide to terminate the ADS facility at any time for any reason. For example, terminations may occur when we decide to list our shares on a non-U.S. securities exchange and determine not to continue to sponsor an ADS facility or when we become the subject of a takeover or a going-private transaction. If the ADS facility will terminate, ADS holders will receive at least 90 days’ prior notice, but no prior consent is required from them. Under the circumstances that we decide to make an amendment to the deposit agreement that is disadvantageous to ADS holders or terminate the deposit agreement, the ADS holders may choose to sell their ADSs or surrender their ADSs and become direct holders of the underlying common shares, but will have no right to any compensation whatsoever.

ADSs holders may not be entitled to a jury trial with respect to claims arising under the deposit agreement or relating to our shares or the ADSs, which could result in less favorable outcomes to the plaintiff(s) in any such action.

The deposit agreement governing the ADSs representing our common shares provides that, to the fullest extent permitted by law, ADS holders waive the right to a jury trial of any claim that they may have against us or

 

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the depositary arising out of or relating to our common shares, our ADSs or the deposit agreement, including any claim under the U.S. federal securities laws.

If we or the depositary opposed a jury trial demand based on the waiver, the court would determine whether the waiver was enforceable based on the facts and circumstances of that case in accordance with the applicable state and federal law. To our knowledge, the enforceability of a contractual pre-dispute jury trial waiver in connection with claims arising under the federal securities laws has not been finally adjudicated by the United States Supreme Court. However, we believe that a contractual pre-dispute jury trial waiver provision is generally enforceable, including under the laws of the State of New York, which govern the deposit agreement, by a federal or state court in the City of New York, which has non-exclusive jurisdiction over matters arising under the deposit agreement. In determining whether to enforce a contractual pre-dispute jury trial waiver provision, courts will generally consider whether a party knowingly, intelligently and voluntarily waived the right to a jury trial. We believe that this is the case with respect to the deposit agreement and our ADSs. It is advisable that you consult legal counsel regarding the jury waiver provision before entering into the deposit agreement.

If you or any other holders or beneficial owners of ADSs bring a claim against us or the depositary in connection with matters arising under the deposit agreement or our ADSs, including claims under federal securities laws, you or such other holder or beneficial owner may not be entitled to a jury trial with respect to such claims, which may have the effect of limiting and discouraging lawsuits against us or the depositary. If a lawsuit is brought against us or the depositary under the deposit agreement, it may be heard only by a judge or justice of the applicable trial court, which would be conducted according to different civil procedures and may result in different outcomes than a trial by jury would have had, including results that could be less favorable to the plaintiff(s) in any such action.

Nevertheless, if this jury trial waiver provision is not permitted by applicable law, an action could proceed under the terms of the deposit agreement with a jury trial. No condition, stipulation or provision of the deposit agreement or ADSs serves as a waiver by any holder or beneficial owner of ADSs or by us or the depositary of compliance with any substantive provision of the U.S. federal securities laws and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

You may be subject to limitations on transfer of your ADSs.

Your ADSs are transferable on the books of the depositary. However, the depositary may close its books at any time or from time to time when it deems it expedient in connection with the performance of its duties. The depositary may close its books from time to time for a number of reasons, including in connection with corporate events such as a rights offering, during which time the depositary needs to maintain an exact number of ADS holders on its books for a specified period. The depositary may also close its books in emergencies, and on weekends and public holidays. The depositary may refuse to deliver, transfer or register transfers of the ADSs generally when our share register or the books of the depositary are closed, or at any time if we or the depositary thinks it is advisable to do so because of any requirement of law or of any government or governmental body, or under any provision of the deposit agreement, or for any other reason.

Certain judgments obtained against us by our shareholders may not be enforceable.

We are an exempted company incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands. We conduct our operations outside the United States and substantially all of our assets are located outside the United States. In addition, substantially all of our directors and executive officers and the experts named in this prospectus reside outside the United States, and most of their assets are located outside the United States. As a result, it may be difficult or impossible for you to bring an action against us or against them in the United States in the event that you believe that your rights have been infringed under the U.S. federal securities laws or otherwise. Even if you are successful in bringing an action of this kind, the laws of the Cayman Islands, the PRC or other relevant jurisdiction may render you unable to enforce a judgment against our assets or the assets of our directors and

 

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officers. For more information regarding the relevant laws of the Cayman Islands and the PRC, see “Enforceability of Civil Liabilities.”

You may face difficulties in protecting your interests, and your ability to protect your rights through U.S. courts may be limited, because we are incorporated under Cayman Islands law.

We are an exempted company incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands. Our corporate affairs are governed by, among other things, our memorandum and articles of association, the Companies Law and the common law of the Cayman Islands. The rights of shareholders to take action against our directors, actions by our minority shareholders and the fiduciary duties of our directors to us under the Cayman Islands law are to a large extent governed by the common law of the Cayman Islands. The common law of the Cayman Islands is derived in part from comparatively limited judicial precedent in the Cayman Islands as well as from the common law of England, the decisions of whose courts are of persuasive authority, but are not binding, on a court in the Cayman Islands. The rights of our shareholders and the fiduciary duties of our directors under Cayman Islands law are not as clearly established as they would be under statutes or judicial precedent in some jurisdictions in the United States. In particular, the Cayman Islands has a less developed body of securities laws than the United States. Some U.S. states, such as Delaware, have more fully developed and judicially interpreted bodies of corporate law than the Cayman Islands. In addition, the Cayman Islands companies may not have standing to initiate a shareholder derivative action in a federal court of the United States.

Shareholders of Cayman Islands companies like us have no general rights under the Cayman Islands law to inspect corporate records, or to obtain copies of lists of shareholders of these companies. Our directors have discretion under our post-offering memorandum and articles of association to determine whether or not, and under what conditions, our corporate records may be inspected by our shareholders, but are not obliged to make them available to our shareholders. This may make it more difficult for you to obtain the information needed to establish any facts necessary for a shareholder motion or to solicit proxies from other shareholders in connection with a proxy contest.

Certain corporate governance practices in the Cayman Islands, which is our home country, differ significantly from requirements for companies incorporated in other jurisdictions such as the United States. We may in the future rely on home country practice with respect to our corporate governance after we complete this offering. If we choose to follow home country practice in the future, our shareholders may be afforded less protection than they otherwise would under rules and regulations applicable to U.S. domestic issuers.

As a result of all of the above, public shareholders may have more difficulty in protecting their interests in the face of actions taken by our management, members of our board of directors or our controlling shareholders than they would as public shareholders of a company incorporated in the United States. For a discussion of significant differences between the provisions of the Cayman Companies Law and the laws applicable to companies incorporated in the United States and their shareholders, see “Description of Share Capital—Differences in Corporate Law.”

You must rely on the judgment of our management as to the use of the net proceeds from this offering, and such use may not produce income or increase our ADS price.

Our management will have considerable discretion in the application of the net proceeds received by us. You will not have the opportunity, as part of your investment decision, to assess whether proceeds are being used appropriately. The net proceeds may be used for corporate purposes that do not improve our efforts to achieve or maintain profitability or increase our ADS price. The net proceeds from this offering may be placed in investments that do not produce income or that lose value.

 

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The post-offering memorandum and articles of association that we will adopt and will become effective immediately prior to the completion of this offering contain anti-takeover provisions that could discourage a third party from acquiring us and adversely affect the rights of holders of our common shares and ADSs.

We will adopt the post-offering amended and restated memorandum and articles of association that will become effective immediately prior to the completion of this offering. The post-offering memorandum and articles of association contains certain provisions that could limit the ability of others to acquire control of our company, including a provision that grants authority to our board of directors to issue from time to time one or more series of preferred shares without action by our shareholders and to determine, with respect to any series of preferred shares, the terms and rights of that series. These provisions could have the effect of depriving our shareholders and ADS holders of the opportunity to sell their shares or ADSs at a premium over the prevailing market price by discouraging third parties from seeking to obtain control of our company in a tender offer or similar transactions.

We are an emerging growth company and may take advantage of certain reduced reporting requirements.

We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the JOBS Act, and we may take advantage of certain exemptions from various requirements applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies including, most significantly, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 for so long as we are an emerging growth company. As a result, if we elect not to comply with such auditor attestation requirements, our investors may not have access to certain information they may deem important.

The JOBS Act also provides that an emerging growth company does not need to comply with any new or revised financial accounting standards until such date that a private company is otherwise required to comply with such new or revised accounting standards. Further, as an emerging growth company, we elect to use the extended transition period for complying with new or revised financial accounting standards.

We are a foreign private issuer within the meaning of the rules under the Exchange Act, and as such we are exempt from certain provisions applicable to U.S. domestic public companies.

Because we qualify as a foreign private issuer under the Exchange Act, we are exempt from certain provisions of the securities rules and regulations in the United States that are applicable to U.S. domestic issuers, including:

 

   

the rules under the Exchange Act requiring the filing with the SEC of quarterly reports on Form 10-Q or current reports on Form 8-K;

 

   

the sections of the Exchange Act regulating the solicitation of proxies, consents, or authorizations in respect of a security registered under the Exchange Act;

 

   

the sections of the Exchange Act requiring insiders to file public reports of their stock ownership and trading activities and liability for insiders who profit from trades made in a short period of time; and

 

   

the selective disclosure rules by issuers of material nonpublic information under Regulation FD.

We will be required to file an annual report on Form 20-F within four months of the end of each fiscal year. In addition, we intend to publish our results on a quarterly basis as press releases, distributed pursuant to the rules and regulations of the [the New York Stock Exchange/Nasdaq Stock Market]. Press releases relating to financial results and material events will also be furnished to the SEC on Form 6-K. However, the information we are required to file with or furnish to the SEC will be less extensive and less timely compared to that required to be filed with the SEC by U.S. domestic issuers. As a result, you may not be afforded the same protections or information that would be made available to you were you investing in a U.S. domestic issuer.

 

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As an exempted company incorporated in the Cayman Islands, we are permitted to adopt certain home country practices in relation to corporate governance matters that differ significantly from the [NYSE/Nasdaq] listing standards; these practices may afford less protection to shareholders than they would enjoy if we complied fully with the [NYSE/Nasdaq] listing standards.

As a Cayman Islands exempted company listed on the [New York Stock Exchange/Nasdaq Stock Market], we are subject to the [New York Stock Exchange/Nasdaq Stock Market] corporate governance listing standards. However, [the New York Stock Exchange/Nasdaq Stock Market] rules permit a foreign private issuer like us to follow the corporate governance practices of its home country. Certain corporate governance practices in the Cayman Islands, which is our home country, may differ significantly from the [New York Stock Exchange/Nasdaq Stock Market] corporate governance listing standards. [We may rely on home country practice with respect to our corporate governance after we complete this offering. If we choose to follow home country practice in the future, our shareholders may be afforded less protection than they otherwise would enjoy under the [New York Stock Exchange/Nasdaq Stock Market] corporate governance listing standards applicable to U.S. domestic issuers.]

There can be no assurance that we will not be a passive foreign investment company, or PFIC, for United States federal income tax purposes for any taxable year, which could subject United States investors in our ADSs or common shares to significant adverse United States federal income tax consequences.

We will be classified as a passive foreign investment company, or PFIC, for United States federal income tax purposes for any taxable year if either (a) 75% or more of our gross income for such year consists of certain types of “passive” income or (b) 50% or more of the value of our assets (determined on the basis of a quarterly average) during such year is attributable to assets that produce or are held for the production of passive income (the “asset test”). Although the law in this regard is unclear, we intend to treat our VIE (including its subsidiaries) as being owned by us for United States federal income tax purposes because we exercise effective control over the operation of such entities and because we are entitled to substantially all of their economic benefits, and, as a result, we consolidate their results of operations in our consolidated financial statements. Assuming that we are the owner of our VIE (including its subsidiaries) for United States federal income tax purposes, and based upon our current and expected income and assets, including goodwill and other unbooked intangibles not reflected on our balance sheet (taking into account the expected proceeds from this offering) and projections as to the market price of our ADSs following the offering, we do not presently expect to be a PFIC for the current taxable year or the foreseeable future.

While we do not expect to become a PFIC, because the value of our assets for purposes of the asset test may be determined by reference to the market price of our ADSs, fluctuations in the market price of our ADSs may cause us to become a PFIC for the current or subsequent taxable years. The determination of whether we will be or become a PFIC for any taxable year will also depend, in part, on the composition and classification of our income and assets. In addition, the composition of our income and assets will also be affected by how, and how quickly, we use our liquid assets and the cash raised in this offering. If we determine not to deploy significant amounts of cash for active purposes or if it were determined that we do not own the stock of our VIE for United States federal income tax purposes, our risk of being a PFIC may substantially increase. Because there are uncertainties in the application of the relevant rules and a non-United States corporation’s PFIC status for any taxable year is a factual determination made annually after the close of each taxable year, there can be no assurance that we will not be a PFIC for the current taxable year or any future taxable year.

If we are a PFIC in any taxable year, a U.S. Holder (as defined in “TAXATION—United States Federal Income Tax Considerations”) may incur significantly increased United States federal income tax on gain recognized on the sale or other disposition of the ADSs or common shares and on the receipt of distributions on the ADSs or common shares to the extent such gain or distribution is treated as an “excess distribution” under the United States federal income tax rules, and such U.S. Holder may be subject to burdensome reporting requirements. Further, if we are a PFIC for any taxable year during which a U.S. Holder holds our ADSs or

 

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common shares, we generally will continue to be treated as a PFIC for all succeeding years during which such U.S. Holder holds our ADSs or common shares. For more information see “Taxation—United States Federal Income Tax Considerations—Passive Foreign Investment Company Considerations.”

We will incur increased costs as a result of being a public company, particularly after we cease to qualify as an “emerging growth company.”

Upon the completion of this offering, we will be a public company and expect to incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses that we would not incur as a private company. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as well as rules subsequently implemented by the SEC and the [the New York Stock Exchange/Nasdaq Stock Market], impose various requirements on the corporate governance practices of public companies. As a company with less than US$1.07 billion in revenues for our last fiscal year, we qualify as an “emerging growth company” pursuant to the JOBS Act. An emerging growth company may take advantage of specified reduced reporting and other requirements that are otherwise applicable generally to public companies. These provisions include exemption from the auditor attestation requirement under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 in the assessment of the emerging growth company’s internal control over financial reporting and permission to delay adopting new or revised accounting standards until such time as those standards apply to private companies. However, we have elected to “opt out” of the provision that allow us to delay adopting new or revised accounting standards and, as a result, we will comply with new or revised accounting standards as required when they are adopted for public companies. This decision to opt out of the extended transition period under the JOBS Act is irrevocable.

We expect these rules and regulations to increase our legal and financial compliance costs and to make some corporate activities more time-consuming and costly. After we are no longer an “emerging growth company,” we expect to incur significant expenses and devote substantial management effort toward ensuring compliance with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the other rules and regulations of the SEC. For example, as a result of becoming a public company, we will need to increase the number of independent directors and adopt policies regarding internal controls and disclosure controls and procedures. We also expect that operating as a public company will make it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance, and we may be required to accept reduced policy limits and coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain the same or similar coverage. In addition, we will incur additional costs associated with our public company reporting requirements. It may also be more difficult for us to find qualified persons to serve on our board of directors or as executive officers. We are currently evaluating and monitoring developments with respect to these rules and regulations, and we cannot predict or estimate with any degree of certainty the amount of additional costs we may incur or the timing of such costs.

In the past, shareholders of a public company often brought securities class action suits against the company following periods of instability in the market price of that company’s securities. If we were involved in a class action suit, it could divert a significant amount of our management’s attention and other resources from our business and operations, which could harm our results of operations and require us to incur significant expenses to defend the suit. Any such class action suit, whether or not successful, could harm our reputation and restrict our ability to raise capital in the future. In addition, if a claim is successfully made against us, we may be required to pay significant damages, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

 

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus contains forward-looking statements that reflect our current expectations and views of future events. The forward looking statements are contained principally in the sections entitled “Prospectus Summary”, “Risk Factors”, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and “Business.” Known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors, including those listed under “Risk Factors,” may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements.

You can identify some of these forward-looking statements by words or phrases such as “may,” “will,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “aim,” “estimate,” “intend,” “plan,” “believe,” “is/are likely to,” “potential,” “continue” or other similar expressions. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy and financial needs. These forward-looking statements include statements relating to:

 

   

our mission, goals and strategies;

 

   

our future business development, financial conditions and results of operations;

 

   

the expected growth of insurance industry in China;

 

   

our expectations regarding demand for and market acceptance of our products and services;

 

   

our expectations regarding our relationships with insurance clients, insurance companies and other partners;

 

   

competition in our industry;

 

   

our proposed use of proceeds; and

 

   

relevant government policies and regulations relating to our industry.

These forward-looking statements involve various risks and uncertainties. Although we believe that our expectations expressed in these forward-looking statements are reasonable, our expectations may later be found to be incorrect. Our actual results could be materially different from our expectations. Important risks and factors that could cause our actual results to be materially different from our expectations are generally set forth in “Prospectus Summary—Our Challenges,” “Risk Factors,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” “Business,” “Regulation” and other sections in this prospectus. You should read thoroughly this prospectus and the documents that we refer to with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from and worse than what we expect. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.

This prospectus contains certain data and information that we obtained from various government and private publications. Statistical data in these publications also include projections based on a number of assumptions. The insurance industry may not grow at the rate projected by market data, or at all. Failure of this market to grow at the projected rate may have a material and adverse effect on our business and the market price of the ADSs. In addition, the rapidly evolving nature of this industry results in significant uncertainties for any projections or estimates relating to the growth prospects or future condition of our market. Furthermore, if any one or more of the assumptions underlying the market data are later found to be incorrect, actual results may differ from the projections based on these assumptions. You should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements.

The forward-looking statements made in this prospectus relate only to events or information as of the date on which the statements are made in this prospectus. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to

 

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update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, after the date on which the statements are made or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events. You should read this prospectus and the documents that we refer to in this prospectus and have filed as exhibits to the registration statement, of which this prospectus is a part, completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We estimate that we will receive net proceeds from this offering of approximately US$            , or approximately US$             if the underwriters exercise their over-allotment option in full, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and the estimated offering expenses payable by us. These estimates are based upon an assumed initial public offering price of US$             per ADS, which is the midpoint of the price range shown on the front page of this prospectus. A US$1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed initial public offering price of US$             per ADS would increase (decrease) the net proceeds to us from this offering by US$            , assuming the number of ADSs offered by us, as set forth on the front cover of this prospectus, remains the same and after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated expenses payable by us.

The primary purposes of this offering are to create a public market for our shares for the benefit of all shareholders, retain talented employees by providing them with equity incentives and obtain additional capital. We plan to use the net proceeds of this offering to expand our business operations as follows:

 

   

             of the net proceeds for investment in technology and big data analytics to further enhance our client acquisition efficiency and risk management capabilities;

 

   

             of the net proceeds for product design and development; and

 

   

the rest of the net proceeds for general corporate purpose and potential investments.

The foregoing represents our current intentions based upon our present plans and business conditions to use and allocate the net proceeds of this offering. Our management, however, will have significant flexibility and discretion to apply the net proceeds of this offering. If an unforeseen event occurs or business conditions change, we may use the proceeds of this offering differently than as described in this prospectus. See “Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our ADSs and This Offering—You must rely on the judgment of our management as to the use of the net proceeds from this offering, and such use may not produce income or increase our ADS price.”

Pending any use described above, we plan to invest the net proceeds in short-term, interest-bearing, debt instruments or demand deposits.

In using the proceeds of this offering, we are permitted under PRC laws and regulations as an offshore holding company to provide funding to our WFOE only through loans or capital contributions and to our VIE only through loans, subject to satisfaction of applicable government registration and approval requirements. We cannot assure you that we will be able to obtain these government registrations or approvals on a timely basis, or at all. See “Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Corporate Structure—PRC regulation of loans to and direct investment in PRC entities by offshore holding companies and governmental control of conversion of foreign currencies into Renminbi may delay or prevent us from using the proceeds of this offering to make loans to our WFOE and VIE or to make additional capital contributions to our WFOE, which could materially and adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business.”

 

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DIVIDEND POLICY

Our board of directors has discretion as to whether to declare dividends subject to certain requirements of the Companies Law. Our post-offering amended and restated articles of association provides that dividends may be declared and paid out of the profits of our company, realised or unrealised, or from any reserve set aside from profits which the directors determine is no longer needed. Dividends may also be declared and paid out of share premium account or any other fund or account which can be authorised for this purpose in accordance with the Companies Law. Under the Companies Law, no distribution or dividend may be paid out of the share premium account unless, immediately following the date on which the distribution or dividend is proposed to be paid, the company shall be able to pay its debts as they fall due in the ordinary course of business. Even if we decide to pay dividends, the form, frequency and amount will depend upon our future operations and earnings, capital requirements and surplus, general financial condition, contractual restrictions and other factors that the board of directors may deem relevant.

We do not have any present plan to pay any cash dividends on our common shares in the foreseeable future after this offering. We currently intend to retain most, if not all, of our available funds and any future earnings to operate and expand our business.

We are a holding company incorporated in the Cayman Islands. We may rely on dividends from our subsidiaries in China for our cash requirements, including any payment of dividends to our shareholders. PRC regulations may restrict the ability of our WFOE to pay dividends to us. See “Regulation—Regulations on Foreign Exchange.”

If we pay any dividends on our common shares, we will pay those dividends which are payable in respect of the common shares underlying the ADSs to the depositary, as the registered holder of such common shares, and the depositary then will pay such amounts to the ADS holders in proportion to the common shares underlying the ADSs held by such ADS holders, subject to the terms of the deposit agreement, including the fees and expenses payable thereunder. See “Description of American Depositary Shares.” Cash dividends on our common shares, if any, will be paid in U.S. dollars.

 

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CAPITALIZATION

The following table sets forth our capitalization as of June 30, 2019:

 

   

on an actual basis;

 

   

on a pro forma basis to reflect the automatic conversion of all of our issued and outstanding preferred shares into common shares on a one-for-one basis upon the completion of this offering; and

 

   

on a pro forma as adjusted basis to reflect (i) the automatic conversion of all of our issued and outstanding preferred shares into common shares on a one-for-one basis upon the completion of this offering, and (ii) the sale of                  common shares in the form of ADSs by us in this offering at an assumed initial public offering price of US$             per ADS, which is the midpoint of the estimated range of the initial public offering price shown on the front cover of this prospectus, after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, assuming the underwriters do not exercise the over-allotment option.

 

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You should read this table together with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus and the information under “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”

 

     As of June 30, 2019  
     Actual     Pro Forma     Pro Forma
As Adjusted(1)
 
    

(in thousands of US$)(3)

(Unaudited)

 

Mezzanine equity

      

Series A redeemable preferred shares (US$0.00001 par value per share; 204,022,000 shares and 204,022,000 shares authorized, issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2018 and June 30, 2019; no shares issued and outstanding, pro forma as of June 30, 2019)

     11,795          

Series B redeemable preferred shares (US$0.00001 par value per share; 185,512,580 shares and 185,512,580 shares authorized, issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2018 and June 30, 2019; no shares issued and outstanding, pro forma as of June 30, 2019)

     36,545                           

Series B+ redeemable preferred shares (US$ 0.00001 par value per share; 43,937,180 shares and 43,937,180 shares authorized, issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2018 and June 30, 2019; no shares issued and outstanding, pro forma as of June 30, 2019)

     11,421          

Series B++ redeemable preferred shares (US$0.00001 par value per share; 16,574,460 shares and 16,574,460 shares authorized, issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2018 and June 30, 2019; no shares issued and outstanding, pro forma as of June 30, 2019)

     3,878          
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total mezzanine equity

     63,639          
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Shareholders’ deficit

      

Common shares (US$0.00001 par value; 4,549,953,780 shares authorized both as of December 31, 2018 and June 30, 2019, respectively; 445,272,000 shares and 445,272,000 shares issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2018 and June 30, 2019; 895,318,220 shares issued and outstanding, pro forma as of June 30, 2019)

     5       9    

Additional paid-in capital

     8,076       71,711    

Accumulated other comprehensive income

     43       43    

Accumulated deficit

     (55,727     (55,727  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total shareholders’ deficit attributable to Huize Holding Limited shareholders

     (47,603     16,036    
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Non-controlling interests

     93       93    

Total shareholders’ deficit

     (47,510     16,129    
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total liabilities, mezzanine equity and shareholders’ deficit

     52,629       52,629    
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

Notes: (1)

The pro forma as adjusted information discussed above is illustrative only. Our additional paid-in capital, total shareholders’ (deficit)/equity and total mezzanine equity and shareholders’ (deficit)/equity following the completion of this offering are subject to adjustment based on the actual initial public offering price and other terms of this offering determined at pricing.

  (2)

A US$1.00 increase/(decrease) in the assumed initial public offering price of US$             per ADS, the mid-point of the estimated range of the initial public offering price shown on the cover page of this prospectus, would increase/(decrease) each of additional paid-in capital, total shareholders’ (deficit)/equity and total mezzanine equity and shareholders’ (deficit)/equity by US$             million.

The pro forma and pro forma as adjusted equity securities are reflected using a rate of RMB6.8650 to US$1.00, the exchange rate in effect on June 28, 2019.

 

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DILUTION

If you invest in the ADSs, your interest will be diluted to the extent of the difference between the initial public offering price per ADS and our net tangible book value per ADS after this offering. Dilution results from the fact that the initial public offering price per common share is substantially in excess of the book value per common share attributable to the existing shareholders for our presently outstanding common shares.

Our net tangible book value as of June 30, 2019 was approximately US$             million, representing US$             per common share as of that date and US$             per ADS, or US$             per common share and US$             per ADS on a pro forma basis. Net tangible book value represents the amount of our total consolidated tangible assets, less the amount of our total consolidated liabilities. Pro forma net tangible book value per common share is calculated after giving effect to the automatic conversion of all of our issued and outstanding convertible preference shares. Dilution is determined by subtracting pro forma net tangible book value per common share, after giving effect to the additional proceeds we will receive from this offering, from the assumed initial public offering price of US$             per common share, which is the midpoint of the estimated initial public offering price range set forth on the front cover of this prospectus adjusted to reflect the ADS-to- common share ratio, and after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

Without taking into account any other changes in pro forma net tangible book value after June 30, 2019, other than to give effect to our sale of the ADSs offered in this offering at the assumed initial public offering price of US$             per ADS, which is the midpoint of the estimated initial public offering price range, after deduction of the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, our pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value as of June 30, 2019 would have been US$            , or US$             per common share and US$             per ADS. This represents an immediate increase in net tangible book value of US$             per common share and US$             per ADS to the existing shareholders and an immediate dilution in net tangible book value of US$             per common share and US$             per ADS to investors purchasing ADSs in this offering. The following table illustrates such dilution:

 

     Per
Common
Share
     Per ADS  

Assumed initial public offering price

   US$        US$    

Net tangible book value as of June 30, 2019

   US$                    US$                

Pro forma net tangible book value after giving effect to the conversion of our preferred shares

   US$        US$    

Pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value after giving effect to the conversion of our preferred shares and this offering

   US$        US$    

Amount of dilution in net tangible book value to new investors in this offering

   US$        US$    

A US$1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed initial public offering price of US$             per ADS would increase (decrease) our pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value after giving effect to this offering by US$            , the pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per common share and per ADS after giving effect to this offering by US$             per common share and US$             per ADS and the dilution in pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per common share and per ADS to new investors in this offering by US$             per common share and US$             per ADS, assuming no change to the number of ADSs offered by us as set forth on the front cover of this prospectus, and after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

The following table summarizes, on a pro forma as adjusted basis as of June 30, 2019, the differences between existing shareholders and the new investors with respect to the number of common shares (in the form of ADSs or shares) purchased from us, the total consideration paid and the average price per common share and per ADS paid before deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses

 

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payable by us. The total number of common shares does not include common shares underlying the ADSs issuable upon the exercise of the over-allotment option granted to the underwriters.

 

     Common shares Purchased      Total Consideration     Average Price
Per Common
share
     Average Price
Per ADS
 
     Number      Percent      Amount      Percent  

Existing shareholders

         US$                                 US$                    US$                

New investors

                                           US$                     US$        US$    
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

      

Total

         US$          100.0     
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

      

The pro forma as adjusted information discussed above is illustrative only. Our net tangible book value following the completion of this offering is subject to adjustment based on the actual initial public offering price of the ADSs and other terms of this offering determined at pricing.

The discussion and tables above assume no exercise of any share options or vesting of restricted shares as of the date of this prospectus. As of the date of this prospectus, there are              common shares issuable upon the exercise of outstanding share options with exercise prices ranging from US$             per share to US$             per share, and              restricted shares outstanding. To the extent that any of these options are exercised or restricted shares are vested, there will be further dilution to new investors.

 

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ENFORCEABILITY OF CIVIL LIABILITIES

We are incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands as an exempted company with limited liability. We are incorporated in the Cayman Islands because of certain benefits associated with being a Cayman Islands corporation, such as political and economic stability, an effective judicial system, a favorable tax system, the absence of foreign exchange control or currency restrictions and the availability of professional and support services. However, the Cayman Islands have a less developed body of securities laws as compared to the United States and provide protections for investors to a significantly lesser extent. In addition, Cayman Islands companies do not have standing to sue before the federal courts of the United States.

Substantially all of our assets are located outside the United States. In addition, all of our directors and officers are nationals or residents of jurisdictions other than the United States and all or a substantial portion of their assets are located outside the United States. As a result, it may be difficult for investors to effect service of process within the United States upon us or these persons, or to enforce against us or them judgments obtained in United States courts, including judgments predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the United States or any state in the United States. It may also be difficult for you to enforce in U.S. courts judgments obtained in U.S. courts based on the civil liability provisions of the U.S. federal securities laws against us, our officers and directors.

We have appointed Puglisi & Associates, located at 850 Library Avenue, Suite 204, Newark, Delaware 19711, as our agent upon whom process may be served in any action brought against us under the securities laws of the United States.

Conyers Dill & Pearman, our counsel as to Cayman Islands law, has advised us that there is uncertainty as to whether the courts of the Cayman Islands would (1) recognize or enforce judgments of United States courts obtained against us or our directors or officers predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the United States or any state in the United States, or (2) entertain original actions brought in the Cayman Islands against us or our directors or officers predicated upon the securities laws of the United States or any state in the United States.

Conyers Dill & Pearman has informed us that the uncertainty with regard to Cayman Islands law relates to whether a judgment obtained from the U.S. courts under civil liability provisions of the securities law will be determined by the courts of the Cayman Islands as penal or punitive in nature. The courts of the Cayman Islands may not recognize or enforce such judgments against a Cayman company, and because such a determination has not yet been made by a court of the Cayman Islands, it is uncertain whether such civil liability judgments from U.S. courts would be enforceable in the Cayman Islands. Conyers Dill & Pearman has further advised us that the courts of the Cayman Islands would recognize as a valid judgment, a final and conclusive judgment in personam obtained in the federal or state courts of the United States under which a sum of money is payable (other than a sum of money payable in respect of multiple damages, taxes or other charges of a like nature or in respect of a fine or other penalty) or, in certain circumstances, an in personam judgment for non-monetary relief, and would give a judgment based thereon provided that (a) such courts had proper jurisdiction over the parties subject to such judgment; (b) such courts did not contravene the rules of natural justice of the Cayman Islands; (c) such judgment was not obtained by fraud; (d) the enforcement of the judgment would not be contrary to the public policy of the Cayman Islands; (e) no new admissible evidence relevant to the action is submitted prior to the rendering of the judgment by the courts of the Cayman Islands; and (f) there is due compliance with the correct procedures under the laws of the Cayman Islands.

Commerce & Finance Law Offices, our counsel as to PRC law, has advised us that there is uncertainty as to whether the courts of China would:

 

   

recognize or enforce judgments of United States courts obtained against us or our directors or officers predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the United States or any state in the United States; or

 

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entertain original actions brought in each respective jurisdiction against us or our directors or officers predicated upon the securities laws of the United States or any state in the United States.

Commerce & Finance Law Offices has further advised us that the recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments are provided for under the PRC Civil Procedures Law. PRC courts may recognize and enforce foreign judgments in accordance with the requirements of the PRC Civil Procedures Law based either on treaties between China and the country where the judgment is made or on principles of reciprocity between jurisdictions. China does not have any treaties or other form of reciprocity with the United States or the Cayman Islands that provide for the reciprocal recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments. In addition, according to the PRC Civil Procedures Law, courts in the PRC will not enforce a foreign judgment against us or our directors and officers if they decide that the judgment violates the basic principles of PRC law or national sovereignty, security, or public interest. As a result, it is uncertain whether and on what basis a PRC court would enforce a judgment rendered by a court in the United States or in the Cayman Islands. Under the PRC Civil Procedures Law, foreign shareholders may originate actions based on PRC law against a company in China for disputes if they can establish sufficient nexus to the PRC for a PRC court to have jurisdiction, and meet other procedural requirements, including, among others, the plaintiff must have a direct interest in the case, and there must be a concrete claim, a factual basis and a cause for the suit. It will be, however, difficult for U.S. shareholders to originate actions against us in the PRC in accordance with PRC laws because we are incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands and it will be difficult for U.S. shareholders, by virtue only of holding the ADSs or common shares, to establish sufficient nexus to the PRC for a PRC court to have jurisdiction as required under the PRC Civil Procedures Law.

 

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CORPORATE HISTORY AND STRUCTURE

Our founding team began operating an online insurance business under the “Huize” brand in 2006. Shenzhen Huize Insurance Brokerage Co., Ltd., or Huize Brokerage, was established in 2011 in preparation for the launch of our platform. Mr. Cunjun Ma, the chairman of our board of directors and our chief executive officer, was our founder.

In 2014, Mr. Cunjun Ma established Shenzhen Huiye Tianze Investment Holding Co., Ltd., or Huiye Tianze, together with Focus Technology Co., Ltd. as a holding company in the PRC. Huiye Tianze acquired 100% shares of Huize Brokerage in 2014. Huiye Tianze subsequently established or acquired a series of wholly owned subsidiaries in the PRC, including Huize (Chengdu) Internet Technology Co., Ltd., Shenzhen Huize Shidai Co., Ltd., or Huize Shidai, and Shenzhen Zhixuan Wealth Investment Management Co., Ltd. We have been operating our business primarily through Huiye Tianze and its subsidiaries, including Huize Brokerage and Huize Shidai, since 2014.

When established, Huiye Tianze was initially owned by Mr. Cunjun Ma through his holding vehicle, and Focus Technology Co., Ltd. Huiye Tianze has completed four rounds of equity financing since its inception. In December 2014, Xiamen Siyuan Investment Management Co., Ltd. invested in Huiye Tianze. In January 2016, Mr. Cunjun Ma’s holding vehicle increased its shareholding in Huiye Tianze. In April 2016, several strategic investors, including, among others, Beijing La Ka La Internet Industrial Investment Fund LLP, Shenzhen Chuang Dong Fang Internet Financing Investment LLP and Jiaxing Weirong Investment Management Limited Partnership, invested in Huiye Tianze. In July 2016, Shenzhen Dachen Chuangkun Investment Limited Partnership invested in Huiye Tianze. In July 2018, Xinyu Dong Guang Yuan Investment Management Center LLP and Beijing La Ka La Investment Management Co., Ltd. invested in Huiye Tianze through purchasing a convertible bond issued by Huiye Tianze, a portion of which was converted to preferred shares in October 2018.

Our company, Huize Holding Limited, formerly known as Smart Choice Holding Limited, was established in 2014 by three shareholders: (i) Huidz Holding Limited, Mr. Cunjun Ma’s holding company incorporated in the British Virgin Islands; (ii) Crov Global Holding Limited, incorporated in the British Virgin Islands, the investment vehicle of Focus Technology Co., Ltd., an A-share listed company; and (iii) SAIF IV Hong Kong (China Investments) Limited incorporated in Hong Kong. Huize Holding Limited established Smart Choice Ventures Limited in the British Virgin Islands and Hong Kong Smart Choice Ventures Limited, or Hong Kong Smart Choice, in Hong Kong. Hong Kong Smart Choice subsequently established a wholly owned subsidiary in China, Zhixuan International Management Consulting (Shenzhen) Co., Ltd., or our WFOE, in 2015.

In June 2019, in preparation of this offering, we undertook a restructuring in order for shareholders of our VIE to own shares of our company, and we obtained control and became the primary beneficiary of Huiye Tianze by entering into a series of contractual arrangements with it and its shareholders through our WFOE. Due to the PRC legal restrictions on foreign ownership of internet-based businesses and qualifications requirements on foreign investors in the insurance brokerage business, we rely on these contractual arrangements to conduct a significant part of our operations in China. As a result of our direct ownership in our WFOE and the contractual arrangements with Huiye Tianze, or our VIE, and its shareholders, we are regarded as the primary beneficiary of our VIE, and we treat our VIE and its subsidiaries as our variable interest entities under U.S. GAAP. We have consolidated the financial results of our VIE and its subsidiaries in our consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP.

 

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As of the date of this prospectus, our VIE’s shareholders have become shareholders of our company through their respective holding vehicles, and the shareholders’ rights and shareholding structure are substantially identical as the previous ones of our VIE. The chart below summarizes our corporate structure and identifies our significant subsidiaries, our VIE and its significant subsidiaries, as of the date of this prospectus:

 

LOGO

 

Note:

(1)

Shareholders of Shenzhen Huiye Tianze Investment Holding Co., Ltd., or Huiye Tianze, are: (1) Shenzhen Huidecheng Investment Development Limited Partnership and Shenzhen Huideli Consulting Management Limited Partnership, both as our PRC ESOP holding entities, holding an aggregate of 27.56% shares in Huiye Tianze; (2) PRC holding entities of our shareholders, holding shares in Huiye Tianze in a shareholding structure substantially identical to their respective shareholding in our company.

Contractual Arrangements with Our VIE and its Shareholders

Due to the PRC legal restrictions on foreign ownership of internet-based businesses and qualification requirements on foreign investors in the insurance brokerage business, we rely on certain contractual arrangements with our VIE and its shareholders to conduct substantially all of our operations in China. These contractual arrangements allow us to exercise effective control over our VIE, receive substantially all of the economic benefits of our VIE, and have an exclusive option to purchase all or part of the equity interests in our VIE when and to the extent permitted by PRC law. As a result of these contractual arrangements, we expect to be regarded as the primary beneficiary of our VIE, and we will accordingly treat it as our variable interest entity under U.S. GAAP. We will consolidated the financial results of our VIE and its subsidiaries in our consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP.

 

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Below is a summary of our VIE contractual arrangements:

Agreements that Provide us with Effective Control over the VIE

Power of Attorney. On June 6, 2019, each shareholder of our VIE signed a Power of Attorney, pursuant to which each shareholder of our VIE irrevocably authorized our WFOE or any person designated by our WFOE to act as its attorney-in-fact to exercise all of its rights as a shareholder of our VIE, including but not limited to, the right to convene and attend shareholders’ meetings, sell, transfer or pledge any of our VIE’s assets, vote on any resolution that requires a shareholder vote, such as the appointment of legal representative, directors, and officers, as well as other shareholders’ voting rights permitted by the articles of association of the VIE. The shareholders’ power of attorney will remain effective until the earlier of (i) the date on which the shareholders are no longer registered shareholders of the VIE; (ii) the expiration date of the VIE; or (iii) the expiration date of term of operation after it has been legally extended (if any), unless otherwise instructed by our WFOE in writing.

Equity Pledge Agreements. On June 6, 2019, our WFOE entered into an equity pledge agreement with our VIE and its shareholders. Pursuant to the equity pledge agreement, the shareholders of the VIE have pledged the 100% equity interests in the VIE to our WFOE to guarantee performance by the shareholders of their obligations under the exclusive business cooperation agreement, exclusive option and equity custody agreement and power of attorney, or together referred to as the “Cooperation Agreements.” In the event of a breach by the VIE or any of its shareholders of contractual obligations under the Cooperation Agreements or the equity pledge agreement, our WFOE, as pledgee, will have the right to dispose of the pledged equity interests in the VIE and will have priority in receiving the proceeds from such disposal. The VIE and its shareholders also undertake that, without the prior written consent of our WFOE, the shareholders of the VIE will not dispose of, create or allow any encumbrance on the pledged equity interests. The equity pledge agreement will remain effective until the earlier of (i) the date on which all obligations secured have been fully paid; or (ii) the date on which the pledgors transfer all equity interests in Huiye Tianze and our WFOE is entitled to operate our business as permitted under applicable PRC law. As of the date of this prospectus, we have completed the registration of such equity pledges with relevant governmental authority.

Agreement that Allows us to Receive Economic Benefits from the VIE

Exclusive business cooperation agreement. On June 6, 2019, our WFOE, our VIE and its shareholders entered into an exclusive business cooperation agreement. Pursuant to the exclusive business cooperation agreement, our WFOE has the exclusive right to provide the VIE with comprehensive technology and business support as well as the relevant consultations services required by the business of the VIE, or to appoint a third party to provide the VIE with such services. The VIE agrees to pay our WFOE a quarterly service fee, which is at our WFOE’s discretion. Our WFOE has the exclusive ownership of all the intellectual property rights created as a result of the performance of the exclusive business cooperation agreement to the extent permitted by applicable PRC law. During the term of the agreements, the VIE shall not accept any consultations and/or services provided by any third party and shall not cooperate with any third party for the provision of identical or similar services without prior written consent of our WFOE. The exclusive business cooperation agreements will remain effective unless our WFOE exercises its exclusive option and is registered as the sole shareholder of the VIE or otherwise terminates the agreement.

Agreement that Provides us with the Option to Purchase the Equity Interests in and Assets of the VIE

Exclusive Option and Equity Custody Agreement. On June 6, 2019, our WFOE entered into exclusive option and equity custody agreements with our VIE and its shareholders. Pursuant to the exclusive option and equity custody agreement, each of the shareholders of the VIE has irrevocably granted our WFOE an exclusive option to purchase, or have its designated third party to purchase, at its discretion, to the extent permitted under PRC law, all or part of his or its equity interests in the VIE and/or the assets that our VIE holds. Our WFOE or any third party designated by our WFOE may exercise such options at the price of RMB1, or minimum price as

 

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required by PRC laws and regulations when our WFOE or any third party designated by our WFOE exercises such options. If such price exceeds RMB1, the VIE’s shareholders shall return the excess portion to our WFOE. The shareholders of our VIE irrevocably and without consideration granted our WFOE to take custody of their shares in our VIE, where our WFOE holds and may exercise all shareholder’s rights of our VIE. The exclusive option and equity custody agreement will remain effective until all equity interests in the VIE and assets of the VIE have been transferred to our WFOE or its designated third party and registered under our WFOE or its designated third party or until our WFOE terminates the agreement unilaterally with 10 days prior written notice.

In the opinion of Commerce & Finance Law Offices, our PRC legal counsel:

 

   

the ownership structures of our VIE in China and our WFOE, both currently and immediately after giving effect to this offering, are not in violation of applicable PRC laws and regulations currently in effect; and

 

   

the contractual arrangements among our WFOE, our VIE and its shareholders governed by PRC law are currently valid and binding in accordance with applicable PRC laws and regulations currently in effect, and do not result in any violation of the applicable PRC laws or regulations currently in effect.

However, our PRC legal counsel has also advised us that there are substantial uncertainties regarding the interpretation and application of current and future PRC laws, regulations and rules. Accordingly, the PRC regulatory authorities may take a view that is contrary to the opinion of our PRC legal counsel. It is uncertain whether any new PRC laws or regulations relating to variable interest entity structures will be adopted or if adopted, what they would provide. If we or any of our VIE are found to be in violation of any existing or future PRC laws or regulations, or fail to obtain or maintain any of the required permits or approvals, the relevant PRC regulatory authorities would have broad discretion to take action in dealing with such violations or failures. See “Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Corporate Structure—If the PRC government finds that the agreements that establish the structure for operating certain of our operations in China do not comply with PRC regulations relating to insurance brokerage and the relevant industries, or if these regulations or the interpretation of existing regulations change in the future, we could be subject to severe penalties or be forced to relinquish our interests in those operations.”

 

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SELECTED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL AND OPERATING DATA

The following selected consolidated statements of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2018, selected consolidated balance sheets data as of December 31, 2017 and 2018 and selected consolidated statements of cash flow data for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2018 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. The following selected consolidated statements of operations data for the six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2019, selected consolidated balance sheets data as of June 30, 2018 and 2019 and selected consolidated statements of cash flow data for the six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2019 have been derived from our unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. Our consolidated financial statements are prepared and presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of results expected for future periods. You should read this Selected Consolidated Financial and Operating Data section together with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included elsewhere in this prospectus.

 

    For the Year Ended December 31,     For the Six Months Ended June 30,  
    2017     2018     2018     2019  
    RMB     RMB     US$     RMB     RMB     US$  
    (in thousands, except for percentages, share and per share data)  

Selected Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive (Loss)/Income:

   

Operating revenue

           

Brokerage income

    251,556       503,547       73,350       179,316       447,954       65,252  

Other income

    11,776       5,281       769       2,479       3,512       511  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total operating revenue

    263,332       508,828       74,119       181,795       451,466       65,763  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating costs and expenses

           

Cost of revenue(1)

    (164,750     (316,397     (46,088     (109,433     (280,312     (40,832

Other cost

    (1,919     (1,905     (278     (938     (815     (119
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total operating costs

    (166,669     (318,302     (46,366 )      (110,371     (281,127     (40,951

Selling expenses(1)

    (104,980     (94,613     (13,782     (39,519     (62,649     (9,126

General and administrative expenses(1)

    (41,877     (46,177     (6,726     (19,101     (96,635     (14,076

Research and development expenses(1)

    (50,107     (24,944     (3,634     (12,032     (13,905     (2,025
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total operating costs and expenses

    (363,633     (484,036     (70,508 )      (181,023     (454,316     (66,178
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating (loss)/profit

    (100,301     24,792       3,611       772       (2,850     (415
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Other income/(expenses)

           

Interest income/(expenses)

    655       (27,111     (3,949     (287     (262     (38

Unrealized exchange income/(loss)

    36       (354     (52     31       369       54  

Investment income

    811                                

Others, net

    1,171       4,569       666       4,118       9,319       1,357  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

(Loss)/profit before income tax, and share of income of equity method investee

    (97,628     1,896       276       4,634       6,576       958  

Income tax expense

    (406     (278     (40     (104     (144     (21

Share of income of equity method investee

    989       1,310       191       (257     (23     (3
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net (loss)/profit

    (97,045     2,928       427       4,273       6,409       934  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net profit/(loss) attributable to non-controlling interests

    128       (224     (33 )      (21     91       13  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net (loss)/profit attributable to Huize Holding Limited

    (97,173     3,152       460       4,294       6,318       921  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Redeemable preferred shares redemption value accretion

    (26,474     (29,118     (4,242     (14,342     (15,108     (2,201
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Allocation to participating redeemable preferred shares

    47,934       (1,558     (227     (2,118     (3,176     (463
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net loss attributable to common shareholders

    (75,713     (27,524     (4,009 )      (12,166     (11,966     (1,743
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Weighted average number of common shares used in computing net loss per share

           

Basic and diluted

    445,272,000       445,272,000       445,272,000       445,272,000       445,350,614       445,350,614  

Net loss per share attributable to common shareholders

           

Basic and diluted

    (0.17     (0.06     (0.01     (0.03     (0.03     (0.01

 

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(1)

Share-based compensation expenses were allocated in operating costs and expenses as follows:

 

     Year Ended December 31,      Six Months Ended June 30,  
     2017      2018      2018      2019  
     RMB      RMB      US$      RMB      RMB      US$  
     (in thousands)  

Cost of revenue

     26        9        1        4        43        6  

Selling expenses

     196        110        16        54        357        52  

General and administrative expenses

     386        726        106        423        66,953        9,753  

Research and development expenses

     203        122        18        62        421        61  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

     811        967        141        543        67,774        9,872  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

The following table presents our selected consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2017 and 2018:

 

     As of December 31,      As of June 30, 2019      Pro Forma
As of June 30, 2019
(Unaudited)
 
     2017      2018  
     RMB      RMB      US$      RMB      US$      RMB      US$  
     (in thousands)  

Selected Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:

                    

Cash and cash equivalents

     12,261        6,640        967        44,759        6,519        44,759        6,519  

Restricted cash (including amounts of the consolidated VIE of RMB 27,992, RMB 145,599 thousand and RMB 133,237 thousand as of December 31, 2017 and 2018 and June 30, 2019, respectively)

     28,019        145,631        21,214        133,270        19,413        133,270        19,413  

Accounts receivable, net of allowance for doubtful accounts

     70,690        108,434        15,795        116,297        16,941        116,297        16,941  

Long-term investments

     17,765        21,575        3,143        22,552        3,285        22,552        3,285  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total assets

     165,777        334,084        48,666        361,305        52,629        361,305        52,629  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Accounts payable (including amounts of the consolidated VIE and its subsidiaries without recourse to the Company of RMB 15,220 thousand, RMB 72,989 thousand and RMB 81,342 thousand as of December 31, 2017 and 2018 and June 30, 2019, respectively)

     15,453        73,448        10,699        81,604        11,887        81,604        11,887  

Insurance premium payables (including amounts of the consolidated VIE and its subsidiaries without recourse to the Company of RMB 101,694 thousand, RMB 114,447 thousand and RMB 101,048 thousand as of December 31, 2017 and 2018 and June 30, 2019, respectively)

     101,694        114,447        16,671        101,048        14,719        101,048        14,719  

 

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     As of December 31,     As of June 30, 2019     Pro Forma
As of June 30, 2019
(Unaudited)
 
     2017     2018  
     RMB     RMB     US$     RMB     US$     RMB      US$  
     (in thousands)  

Other payables and accrued expenses (including amounts of the consolidated VIE and its subsidiaries without recourse to the Company of RMB25,522 thousand, RMB 60,599 thousand and RMB 29,947 thousand as of December 31, 2017 and 2018 and June 30, 2019, respectively)

     26,036       36,908       5,376       23,042       3,356       23,042        3,356  

Payroll and welfare payable (including amounts of the consolidated VIE and its subsidiaries without recourse to the Company of RMB 17,017 thousand, RMB 31,850 thousand and RMB 20,370 thousand as of December 31, 2017 and 2018 and June 30, 2019, respectively)

     17,017       31,850       4,640       20,514       2,988       20,514        2,988  

Income taxes payable (including amounts of the consolidated VIE and its subsidiaries without recourse to the Company of RMB 206 thousand, RMB 206 thousand and RMB 229 thousand as of December 31, 2017 and 2018 and June 30, 2019, respectively)

     445       250       36       324       47       324        47  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total liabilities

     183,919       297,549       43,343       250,583       36,500       250,583        36,500  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total mezzanine equity

     367,228       421,773       61,438       436,881       63,639               

Total shareholders’ deficit

     (385,370     (385,238     (56,115 )      (326,159     (47,510     110,722        16,129  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total liabilities, mezzanine equity and shareholders’ deficit

     165,777       334,084       48,666       361,305       52,629       361,305        52,629  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

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The following table sets forth our selected consolidated cash flow data for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2018:

 

     For the Year Ended December 31,     For Six Months Ended June 30,  
     2017     2018     2018     2019  
     RMB     RMB     US$     RMB     RMB     US$  
     (in thousands)  

Selected Consolidated Cash Flow Data:

        

Net cash (used in)/ provided by operating activities

     (85,349     66,853       9,739       5,279       55,170       8,036  

Net cash provided by/(used in) investing activities

     57,767       (3,554     (518     (2,533     (2,926     (427

Net cash provided by financing activities

     22,988       48,572       7,075       (5,471     (26,710     (3,891
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents

     (234     120       18       34       224       33  

Net (decrease)/ increase in cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash

     (4,828     111,991       16,314       (2,691     25,758       3,751  

Total cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash at beginning of the year

     45,108       40,280       5,867       40,280       152,271       22,181  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash at end of the year

     40,280       152,271       22,181       37,589       178,029       25,932  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Non-GAAP Financial Measure

In evaluating our business, we consider and use adjusted net profit/(loss) as a supplemental measure to review and assess our operating performance. The presentation of the non-GAAP financial measure is not intended to be considered in isolation or as a substitute for the financial information prepared and presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP. We define adjusted net profit/(loss) as net profit/(loss) excluding share-based compensation expenses and interest on convertible bond. Such adjustments have no impact on income tax because either the non-GAAP adjustments were recorded at entities located in tax free jurisdictions, such as the Cayman Islands or because the non-GAAP adjustments were recorded at operating entities located in the PRC for which the non-GAAP adjustments were not deductible for tax purposes.

We present the non-GAAP financial measure because it is used by our management to evaluate our operating performance and formulate business plans. Adjusted net profit/(loss) enables our management to assess our operating results without considering the impact of share-based compensation expenses and interest on convertible bond. We also believe that the use of this non-GAAP financial measure facilitate investors’ assessment of our operating performance.

This non-GAAP financial measure is not defined under U.S. GAAP and is not presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP. The non-GAAP financial measure has limitations as an analytical tool. One of the key limitations of using adjusted net profit/(loss) is that it does not reflect all items of income and expense that affect our operations. Further, the non-GAAP financial measure may differ from the non-GAAP financial information used by other companies, including peer companies, and therefore their comparability may be limited.

The non-GAAP financial measure should not be considered in isolation or construed as an alternative to net profit/(loss) or any other measure of performance or as an indicator of our operating performance. Investors are encouraged to review the historical non-GAAP financial measure in light of the most directly comparable GAAP measure, as shown below. The non-GAAP financial measure presented here may not be comparable to similarly

 

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titled measure presented by other companies. Other companies may calculate similarly titled measures differently, limiting the usefulness of such measures when analyzing our data comparatively. We encourage investors and others to review our financial information in its entirety and not rely on a single financial measure.

The table below sets forth a reconciliation of the non-GAAP financial measure for the periods indicated:

 

     For the Year Ended December 31,      For Six Months Ended June 30,  
     2017     2018      2018      2019  
     RMB     RMB      US$      RMB      RMB      US$  
     (in thousands)  

Net (loss)/profit

     (97,045     2,928        427        4,273        6,409        934  

Share-based compensation expenses

     811       967        141        543        67,774        9,872  

Interest on convertible bond

           26,249        3,824                       
  

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Adjusted net (loss)/profit

     (96,234     30,144        4,391        4,816        74,183        10,806  

 

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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations in conjunction with the section entitled “Selected Consolidated Financial Data” and our consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus. This discussion contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties about our business and operations. Our actual results and the timing of selected events may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including those we describe under “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this prospectus. See “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”

Overview

We are a leading independent online insurance product and service platform in China. As a licensed insurance intermediary operating an online platform, we do not bear underwriting risks. We distribute on our platform insurance products underwritten by our insurer partners, and help them reach a large number of insurance clients. We primarily generate revenues from the insurance brokerage income paid by our insurer partners. We believe, leveraging internet, technology and data analytics expertise, our business model enables us to reach the insurance retail market in a cost-effective manner.

We have accumulated a large insurance client base. As of June 30, 2019, we had cumulatively served 5.8 million insurance clients. A substantial portion of our insurance client base are the younger generation. We offer a wide variety of insurance products covering two major categories—life and health insurance products, and property & casualty insurance products. In the six months ended June 30, 2019, we offered approximately 214 life and health insurance products and approximately 861 property & casualty insurance products. Our life and health insurance products contributed to approximately 89.8% of our brokerage income in the six months ended June 30, 2019. In particular, we focus on long-term life and health insurance products, which accounted for 79.4% of the total first year premiums we facilitated in the six months ended June 30, 2019.

We empower our insurer partners to reach a large client base quickly online, and enhance their insurance sales. As of June 30, 2019, we cooperated with 67 insurer partners. With the support of our insurance expertise, actuarial capabilities, risk management capabilities and the large amount of client behavior data we possess and analyze, we take initiatives in designing and developing tailor-made life and health insurance products together with our insurer partners.

We have experienced substantial growth since our inception. The cumulative number of insurance clients we served increased from approximately 3.7 million as of December 31, 2017 to approximately 5.3 million as of December 31, 2018, and further to approximately 5.8 million as of June 30, 2019. The GWP we facilitated increased from RMB617.5 million in 2017 to RMB941.0 million in 2018. The GWP we facilitated in the six months ended June 30, 2019 was approximately RMB825.7 million. We primarily generate revenues from the commission fees that we charge our insurer partners for facilitating insurance policies and generating premiums for them. Our total operating revenue increased from RMB263.3 million in 2017 to RMB508.8 million (US$74.1 million) in 2018, and increased from RMB181.8 million in the six months ended June 30, 2018 to RMB451.5 million (US$65.8 million) in the six months ended June 30, 2019. Our net loss was RMB97.0 million in 2017, and our net profit was RMB2.9 million (US$0.4 million) in 2018. We had net profit of RMB4.3 million and RMB6.4 million (US$0.9 million) in the six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2019, respectively. Our adjusted net loss in 2017 was RMB96.2 million, and our adjusted net profit in 2018 was RMB30.1 million (US$4.4 million). Our adjusted net profit was RMB4.8 million and RMB74.2 million (US$10.8 million) in the six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2019, respectively. See “Summary Consolidated Financial and Operating Data—Non-GAAP Financial Measure.”

 

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Key Factors Affecting Our Results of Operations

Our results of operations and financial condition are affected by the general factors affecting China’s online insurance industry, including, among others, (i) China’s overall economic growth, (ii) the increase in per capita disposable income, (iii) regulatory changes, (iv) the rising awareness of insurance and demand for insurance products, and (v) the competitive environment in China. In particular, we operate in a highly regulated industry. The PRC government has not adopted a clear regulatory framework governing the emerging and rapidly evolving online insurance industry, and we expect that the regulatory framework will continue to evolve for some time to come. Regulatory changes will affect the general growth as well as the competitive landscape of the market. Staying in compliance with the regulatory requirements may result in diversion of our management team’s attention and increased operational costs and expenses. Our ability to execute our strategies and make adjustments when necessary in a cost-efficient manner in the changing regulatory environment is key to our future growth. Unfavorable changes in any of these general factors could materially and adversely affect our results of operations.

While our business is influenced by general factors affecting our industry, our results of operations are more directly affected by company-specific factors, including the following major factors:

Offering of a Distinguishable and Popular Insurance Product Mix

We primarily generate revenues from earning brokerage income by distributing insurance products underwritten by our insurer partners. We currently distribute two major categories of insurance products on our platform: (i) life and health insurance products, including long-term health insurance products, short-term health insurance products and life insurance products; (ii) property & casualty insurance products, including travel insurance products, individual casualty insurance products and corporate insurance products. Between the two categories, life and health insurance products accounted for 40.1%, 69.7% and 87.2% of the GWP we facilitated in 2017, 2018, and the six months ended June 30, 2019, respectively.

The insurance brokerage commission fees we charge are typically based on a percentage of the premiums paid by our insurance clients. Most life and health insurance policies we sell require periodic payment of premiums, typically annually, during a pre-determined payment period, generally ranging from 3 to 30 years. For such insurance policies we sell, insurer partners pay us a first-year commission based on a percentage of the first year’s gross premiums, and subsequent commissions based on a smaller percentage of the renewal premiums paid by the insurance clients in the subsequent one to four years. Therefore, life and health insurance products bring us a steady flow of brokerage income during the payment period of the first two to five years as long as the insurance clients meet their payment commitments. Moreover, the commission fee rates our insurer partners pay us for the life and health insurance products are generally higher than those of property & casualty insurance products. As a result, we expect increased distribution of life and health insurance products will have a positive impact on our revenues and we plan to remain our focus on life and health insurance products.

We believe that with the rising insurance awareness in China, insurance clients favor customized insurance products that cater to their personalized protection needs. We stay abreast of market trends and have deep insights in unmet needs of insurance clients. To address such needs, we cooperate with our insurer partners to design and develop tailor-made insurance products, which contribute significantly to the GWP we facilitate, and further, to our revenues from commission fees. In the six months ended June 30, 2019, approximately 35.2% of the GWP facilitated through our platform were contributed by tailor-made insurance products that we developed together with our insurer partners. Our flagship insurance products, including Darwin No. 1 and Hui Xin An, are popular among insurance clients and contributed to 7.9% and 3.3% of total life and health insurance premiums we distributed in the six months ended June 30, 2019, respectively. We plan to further enhance our product design and development capabilities and launch more tailor-made life and health insurance products, to contribute to our total revenues and strengthen our popularity.

 

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Expansion of Our Insurance Client Base

Although we generate our revenues primarily from fees that we charge our insurer partners, their demand for our brokerage services largely depends on our ability to help them reach and sell insurance products to insurance clients. Therefore, the size and composition of our insurance client base on our platform significantly affect our revenues and results of operations. We need to maintain a large and loyal client base with an emphasis on younger generation who could bring us stable, long-term revenues. We maintain various client acquisition channels. To acquire direct client traffic, we conduct product marketing, user education and brand advertising. We also invest in our insurance consulting capabilities to improve client conversion rate. In addition, we partner with a large number of user traffic channels who have considerable influence over their users’ insurance purchase decisions and we pay them service fees for directing client traffic to our platform. We need to continuously raise our brand awareness through both our own marketing team and our user traffic channels. We have incurred significant expenses and devoted considerable resources to marketing activities and client acquisition as we have grown our business, and we expect to continue to incur such expenses as we grow. To improve profitability, we need to further enhance our client acquisition efficiency, particularly in accurate advertising and selecting and engaging effective distribution channels leveraging our big data analytics capabilities, in order to expand our client base in a cost effective manner.

Operating Efficiency of Our Platform

We have incurred significant costs and expenses in building our platform, growing our client base and developing capabilities in data analytics and technology. Our business model is highly scalable and our platform is built to support our continued growth. While we expect our operating costs and expenses to increase in absolute terms as our business expands, we also expect them to decrease as a proportion of our revenues as we improve the operating efficiency of our platform and achieve more economies of scale. We have expended significant costs and expenses in attracting and acquiring traffic to our platform, and converting such traffic into our insurance clients. We pay service fees to our user traffic channels, which is the largest component of our operating costs and expenses. We plan to carefully select influential user traffic channels and further optimize our client acquisition channels to reduce such operating costs as a percentage of our total revenues. For our own client acquisition efforts, we incur personnel costs, including base salaries and performance bonuses. In order to maintain and improve the operating efficiency of our platform, we should expand our client base efficiently without disproportionately adding our personnel costs. Furthermore, we have invested in accumulating and processing multi-dimensional client data and transaction data, and we plan to conduct in-depth analytics and analysis of client needs that will contribute to our client acquisition and conversion, product design and risk management capabilities, which in turn improves our overall operational margin.

Relationship with Our Insurer Partners

As of June 30, 2019, we had established business cooperations with a cumulative of 95 insurer partners, among which 67 insurer partners still had effective contracts with us, including 40 life and health insurance companies and 27 property & casualty insurance companies. We cooperate with our insurer partners to offer their standard insurance products or to design and develop tailor-made insurance products. We need to keep the growth of our business, brand influence and risk management capabilities so as to strengthen the cooperation with our existing insurer partners while attracting more insurance companies to build cooperative relationships with us. Our growth will also allow us to hold stronger bargaining power and be able to negotiate favorable terms in our business cooperation with insurer partners. We plan to diversify and expand the number of insurer partners we work with to manage any potential concentration risk. Our two largest insurer partners in terms of operating revenue contribution in 2018 aggregately accounted for 40.0% of our total operating revenue in 2018. We plan to adjust the structure of insurer partners we work with to an extent that is suitable for our long-term growth, while exposes us to limited concentration risk.

Furthermore, we need to ensure the quality of services we provide to insurer partners, including system integration, product design and development services, and risk management solutions to maintain their incentive

 

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to keep cooperating with us. We need to provide insurance clients with smooth insurance experience through our platform by offering a series of client services, including, among others, consulting service, intelligent underwriting service and claim application and settlement service. Client satisfaction and positive feedbacks from our insurance clients encourage our insurer partners to maintain and expand their cooperation with us.

Key Operating Metrics

We regularly review a number of operating metrics to evaluate our business, measure our performance, identify trends, formulate financial projections and make strategic decisions. The principal operating metrics we consider are set forth in the table below:

 

     2017      2018      For the Six Months
Ended June 30, 2019
 

Number of insurance clients

     1,258,646        1,825,777        754,825  

Number of insured

     13,050,216        13,417,121        6,054,084  

GWP facilitated (million RMB)

     617.5        941.0        825.7  

First year premiums (million RMB)

     533.2        749.8        626.2  

Renewal premiums (million RMB)

     84.3        191.2        199.5  

Key Components of Results of Operations

Revenues

Our revenues are derived from providing insurance brokerage services to our insurer partners, and are comprised of brokerage income and other income. The following table sets forth the components of our revenues by amounts and percentages of our total operating revenue for the periods presented:

 

    For the Year Ended December 31,     For the Six Months Ended June 30,  
    2017     2018     2018     2019  
    RMB     %     RMB     US$     %     RMB     %     RMB     US$     %  
    (in thousands, except for percentages)  

Operating revenue:

                   

Brokerage income

    251,556       95.5       503,547       73,350       99.0       179,316       98.6       447,954       65,252       99.2  

Life and health insurance business

    132,816       50.4       371,011       54,044       72.9       124,590       68.5       402,111       58,574       89.1  

Direct marketing

    52,991       20.1       102,125       14,876       20.1       36,716       20.2       102,510       14,932       22.7  

Indirect marketing

    79,825       30.3       268,886       39,168       52.8       87,874       48.3       299,601       43,642       66.4  

Property & casualty insurance business

    118,740       45.1       132,536       19,306       26.1       54,726       30.1       45,843       6,678       10.1  

Direct marketing

    16,951       6.4       19,369       2,821       3.8       9,459       5.2       9,224       1,344       2.0  

Indirect marketing

    101,789       38.7       113,167       16,485       22.3       45,267       24.9       36,619       5,334       8.1  

Other income

    11,776       4.5       5,281       769       1.0       2,479       1.4       3,512       511       0.8  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total operating revenue

    263,332       100.0       508,828       74,119       100.0       181,795       100.0       451,466       65,763       100.0  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Brokerage income. We derive brokerage income from commission fees generated from facilitating sales of insurance products underwritten by our insurer partners through our platform. We facilitate sales of two major types of insurance products on our platform: (i) life and health insurance products, including long-term health insurance products, short-term health insurance products and life insurance products; (ii) property & casualty insurance products, including travel insurance products, individual casualty insurance products and corporate insurance products.

The commission fees we receive are based on a percentage of the premiums our insurance clients pay our insurer partners. Commission fee rates generally depend on the type of insurance products and the particular

 

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insurer partners, and are subject to regulatory requirements. We typically receive payment of the commission fees from insurer partners on a monthly basis. Our brokerage income is recognized when the signed insurance policy is in place and the premiums is collected from our insurance clients.

Commission fees earned from life and health insurance products have been our primary source of revenues in recent years. Commission fees earned from life and health insurance products accounted for 50.4% and 72.9% of our total operating revenue in 2017 and 2018, respectively. As we plan to enhance our focus on life and health insurance products, particularly long-term health insurance products and further improve our product design capabilities, we expect life and health insurance products to continue to be a major contributor to our revenues.

Other income. Other income primarily consists of service fees for consulting services. We provide consulting services before selling insurance products to the insured.

Operating Costs and Expenses

Operating costs and expenses consist primarily of cost of revenue, selling expenses, general and administrative expenses and research and development expenses. The following table sets forth the components of our operating expenses by amounts and percentages of total operating cost and expenses for the periods presented:

 

     For the Year Ended December 31,     For the Six Months Ended June 30,  
     2017     2018     2018     2019  
     RMB     %     RMB     US$     %     RMB      %     RMB     US$     %  
     (in thousands, except for percentages)  

Operating costs and expenses:

            

Cost of revenue

     (164,750     (45.3     (316,397     (46,088     (65.4     (109,433)        (60.5     (280,312     (40,832     (61.7

Other cost

     (1,919     (0.5     (1,905     (278     (0.4     (938)        (0.5     (815     (119     (0.2
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total operating costs

     (166,669     (45.8     (318,302     (46,366     (65.8     (110,371)        (61.0     (281,127     (40,951     (61.9

Selling expenses

     (104,980     (28.9     (94,613     (13,782     (19.5     (39,519)        (21.8     (62,649     (9,126     (13.8

General and administrative expenses

     (41,877     (11.5     (46,177     (6,726     (9.5     (19,101)        (10.6     (96,635     (14,076     (21.2

Research and development expenses

     (50,107     (13.8     (24,944     (3,634     (5.2     (12,032)        (6.6     (13,905     (2,025     (3.1
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total operating costs and expenses

     (363,633     (100.0     (484,036     (70,508     (100.0     (181,023)        (100.0     (454,316     (66,178     (100.0
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Cost of revenue. Cost of revenue primarily consists of (i) channel cost, which is service fee paid to our user traffic channels, including social media influencer and financial institutions under our indirect marketing, and (ii) personnel costs related to our insurance consultants, including base salaries and performance bonuses under our direct marketing. We expect our cost of revenue to increase in absolute terms as our scale of business grows. However, as we expect to attract a larger portion of our client base with our brand influence, we plan to carefully select user traffic channels we work with to achieve better client acquisition results, and we will further improve client acquisition efficiency of each insurance consultant through enhanced training programs and increased application of big data technologies. We expect our cost of revenue as a percentage of our total revenue will decrease.

Other cost. Our other cost primarily consists of non-labor cost for our business, such as office leasing cost. We expect our other cost to be stable in the foreseeable future as we plan to control our non-labor cost.

Selling expenses. Our selling expenses primarily consist of (i) salaries and employment benefits for sales related personnel, including sales and marketing team, product management team and client service team for both indirect and direct marketing, (ii) advertising and marketing expenses, and (iii) rental and utilities expenses,

 

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office expenses and traveling expenses incurred in connection with sales activities. We expect our selling expenses to increase in absolute amounts in the foreseeable future as we seek to enhance our insurance service capabilities and increase our brand awareness, and decrease as a percentage of our total operating costs and expenses due to our growing business scale.

General and administrative expenses. Our general and administrative expenses primarily consist of (i) payroll and related expenses for employees involved in general corporate functions and costs associated with the use of facilities and equipment by these functions, and (ii) professional service expenses in relation to our initial public offering, surcharge from value-added tax, office expenses, rental and utilities expenses and share-based compensation expenses. We expect our general and administrative expenses to increase in absolute amounts in the foreseeable future due to the anticipated growth of our business as well as costs associated with being a public company.

Research and development expenses. Our research and development expenses primarily consist of payroll and related expenses of research and development personnel. We expect our research and development expenses to increase in absolute amounts in the foreseeable future, as we plan to continue to recruit and retain qualified research and development personnel to further improve our operational efficiency and to enhance our technology infrastructure in order to support the growth of our business. Specifically, we intend to continue to invest in our system supporting intelligent underwriting, policy management and claim settlement services and our IT system, and the expenses incurred therefrom will be recorded as research and development expenses.

 

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Results of Operations

The following table sets forth a summary of our consolidated results of operations for the periods presented, both in absolute amount and as a percentage of our total operating revenue for the years presented. This information should be read together with our consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus. The results of operations in any period are not necessarily indicative of our future trends.

 

    For the Year Ended December 31,     For the Six Months Ended June 30,  
    2017     2018     2018     2019  
    RMB     %     RMB     US$     %     RMB     %     RMB     US$     %  
    (in thousands, except for percentages, share and per share data)  

Operating revenue:

                   

Brokerage income

    251,556       95.5       503,547       73,350       99.0       179,316       98.6       447,954       65,252       99.2  

Other income

    11,776       4.5       5,281       769       1.0       2,479       1.4       3,512       511       0.8  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total operating revenue

    263,332       100.0       508,828       74,119       100.0       181,795       100.0       451,466       65,763       100.0  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating costs and expenses:

                   

Cost of revenue(1)

    (164,750     (62.6     (316,397     (46,088     (62.2     (109,433     (60.2     (280,312     (40,832     (62.1

Other cost

    (1,919     (0.7     (1,905     (278     (0.4     (938     (0.5     (815     (119     (0.2
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total operating costs

    (166,669     (63.3     (318,302     (46,366     (62.6     (110,371     (60.7     (281,127     (40,951     (62.3

Selling expenses(1)

    (104,980     (39.9     (94,613     (13,782     (18.6     (39,519     (21.7     (62,649     (9,126     (13.9

General and administrative expenses(1)

    (41,877     (15.9     (46,177     (6,726     (9.0     (19,101     (10.5     (96,635     (14,076     (21.4

Research and development expenses(1)

    (50,107     (19.0     (24,944     (3,634     (4.9     (12,032     (6.6     (13,905     (2,025     (3.1
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total operating costs and expenses

    (363,633     (138.1     (484,036     (70,508     (95.1     (181,023     (99.6     (454,316     (66,178     (100.6
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating (loss)/profit

    (100,301     (38.1     24,792       3,611       4.9       772       0.4       (2,850     (415     (0.6
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Other income/(expenses):

                   

Interest income/(expenses)

    655       0.3       (27,111     (3,949     (5.3     (287     (0.2     (262     (38     (0.1

Unrealized exchange income/(loss)

    36       0.0       (354     (52     (0.1     31       0.0       369       54       0.1  

Investment income

    811       0.3                                                  

Others, net

    1,171       0.4       4,569       666       0.9       4,118       2.3       9,319       1,357       2.1  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

(Loss)/profit before income tax, and share of income of equity method investee

    (97,628     (37.1     1,896       276       0.4       4,634       2.5       6,576       958       1.5  

Income tax expense

    (406     (0.2     (278     (40     (0.1     (104     (0.1     (144     (21     (0.0

Share of income of equity method investee

    989       0.4       1,310       191       0.3       (257     (0.1     (23     (3     (0.0
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net (loss)/profit

    (97,045     (36.9     2,928       427       0.6       4,273       2.4       6,409       934       1.4  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

(1)

Share-based compensation expenses were allocated in operating costs and expenses as follows:

 

    For the Year Ended December 31,     Six Months Ended June 30,  
    2017     2018     2018     2019  
    RMB     RMB     US$     RMB     RMB     US$  
    (in thousands)  

Cost of revenue

    26       9       1       4       43       6  

Selling expenses

    196       110       16       54       357       52  

General and administrative expenses

    386       726       106       423       66,953       9,753  

Research and development expenses

    203       122       18       62       421       61  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total

    811       967       141       543       67,774       9,872  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

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Six months ended June 30, 2019 compared to six months ended June 30, 2018

Operating Revenue

Our total operating revenue increased by 148.3% from RMB181.8 million in the six months ended June 30, 2018 to RMB451.5 million (US$65.8 million) in the six months ended June 30, 2019. This increase was driven by the significant growth in our brokerage income from RMB179.3 million in the six months ended June 30, 2018 to RMB448.0 million (US$65.3 million) in the six months ended June 30, 2019.

The increase of brokerage income was primarily due to: (i) the increase in the GWP we facilitated through our platform from RMB360.0 million in the six months ended June 30, 2018 to RMB825.7 million in the six months ended June 30, 2019; (ii) better product mix with more high-margin insurance products, such as long-term health insurance products. In particular, GWP of long-term health insurance products we facilitated accounted for approximately 75% in GWP we facilitated in the six months ended June 30, 2019, compared with approximately 54% in the six months ended June 30, 2018.

Operating cost and expenses

Our total operating cost and expenses increased by 151.0% from RMB181.0 million in the six months ended June 30, 2018 to RMB454.3 million (US$66.2 million) in the six months ended June 30, 2019. This increase was primarily due to the increase in our cost of revenue resulting from our continued strategy in expanding client base and boosting insurance product sales in 2019.

Cost of revenue. Our cost of revenue increased substantially by 156.1% from RMB109.4 million in the six months ended June 30, 2018 to RMB280.3 million (US$40.8 million) in the six months ended June 30, 2019, primarily attributable to the increase in channel cost paid to our user traffic channels for our indirect marketing and to a lesser extent, the increase in personnel cost related to our insurance consultants for our direct marketing. Service fees paid to our user traffic channels increased from RMB98.2 million in the six months ended June 30, 2018 to RMB250.3 million (US$36.5 million) in the six months ended June 30, 2019, and personnel cost related to our insurance consultants increased from RMB11.2 million in the six months ended June 30, 2018 to RMB30.1 million (US$4.4 million) in the six months ended June 30, 2019. Both of the increases resulted from the growth of our business scale, as we obtained more user traffic through our user traffic channels as a result of our indirect client acquisition efforts and served more insurance clients as a result of our direct client acquisition efforts.

 

    The six months ended
June 30, 2018
    The six months ended
June 30, 2019
 

Channel Cost (RMB in thousands)

    98,219       250,256  

Brokerage Income from Indirect Marketing (RMB in thousands)

    133,141       336,220  

Channel Cost As a Percentage of Brokerage Income from Indirect Marketing

    73.8     74.4

While our channel cost increased in absolute amounts from the six months ended June 30, 2018 to the six months ended June 30, 2019, our channel cost as a percentage of brokerage income from indirect marketing remained relatively stable from the six months ended June 30, 2018 to the six months ended June 30, 2019.

Other cost. Our other cost decreased by 13.1% from RMB0.9 million in the six months ended June 30, 2018 to RMB0.8 million (US$0.1 million) in the six months ended June 30, 2019.

Selling expenses. Our selling expenses increased by 58.5% from RMB39.5 million in the six months ended June 30, 2018 to RMB62.6 million (US$9.1 million) in the six months ended June 30, 2019, accounting for 21.8% and 13.8% of the total operating costs and expenses of the respective period, primarily attributable to the growth of our business scale.

 

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General and administrative expenses. Our general and administrative expenses substantially increased by 405.9% from RMB19.1 million in the six months ended June 30, 2018 to RMB96.6 million (US$14.1 million) in the six months ended June 30, 2019, accounting for 10.6% and 21.3% of the total operating costs and expenses of the respective period, primarily attributable to the increase in share-based compensation expense from RMB0.4 million in the six months ended June 30, 2018 to RMB67.0 million (US9.8 million) in the six months ended June 30, 2019.

Research and development expenses. Our research and development expenses increased slightly by 15.6% from RMB12.0 million in the six months ended June 30, 2018 to RMB13.9 million (US$2.0 million) in the six months ended June 30, 2019, accounting for 6.6% and 3.1% of the total operating costs and expenses of the respective period, primarily attributable to the increase in the number of research and development personnel in the six months ended June 30, 2019.

Operating (loss)/ profit

As a result of the foregoing, we recorded operating loss of RMB2.9 million (US$0.4 million) in the six months ended June 30, 2019, compared to operating profit of RMB0.8 million in the six months ended June 30, 2018.

Other income/ (expenses)

Others, net. We recorded others, net of RMB9.3 million (US$1.4 million) in the six months ended June 30, 2019, compared to RMB4.1 million in the six months ended June 30, 2018. This increase was primarily due to a rent exemption for our office space in Hefei confirmed by the local government in June 2019.

Net profit

As a result of the foregoing, our net profit increased from RMB4.3 million in the six months ended June 30, 2018 to RMB6.4 million (US$0.9 million) in the six months ended June 30, 2019.

Year Ended December 31, 2018 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2017

Operating Revenue

Our total operating revenue increased by 93.2 % from RMB263.3 million in 2017 to RMB508.8 million (US$74.1 million) in 2018. This increase was driven by the significant growth in our brokerage income from RMB251.6 million in 2017 to RMB503.5 million (US$73.3 million) in 2018, partially offset by a decrease in other income.

The increase of brokerage income was primarily due to: (i) the increase in the GWP we facilitated through our platform from RMB617.5 million in 2017 to RMB941.0 million in 2018; (ii) better product mix with more higher-margin insurance products, such as long-term health insurance products, and fewer low-margin insurance products, such as automobile insurance products. In particular, GWP of long-term health insurance products we facilitated accounted for 59.7% in total GWP we facilitated in 2018, compared with 30.6% in 2017 as measured by GWP.

Operating Costs and Expenses

Our total operating costs and expenses increased by 33.1% from RMB363.6 million in 2017 to RMB484.0 million (US$70.5 million) in 2018. This increase was primarily due to the increase in our cost of revenue resulting from our strategy in expanding client base and boosting insurance product sales in 2018.

 

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Cost of revenue. Our cost of revenue increased substantially from RMB164.8 million in 2017 to RMB316.4 million (US$46.1 million) in 2018, primarily attributable to the increase in channel cost paid to our user traffic channels for our indirect marketing and to a lesser extent, the increase in personnel cost related to our insurance consultants for our direct marketing. Service fees paid to our user traffic channels increased from RMB145.0 million in 2017 to RMB285.7 million (US$41.6 million) in 2018, and personnel cost related to our insurance consultants increased from RMB19.8 million in 2017 to RMB30.7 million (US$4.4 million) in 2018. Both of the increases resulted from the growth of our business scale, as we obtained more user traffic through our user traffic channels as a result of our indirect client acquisition efforts and served more insurance clients as a result of our direct client acquisition efforts.

 

     2017     2018  

Channel cost (RMB in thousands)

     144,960       285,728  

Brokerage income from indirect marketing (RMB in thousands)

     181,613       382,053  

Channel cost as a percentage of brokerage income from Indirect Marketing

     79.8     74.8

While our channel cost increased in absolute amounts from 2017 to 2018, our channel cost as a percentage of brokerage income from indirect marketing decreased from 79.8% in 2017 to 74.8% in 2018, primarily due to the increase in the number of long-term life and health insurance products we offered on our platform. The percentage of service fee we pay to user traffic channels over the commission fee we charge our insurer partners is typically lower for long-term life and health insurance products, resulting in higher margin.

Other cost. Our other cost decreased by 0.7% from RMB1,919 thousand in 2017 to RMB1,905 thousand (US$278 thousand) in 2018.

Selling expenses. Our selling expenses decreased by 9.9% from RMB105.0 million in 2017 to RMB94.6 million (US$13.8 million) in 2018, accounting for 28.9% and 19.5% of the total operating costs and expenses of the respective year, primarily attributable to our overall cost control efforts in 2018.

General and administrative expenses. Our general and administrative expenses increased from RMB41.9 million in 2017 to RMB46.2 million (US$6.7 million) in 2018, accounting for 11.5% and 9.5% of the total operating costs and expenses of the respective year, primarily attributable to an increase in salaries and employment benefits for employees involved in general corporate functions from RMB26.2 million in 2017 to RMB29.0 million (US$4.2 million) in 2018 due to an increase in number of employees and salary raises.

Research and development expenses. Our research and development expenses decreased from RMB50.1 million in 2017 to RMB24.9 million (US$3.6 million) in 2018, accounting for 13.8% and 5.2% of the total operating costs and expenses of the respective year, primarily attributable to completion of a major IT project in 2017.

Operating (loss)/profit

As a result of the foregoing, we recorded operating profit of RMB24.8 million (US$3.6 million) in 2018, compared to operating loss of RMB100.3 million in 2017.

Other income/(expenses)

Interest income/(expenses). Our interest expenses was RMB27.1 million (US$3.9 million) in 2018, compared to the interest income of RMB0.7 million in 2017. This increase was primarily due to a one-time, non-recurring incurrence of RMB26.2 million (US$3.8 million) interest on convertible bond in 2018 resulting from our issuance of convertible bond for an aggregate principal amount of RMB33 million in July 2018.

Others, net. We recorded others, net of RMB4.6 million (US$0.7 million) in 2018, compared to RMB1.2 million in 2017. This increase was primarily due to government subsidies we received with respect to our research and development expenses in 2018.

 

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(Loss)/profit before Income Tax, and Share of Income of Equity Method Investee

Share of income of equity method investee. We recorded share of income of equity method investee of RMB1.3 million (US$0.2 million) in 2018, compared to share of income of equity method investee of RMB1.0 million in 2017.

Net (loss)/profit

As a result of the foregoing, our net profit was RMB2.9 million (US$0.4 million) in 2018, as compared to net loss of RMB97.0 million in 2017.

Taxation

Cayman Islands

The Cayman Islands currently levies no taxes on individuals or corporations based upon profits, income, gains or appreciation and there is no taxation in the nature of inheritance tax or estate duty. There are no other taxes likely to be material to us levied by the government of the Cayman Islands except for stamp duties which may be applicable on instruments executed in, or brought within the jurisdiction of the Cayman Islands. In addition, the Cayman Islands does not impose withholding tax on dividend payments.

Hong Kong

Our subsidiary incorporated in Hong Kong, Hong Kong Smart Choice Ventures Limited, is subject to 16.5% Hong Kong profit tax on their taxable income generated from operations in Hong Kong. Under the Hong Kong tax laws, we are exempted from the Hong Kong income tax on our foreign-derived income. In addition, payments of dividends from our Hong Kong subsidiary to us are not subject to any Hong Kong withholding tax. We incurred Hong Kong profits tax in 2017, and we did not incur such tax expense in 2018.

PRC

Generally, our WFOE, our VIE and its subsidiaries are subject to enterprise income tax on their taxable income in China at a statutory rate of 25%. The enterprise income tax is calculated based on the entity’s global income as determined under PRC tax laws and accounting standards.

We are subject to value-added tax at a rate of 6% on the revenues generated from services provided in the PRC, less any deductible value-added tax we have already paid or borne. We are also subject to surcharges on value-added tax payments in accordance with PRC law.

Dividends paid by our wholly foreign-owned subsidiary in China to our intermediary holding company in Hong Kong will be subject to a withholding tax rate of 10%, unless the relevant Hong Kong entity satisfies all the requirements under the Arrangement between China and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region on the Avoidance of Double Taxation and Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with respect to Taxes on Income and Capital and receives approval from the relevant tax authority. If our Hong Kong subsidiary satisfies all the requirements under the tax arrangement and receives approval from the relevant tax authority, then the dividends paid to the Hong Kong subsidiary would be subject to withholding tax at the standard rate of 5%. Effective from November 1, 2015, the above mentioned approval requirement has been abolished, but a Hong Kong entity is still required to file application package with the relevant tax authority, and settle the overdue taxes if the preferential 5% tax rate is denied based on the subsequent review of the application package by the relevant tax authority. See “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure—We may rely principally on dividends and other distributions on equity paid by our WFOE to fund any cash and financing requirements we may have, and any limitation on the ability of our WFOE to pay dividends to us could have a material adverse effect on our ability to conduct our business.”

 

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If our holding company in the Cayman Islands or any of our subsidiaries outside of China were deemed to be a “resident enterprise” under the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law, it would be subject to enterprise income tax on its worldwide income at a rate of 25%. See “Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Doing Business in China— If we are classified as a PRC resident enterprise for PRC income tax purposes, such classification could result in unfavorable tax consequences to us and our non-PRC shareholders or ADS holders.”

 

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Selected Quarterly Results of Operations

The following table sets forth our unaudited consolidated statement of operations data for each of the eight quarters from July 1, 2017 to June 30, 2019. The unaudited quarterly statement of operations data set forth below have been prepared on the same basis as our audited annual consolidated financial statements and include all normal recurring adjustments that we consider necessary for a fair statement of our financial position and operating results for the periods presented. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for any future period. The following quarterly financial data for the periods indicated are qualified by reference to and should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and related notes which are included elsewhere in this prospectus.

 

<
    For the Three Months Ended  
    September 30,
2017
    December 31,
2017
    March 31,
2018
    June 30,
2018
    September 30,
2018
    December 31,
2018
    March 31,
2019
    June 30,
2019
 
    RMB     RMB     RMB     RMB     RMB     RMB     RMB     RMB  
    (in thousands)  

Operating revenue

               

Brokerage income

    64,931       53,159       72,263       107,053       146,763       177,468       250,003       197,951  

Other income

    2,328       1,456       1,526       953       1,147       1,655       1,567       1,945  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total operating revenue

    67,259       54,615       73,789       108,006       147,910       179,123       251,570       199,896  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating costs and expenses

               

Cost of revenue(1)

    (45,163