424B4 1 f424b40620_lanternpharm.htm PROSPECTUS

Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(4)

Registration Nos. 333-237714 and 333-239112

1,750,000 Shares
Common Stock

Lantern Pharma Inc.

This is a firm commitment initial public offering of common stock of Lantern Pharma Inc. Prior to this offering, there has been no public market for our common stock. We are offering 1,750,000 shares of our common stock at an initial public offering price of $15.00.

Our common stock has been approved for listing on the NASDAQ Capital Market under the symbol “LTRN.”

We are an “emerging growth company,” as that term is used in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, or JOBS Act, and, as such, we have elected to comply with certain reduced public company reporting requirements for this prospectus and future filings.

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 11. Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

Per Share

 

Total

Initial Public offering price

 

$

15.00

 

$

26,250,000

Underwriting discounts and commissions(1)

 

$

1.125

 

$

1,968,750

Proceeds to us, before expenses

 

$

13.875

 

$

24,281,250

____________

(1)      Underwriting discounts and commissions do not include a non-accountable expense allowance equal to 1.0% of the initial public offering price payable to the underwriters. We refer you to “Underwriting” beginning on page 157 for additional information regarding underwriters’ compensation.

We have granted a 45-day option to the representative to purchase up to an additional 262,500 shares of common stock solely to cover over-allotment, if any.

The underwriters expect to deliver the shares on or about June 15, 2020.

Sole Book-Running Manager

ThinkEquity

a division of Fordham Financial Management, Inc.

Co-Managers

Colliers Securities LLC

 

Paulson Investment Company, LLC

The date of this prospectus is June 10, 2020

 

 

Table of Contents

 

Page

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

 

1

RISK FACTORS

 

11

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

55

MARKET AND INDUSTRY DATA

 

57

USE OF PROCEEDS

 

58

DIVIDEND POLICY

 

59

CAPITALIZATION

 

60

DILUTION

 

61

MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

63

BUSINESS

 

73

MANAGEMENT

 

131

EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION

 

137

PRINCIPAL STOCKHOLDERS

 

142

CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS

 

144

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

 

149

SHARES ELIGIBLE FOR FUTURE SALE

 

155

UNDERWRITING

 

157

LEGAL MATTERS

 

162

EXPERTS

 

162

WHERE YOU CAN FIND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

 

162

Neither we nor the underwriters have authorized anyone to provide you with information other than that contained in this prospectus or any free writing prospectus prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. We and the underwriters take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. We and the underwriters are offering to sell, and seeking offers to buy, common stock only in jurisdictions where offers and sales are permitted. The information contained in this prospectus is accurate only as of the date on the front cover page of this prospectus, or other earlier date stated in this prospectus, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or of any sale of our common stock.

No action is being taken in any jurisdiction outside the United States to permit a public offering of our common stock or possession or distribution of this prospectus in that jurisdiction. Persons who come into possession of this prospectus in jurisdictions outside the United States are required to inform themselves about and to observe any restrictions as to this offering and the distribution of this prospectus applicable to that jurisdiction.

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

This summary highlights information contained elsewhere or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. This summary provides an overview of selected information and does not contain all of the information you should consider before investing in our securities. You should read the entire prospectus carefully, especially the “Risk Factors,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes to those statements, included elsewhere in this prospectus, before making an investment decision. Unless the context requires otherwise, references to the “Company,” “Lantern,” “we,” “us,” and “our” refer to Lantern Pharma Inc., a Delaware corporation, and, where appropriate, its wholly-owned subsidiary. Lantern Pharma® and RADR® are registered trademarks of the Company.

Company Overview

We are a clinical stage biotechnology company, focused on leveraging artificial intelligence (“A.I.”), machine learning and genomic data to streamline the drug development process and to identify the patients that will benefit from our targeted oncology therapies. Our portfolio of therapies consists of small molecules that others have tried, but failed, to develop into an approved commercialized drug, as well as new compounds that we are developing with the assistance of our A.I. platform and our biomarker driven approach. Our A.I. platform, known as RADR®, currently includes more than 275 million data points, and uses big data analytics (combining molecular data, drug efficacy data, data from historical studies, data from scientific literature, phenotypic data from trials and publications, and mechanistic pathway data) and machine learning to rapidly uncover biologically relevant genomic signatures correlated to drug response, and then identify the cancer patients that we believe may benefit most from our compounds. This data-driven, genomically-targeted and biomarker-driven approach allows us to pursue a transformational drug development strategy that identifies, rescues or develops, and advances potential small molecule drug candidates at what we believe is a fraction of the time and cost associated with traditional cancer drug development.

Our strategy is to both develop new drug candidates using our RADR® platform and other machine learning driven methodologies, and to pursue the development of drug candidates that have undergone previous clinical trial testing or that may have been halted in development or deprioritized because of insufficient clinical trial efficacy (i.e., a meaningful treatment benefit relevant for the disease or condition under study as measured against the comparator treatment used in the relevant clinical testing) or for strategic reasons by the owner or development team responsible for the compound. Importantly, these historical drug candidates appear to have been well-tolerated in many instances, and often have considerable data from previous toxicity, tolerability and ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) studies that have been completed. Additionally, these drug candidates may also have a body of existing data supporting the potential mechanism(s) by which they achieve their intended biologic effect, but often require more targeted trials in a stratified group of patients to demonstrate statistically meaningful results. Our dual approach to both develop de-novo, biomarker-guided drug candidates and “rescue” historical drug candidates by leveraging A.I., recent advances in genomics, computational biology and cloud computing is emblematic of a new era in drug development that is being driven by data-intensive approaches meant to de-risk development and accelerate the clinical trial process. In this context, we intend to create a diverse portfolio of oncology drug candidates for further development towards regulatory and marketing approval with the objective of establishing a leading A.I.-driven, methodology for treating the right patient with the right oncology therapy.

A key component of our strategy is to target specific cancer patient populations and treatment indications identified by leveraging our RADR® platform, a proprietary A.I. enabled engine created and owned by us. We believe the combination of our therapeutic area expertise, our A.I. expertise, and our ability to identify and develop promising drug candidates through our collaborative relationships with research institutions in selected areas of oncology gives us a significant competitive advantage. Our RADR® platform was developed and refined over the last four years and integrates millions of data points immediately relevant for oncology drug development and patient response prediction using artificial intelligence and proprietary machine learning algorithms. By identifying clinical candidates, together with relevant genomic and phenotypic data, we believe our approach will help us design more efficient preclinical studies, and more targeted clinical trials, thereby accelerating our drug candidates’ time to approval and eventually to market. Although we have not yet applied for or received regulatory or marketing approval for any of our drug candidates, we believe our RADR® platform has the ability to reduce the cost and time to bring drug candidates to specifically targeted patient groups. We believe we have developed a sustainable and scalable biopharma business model by combining a unique, oncology-focused big-data platform that leverages artificial intelligence along with active clinical and preclinical programs that are being advanced in targeted cancer therapeutic areas to address today’s treatment needs.

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Explanatory Note: We have out-licensed LP-100 to Oncology Venture. As of the date of this prospectus, we have not yet initiated clinical trials on LP-300. We intend to initiate a clinical trial on LP-300 with NSCLC in non-or never smoking females as our lead indication.

Scientific literature offers a definition for “drug rescue” as research involving abandoned small molecules and biologics that have not been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”). These rescued molecular compounds are often abandoned by pharmaceutical companies in the drug discovery or preclinical testing phase, typically because they do not prove effective for the specific use for which they were developed. Some of these compounds may be useful in treating other diseases for which they have not been tested. See, Hemphill, Thomas A., “The NIH Promotes Drug Repurposing and Rescue,” Research Technology Management, v. 5, no. 5, pp. 6-8 (2012). Our use of the term “rescue”, “drug rescue”, or “drug rescuing” refers to, “…a system of developing new uses for chemical and biological entities that previously were investigated in clinical studies but not further developed or submitted for regulatory approval, or had to be removed from the market for safety reasons.”, which is a definition we believe is recognized in the drug discovery, drug development and pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. See, Naylor, S. and Schonfeld J., “Therapeutic Drug Repurposing, Repositioning and Rescue,” DDW (Drug Discovery World) Winter 2014, and Mucke, HAM, A New Journal for the Drug Repurposing Community. Drug Repurposing, Rescue & Repositioning 1, 3-4 (2014). The use of the term “drug rescue,” “rescuing,” or words of similar meaning in this prospectus should not be construed to mean that our RADR® platform has resolved all issues of safety and/or efficacy for any of our drug candidates. Issues of safety and efficacy for any drug candidate may only be determined by the U.S. FDA or other applicable regulatory authorities in jurisdictions outside the United States.

Our Portfolio: Drug Candidates in Development

Our current portfolio consists of three compounds in active development: two drug candidates in clinical phases and, one in preclinical studies. All of these drug candidates are leveraging precision oncology, A.I. and genomic driven approaches to accelerate and direct development efforts. We currently have two drug candidates in clinical development, LP-100 (6-Hydroxymethylacylfulvene or irofulven) and LP-300 (Sodium 2,2’-disulfanediyldiethanesulfonate), where we are leveraging data from prior preclinical studies and clinical trials, along with insights generated from our A.I. platform, to target the types of tumors and patient groups that would be most responsive to the drug. Both LP-100 and LP-300 showed promise in prior clinical testing, but failed pivotal Phase III trials where the overall results did not meet the required clinical endpoints due to what we believe was a lack of patient stratification driven by an inability to develop biomarker-driven, precision oncology trials. Additionally, we have one new drug candidate, LP-184 (hydroxyureamethylacylfulvene), in preclinical development for two potentially distinct indications where we are leveraging machine learning and genomic data to streamline the drug development process and to identify the patients and cancer subtypes that will best benefit from the drug, if approved.

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Our development strategy is to pursue an increasing number of oncology focused, molecularly targeted therapies where artificial intelligence and genomic data can help us provide biological insights, reduce the risk associated with development efforts and help clarify potential patient response. We plan on strategically evaluating these on a program-by-program basis as they advance into clinical development, either to be done entirely by us or with out-licensing partners to maximize the commercial opportunity and reduce the time it takes to bring the right drug to the right patient.

The following is a summary of our portfolio of compounds that we are developing using our A.I. platform and precision oncology approaches:

Explanatory Note: We have out-licensed LP-100 to Oncology Venture. As of the date of this prospectus, we have not yet initiated clinical trials on LP-300. We intend to initiate a clinical trial on LP-300 with NSCLC in non- or never smoking females as our lead indication.

Our most advanced drug candidate, LP-100, is in phase II clinical trials with our out-licensing partner. We have out-licensed LP-100 to Oncology Venture A/S (“Oncology Venture”), a European biotechnology company that is managing an active Phase II clinical trial in metastatic, castration-resistant, prostate cancer (mCRPC). Our second clinical-stage drug candidate in the rescue process is LP-300. LP-300 is a small molecule with cysteine modifying activity on select proteins, which has an existing investigational new drug application (“IND”). We intend to initiate discussions in 2020 with the U.S. FDA to launch a future phase II clinical trial for LP-300 with a stratified patient population of approximately 40 to 75 patients. Our new drug candidate, LP-184, is in a preclinical translational ex vivo study using fresh human biopsies. LP-184 is a next generation alkylating agent with nanomolar potency that preferentially damages DNA in cancer cells that overexpress certain biomarkers. LP-184 is in the fulvene class of compounds and has shown preliminary preclinical indications of lower toxicity, longer half-life, and increased antitumor activity as compared to other compounds in this drug class. Subject to regulatory clearance to move forward under a future IND application, we are planning a Phase I clinical trial for LP-184 across multiple solid tumors that express a certain biomarker profile, and in glioblastoma to begin in late 2021 or early 2022.

LP-100 is showing promise in solid tumors, primarily prostate cancer, where it is being advanced in an out-licensing transaction with Oncology Venture, after being in-licensed and developed by us. LP-100 has been well-tolerated, based on initial observations from a phase II clinical trial in Europe in mCRPC. Most patients with metastatic prostate cancer present with localized cancer, for which the standard of care treatment is androgen deprivation/suppression therapy. Responses to such therapy can be transient and many patients will develop a castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and develop, or are at risk to develop, mCRPC which accumulates genomic alterations including DNA repair deficits. Chemotherapeutic agents play a critical role in the management of both metastatic castration sensitive and mCRPC. The frequent use of the chemotherapy drug docetaxel in treating metastatic androgen sensitive prostate cancers exemplifies this role. Historical observations of potential anticancer activity of LP-100 in clinical studies with prostate cancer, and evidence of sensitivity to LP-184 in prostate cancer cell lines along with the development of

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computational methods that integrate gene expression signatures, support LP-184 as a drug candidate with potential for use in combination with androgen deprivation therapy for metastatic prostate cancer that is castration sensitive as well as metastatic prostate cancer that is castration resistant.

LP-184 is a new small molecule drug candidate that in preliminary preclinical studies has demonstrated increased plasma stability, reduced total body clearance, significantly longer half-life, and potentially greater tumor regression than other studied fulvene based compounds. We estimate that a substantial number of patients each year who suffer from metastatic prostate cancer globally could be eligible for potential treatment with LP-184, if approved. In addition, the observed nanomolar potency of LP-184 suggests that it may have anticancer properties in a wide range of solid tumors as an alkylating agent that works by causing DNA damage in tumor cells. Other indications for LP-184 in solid tumors are emerging as a result of early developmental and biomarker studies, including ovarian, breast, liver, kidney, pancreatic and thyroid cancers, as well as certain glioblastomas.

•        Based on increased sensitivity in cell-lines and PDx models exhibiting DNA repair deficient genetic backgrounds, we believe that LP-184 could have potential for targeted treatment of DNA repair deficient hereditary breast and ovarian cancers, from which more than 2.3 million patients suffer globally according to the Global Cancer Observatory.

•        Based on recent observations, we also believe that LP-184 could have potential as treatment (alone or in combination with other treatments) for glioblastoma, which is an aggressive type of cancer that accounts for more than half of all primary brain tumors. The American Association of Neurological Surgeons estimates that glioblastoma has an incidence of two to three per 100,000 adults per year and accounts for about 17% of all tumors of the brain (primary and metastatic).

•        Our A.I. platform RADR® helped uncover genomic biomarkers that we believe indicate certain patients could be more responsive to therapy with LP-184.

Further work on these biomarkers both in-silico and in preclinical studies will help to establish a genomic signature that may accelerate our time to a clinical trial and help guide patient selection. We believe that the market for LP-184 as a molecularly-targeted drug candidate could be significant.

LP-300 (disodium 2,2’-dithio-bis-ethane sulfonate or dimesna) is a late-stage clinical drug candidate that was in-licensed by us from BioNumerik Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (“BioNumerik”) in May 2016, and subsequently acquired by us in January of 2018. Using our RADR® platform as part of the drug rescue process, we have identified LP-300 for use in a more targeted set of cancer patients who exhibit a biomarker profile that we believe correlates with non-or never smoking status but still have a form of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). LP-300, originally branded as Tavocept®, is a molecular entity that we believe may be capable of ameliorating the toxic side effects of chemotherapeutic drugs such as cisplatin, and it also appears to act as a potential chemoenhancer. LP-300 has been studied in multiple randomized, controlled, multi-center non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) trials that included administration of either paclitaxel and cisplatin and/or docetaxel and cisplatin. Since acquiring LP-300 from BioNumerik, we have not yet conducted further clinical testing of LP-300. We are currently evaluating LP-300 for the launch of a targeted phase II trial, in non- or never smoking patients with NSCLC in combination with paclitaxel and cisplatin, under an existing IND.

Prior clinical trials conducted by BioNumerik for LP-300 did not meet their primary clinical endpoints and at least one or more future clinical trials that meet their pre-specified primary endpoints with statistical significance will be required before we can obtain a regulatory marketing approval, if any, to commercialize LP-300. Prior clinical trial observations are not necessarily predictive of the outcome of any future clinical trials we may conduct.

Retrospective analyses of the results of a multi-country phase III lung cancer trial conducted by BioNumerik in subgroups of NSCLC adenocarcinoma patients receiving LP-300, paclitaxel and cisplatin demonstrated substantial improvement in overall survival, particularly among female never smokers, where a 13.6 month improvement in overall survival (p-value 0.0167, hazard ratio 0.367) in favor of LP-300 was observed, as compared to placebo in the subgroup of paclitaxel/cisplatin-treated patients. Similar retrospective findings of increased overall survival in the subgroup of LP-300/paclitaxel/cisplatin treated female Asian patients with adenocarcinoma of the lung were observed

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in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Japan. We plan on advancing this drug candidate for the never or non-smoker population of patients due to the following important market and clinical need factors:

•        As many as 40% of lung cancers either do not carry currently known targetable proteins or will progress despite initial therapy resulting in a dependence upon chemotherapeutic drug regimens in their treatment, and according to the Global Cancer Observatory, lung cancer is the second most common cancer with over 2 million cases globally.

•        Approximately 40% of all lung cancers are adenocarcinomas, with more than half of such lung adenocarcinomas occurring in women.

•        As many as 20% of people who die from lung cancer in the United States every year have never smoked or used any other form of tobacco.

•        With declining rates of smoking, especially in North America and Europe, the relative proportion of lung cancer patients who are never-smokers is increasing, and this does not appear to be confounded by passive smoking or misreported smoking status.

•        Women who have never smoked have a higher proportion of lung cancer than men who are lifelong never-smokers.

•        In the clinical research community, a greater focus is being placed on lung cancers that occur in the never-smoking population along with the recognition that such lung cancers might be a genetically distinct type of cancer with a different molecular profile than smoking-based lung cancers.

•        Mechanistic studies indicate that LP-300 may work by disruption at binding sites of oncoproteins such as ALK, MET, ROS1 and EGFR which are more commonly altered in female non-smokers and Asian females than in any other groups.

•        Never-smokers have also been observed to be less responsive to therapies that stimulate or leverage the immune system such as checkpoint inhibitors or PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors. In a meta-analysis research publication of 1,981 patients by Drs. Li, Huang and Fu published in OncoTargets and Therapy, June 26, 2018 which spanned 3 Phase III randomized, controlled clinical trials the authors observed that, “…PD-1 inhibitors were more efficacious in smoking NSCLC patients compared with chemotherapy. No better survival of nonsmoking patients was observed in the treatment of PD-1 inhibitors than chemotherapy.”

We are focused on advancing the development of LP-300 as a combination therapy for female non- or never smokers with NSCLC adenocarcinoma and potentially among non or never-smokers with a genomic signature that correlates with a higher potential of response to this drug compound. We selected NSCLC in non- or never smoking females as our lead proposed indication because it is a cancer with a growing patient population, without effective treatment options, and LP-300 has shown an improvement in overall survival in this targeted sub-group population in prior clinical studies.

In vitro studies indicate that the target-specific effects of LP-300 potentially correlate to the covalent modification of accessible cysteine residues important in protein function/structure. These could be involved in disruption/ blocking of cofactor binding sites resulting in blocking of oncoproteins such as ALK, MET, ROS1, and EGFR that are more commonly altered in female non-smokers than in any other group. Other potential mechanisms of action of LP-300 could include impact on stress induced oxidoreductases thereby allowing LP-300 to exert its potential chemo-enhancing effects in the presence of chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin. LP-300 is postulated to potentiate antitumor cytotoxicity of standard of care chemotherapy agents such as cisplatin. We believe a key LP-300 related mechanism is likely to occur through the increase of tumor cell sensitivity to oxidative stress. Additionally, via induction of NRF2 (also known as NFE2L2), LP-300 has the potential to provide protection of healthy cells against chemotherapy-associated toxicity, and such protection potential was observed with LP-300 combination therapy in both prior nonclinical studies and clinical trials.

Our Platform: Using A.I., Big Data Genomics and Computational Biology

Drug development is expensive, challenging and is often beleaguered by protracted timelines. Delays in patient identification and enrollment, lengthy and inconclusive biomarker studies, and challenges in achieving a suitable level of efficacy in later clinical phases in the intended patient population often prevent cancer patients from getting the right therapies and challenge the economic returns for biopharma companies. In cancer drug development, this has led

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to costs that exceed, on average, over 1 billion US dollars to develop an approved drug, and a timeline that can range from 10 to 15 years. We believe, that with the significant advances in genomics, biological methods, translational research, and data-driven biology and the simultaneous increase in patient data-sharing, genomic data-availability, accessibility of large-scale cloud computing and the globalization of cancer research we are entering into a new era of cancer drug development armed with a substantially enhanced understanding of how to treat and manage cancers.

As experienced by many other industries, the wide scale adoption of data-driven methodologies (including data collection and big data analytics) to guide product development along with the introduction of scalable and readily accessible machine learning and A.I. technologies has made large-scale, computational approaches to scientific and interdisciplinary problems more powerful. We believe this big-data and A.I.-driven approach can also be applied to cancer drug development. It has the potential, to change the speed, scale and cost of drug rescue and drug development challenges which we believe are perfect problem areas for the application of A.I.

We have been actively developing our RADR® platform through the development, integration and curation of data that we believe is integral to the development of molecularly targeted anti-cancer compounds that can be candidates for future therapies. Over the past 18 months our platform has grown from under 10 million data points to over 275 million data points that have been reviewed, curated and organized to provide insights into drug development and drug rescue in oncology. We anticipate, based on our current platform development roadmap, that our RADR® platform will have over 400 million data points by the end of 2020 and grow to 1 billion data points by the end of 2021. The majority of our data points are from (see the figure below):

•        Transcriptome sequencing and gene expression (RNA) studies;

•        Drug sensitivity data;

•        DNA copy number and mutation data;

•        Tumor stage and type data;

•        Histology and cancer sub-type data;

•        Patient data (age, sex, race/ethnicity) that is de-identified and IRB (Institutional Review Board) compliant; and

•        Prior cancer treatment data (drug treatment history, including drug class and treatment response).

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As our RADR® platform continues to develop and grow both in data and in feature sets, we have used it in an increasing range of drug development and rescue activities, including:

1.      Prediction of potential patient response based on drug sensitivity and machine learning derived biomarker signatures;

2.      Development of “patient molecular profile avatars,” templates that can serve as a guide for both future clinical trials and preclinical studies using PDx models and 3D organoid models;

3.      Creation of insights into potential molecular pathways (genomic, epigenomic, enzymatic and proteomic) that correlate to mechanisms of action or key activity; and

4.      Identification of potential combination programs with currently approved therapies that have the potential to be additive or synergistic to our portfolio of compounds

Our Strategy

Our mission is to bring the right cancer drugs to the right patients by transforming the drug development process through the use of artificial intelligence and data-driven development approaches. Our A.I.-enabled, and precision oncology approach, which focuses on developing our own pipeline of compounds by rescuing drug candidates that have previously failed and developing new compounds that are targeted to specific biological activity and genomic pathways, has the potential, we believe, to bring drugs to market faster, with lower costs, and with reduced risk, thereby enabling a change in the cost and availability of precision cancer therapy. We work with leading research laboratories, translational medicine and cancer centers to develop our studies and clinical trials for our portfolio, and actively update and improve our RADR® platform to incorporate additional biomarker data, patient outcome data, cancer drug efficacy studies and computational models that relate to oncology drug development and prediction of patient response.

As part of our growth strategy, we plan to:

•        Pursue existing indications for both LP-184 and LP-300, leveraging our RADR® platform to refine and optimize our trial design and biomarker signatures that correlate to potential patient response.

•        Expand our pipeline by identifying new drug candidates that have either been abandoned or have failed in late stage clinical trials, and have the potential to benefit from a precision medicine approach that leverages our expertise and A.I. platform.

•        Identify and design potential combination therapy approaches to use our compounds in conjunction with currently approved drugs by leveraging our RADR® platform to analyze and uncover synergistic mechanisms and biological pathways using genomics and machine learning.

•        Increase the number of data points powering our RADR® A.I. platform from the current 275+ million to nearly 400+ million by the end of 2020 and approximately 1 billion by the end of 2021.

•        Advance the algorithms, methodologies and models that underlie our computational and machine learning platform to improve the predictive power, and to develop additional capabilities that are focused on accelerating or de-risking oncology drug development.

•        Pursue collaborations and partnerships with other biotech and pharma companies where our A.I. and precision oncology expertise can be used to help de-risk or accelerate development programs and where our stockholders can receive a significant economic benefit.

•        Continue to develop and patent intellectual property and advance our intellectual property portfolio associated with both fundamental patents and patents associated with precision, patient stratified, targeted therapies and genomic or biomarker signatures.

•        Select our next clinical development program in the coming twelve months.

We have a diverse, multi-national intellectual property portfolio consisting of over 108 issued patents, and seven pending applications across 14 patent families directed to our drug candidates, their usage, manufacturing and other matters. These matters are essential to precision oncology and relate to: (a) uniquely powerful, data-driven,

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biologically relevant biomarker signatures, (b) patient selection and stratification approaches that rely on prediction of response deriving from these signatures and, (c) the ability to develop novel, combination therapy approaches with existing approved therapeutics.

•        For LP-100, we have in-licensed a patent portfolio consisting of two patent families, including issued US patents, issued Japan patents, and various issued EU patents.

•        For LP-300, we own a patent portfolio consisting of over six patent families, including U.S. patent applications, issued U.S. patents and foreign issued patents.

•        We also have filed an additional seven1 patent applications — including three PCT (Patent Cooperation Treaty) applications — directed to our drug programs, including three applications directed to LP-184 as well as other novel, synthetic illudin analogs and two applications directed to LP-300. These applications include claims directed to the use of biomarkers or sensitivity parameters to identify patients and predict patient response.

Our patent applications include claims relating to our proprietary drug candidates, new manufacturing methods, and gene signature and biomarker profiles indicating sensitivity to illudins and other compounds in development.

Corporate Information

We were initially incorporated in the State of Texas in November 2013. In January 2020 we reincorporated in the State of Delaware. Our principal executive office is located at 1920 McKinney Avenue, 7th Floor, Dallas, Texas 75201 and our telephone number is (972) 277-1136. Our website is www.lanternpharma.com. Information contained in, or that can be accessed through, our website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus, and you should not consider information on our website to be part of this prospectus. Our design logo and our other registered and common law trade names, trademarks and service marks are the property of Lantern Pharma Inc.

Emerging Growth Company

We are an “emerging growth company” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, or the JOBS Act. We may take advantage of certain exemptions from various public company reporting requirements, including not being required to have our internal control over financial reporting audited by our independent registered public accounting firm under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements, and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and any golden parachute payments. We may take advantage of these exemptions until we are no longer an “emerging growth company.” We would cease to be an emerging growth company upon the earlier to occur of: (1) the last day of our fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the completion of this offering; (2) the last day of the fiscal year in which we have total annual gross revenue of U.S.$1.07 billion or more; (3) the date on which we have issued more than U.S.$1.0 billion in nonconvertible debt during the previous three years; or (4) the date on which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer under the rules of the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC. In particular, in this prospectus, we have provided only two years of audited financial statements and have not included all of the executive compensation related information that would be required if we were not an emerging growth company. Accordingly, the information contained herein may be different than the information you receive from other public companies in which you hold stock.

In addition, the JOBS Act provides that an emerging growth company can take advantage of an extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards. This provision allows an emerging growth company to delay the adoption of new or revised accounting standards that have different transition dates for public and private companies until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies. We have not elected to use this extended transition period.

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(1)             Two of these applications are being consolidated into one application and one additional patent application is directed to our RADR® Platform

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The Offering

Common Stock offered by us

 

1,750,000 shares of our common stock (2,012,500 shares if the underwriters exercise their over-allotment option in full).

Common Stock to be outstanding after this offering

 


6,217,594 shares of common stock(1) (6,480,094 shares if the underwriters exercises their over-allotment option in full).

Over-Allotment Option

 

The underwriters have an option for a period of 45 days to purchase up to 262,500 additional shares of our common stock to cover over-allotments, if any.

Use of Proceeds

 

We intend to use the net proceeds of this offering (i) to advance clinical trial testing, preclinical studies, manufacturing, scale-up optimization, and key biomarker studies for our drug candidates LP-300 and LP-184; (ii) to advance further development and expansion of, and data acquisition for, our RADR® platform; (iii) for the strategic expansion of our drug candidate portfolio through the acquisition or in-licensing of intellectual property assets; and (iv) for working capital and general corporate purposes. See “Use of Proceeds’’ on page 58 of this prospectus.

Risk Factors

 

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 11.

NASDAQ Capital Market Symbol

 

“LTRN.”

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(1)      The number of shares of common stock to be outstanding after the offering is based on 4,467,594 shares of common stock outstanding as of May 8, 2020, after giving effect to the conversion of all outstanding shares of our Series A preferred stock into 2,438,865 shares of our common stock immediately prior to the closing of this offering, and excludes, as of that date, the following:

•        513,862 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of outstanding stock options at a weighted average exercise price of $1.03 per share;

•        306,743 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of options awarded under our Amended and Restated Equity Incentive Plan to be granted at the closing of this offering;

•        550,102 shares of common stock reserved under our Amended and Restated 2018 Equity Incentive Plan; and

•        262,003 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding Series A purchase warrants.

Except as otherwise indicated herein, all information in this prospectus, including the number of shares of common stock that will be outstanding after this offering, gives effect to a 1.74 -for-1 stock split of our common stock effected immediately prior to the closing of this offering and the number of shares of common stock outstanding include:

•        conversion of all outstanding shares of our Series A preferred stock into 2,438,865 shares of common stock immediately prior to the closing of this offering;

•        amendments to the outstanding Series A warrants entitling the warrant holders to acquire 262,003 shares of common stock upon exercise of their warrants;

•        no exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase an additional 262,500 shares of common stock; and

•        the effectiveness of our amendment to our certificate of incorporation effecting the stock split immediately prior to the closing of this offering.

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Summary Financial Data

The following table summarizes our consolidated financial data. The statement of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018 and the balance sheet data as of December 31, 2019 and 2018 are derived from our audited financial statements that are included elsewhere in this prospectus. The interim statements of operations data for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, and the balance sheet as of March 31, 2020 are derived from our unaudited interim financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of our results in any future period.

You should read the following summary financial data together with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus. The summary financial data in this section are not intended to replace our financial statements and the related notes and are qualified in their entirety by the financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus.

 

For the Three Months End
March 31,

 

For the Years Ended
December 31,

   

2020

 

2019

 

2019

 

2018

   

(Unaudited)

       

Statement of Operations Data

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Revenue

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Expenses

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

General and administrative

 

$

340,172

 

 

$

267,929

 

 

$

1,475,000

 

 

$

1,154,322

 

Research and development

 

 

137,104

 

 

 

186,044

 

 

 

953,185

 

 

 

572,095

 

Total expenses

 

 

477,276

 

 

 

453,973

 

 

 

2,428,185

 

 

 

1,726,417

 

Net loss

 

$

(477,276

)

 

 

(453,973

)

 

 

(2,428,185

)

 

 

(1,726,417

)

Balance Sheet Data

 

As at March 31, 2020
(unaudited)

   

Actual

 

Pro Forma(1)

 

Pro Forma
As Adjusted
(2)

Current Assets

 

$

766,392

 

$

766,392

 

$

23,916,848

Total Assets

 

 

1,037,994

 

 

1,037,994

 

 

24,188,450

Current Liabilities

 

 

501,526

 

 

501,526

 

 

501,526

Total Liabilities

 

 

501,526

 

 

501,526

 

 

501,526

Total Stockholders’ Equity (Deficit)

 

$

536,468

 

$

536,468

 

$

23,686,924

____________

(1)      On a pro forma basis to give effect to the conversion of all of the Series A preferred stock.

(2)      On a pro forma as adjusted basis to give effect to the conversion of all of the Series A preferred stock and net proceeds of $23,150,456 from our issuance and sale of shares of common stock in this offering at initial public offering price of $15.00 per share after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

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RISK FACTORS

An investment in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. Before making an investment decision, you should give careful consideration to the following risk factors, in addition to the other information included in this prospectus, including our financial statements and related notes, before deciding whether to invest in shares of our common stock. The occurrence of any of the adverse developments described in the following risk factors could materially and adversely harm our business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects. In that case, the trading price of our common stock could decline, and you may lose all or part of your investment.

Risks Related to Financial Position and Need for Capital

We have a limited operating history and have never generated any revenues other than from research grants, which may make it difficult to evaluate the success of our business to date and to assess our future viability.

We were incorporated in November 7, 2013, and to date have been largely focused on organizing and staffing our company, raising capital, developing the RADR® platform and acquiring the rights to, and advancing the development of, our drug candidates, including conducting preclinical studies and early phase clinical trials on our drug candidates. We have not yet demonstrated an ability to successfully complete clinical trials, obtain marketing approvals, manufacture drugs on a commercial scale, or arrange for a third party to do so on our behalf, or conduct sales and marketing activities necessary for successful commercialization. Consequently, predictions about our future success or viability may not be as accurate as they could be if we had a longer operating history or a history of successfully developing and commercializing drugs.

We expect our financial condition and operating results to continue to fluctuate from quarter to quarter and year to year due to a variety of factors, many of which are beyond our control. We will need to eventually transition from a company with a research and development focus to a company capable of undertaking commercial activities. We may encounter unforeseen expenses, difficulties, complications and delays, and may not be successful in such a transition.

We have incurred significant operating losses since inception and anticipate that we will continue to incur substantial operating losses for the foreseeable future and may never achieve or maintain profitability.

Since our inception, we have incurred losses. Our net losses were $2,428,185 and $1,726,417 for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively. Our net losses were $477,276 and $453,973 for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and March 31, 2019, respectively. We expect to continue to incur significant expenses and increasing operating losses for the foreseeable future. None of our current drug candidates have been approved for marketing in the United States, or in any other jurisdiction, and may never receive such approval. It could be several years, if ever, before we have a commercialized drug that generates significant revenues. As a result, we are uncertain when or if we will achieve profitability and, if so, whether we will be able to sustain profitability. The net losses we incur may fluctuate significantly from quarter to quarter and year to year. We anticipate that our expenses will increase substantially as we:

•        continue the development of our drug candidates;

•        initiate preclinical studies and clinical trials for any additional indications for our current drug candidates and any future drug candidates that we may pursue;

•        continue to build our portfolio of drug candidates through the acquisition or in-license of additional drug candidates or technologies;

•        continue to develop, maintain, expand and protect our intellectual property portfolio;

•        continue to develop, maintain, and expand our RADR® platform;

•        pursue regulatory approvals for our current and future drug candidates that successfully complete clinical trials;

•        ultimately establish a sales, marketing, distribution and other commercial infrastructure to commercialize any drug candidate for which we may obtain marketing approval;

•        hire additional clinical, regulatory, scientific and accounting personnel; and

•        incur additional legal, accounting and other expenses in operating as a public company.

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To become and remain profitable, we must develop and eventually commercialize one or more drug candidates with significant market potential or license one or more of our drug candidates to an industry partner. This will require us to be successful in a range of challenging activities, including completing clinical trials of our drug candidates, publishing our data and findings on our drug candidates with peer reviewed publications, developing commercial scale manufacturing processes, obtaining marketing approval, manufacturing, marketing and selling any current and future drug candidates for which we may obtain marketing approval, and satisfying any post-marketing requirements. We are only in the preliminary stages of most of these activities and, in some cases, have not yet commenced certain of these activities. We may never succeed in any or all of these activities and, even if we do, we may never generate sufficient revenue to achieve profitability.

Because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with drug development, we are unable to accurately predict the timing or amount of expenses or when, or if, we will obtain marketing approval to commercialize any of our drug candidates. If we are required by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, or other regulatory authorities such as the European Medicines Agency, or EMA, to perform studies and trials in addition to those currently expected, or if there are any delays in the development, or in the completion of any planned or future preclinical studies or clinical trials of our current or future drug candidates, our expenses could increase and profitability could be further delayed.

Even if we do achieve profitability, we may not be able to sustain or increase profitability on a quarterly or annual basis. Our failure to become and remain profitable would decrease the value of our company and could impair our ability to raise capital, maintain our research and development efforts, expand our business or continue our operations. A decline in the value of our company also could cause investors to lose all or part of your investment.

Our independent registered public accounting firm has included an explanatory paragraph relating to our ability to continue as a going concern in its report on our audited financial statements included in this prospectus. Our audited financial statements at December 31, 2019 and 2018 and for the years then ended were prepared assuming that we will continue as a going concern.

Primarily as a result of our losses and limited cash balances, the report of our independent registered public accounting firm included elsewhere in this prospectus contains an explanatory paragraph on our financial statements stating that our ability to continue as a going concern is highly contingent on our ability to raise capital for ongoing research and development and clinical trials as we expect to continue to incur losses for the foreseeable future. Such an opinion could materially limit our ability to raise additional funds through the issuance of new debt or equity securities or otherwise. There is no assurance that sufficient financing will be available when needed to allow us to continue as a going concern. The perception that we may not be able to continue as a going concern may also make it more difficult to operate our business due to concerns about our ability to meet our contractual obligations. Our ability to continue as a going concern is contingent upon, among other factors, the sale of the shares of our common stock in this offering or obtaining alternate financing. We cannot provide any assurance that we will be able to raise additional capital.

If we are unable to secure additional capital, we may be required to curtail our clinical and research and development initiatives and take additional measures to reduce costs in order to conserve our cash in amounts sufficient to sustain operations and meet our obligations. These measures could cause significant delays in our clinical and regulatory efforts, which is critical to the realization of our business plan. The accompanying financial statements do not include any adjustments that may be necessary should we be unable to continue as a going concern. It is not possible for us to predict at this time the potential success of our business. The revenue and income potential of our proposed business and operations are currently unknown. If we cannot continue as a viable entity, you may lose some or all of your investment.

Even if this offering is successful, we will need substantial additional funding, and if we are unable to raise capital when needed, we could be forced to delay, reduce or eliminate our drug development programs or commercialization efforts.

We anticipate that our expenses will increase substantially as we continue to develop and begin and continue clinical trials with respect to LP-184, LP-300 and our other drug candidates; seek to identify and develop additional drug candidates; acquire or in-license other drug candidates or technologies; seek regulatory and marketing approvals for our drug candidates that successfully complete clinical trials, if any; establish sales, marketing, distribution and other commercial infrastructure in the future to commercialize various drugs for which we may obtain marketing approval, if any; require the manufacture of larger quantities of drug candidates for clinical development and, potentially, commercialization; maintain, expand and protect our intellectual property portfolio; develop, maintain,

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and expand our RADR® platform; hire and retain additional personnel, such as clinical, quality control and scientific personnel; add operational, financial and management information systems and personnel, including personnel to support our drug development and help us comply with our obligations as a public company; and add equipment and physical infrastructure to support our research and development programs.

We plan to use the net proceeds of this offering primarily to fund our ongoing research and development efforts. We will be required to expend significant funds in order to advance the development of LP-184, LP-300 and our other drug candidates. In addition, while we may seek one or more collaborators for future development of our current drug candidates or any future drug candidates that we may develop for one or more indications, we may not be able to enter into a partnership or out-license for any of our drug candidates for such indications on suitable terms, on a timely basis or at all. In any event, the net proceeds of this offering and our existing cash and cash equivalents will not be sufficient to fund all of the efforts that we plan to undertake or to fund the completion of development of our drug candidates or our other preclinical studies. Accordingly, we will be required to obtain further funding through public or private equity offerings, debt financings, collaborations and licensing arrangements or other sources. We do not have any committed external source of funds. Further financing may not be available to us on acceptable terms, or at all. Our failure to raise capital as and when needed would have a negative impact on our financial condition and our ability to pursue our business strategy.

We believe that the net proceeds from this offering, together with our existing cash and cash equivalents as of March 31, 2020, and our anticipated expenditures and commitments for calendar year 2020, will enable us to fund our operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements for at least 12 months from the date of this prospectus. Our estimate as to how long we expect the net proceeds from this offering, together with our existing cash and cash equivalents, to be able to continue to fund our operations is based on assumptions that may prove to be wrong, and we could use our available capital resources sooner than we currently expect. Further, changing circumstances, some of which may be beyond our control, could cause us to consume capital significantly faster than we currently anticipate, and we may need to seek additional funds sooner than planned. Our future funding requirements, both short-term and long-term, will depend on many factors, including:

•        the scope, progress, timing, costs and results of preclinical studies and clinical trials of LP-184, LP-300 and our other drug candidates;

•        the costs associated with maintaining, expanding and updating our RADR® platform;

•        the costs, timing and outcome of seeking regulatory approvals;

•        the costs of our licensing or commercialization activities for any of our drug candidates that receive marketing approval to the extent such costs are not the responsibility of any future collaborators, including the costs and timing of establishing drug sales, marketing, distribution and manufacturing capabilities;

•        our headcount growth and associated costs as we expand our research and development as well as potentially establish a commercial infrastructure;

•        our ability to enter into and the terms and timing of any collaborations, licensing agreements or other arrangements;

•        revenue received from commercial sales, if any, of our current and future drug candidates;

•        the costs of preparing, filing and prosecuting patent applications, maintaining and protecting our intellectual property rights and defending against intellectual property related claims;

•        the number of future drug candidates that we pursue and their development requirements;

•        changes in regulatory policies or laws that may affect our operations;

•        changes in physician acceptance or medical society recommendations that may affect commercial efforts;

•        the costs of acquiring potential new drug candidates or technology;

•        the costs associated with purchasing data for our RADR® platform;

•        the costs associated with maintaining and expanding our cybersecurity systems; and

•        the costs of operating as a public company.

13

Risks Related to the Discovery and Development of Drug Candidates

We have limited experience in drug discovery and drug development and may not receive regulatory approval to market our drug candidates.

Prior to the acquisition of our drug candidates, we were not involved in and had no control over their preclinical and clinical development. In addition, we rely upon the parties from whom we have acquired our drug candidates from to have conducted such research and development in accordance with the applicable protocol, legal, regulatory and scientific standards, having accurately reported the results of all clinical trials conducted prior to our acquisition of the applicable drug candidate, and having correctly collected the data from these studies and trials. To the extent any of these has not occurred, our expected development time and costs may be increased, which could adversely affect our prospects for marketing approval of, and receiving any future revenue from, these drug candidates.

In the near term, we are dependent on our ability to advance the development of LP-184 and LP-300 and on the efforts of Oncology Venture to advance LP-100. If we are unable to initiate or complete the clinical development of, obtain marketing approval for or successfully commercialize LP-184 and LP-300 and our other drug candidates, either alone or with a collaborator, or if we experience significant delays in doing so, our business could be substantially harmed.

We currently do not have any drugs that have received regulatory approval and may never be able to develop marketable drug candidates. We are investing a significant portion of our efforts and financial resources in the advancement of LP-184, LP-300 and our other drug candidates and in the development of our RADR® platform. Our prospects are substantially dependent on our ability, or those of any future collaborator, to develop, obtain marketing approval for and successfully commercialize drug candidates in one or more disease indications.

The success of LP-184, LP-300 and our other drug candidates will depend on several factors, including the following:

•        following submission of an Investigational New Drug, or IND, by the FDA or any comparable foreign regulatory authority, receiving clearance for the conduct of clinical trials of drug candidates and proposed design of future clinical trials;

•        initiation, progress, timing, costs and results of clinical trials of our drug candidates and potential drug candidates;

•        establishment of a safety, tolerability and efficacy profile that is satisfactory to the FDA or any comparable foreign regulatory authority for marketing approval;

•        adequate ongoing availability of quality data sources for our RADR® platform and raw materials and drug product for clinical development and any commercial sales;

•        obtaining and maintaining patent, trade secret protection and regulatory exclusivity, both in the United States and relevant global markets;

•        the performance of our future collaborators, if any;

•        the extent of any required post-marketing approval commitments to applicable regulatory authorities;

•        establishment of supply arrangements with third-party raw materials suppliers and manufacturers;

•        establishment of arrangements with third-party manufacturers to obtain finished drug product that is appropriately packaged for sale;

•        protection of our rights in our intellectual property portfolio;

•        successful launch of commercial sales following any marketing approval;

•        a continued acceptable safety profile following any marketing approval;

•        commercial acceptance by patients, the medical community and third-party payors; and

•        our ability to compete with other therapies.

14

Many of these factors are beyond our control, including the results of clinical trials, the time required for the FDA or any comparable foreign regulatory authorities to review any regulatory submissions we may make, potential threats to our intellectual property rights and the manufacturing, marketing and sales efforts of any future collaborator. If we are unable to develop, receive marketing approval for and successfully commercialize LP-300 and LP-184 our other drug candidates, on our own or with any future collaborator or experience delays as a result of any of these factors or otherwise, our business could be substantially harmed. The regulatory approval processes of the FDA and comparable foreign authorities are lengthy, time consuming, expensive and inherently unpredictable, and if we are ultimately unable to obtain regulatory approval for our drug candidates, our business will be substantially harmed.

The time required to obtain approval by the FDA and comparable foreign authorities is unpredictable but can take many years following the commencement of clinical trials and depends upon numerous factors, including the substantial discretion of the regulatory authorities. The results of preclinical studies and early clinical trials of our drug candidates may not be predictive of the results of later-stage clinical trials. Drug candidates in later stages of clinical trials may fail to show the desired safety and efficacy traits despite having progressed through preclinical studies and initial clinical trials. It is not uncommon for companies in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries to suffer significant setbacks in advanced clinical trials due to nonclinical findings made while clinical studies were underway and safety or efficacy observations made in clinical studies, including previously unreported adverse events. Our future clinical trial results may not be successful, and notwithstanding any potential promising results in earlier studies, we cannot be certain that we will not face similar setbacks. The historical failure rate for drug candidates in our industry is high. In addition, approval policies, regulations, or the type and amount of clinical data necessary to gain approval may change during the course of a drug candidate’s clinical development and may vary among jurisdictions. We have not obtained final regulatory approval for any drug candidate and it is possible that none of our existing drug candidates or any drug candidates we may seek to develop in the future will ever obtain regulatory approval.

Our drug candidates could fail to receive regulatory clearance or marketing approval for many reasons, including the following:

•        the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may disagree with the design or implementation of our clinical trials, including, but not limited to, the use of genomic or biomarker signatures to identify patients that may respond to drug efficacy;

•        we may be unable to demonstrate to the satisfaction of the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities that a drug candidate is safe and effective for its proposed indication;

•        we may be unable to identify and recruit a sufficient number of patients with relevant genomic or biomarker signatures in order to conduct clinical trials on our drug candidates;

•        the results of clinical trials may not meet the level of statistical significance required by the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities for approval;

•        the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may disagree with our interpretation of data from preclinical studies or clinical trials;

•        the data collected from clinical trials of our drug candidates may not be sufficient to support the submission of a New Drug Application, or NDA, or other submission or to obtain regulatory approval in the United States or elsewhere;

•        the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may fail to approve the manufacturing processes or facilities of third-party manufacturers with which we contract for clinical and commercial supplies; and

•        the approval policies or regulations of the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may significantly change in a manner rendering our clinical data insufficient for approval.

We have not previously completed all clinical trials for any of our drug candidates. Consequently, we may not have the necessary capabilities, including adequate staffing, to successfully manage the execution and completion of any clinical trials we initiate in a way that leads to our obtaining marketing approval for our drug candidates in a timely manner, or at all. This lengthy approval process as well as the unpredictability of future clinical trial results may result in our failing to obtain regulatory approval to market our drug candidates, which would significantly harm our business, results of operations and prospects.

15

In addition, even if we were to obtain approval, regulatory authorities may approve any of our drug candidates for fewer or more limited indications than we request, may not approve the price we intend to charge for our drugs, may grant approval contingent on the performance of costly post-marketing clinical trials, may approve a drug candidate with a label that does not include the labeling claims necessary or desirable for the successful commercialization of that drug candidate or may restrict its distribution. Any of the foregoing restrictions or requirements could materially harm the commercial prospects for our drug candidates.

We have not previously submitted a new drug application (an “NDA”) to the FDA or similar drug approval filings to comparable foreign authorities, for any drug candidate, and we cannot be certain that any of our drug candidates will be successful in clinical trials or receive regulatory approval. Further, our drug candidates may not receive regulatory approval even if they are successful in clinical trials. If we do not receive regulatory approvals for our drug candidates, we may not be able to continue our operations. Even if we successfully obtain regulatory approvals to market one or more of our drug candidates, our revenues will be dependent, in part, upon the size of the markets in the territories for which we gain regulatory approval and have commercial rights. If the markets for patients that we are targeting for our drug candidates are not as significant as we estimate, or if the price we charge for our drug candidate is too high, we may not generate significant revenues from sales of such drugs, if approved.

We plan to seek regulatory approval to commercialize our drug candidates both in the United States and the European Union and in additional foreign countries. While the scope of regulatory approval is similar in other countries, to obtain separate regulatory approval in many other countries we must comply with numerous and varying regulatory requirements of such countries regarding safety and efficacy and governing, among other things, clinical trials and possible limitations placed upon commercial sales, pricing and distribution of our drug candidates, and we cannot predict success in these jurisdictions.

Our business strategy to rescue previously failed drug candidates may not be successful, and important issues relating to safety and efficacy remain to be resolved for all of our drug candidates. Our strategy also involves risks and uncertainties that differ from other biotechnology companies that focus solely on new drug candidates that do not have a history of failed clinical trials.

Our drug candidate portfolio includes small molecules that others have tried, but failed, to develop into an approved commercialized drug. Our strategy to rescue previously failed drug candidates may not be successful, and the use of the term “drug rescue,” “rescuing,” or words of similar meaning in this prospectus should not be construed to mean that our RADR® platform has resolved all issues of safety and/or efficacy for any of our drug candidates. Issues of safety and efficacy for any drug candidate may only be determined by the U.S. FDA or other applicable regulatory authorities in jurisdictions outside the United States.

Our business strategy includes a focus on leveraging A.I. to streamline the drug development process and to identify patients that will benefit from drug candidates that other biotechnology or pharmaceutical companies have abandoned or shelved after initiating clinical trials under an IND application filed with the FDA, including candidates that have failed to achieve statistical significance on the original endpoints established in the clinical trials. We use our RADR® platform to assess drug candidates together with big data sources of information to both target and evaluate sub-populations and identify new therapeutic indices and gene signatures that will potentially correlate with drug efficacy and patient response to treatment. While we have not yet successfully received regulatory or marketing approval for any of our drug candidates, and while we believe that our approach has the potential to reduce the cost and time of drug development through the identification and selection of patient populations more likely to respond to therapy, our strategy involves risks and uncertainties that differ from other biotechnology companies that focus solely on new drug candidates that do not have a history of failed clinical development. These risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, the following:

•        The remaining term of the initial patents filed with respect to a rescued and repositioned drug candidate may be significantly less than the patent term for a newly discovered drug candidate;

•        Potential out-licensees, alliance partners and collaborators may view a rescued and repositioned drug candidate with more skepticism because of its history of failed clinical trials, thereby requiring a higher level of additional data and further explanations of mechanisms of action in order to overcome this skepticism and obtain commercially reasonable terms for future development or collaboration;

16

•        Key personnel and institutional knowledge relating to a rescued and repositioned drug candidate may no longer be available for us;

•        The current standard of care in the targeted therapeutic indication for the rescued and repositioned drug candidate may be different than the standard of care that existed during the candidate’s last clinical trial, which will require more time and resources from us to reassess and redesign the regulatory development path for the rescued and repositioned drug candidate; and

•        The rescued and repositioned drug candidate may be perceived to be in an “older” therapeutic focus area of oncology, thereby generating less enthusiasm and support compared to therapeutic focus areas of oncology that may be perceived as more recent.

We are dependent on Oncology Venture for the development of LP-100.

We, with the consent of our licensor for LP-100, AF Chemicals, have entered into an agreement with Oncology Venture in which we have granted an exclusive, royalty-bearing license, with the right to sublicense, to develop LP-100. Oncology Venture will be solely responsible for the development of LP-100, including development of a comprehensive plan for a clinical trial program, but has the right to assign all or part of the agreement to a third-party program acquirer. Under the agreement, we and AF Chemicals, are entitled to receive certain specified milestone payments from Oncology Venture subject to an overall aggregate maximum payment of $21 million U.S. dollars ($21,000,000) with certain exceptions. In addition to milestone payments, we are also entitled to receive royalty payments based on incremental levels of annual sales of LP-100 products by Oncology Venture or any third party program acquirer. As a result of the drug license and development agreement with Oncology Venture, we are completely dependent on Oncology Venture for the development of LP-100.

We may depend on enrollment of patients with specific genomic or biomarker signatures in our clinical trials in order for us to continue development of our drug candidates. If we are unable to enroll patients with specific genomic or biomarker signatures in our clinical trials, our research, development and commercialization efforts could be adversely affected.

The timely completion of clinical trials in accordance with their protocols depends, among other things, on our ability to enroll a sufficient number of patients with genomic or biomarker signatures we have identified and who remain in the study until its conclusion. We may experience difficulties in patient enrollment in our clinical trials for a variety of reasons. Patient enrollment is affected by many factors including the size and nature of the patient population with the specific genomic or biomarker signature we have identified, the proximity of patients to clinical sites, the eligibility criteria for the trial, the design of the clinical trial, the size of the patient population required for analysis of the trial’s primary endpoints, the proximity of patients to study sites, our ability to recruit clinical trial investigators with the appropriate competencies and experience, our ability to obtain and maintain patient consents, the risk that patients enrolled in clinical trials will drop out of the trials before completion, and competing clinical trials and clinicians’ and patients’ perceptions as to the potential advantages of the drug being studied in relation to other available therapies, including any new drugs that may be approved for the indications we are investigating. We will compete with other pharmaceutical companies for clinical sites, physicians and the limited number of patients who fulfill the stringent requirements for participation in oncology clinical trials. Also, due to the confidential nature of clinical trials, we do not know how many of the eligible patients may be enrolled in competing studies and who are consequently not available to us for our clinical trials. Our clinical trials may be delayed or terminated due to the inability to enroll enough patients. The delay or inability to meet planned patient enrollment may result in increased costs and delay or termination of our trials, which could have a harmful effect on our ability to develop drugs.

Delays in clinical testing could result in increased costs to us and delay our ability to generate revenue.

Although we are planning for certain clinical trials relating to LP-300 and LP-184 and our other drug candidates, there can be no assurance that the FDA will accept our proposed trial designs. We may experience delays in our clinical trials and we do not know whether planned clinical trials will begin on time, need to be redesigned, enroll patients on time or be completed on schedule, if at all. Clinical trials can be delayed for a variety of reasons, including delays related to:

•        obtaining regulatory clearance to commence a trial;

•        reaching agreement on acceptable terms with prospective contract research organizations, or CROs, and clinical trial sites, the terms of which can be subject to extensive negotiation and may vary significantly among different CROs and trial sites;

17

•        obtaining institutional review board, or IRB, approval at each site;

•        recruiting suitable patients to participate in a trial;

•        identifying clinical sites with adequate infrastructure (including data collection) to conduct the trial;

•        clinical sites deviating from trial protocol or dropping out of a trial;

•        addressing patient safety concerns that arise during the course of a trial;

•        having patients complete a trial or return for post-treatment follow-up;

•        adding a sufficient number of clinical trial sites; or

•        manufacturing sufficient quantities and quality of a drug candidate for use in clinical trials.

We may also experience numerous unforeseen events during, or as a result of, clinical trials that could delay or prevent our ability to receive marketing approval or commercialize our drug candidates, including:

•        we may receive feedback from regulatory authorities that requires us to modify the design of our clinical trials;

•        we may not have the ability to test patients for our clinical trials that require a specific genomic or biomarker signature in order to qualify for enrollment;

•        clinical trials of our drug candidates may produce negative or inconclusive results, and we may decide, or regulators may require us, to conduct additional clinical trials or abandon drug development programs;

•        the number of patients required for clinical trials of our drug candidates may be larger than we anticipate, enrollment in these clinical trials may be slower than we anticipate or participants may drop out of these clinical trials at a higher rate than we anticipate;

•        our third-party contractors may fail to comply with regulatory requirements or meet their contractual obligations to us in a timely manner, or at all;

•        the cost of clinical trials of our drug candidates may be greater than we anticipate;

•        the supply or quality of our drug candidates or other materials necessary to conduct clinical trials of our drug candidates may be insufficient or inadequate;

•        regulators may revise the requirements for approving our drug candidates, or such requirements may not be as we anticipate; and

•        any future collaborators that conduct clinical trials may face any of the above issues, and may conduct clinical trials in ways they view as advantageous to themselves but that are suboptimal for us.

If we are required to conduct additional clinical trials or other testing of our drug candidates beyond those that we currently contemplate, if we are unable to successfully complete clinical trials of our drug candidates or other testing, if the results of these trials or tests are not positive or are only modestly positive or if there are safety concerns, we may:

•        incur unplanned costs;

•        be delayed in obtaining marketing approval for our drug candidates or not obtain marketing approval at all;

•        obtain marketing approval in some countries and not in others;

•        obtain marketing approval for indications or patient populations that are not as broad as intended or desired;

•        obtain marketing approval with labeling that includes significant use or distribution restrictions or safety warnings, including boxed warnings;

•        be subject to additional post-marketing testing requirements; or

•        have the drug removed from the market after obtaining marketing approval.

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Furthermore, we intend to rely on CROs, cancer research centers and clinical trial sites to ensure the proper and timely conduct of our clinical trials and we intend to have agreements governing their committed activities. They may not perform as required or we may face competition from other clinical trials being conducted by other pharmaceutical companies.

We could encounter delays if a clinical trial is suspended or terminated by us, by the Institutional Review Board or IRB of the institutions in which such trials are being conducted, by the Data Safety Monitoring Board, or DSMB, for such trial or by the FDA or other regulatory authorities. Such authorities may impose such a suspension or termination due to a number of factors, including failure to conduct the clinical trial in accordance with regulatory requirements or our clinical protocols, inspection of the clinical trial operations or trial site by the FDA or other regulatory authorities resulting in the imposition of a clinical hold, unforeseen safety issues or adverse side effects, failure to demonstrate a benefit from using a drug, changes in governmental regulations or administrative actions or lack of adequate funding to continue the clinical trial.

Further, conducting clinical trials in foreign countries, as we may do for our current and future drug candidates, presents additional risks that may delay completion of our clinical trials. These risks include the failure of enrolled patients in foreign countries to adhere to clinical protocol as a result of differences in healthcare services or cultural customs, managing additional administrative burdens associated with foreign regulatory schemes, as well as political and economic risks relevant to such foreign countries.

If we experience delays in the completion of, or termination of, any clinical trial of our drug candidates, the commercial prospects of our drug candidates will be harmed, and our ability to generate revenues from any of these drug candidates will be delayed. In addition, any delays in completing our clinical trials will increase our costs, slow down our drug candidate development and approval process and jeopardize our ability to commence drug sales and generate revenues. Any of these occurrences may harm our business, financial condition and prospects significantly. In addition, many of the factors that cause, or lead to, a delay in the commencement or completion of clinical trials may also ultimately lead to the denial of regulatory approval of our drug candidates.

Our drug candidates may cause undesirable side effects or have other properties that could delay or prevent their regulatory approval, limit the commercial profile of an approved label, or result in significant negative consequences following marketing approval, if any.

Undesirable side effects caused by our drug candidates could cause us or regulatory authorities to interrupt, delay or halt clinical trials and could result in a more restrictive label or the delay or denial of regulatory approval by the FDA or other comparable foreign authorities. The clinical evaluation of LP-184 and our other drug candidates in patients is still in the early stages and it is possible that there may be side effects associated with their use. In such an event, we, the FDA, the IRBs at the institutions in which our studies are conducted, or the DSMB could suspend or terminate our clinical trials or the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities could order us to cease clinical trials or deny approval of our drug candidates for any or all targeted indications. Treatment-related side effects could also affect patient recruitment or the ability of enrolled patients to complete the clinical trial or result in potential product liability claims. In addition, these side effects may not be appropriately recognized or managed by the treating medical staff. We expect to have to train medical personnel using our drug candidates to understand the side effect profiles for our clinical trials and upon any commercialization of any of our drug candidates. Inadequate training in recognizing or managing the potential side effects of our drug candidates could result in patient injury or death. Any of these occurrences may harm our business, financial condition and prospects significantly.

Additionally, if one or more of our drug candidates receives marketing approval, and we or others later identify undesirable side effects caused by such drugs, a number of potentially significant negative consequences could result, including:

•        regulatory authorities may withdraw approvals of such drugs;

•        we may be required to recall a drug or change the way such a drug is administered to patients;

•        additional restrictions may be imposed on the marketing or distribution of the particular drug or the manufacturing processes for the drug or any component thereof;

•        regulatory authorities may require additional warnings on the label, such as a “black box” warning or contraindication;

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•        we may be required to implement Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies, or REMS, or create a medication guide outlining the risks of such side effects for distribution to patients;

•        we could be sued and held liable for harm caused to patients;

•        our drug may become less competitive; and

•        our reputation may suffer.

Any of these events could prevent us from achieving or maintaining market acceptance of the particular drug candidate or for particular indications of a drug candidate, if approved, and could significantly harm our business, results of operations and prospects. Our approach to the discovery and development of drug candidates based on our RADR® platform is innovative and in the early stages of development; and we do not know whether we will be able to develop any drugs of commercial value.

We are leveraging our RADR® platform in an attempt to create a pipeline of drug candidates using biomarker identification and patient stratification for the development of oncology drugs. While we believe that applying our RADR® platform to drugs that have failed, been abandoned or otherwise failed to meet clinical endpoints and then developing a precision oncology approach that identifies the mechanism of action, potential combination drug usage and potentially responsive patient population is a powerful strategy, our approach is both innovative and in the early stages of development. Because our approach is both innovative and in the early stages of development, the cost and time needed to develop our drug candidates is difficult to predict, and our efforts may not result in the successful discovery and development of commercially viable medicines. We may also be incorrect about the effects of our drug candidates on the diseases of our defined patient populations, which may limit the utility of our approach or the perception of the utility of our approach. Furthermore, our estimates of our defined patient populations available for study and treatment may be lower than expected, which could adversely affect our ability to conduct clinical trials and may also adversely affect the size of any market for medicines we may successfully commercialize. Our approach may not result in time savings, higher success rates or reduced costs as we expect it to, and if not, we may not attract collaborators or develop new drugs as quickly or cost effectively as expected and therefore we may not be able to commercialize our approach as originally expected.

Our RADR® platform may fail to help us discover and develop additional potential drug candidates.

Any drug discovery or drug development that we are conducting using our RADR® platform may not be successful in identifying compounds that have commercial value or therapeutic utility. Our RADR® platform may initially show promise in identifying potential drug candidates, yet fail to yield viable drug candidates for clinical development or commercialization for a number of reasons, including:

•        research programs to identify new drug candidates will require substantial technical, financial and human resources, and we may be unsuccessful in our efforts to identify new drug candidates. If we are unable to identify suitable additional compounds for preclinical and clinical development, our ability to develop drug candidates and obtain product revenues in future periods could be compromised, which could result in significant harm to our financial position and adversely impact our stock price;

•        compounds identified through our RADR® platform may not demonstrate efficacy, safety or tolerability;

•        the data available for our RADR® platform that seeks to correlate genomic or biomarker signatures with certain cancers may be influenced by the race of the patient which may limit the efficacy of our drug candidates;

•        potential drug candidates may, on further study, be shown to have harmful side effects or other characteristics that indicate that they are unlikely to receive marketing approval and achieve market acceptance;

•        competitors may develop alternative therapies that render our potential drug candidates non-competitive or less attractive; or

•        a potential drug candidate may not be capable of being produced at an acceptable cost.

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Any failure by us to comply with existing regulations could harm our reputation and operating results.

We will be subject to extensive regulation by U.S. federal and state and foreign governments in each of the markets where we intend to sell LP-300 and LP-184 if and after they are approved. For example, we will have to adhere to all regulatory requirements including the FDA’s current GCPs, Good Laboratory Practice, or GLP, and GMP requirements. If we fail to comply with applicable regulations, including FDA pre-or post- approval cGMP requirements, then the FDA or other foreign regulatory authorities could sanction us. Even if a drug is FDA-approved, regulatory authorities may impose significant restrictions on a drug’s indicated uses or marketing or impose ongoing requirements for potentially costly post-marketing studies.

Any action against us for violation of these laws, even if we successfully defend against it, could cause us to incur significant legal expenses, divert our management’s attention from the operation of our business and damage our reputation. We will need to expend significant resources on compliance efforts and such expenses are unpredictable and might adversely affect our results.

The FDA’s and other regulatory authorities’ policies may change and additional government regulations may be enacted that could prevent, limit or delay regulatory approval of our drug candidates. For example, in December 2016, the 21st Century Cures Act, or Cures Act, was signed into law. The Cures Act, among other things, is intended to modernize the regulation of drugs and spur innovation, but its ultimate implementation is unclear. If we are slow or unable to adapt to changes in existing requirements or the adoption of new requirements or policies, or if we are not able to maintain regulatory compliance, we may lose any marketing approval that we may have obtained and we may not achieve or sustain profitability, which would adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

In addition, we cannot predict the likelihood, nature or extent of government regulation that may arise from future legislation or administrative or executive action, either in the United States or abroad. For example, certain policies of the Trump administration may impact our business and industry. Namely, the Trump administration has taken several executive actions, including the issuance of a number of Executive Orders, that could impose significant burdens on, or otherwise materially delay, FDA’s ability to engage in routine oversight activities such as implementing statutes through rulemaking, issuance of guidance, and review and approval of marketing applications. Notably, on January 30, 2017, President Trump issued an Executive Order directing all executive agencies, including the FDA, which for each notice of proposed rulemaking or final regulation to be issued in fiscal year 2017, the agency shall identify at least two existing regulations to be repealed, unless prohibited by law. These requirements are referred to as the “two-for-one” provisions. This Executive Order includes a budget neutrality provision that requires the total incremental cost of all new regulations in the 2017 fiscal year, including repealed regulations, to be no greater than zero, except in limited circumstances. For fiscal years 2018 and beyond, the Executive Order requires agencies to identify regulations to offset any incremental cost of a new regulation. In interim guidance issued by the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs within OMB on February 2, 2017, the administration indicates that the “two-for-one” provisions may apply not only to agency regulations, but also to significant agency guidance documents, and on September 8, 2017, the FDA published notices in the Federal Register soliciting broad public comment to identify regulations that could be modified in compliance with these Executive Orders. It is difficult to predict how these requirements will be implemented, and the extent to which they will impact the FDA’s ability to exercise its regulatory authority. If these executive actions impose restrictions on FDA’s ability to engage in oversight and implementation activities in the normal course, our business may be negatively impacted. In addition, if we are slow or unable to adapt to changes in existing requirements or the adoption of new requirements or policies, or if we are not able to maintain regulatory compliance, we may lose any marketing approval that we may have obtained and we may not achieve or sustain profitability.

We may be subject to extensive regulations outside the United States and may not obtain marketing approvals for drugs in Europe and other jurisdictions.

In addition to regulations in the United States, should we or our collaborators pursue marketing approvals for LP-184 and LP-300 and our other drug candidates internationally, we and our collaborators will be subject to a variety of regulations in other jurisdictions governing, among other things, clinical trials and any commercial sales and distribution of our drugs. Whether or not we, or our collaborators, obtain applicable FDA regulatory clearance and marketing approval for a drug, we must obtain the requisite approvals from regulatory authorities in foreign countries prior to the commencement of clinical trials or marketing of the drug in those countries. The requirements and process governing the conduct of clinical trials, drug licensing, pricing and reimbursement vary from country to country.

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We expect to pursue marketing approvals for LP-184 and LP-300 and our other drug candidates in Europe and other jurisdictions outside the United States with collaborative partners. The time and process required to obtain regulatory approvals and reimbursement in Europe and other jurisdictions may be different from those in the United States regulatory and approval in one jurisdiction does not ensure approvals in any other jurisdiction; however, negative regulatory decisions in any jurisdiction may have a negative impact on the regulatory process in other jurisdictions.

Additionally, on June 23, 2016, the electorate in the United Kingdom voted in favor of leaving the European Union, commonly referred to as Brexit. On March 29, 2017, the country formally notified the European Union of its intention to withdraw pursuant to Article 50 of the Lisbon Treaty triggering a two-year period for the United Kingdom to formally leave the European Union. Following a series of extensions to leave the European Union, on January 31, 2020, the United Kingdom officially left the European Union commencing a transition period in which the United Kingdom is required to continue to follow all European Union rules and trading relationships, but will no longer be represented in the European Parliament. During the transition period, the United Kingdom and the European Union will engage in negotiations for new trade agreements and, among other things, the regulation of their pharmaceutical industries. Since a significant proportion of the regulatory framework in the United Kingdom is derived from European Union directives and regulations, the transition period could materially impact the regulatory regime with respect to the approval of our drug candidates in the United Kingdom or the European Union. Any delay in obtaining, or an inability to obtain, any marketing approvals, as a result of Brexit or otherwise, would prevent us from commercializing our drug candidates in the United Kingdom and/or the European Union and restrict our ability to generate revenue and achieve and sustain profitability. If any of these outcomes occur, we may be forced to restrict or delay efforts to seek regulatory approval in the United Kingdom and/or European Union for our drug candidates, which could materially and adversely affect our business.

If we are found in violation of federal or state “fraud and abuse” laws, we may be required to pay a penalty and/or be suspended from participation in federal or state health care programs, which may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

In the United States, we will be subject to various federal and state health care “fraud and abuse” laws, including anti-kickback laws, false claims laws and other laws intended to reduce fraud and abuse in federal and state health care programs, which could affect us, particularly upon successful commercialization of our drugs in the United States. The federal Anti-Kickback Statute makes it illegal for any person, including a prescription drug manufacturer (or a party acting on its behalf), to knowingly and willfully solicit, receive, offer or pay any remuneration that is intended to induce the referral of business, including the purchase, order or prescription of a particular drug for which payment may be made under a federal health care program, such as Medicare or Medicaid. Under federal government regulations, some arrangements, known as safe harbors, are deemed not to violate the federal Anti-Kickback Statute. Although we seek to structure our business arrangements in compliance with all applicable requirements, these laws are broadly written, and it is often difficult to determine precisely how the law will be applied in specific circumstances. Accordingly, it is possible that our practices may be challenged under the federal Anti-Kickback Statute. False claims laws prohibit anyone from knowingly and willfully presenting or causing to be presented for payment to third-party payers, including government payers, claims for reimbursed drugs or services that are false or fraudulent, claims for items or services that were not provided as claimed, or claims for medically unnecessary items or services. Cases have been brought under false claims laws alleging that off-label promotion of pharmaceutical drugs or the provision of kickbacks has resulted in the submission of false claims to governmental health care programs. Under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, we are prohibited from knowingly and willfully executing a scheme to defraud any health care benefit program, including private payers, or knowingly and willfully falsifying, concealing or covering up a material fact or making any materially false, fictitious or fraudulent statement in connection with the delivery of or payment for health care benefits, items or services. Violations of fraud and abuse laws may be punishable by criminal and/or civil sanctions, including fines and/or exclusion or suspension from federal and state health care programs such as Medicare and Medicaid and debarment from contracting with the U.S. government. In addition, private individuals have the ability to bring actions on behalf of the government under the federal False Claims Act as well as under the false claims laws of several states.

Many states have adopted laws similar to the federal anti-kickback statute, some of which apply to the referral of patients for health care services reimbursed by any source, not just governmental payers. Neither the government nor the courts have provided definitive guidance on the application of fraud and abuse laws to our business. Law enforcement authorities are increasingly focused on enforcing these laws, and if we are found in violation of one of these laws, we could be required to pay a penalty and could be suspended or excluded from participation in federal or state health care programs, and our business, results of operations and financial condition may be adversely affected. We may be unable to maintain sufficient clinical trial liability insurance.

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Our inability to obtain and retain sufficient clinical trial liability insurance at an acceptable cost to protect against potential liability claims could prevent or inhibit our ability to conduct clinical trials for drug candidates we develop.

We currently do not have clinical trial liability insurance and would need to secure coverage before commencing patient enrollment for our clinical trials in the United States or other jurisdictions. Any claim that may be brought against us could result in a court judgment or settlement in an amount that is not covered, in whole or in part, by our insurance or that is in excess of the limits of our insurance coverage. We expect we will supplement our clinical trial coverage with product liability coverage in connection with the commercial launch of LP-184 and LP-300 or other drug candidates we develop in the future; however, we may be unable to obtain such increased coverage on acceptable terms or at all. If we are found liable in a clinical trial lawsuit or a product liability lawsuit in the future, we will have to pay any amounts awarded by a court or negotiated in a settlement that exceed our coverage limitations or that are not covered by our insurance, and we may not have, or be able to obtain, sufficient capital to pay such amounts.

The FDA and other regulatory agencies actively enforce the laws and regulations prohibiting the promotion of off-label uses.

If we are found to have improperly promoted off-label uses of our drugs or drug candidates, if approved, we may become subject to significant liability. Such enforcement has become more common in the industry. The FDA and other regulatory agencies strictly regulate the promotional claims that may be made about prescription drug products, such as our drug candidates, if approved. In particular, a drug may not be promoted for uses that are not approved by the FDA or such other regulatory agencies as reflected in the drug’s approved labeling. If we receive marketing approval for our drug candidates for our proposed indications, physicians may nevertheless use our drugs for their patients in a manner that is inconsistent with the approved label, if the physicians personally believe in their professional medical judgment it could be used in such manner. However, if we are found to have promoted our drugs for any off-label uses, the federal government could levy civil, criminal and/or administrative penalties, and seek fines against us. The FDA or other regulatory authorities could also request that we enter into a consent decree or a corporate integrity agreement, or seek a permanent injunction against us under which specified promotional conduct is monitored, changed or curtailed. If we cannot successfully manage the promotion of our drug candidates, if approved, we could become subject to significant liability, which would materially adversely affect our business and financial condition.

If a drug is intended for the treatment of a serious condition and nonclinical or clinical data demonstrate the potential to address unmet medical need for this condition, a drug sponsor may apply for FDA Fast Track designation. If we seek Fast Track designation for a drug candidate, we may not receive it from the FDA. However, even if we receive Fast Track designation, Fast Track designation does not ensure that we will receive marketing approval or that approval will be granted within any particular timeframe. We may not experience a faster development or regulatory review or approval process with Fast Track designation compared to conventional FDA procedures. In addition, the FDA may withdraw Fast Track designation if it believes that the designation is no longer supported by data from our clinical development program. Fast Track designation alone does not guarantee qualification for the FDA’s priority review procedures.

Risks Related to Commercialization of Our Drug Candidates

Even if we are successful in completing all preclinical studies and clinical trials, we may not be successful in commercializing one or more of our drug candidates.

Even if we complete the necessary preclinical studies and clinical trials, the marketing approval process is expensive, time-consuming and uncertain and may prevent us from obtaining approvals for the commercialization of some or all of our drug candidates. If we are not able to obtain, or if there are delays in obtaining, required regulatory approvals, we will not be able to commercialize our drug candidates, and our ability to generate revenue will be materially impaired.

Our drug candidates and the activities associated with their development and commercialization, including their design, testing, manufacture, safety, efficacy, recordkeeping, labeling, storage, approval, advertising, promotion, sale and distribution, export and import are subject to comprehensive regulation by the FDA and other regulatory agencies in the United States and by the EMA and similar regulatory authorities outside of the United States. Failure to obtain marketing approval for a drug candidate will prevent us from commercializing the drug candidate. We have not submitted an application for or received marketing approval for any of our drug candidates in the United States or in any other jurisdiction.

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We have only limited experience in filing and supporting the applications necessary to gain marketing approvals and expect to rely on third-party clinical research organizations or other third-party consultants or vendors to assist us in this process. Securing marketing approval requires the submission of extensive preclinical and clinical data and supporting information to regulatory authorities for each therapeutic indication to establish the drug candidate’s safety and efficacy. Securing marketing approval also requires the submission of information about the drug manufacturing process to, and inspection of manufacturing facilities by, the regulatory authorities. Our drug candidates may not be effective, may be only moderately effective or may prove to have undesirable or unintended side effects, toxicities or other characteristics that may preclude our obtaining marketing approval or prevent or limit commercial use. New cancer drugs frequently are indicated only for patient populations that have not responded to an existing therapy or have relapsed. If any of our drug candidates receives marketing approval, the accompanying label may limit the approved use of our drug in this way, which could limit sales of the drug.

The process of obtaining marketing approvals, both in the United States and abroad, is expensive, may take many years, if approval is obtained at all, and can vary substantially based upon a variety of factors, including the type, complexity and novelty of the drug candidates involved. Changes in marketing approval policies during the development period, changes in or the enactment of additional statutes or regulations, or changes in regulatory review for each submitted drug application, may cause delays in the approval or rejection of an application. Regulatory authorities have substantial discretion in the approval process and may refuse to accept any application or may decide that our data is insufficient for approval and require additional preclinical, clinical or other studies. In addition, varying interpretations of the data obtained from preclinical studies and clinical trials could delay, limit or prevent marketing approval of a drug candidate. Any marketing approval we ultimately obtain may be limited or subject to restrictions or post-approval commitments that render the approved drug not commercially viable.

If our drugs do not gain market acceptance, our business will suffer because we might not be able to fund future operations.

A number of factors may affect the market acceptance of our drugs or any other products we develop or acquire, including, among others:

•        the price of our drugs relative to other products for the same or similar treatments;

•        the perception by patients, physicians and other members of the health care community of the effectiveness and safety of our drugs for their indicated applications and treatments;

•        our ability to fund our sales and marketing efforts; and

•        the effectiveness of our sales and marketing efforts.

If our drugs do not gain market acceptance, we may not be able to fund future operations, including developing, testing and obtaining regulatory approval for new drug candidates and expanding our sales and marketing efforts for our approved drugs, which would cause our business to suffer.

We may rely on orphan drug status to commercialize some of our drug candidates, and even if orphan drug status is approved, such approval may not confer marketing exclusivity or other commercial advantages or expected commercial benefits.

We may rely on orphan drug exclusivity for our drug candidates. In the United States, orphan drug designation entitles a party to financial incentives such as opportunities for grant funding towards clinical trial costs, tax advantages and user-fee waivers. In addition, if a drug that has orphan drug designation subsequently receives the first FDA marketing approval for the disease for which it has such designation, the drug is entitled to orphan drug exclusivity. Orphan drug exclusivity in the United States provides that the FDA may not approve any other applications, including a full NDA, to market the same drug for the same indication for seven years, and except in limited circumstances the applicable exclusivity period is ten years in Europe. The European exclusivity period can be reduced to six years if a drug no longer meets the criteria for orphan drug designation or if the drug is sufficiently profitable so that market exclusivity is no longer justified.

Even if we, or any future collaborators, obtain orphan drug designation for a drug candidate, we, or they, may not be able to obtain or maintain orphan drug exclusivity for that drug candidate. We may not be the first to obtain marketing approval of any drug candidate for which we have obtained orphan drug designation for the

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orphan-designated indication due to the uncertainties associated with developing pharmaceutical products, and it is possible that another company also holding orphan drug designation for the same drug candidate will receive marketing approval for the same indication before we do. If that were to happen, our applications for that indication may not be approved until the competing company’s period of exclusivity expires. In addition, exclusive marketing rights in the United States may be limited if we seek approval for an indication broader than the orphan-designated indication or may be lost if the FDA later determines that the request for designation was materially defective or if we are unable to assure sufficient quantities of the drug to meet the needs of patients with the rare disease or condition. Further, even if we, or any future collaborators, obtain orphan drug exclusivity for a drug, that exclusivity may not effectively protect the drug from competition because different drugs with different active moieties may be approved for the same condition. Even after an orphan drug is approved, the FDA can subsequently approve the same drug with the same active moiety for the same condition if the FDA concludes that the later drug is clinically superior in that it is shown to be safer, more effective or makes a major contribution to patient care or the manufacturer of the drug with orphan exclusivity is unable to maintain sufficient drug quantity. Orphan drug designation neither shortens the development time or regulatory review time of a drug nor gives the drug any advantage in the regulatory review or approval process, nor does it prevent competitors from obtaining approval of the same drug candidate as ours for indications other than those in which we have been granted orphan drug designation.

On August 3, 2017, the U.S. Congress passed the FDA Reauthorization Act of 2017, or FDARA. FDARA, among other things, codified the FDA’s preexisting regulatory interpretation, to require that a drug sponsor demonstrate the clinical superiority of an orphan drug that is otherwise the same as a previously approved drug for the same rare disease in order to receive orphan drug exclusivity. The new legislation reverses prior precedent holding that the Orphan Drug Act unambiguously requires that the FDA recognize the orphan exclusivity period regardless of a showing of clinical superiority. The FDA may further reevaluate the Orphan Drug Act and its regulations and policies. We do not know if, when or how the FDA may change the orphan drug regulations and policies in the future, and it is uncertain how any changes might affect our business. Depending on what changes the FDA may make to its orphan drug regulations and policies, our business could be adversely impacted.

A Breakthrough Therapy designation by the FDA for our drug candidates may not lead to a faster development or regulatory review or approval process, and it does not increase the likelihood that our drug candidates will receive marketing approval.

We may seek a breakthrough therapy designation for some of our drug candidates. A breakthrough therapy is defined as a drug that is intended, alone or in combination with one or more other drugs, to treat a serious or life-threatening disease or condition, and preliminary clinical evidence indicates that the drug may demonstrate substantial improvement over existing therapies on one or more clinically significant endpoints, such as substantial treatment effects observed early in clinical development. For drugs and biologics that have been designated as breakthrough therapies, interaction and communication between the FDA and the sponsor of the trial can help to identify the most efficient path for clinical development while minimizing the number of patients placed in ineffective control regimens. Drugs designated as breakthrough therapies by the FDA are also eligible for accelerated approval.

Designation as a breakthrough therapy is within the discretion of the FDA. Accordingly, even if we believe one of our drug candidates meets the criteria for designation as a breakthrough therapy, the FDA may disagree and instead determine not to make such designation. Even if we receive Breakthrough Therapy designation, the receipt of such designation for a drug candidate may not result in a faster development process, review or approval compared to drugs considered for approval under conventional FDA procedures and does not assure ultimate approval by the FDA. In addition, even if one or more of our drug candidates qualify as breakthrough therapies, the FDA may later decide that the drugs no longer meet the conditions for qualification or decide that the time period for FDA review or approval will not be shortened.

A Fast Track designation by the FDA may not lead to a faster development or regulatory review or approval process.

We may seek Fast Track designation for some of our drug candidates. If a drug is intended for the treatment of a serious or life-threatening condition and the drug demonstrates the potential to address unmet medical needs for this condition, the drug sponsor may apply for FDA Fast Track designation. The FDA has broad discretion whether or not to grant this designation, so even if we believe a particular drug candidate is eligible for this designation, we cannot assure you that the FDA would decide to grant it. Even if we do receive Fast Track designation, we may not experience a faster development process, review or approval compared to conventional FDA procedures. The FDA may withdraw Fast Track designation if it believes that the designation is no longer supported by data from our clinical development program.

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Failure to obtain marketing approval in foreign jurisdictions would prevent our drug candidates from being marketed abroad.

In order to market and sell our drugs in the European Union and many other foreign jurisdictions, we or our potential third-party collaborators must obtain separate marketing approvals and comply with numerous and varying regulatory requirements. The approval procedure varies among countries and can involve additional testing. The time required to obtain approval may differ substantially from that required to obtain FDA marketing approval. The regulatory approval process outside of the United States generally includes all of the risks associated with obtaining FDA approval. In addition, in many countries outside of the United States, it is required that the drug be approved for reimbursement before the drug can be approved for sale in that country. We or our potential third-party collaborators may not obtain approvals from regulatory authorities outside of the United States on a timely basis, if at all. Approval by the FDA does not ensure approval by regulatory authorities in other countries or jurisdictions, and approval by one regulatory authority outside of the United States does not ensure approval by regulatory authorities in other countries or jurisdictions or by the FDA. However, a failure or delay in obtaining regulatory approval in one country may have a negative effect on the regulatory process in other countries. We may not be able to file for marketing approvals and may not receive necessary approvals to commercialize our drugs in any market.

If we are required by the FDA to obtain approval of a companion diagnostic in connection with approval of a therapeutic drug candidate, and we do not obtain or face delays in obtaining FDA approval of a diagnostic device, we will not be able to commercialize the drug candidate and our ability to generate revenue will be materially impaired.

According to FDA guidance, if the FDA determines that a companion diagnostic device is essential to the safe and effective use of a novel therapeutic drug or indication, the FDA generally will not approve the therapeutic drug or new therapeutic drug indication if the companion diagnostic is not also approved or cleared for that indication. Under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, or FDCA, companion diagnostics are regulated as medical devices, and the FDA has generally required companion diagnostics intended to select the patients who will respond to cancer treatment to obtain Premarket Approval, or a PMA, for the diagnostic. The PMA process, including the gathering of clinical and preclinical data and the submission to and review by the FDA, involves a rigorous premarket review during which the applicant must prepare and provide the FDA with reasonable assurance of the device’s safety and effectiveness and information about the device and its components regarding, among other things, device design, manufacturing and labeling. A PMA is not guaranteed and may take considerable time, and the FDA may ultimately respond to a PMA submission with a “not approvable” determination based on deficiencies in the application and require additional clinical trial or other data that may be expensive and time-consuming to generate and that can substantially delay approval. As a result, if we are required by the FDA to obtain approval of a companion diagnostic for a therapeutic drug candidate, and we do not obtain or there are delays in obtaining FDA approval of a diagnostic device, we may not be able to commercialize the drug candidate on a timely basis or at all and our ability to generate revenue will be materially impaired.

While it is possible that one or more of our drug candidates may require a companion diagnostic to select the patients who will likely respond to a cancer therapy involving one of our drug candidates that would require a PMA for the companion diagnostic as a condition to obtaining marketing approval from the FDA, it is too early in our drug candidates development to identify which drug candidate, if any, would require a PMA.

Any drug candidate that we obtain marketing approval for could be subject to post-marketing restrictions or withdrawal from the market and we may be subject to substantial penalties if we fail to comply with regulatory requirements or if we experience unanticipated problems with our drugs, when and if any of them are approved.

Any drug candidate for which we obtain marketing approval, along with the manufacturing processes, post-approval clinical data, labeling, advertising and promotional activities for such drug, will be subject to continual requirements of and review by the FDA and other regulatory authorities. These requirements include submissions of safety and other post-marketing information and reports, registration and listing requirements, cGMP requirements relating to manufacturing, quality control, quality assurance and corresponding maintenance of records and documents, requirements regarding the distribution of samples to physicians and recordkeeping. Even if marketing approval of a drug candidate is granted, the approval may be subject to limitations on the indicated uses for which the drug may

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be marketed or to the conditions of approval, including the requirement to implement a REMS. New cancer drugs frequently are indicated only for patient populations that have not responded to an existing therapy or have relapsed. If any of our drug candidates receives marketing approval, the accompanying label may limit the approved use of our drug in this way, which could limit sales of the drug.

The FDA may also impose requirements for costly post-marketing studies or clinical trials and surveillance to monitor the safety or efficacy of the drug, including the adoption and implementation of REMS. The FDA and other agencies, including the Department of Justice, or the DOJ, closely regulate and monitor the post-approval marketing and promotion of drugs to ensure they are marketed and distributed only for the approved indications and in accordance with the provisions of the approved labeling. The FDA and DOJ impose stringent restrictions on manufacturers’ communications regarding off-label use, and if we do not market our drugs for their approved indications, we may be subject to enforcement action for off-label marketing. Violations of the FDCA and other statutes, including the False Claims Act, relating to the promotion and advertising of prescription drugs may lead to investigations and enforcement actions alleging violations of federal and state healthcare fraud and abuse laws, as well as state consumer protection laws.

In addition, later discovery of previously unknown adverse events or other problems with our drugs, manufacturers or manufacturing processes, or failure to comply with regulatory requirements, may have various consequences, including:

•        restrictions on such drugs, manufacturers or manufacturing processes;

•        restrictions and warnings on the labeling or marketing of a drug;

•        restrictions on drug distribution or use;

•        requirements to conduct post-marketing studies or clinical trials;

•        warning letters or untitled letters;

•        withdrawal of the drugs from the market;

•        refusal to approve pending applications or supplements to approved applications that we submit;

•        recall of drugs;

•        fines, restitution or disgorgement of profits or revenues;

•        suspension or withdrawal of marketing approvals;

•        damage to relationships with any potential collaborators;

•        unfavorable press coverage and damage to our reputation;

•        refusal to permit the import or export of our drugs;

•        drug seizure;

•        injunctions or the imposition of civil or criminal penalties; or

•        litigation involving patients using our drugs.

Non-compliance with European Union requirements regarding safety monitoring or pharmacovigilance, and with requirements related to the development of drugs for the pediatric population, can also result in significant financial penalties. Similarly, failure to comply with the European Union’s requirements regarding the protection of personal information can also lead to significant penalties and sanctions.

In addition, manufacturers of approved drugs and those manufacturers’ facilities are required to comply with extensive FDA requirements, including ensuring that quality control and manufacturing procedures conform to cGMPs applicable to drug manufacturers or quality assurance standards applicable to medical device manufacturers, which include requirements relating to quality control and quality assurance as well as the corresponding maintenance of records and documentation and reporting requirements. We, any contract manufacturers we may engage in the

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future, our future collaborators and their contract manufacturers will also be subject to other regulatory requirements, including submissions of safety and other post-marketing information and reports, registration and listing requirements, requirements regarding the distribution of samples to clinicians, recordkeeping, and costly post-marketing studies or clinical trials and surveillance to monitor the safety or efficacy of the drug such as the requirement to implement a REMS.

We operate in a highly competitive and rapidly changing industry.

Biotechnological and pharmaceutical drug development is highly competitive and subject to rapid and significant technological advancements. Our success is highly dependent upon our ability to in-license, acquire, develop and obtain regulatory approval for new and innovative drugs on a cost-effective basis and to market them successfully. In doing so, we face and will continue to face intense competition from a variety of businesses, including large, fully integrated, well-established pharmaceutical companies who already possess a large share of the market, specialty pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical companies, academic institutions, government agencies and other private and public research institutions in the United States, the European Union and other jurisdictions.

Many of the companies against which we are competing or against which we may compete in the future have significantly greater financial resources and expertise in research and development, manufacturing, preclinical testing, conducting clinical trials, obtaining regulatory approvals and marketing approved drugs than we do. These third parties compete with us in recruiting and retaining qualified scientific and management personnel, establishing clinical trial sites and patient registration for clinical trials, as well as in acquiring technologies complementary to, or necessary for, our programs. Mergers and acquisitions in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries could result in even more resources being concentrated among a small number of our competitors.

Competition may further increase as a result of advances in the commercial applicability of technologies and greater availability of capital for investment in these industries. Our competitors may succeed in developing, acquiring or licensing, on an exclusive basis, drugs that are more effective or less costly than any drug candidate that we may develop.

Established pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies may invest heavily to accelerate discovery and development of novel compounds or to in-license novel compounds that could make our drug candidates less competitive. In addition, any new drug that competes with an approved drug must demonstrate compelling advantages in efficacy, convenience, tolerability and safety in order to overcome price competition and to be commercially successful. Accordingly, our competitors may succeed in obtaining patent protection, discovering, developing, receiving FDA approval for or commercializing drugs before we do, which would have an adverse impact on our business and results of operations.

The availability of our competitors’ drugs could limit the demand and the price we are able to charge for any drug candidate we commercialize, if any. The inability to compete with existing or subsequently introduced drugs would harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

If we are unable to develop satisfactory sales and marketing capabilities, we may not succeed in commercializing LP-184 and LP-300 or any other drug candidate.

We have no experience in marketing and selling drug products. We have not entered into arrangements for the sale and marketing of LP-184 and LP-300 or any other drug candidate. Typically, pharmaceutical companies would employ groups of sales representatives and associated sales and marketing staff numbering in the hundreds to thousands of individuals to call on this large number of physicians and hospitals. We may seek to collaborate with a third party to market our drugs or may seek to market and sell our drugs by ourselves. If we seek to collaborate with a third party, we cannot be sure that a collaborative agreement can be reached on terms acceptable to us. If we seek to market and sell our drugs directly, we will need to hire additional personnel skilled in marketing and sales. We cannot be sure that we will be able to acquire, or establish third party relationships to provide, any or all of these marketing and sales capabilities. The establishment of a direct sales force or a contract sales force or a combination direct and contract sales force to market our drugs will be expensive and time-consuming and could delay any drug launch. Further, we can give no assurances that we may be able to maintain a direct and/or contract sales force for any period of time or that our sales efforts will be sufficient to generate or to grow our revenues or that our sales efforts will ever lead to profits.

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Even if we obtain regulatory approvals to commercialize LP-184 and LP-300 or our other drug candidates, our drug candidates may not be accepted by physicians or the medical community in general.

There can be no assurance that LP-184 and LP-300 and our other drug candidates or any other drug candidate successfully developed by us, independently or with partners, will be accepted by physicians, hospitals and other health care facilities. LP-184 and LP-300 and any future drug candidates we develop will compete with a number of drugs manufactured and marketed by major pharmaceutical and biotech companies. The degree of market acceptance of any drugs we develop depends on a number of factors, including:

•        our demonstration of the clinical efficacy and safety of LP-184 and LP-300 and our other drug candidates;

•        timing of market approval and commercial launch of LP-184 and LP-300 and our other drug candidates;

•        the clinical indication(s) for which LP-184 and LP-300 and our other drug candidates are approved;

•        drug label and package insert requirements;

•        advantages and disadvantages of our drug candidates compared to existing

•        continued interest in and growth of the market for anticancer or anti-agitation drugs;

•        strength of sales, marketing, and distribution support;

•        drug pricing in absolute terms and relative to alternative treatments;

•        future changes in health care laws, regulations, and medical policies; and

•        availability of reimbursement codes and coverage in select jurisdictions, and future changes to reimbursement policies of government and third-party payors.

Significant uncertainty exists as to the coverage and reimbursement status of any drug candidate for which we obtain regulatory approval. In the United States and markets in other countries, sales of any drugs for which we receive regulatory approval for commercial sale will depend in part on the availability of reimbursement from third-party payors. Third-party payors include government health administrative authorities, managed care providers, private health insurers and other organizations.

Healthcare reform measures could hinder or prevent our drug candidates’ commercial success.

The U.S. government and other governments have shown significant interest in pursuing healthcare reform. Any government-adopted reform measures could adversely impact the pricing of healthcare drugs and services in the United States or internationally and the amount of reimbursement available from governmental agencies or other third-party payors. The continuing efforts of the U.S. and foreign governments, insurance companies, managed care organizations and other payors of health care services to contain or reduce health care costs may adversely affect our ability to set prices for our drugs which we believe are fair, and our ability to generate revenues and achieve and maintain profitability.

New laws, regulations and judicial decisions, or new interpretations of existing laws, regulations and decisions, that relate to healthcare availability, methods of delivery or payment for products and services, or sales, marketing or pricing, may limit our potential revenue, and we may need to revise our research and development programs. The pricing and reimbursement environment may change in the future and become more challenging due to several reasons, including policies advanced by the current executive administration in the United States, new healthcare legislation or fiscal challenges faced by government health administration authorities. Specifically, in both the United States and some foreign jurisdictions, there have been a number of legislative and regulatory proposals to change the health care system in ways that could affect our ability to sell our drugs profitably.

For example, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act, or the PPACA has substantially changed the way healthcare is financed by both government health plans and private insurers, and significantly impacts the pharmaceutical industry. The PPACA contains a number of provisions that are expected to impact our business and operations in ways that may negatively affect our potential revenues in the future. For example, the PPACA imposes a non-deductible excise tax on pharmaceutical manufacturers or importers that sell branded prescription drugs to government programs which we believe will increase the cost of

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our drugs. In addition, as part of the PPACA’s provisions closing a funding gap that currently exists in the Medicare Part D prescription drug program, we will be required to provide a discount on branded prescription drugs equal to 50% of the government-negotiated price, for drugs provided to certain beneficiaries who fall within the donut hole. Similarly, PPACA increases the level of Medicaid rebates payable by manufacturers of brand-name drugs from 15.1% to 23.1% and requires collection of rebates for drugs paid by Medicaid managed care organizations. The PPACA also includes significant changes to the 340B drug discount program including expansion of the list of eligible covered entities that may purchase drugs under the program. At the same time, the expansion in eligibility for health insurance benefits created under PPACA is expected to increase the number of patients with insurance coverage who may receive our drugs. While it is too early to predict all the specific effects the PPACA or any future healthcare reform legislation will have on our business, they could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition.

Congress periodically adopts legislation like the PPACA and the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement and Modernization Act of 2003, that modifies Medicare reimbursement and coverage policies pertaining to prescription drugs. Implementation of these laws is subject to ongoing revision through regulatory and sub regulatory policies. Congress also may consider additional changes to Medicare policies, potentially including Medicare prescription drug policies, as part of ongoing budget negotiations. While the scope of any such legislation is uncertain at this time, there can be no assurances that future legislation or regulations will not decrease the coverage and price that we may receive for our proposed drugs. Other third-party payors are increasingly challenging the prices charged for medical products and services. It will be time consuming and expensive for us to go through the process of seeking coverage and reimbursement from Medicare and private payors. Our proposed drugs may not be considered cost-effective, and coverage and reimbursement may not be available or sufficient to allow us to sell our proposed drugs on a profitable basis. Further federal and state proposals and health care reforms are likely which could limit the prices that can be charged for the drug candidates that we develop and may further limit our commercial opportunities. Our results of operations could be materially adversely affected by proposed healthcare reforms, by the Medicare prescription drug coverage legislation, by the possible effect of such current or future legislation on amounts that private insurers will pay and by other health care reforms that may be enacted or adopted in the future.

In September 2007, the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 was enacted, giving the FDA enhanced post-marketing authority, including the authority to require post-marketing studies and clinical trials, labeling changes based on new safety information, and compliance with risk evaluations and mitigation strategies approved by the FDA. The FDA’s exercise of this authority could result in delays or increased costs during drug development, clinical trials and regulatory review, increased costs to assure compliance with post-approval regulatory requirements, and potential restrictions on the sale and/or distribution of approved drugs.

The efforts of the Trump administration to pursue regulatory reform may limit the FDA’s ability to engage in oversight and implementation activities in the normal course, and that could negatively impact our business.

The Trump administration has taken several executive actions, including the issuance of a number of executive orders, that could impose significant burdens on, or otherwise materially delay, the FDA’s ability to engage in routine regulatory and oversight activities such as implementing statutes through rulemaking, issuance of guidance, and review and approval of marketing applications. On January 30, 2017, President Trump issued an executive order, applicable to all executive agencies, including the FDA, requiring that for each notice of proposed rulemaking or final regulation to be issued in fiscal year 2017, the agency shall identify at least two existing regulations to be repealed, unless prohibited by law. These requirements are referred to as the “two-for-one” provisions. This executive order includes a budget neutrality provision that requires the total incremental cost of all new regulations in the 2017 fiscal year, including repealed regulations, to be no greater than zero, except in limited circumstances. For fiscal years 2018 and beyond, the executive order requires agencies to identify regulations to offset any incremental cost of a new regulation. In interim guidance issued by the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs within the Office of Management and on February 2, 2017, the Trump administration indicates that the “two-for-one” provisions may apply not only to agency regulations, but also to significant agency guidance documents. It is difficult to predict how these requirements will be implemented, and the extent to which they will impact the FDA’s ability to exercise its regulatory authority. If these executive actions impose constraints on FDA’s ability to engage in oversight and implementation activities in the normal course, our business may be negatively impacted.

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Our relationships with healthcare providers, physicians and third-party payors will be subject to applicable anti-kickback, fraud and abuse, false claims, transparency, health information privacy and security, and other healthcare laws and regulations, which, in the event of a violation, could expose us to criminal sanctions, civil penalties, contractual damages, reputational harm, administrative burdens and diminished profits and future earnings.

Healthcare providers, physicians and third-party payors will play a primary role in the recommendation and prescription of any drug candidates for which we obtain marketing approval. Our future arrangements with healthcare providers, physicians and third-party payors may expose us to broadly applicable fraud and abuse and other healthcare laws and regulations that may constrain the business or financial arrangements and relationships through which we market, sell and distribute any drugs for which we obtain marketing approval. In addition, we may be subject to transparency laws and patient privacy regulation by U.S. federal and state governments and by governments in foreign jurisdictions in which we conduct our business. Restrictions under applicable federal and state healthcare laws and regulations include the following:

•        the federal Anti-Kickback Statute prohibits, among other things, persons from knowingly and willfully soliciting, offering, receiving or providing remuneration, directly or indirectly, in cash or in kind, to induce or reward, or in return for, either the referral of an individual for, or the purchase, order or recommendation or arranging of, any good or service, for which payment may be made under a federal healthcare program such as Medicare and Medicaid;

•        the federal False Claims Act imposes criminal and civil penalties, including through civil whistleblower or qui tam actions, against individuals or entities for, among other things, knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, false or fraudulent claims for payment by a federal healthcare program or making a false statement or record material to payment of a false claim or avoiding, decreasing or concealing an obligation to pay money to the federal government, with potential liability including mandatory treble damages and significant per-claim penalties, currently set at $5,500 to $11,000 per false claim;

•        the federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, or HIPAA, imposes criminal and civil liability for executing a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program or making false statements relating to healthcare matters;

•        HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act of 2009, and their respective implementing regulations, also imposes obligations, including mandatory contractual terms, with respect to safeguarding the privacy, security and transmission of individually identifiable health information;

•        the federal Physician Payments Sunshine Act requires applicable manufacturers of covered drugs to report payments and other transfers of value to physicians and teaching hospitals; and

•        analogous state and foreign laws and regulations, such as state anti-kickback and false claims laws and transparency statutes, may apply to sales or marketing arrangements and claims involving healthcare items or services reimbursed by non-governmental third-party payors, including private insurers.

Some state laws require pharmaceutical companies to comply with the pharmaceutical industry’s voluntary compliance guidelines and the relevant compliance guidance promulgated by the federal government and may require drug manufacturers to report information related to payments and other transfers of value to physicians and other healthcare providers or marketing expenditures. Additionally, some state and local laws require the registration of pharmaceutical sales representatives in the jurisdiction. State and foreign laws also govern the privacy and security of health information in some circumstances, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and often are not preempted by HIPAA, thus complicating compliance efforts.

Efforts to ensure that our business arrangements with third parties will comply with applicable healthcare laws and regulations will involve substantial costs. It is possible that governmental authorities will conclude that our business practices may not comply with current or future statutes, regulations or case law involving applicable fraud and abuse or other healthcare laws and regulations. If our operations are found to be in violation of any of these laws or any other governmental regulations that may apply to us, we may be subject to significant civil, criminal and administrative penalties, damages, fines, imprisonment, exclusion of drugs from government funded healthcare programs, such as

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Medicare and Medicaid, and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations. If any of the physicians or other healthcare providers or entities with whom we expect to do business is found to be not in compliance with applicable laws, they may be subject to criminal, civil or administrative sanctions, including exclusions from participation in government funded healthcare programs.

Recently enacted and future legislation may increase the difficulty and cost for us to obtain marketing approval of and commercialize our drug candidates and affect the prices we may obtain for any drugs that are approved in the United States or foreign jurisdictions.

In the United States and some foreign jurisdictions, there have been a number of legislative and regulatory changes and proposed changes regarding the healthcare system that could prevent or delay marketing approval of our drug candidates, restrict or regulate post-approval activities and affect our ability to profitably sell any drug candidates for which we obtain marketing approval. The pharmaceutical industry has been a particular focus of these efforts and has been significantly affected by legislative initiatives. Current laws, as well as other healthcare reform measures that may be adopted in the future, may result in more rigorous coverage criteria and in additional downward pressure on the price that we receive for any FDA approved drug.

In the United States, the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003, or the MMA, changed the way Medicare covers and pays for pharmaceutical products. The legislation expanded Medicare coverage for drug purchases by the elderly and introduced a new reimbursement methodology based on average sales prices for physician-administered drugs. In addition, this legislation provided authority for limiting the number of drugs that will be covered in any therapeutic class. Cost reduction initiatives and other provisions of this legislation could decrease the coverage and price that we receive for any approved drugs. While the MMA applies only to drug benefits for Medicare beneficiaries, private payors often follow Medicare coverage policy and payment limitations in setting their own reimbursement rates. Therefore, any reduction in reimbursement that results from the MMA may result in a similar reduction in payments from private payors.

In March 2010, President Obama signed into law the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, or collectively the ACA. Among the provisions of the ACA of potential importance to our business, including, without limitation, our ability to commercialize and the prices we may obtain for any of our drug candidates that are approved for sale, are the following:

•        an annual, non-deductible fee on any entity that manufactures or imports specified branded prescription drugs and biologic agents;

•        an increase in the statutory minimum rebates a manufacturer must pay under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program;

•        expansion of healthcare fraud and abuse laws, including the civil False Claims Act and the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, new government investigative powers and enhanced penalties for noncompliance;

•        a new Medicare Part D coverage gap discount program, in which manufacturers must agree to offer 50% (and 70% starting January 1, 2019) point-of-sale discounts off negotiated prices;

•        extension of manufacturers’ Medicaid rebate liability;

•        expansion of eligibility criteria for Medicaid programs;

•        expansion of the entities eligible for discounts under the Public Health Service pharmaceutical pricing program;

•        new requirements to report certain financial arrangements with physicians and teaching hospitals;

•        a new requirement to annually report drug samples that manufacturers and distributors provide to physicians; and

•        a new Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute to oversee, identify priorities in, and conduct comparative clinical effectiveness research, along with funding for such research.

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In addition, other legislative changes have been proposed and adopted since the ACA was enacted. These changes include the Budget Control Act of 2011, which, among other things, led to aggregate reductions to Medicare payments to providers of up to 2% per fiscal year that started in 2013 and, due to subsequent legislative amendments to the statute, will stay in effect through 2027 unless additional congressional action is taken, and the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012, which, among other things, reduced Medicare payments to several types of providers and increased the statute of limitations period for the government to recover overpayments to providers from three to five years. These new laws may result in additional reductions in Medicare and other healthcare funding and otherwise affect the prices we may obtain for any of our drug candidates for which we may obtain regulatory approval or the frequency with which any such drug candidate is prescribed or used. Further, there have been several recent U.S. congressional inquiries and proposed state and federal legislation designed to, among other things, bring more transparency to drug pricing, review the relationship between pricing and manufacturer patient programs, reduce the costs of drugs under Medicare and reform government program reimbursement methodologies for drug products.

We expect that these healthcare reforms, as well as other healthcare reform measures that may be adopted in the future, may result in additional reductions in Medicare and other healthcare funding, more rigorous coverage criteria, new payment methodologies and additional downward pressure on the price that we receive for any approved drug and/or the level of reimbursement physicians receive for administering any approved drug we might bring to market. Reductions in reimbursement levels may negatively impact the prices we receive or the frequency with which our drugs are prescribed or administered. Any reduction in reimbursement from Medicare or other government programs may result in a similar reduction in payments from private payors.

With enactment of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (“TCJA”), which was signed by the President on December 22, 2017, Congress repealed the “individual mandate.” The repeal of this provision, which requires most Americans to carry a minimal level of health insurance, will become effective in 2019. According to the Congressional Budget Office, the repeal of the individual mandate will cause an estimated 13 million fewer Americans to be insured in 2027 and premiums in insurance markets may rise. Additionally, on January 22, 2018, President Trump signed a continuing resolution on appropriations for fiscal year 2018 that delayed the implementation of certain ACA-mandated fees, including the so-called “Cadillac” tax on certain high cost employer-sponsored insurance plans, the annual fee imposed on certain health insurance providers based on market share, and the medical device excise tax on non-exempt medical devices. Further, the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018, among other things, amends the ACA, effective January 1, 2019, to increase from 50% to 70% the point-of-sale discount that is owed by pharmaceutical manufacturers who participate in Medicare Part D and to close the coverage gap in most Medicare drug plans, commonly referred to as the “donut hole.” Further, each chamber of the U.S. Congress has put forth multiple bills designed to repeal or repeal and replace portions of the ACA. Although none of these measures has been enacted by Congress to date, Congress may consider other legislation to repeal and replace elements of the ACA. The U.S. Congress will likely consider other legislation to replace elements of the ACA, during the next Congressional session.

The Trump administration has also taken executive actions to change or delay implementation of the ACA. In January 2017, President Trump signed an executive order directing federal agencies with authorities and responsibilities under the ACA to waive, defer, grant exemptions from, or delay the implementation of any provision of the ACA that would impose a fiscal or regulatory burden on states, individuals, healthcare providers, health insurers, or manufacturers of pharmaceuticals or medical devices. In October 2017, the President signed a second executive order allowing for the use of association health plans and short-term health insurance, which may provide fewer health benefits than the plans sold through the ACA exchanges. At the same time, the Trump administration announced that it will discontinue the payment of cost-sharing reduction, or CSR, payments to insurance companies until Congress approves the appropriation of funds for such CSR payments. The loss of the CSR payments is expected to increase premiums on certain policies issued by qualified health plans under the ACA. A bipartisan bill to appropriate funds for CSR payments was introduced in the Senate, but the future of that bill is uncertain. We will continue to evaluate the effect that the ACA and its possible repeal and replacement could have on our business.

The costs of prescription pharmaceuticals have also been the subject of considerable discussion in the United States, and members of Congress and the Trump administration have stated that they will address such costs through new legislative and administrative measures. To date, there have been several recent U.S. congressional inquiries and proposed and enacted state and federal legislation designed to, among other things, bring more transparency to

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drug pricing, review the relationship between pricing and manufacturer patient programs, reduce the costs of drugs under Medicare and reform government program reimbursement methodologies for drug products. At the federal level, the Trump administration’s budget proposal for fiscal year 2019 contains further drug price control measures that could be enacted during the 2019 budget process or in other future legislation, including, for example, measures to permit Medicare Part D plans to negotiate the price of certain drugs under Medicare Part B, to allow some states to negotiate drug prices under Medicaid, and to eliminate cost sharing for generic drugs for low-income patients. While any proposed measures will require authorization through additional legislation to become effective, Congress and the Trump administration have each indicated that it will continue to seek new legislative and/or administrative measures to control drug costs. At the state level, legislatures are increasingly passing legislation and implementing regulations designed to control pharmaceutical and biological product pricing, including price or patient reimbursement constraints, discounts, restrictions on certain product access and marketing cost disclosure and transparency measures, and, in some cases, designed to encourage importation from other countries and bulk purchasing.

Legislative and regulatory proposals have been made to expand post-approval requirements and restrict sales and promotional activities for pharmaceutical products. We cannot be sure whether additional legislative changes will be enacted, or whether FDA regulations, guidance or interpretations will be changed, or what the impact of such changes on the marketing approvals of our drug candidates, if any, may be. Increased scrutiny by the U.S. Congress of the FDA’s approval process may significantly delay or prevent marketing approval, as well as subject us to more stringent product labeling and post-marketing testing and other requirements.

Governments outside of the United States tend to impose strict price controls, which may adversely affect our revenues, if any.

In some countries, particularly the countries of the European Union and Canada, the pricing of prescription pharmaceuticals is subject to governmental control. In these countries, pricing negotiations with governmental authorities can take considerable time after the receipt of marketing approval for a drug. To obtain reimbursement or pricing approval in some countries, we may be required to conduct a clinical trial that compares the cost-effectiveness of our drug candidate to other available therapies. If reimbursement of our drugs is unavailable or limited in scope or amount, or if pricing is set at unsatisfactory levels, our business could be harmed, possibly materially.

If we or any third-party manufacturers or contractors we engage now or in the future fail to comply with environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, we could become subject to fines or penalties or incur costs or liabilities that could harm our business.

We and third-party manufacturers we engage now are, and any third-party manufacturers we may engage in the future will be, subject to numerous environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, including those governing laboratory procedures and the handling, use, storage, treatment and disposal of hazardous materials and wastes. Our operations, including work conducted through third-party manufacturers or contractors, involve the use of hazardous and flammable materials, including chemicals and biological materials. Our operations also produce hazardous waste products. We generally contract with third parties for the disposal of these materials and wastes. We cannot eliminate the risk of contamination or injury from these materials. In the event of contamination or injury resulting from our use of hazardous materials, we could be held liable for any resulting damages, and any liability could exceed our resources. Liability under certain environmental laws governing the release and cleanup of hazardous materials is joint and several and could be imposed without regard to fault. We also could incur significant costs associated with civil or criminal fines and penalties or become subject to injunctions limiting or prohibiting our activities for failure to comply with such laws and regulations.

Although we maintain general liability insurance as well as workers’ compensation insurance to cover us for costs and expenses we may incur due to injuries to our employees resulting from the use of hazardous materials, this insurance may not provide adequate coverage against potential liabilities. We do not maintain insurance for environmental liability or toxic tort claims that may be asserted against us in connection with our storage or disposal of biological, hazardous or radioactive materials.

In addition, we may incur substantial costs in order to comply with current or future environmental, health and safety laws and regulations. These current or future laws and regulations may impair our research, development or production efforts. Our failure to comply with these laws and regulations also may result in substantial fines, penalties or other sanctions.

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Further, with respect to the operations of our current and any future third-party contract manufacturers or other contractors, it is possible that if they fail to operate in compliance with applicable environmental, health and safety laws and regulations or properly dispose of wastes associated with our drugs, we could be held liable for any resulting damages, suffer reputational harm or experience a disruption in the manufacture and supply of our drug candidates or drugs. In addition, our supply chain may be adversely impacted if any of our third-party contract manufacturers become subject to injunctions or other sanctions as a result of their non-compliance with environmental, health and safety laws and regulations.

We may experience challenges with the acquisition, development, enhancement or deployment of technology necessary for our RADR® platform.

We operate in businesses that require sophisticated computer systems and software for data collection, data processing, cloud-based platforms, analytics, statistical projections and forecasting, mobile computing, social media analytics and other applications and technologies. We seek to address our technology risks by increasing its reliance on the use of innovations by cross-industry technology leaders and adapt these for their pharmaceutical, specialty-pharma, biotech, biopharmaceutical, diagnostic, medical device and contract research and manufacturing clients. Some of the technologies supporting the industries they serve are changing rapidly and we must continue to adapt to these changes in a timely and effective manner at an acceptable cost. They also must continue to deliver data to its clients in forms that are easy to use while simultaneously providing clear answers to complex questions. There can be no guarantee that we will be able to develop, acquire or integrate new technologies, that these new technologies will meet our needs or achieve our expected goals, or that we will be able to do so as quickly or cost-effectively as our competitors. Significant technological change could render our RADR® platform obsolete. Our continued success will depend on its ability to adapt to changing technologies, manage and process ever-increasing amounts of data and information and improve the performance, features and reliability of its services in response to changing client and industry demands. We may experience difficulties that could delay or prevent the successful design, development, testing, and introduction of advanced versions of our RADR® platform, limiting our ability to identify new drug candidates. New services, or enhancements to existing services using our RADR® platform, may not adequately meet our requirements. Any of these failures could have a material adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition.

Risks Related to Our Reliance on Third Parties

We rely on third parties to conduct our preclinical studies and clinical trials. If these third parties do not successfully perform their contractual legal and regulatory duties or meet expected deadlines, we may not be able to obtain regulatory approval for or commercialize our drug candidates and our business could be substantially harmed.

We have relied upon and plan to continue to rely upon third-party medical institutions, clinical investigators, contract laboratories and other third party CROs to monitor and manage data for our ongoing preclinical and clinical programs. We rely on these parties for execution of our preclinical studies and clinical trials, and control only certain aspects of their activities. Nevertheless, we are responsible for ensuring that each of our studies is conducted in accordance with the applicable protocol, legal, regulatory and scientific standards, and our reliance on the CROs does not relieve us of our regulatory responsibilities. We and our CROs are required to comply with cGCPs, which are regulations and guidelines enforced by the FDA, the Competent Authorities of the Member States of the European Economic Area, or EEA, and comparable foreign regulatory authorities for all of our drugs in clinical development.

Regulatory authorities enforce these cGCPs through periodic inspections of trial sponsors, principal investigators and trial sites. If we or any of our CROs fail to comply with applicable cGCPs, the clinical data generated in our clinical trials may be deemed unreliable and the FDA, the EMA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may require us to perform additional clinical trials before approving our marketing applications. We cannot assure you that upon inspection by a given regulatory authority, such regulatory authority will determine that any of our clinical trials comply with cGCP regulations. In addition, our clinical trials must be conducted with product produced under current good manufacturing practices, or cGMP, regulations. Our failure to comply with these regulations may require us to repeat clinical trials, which would delay the regulatory approval process.

If any of our relationships with these third-party CROs terminate, we may not be able to enter into arrangements with alternative CROs or to do so on commercially reasonable terms. In addition, our CROs are not our employees, and except for remedies available to us under our agreements with such CROs, we cannot control whether or not they devote sufficient time and resources to our on-going clinical, nonclinical and preclinical programs. If CROs do not

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successfully carry out their contractual duties or obligations or meet expected deadlines, if they need to be replaced or if the quality or accuracy of the clinical data they obtain is compromised due to the failure to adhere to our clinical protocols, regulatory requirements or for other reasons, our clinical trials may be extended, delayed or terminated and we may not be able to obtain regulatory approval for or successfully commercialize our drug candidates. As a result, our results of operations and the commercial prospects for our drug candidates would be harmed, our costs could increase and our ability to generate revenues could be delayed.

Many of the third parties with whom we contract may also have relationships with other commercial entities, including our competitors, for whom they may also be conducting clinical trials or other drug development activities that could harm our competitive position. If the third parties conducting our GLP preclinical studies or our clinical trials do not perform their contractual duties or obligations, experience work stoppages, do not meet expected deadlines, terminate their agreements with us or need to be replaced, or if the quality or accuracy of the clinical data they obtain is compromised due to their failure to adhere to our clinical trial protocols or to GCPs, or for any other reason, we may need to enter into new arrangements with alternative third parties. Switching or adding additional CROs involves additional cost and requires management time and focus. In addition, there is a natural transition period when a new CRO commences work. As a result, delays occur, which can materially impact our ability to meet our desired clinical development timelines. Though we carefully manage our relationships with our CROs, there can be no assurance that we will not encounter similar challenges or delays in the future or that these delays or challenges will not have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and prospects.

We are substantially dependent on third parties for the manufacture of our clinical supplies of our drug candidates, and we intend to rely on third parties to produce commercial supplies of any approved drug candidate. Therefore, our development of our drugs could be stopped or delayed, and our commercialization of any future drug could be stopped or delayed or made less profitable if third party manufacturers fail to obtain approval of the FDA or comparable regulatory authorities or fail to provide us with drug products in sufficient quantities or at acceptable prices.

The manufacture of pharmaceutical products is complex and requires significant expertise, capital investment, process controls and know-how. Common difficulties in pharmaceutical manufacturing may include: sourcing and producing raw materials, transferring technology from chemistry and development activities to production activities, validating initial production designs, scaling manufacturing techniques, improving costs and yields, establishing and maintaining quality controls and stability requirements, eliminating contaminations and operator errors, and maintaining compliance with regulatory requirements. We do not currently have nor do we plan to acquire the infrastructure or capability internally in accordance with cGMP prescribed by the FDA or to produce an adequate supply of compounds to meet future requirements for clinical trials and commercialization of our drugs. Drug manufacturing facilities are subject to inspection before the FDA will issue an approval to market a new drug product, and all of the manufacturers that we intend to use must adhere to the cGMP regulations prescribed by the FDA.

We expect therefore to rely on third-party manufacturers for clinical supplies of our drug candidates that we may develop. These third-party manufacturers will be required to comply with current good manufacturing practices, or GMPs, and other applicable laws and regulations. We will have no control over the ability of these third parties to comply with these requirements, or to maintain adequate quality control, quality assurance and qualified personnel. If the FDA or any other applicable regulatory authorities do not approve the facilities of these third parties for the manufacture of our other drug candidates or any drugs that we may successfully develop, or if it withdraws any such approval, or if our suppliers or contract manufacturers decide they no longer want to supply or manufacture for us, we may need to find alternative manufacturing facilities, in which case we might not be able to identify manufacturers for clinical or commercial supply on acceptable terms, or at all. Any of these factors would significantly impact our ability to develop, obtain regulatory approval for or market our drug candidates and adversely affect our business.

We and/or our third-party manufacturers may be adversely affected by developments outside of our control, and these developments may delay or prevent further manufacturing of our drugs. Adverse developments may include labor disputes, resource constraints, shipment delays, inventory shortages, lot failures, unexpected sources of contamination, lawsuits related to our manufacturing techniques, equipment used during manufacturing, or composition of matter, unstable political environments, acts of terrorism, war, natural disasters, and other natural and man-made disasters. If we or our third-party manufacturers were to encounter any of the above difficulties, or otherwise fail to comply with

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contractual obligations, our ability to provide any drug for clinical trial or commercial purposes would be jeopardized. This may increase the costs associated with completing our clinical trials and commercial production. Further, production disruptions may cause us to terminate ongoing clinical trials and/or commence new clinical trials at additional expense. We may also have to take inventory write-offs and incur other charges and expenses for drugs that fail to meet specifications or pass safety inspections. If production difficulties cannot be solved with acceptable costs, expenses, and timeframes, we may be forced to abandon our clinical development and commercialization plans, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition, and the value of our securities.

We, or third-party manufacturers on whom we rely, may be unable to successfully scale-up manufacturing of our drug candidates in sufficient quality and quantity, which would delay or prevent us from developing our drug candidates and commercializing approved drugs, if any.

In order to conduct clinical trials of our drug candidates and commercialize any approved drug candidates, we, or our manufacturers, will need to manufacture them in large quantities. We, or our manufacturers, may be unable to successfully increase the manufacturing capacity for any of our drug candidates in a timely or cost-effective manner, or at all. In addition, quality issues may arise during scale-up activities. If we, or any of our manufacturers, are unable to successfully scale up the manufacture of our drug candidates in sufficient quality and quantity, the development, testing, and clinical trials of that drug candidate may be delayed or infeasible, and regulatory approval or commercial launch of any resulting drug may be delayed or not obtained, which could significantly harm our business. If we are unable to obtain or maintain third-party manufacturing for commercial supply of our drug candidates, or to do so on commercially reasonable terms, we may not be able to develop and commercialize our drug candidates successfully.

Our failure to find third party collaborators to assist or share in the costs of drug development could materially harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our strategy for the development and commercialization of our proprietary drug candidates may include the formation of collaborative arrangements with third parties. Existing and future collaborators have significant discretion in determining the efforts and resources they apply and may not perform their obligations as expected. Potential third-party collaborators include biopharmaceutical, pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, academic institutions and other entities. Third-party collaborators may assist us in:

•        funding research, preclinical development, clinical trials and manufacturing;

•        seeking and obtaining regulatory approvals; and

•        successfully commercializing any future drug candidates.

If we are not able to establish further collaboration agreements, we may be required to undertake drug development and commercialization at our own expense. Such an undertaking may limit the number of drug candidates that we will be able to develop, significantly increase our capital requirements and place additional strain on our internal resources. Our failure to enter into additional collaborations could materially harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

In addition, our dependence on licensing, collaboration and other agreements with third parties may subject us to a number of risks. These agreements may not be on terms that prove favorable to us and may require us to relinquish certain rights in our drug candidates. To the extent we agree to work exclusively with one collaborator in a given area, our opportunities to collaborate with other entities could be curtailed. Lengthy negotiations with potential new collaborators may lead to delays in the research, development or commercialization of drug candidates. The decision by our collaborators to pursue alternative technologies or the failure of our collaborators to develop or commercialize successfully any drug candidate to which they have obtained rights from us could materially harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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Risks Related to Our Business and Industry

We may face future business disruption and related risks resulting from the recent outbreak of the novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) or from another pandemic, epidemic or outbreak of an infectious disease, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business.

The development of our drug candidates could be disrupted and materially adversely affected in the future by a pandemic, epidemic or outbreak of an infectious disease like the recent outbreak of COVID-19. For example, as a result of measures imposed by the governments in regions affected by COVID-19 businesses and schools have been suspended due to quarantines or “stay at home” orders intended to contain this outbreak. The spread of COVID-19 from China to other countries has resulted in the Director General of the World Health Organization declaring the outbreak of COVID-19 as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC), based on the advice of the Emergency Committee under the International Health Regulations (2005), and on March 12, 2020, the President of the United States imposed international travel restrictions between the US and Europe to supplement the existing international travel restrictions between the US and certain Asian countries and on March 13, 2020, declared a national emergency in response to the likely spread of COVID-19 to the U.S. COVID-19 continues to spread globally and, as of April 2020, has spread to over 150 countries, including the United States. While the COVID-19 outbreak is still in its early stages, international stock markets continue to reflect the uncertainty associated with the slow-down in the Chinese, US and European economies and the reduced levels of international travel experienced since the beginning of January 2020. The significant declines in the Dow Industrial Average and other domestic and international stock indices at the end of February and during March and April 2020 were largely attributed to the adverse effects the pandemic has had on the world’s economies. We are still assessing our business plans and the impact COVID-19 may have on our ability to advance the development of our drug candidates or to raise financing to support the development of our drug candidates, but no assurances can be given that this analysis will enable us to avoid part or all of any impact from the spread of COVID-019 or its consequences, including downturns in business sentiment generally or in our sector in particular.

The spread of an infectious disease, including COVID-19, may also result in the inability of our suppliers to deliver components or raw materials on a timely basis or materially and adversely affect our collaborators and out-license partners’ ability to perform preclinical studies and clinical trials. In addition, hospitals may reduce staffing and reduce or postpone certain treatments in response to the spread of an infectious disease. Such events may result in a period of business and manufacturing disruption, and in reduced operations, any of which could materially affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. The extent to which the coronavirus impacts our business will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted, including new information which may emerge concerning the severity of the coronavirus and the actions to contain the coronavirus or treat its impact, among others.

We will need to increase the size of our organization and the scope of our outside vendor relationships, and we may experience difficulties in managing growth.

As of March 31, 2020, we employed a total of four full-time and two part-time employees. Our current internal departments include research and development, finance and administration. We intend to expand our management team to include an operation ramp up of additional scientific development and technical staff required to achieve our business objectives. We will need to expand our managerial, operational, technical and scientific, financial and other resources in order to manage our operations and clinical trials, establish independent manufacturing, continue our research and development activities, and commercialize our drug candidate. Our management and scientific personnel, systems and facilities currently in place may not be adequate to support our future growth.

Our need to effectively manage our operations, growth and various projects requires that we:

•        manage our clinical trials effectively, including our planned clinical trials of LP-184 and LP-300 and our other drug candidates;

•        manage our internal development efforts effectively while carrying out our contractual obligations to licensors, contractors and other third parties;

•        continue to improve our operational, financial and management controls and reporting systems and procedures; and

•        attract and retain sufficient numbers of talented employees.

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We may utilize the services of vendors and research partners or collaborators to perform tasks including preclinical studies and clinical trial management, statistics and analysis, regulatory affairs, medical advisory, market research, formulation development, chemistry, manufacturing and control activities, other drug development functions, legal, auditing, financial advisory, and investor relations. Our growth strategy may also entail expanding our group of contractors or consultants to implement these and other tasks going forward. Because we rely on numerous consultants to outsource many key functions of our business, we will need to be able to effectively manage these consultants to ensure that they successfully carry out their contractual obligations and meet expected deadlines. However, if we are unable to effectively manage our outsourced activities or if the quality or accuracy of the services provided by consultants is compromised for any reason, our clinical trials may be extended, delayed or terminated, and we may not be able to obtain regulatory approval for our drug candidate or otherwise advance our business. There can be no assurance that we will be able to manage our existing consultants or find other competent outside contractors and consultants on economically reasonable terms, or at all. If we are not able to effectively expand our organization by hiring new employees and expanding our groups of consultants and contractors, we may be unable to successfully implement the tasks necessary to further develop and commercialize our drug candidate and, accordingly, may not achieve our research, development and commercialization goals.

We depend on our senior management team, and the loss of one or more of our executive officers or key employees or an inability to attract and retain highly skilled employees could adversely affect our business.

Our success depends largely upon the continued services of Panna Sharma, our Chief Executive Officer, President and Director. We do not maintain “key person” insurance for Mr. Sharma or any of our other key employees. We also rely on employees in the areas of research and development, artificial intelligence and machine learning services and general and administrative functions, some of which are in the US on H-1B work visas. From time to time, there may be changes in our executive management and employees resulting from the hiring or departure of executives or other key employees or the expiration or termination of H-1B work visas, which could disrupt our business. The replacement of one or more of our executive officers or other key employees would likely involve significant time and costs and may significantly delay or prevent the achievement of our business objectives.

To continue to execute our growth strategy, we also must attract and retain highly skilled personnel. We might not be successful in maintaining our unique culture and continuing to attract and retain qualified personnel. We have from time to time in the past experienced, and we expect to continue to experience in the future, difficulty in hiring and retaining highly skilled personnel with appropriate qualifications. The pool of qualified personnel with experience in artificial intelligence, machine learning, and genomics, or experience working with the pharma market is limited overall. In addition, many of the companies with which we compete for experienced personnel have greater resources than we have.

In addition, in making employment decisions, particularly in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries, job candidates often consider the value of the stock options or other equity instruments they are to receive in connection with their employment. Volatility in the price of our stock might, therefore, adversely affect our ability to attract or retain highly skilled personnel. Furthermore, the requirement to expense stock options and other equity instruments might discourage us from granting the size or type of stock option or equity awards that job candidates require to join our company. If we fail to attract new personnel or fail to retain and motivate our current personnel, our business and future growth prospects could be severely harmed.

Our employees may engage in misconduct or other improper activities, including noncompliance with regulatory standards and requirements and insider trading.

We are exposed to the risk of employee fraud or other misconduct. Misconduct by employees could include intentional failures to comply with any regulations applicable to us, to provide accurate information to regulatory authorities, to comply with manufacturing standards we have established, to comply with federal and state healthcare fraud and abuse laws and regulations, or to report financial information or data accurately or disclose unauthorized activities to us. In particular, sales, marketing and business arrangements in the healthcare industry are subject to extensive laws and regulations intended to prevent fraud, misconduct, kickbacks, self-dealing and other abusive practices. These laws and regulations may restrict or prohibit a wide range of pricing, discounting, marketing and promotion, sales commission, customer incentive programs and other business arrangements. Employee misconduct could also involve the improper use of information obtained in the course of clinical trials, which could result in regulatory sanctions and serious harm to our reputation. We have adopted a Code of Business Conduct, but it is

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not always possible to identify and deter employee misconduct, and the precautions we take to detect and prevent this activity may not be effective in controlling unknown or unmanaged risk. If our employees engage in any such misconduct, we could face criminal penalties, fines, revocation of regulatory approvals and harm to our reputation, any of which could form a material adverse effect on our business.

Business interruptions could adversely affect future operations, revenues, and financial conditions, and may increase our costs and expenses.

Our operations, and those of our directors, advisors, contractors, consultants, CROs, and collaborators, could be adversely affected by earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, typhoons, extreme weather conditions, fires, water shortages, power failures, business systems failures, medical epidemics and other natural and man-made disaster or business interruptions. Our phones, electronic devices and computer systems and those of our directors, advisors, contractors, consultants, CROs, and collaborators are vulnerable to damages, theft and accidental loss, negligence, unauthorized access, terrorism, war, electronic and telecommunications failures, and other natural and man-made disasters. Operating as a virtual company, our employees conduct business outside of our headquarters and leased or owned facilities. These locations may be subject to additional security and other risk factors due to the limited control of our employees. If such an event as described above were to occur in the future, it may cause interruptions in our operations, delay research and development programs, clinical trials, regulatory activities, manufacturing and quality assurance activities, sales and marketing activities, hiring, training of employees and persons within associated third parties, and other business activities. For example, the loss of clinical trial data from completed or future clinical trials could result in delays in our regulatory approval efforts and significantly increase our costs to recover or reproduce the data.

Likewise, we will rely on third parties to manufacture LP-100, LP-184 and LP-300 and conduct clinical trials, and similar events as those described in the prior paragraph relating to their business systems, equipment and facilities could also have a material adverse effect on our business. To the extent that any disruption or security breach were to result in a loss of, or damage to, our data or applications, or inappropriate disclosure of confidential or proprietary information, we could incur liability and the further development and commercialization of our drug candidate could be delayed or altogether terminated.

Disruptions to our information technology systems, including future cyber-attacks and security breaches, and the costs of maintaining secure and effective information technology systems could negatively affect our business and results of operations.

The efficient operation of our businesses is highly dependent on computer hardware and software systems, including our customized information technology systems that form our RADR® platform. Information systems are vulnerable to security breaches by computer hackers and cyber terrorists. We rely on industry accepted security measures and technology to securely maintain confidential and proprietary information maintained on our information systems, and continue to invest in maintaining and upgrading these systems and applications to ensure risk is controlled. Regardless of our efforts to maintain and upgrade our cyber security systems, there can be no assurance that we will not suffer an intrusion, that unauthorized parties will not gain access to confidential or personal information, or that any such incident will be discovered promptly. The techniques used by criminals to obtain unauthorized access to sensitive data change frequently and often are not recognized until launched against a target, and we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or implement adequate preventative measures. The failure to promptly detect, determine the extent of and appropriately respond to a significant data security breach could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, the unavailability of the information systems or failure of these systems to perform as anticipated for any reason, including a major disaster or business interruption resulting in an inability to access data stored in these systems or sustain the data center systems necessary to support functions to meet our needs, and any inability to respond to, or recover from, such an event, could disrupt our business and could result in decreased performance and increased overhead costs, causing our business and results of operations to suffer.

Additionally, our operations involve the receipt and storage of sensitive data, including personal information about our employees and proprietary business information of ours and our vendors. We may also share information with vendors that assist us in conducting our business, as required by law, with the permission of the individual or as permitted under applicable privacy policies.

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Despite the utilization of information security measures, we cannot be certain that all of our IT systems or the IT systems of our vendors are or will be able to prevent, contain or detect any future cyber-attacks or security breaches from known malware, malware that may be developed in the future or otherwise. Cyber-attacks are rapidly evolving and becoming increasingly sophisticated and difficult to detect, and therefore, we may be unable to anticipate these attacks or implement adequate preventive measures. Additionally, unauthorized parties may attempt to gain access to our or a vendor’s systems or facilities through fraud, trickery or other forms of deception involving our employees or vendors. To the extent that any attack or breach results in the loss, damage or misappropriation of information, we may be adversely affected by claims from persons participating in our clinical trials, stockholders and others and by costly inquiries or enforcement actions on the part of regulatory authorities. Our operations could also be significantly disrupted by these claims, as well as by the need to spend significant time and expense to upgrade, fix or replace our systems. We could also lose credibility with persons participating in our clinical trials and suffer damage to our reputation and future sales, if any. In addition, the cost of complying with stricter privacy and information security laws and standards and developing, maintaining and upgrading technology systems to address future advances in technology, could be significant and we could experience problems and interruptions associated with the implementation of new or upgraded systems and technology or with maintenance or adequate support of existing systems.

Our failure to successfully acquire, develop and market additional drug candidates could impair our ability to grow.

As part of our growth strategy, we may evaluate, acquire, license, develop and/or market additional drug candidates and technologies. We do not anticipate these investments will constitute a significant portion of our business. However, our internal research capabilities are limited and we may be dependent upon pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical companies, academic scientists and other researchers to sell or license drug candidates or technologies to us. The success of this strategy depends partly upon our ability to identify, select and acquire promising pharmaceutical drug candidates and technologies. The process of proposing, negotiating and implementing a license or acquisition of a drug candidate is lengthy and complex. Other companies, including some with substantially greater financial, marketing and sales resources, may compete with us for the license or acquisition of drug candidates and technologies. We have limited resources to identify and execute the acquisition or in-licensing of potential drug candidates and technologies and to integrate them into our current infrastructure. Moreover, we may devote resources to potential acquisitions or in-licensing opportunities that are never completed, or we may fail to realize the anticipated benefits of such efforts. Furthermore, we may not be able to acquire the rights to additional drug candidates on terms that we find acceptable, or at all.

In addition, future acquisitions of intellectual property rights may entail numerous operational and financial risks, including:

•        exposure to unknown liabilities;

•        disruption of our business and diversion of our management’s and technical personnel’s time and attention to develop acquired drug candidates or technologies;

•        incurrence of substantial debt or dilutive issuances of securities to pay for acquisition costs;

•        higher than expected acquisition costs; and

•        increased amortization expenses.

Any drug candidate that we acquire may require additional development efforts prior to commercial sale or out-licensing, including extensive clinical testing and approval by the FDA and applicable foreign regulatory authorities. All drug candidates are prone to risks of failure typical of pharmaceutical drug development, including the possibility that a drug candidate will not be shown to be sufficiently safe and effective for approval by regulatory authorities. In addition, we cannot provide assurance that any drugs that we may develop or approved drugs that we may acquire will be manufactured profitably or achieve market acceptance.

We have obtained statistical data, market data and other industry data and forecasts used throughout this Prospectus from market research, publicly available information and industry publications which we believe are reliable but have not been verified by any third party.

This prospectus contains estimates, projections and other information concerning our industry, our business and the markets for our drug candidates, including data regarding the estimated size of such markets and the incidence

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of certain medical conditions. We obtained the industry, market and similar data set forth in this prospectus from our internal estimates and research and from academic and industry research, publications, surveys and studies conducted by third parties, including governmental agencies. In some cases, we do not expressly refer to the sources from which this data is derived. Information that is based on estimates, forecasts, projections, market research or similar methodologies is inherently subject to uncertainties and actual events or circumstances may differ materially from events and circumstances that are assumed in this information. While we believe our internal research is reliable, such research has not been verified by any third party.

Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property

If we do not obtain patent term extension for any drug candidates we may develop, our business may be materially harmed.

In the United States, depending upon the timing, duration, and specifics of any FDA marketing approval of a drug candidate, the patent term of a patent that covers an FDA-approved drug may be eligible for limited patent term extension, which permits patent term restoration as compensation for the patent term lost during the FDA regulatory review process. The Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984, also known as the Hatch-Waxman Act, permits a patent term extension of up to five years beyond the expiration of the patent. The length of the patent term extension is related to the length of time the drug is under regulatory review. Patent term extension cannot extend the remaining term of a patent beyond a total of 14 years from the date of drug approval, and only one patent applicable to an approved drug may be extended and only those claims covering the approved drug, a method for using it, or a method for manufacturing it may be extended. Similar provisions are available in Europe and other non-United States jurisdictions to extend the term of a patent that covers an approved drug. While, in the future, if and when our drug candidates receive FDA approval, we expect to apply for patent term extensions on patents directed to those drug candidates, there is no guarantee that the applicable authorities will agree with our assessment of whether such extensions should be granted, and even if granted, the length of such extensions. We may not be granted an extension because of, for example, failing to exercise due diligence during the testing phase or regulatory review process, failing to apply within applicable deadlines, failing to apply prior to expiration of the relevant patents, or otherwise failing to satisfy applicable requirements. If we are unable to obtain any patent term extension or the term of any such extension is less than we request, our competitors may obtain approval of competing drugs following the expiration of our patent rights, and our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects could be materially harmed.

Changes to patent laws in the United States and other jurisdictions could diminish the value of patents in general, thereby impairing our ability to protect our drugs.

Changes in either the patent laws or interpretation of patent laws in the United States, including patent reform legislation such as the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act, or the Leahy-Smith Act, could increase the uncertainties and costs surrounding the prosecution of our owned and in-licensed patent applications and the maintenance, enforcement or defense of our owned and in-licensed issued patents. The Leahy-Smith Act includes a number of significant changes to United States patent law. These changes include provisions that affect the way patent applications are prosecuted, redefine prior art, provide more efficient and cost-effective avenues for competitors to challenge the validity of patents, and enable third-party submission of prior art to the USPTO during patent prosecution and additional procedures to attack the validity of a patent at USPTO-administered post-grant proceedings, including post-grant review, inter parties review, and derivation proceedings. Assuming that other requirements for patentability are met, prior to March 2013, in the United States, the first to invent the claimed invention was entitled to the patent, while outside the United States, the first to file a patent application was entitled to the patent.

After March 2013, under the Leahy-Smith Act, the United States transitioned to a first-to-file system in which, assuming that the other statutory requirements for patentability are met, the first inventor to file a patent application will be entitled to the patent on an invention regardless of whether a third party was the first to invent the claimed invention. As such, the Leahy-Smith Act and its implementation could increase the uncertainties and costs surrounding the prosecution of our patent applications and the enforcement or defense of our issued patents, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.

In addition, the patent positions of companies in the development and commercialization of biologics and pharmaceuticals are particularly uncertain. Recent U.S. Supreme Court rulings have narrowed the scope of patent

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protection available in certain circumstances and weakened the rights of patent owners in certain situations. This combination of events has created uncertainty with respect to the validity and enforceability of patents once obtained. Depending on future actions by the U.S. Congress, the federal courts, and the USPTO, the laws and regulations governing patents could change in unpredictable ways that could have a material adverse effect on our patent rights and our ability to protect, defend and enforce our patent rights in the future.

We or our licensors may become involved in lawsuits to protect or enforce our patent or other intellectual property rights, which could be expensive, time-consuming and unsuccessful.

Competitors and other third parties may infringe, misappropriate or otherwise violate our or our licensor’s issued patents or other intellectual property. As a result, we or our licensors may need to file infringement, misappropriation or other intellectual property related claims, which can be expensive and time-consuming. Any claims we assert against perceived infringers could provoke such parties to assert counterclaims against us alleging that we infringe, misappropriate or otherwise violate their intellectual property. In addition, in a patent infringement proceeding, such parties could counterclaim that the patents we or our licensors have asserted are invalid or unenforceable. In patent litigation in the United States, defendant counterclaims alleging invalidity or unenforceability are commonplace. Grounds for a validity challenge could be an alleged failure to meet any of several statutory requirements, including lack of novelty, obviousness, or non-enablement. Grounds for an unenforceability assertion could be an allegation that someone connected with prosecution of the patent withheld relevant information from the USPTO, or made a misleading statement, during prosecution. Third parties may institute such claims before administrative bodies in the United States or abroad, even outside the context of litigation. Such mechanisms include re-examination, post-grant review, inter parties review, interference proceedings, derivation proceedings, and equivalent proceedings in foreign jurisdictions (e.g., opposition proceedings).

An adverse result in any such proceeding could put one or more of our owned or in-licensed patents at risk of being invalidated or interpreted narrowly, and could put any of our owned or in-licensed patent applications at risk of not yielding an issued patent. A court may also refuse to stop the third party from using the technology at issue in a proceeding on the grounds that our owned or in-licensed patents do not cover such technology. Furthermore, because of the substantial amount of discovery required in connection with intellectual property litigation, there is a risk that some of our confidential information or trade secrets could be compromised by disclosure during this type of litigation. Any of the foregoing could allow such third parties to develop and commercialize competing technologies and products and have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.

Third parties may initiate legal proceedings alleging that we are infringing, misappropriating or otherwise violating their intellectual property rights, the outcome of which would be uncertain and could have a material adverse effect on the success of our business.

Our commercial success depends upon our ability, and the ability of our collaborators, to develop, manufacture, market and sell our drug candidates and use our proprietary technologies without infringing, misappropriating or otherwise violating the intellectual property and proprietary rights of third parties. There is considerable patent and other intellectual property litigation in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. We may become party to, or threatened with, adversarial proceedings or litigation regarding intellectual property rights with respect to our technology and drug candidates, including interference proceedings, post grant review, inter parties review, and derivation proceedings before the USPTO and similar proceedings in foreign jurisdictions such as oppositions before the European Patent Office.

The legal threshold for initiating litigation or contested proceedings is low, so that even lawsuits or proceedings with a low probability of success might be initiated and require significant resources to defend. Litigation and contested proceedings can also be expensive and time-consuming, and our adversaries in these proceedings may have the ability to dedicate substantially greater resources to prosecuting these legal actions than we can. The risks of being involved in such litigation and proceedings may increase if and as our drug candidates near commercialization and as we gain the greater visibility associated with being a public company. Third parties may assert infringement claims against us based on existing patents or patents that may be granted in the future, regardless of merit. We may not be aware of all such intellectual property rights potentially relating to our technology and drug candidates and their uses. Thus, we do not know with certainty that our technology and drug candidates, or our development and commercialization thereof, do not and will not infringe, misappropriate or otherwise violate any third party’s intellectual property.

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Even if we believe that third party intellectual property claims are without merit, there is no assurance that a court would find in our favor on questions of misappropriation, infringement, validity, enforceability, or priority. A court of competent jurisdiction could hold these third-party patents are valid, enforceable, and infringed, which could materially and adversely affect our ability to commercialize any technology or drug candidate covered by the asserted third-party patents. In order to successfully challenge the validity of any such U.S. patent in federal court, we would need to overcome a presumption of validity. As this burden is a high one requiring us to present clear and convincing evidence as to the invalidity of any such U.S. patent claim, there is no assurance that a court of competent jurisdiction would invalidate the claims of any such U.S. patent.

If we are found to infringe, misappropriate or otherwise violate a third party’s intellectual property rights, we could be required to obtain a license from such third party to continue developing, manufacturing and marketing our technology and drug candidates. However, we may not be able to obtain any required license on commercially reasonable terms or at all. Even if we were able to obtain a license, it could be non-exclusive; thereby giving our competitors and other third parties access to the same technologies licensed to us and could require us to make substantial licensing and royalty payments. We could be forced, including by court order, to cease developing, manufacturing and commercializing the infringing technology or drug. In addition, we could be found liable for significant monetary damages, including treble damages and attorneys’ fees, if we are found to have willfully infringed a patent or other intellectual property right and could be forced to indemnify our collaborators or others. A finding of infringement could prevent us from commercializing our drug candidates or force us to cease some of our business operations, which could materially harm our business. In addition, we may be forced to redesign our drug candidates, seek new regulatory approvals and indemnify third parties pursuant to contractual agreements. Claims that we have misappropriated the confidential information or trade secrets of third parties could have a similar material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.

Intellectual property litigation or other legal proceedings relating to intellectual property could cause us to spend substantial resources and distract our personnel from their normal responsibilities.

Even if resolved in our favor, litigation or other legal proceedings relating to intellectual property claims may cause us to incur significant expenses, and could distract our technical and management personnel from their normal responsibilities. In addition, there could be public announcements of the results of hearings, motions or other interim proceedings or developments and if securities analysts or investors perceive these results to be negative, it could have a substantial adverse effect on the price of our common stock. Such litigation or proceedings could substantially increase our operating losses and reduce the resources available for development activities or any future sales, marketing or distribution activities. We may not have sufficient financial or other resources to conduct such litigation or proceedings adequately. Some of our competitors may be able to sustain the costs of such litigation or proceedings more effectively than we can because of their greater financial resources and may also have an advantage in such proceedings due to their more mature and developed intellectual property portfolios. Uncertainties resulting from the initiation and continuation of intellectual property litigation or other proceedings could compromise our ability to compete in the marketplace.

Obtaining and maintaining patent protection depends on compliance with various procedural, document submission, fee payment and other requirements imposed by governmental patent agencies, and our patent protection could be reduced or eliminated for non-compliance with these requirements.

Periodic maintenance, renewal and annuity fees and various other government fees on any issued patent and pending patent application must be paid to the USPTO and foreign patent agencies in several stages or annually over the lifetime of our owned and in-licensed patents and patent applications. The USPTO and various foreign governmental patent agencies require compliance with a number of procedural, documentary, fee payment and other similar provisions during the patent application process. In certain circumstances, we rely on our licensing partners to pay these fees to, or comply with the procedural and documentary rules of, the relevant patent agency. With respect to our patents, we rely on an annuity service to remind us of the due dates and to make payment after we instruct them to do so. While an inadvertent lapse can in many cases be cured by payment of a late fee or by other means in accordance with the applicable rules, there are situations in which noncompliance can result in abandonment or lapse of the patent or patent application, resulting in partial or complete loss of patent rights in the relevant jurisdiction. Non-compliance events that could result in abandonment or lapse of a patent or patent application include failure to respond to official actions within prescribed time limits, non-payment of fees and failure to properly legalize and submit formal documents. In such an event, potential competitors might be able to enter the market with similar or

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identical products or technology. If we or our licensors fail to maintain the patents and patent applications directed to our drug candidates, it would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.

If we fail to comply with our obligations in our intellectual property licenses and funding arrangements with third parties, we could lose rights that are important to our business.

We are party to license and funding agreements that impose, and we may enter into additional licensing and funding arrangements with third parties that may impose, diligence, development and commercialization timelines, milestone payment, royalty, insurance and other obligations on us. Under our existing licensing and funding agreements, we are obligated to pay certain specified milestone payments and royalties on net drug sales of drug candidates or related technologies to the extent they are covered by the agreements. If we fail to comply with such obligations under current or future license and funding agreements, our counterparties may have the right to terminate these agreements or require us to grant them certain rights. Such an occurrence could materially adversely affect the value of any drug candidate being developed under any such agreement. For example, under the AF Agreement, we are required to use commercially reasonable efforts to research, develop and commercialize LP-184. If we fail to meet the foregoing obligation, then, under certain circumstances, AF may terminate the AF Agreement and may exercise the exclusive, sub-licensable and worldwide license we granted AF in and to certain of our intellectual property to develop and commercialize LP-184. Termination of these agreements or reduction or elimination of our rights under these agreements may result in our having to negotiate new or reinstated agreements with less favorable terms, or cause us to lose our rights under these agreements, including our rights to important intellectual property or technology, which would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.

Additionally, these and other license agreements may not provide exclusive rights to use the licensed intellectual property and technology in all relevant fields of use and in all territories in which we may wish to develop or commercialize our technology and drugs in the future. As a result, we may not be able to prevent competitors from developing and commercializing competitive products and technology in fields of use and territories not included in such agreements. In addition, we may not have the right to control the preparation, filing, prosecution, maintenance, enforcement, and defense of patents and patent applications directed to the technology that we license from third parties. Therefore, we cannot be certain that these patents and patent applications will be prepared, filed, prosecuted, maintained, and defended in a manner consistent with the best interests of our business. If our licensors fail to prosecute, maintain, enforce, and defend such patents, or lose rights to those patents or patent applications, the rights we have licensed may be reduced or eliminated, and our right to develop and commercialize any of our drugs that are the subject of such licensed rights could be adversely affected.

We may need to obtain additional licenses from others to advance our research or allow commercialization of our drug candidates. It is possible that we may be unable to obtain additional licenses at a reasonable cost or on reasonable terms, if at all, or such licenses may be non-exclusive. The licensing or acquisition of third-party intellectual property rights is a competitive area, and several more established companies may pursue strategies to license or acquire third-party intellectual property rights that we may consider attractive or necessary. These established companies may have a competitive advantage over us due to their size, capital resources and greater clinical development and commercialization capabilities. In addition, companies that perceive us to be a competitor may be unwilling to assign or license rights to us. We also may be unable to license or acquire third-party intellectual property rights on terms that would allow us to make an appropriate return on our investment or at all.

If we are unable to obtain rights to required third-party intellectual property rights or maintain the existing intellectual property rights we have, we may be required to expend significant time and resources to redesign our technology, drug candidates, or the methods for manufacturing them or to develop or license replacement technology, all of which may not be feasible on a technical or commercial basis. If we are unable to do so, we may be unable to develop or commercialize the affected technology and drug candidates, which could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects significantly.

Disputes may arise regarding intellectual property subject to a licensing agreement, including:

•        the scope of rights granted under the license agreement and other interpretation related issues;

•        the extent to which our technology and processes infringe on intellectual property of the licensor that is not subject to the licensing agreement;

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•        the sublicensing of patent and other rights under our collaborative development relationships;

•        our diligence obligations under the license agreement and what activities satisfy those diligence obligations;

•        the inventorship and ownership of inventions and know-how resulting from the joint creation or use of intellectual property by our licensors and us and our partners; and

•        the priority of invention of patented technology.

In addition, the agreements under which we currently license intellectual property or technology from third parties are complex, and certain provisions in such agreements may be susceptible to multiple interpretations. The resolution of any contract interpretation disagreement that may arise could narrow what we believe to be the scope of our rights to the relevant intellectual property or technology, or increase what we believe to be our financial or other obligations under the relevant agreement, either of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects. Moreover, if disputes over intellectual property that we have licensed prevent or impair our ability to maintain our current licensing arrangements on commercially acceptable terms, we may be unable to successfully develop and commercialize the affected technology and drug candidates, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial conditions, results of operations, and prospects.

Our licensors may have relied on third-party consultants or collaborators or on funds from third parties such that our licensors are not the sole and exclusive owners of the patents and patent applications we in-licensed. If other third parties have ownership rights to our in-licensed patents, they may be able to license such patents to our competitors, and our competitors could market competing products and technology. This could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, business, financial conditions, results of operations, and prospects.

In spite of our best efforts, our licensors might conclude that we have materially breached our license agreements and might therefore terminate the license agreements, thereby removing our ability to develop and commercialize drug candidates and technology covered by these license agreements. If these in-licenses are terminated, or if the underlying intellectual property fails to provide the intended exclusivity, competitors would have the freedom to seek regulatory approval of, and to market, products and technologies identical to ours. This could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, business, financial conditions, results of operations, and prospects.

We may not be able to protect our intellectual property and proprietary rights throughout the world.

Filing, prosecuting, and defending patents on drug candidates in all countries throughout the world would be prohibitively expensive, and the laws of foreign countries may not protect our rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States. Consequently, we may not be able to prevent third parties from practicing our inventions in all countries outside the United States, or from selling or importing products made using our inventions in and into the United States or other jurisdictions. Competitors may use our technologies in jurisdictions where we have not obtained patent protection to develop their own products and, further, may export otherwise infringing products to territories where we have patent protection or licenses but enforcement is not as strong as that in the United States. These products may compete with our products, and our patents or other intellectual property rights may not be effective or sufficient to prevent them from competing.

Many companies have encountered significant problems in protecting and defending intellectual property rights in foreign jurisdictions. The legal systems of certain countries, particularly certain developing countries, do not favor the enforcement of patents, trade secrets, and other intellectual property protection, particularly those relating to pharmaceutical products, which could make it difficult for us to stop the infringement of our patents or marketing of competing products in violation of our intellectual property and proprietary rights generally. Proceedings to enforce our intellectual property and proprietary rights in foreign jurisdictions could result in substantial costs and divert our efforts and attention from other aspects of our business, could put our patents at risk of being invalidated or interpreted narrowly, could put our patent applications at risk of not issuing, and could provoke third parties to assert claims against us. We may not prevail in any lawsuits that we initiate, and the damages or other remedies awarded, if any, may not be commercially meaningful. Accordingly, our efforts to enforce our intellectual property and proprietary rights around the world may be inadequate to obtain a significant commercial advantage from the intellectual property that we develop or license.

Many countries have compulsory licensing laws under which a patent owner may be compelled to grant licenses to third parties. In addition, many countries limit the enforceability of patents against government agencies

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or government contractors. In these countries, the patent owner may have limited remedies, which could materially diminish the value of such patent. If we or any of our licensors is forced to grant a license to third parties with respect to any patents relevant to our business, our competitive position may be impaired, and our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects may be adversely affected.

We may be subject to claims by third parties asserting that our employees, consultants, contractors or advisors have wrongfully used or disclosed alleged trade secrets of their current or former employers or claims asserting we have misappropriated their intellectual property, or claiming ownership of what we regard as our own intellectual property.

Many of our employees, consultants, contractors and advisors were previously employed, or may currently be employed, at universities or other pharmaceutical or biotechnology companies, including our competitors or potential competitors. Although we try to ensure that our employees, contractors and advisors do not use the proprietary information or know-how of others in their work for us, we may be subject to claims that these individuals or we have used or disclosed intellectual property, including trade secrets or other proprietary information, of any such individual’s current or former employer. Litigation may be necessary to defend against these claims.

In addition, while it is our policy to require our employees, consultants, contractors and advisors who may be involved in the development of intellectual property to execute agreements assigning such intellectual property to us, we may be unsuccessful in executing such an agreement with each party who in fact develops intellectual property that we regard as our own. Our intellectual property assignment agreements with them may not be self-executing or may be breached, and we may be forced to bring claims against third parties, or defend claims they may bring against us, to determine the ownership of what we regard as our intellectual property. Such claims could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial conditions, results of operations, and prospects.

If we fail in prosecuting or defending any such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable intellectual property rights or personnel, which could have a material adverse effect on our competitive business position and prospects. Such intellectual property rights could be awarded to a third party, and we could be required to obtain a license from such third party to commercialize our technology or products, which license may not be available on commercially reasonable terms, or at all, or such license may be non-exclusive. Even if we are successful in prosecuting or defending against such claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and be a distraction to our management and employees.

In addition to seeking patents for some of our technology and drug candidates, we also rely on trade secrets and confidentiality agreements relating to the development of our RADR® platform to protect our unpatented know-how, technology and other proprietary information, in order to maintain our competitive position. We seek to protect our trade secrets and other proprietary technology, in part, by entering into non-disclosure and confidentiality agreements with parties who have access to them, such as our employees, corporate collaborators, outside scientific collaborators, contract research organizations, contract manufacturers, consultants, advisors and other third parties. We also enter into confidentiality and invention or patent assignment agreements with our employees and consultants. We cannot guarantee that we have entered into such agreements with each party that may have or has had access to our trade secrets or proprietary technology. Despite these efforts, any of these parties may breach the agreements and disclose our proprietary information, including our trade secrets, and we may not be able to obtain adequate remedies for such breaches. Detecting the disclosure or misappropriation of a trade secret and enforcing a claim that a party illegally disclosed or misappropriated a trade secret is difficult, expensive and time-consuming, and the outcome is unpredictable. In addition, some courts inside and outside of the United States are less willing or unwilling to protect trade secrets. If any of our trade secrets were to be lawfully obtained or independently developed by a competitor or other third party, we would have no right to prevent them, or those to whom they communicate it, from using that technology or information to compete with us. If any of our trade secrets were to be disclosed to or independently developed by a competitor or other third party, our competitive position would be materially and adversely harmed.

Intellectual property rights do not necessarily address all potential threats.

The degree of future protection afforded by our intellectual property rights is uncertain because intellectual property rights have limitations and may not adequately protect our business or permit us to maintain our competitive advantage. For example:

•        our RADR® platform is not protected by any issued patents, and we may not be able to obtain, develop, acquire or in-license any patentable technologies or other intellectual property related to such platform;

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•        we, or our license partners or current or future collaborators, might not have been the first to make the inventions covered by the issued patent or pending patent applications that we license or may own in the future;

•        we, or our license partners or current or future collaborators, might not have been the first to file patent applications covering certain of our or their inventions;

•        others may independently develop similar or alternative technologies or duplicate any of our technologies without infringing our owned or in-licensed intellectual property rights;

•        it is possible that our owned and in-licensed pending patent applications or those we may own or in-license in the future will not lead to issued patents;

•        issued patents that we hold rights to may be held invalid or unenforceable, including as a result of legal challenges by our competitors;

•        our competitors might conduct research and development activities in countries where we do not have patent rights and then use the information learned from such activities to develop competitive products for sale in our major commercial markets;

•        we may not develop additional proprietary technologies that are patentable;

•        the patents of others may harm our business; and

•        we may choose not to file a patent in order to maintain certain trade secrets or know-how, and a third party may subsequently file a patent covering such intellectual property.

Should any of these events occur, they could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.

Risks Related to Owning our Common Stock and this Offering

An active trading market for our common stock may not develop, and you may not be able to sell your common stock at or above the initial public offering price.

Prior to the consummation of this offering, there has been no public market for our common stock. An active trading market for shares of our common stock may never develop or be sustained following this offering. If an active trading market does not develop, you may have difficulty selling your shares of common stock at an attractive price, or at all. The price for our common stock in this offering will be determined by negotiations between us and the underwriters, and it may not be indicative of prices that will prevail in the open market following this offering. Consequently, you may not be able to sell your common stock at or above the initial public offering price or at any other price or at the time that you would like to sell. An inactive market may also impair our ability to raise capital by selling our common stock, and it may impair our ability to attract and motivate our employees through equity incentive awards and our ability to acquire other companies, drugs or technologies by using our common stock as consideration.

The price of our common stock may fluctuate substantially.

You should consider an investment in our common stock to be risky, and you should invest in our common stock only if you can withstand a significant loss and wide fluctuations in the market value of your investment. Some factors that may cause the market price of our common stock to fluctuate, in addition to the other risks mentioned in this “Risk Factors” section and elsewhere in this prospectus, are:

•        sale of our common stock by our stockholders, executives, and directors;

•        volatility and limitations in trading volumes of our shares of common stock;

•        our ability to obtain financings to conduct and complete research and development activities including, but not limited to, our proposed clinical trials, and other business activities;

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•        possible delays in the expected recognition of revenue due to lengthy and sometimes unpredictable sales timelines;

•        the timing and success of introductions of new applications or our competitors or any other change in the competitive dynamics of our industry, including consolidation among competitors, customers or strategic partners;

•        network outages or security breaches;

•        the lack of market acceptance and sales growth for our drug candidates, if any, that receive marketing approval;

•        our ability to secure resources and the necessary personnel to conduct clinical trials on our desired schedule;

•        commencement, enrollment or results of our clinical trials for our drug candidates or any future clinical trials we may conduct;

•        changes in the development status of our drug candidates;

•        any delays or adverse developments or perceived adverse developments with respect to the FDA’s review of our planned preclinical studies and clinical trials;

•        any delay in our submission for studies or drug approvals or adverse regulatory decisions, including failure to receive regulatory approval for our drug candidates;

•        unanticipated safety concerns related to the use of our drug candidates;

•        failures to meet external expectations or management guidance;

•        changes in our capital structure or dividend policy, future issuances of securities, sales of large blocks of common stock by our stockholders;

•        our cash position;

•        announcements and events surrounding financing efforts, including debt and equity securities;

•        our inability to enter into new markets or develop new drugs;

•        reputational issues;

•        competition from existing technologies and drugs or new technologies and drugs that may emerge;

•        announcements of acquisitions, partnerships, collaborations, joint ventures, new drugs, capital commitments, or other events by us or our competitors;

•        changes in general economic, political and market conditions in or any of the regions in which we conduct our business;

•        changes in industry conditions or perceptions;

•        changes in valuations of similar companies or groups of companies;

•        analyst research reports, recommendation and changes in recommendations, price targets, and withdrawals of coverage;

•        departures and additions of key personnel;

•        disputes and litigations related to intellectual properties, proprietary rights, and contractual obligations;

•        changes in applicable laws, rules, regulations, or accounting practices and other dynamics; and

•        other events or factors, many of which may be out of our control.

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In addition, if the market for stocks in our industry or industries related to our industry, or the stock market in general, experiences a loss of investor confidence, the trading price of our common stock could decline for reasons unrelated to our business, financial condition and results of operations. If any of the foregoing occurs, it could cause our stock price to fall and may expose us to lawsuits that, even if unsuccessful, could be costly to defend and a distraction to management.

We have broad discretion in the use of the net proceeds from this offering and may not use them effectively.

Our management will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds from this initial public offering, including for any of the currently intended purposes described in the section entitled “Use of Proceeds.” Because of the number and variability of factors that will determine our use of the net proceeds from this offering, their ultimate use may vary substantially from their currently intended use. Our management may not apply our cash from this offering in ways that ultimately increase the value of any investment in our securities or enhance stockholder value. The failure by our management to apply these funds effectively could harm our business. Pending their use, we may invest the net proceeds from this offering in short-term, investment-grade, interest-bearing securities. These investments may not yield a favorable return to our stockholders. If we do not invest or apply our cash in ways that enhance stockholder value, we may fail to achieve expected financial results, which may result in a decline in the price of our shares of common stock, and, therefore, may negatively impact our ability to raise capital, invest in or expand our business, acquire additional drugs or licenses, commercialize our drugs, or continue our operations.

We may acquire other companies or technologies, which could divert our management’s attention, result in dilution to our stockholders and otherwise disrupt our operations and adversely affect our operating results.

We may in the future seek to acquire or invest in businesses, applications and services or technologies that we believe could complement or expand our services, enhance our technical capabilities or otherwise offer growth opportunities. The pursuit of potential acquisitions may divert the attention of management and cause us to incur various expenses in identifying, investigating and pursuing suitable acquisitions, whether or not they are consummated.

In addition, we do not have any experience in acquiring other businesses. If we acquire additional businesses, we may not be able to integrate the acquired personnel, operations and technologies successfully or effectively manage the combined business following the acquisition. We also may not achieve the anticipated benefits from the acquired business due to a number of factors, including:

•        inability to integrate or benefit from acquired technologies or services in a profitable manner;

•        unanticipated costs or liabilities associated with the acquisition;

•        difficulty integrating the accounting systems, operations and personnel of the acquired business;

•        difficulties and additional expenses associated with supporting legacy drugs and hosting infrastructure of the acquired business;

•        difficulty converting the customers, if any, of the acquired business onto our platform and contract terms, including disparities in the revenue, licensing, support or professional services model of the acquired company;

•        diversion of management’s attention from other business concerns;

•        adverse effects to our existing business relationships with business partners and customers as a result of the acquisition;

•        the potential loss of key employees;

•        use of resources that are needed in other parts of our business; and

•        use of substantial portions of our available cash to consummate the acquisition.

In addition, a significant portion of the purchase price of companies we acquire may be allocated to acquired goodwill and other intangible assets, which must be assessed for impairment at least annually. In the future, if our acquisitions do not yield expected returns, we may be required to take charges to our operating results based on this impairment assessment process, which could adversely affect our results of operations.

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Acquisitions could also result in dilutive issuances of equity securities or the incurrence of debt, which could adversely affect our operating results. In addition, if an acquired business fails to meet our expectations, our operating results, business and financial position may suffer.

Market and economic conditions may negatively impact our business, financial condition and share price.

Concerns over inflation, energy costs, geopolitical issues, the U.S. mortgage market and a declining real estate market, unstable global credit markets and financial conditions, and volatile oil prices have led to periods of significant economic instability, diminished liquidity and credit availability, declines in consumer confidence and discretionary spending, diminished expectations for the global economy and expectations of slower global economic growth going forward, increased unemployment rates, and increased credit defaults in recent years. Our general business strategy may be adversely affected by any such economic downturns, volatile business environments and continued unstable or unpredictable economic and market conditions. If these conditions continue to deteriorate or do not improve, it may make any necessary debt or equity financing more difficult to complete, more costly, and more dilutive. Failure to secure any necessary financing in a timely manner and on favorable terms could have a material adverse effect on our growth strategy, financial performance, and share price and could require us to delay or abandon development or commercialization plans.

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports, or publish unfavorable research or reports about our business, our stock price and trading volume may decline.

The trading market for our common stock will rely in part on the research and reports that industry or financial analysts publish about us, our business, our markets and our competitors. We do not control these analysts. If securities analysts do not cover our common stock after the closing of this offering, the lack of research coverage may adversely affect the market price of our common stock. Furthermore, if one or more of the analysts who do cover us downgrade our stock or if those analysts issue other unfavorable commentary about us or our business, our stock price would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of us or fails to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the market and interest in our stock could decrease, which in turn could cause our stock price or trading volume to decline and may also impair our ability to expand our business with existing customers and attract new customers.

Because certain of our stockholders control a significant number of shares of our common stock, they may have effective control over actions requiring stockholder approval.

Following this offering, our directors, executive officers and principal stockholders, and their respective affiliates, will beneficially own approximately 51% of our outstanding shares of common stock. As a result, these stockholders, acting together, would have the ability to control the outcome of matters submitted to our stockholders for approval, including the election of directors and any merger, consolidation or sale of all or substantially all of our assets. In addition, these stockholders, acting together, would have the ability to control the management and affairs of our company. Accordingly, this concentration of ownership might harm the market price of our common stock by:

•        delaying, deferring or preventing a change in corporate control;

•        impeding a merger, consolidation, takeover or other business combination involving us; or

•        discouraging a potential acquirer from making a tender offer or otherwise attempting to obtain control of us.

A significant portion of our total outstanding shares of common stock are restricted from immediate resale but may be sold at the same time into the market in the near future, which could cause our stock price to decline.

A significant number of our outstanding shares of common stock held by our directors, executive officers and certain stockholders are subject to contractual lock-up restrictions on resale for a period of six months after the date of this prospectus as more fully described in the section titled “Underwriting” in this prospectus. If these stockholders sell, or indicate an intent to sell, substantial amounts of our common stock in the public market after the expiration of the applicable lock-up period, the trading price of our common stock could decline significantly and could decline below the public offering price.

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In addition, subject to contractual lock-up restrictions discussed above, holders of approximately 3,118,316 shares of our common stock, including shares of common stock issuable under outstanding options and warrants, have the right to require us to register these shares under the Securities Act pursuant to an Amended and Restated Investors’ Rights Agreement as more fully described in section titled “Description of Capital Stock — Registration Rights” in this prospectus. If our existing stockholders sell substantial amounts of our common stock in the public market, or if the public perceives that such sales could occur, this could have an adverse impact on the market price of our common stock, even if there is no relationship between such sales and the performance of our business.

You will incur immediate dilution as a result of this offering.

If you purchase common stock in this offering, you will pay more for your shares than the net tangible book value of your shares. As a result, you will incur immediate dilution of $11.23 per share, representing the difference between the initial public offering price of $15.00 per share and our pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share as of March 31, 2020 of $3.77. Accordingly, should we be liquidated at our book value, you would not receive the full amount of your investment.

Future sales and issuances of our common stock could result in additional dilution of the percentage ownership of our stockholders and could cause our share price to fall.

We expect that significant additional capital will be needed in the future to continue our planned operations, including increased marketing, hiring new personnel, commercializing our drugs, and continuing activities as an operating public company. To the extent we raise additional capital by issuing equity securities; our stockholders may experience substantial dilution. We may sell common stock, convertible securities or other equity securities in one or more transactions at prices and in a manner we determine from time to time. If we sell common stock, convertible securities or other equity securities in more than one transaction, investors may be materially diluted by subsequent sales. Such sales may also result in material dilution to our existing stockholders, and new investors could gain rights superior to our existing stockholders.

We do not intend to pay cash dividends on our shares of common stock so any returns will be limited to the value of our shares.

We currently anticipate that we will retain future earnings for the development, operation and expansion of our business and do not anticipate declaring or paying any cash dividends for the foreseeable future. Any return to stockholders will therefore be limited to the increase, if any, of our share price.

We are an “emerging growth company” and will be able to avail ourselves of reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies, which could make our common stock less attractive to investors.

We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, or the JOBS Act, and we intend to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not “emerging growth companies” including not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements, and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. In addition, Section 107 of the JOBS Act also provides that an “emerging growth company” can take advantage of the extended transition period provided in Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act, for complying with new or revised accounting standards. In other words, an “emerging growth company” can delay the adoption of certain accounting standards until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies. We are not electing to delay such adoption of new or revised accounting standards, and as a result, we will comply with new or revised accounting standards on the relevant dates on which adoption of such standards is required for non-emerging growth companies. We cannot predict if investors will find our common stock less attractive because we may rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our common stock less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our common stock and our stock price may be more volatile. We may take advantage of these reporting exemptions until we are no longer an “emerging growth company.” We will remain an “emerging growth company” until the earliest of (i) the last day of the fiscal year in which we have total annual gross revenues of $1.07 billion or

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more; (ii) the last day of our fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the date of the completion of this offering; (iii) the date on which we have issued more than $1 billion in nonconvertible debt during the previous three years; or (iv) the date on which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer under the rules of the SEC.

We may be at risk of securities class action litigation.

We may be at risk of securities class action litigation. In the past, biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies have experienced significant stock price volatility, particularly when associated with binary events such as clinical trials and drug approvals. If we face such litigation, it could result in substantial costs and a diversion of management’s attention and resources, which could harm our business and results in a decline in the market price of our common stock.

There is no assurance that an active and liquid trading market in our common stock will develop.

Even though our shares may be listed on the NASDAQ Capital Market, there can be no assurance any broker will be interested in trading our common stock. Therefore, it may be difficult to sell any shares you purchase in this offering if you desire or need to sell them. The underwriters are not obligated to make a market in our common stock, and even after making a market, can discontinue market making at any time without notice. Neither we nor the underwriters can provide any assurance that an active and liquid trading market in our common stock will develop or, if developed, that the market will continue.

Our certificate of incorporation and our by-laws, and Delaware law may have anti-takeover effects that could discourage, delay or prevent a change in control, which may cause our stock price to decline.

Our certificate of incorporation, and our by-laws, and Delaware law could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire us, even if closing such a transaction would be beneficial to our stockholders. We will be authorized to issue up to 1,000,000 shares of preferred stock upon the completion of this offering and the filing of our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation with the State of Delaware. This preferred stock may be issued in one or more series, the terms of which may be determined at the time of issuance by our board of directors without further action by stockholders. The terms of any series of preferred stock may include voting rights (including the right to vote as a series on particular matters), preferences as to dividend, liquidation, conversion and redemption rights and sinking fund provisions. None of our preferred stock will be outstanding at the closing of this offering. The issuance of any preferred stock could materially adversely affect the rights of the holders of our common stock, and therefore, reduce the value of our common stock. In particular, specific rights granted to future holders of preferred stock could be used to restrict our ability to merge with, or sell our assets to, a third party and thereby preserve control by the present management.

Provisions of our certificate of incorporation, by-laws and Delaware law also could have the effect of discouraging potential acquisition proposals or making a tender offer or delaying or preventing a change in control, including changes a stockholder might consider favorable. Such provisions may also prevent or frustrate attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our management. In particular, our certificate of incorporation and by-laws and Delaware law, as applicable, among other things:

•        provide the board of directors with the ability to alter the by-laws without stockholder approval;

•        establishing advance notice requirements for nominations for election to the board of directors or for proposing matters that can be acted upon at stockholder meetings; and

•        provide that vacancies on the board of directors may be filled by a majority of directors in office, although less than a quorum.

Our by-laws designate the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware (or, if the Court of Chancery does not have jurisdiction, the federal district court for the District of Delaware) as the exclusive forum for certain types of claims, which may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable.

Section 7.06 of our by-laws specifies that unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the court of Chancery of the State of Delaware (or, if the Court of Chancery does not have jurisdiction, the federal district court for the District of Delaware) shall, to the fullest extent permitted by law, be the sole and exclusive forum for: (a) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf; any action asserting a claim of breach of fiduciary duty owed by any of our

53

directors, officers or other employees to us or to our stockholders; (b) any action asserting a claim against us arising pursuant to the Delaware General Corporation Law (“DGCL”) or certificate of incorporation or our by-laws; or (c) or any action asserting a claim against us that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine. There is uncertainty as to whether a court would enforce this provision with respect to claims under the Securities Act and our stockholders cannot waive compliance with the federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder. The exclusive forum provision may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes against us and our directors, officers and other employees, which may discourage such lawsuits, or may require increased costs to bring a claim.

Financial reporting obligations of being a public company in the United States require well defined disclosure and financial controls and procedures that we did not have as a private company and that are expensive and time-consuming requiring our management to devote substantial time to compliance matters.

As a publicly traded company, we will incur significant additional legal, accounting and other expenses that we did not incur as a privately held company. For example, as a privately held company, we were not required to have, and did not have, well defined disclosure and financial controls and procedures or systems of internal controls over financial reporting that are generally required of publicly held companies. In connection with our review of our previously existing internal controls as part of our preparations for becoming a publicly traded company, we determined that our internal controls over financial reporting for prior periods were inadequate and included material weaknesses that needed to be remedied. Although we have taken, and are continuing to take, additional steps to remedy these material weaknesses in order to assure compliance with our future financial reporting obligations, there can be no assurance that we will be able to do so in a timely manner or at all.

These reporting obligations associated with being a public company in the United States require significant expenditures and will place significant demands on our management and other personnel, including costs resulting from our reporting obligations under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, (the “Exchange Act”), and the rules and regulations regarding corporate governance practices, including those under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as amended, (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”), the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, as amended, (the “Dodd-Frank Act”), and the listing requirements of the stock exchange on which our securities are to be listed. These rules require the establishment and maintenance of effective disclosure and financial controls and procedures, internal control over financial reporting and changes in corporate governance practices, among many other complex rules that are often difficult to implement, monitor and maintain compliance with. Moreover, despite recent reforms made possible by the JOBS Act, the reporting requirements, rules, and regulations will make some activities more time-consuming and costly, particularly after we are no longer an “emerging growth company.” In addition, we expect these rules and regulations to make it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance. Our management and other personnel will need to devote a substantial amount of time to ensure that we comply with all of these requirements and to keep pace with new regulations, otherwise we may fall out of compliance and risk becoming subject to litigation or being delisted, among other potential problems.

If we fail to comply with the rules under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act related to accounting controls and procedures in the future, or, if we discover additional material weaknesses and other deficiencies in our internal control and accounting procedures, our stock price could decline significantly and raising capital could be more difficult.

Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires annual management assessments of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting after a transition period ending with our second annual report on Form 10-K filed under Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. If we fail to comply with the rules under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act related to disclosure controls and procedures in the future, or, if in the future we discover additional material weaknesses and other deficiencies in our internal control and accounting procedures, our stock price could decline significantly and raising capital could be more difficult.

Comprehensive tax reform bills could adversely affect our business and financial condition.

The U.S. government recently enacted comprehensive federal income tax legislation that includes significant changes to the taxation of business entities. These changes include, among others, a permanent reduction to the corporate income tax rate. Notwithstanding the reduction in the corporate income tax rate, the overall impact of this tax reform is uncertain, and our business and financial condition could be adversely affected. This prospectus does not discuss any such tax legislation or the manner in which it might affect purchasers of our common stock. We urge our stockholders to consult with their legal and tax advisors with respect to any such legislation and the potential tax consequences of investing in our common stock.

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus contains forward-looking statements that involve substantial risks and uncertainties. All statements, other than statements of historical fact, contained in this prospectus, including statements regarding our strategy, future preclinical studies and clinical trials, future financial position, projected costs, prospects, plans and objectives of management, are forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements are contained principally in the sections entitled “Prospectus Summary,” “Business,” “Risk Factors,” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.” The words “anticipate,” “believe,” “contemplate,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “seek,” “may,” “might,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “target,” “aim,” “should,” ‘will” “would,” or the negative of these words or other similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these words. Forward-looking statements reflect our current views with respect to future events and are based on assumptions and subject to risks and uncertainties.

The forward-looking statements in this prospectus include, among other things, statements relating to:

•        the potential advantages of our RADR® platform in identifying drug candidates and patient populations that are likely to respond to a drug candidate;

•        our strategic plans to advance the development of any of our drug candidates;

•        our strategic plans to expand the number of data points that our RADR® platform can access and analyze;

•        our research and development efforts of our internal drug discovery programs and the utilization of our RADR® platform to streamline the drug development process;

•        the initiation, timing, progress, and results of our preclinical studies or clinical trials on any of our drug candidates;

•        our intention to leverage artificial intelligence, machine learning and genomic data to streamline the drug development process and to identify patient populations that would likely respond to a drug candidate;

•        our plans to discover and develop drug candidates and to maximize their commercial potential by advancing such drug candidates ourselves or in collaboration with others;

•        our expectations regarding our ability to fund our operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements with our cash, cash equivalents, and the proceeds of this offering;

•        our ability to secure sufficient funding and alternative source of funding to support our existing and proposed preclinical studies and clinical trials;

•        our estimates regarding the potential market opportunity for our drug candidates we or any of our collaborators may in the future develop;

•        our anticipated growth strategies and our ability to manage the expansion of our business operations effectively;

•        our expectations related to the use of proceeds from this offering;

•        our ability to keep up with rapidly changing technologies and evolving industry standards, including our ability to achieve technological advances;

•        the potential impact of the recent outbreak of COVID-19 may have on our business plans;

•        our ability to source our needs for skilled labor in the fields of artificial intelligence, genomics, biology, oncology and drug development; and

•        the impact of government laws and regulations on the development and commercialization of our drug candidates.

We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions, or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements, and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Actual results or events could differ materially from the plans, intentions, and expectations disclosed in the forward-looking statements we make. We have

55

included important factors in the cautionary statements included in this prospectus, particularly in the “Risk Factor” section, that we believe could cause actual results or events to differ materially from the forward-statements that we make. Furthermore, we operate in a competitive and rapid changing environment. New risks and uncertainties emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict all risks and uncertainties that could have an impact on the forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus.

You should read this prospectus and the documents we reference in this prospectus and have filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. The forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus are made as of the date of this prospectus, and we do not assume any obligation to update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by applicable law.

In addition, statements that “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based upon information available to us as of the date of this prospectus, and while we believe such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete. Our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements.

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MARKET AND INDUSTRY DATA

This prospectus contains estimates, projections and other information concerning our industry, our business and the markets for our drug candidates, including data regarding the estimated size of such markets and the incidence of certain medical conditions. We obtained the industry, market and similar data set forth in this prospectus from our internal estimates and research and from academic and industry research, publications, surveys and studies conducted by third parties, including governmental agencies. In some cases, we do not expressly refer to the sources from which this data is derived. Information that is based on estimates, forecasts, projections, market research or similar methodologies is inherently subject to uncertainties and actual events or circumstances may differ materially from events and circumstances that are assumed in this information. While we believe our internal research is reliable, such research has not been verified by any third party.

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We estimate that the net proceeds from this offering will be approximately $23,150,000, or approximately $26,792,644 if the underwriters exercise in full their over-allotment option, after deducting the underwriting discount and estimated offering expenses payable by us and based on an initial public offering price of $15.00 per share.

We intend to use the net proceeds of this offering as follows:

•        Approximately $13.5 million to advance clinical trial testing, preclinical studies, manufacturing (both GMP and non-GMP), scale-up optimization, and key biomarker studies for our drug candidates LP-300 and LP-184;

•        Approximately $2.0 million to advance further development and expansion of RADR®, including data acquisition and ongoing infrastructure and performance enhancement;

•        Up to approximately $2.5 million for the strategic expansion of our drug candidate portfolio through the acquisition or in-licensing of intellectual property assets;

•        And the balance of approximately $5.15 million for working capital and general corporate purposes.

We will retain broad discretion over the use of the net proceeds of this offering which may result in an allocation of net proceeds in differing amounts than those listed above, or in entirely new areas. The amount and timing of these proposed expenditures will depend on a number of factors, including the progress of any partnering efforts, progress of our research and development efforts, technological advances and the competitive environment for our drug candidates. As a result, you will be relying on the judgment of our management with regard to the use of these net proceeds, and you will not have the opportunity, as part of your investment decision, to assess whether the proceeds are being used appropriately. It is possible that the proceeds will be used in a way that does not yield a favorable, or any, return for us. Pending application of the net proceeds as described above, we intend to invest the proceeds in investment grade interest bearing instruments, or will hold the proceeds in interest bearing or non-interest bearing bank accounts.

We believe that the net proceeds from this offering, together with our existing cash and cash equivalents as of March 31, 2020, and our anticipated expenditures and commitments for calendar year 2020, will enable us to fund our operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements for at least 12 months from the date of this prospectus. We have based this estimate on assumptions that may prove to be wrong, and we could use our available capital resources sooner than we currently expect. We believe the amount of net proceeds from this offering allocated to clinical testing on LP-300 will be sufficient to commence and substantially advance a Phase II clinical trial for LP-300. We also believe that the amount of net proceeds from this offering allocated to preclinical studies and clinical testing on LP-184 will be sufficient to commence and substantially advance a Phase I clinical trial for LP-184. We anticipate that we will need to raise additional funds to complete our planned Phase II clinical trial for LP-300 and our planned Phase I clinical trial for LP-184. Substantial additional funds will also be required to conduct additional clinical trials on LP-300 and LP-184 and before we can expect to commercialize any of our drug candidates, if approved.

In the ordinary course of our business, we anticipate that from time to time we may evaluate the acquisition of, investment in or in-license of additional drug candidates that we believe are capable of rescuing using our RADR® platform or for new drug development and we could use a portion of the net proceeds from this offering for such purposes. While we regularly engage in preliminary discussions relating to the evaluation of potential drug candidates that we may be interested in acquiring or in-licensing, we currently do not have any agreements, arrangements or commitments with respect to any additional investment in new drug candidates.

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DIVIDEND POLICY

We do not anticipate declaring or paying, in the foreseeable future, any cash dividends on our capital stock. We intend to retain all available funds and future earnings, if any, to fund the development and expansion of our business, and we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Any future determination regarding the declaration and payment of dividends, if any, will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on then-existing conditions, including our financial condition, operating results, contractual restrictions, capital requirements, business prospects and other factors our board of directors may deem relevant.

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CAPITALIZATION

The following table sets forth our cash and capitalization, as of March 31, 2020:

•        on an actual basis;

•        on a pro forma basis to reflect 2,028,728 shares of common stock after giving effect to the 1.74 for 1 stock split immediately prior to the closing of this offering

•        on a pro forma basis to reflect the automatic conversion of all outstanding shares of our Series A preferred stock into 2,438,865 shares of common stock and giving effect to the 1.74 for 1 stock split immediately prior to the closing of this offering; and

•        on a pro forma basis as adjusted to give effect to the sale of 1,750,000 shares of our common stock in this offering at a public offering price of $15.00 per share after deducting the underwriting discount and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

You should read the foregoing table together with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and our consolidated financial statements and related notes appearing elsewhere in this prospectus.

 

March 31, 2020

   

Actual

 

Pro Forma (Unaudited)

 

Pro Forma As Adjusted (Unaudited)

Cash

 

$

634,247

 

 

$

634,247

 

 

$

23,784,703

 

Total long-term liabilities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stockholders’ equity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Series A Preferred Stock – Par Value $0.0001 per share; authorized 2,559,061, 1,401,647 shares issued and outstanding, actual; authorized 1,000,000, no shares issued or outstanding pro forma or pro forma as adjusted.

 

 

140

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common Shares – Par Value $0.0001 per share; authorized 15,000,000, 1,165,936 shares issued and outstanding, actual; authorized 25,000,000, 4,467,594 issued and outstanding, pro forma or 6,217,594 issued and outstanding, pro forma as adjusted.

 

 

117

 

 

 

447

 

 

 

622

 

Additional paid-in capital

 

 

7,765,192

 

 

 

7,765,002

 

 

 

30,915,283

 

Accumulated deficit

 

 

(7,228,981

)

 

 

(7,228,981

)

 

 

(7,228,981

)

Total stockholder’s equity

 

 

536,468

 

 

 

536,468

 

 

 

23,686,924

 

Total capitalization

 

$

536,468

 

 

$

536,468

 

 

$

23,686,924

 

The pro forma as adjusted information discussed above is illustrative only and will be adjusted based on the actual public offering price and other terms of this offering determined between us and the underwriter at pricing. The number of shares of common stock outstanding as of March 31, 2020, excludes the following:

•        513,862 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of outstanding stock options at a weighted average exercise price of $1.03 per share;

•        306,743 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of options awarded under our Amended and Restated Equity Incentive Plan to be granted at the closing of this offering;

•        550,102 shares of common stock reserved under our Amended and Restated 2018 Equity Incentive Plan; and

•        262,003 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding Series A purchase warrants.

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DILUTION

If you invest in our common stock in this offering, your ownership interest will be diluted immediately to the extent of the difference between the public offering price per share of our common stock and the pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately after this offering.

As of March 31, 2020, we had a historical net tangible book value of approximately $(7,365,888) or $(6.32) per share of common stock. Our historical net tangible book value per share represents total tangible assets less total liabilities and the liquidation value of our preferred stock divided by the number of shares of our common stock outstanding as of March 31, 2020 before giving effect to the 1.74 for 1 stock split immediately prior to the closing of this offering.

Our pro forma net tangible book value as of March 31, 2020 was $273,088 or $0.06 per share. Pro forma net tangible book value represents the amount of our total tangible assets less total liabilities, after giving effect to the automatic conversion of all shares of our preferred stock outstanding as of March 31, 2020 into an aggregate of 2,438,865 shares of our common stock in connection with this offering and after giving effect to the 1.74 for 1 stock split immediately prior to the closing of this offering. Pro forma net tangible book value per share represents our pro forma net tangible book value divided by the total number of shares outstanding as of March 31, 2020, after giving effect to the pro forma adjustment described above.

After giving effect to the sale of 1,750,000 shares of our common stock in this offering at an initial public offering price of $15.00 per share and after deducting the underwriting discount and estimated offering expenses payable by us, our pro forma, as adjusted net tangible book value per share as of March 31, 2020, would have been $23,423,544 or approximately $3.77 per share. This represents an immediate increase in pro forma, as adjusted net tangible book value per share of $3.71 to existing stockholders and an immediate dilution of approximately $11.23 per share to new investors purchasing shares of our common stock in this offering. We determine dilution by subtracting the pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering from the amount of cash that a new investor paid for a share of common stock. The following table illustrates this dilution.

Public offering price per share

 

 

 

 

 

$

15.00

Historical net tangible book value per share as of March 31, 2020

 

$

(6.32

)

 

 

 

Increase per share attributable to the conversion of our preferred stock

 

$

6.38

 

 

 

 

Pro forma net tangible book value per share as of March 31, 2020

 

$

0.06

 

 

 

 

Increase in per share attributable to this offering

 

$

3.71

 

 

 

 

Pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering

 

 

 

 

 

$

3.77

Dilution per share to new investors

 

 

 

 

 

$

11.23

If the underwriter exercises its over-allotment option in full, our pro forma adjusted net tangible book value would be $27,065,732, or approximately $4.18 per share, representing an increase in the adjusted net tangible book value to existing stockholders of approximately $4.12 per share and immediate dilution of approximately $10.82 per share to new investors purchasing shares of our common stock in this offering.

The following table summarizes, on a pro forma as adjusted basis as of March 31, 2020, the differences between the number of shares of common stock purchased from us, the total consideration and the average price per share paid by existing stockholders and by investors participating in this offering, after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses, at the initial public offering price of $15.00 per share.

     

Shares Purchased

 

Total Consideration

 

Average
Price Per
Share

   

Number

 

%

 

Amount

 

%

   

Existing Stockholders

 

 

4,467,594

 

71.85

 

$

7,765,449

 

22.83

%

 

$

1.74

New Investors

 

 

1,750,000

 

28.15

 

$

26,250,000

 

77.17

%

 

$

15.00

Total

 

$

6,217,594

 

100.00

 

$

34,015,449

 

100

%

 

 

 

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The table and discussion above are based on 4,467,594 shares of common stock outstanding as of March 31, 2020, after giving effect to the conversion of all outstanding shares of our Series A preferred stock into 2,438,865 shares of our common stock and giving effect to the 1.74 for 1 stock split immediately prior to the closing of this offering, and excludes, as of that date, the following:

•        513,862 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of outstanding stock options at a weighted average exercise price of $1.03 per share;

•        306,743 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of options awarded under our Amended and Restated Equity Incentive Plan to be granted at the closing of this offering;

•        550,102 shares of common stock reserved under our Amended and Restated 2018 Equity Incentive Plan; and

•        262,003 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding Series A purchase warrants.

In addition, we may choose to raise additional capital in the future. To the extent that capital is raised through equity or convertible securities, the issuance of those securities may result in further dilution to the holders of common stock.

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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and plan of operations together with our financial statements and the related notes appearing elsewhere in this prospectus. In addition to historical information, this discussion and analysis contains forward-looking statements that involve risks, uncertainties and assumptions. Our actual results may differ materially from those discussed below. Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those identified below, and those discussed in the section titled “Risk Factors” included elsewhere in this prospectus.

Overview

We are a clinical stage biotechnology company, focused on leveraging artificial intelligence (“A.I.”), machine learning and genomic data to streamline the drug development process and to identify the patients that will benefit from our targeted oncology therapies. Our portfolio of therapies consists of small molecules that others have tried, but failed, to develop into an approved commercialized drug, as well as new compounds that we are developing with the assistance of our A.I. platform and our biomarker driven approach. Our A.I. platform, known as RADR®, currently includes more than 275 million data points, and uses big data analytics (combining molecular data, drug efficacy data, data from historical studies, data from scientific literature, phenotypic data from trials and publications, and mechanistic pathway data) and machine learning to rapidly uncover biologically relevant genomic signatures correlated to drug response, and then identify the cancer patients that we believe may benefit most from our compounds. This data-driven, genomically-targeted and biomarker-driven approach allows us to pursue a transformational drug development strategy that identifies, rescues or develops, and advances potential small molecule drug candidates at what we believe is a fraction of the time and cost associated with traditional cancer drug development.

Our strategy is to both develop new drug candidates using our RADR® platform, and other machine learning driven methodologies, and to pursue the development of drug candidates that have undergone previous clinical trial testing or that may have been halted in development or deprioritized because of insufficient clinical trial efficacy (i.e., a meaningful treatment benefit relevant for the disease or condition under study as measured against the comparator treatment used in the relevant clinical testing) or for strategic reasons by the owner or development team responsible for the compound. Importantly, these historical drug candidates appear to have been well-tolerated in many instances, and often have considerable data from previous toxicity, tolerability and ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) studies that have been completed. Additionally, these drug candidates may also have a body of existing data supporting the potential mechanism(s) by which they achieve their intended biologic effect, but often require more targeted trials in a stratified group of patients to demonstrate statistically meaningful results. Our dual approach to both develop de-novo, biomarker-guided drug candidates and “rescue” historical drug-candidates by leveraging A.I., recent advances in genomics, computational biology and cloud computing is emblematic of a new era in drug development that is being driven by data-intensive approaches meant to de-risk development and accelerate the clinical trial process. In this context, we intend to create a diverse portfolio of oncology drug candidates for further development towards regulatory and marketing approval with the objective of establishing a leading A.I.-driven, methodology for treating the right patient with the right oncology therapy.

A key component of our strategy is to target specific cancer patient populations and treatment indications identified by leveraging our RADR® platform, a proprietary A.I. enabled engine created and owned by us. We believe the combination of our therapeutic area expertise, our A.I. expertise, and our ability to identify and develop promising drug candidates through our collaborative relationships with research institutions in selected areas of oncology gives us a significant competitive advantage. Our RADR® platform was developed and refined over the last four years and integrates millions of data points immediately relevant for oncology drug development and patient response prediction using artificial intelligence and proprietary machine learning algorithms. By identifying clinical candidates, together with relevant genomic and phenotypic data, we believe our approach will help us design more efficient pre-clinical studies, and more targeted clinical trials, thereby accelerating our drug candidates’ time to approval and eventually to market. Although we have not yet applied for or received regulatory or marketing approval for any of our drug candidates, we believe our RADR® platform has the ability to reduce the cost and time to bring drug candidates to specifically targeted patient groups. We believe we have developed a sustainable and scalable biopharma business model by combining a unique, oncology-focused big-data platform that leverages artificial intelligence along with active clinical and preclinical programs that are being advanced in targeted cancer therapeutic areas to address today’s treatment needs.

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Our current portfolio consists of three active compounds in development: two drug candidates in clinical phases and, one in preclinical studies. All of these drug candidates are leveraging precision oncology, A.I. and genomic driven approaches to accelerate and direct development efforts. We currently have two drug candidates in clinical development, LP-100 and LP-300, where we are leveraging data from prior preclinical studies and clinical trials, along with insights generated from our A.I. platform, to target the types of tumors and patient groups that would be most responsive to the drug. Both LP-100 and LP-300 showed promise in prior clinical testing, but failed pivotal Phase III trials where the overall results did not meet the required clinical endpoints due to what we believe was a lack of patient stratification driven by an inability to develop biomarker-driven, precision oncology trials. Additionally, we have one new drug candidate, LP-184, in preclinical development for two potentially distinct indications where we are leveraging machine learning and genomic data to streamline the drug development process and to identify the patients and cancer subtypes that will best benefit from the drug, if approved.

Our development strategy is to pursue an increasing number of oncology focused, molecularly targeted therapies where artificial intelligence and genomic data can help us provide biological insights, reduce the risk associated with development efforts and help clarify potential patient response. We plan on strategically evaluating these on a program-by-program basis as they advance into clinical development, either to be done entirely by us or with out-licensing partners to maximize the commercial opportunity and reduce the time it takes to bring the right drug to the right patient

To date, except for a research grant in 2017, we have not generated any revenue, we have incurred net losses and our operations have been financed primarily by sales of our equity securities. Our net losses were approximately $2,428,000 and $1,726,000 for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively. Our net losses for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and March 31, 2019 were approximately $477,000 and $454,000, respectively.

Our net losses have primarily resulted from costs incurred in licensing and developing the drug candidates in our pipeline, planning, preparing and conducting preclinical studies, early stage clinical testing and general and administrative activities associated with our operations. We expect to continue to incur significant expenses and corresponding increased operating losses for the foreseeable future as we continue to develop our pipeline. Our costs may further increase as we conduct preclinical studies and clinical trials and potentially seek regulatory clearance for and prepare to commercialize our drug candidates. We expect to incur significant expenses to continue to build the infrastructure necessary to support our expanded operations, preclinical studies, clinical trials, commercialization, including manufacturing, marketing, sales and distribution functions. We will also experience increased costs associated with operating as a public company.

The development of our drug candidates could be disrupted and materially adversely affected in the future by a pandemic, epidemic or outbreak of an infectious disease like the recent outbreak of COVID-19. For example, as a result of measures imposed by the governments in regions affected by COVID-19 businesses and schools have been suspended due to quarantines or “stay at home” orders intended to contain this outbreak. The spread of COVID-19 from China to other countries has resulted in the Director General of the World Health Organization declaring the outbreak of COVID-19 as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC), based on the advice of the Emergency Committee under the International Health Regulations (2005), and on March 12, 2020, the President of the United States imposed international travel restrictions between the US and Europe to supplement the existing international travel restrictions between the US and certain Asian countries and on March 13, 2020, declared a national emergency in response to the likely spread of COVID-19 to the U.S. COVID-19 continues to spread globally and, as of April 2020, has spread to over 150 countries, including the United States. While the COVID-19 outbreak is still in its early stages, international stock markets continue to reflect the uncertainty associated with the slow-down in the Chinese, US and European economies and the reduced levels of international travel experienced since the beginning of January 2020. The significant declines in the Dow Industrial Average and other domestic and international stock indices at the end of February and during March and April 2020 were largely attributed to the adverse effects the pandemic has had on the world’s economies. We are still assessing our business plans and the impact COVID-19 may have on our ability to advance the development of our drug candidates or to raise financing to support the development of our drug candidates, but no assurances can be given that this analysis will enable us to avoid part or all of any impact from the spread of COVID-019 or its consequences, including downturns in business sentiment generally or in our sector in particular. The spread of an infectious disease, including COVID-19, may also result in the inability of our suppliers to deliver components or raw materials on a timely basis or materially and adversely affect our collaborators and out-license partner’s ability to perform preclinical studies and clinical trials.

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Components of Our Results of Operations

Revenues

We did not recognize revenues for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019 or the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018.

General and Administrative

General and administrative expenses consist of our operating expenses that are not included in the direct costs of production or cost of goods sold which include:

•        corporate office overhead expenses such as salaries of administrative staff and corporate officers;

•        legal expenses;

•        accounting expenses; and

•        rent, utilities and supplies.

Research and Development

Research and development expenses consist primarily of costs incurred for the research and development of our preclinical and clinical candidates, which include:

•        expenses incurred towards consultants, laboratories and investigators that conduct our preclinical or clinical research activities; and

•        the cost of acquiring and developing preclinical study materials and lab supplies.

We expense research and development costs to operations as incurred.

For the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, we incurred an aggregate of approximately $137,000 and $186,000, respectively, in research and development expenses related to the development of LP-100, LP-184, LP-300 and our RADR® platform. For the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, we incurred an aggregate of approximately $953,000 and $572,000, respectively, in research and development expenses related to the development of LP-100, LP-184, LP-300 and our RADR® platform. We expect that our research and development expenses will increase as we plan for and commence our clinical trials of LP-184 and LP-300.

Because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with product development, we cannot determine with certainty the duration and completion costs of these or other current or future clinical trials of LP-184 and LP-300 or our other therapeutic candidates. We may never succeed in achieving regulatory approval for LP-184 and LP-300 or any of our other drug candidates. The duration, costs and timing of clinical trials and development of our therapeutic candidates will depend on a variety of factors, including the uncertainties of future clinical and preclinical studies, uncertainties in clinical trial enrollment rate and significant and changing government regulation. In addition, the probability of success for each drug candidate will depend on numerous factors, including competition, manufacturing capability and commercial viability.

General and Administrative

General and administrative expenses consist primarily of salaries and related costs for employees in executive, finance and administration, corporate development and administrative support functions, including stock-based compensation expenses and benefits. Other significant general and administrative expenses include accounting and legal services, the cost of various consultants, occupancy costs and information systems costs.

We expect that our general and administrative expenses will increase once we operate as public company. We expect increased administrative costs resulting from our anticipated clinical trials and the potential commercialization of our drug candidates. We believe that these increases will likely include increased costs for director and officer liability insurance, hiring additional personnel to support future market research and future product commercialization efforts and increased fees for outside consultants, attorneys and accountants. We also expect to incur increased costs to comply with corporate governance, internal controls, investor relations and disclosures and similar requirements applicable to a public company.

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Financial Operations Overview and Analysis for the Three Months Ended March 31, 2020 and 2019 (unaudited) and Years Ended December 31, 2019 and 2018

 

Three Months Ended
March 31,

 

Year Ended
December 31,

   

2020

 

2019