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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Palomar Holdings, Inc. and Subsidiaries INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

Table of Contents

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on April 8, 2019.

Registration No. 333-230346


UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549



AMENDMENT NO. 2
TO

FORM S-1
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933



PALOMAR HOLDINGS, INC.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)



Delaware
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
  6331
(Primary Standard Industrial
Classification Code Number)
  83-3972551
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)

7979 Ivanhoe Avenue, Suite 500
La Jolla, California 92037
(619) 567-5290
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including
area code, of Registrant's principal executive offices)



Mac Armstrong
Chief Executive Officer
Palomar Holdings, Inc.
7979 Ivanhoe Avenue, Suite 500
La Jolla, California 92037
(619) 567-5290
(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)



Copies to:

Michael S. Kagnoff, Esq.
Patrick J. O'Malley, Esq.
DLA Piper LLP (US)
4365 Executive Drive, Suite 1100
San Diego, California 92121
(858) 677-1400

 

Cheston J. Larson, Esq.
Erika Weinberg, Esq.
Latham & Watkins LLP
12670 High Bluff Drive
San Diego, California 92130
(858) 523-5435



Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public:
As soon as practicable after this registration statement becomes effective.

           If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act, check the following box:    o

           If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.    o

           If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.    o

           If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.    o

           Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

Large accelerated filer o   Accelerated filer o   Non-accelerated filer o   Smaller reporting company ý

Emerging growth company ý

           If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.    o



CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

               
 
Title of Each Class of Securities
to be Registered

  Shares to be
Registered(1)

  Proposed Maximum
Aggregate Offering
Price Per Share

  Maximum
Aggregate Offering
Price(1)(2)

  Amount of
Registration Fee(3)

 

Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per share

  6,468,750   $17.00   $109,968,750   $13,329

 

(1)
Includes offering price of any additional shares that the underwriters have the option to purchase.

(2)
Estimated solely for the purpose of calculating the registration fee in accordance with Rule 457(a) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

(3)
An amount of $6,060 was previously paid by the registrant in connection with the filing of its Registration Statement on Form S-1 on March 15, 2019.

           The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until the registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

   


Table of Contents

The information in this preliminary prospectus is not complete and may be changed. These securities may not be sold until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell nor does it seek an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED APRIL 8, 2019

PRELIMINARY PROSPECTUS

5,625,000 Shares

LOGO

Common Stock



        This is the initial public offering of shares of common stock of Palomar Holdings, Inc. We are offering 5,625,000 shares of our common stock. We estimate that the initial public offering price per share will be between $15.00 and $17.00. For a detailed description of our common stock, see the section entitled "Description of Capital Stock".

        Prior to this offering, there has been no public market for our common stock. We have applied to list our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market ("Nasdaq") under the symbol "PLMR".

        We are an "emerging growth company" as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startup Act and, as such, have elected to comply with certain reduced public company reporting requirements. See "Prospectus Summary—Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company". We will also be a "controlled company" under the corporate governance standards of the Nasdaq Marketplace Rules and will be exempt from certain corporate governance requirements of the rules. See "Prospectus Summary—Our Sponsor and Controlled Company Status" and "Risk Factors—Risks Related to this Offering and Ownership of Our Common Stock".



        Investing in our common stock involves risks. See "Risk Factors" beginning on page 18.



       
 
 
  Per Share
  Total
 

Initial Public Offering Price

  $             $          
 

Underwriting Discount(1)

  $             $          
 

Proceeds Before Expenses(1)

  $             $          

 

(1)
We refer you to the section "Underwriting" of this prospectus for additional information regarding underwriting compensation.

        We have granted the underwriters an option for a period of 30 days following the date of this prospectus to purchase up to an additional 843,750 shares of common stock solely to cover over-allotments at the initial public offering price, less the underwriting discount.

        Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC") nor any other regulatory body has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

        The underwriters expect to deliver the shares to purchasers on or about                , 2019 through the book-entry facilities of The Depository Trust Company.



Joint Book-Running Managers

Barclays   J.P. Morgan   Keefe, Bruyette & Woods
        A Stifel Company
Evercore ISI   William Blair   Sandler O'Neill + Partners, L.P.   SunTrust Robinson Humphrey

Prospectus dated                        , 2019


Table of Contents


TABLE OF CONTENTS

 
  Page  

Prospectus Summary

    1  

Risk Factors

    18  

Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

    45  

Use of Proceeds

    48  

Dividend Policy

    49  

Capitalization

    50  

Dilution

    51  

Selected Consolidated Financial and Other Data

    53  

Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

    55  

Industry

    83  

Business

    86  

Regulation

    111  

Management

    122  

Executive Compensation

    129  

Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions

    138  

Principal Stockholders

    140  

Description of Capital Stock

    142  

Shares Eligible for Future Sale

    146  

Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Consequences to Non-U.S. Holders

    148  

Underwriting

    152  

Legal Matters

    160  

Experts

    160  

Where You Can Find Additional Information

    161  

Index to Consolidated Financial Statements

    F-1  



        You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus and any free writing prospectus that we may provide to you in connection with this offering. We have not, and the underwriters have not, authorized anyone to provide you with different information, and we take no responsibility for any other information others may give you. We are not, and the underwriters are not, making an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should not assume that the information contained in this prospectus is accurate as of any date other than its date. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since that date.

        Persons who come into possession of this prospectus and any such free writing prospectus in jurisdictions outside the United States are required to inform themselves about and to observe any restrictions as to this offering and the distribution of this prospectus and any such free writing prospectus applicable to that jurisdiction.

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Market, Industry and Other Data

        We use market and industry data, forecasts and projections throughout this prospectus. We have obtained certain market and industry data from publicly available industry publications. These sources generally state that the information they provide has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable, but that the accuracy and completeness of the information are not guaranteed. The forecasts and projections are based on historical market data, and there is no assurance that any of the forecasts or projected amounts will be achieved.


Use of Non-GAAP Financial Information

        This prospectus contains certain financial measures and ratios that are not required by, or presented in accordance with, generally accepted accounting principles in the United States ("GAAP"). We refer to these measures as "non-GAAP financial measures." We use these non-GAAP financial measures when planning, monitoring and evaluating our performance. We consider these non-GAAP financial measures to be useful metrics for our management and investors to facilitate operating performance comparisons from period to period.

        The non-GAAP financial measures we use herein are defined by us as follows:

        Underwriting revenue:    We define underwriting revenue as total revenue excluding net investment income and net realized and unrealized gains and losses on investments. Underwriting revenue represents revenue generated by our underwriting operations and allows us to evaluate our underwriting performance without regard to investment income. We use this metric as we believe it gives our management and other users of our financial information useful insight into our underlying business performance. Underwriting revenue should not be viewed as a substitute for total revenue calculated in accordance with GAAP, and other companies may define underwriting revenue differently.

        Underwriting income:    We define underwriting income as income before income taxes excluding net investment income, net realized and unrealized gains and losses on investments, and interest expense. Underwriting income represents the pre-tax profitability of our underwriting operations and allows us to evaluate our underwriting performance without regard to investment income. We use this metric as we believe it gives our management and other users of our financial information useful insight into our underlying business performance. Underwriting income should not be viewed as a substitute for pre-tax income calculated in accordance with GAAP, and other companies may define underwriting income differently.

        Adjusted net income:    We define adjusted net income as net income excluding the impact of expenses relating to various transactions that we consider to be unique and possibly non-recurring in nature. We did not have any adjustments to 2017 and 2016 net income. We use adjusted net income as an internal performance measure in the management of our operations because we believe it gives our management and other users of our financial information useful insight into our results of operations and our underlying business performance. Adjusted net income should not be viewed as a substitute for net income calculated in accordance with GAAP, and other companies may define adjusted net income differently.

        Adjusted return on equity:    We define adjusted return on equity as adjusted net income expressed on an annualized basis as a percentage of average beginning and ending shareholder's equity during the period. We did not have any adjustments to 2017 and 2016 net income. We use adjusted return on equity as an internal performance measure in the management of our operations because we believe it gives our management and other users of our financial information useful insight into our results of operations and our underlying business performance. Adjusted return on equity should not be viewed as a substitute for return on equity calculated in accordance with GAAP, and other companies may define adjusted return on equity differently.

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        Tangible shareholder's equity:    We define tangible shareholder's equity as shareholder's equity less intangible assets. We use tangible shareholder's equity internally to evaluate the strength of our balance sheet and to compare returns relative to this measure. Tangible shareholder's equity should not be viewed as a substitute for shareholder's equity calculated in accordance with GAAP, and other companies may define tangible shareholder's equity differently.

        While we believe that these non-GAAP financial measures are useful in evaluating our business, this information should be considered supplemental in nature and is not meant to be a substitute for revenue or net income, in each case as recognized in accordance with GAAP. In addition, other companies, including companies in our industry, may calculate such measures differently, which reduces their usefulness as comparative measures. For more information regarding these non-GAAP financial measures and a reconciliation of such measures to comparable GAAP financial measures, see "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Financial Measures."

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GLOSSARY OF SELECTED INSURANCE AND OTHER TERMS

        Admitted insurer—Formally licensed to operate by the insurance agency in the state where the company operates. Admitted insurance companies are subject to various state laws that govern organization, capitalization, policy forms, rate approvals and claims handling.

        Average annual loss ("AAL")—A loss statistic that reflects the expected loss per year, averaged over many years.

        Application programming interfaces ("APIs")—An application that enables software programs to communicate with each other.

        Case reserves—Losses and loss adjustment expense reserves established with respect to individual reported claims.

        Catastrophe—A severe loss, typically involving multiple claimants. Commonly known perils include earthquakes, hurricanes, tsunamis, hailstorms, tornados, severe winter weather, floods, fires, explosions, volcanic eruptions and other natural or man-made disasters. Catastrophe losses may also arise from acts of war, acts of terrorism and political instability.

        Cede; ceding company—When a party purchases reinsurance for its liability from another party, it "cedes" business to the reinsurer and is referred to as the "ceding company."

        Certificates of authority—A license granted by a state insurance department to operate as an admitted insurance company in that state.

        Combined ratio—The sum of the loss ratio and the expense ratio. The combined ratio of an insurance company is generally viewed as an indication of the underwriting profitability of that insurance company, but does not take into account the effect of investing activities on net income.

        Commissions—The fee paid to an agent or a broker for placing insurance or reinsurance, generally determined as a percentage of the written premium.

        Direct premiums written—Premiums written by an insurer during a given period.

        Excess & Surplus lines—Excess and surplus lines policies generally are not subject to regulations governing premium rates or policy language. Insurance companies are considered non-admitted in the states in which they offer excess and surplus lines products.

        Excess of Loss ("XOL") reinsurance—Reinsurance that indemnifies the insured against all or a specified portion of losses in excess of a specified dollar or percentage loss ratio amount.

        Expense ratio—The ratio of underwriting, acquisition and other underwriting expenses net of commissions and other income to net earned premiums.

        Facultative reinsurance—Facultative reinsurance is a specific reinsurance policy for which terms can be negotiated by the insurer and reinsurer.

        Financial strength rating—The opinion of rating agencies regarding the financial ability of an insurance or reinsurance company to meet its financial obligations under its policies.

        Fronting—The practice of licensed insurance companies issuing insurance policies while transferring substantially all of the underlying risk to third parties in exchange for a fee.

        Geocode—The latitudinal and longitudinal location of a property based on its address, which an insurer may use to assess the distance to shore for hurricane-exposed risks and proximity to fault-lines for earthquake-exposed risks.

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        Gross written premiums—Total premiums recorded on the books of an insurer at the time an insurance policy is issued, before deductions for premiums ceded to reinsurers.

        IBNR; incurred but not reported—Reserves for estimated loss and loss adjustment expenses that have been incurred by policyholders but not reported to the insurer or reinsurer, including unknown future developments on loss and loss adjustment expenses which are known to the insurer or reinsurer.

        Incurred losses—The total losses sustained by an insurance company under a policy or policies, whether paid, unpaid or not reported.

        Liquefaction potential—The likelihood of soil converting into liquid from solid form.

        Loss—Physical damage to property or bodily injury including loss of use or loss of income.

        Loss adjustment expenses—The expenses of settling claims, including field adjusting, cost containment, legal defense and other fees and the portion of general expenses allocated to claim settlement costs. Also known as claim adjustment expense.

        Loss development—Increases or decreases in previously recorded losses and loss adjustment expenses over a given period of time.

        Loss ratio—A ratio calculated by dividing losses and loss adjustment expenses by net premiums earned.

        Net written premiums—Gross written premiums for a given period less premiums ceded to reinsurers during such period.

        Net earned premiums—The earned portion of gross written premiums less the earned portion that is ceded to reinsurers during such period.

        Peak zone—The specific peril and geographic area that produce the highest concentration of risk for an insurance company.

        Perils—This term refers to the causes of possible loss in property insurance and reinsurance, such as earthquake, wind-storm, fire, hail, etc.

        Probable maximum loss ("PML")—The maximum amount of loss that an insurance company would expect to incur on a policy or collection of policies under ordinary circumstances, based on computer or actuarial modeling techniques. This is frequently measured as a probability over a given return period. For example, a 1 in 250 year PML represents the loss value that has a 0.4% annual probability of being exceeded, equating to a 1 in 250 year probability.

        Property insurance—Insurance that covers property when damage, theft or loss occurs.

        Program Administrator—An organization that provides a range of services to insurance companies including marketing, underwriting, policy administration and payment processing.

        Quota share reinsurance—A form of reinsurance in which the reinsurer assumes an agreed percentage of each risk being reinsured and shares all premiums and losses in accordance with the reinsured.

        Reinstatement premiums—A premium charged for the reinstatement of the amount of reinsurance coverage to its full amount reduced as a result of a reinsurance loss payment.

        Reinsurance—The practice whereby one party, called the reinsurer, in consideration of a premium paid to it, agrees to indemnify another party, called the reinsured, for part or all of the liability

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assumed by the reinsured under a policy or policies of insurance which it has issued. The reinsured may be referred to as the original or primary insurer, the direct writing company, or the ceding company.

        Retail agents—Insurance agents who place insurance on behalf of consumers and businesses.

        Reinsurance retention—The amount or portion of risk which an insurer or reinsurer retains or assumes for its own account. Losses, or a portion thereof, in excess of the retention level are paid by the reinsurer or a retrocessionnaire. In proportional treaties, the retention may be a percentage of the original policy's limit. In excess of loss business, the retention is all or a portion of a dollar amount of loss.

        Return on equity—Net income expressed on an annualized basis as a percentage of average beginning and ending shareholder's equity during the period.

        Spread of risk—The extent to which an insurance company, by selecting uniform, diversified and independent risks, in a sufficiently large number, can predict the losses thereon with reasonable accuracy.

        State guaranty funds—Funding mechanisms that are administered by a U.S. state to protect policyholders in the event that an insurance company defaults on benefit payments or becomes insolvent. The fund only protects beneficiaries of insurance companies that are licensed to sell in that state.

        Statutory accounting practices ("SAP")—Those accounting principles and practices, which provide the framework for the preparation of insurance company financial statements, and the recording of transactions, in accordance with the rules and procedures adopted by regulatory authorities, generally emphasizing solvency considerations rather than a going-concern concept of accounting.

        Third party administrators ("TPAs")—Organizations that process insurance claims for a separate entity.

        Underwriting—The process of evaluating, defining, and pricing insurance risks including, where appropriate, the rejection of such risks, and the acceptance of the obligation to pay the policyholder under the terms of the contract.

        Unearned premiums—The portion of gross written premium that has not been earned.

        Wholesale brokers—Intermediaries who negotiate contracts of insurance between retail agents and insurance companies, receiving a commission for placement and other services rendered.

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

        This summary highlights selected information that is presented in greater detail elsewhere in this prospectus. This summary does not contain all of the information you should consider before investing in our common stock. You should read this entire prospectus carefully, including the sections titled "Risk Factors" and "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations," and our consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus before making an investment decision. Unless the context otherwise requires, the terms "Palomar," "we," "us" and "our" refer to Palomar Holdings, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries and the terms "Genstar Capital" and "Sponsor" refer collectively to Genstar Capital and its affiliated companies. For the definitions of certain terms used in this prospectus and not defined herein, see "Glossary of Selected Insurance and Other Terms."

Who We Are

        We are a rapidly growing and profitable company focused on the provision of specialty property insurance. We focus on certain markets that we believe are underserved by other insurance companies, such as the markets for earthquake, wind and flood insurance. We provide specialty property insurance products in our target markets to both individuals and businesses. We use proprietary data analytics and a modern technology platform to offer our customers flexible products with customized and granular pricing on an admitted basis. We distribute our products through multiple channels, including retail agents, program administrators, wholesale brokers, and in partnership with other insurance companies. Our business strategy is supported by a comprehensive risk transfer program with reinsurance coverage that we believe provides both consistency of earnings and appropriate levels of protection in the event of a major catastrophe. Our management team combines decades of insurance industry experience across specialty underwriting, reinsurance, program administration, distribution, and analytics.

        Founded in 2014, we have significantly grown our business and have generated attractive returns. We have organically increased gross written premiums from $16.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2014, our first year of operations, to $154.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2018, a compound annual growth rate ("CAGR") of approximately 75%. Our return on equity and combined ratio were 20.9% and 71.6%, respectively, for the year ended December 31, 2018. During 2018, we experienced average monthly premium retention rates above 90% for our Residential Earthquake, Residential Flood and Hawaii Hurricane lines and approximately 84% overall across all lines of business, providing strong visibility into future revenue. In February 2014, Palomar Specialty Insurance Company was awarded an "A–" (Excellent) (Outlook Stable) rating from A.M. Best Company ("A.M. Best"), a leading rating agency for the insurance industry. In February 2019, A.M. Best affirmed our "A–" (Excellent) (Outlook Stable) rating for Palomar Specialty Insurance Company and affirmed our "A–" (Excellent) (Outlook Stable) group rating for Palomar Holdings, Inc. This rating reflects A.M. Best's opinion of our financial strength, operating performance and ability to meet obligations to policyholders and is not an evaluation directed towards the protection of investors.

        We believe that our market opportunity, distinctive products, and differentiated business model position us to profitably grow our business.

Our Business

        Our management team founded our company to address unmet needs that we perceived to exist in certain specialty property insurance markets. These markets have primarily been served by either large generalist insurance companies and state-managed entities applying "one-size-fits-all" pricing and policy forms across broad geographies, or excess and surplus ("E&S") companies offering relatively volatile pricing and coverage without the backing of state guaranty funds. We are an admitted insurance

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company, which means that, unlike our E&S competitors, our rates and policy forms have been approved by the insurance department of each state in which we sell our policies, thus providing a further level of security to policyholders through our backing from state guaranty funds. As a result, our products typically have lower taxes and fees. We believe that both our customers and distribution partners prefer the ease of use and security of admitted products with flexible coverages. Additionally, we believe that we can generate superior risk-adjusted returns through underwriting that better reflects our customers' underlying risk through a more granular approach to pricing than what is typically offered by standard carriers. We believe this market acceptance and return potential is evidenced by the fact that we have quickly and profitably grown to be the 6th largest writer of earthquake insurance in the state of California and are experiencing growth and increasing profitability across our other lines of business.

        Our primary lines of business include: Residential Earthquake, Commercial Earthquake, Specialty Homeowners, Commercial All Risk, Hawaii Hurricane, Residential Flood, and Real Estate Investor ("REI"). We seek to write a diverse mix of business by loss exposure, customer type, and geography in order to mitigate the potential impact of any single catastrophe event, reduce our cost of reinsurance, and position us to capitalize on emerging market opportunities. The following table outlines our lines of business and the market opportunities that they address:

Risk
  Opportunity   Palomar Lines of Business
Earthquake  

Competitors' products have limited options and are priced in broad territorial zones.

Residential earthquake is an optional coverage that many homeowners choose not to purchase due to the high price and limited coverage options.

Commercial earthquake coverage is often offered through the E&S market, which is not backed by state guaranty funds.

 

Our Residential and Commercial Earthquake products are priced at a granular level and offer flexible product features.

Our Residential Earthquake products seek to expand the residential earthquake insurance market by attracting buyers who may not otherwise purchase protection.

Our products are admitted and backed by state guaranty funds, which we believe makes them easier to sell.

         

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Risk
  Opportunity   Palomar Lines of Business

Wind

 

Homeowners insurance on a national level is generally highly competitive; however, we believe there are specific markets with attractive return potential that many carriers avoid due to hurricane exposure.

We identified specific hurricane-exposed geographic markets in the Southeastern United States with limited admitted commercial insurance product offerings due to the perceived risk of windstorms.

 

Our Specialty Homeowners products are offered in markets that we identified through detailed analysis of pricing dynamics and historical loss ratios.

The majority of our Specialty Homeowners premium is generated through a fee-generating 'fronting' arrangement.

For our Commercial All Risk products, we use detailed technical analysis to identify a subset of target occupancies and developed a proprietary risk pricing methodology that we believe enables us to select and price risk appropriately.

Our Commercial All Risk policy covers fire and wind damage (wind includes hurricane, tornado, and hail storm).

Our Commercial All Risk business generates fee income from underwriting on behalf of third parties.

We currently do not write Florida property business due to what we perceive to be a currently unfavorable pricing and regulatory environment.

         
Hawaii Hurricane  

There are a limited number of highly rated insurers writing standalone residential hurricane business in Hawaii.

Coverage is required for homeowners that carry a mortgage for their property in the state.

 

Our Hawaii Hurricane products are preferred by local retail agents due to our "A–" rating and our easy to use technology platform.

Coverage is only provided for named hurricanes, which eliminates our exposure to attritional losses.

         

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Risk
  Opportunity   Palomar Lines of Business

Residential Flood

 

Flood represents one of the largest sources of property damage in the United States. However, we believe the current private market flood product offerings are scarce and outdated.

Our primary competitor in this market is the National Flood Insurance Program ("NFIP"), which caps dwelling coverage at $250,000 and prices risks using broad territorial zones.

 

Our Flood products offer property coverage up to $5 million and price risk at the specific geocode level.

Our Flood products also provide broader coverage than the NFIP and have a more streamlined approval process with no required elevation certificate or waiting period.

         
Real Estate Investor  

There are limited options for small real estate investors to aggregate coverage for multiple properties.

We created a product that allows investors to expand or contract coverage for multiple properties on a single master policy.

 

Our REI program provides property and liability coverage to owners of 1-4 dwelling investment property portfolios.

Our wholly-owned managing general agent, Prospect General Insurance Agency, administers the program and writes on behalf of capacity provided by syndicates at Lloyd's of London.

        Since our founding, we have made substantial progress diversifying our business by product, market, and geography. In 2014, our first year of operations, all of our premiums were related to earthquake insurance. For the year ended December 31, 2018, 67% of our gross written premiums were related to earthquake insurance. For the same time period, 77% of our gross written premiums were attributable to residential business and 23% of gross written premiums were attributable to commercial business. For the year ended December 31, 2018, non-earthquake related premiums grew 31% while earthquake related premiums grew 28% versus the prior year. We are currently licensed in 25 states, with California and Texas representing our largest exposures with 53.0% and 21.0% of our gross written premiums for the year ended December 31, 2018, respectively. We have applications for certificates of authority submitted in four states with plans to enter additional states in the future. Our business strategy is to continue diversifying our book of business by extending our geographic reach and expanding our product portfolio. The following charts illustrate our business mix by product, residential versus commercial markets, and geography for the year ended December 31, 2018:

GRAPHIC

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        We employ a highly granular and analytical underwriting process to assess each insurance policy that we write, and we ensure that the risk characteristics of business assumed through our channel partnerships are consistent with our underwriting of direct business. Our systems enable us to underwrite all of our residential business automatically within minutes by leveraging our proprietary modeling techniques to analyze data at the geocode or ZIP code level. For example, our 2016 Residential Earthquake rate and policy form filing with the Washington State Office of the Insurance Commissioner has over 20,000 distinct pricing zones that take into account nuanced regional differences in soil types, liquefaction potential, and distance from known faults. In contrast, we believe most competing earthquake insurance rate filings in Washington are based on broad territorial pricing zones across the entire state. In our commercial products, we balance automation with human expertise and controls to underwrite more complex risks. Because the data we collect through our underwriting process is highly granular, we are able to utilize detailed portfolio analytics to actively manage aggregation of policies and to ensure an appropriate dispersion of risks across our full portfolio.

        We purchase a significant amount of reinsurance from a diverse group of third parties which we believe enhances our business by reducing our exposure to potential catastrophe losses and volatility in our underwriting performance. This in turn provides us with greater visibility into our earnings. As of January 1, 2019 our reinsurance program featured excess of loss reinsurance, quota share reinsurance, insurance linked securities, and per risk reinsurance protection from a panel of more than 80 highly rated reinsurers and capital markets investors. Many of our reinsurance contracts have multi-year terms and additional features, such as prepaid reinstatements and expanded coverage windows for catastrophe events, that we believe provide us with significant protection and flexibility should market conditions change. Effective January 1, 2019, we retain $5 million of risk per earthquake and wind event, inclusive of any amounts retained through our Bermuda reinsurance subsidiary, and our reinsurance program currently provides for coverage up to $850 million for earthquake events, subject to customary exclusions, with coverage in excess of our estimated peak zone 1 in 250 year probable maximum loss ("PML") event and our A.M. Best requirement. Furthermore, our earthquake policies do not provide coverage for fire damage arising from an earthquake. In addition, we maintain reinsurance coverage equivalent or better to 1 in 250 year PML for our other lines.

Our Competitive Strengths

        We believe that our competitive strengths include:

        Focus on capturing market share and expanding underserved markets.    We focus on specialty property insurance markets that we believe are underserved, and where we believe we can capture market share and expand the market to new customers. In our target markets, there are few direct competitors who focus exclusively on specialty property risks. With our specialized knowledge of these risks and our customized products, pricing and risk management, we believe we can better serve these markets than our competitors. Furthermore, we are able to expand our markets by creating products that attract insureds who previously had not obtained coverage. Our focus and expertise have enabled us to rapidly increase our market share; for example, we have grown into the 6th largest writer of earthquake insurance in California. In markets with similar characteristics, we are experiencing growth and increasing profitability across our other lines of business. We believe that our focus on addressing the needs of specialty property markets provides us with a competitive advantage.

        Differentiated products built with the customer in mind.    We have invested significant time and resources into developing what we believe are innovative and unique product offerings to address customer needs within our target markets. Our products generally offer our customers the certainty of admitted insurance products with flexible features that are not typical of standard products in our markets. By offering our customers the ability to choose deductibles and other a la carte coverage options, we believe we have created products that are attractive both to those who have existing coverages with our competitors, and to those who have not historically bought insurance in our target

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markets. Furthermore, since our products have been approved by individual state regulators and have been supported by proprietary pricing models since inception, we believe that our products are not easily replicable, particularly by existing carriers who would face the burden of gathering data, building new models and revising existing rates and policy forms with regulators. Finally, our policy forms and ratings methodology provide us with significant flexibility to manage coverage options and pricing. During 2018, we experienced average monthly premium retention rates above 90% for our Residential Earthquake, Residential Flood and Hawaii Hurricane lines and 84% overall across all lines of business, providing strong visibility into future revenue.

        Analytically driven, disciplined and scalable underwriting.    Our underwriting approach combines decades of specialty property underwriting experience of our management team with sophisticated, customized modeling tools we have developed that utilize extensive geospatial and actuarial data across all of our lines of business. Our proprietary models enable automated pricing of risks at the geocode or ZIP code level, in contrast to our competitors who we believe use less granular analytics and more manual underwriting processes. For example, we believe that our Commercial All Risk product has the only filing in the admitted market that produces location-level wind pricing, enabling us to price wind risk more accurately than competitors who establish wind pricing at the county or zonal level. Our analytical pricing framework is embedded in all facets of our business and is incorporated into our filings, pricing, underwriting and risk management. We believe that our analytically-driven underwriting approach has been the foundation of our ability to generate attractive risk-adjusted underwriting margins.

        Multi-channel distribution model.    Our open architecture distribution framework allows us to attract and underwrite business from multiple channels. We work with a wide variety of retail agents, program administrators, and wholesale brokers. We serve over 20 insurance companies as a specialty property partner either by issuing companion policies or providing reinsurance for their in-force risks that fit our strict underwriting parameters. The breadth and flexibility of our distribution model allows us to generate premium from many different parts of the insurance ecosystem and to rapidly take advantage of changing market conditions.

        Sophisticated and conservative risk transfer program.    We manage our exposure to catastrophe events through several risk mitigation strategies, including the purchase of reinsurance. We believe that our reinsurance program provides appropriate levels of protection and superior visibility into our earnings. We believe our current reinsurance program provides coverage well in excess of our theoretical losses from any recorded historical event. We regularly model our hypothetical losses from historically significant catastrophes, including the 1906 San Francisco and 1994 Northridge earthquakes. Under our current reinsurance program, should an event equivalent to either of these two events recur, our hypothetical net loss would be capped at our current net retention of $5 million, equivalent to 5.2% of our total shareholder's equity as of December 31, 2018, inclusive of any amounts retained through our Bermuda reinsurance subsidiary. While we only select reinsurers whom we believe to have acceptable credit and a minimum A.M. Best rating of "A–", if our reinsurers are unable to pay the claims for which they are responsible, we ultimately retain primary liability to our policyholders. In addition, at each reinsurance treaty renewal, we consider any plans to change the underlying insurance coverage we offer, our current capital, our risk appetite, and the cost and availability of reinsurance coverage, which may vary from time to time. In addition to the magnitude of coverage, we believe our reinsurance program provides us with significant protection and stability during potential periods of market volatility due to our use of staggered, multi-year contracts, and features such as prepaid reinstatements and expanded coverage windows for catastrophe events and our diverse panel of more than 80 highly-rated reinsurers and capital markets investors. Given that our reinsurance purchases are driven primarily by our peak zone earthquake exposure, as we scale and diversify our book of business into uncorrelated geographies and perils, we have been able to secure multi-peril coverage that reduces the cost of reinsurance per dollar of risk.

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        Emphasis on the use of technology and analytics across our business.    As a recently formed insurance company, we have built a proprietary operating platform that employs best practices derived from our management team's extensive prior experience. Our technology platform is not burdened by outdated legacy technology and process which may be utilized by older insurance companies. In building our platform, we have emphasized automated processes that use granular data and analytics consistently across all aspects of our business. Our internally developed Palomar Automated Submission System ("PASS") acts as our interface with retail agents and wholesale brokers. PASS serves as the conduit to our policy administration system that integrates policy issuance, underwriting, billing and portfolio analytics. Our platform enables us to rapidly quote and bind policies via automated processing, and also to run detailed risk-management analytics for internal and external constituents including distribution partners, carrier partners and reinsurers. We believe that this real-time access to data and analytics provides us with an advantage in distributing our products, managing our risk, and purchasing reinsurance.

        Entrepreneurial and highly experienced management team and board.    Our management team is highly qualified, with an average of more than twenty years' of relevant experience in insurance, reinsurance and capital markets. We are led by our Chief Executive Officer, Mac Armstrong, who prior to founding Palomar was President of Arrowhead General Insurance Agency, a wholly owned subsidiary of Brown & Brown Insurance, Inc. ("Arrowhead"), a leading program administrator in the property and casualty insurance industry. Many of our management team members, including Mac Armstrong, Heath Fisher, our President and Co-Founder, and Christopher Uchida, our Chief Financial Officer and Corporate Secretary, have a long history of working together. For example, while at Arrowhead, Mac Armstrong worked closely with Christopher Uchida, who served as Executive Vice President and Chief Accounting Officer. As owners of approximately 7.3% of our outstanding common stock following the completion of this offering, we believe our management team has closely aligned interests with our stockholders. Additionally, our Board of Directors is comprised of accomplished industry veterans who bring decades of experience from their prior roles working in insurance and financial services companies.

Our Strategy

        We believe that our approach to our business will allow us to achieve our goals of both growing our business and generating attractive returns. Our strategy involves:

        Expand our presence in existing markets.    We compete in lines of business and states that represented over $20 billion in total written premiums during 2017. By comparison, we generated $154.9 million of gross written premiums for the year ended December 31, 2018. We believe that our differentiated product offerings will enable us to continue growing in our existing markets by (i) gaining market share from competitors who have less flexible product offerings; (ii) continuing to expand our strong distribution network; and (iii) increasing the total addressable market by providing attractive products to customers who previously elected not to purchase coverage.

        Extend our geographic reach and product portfolio.    We are currently licensed in 25 states that represented over $20 billion in total written premiums during 2017. We have applied for certificates of authority in four additional states that we believe would increase our addressable market by over 50% within our existing product lines alone. In addition, we continue to evaluate additional lines of business that will harness our core competencies and where we believe we can generate attractive risk-adjusted returns. Our research and development efforts are exemplified through the initial growth of our Commercial All Risk and Flood products.

        Maintain our distinctive combination of industry leading profitability and growth.    Our analytically informed risk selection and disciplined underwriting guidelines enable us to identify segments of the market that are both underserved and mispriced. As a result, we are able to generate an attractive

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underwriting profit through expanding the addressable market and winning market share with our distinctive products. For the year ended December 31, 2018, our return on equity was 20.9%. Additionally, we will look to achieve industry leading combined ratios to ensure we are achieving attractive risk-adjusted returns. As we seek premium growth, we intend to remain disciplined in our pricing, underwriting, and risk management processes, including closely managing our net PML, average annual loss ("AAL") and spread of risk. We will remain focused on lines of business with attractive pricing dynamics and a favorable risk / return profile, and we will not participate in markets that we believe are commoditized or where our business model cannot add incremental value.

        Maintain a diversified book of business.    We currently write a book of specialty property insurance that is diversified by underlying loss exposure, customer type and geography. Our major product lines and exposures are uncorrelated, such that events contributing to a loss in one line of business are unlikely to generate material losses in our other lines of business. The diversification of our book of business improves our risk-adjusted returns, reduces our reinsurance cost per dollar of premium, insulates us from swings in any single insurance or reinsurance market, and allows us to capitalize on market shifts opportunistically. As we grow, we intend to maintain a diversified book of business to continue to capitalize on these advantages.

        Leverage our underwriting, analytics, and risk transfer acumen to generate fee income.    We generate fee income in multiple ways including: underwriting on behalf of other insurance companies, fronting arrangements, and quota share reinsurance. Our multi-channel distribution model produces attractive business in excess of what we can prudently hold on our own balance sheet. As a result, we have an increasing number of partnerships where we write policies on behalf of other insurance and reinsurance companies who pay us a ceding commission to access the business. We believe these partnerships are an important validation of the intellectual property and expertise we have developed. We also act as a fronting carrier in certain lines of business where we cede substantially all of the risk and earn a fee for providing access to our A.M. Best rated balance sheet and admitted products. We believe this strategy enables us to scale our business more quickly and profitably and provides a growing and valuable fee stream to complement our profitable underwriting operations.

        Continue to purchase conservative reinsurance coverage, while optimizing for risk-adjusted returns.    We believe that protecting our earnings and balance sheet through the use of reinsurance is critical to our business to help ensure that we are able to meet obligations to our policyholders and other constituents, and to generate strong returns for our stockholders. We plan to maintain a conservative, robust reinsurance program to help ensure that we are adequately protected against potential catastrophe losses. Our goal is to protect our earnings, and we constructed our current reinsurance program to mitigate losses and ensure profitability in a severe catastrophe. As we grow, we expect that we will benefit from increased scale and diversification of risk in our business, and we plan to optimize our reinsurance program continuously by adjusting terms, structure, pricing, and participants in an effort to maximize our risk-adjusted returns.

        Strengthen and harness our strong and growing capital base.    The markets we currently serve are capital intensive, and as a recently established entrant, we compete with larger, more longstanding insurers. Nevertheless, we were awarded an "A–" (Excellent) (Outlook Stable) rating from A.M. Best at our formation, which we believe has been a source of competitive differentiation in certain markets where we operate. As we continue to demonstrate profitable underwriting operations and generate additional equity, we believe we will have access to more distribution sources that are typically reluctant to refer business to startup insurance companies. Notably, we believe that surpassing five years of underwriting operations and exceeding $100 million in total shareholder's equity are both important thresholds for potential distribution partners, and meeting these thresholds may enable us to generate business through those partners.

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        Continue to invest in proprietary technology assets that deepen our competitive advantage.    We believe that the success of our business is centered upon our relentless commitment to apply technology to improve our business. For example, we have dedicated software developers focused on building application programming interfaces ("APIs"), which enable seamless integration into the point of sale systems of our partner carriers and distribution partners. This integration increases the ease of use for our partners, embeds us within their systems, and facilitates real-time sharing of information between our distribution, underwriting, and risk management functions. We will continue to evaluate and invest in proprietary and third-party technology assets, which deepen our competitive advantage, strengthen our operations and improve our returns.

Recent Developments

Preliminary Financial Information

        The preliminary unaudited financial information discussed below consist of estimates derived from our internal books and records and have been prepared by, and are the responsibility of, management. Neither Ernst & Young LLP nor any other independent auditor has audited, reviewed, compiled or performed any procedures with respect to the accompanying preliminary unaudited financial information. Accordingly, neither Ernst & Young LLP nor any other independent auditor expresses an opinion or any other form of assurance with respect thereto.

        The preliminary estimates discussed below are subject to the completion of financial closing procedures, final adjustments and other developments which may arise between now and the time the financial results for our first quarter are finalized. Therefore, actual results may differ materially from these estimates, and all of the preliminary estimates are subject to change. In addition, preliminary unaudited financial information for our quarter ended March 31, 2019 are not necessarily indicative of operating results for any future period. Further, the preliminary unaudited financial information for the quarter ended March 31, 2019 have been prepared by our management based only upon information available to it as of the date hereof and have not been prepared with a view toward compliance with published guidelines of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants for the preparation or presentation of financial information.

Gross Written Premiums

        For the three month period ended March 31, 2019, we had gross written premiums of approximately $52.0-54.5 million, including the assumption of approximately $6.6 million of in-force premium through a new residential earthquake carrier partnership as described below. Excluding the impact of this assumed premium, our gross written premiums for the quarter increased by approximately 33-41% in comparison to the same period in the year prior.

Tangible Book Value

        As of March 31, 2019, our tangible book value was approximately $99.0-101.0 million, including the one-time cash distribution totaling approximately $5.1 million to our then-sole stockholder, GC Palomar Investor LP made in March 2019.

Catastrophe Activity in the Quarter ended March 31, 2019

        While there were several catastrophic events that occurred in the United States during the quarter ended March 31, 2019, most notably severe flooding in the Midwestern United States, our policies in force did not have exposure to any major catastrophe during the period. As such we do not expect to incur material losses from catastrophes during the quarter ended March 31, 2019.

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New Residential Earthquake Carrier Partnership

        During the quarter ended March 31, 2019, we entered into a new partnership agreement with a homeowners insurer that commenced on March 1, 2019. The partnership was established following an extensive assessment that included policy level pricing review and the implementation of underwriting guidelines that adhered to our underwriting standards. This residential earthquake partnership entails the assumption of a diversified book of residential earthquake business via an assumed reinsurance agreement whereby we assume risk and all in-force premium as well as new and renewal policies. This partnership reinforces the distinctive value that we offer to insurance carriers seeking to transfer certain classes of risk. Carrier partnerships remain a strategic focus and a differentiated distribution channel for us.

Cash Distribution and Modification of Management Incentive Plan

        In connection with the domestication transactions (see "—History" for a description of the domestication transactions), in March 2019, we made a one-time cash distribution totaling approximately $5.1 million to our then-sole stockholder, GC Palomar Investor LP, enabling it to distribute funds to GC Palomar Investor LP's partners, including Genstar Capital, in order to allow such partners to satisfy tax obligations incurred as a result of the domestication transactions. See "—History." Additionally, on March 15, 2019, the 2014 Management Incentive Plan was modified by eliminating the requirement of a liquidity event to occur for the holders of its Class P units to realize value. All Class P units were modified such that the vesting of each Class P unit holder's awards was accelerated and their Class P distribution percentages were determined. This modification resulted in a stock compensation charge and corresponding increase to additional paid-in capital of $23.0 million for the quarter ended March 31, 2019.

Summary Risk Factors

        Our business is subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, including those in the section entitled "Risk Factors" and elsewhere in this prospectus. These risks include, but are not limited to, the following:

    Claims arising from unpredictable and severe catastrophe events could reduce our earnings and shareholder's equity and limit our ability to underwrite new insurance policies;

    The inability to purchase third-party reinsurance or otherwise expand our catastrophe coverage in amounts we desire on commercially acceptable terms or on terms that adequately protect us;

    Our risk management and loss limitation methods, including estimates and models, may fail to adequately manage our exposure to losses from catastrophe events and our losses could be material higher than our expectations;

    A decline in our financial strength rating may adversely affect the amount of business we write;

    In the event that the reinsurance we purchase is inadequate or a reinsurer is unable or unwilling to make timely payments, our operating results would be adversely impacted;

    Our business is concentrated in California and Texas and we are exposed more significantly to California and Texas loss activity and regulatory environments;

    The potential loss of one or more key executives or an inability to attract and retain qualified personnel could adversely affect our results of operations;

    We rely on a select group of brokers and program administrators to manage the distribution of a significant portion of our Residential Earthquake, Commercial Earthquake, Specialty Homeowners and Hawaii Hurricane products. Two program administrators with which we have

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      long-standing relationships represented approximately 67.7% of our gross written premiums in 2018, and such relationships may not continue;

    Unexpected changes in the interpretation of our coverage or provisions, including loss limitations and exclusions, in our policies could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations;

    There is intense competition for business in our industry;

    The failure of our information technology and telecommunications systems could adversely affect our business;

    Any failure to protect our intellectual property rights could impair our ability to protect our intellectual property, proprietary technology platform and brand, or we may be sued by third parties for alleged infringement of their proprietary rights;

    The ability for Genstar Capital to exert significant influence over us and our corporate decisions through its controlling ownership interest, including by virtue of the two directors who have relationships with Genstar Capital and the Stockholders Agreement that we intend to enter into with Genstar Capital prior to the consummation of this offering (the "Stockholders Agreement"); and

    The inability to freely operate our business due to the restrictions included in our debt agreements for our $20.0 million of outstanding Floating Rate Senior Secured Notes.

Our Sponsor, Controlled Company Status and Stockholders Agreement

        We are majority owned by Genstar Capital. Genstar Capital is a leading private equity investment firm headquartered in San Francisco, California. Founded in 1988, Genstar Capital has raised $9.7 billion in capital and has demonstrated a track record of building successful middle market companies in targeted sectors.

        Following this offering, Genstar Capital will control approximately 64.0% of our common stock (or 61.6% if the underwriters exercise their over-allotment option). As a result, Genstar Capital will control any action requiring the general approval of our stockholders, including the election of our Board of Directors (which will control our management and affairs), the adoption of amendments to our certificate of incorporation and bylaws and the approval of any merger or sale of substantially all of our assets. In addition, Genstar Capital will exert significant control over us through the Stockholders Agreement, pursuant to which Genstar Capital will have the right to nominate a percentage of our directors corresponding to Genstar Capital's then-current ownership, up to a total of 50% of our directors. The Stockholders Agreement will also specify that we must obtain Genstar Capital's prior written consent to undertake certain corporate actions, including (i) amendments or modifications to our or our subsidiaries' organizational documents in a manner that adversely affects Genstar Capital, (ii) making any payment or declaration of any dividend or other distribution on any shares of our common stock, (iii) merging or consolidating with or into any other entity, or transferring all or substantially all of our or our subsidiaries' assets, taken as a whole, to another entity, or entering into or agreeing to undertake any transaction that would constitute a "Change of Control" as defined in our or our subsidiaries' credit facilities or note indentures, (iv) effecting any acquisitions or dispositions other than in the ordinary course of business exceeding $15 million in any single transaction or an aggregate amount of $30 million in any series of transactions during a calendar year, (v) undertaking any liquidation, dissolution or winding up, and (vi) changing the size of the Board of Directors. Because Genstar Capital will control more than 50% of the voting power of our common stock, we will be considered a "controlled company" under the Nasdaq Marketplace Rules. As such, we are permitted, and have elected, to opt out of compliance with certain corporate governance requirements. Accordingly, stockholders will not have the same protections afforded to stockholders of companies

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that are subject to all of the Nasdaq Marketplace Rules. See "Risk Factors—We are a "controlled company" within the meaning of the Nasdaq Marketplace Rules. As a result, we qualify for, and intend to continue to rely on, exemptions from corporate governance requirements that provide protection to stockholders of other companies."

        In March 2019, we made a one-time cash distribution totaling approximately $5.1 million to our then-sole stockholder, GC Palomar Investor LP, enabling it to distribute funds to its partners, including Genstar Capital, in order to allow such partners to satisfy tax obligations incurred as a result of the domestication transactions. See "—History."

History

        We are an insurance holding company that was originally incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands in October 2013. In March 2019, we (i) implemented a domestication pursuant to Section 388 of the Delaware General Corporation Law and Section 206 of the Companies Law (2018 Revision), as amended, of the Cayman Islands pursuant to which we became a Delaware corporation and no longer subject to the laws of the Cayman Islands, (ii) modified the Class P units and Plan as described below, (iii) effected a 17,000,000 for one forward stock split and (iv) caused our then-sole shareholder, GC Palomar Investor LP, to distribute all of the post-split shares of our common stock to its various partners and other interest holders, including to Genstar Capital and its affiliates. We collectively refer to these transactions as the "domestication transactions." In March 2019, we made a one-time cash distribution totaling approximately $5.1 million to GC Palomar Investor LP enabling it to distribute funds to its partners, including Genstar Capital, in order to allow such partners to satisfy tax obligations incurred as a result of the domestication transactions. Additionally, on March 15, 2019, the 2014 Management Incentive Plan was modified by eliminating the requirement of a liquidity event to occur for the holders of its Class P units to realize value. All Class P units were modified such that the vesting of each Class P unit holder's awards was accelerated and their Class P distribution percentages were determined. This modification resulted in a stock compensation charge and corresponding increase to additional paid-in capital of $23.0 million for the quarter ended March 31, 2019.

Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company

        The Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act ("the JOBS Act") was enacted in April 2012 with the intention of encouraging capital formation in the United States and reducing the regulatory burden on newly public companies that qualify as "emerging growth companies". We are an emerging growth company within the meaning of the JOBS Act. As an emerging growth company, we may take advantage of exemptions from various public reporting requirements, including (i) the requirement that our internal control over financial reporting be audited by our independent registered public accounting firm pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, (ii) requirements related to compliance with new or revised accounting standards, (iii) requirements related to the disclosure of executive compensation in this prospectus and in our periodic reports and proxy statements, (iv) the requirement that we hold a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and any golden parachute payments, (v) if adopted by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), mandatory audit firm rotation requirements and (vi) requirements to supplement the auditor's report with additional information about the audit and our financial statements. We may choose to take advantage of some, but not all, of these reduced burdens. We may take advantage of these exemptions until we are no longer an emerging growth company.

        We will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest to occur of (i) the last day of the fiscal year in which we have $1.07 billion or more in annual revenue; (ii) the date we qualify as a "large accelerated filer" with at least $700 million of equity securities held by non-affiliates; (iii) the date on which we have issued, in any three-year period, more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt

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securities; or (iv) the last day of the fiscal year ending after the fifth anniversary of our initial public offering.

        For risks related to our status as an emerging growth company, see the disclosure elsewhere in this prospectus under the caption "Risk Factors" below.

Corporate Information

        We launched our principal operations in 2014.

        We were originally incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands in October 2013 and domesticated as a Delaware corporation on March 14, 2019. In connection with the domestication transactions, we issued 17,000,000 shares of common stock in exchange for the one common share held by our then-sole shareholder, GC Palomar Investor LP, who distributed the shares of common stock proportionally to its partners, including to Genstar Capital and its affiliates.

        Our principal executive offices are located at 7979 Ivanhoe Avenue, Suite 500, La Jolla, California, 92037, and our telephone number is (619) 567-5290. Our website address is www.PalomarSpecialty.com. The information on or that can be accessed through our website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus, and you should not consider any such information as part of this prospectus or in deciding whether to purchase our common stock.

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The Offering

Common Stock Offered

  5,625,000 shares

Common Stock Outstanding After this Offering

 

22,625,000 shares

Underwriters' Option to Purchase Additional Shares of Common Stock

 

843,750 shares

Use of Proceeds

 

We estimate that the net proceeds to us from the sale of shares of our common stock in this offering will be approximately $80.5 million based upon the assumed initial public offering price of $16.00 per share, which is the midpoint of the estimated offering price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

 

The principal purposes of this offering are to increase our capitalization and financial flexibility, create a public market for our common stock and thereby enable access to the public equity markets for us and our stockholders. We intend to use the net proceeds to us from this offering to make contributions to the capital of Palomar Specialty Insurance Company, one of our insurance subsidiaries, in order to grow our business and for other general corporate purposes. We presently intend to contribute approximately $25.0 million to $40.0 million to Palomar Specialty Insurance Company. We do not intend to contribute capital to any of our other subsidiaries. In addition, we intend to use $20.5 million to repay our outstanding Floating Rate Senior Secured Notes. See "Use of Proceeds" for a more complete description of the intended use of proceeds from this offering.

Dividend Policy

 

We currently do not intend to declare or pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Any further determination to pay dividends on our capital stock will be at the discretion of our Board of Directors, subject to applicable laws, and will depend on our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, general business conditions, legal, tax and regulatory limitations, contractual restrictions and other factors that our Board of Directors considers relevant. See "Dividend Policy" for further information.

Voting Rights

 

Shares of common stock are entitled to one vote per share. See "Description of Capital Stock". Assuming no exercise of the underwriters' option to purchase additional shares, following this offering, outstanding shares of common stock held by our executive officers, directors and holders of more than 5% of our capital stock will represent approximately 72.1% of the voting power of our outstanding capital stock.

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Controlled Company

 

Immediately following completion of this offering, Genstar Capital will control approximately 64.0% of the total voting power of our outstanding common stock. As a result, Genstar Capital will be able to control the outcome of all matters submitted to a vote of our stockholders, including, for example, the election of directors, amendments to our certificate of incorporation and mergers or other business combinations. See "Description of Capital Stock". In addition, we currently intend to avail ourselves of the controlled company exemption under the Nasdaq Marketplace Rules, and so you will not have the same protections afforded to stockholders of companies that are subject to such requirements.

Listing

 

We have applied to list our common stock on the Nasdaq under the symbol "PLMR".

Risk Factors

 

You should read the section entitled "Risk Factors" beginning on page 18 and the other information included in this prospectus for a discussion of some of the risks and uncertainties you should carefully consider before deciding to invest in our common stock.

        The total number of shares of our common stock that will be outstanding after this offering, and after giving effect to the domestication transactions, includes 17,000,000 shares, and excludes, as of December 31, 2018:

    2,400,000 shares of common stock reserved for issuance under our 2019 Equity Incentive Plan, including options to purchase shares of common stock and restricted stock unit awards representing an aggregate amount of 990,081 shares of common stock, based on an assumed offering price of $16.00, the midpoint of the range set forth on the cover of this prospectus, that our Compensation Committee intends to grant to employees and non-employee directors following the effectiveness of the registration statement on Form S-1 of which this prospectus forms a part and pricing of this offering. The option awards will vest monthly over a two to four year period with a one year cliff and the restricted stock unit awards will vest annually; and

    240,000 shares of common stock under our 2019 Employee Stock Purchase Plan.

        Except as otherwise indicated, all information in this prospectus assumes no exercise by the underwriters of their right to purchase up to an additional 843,750 shares of common stock from us to cover the underwriters' over-allotment option.

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Summary Consolidated Financial and Other Data

        The following tables present our summary consolidated financial and other data as of and for the periods indicated.

        The summary consolidated statements of operations data for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, and the summary consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016 are derived from our annual consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results that should be expected in any future period.

        You should read this data together with our audited consolidated financial statements and related notes, as well as the information under the captions "Selected Consolidated Financial and Other Data" and "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations," included elsewhere in this prospectus. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of our future results, and results for any interim period below are not necessarily indicative of results for the full year.

 
  Years ended
December 31,
 
 
  2018   2017   2016  
 
  ($ in thousands)
 

Revenue:

                   

Gross written premiums

  $ 154,891   $ 120,234   $ 82,287  

Ceded written premiums

    (82,949 )   (46,951 )   (29,636 )

Net written premiums

    71,942     73,283     52,651  

Net earned premiums

    69,897     55,545     40,322  

Commission and other income

    2,405     1,188     260  

Total underwriting revenue(1)

    72,302     56,733     40,582  

Losses and loss adjustment expenses

    6,274     12,125     7,292  

Acquisition expenses

    28,224     25,522     17,340  

Other underwriting expenses

    17,957     15,146     10,153  

Underwriting income(1)

    19,847     3,940     5,797  

Interest expense

    (2,303 )   (1,745 )   (1,634 )

Net investment income

    3,238     2,125     1,615  

Net realized and unrealized (losses) gains on investments

    (2,569 )   608     499  

Income before income taxes

    18,213     4,928     6,277  

Income tax (benefit) expense

    (6 )   1,145     (337 )

Net income

    18,219     3,783     6,614  

Adjustments

                   

Expenses associated with IPO and tax restructuring

    1,110          

Expenses associated with retirement of surplus notes

    495          

Adjusted net income(1)

    19,824     3,783     6,614  

Key Financial and Operating Metrics

                   

Return on equity

    20.9 %   5.0 %   9.6 %

Adjusted return on equity(1)

    22.7 %   5.0 %   9.6 %

Loss ratio

    9.0 %   21.8 %   18.1 %

Expense ratio

    62.6 %   71.1 %   67.5 %

Combined ratio

    71.6 %   92.9 %   85.6 %

(1)
See "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Financial Measures" for a reconciliation of the non-GAAP financial measures in accordance with GAAP.

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  December 31,  
Selected Balance Sheet Data
  2018   Pro Forma 2018
(unaudited)(1)
  2017   2016  
 
  (in thousands)
 

Total investments

  $ 147,391         $ 125,499   $ 104,821  

Cash and cash equivalents

    9,525           10,780     9,755  

Premium receivable

    18,633           15,087     11,242  

Deferred policy acquisition costs

    14,052           15,161     10,654  

Reinsurance recoverable

    14,562           14,632     1,543  

Prepaid reinsurance premium

    18,284           3,175     1,648  

Other assets

    8,687           4,021     5,469  

Total assets

    231,134           188,355     145,132  

Accounts payable and other accrued liabilities

    9,245     14,364     6,497     4,259  

Reserve for losses and loss adjustment expenses

    16,061           17,784     4,778  

Unearned premiums

    79,130           61,976     42,710  

Ceded premium payable

    10,607           5,069     1,582  

Other liabilities

    720           1,528     1,721  

Long-term notes payable

    19,079           17,087     16,973  

Total liabilities

    134,842     139,961     109,941     72,023  

Total shareholder's equity

    96,292     91,173     78,414     73,109  

(1)
See Financial Statements, Note 2, Significant Accounting Policies, "Unaudited Pro Forma Balance Sheet Information" for description of the adjustments made to the historical balance sheet to arrive at the pro forma information.

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RISK FACTORS

        An investment in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. In deciding whether to invest, you should carefully consider the following risk factors, as well as the financial and other information contained in this prospectus, including our consolidated financial statements and related notes. Any of the following risks could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects and cause the value of our stock to decline, which could cause you to lose all or part of your investment. Additional risks and uncertainties of which we are unaware, or that we currently deem immaterial also may become important factors that affect us.


Risks Related to Our Business and Industry

Claims arising from unpredictable and severe catastrophe events, including those caused by global climate change, could reduce our earnings and shareholder's equity and limit our ability to underwrite new insurance policies.

        Our insurance operations expose us to claims arising out of unpredictable catastrophe events, such as earthquakes, hurricanes, windstorms, floods and other severe events. Furthermore, the actual occurrence, frequency and magnitude of such events are uncertain. While there can be no certainty surrounding the timing and magnitude of earthquakes, some observers believe that significant shifts in the tectonic plates, including the San Andreas Fault, may occur in the future. Over the past several years, changing weather patterns and climatic conditions, such as global warming, have added to the unpredictability and frequency of natural disasters in certain parts of the world, including the markets in which we operate. Climate change may increase the frequency and severity of extreme weather events. This effect has led to conditions in the ocean and atmosphere, including warmer-than-average sea-surface temperatures and low wind shear that increase hurricane activity. Hurricane activity typically increases between June and November of each year, though the actual occurrence and magnitude of such events is uncertain. The occurrence of a natural disaster or other catastrophe loss could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations. Additionally, any increased frequency and severity of such weather events, including hurricanes, could have a material adverse effect on our ability to predict, quantify, reinsure and manage catastrophe risk and may materially increase our losses resulting from such catastrophe events.

        The extent of losses from catastrophes is a function of both the frequency and severity of the insured events and the total amount of insured exposure in the areas affected. The frequency and severity of catastrophes are inherently unpredictable and the occurrence of one catastrophe does not make the occurrence of another catastrophe more or less likely. Increases in the replacement cost and concentrations of insured property, the effects of inflation, and changes in cyclical weather patterns may increase the severity of claims from catastrophe events in the future. Claims from catastrophe events could reduce our earnings and cause substantial volatility in our results of operations for any fiscal quarter or year, which could materially adversely affect our financial condition, possibly to the extent of eliminating our total shareholder's equity. For example, Hurricane Harvey in August 2017 caused our gross losses and loss adjustment expenses to increase 66% from the prior year. See "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations." Our ability to underwrite new insurance policies could also be materially adversely impacted as a result of corresponding reductions in our capital. In addition, a natural disaster could materially impact the financial condition of our policyholders, resulting in loss of premiums.

        Effective January 1, 2019, we retain $5 million of risk per earthquake and wind event, inclusive of any amounts retained through our Bermuda reinsurance subsidiary, and our reinsurance program currently provides for coverage up to $850 million for earthquake events, subject to customary exclusions, with coverage in excess of our estimated peak zone 1 in 250 year PML event and in excess of our A.M. Best requirement. While we only select reinsurers whom we believe to have acceptable

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credit and a minimum A.M. Best rating of "A–", if our reinsurers are unable to pay the claims for which they are responsible, we ultimately retain primary liability. Furthermore, our earthquake policies do not provide coverage for fire damage arising from an earthquake. In addition, we maintain reinsurance coverage equivalent or better to 1 in 250 year PML for our other lines. While we believe this risk transfer program insulates us from volatility in our earnings, one severe catastrophe event could result in claims that substantially exceed the limits of our reinsurance coverage.

We may be unable to purchase third-party reinsurance or otherwise expand our catastrophe coverage in amounts we desire on commercially acceptable terms or on terms that adequately protect us, and this inability may materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

        We purchase a significant amount of reinsurance from third parties that we believe enhances our business by reducing our exposure to potential catastrophe losses and reducing volatility in our underwriting performance, providing us with greater visibility into our future earnings. Reinsurance involves transferring, or ceding, a portion of our risk exposure on policies that we write to another insurer, the reinsurer, in exchange for a premium. We primarily use treaty reinsurance, consisting of catastrophe excess of loss ("XOL") coverage, and, on a limited basis, facultative reinsurance coverage. Treaty coverage refers to a reinsurance contract that is applied to a group or class of business where all the risks written meet the criteria for that class. Facultative coverage refers to a reinsurance contract on individual risks as opposed to a group or class of business.

        Our catastrophe XOL treaties are divided into layers, many of which are placed using alternating 24-month contracts. From time to time, market conditions have limited, and in some cases prevented, insurers from obtaining the types and amounts of reinsurance they consider adequate for their business needs. As a result, we may not be able to purchase reinsurance in the areas and for the amounts we desire or on terms we deem acceptable or at all. In addition to limit purchased from traditional reinsurers, we have expanded our catastrophe XOL coverage to incorporate collateralized protection from the insurance linked securities ("ILS") market. In May 2017, we closed a $166 million 144A catastrophe bond offering completed through Torrey Pines Re Ltd., a special purpose insurer in Bermuda, that provides fully collateralized protection over a three-year risk period. We may seek to expand our catastrophe XOL coverage through similar bond offerings in the future but there can be no assurances that we will be able to complete such offerings on acceptable terms, if at all. If we are unable to renew our expiring contracts, enter into new reinsurance arrangements on acceptable terms or expand our catastrophe coverage through future bond offerings or otherwise, our loss exposure could increase, which would increase our potential losses related to catastrophe events. If we are unwilling to bear an increase in loss exposure, we could have to reduce the level of our underwriting commitments, both of which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

        Many reinsurance companies have begun to exclude certain coverages from, or alter terms in, the reinsurance contracts we enter into with them. As a result, we, like other insurance companies, write insurance policies which to some extent do not have the benefit of reinsurance protection. These gaps in reinsurance protection expose us to greater risk and greater potential losses.

We utilize several risk management and loss limitation methods, including relying on estimates and models. If these methods fail to adequately manage our exposure to losses from catastrophe events, our losses could be materially higher than our expectations, and our business, financial condition, and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.

        Our approach to risk management relies on subjective variables that entail significant uncertainties. We manage our exposure to catastrophe losses by analyzing the probability and severity of the occurrence of catastrophe events and the impact of such events on our overall underwriting and investment portfolio. We monitor and mitigate our exposure through a number of methods designed to

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minimize risk, including underwriting specialization, modeling and data systems, data quality control, strategic use of policy deductibles and regular review of aggregate exposure and probable maximum loss reports, which report the maximum amount of losses that one would expect based on computer or actuarial modeling techniques. These estimates, models, data and scenarios may not produce accurate predictions; consequently, we could incur losses both in the risks we underwrite and to the value of our investment portfolio.

        In addition, output from our risk modeling software is based on third-party data that we believe to be reliable. The estimates and assumptions we use are dependent on many variables, such as loss adjustment expenses, insurance-to-value, storm or earthquake intensity, building code compliance and demand surge, which is the temporary inflation of costs for building materials and labor resulting from increased demand for rebuilding services in the aftermath of a catastrophe. Accordingly, if the estimates and assumptions used in our risk models are incorrect or if our risk models prove to be an inaccurate forecasting tool, the losses we might incur from an actual catastrophe could be materially higher than our expectation of losses generated from modeled catastrophe scenarios, and our business, financial condition, and results of operations could be materially adversely affected. In addition, our third-party data providers may change the estimates or assumptions that we use in our risk models and/or their data may be inaccurate. Changes in these estimates or assumptions or the use of inaccurate third-party data could cause our actual losses to be materially higher than our current expectation of losses generated by modeled catastrophe scenarios, which in turn could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

        We run many model simulations in order to understand the impact of these assumptions on a catastrophe's loss potential. Furthermore, there are risks associated with catastrophe events, which are either poorly represented or not represented at all by catastrophe models. Each modeling assumption or un-modeled risk introduces uncertainty into probable maximum loss estimates that management must consider. These uncertainties can include, but are not limited to, the following:

    The models do not address all the possible hazard characteristics of a catastrophe peril (e.g., the precise path and wind speed of a hurricane);

    The models may not accurately reflect the true frequency of events;

    The models may not accurately reflect a risk's vulnerability or susceptibility to damage for a given event characteristic;

    The models may not accurately represent loss potential to insurance or reinsurance contract coverage limits, terms and conditions; and

    The models may not accurately reflect the impact on the economy of the area affected or the financial, judicial, political, or regulatory impacts on insurance claim payments during or following a catastrophe event.

        As a result of these factors and contingencies, our reliance on assumptions and data used to evaluate our entire risk portfolio and specifically to estimate a probable maximum loss is subject to a high degree of uncertainty that could result in actual losses that are materially different from our probable maximum loss estimates and our financial results could be adversely affected.

A decline in our financial strength rating may adversely affect the amount of business we write.

        Participants in the insurance industry use ratings from independent ratings agencies, such as A.M. Best, as an important means of assessing the financial strength and quality of insurers. In setting its ratings, A.M. Best performs quantitative and qualitative analysis of a company's balance sheet strength, operating performance and business profile. A.M. Best financial strength ratings range from "A++" (Superior) to "F" for insurance companies that have been publicly placed in liquidation. As of the date

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of this prospectus, A.M. Best has assigned a financial strength rating of "A–" (Excellent) (Outlook Stable) to us. A.M. Best assigns ratings that are intended to provide an independent opinion of an insurance company's ability to meet its obligations to policyholders and such ratings are not evaluations directed to investors and are not a recommendation to buy, sell or hold our common stock or any other securities we may issue. A.M. Best's analysis includes comparisons to peers and industry standards as well as assessments of operating plans, philosophy and management. A.M. Best periodically reviews our financial strength rating and may revise it downward or revoke it at A.M. Best's discretion based primarily on its analyses of our balance sheet strength (including capital adequacy and loss adjustment expense reserve adequacy), operating performance and business profile. Factors that could affect such analyses include, but are not limited to:

    If we change our business practices from our organizational business plan in a manner that no longer supports A.M. Best's rating;

    If unfavorable financial, regulatory or market trends affect us, including excess market capacity;

    If our losses exceed our loss reserves;

    If we have unresolved issues with government regulators;

    If we are unable to retain our senior management or other key personnel;

    If our investment portfolio incurs significant losses; or

    If A.M. Best alters its capital adequacy assessment methodology in a manner that would adversely affect our rating.

        These and other factors could result in a downgrade of our financial strength rating. A downgrade or withdrawal of our rating could result in any of the following consequences, among others:

    Causing our current and future distribution partners and insureds to choose other, more highly-rated competitors;

    Increasing the cost or reducing the availability of reinsurance to us; or

    Severely limiting or preventing us from writing new and renewal insurance contracts.

        In addition, in view of the earnings and capital pressures experienced by many financial institutions, including insurance companies, it is possible that rating organizations will heighten the level of scrutiny that they apply to such institutions, will increase the frequency and scope of their credit reviews, will request additional information from the companies that they rate or will increase the capital and other requirements employed in the rating organizations' models for maintenance of certain ratings levels. We can offer no assurance that our rating will remain at its current level. It is possible that such reviews of us may result in adverse ratings consequences, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

Our reinsurers may not pay claims on a timely basis, or at all, which may materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

        Although reinsurance makes the reinsurer liable to us to the extent the risk is transferred or ceded to the reinsurer, it does not relieve us (the ceding insurer) of our primary liability to our policyholders. Our current reinsurance program is designed to limit our risk retention to $5 million of risk per earthquake and wind event, inclusive of any amounts retained through our Bermuda reinsurance subsidiary, and provide coverage up to $850 million for earthquake events, subject to customary exclusions. However, particularly in the event of a major catastrophe our reinsurers may not pay claims made by us on a timely basis, or they may not pay some or all of these claims. For example, reinsurers may default in their financial obligations to us as the result of insolvency, lack of liquidity, operational

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failure, fraud, asserted defenses based on agreement wordings or the principle of utmost good faith, asserted deficiencies in the documentation of agreements or other reasons. Any disputes with reinsurers regarding coverage under reinsurance contracts could be time consuming, costly, and uncertain of success. We evaluate each reinsurance claim based on the facts of the case, historical experience with the reinsurer on similar claims and existing case law and consider including any amounts deemed uncollectible from the reinsurer in a reserve for uncollectible reinsurance. As of December 31, 2018, we had $14.6 million of aggregate reinsurance recoverables. These risks could cause us to incur increased net losses, and, therefore, adversely affect our financial condition.

Our business is concentrated in California and Texas and, as a result, we are exposed more significantly to California and Texas loss activity and regulatory environments.

        Our policyholders and insurance risks are currently concentrated in California and Texas, which generated 53.0% and 21.0% of our gross written premiums, respectively, for the year ended December 31, 2018. Any single, major catastrophe event, series of events or other condition causing significant losses in California or Texas could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Additionally, unfavorable business, economic or regulatory conditions in these states may result in a significant reduction of our premiums or increase our loss exposure. We are exposed to business, economic, political and regulatory risks due to this concentration that are greater than the risks faced by insurance companies that conduct business over a more extensive geographic area.

        Changes in California or Texas political climates could result in new or changed legislation affecting the property and casualty insurance industry in general and insurers writing residential earthquake and wind coverage in particular.

We could be adversely affected by the loss of one or more key executives or by an inability to attract and retain qualified personnel.

        We depend on our ability to attract and retain experienced personnel and seasoned key executives who are knowledgeable about our business. The pool of talent from which we actively recruit is limited and may fluctuate based on market dynamics specific to our industry and independent of overall economic conditions. As such, higher demand for employees having the desired skills and expertise could lead to increased compensation expectations for existing and prospective personnel, making it difficult for us to retain and recruit key personnel and maintain labor costs at desired levels. In particular, our future success is substantially dependent on the continued service of our co-founder, chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Mac Armstrong, and our Chief Financial Officer, Christopher Uchida. Should any of our key executives terminate their employment with us, or if we are unable to retain and attract talented personnel, we may be unable to maintain our current competitive position in the specialized markets in which we operate, which could adversely affect our results of operations.

We rely on a select group of brokers and program administrators, and such relationships may not continue.

        The distribution networks of our products are multi-faceted and distinct to each line of business. Our relationship with our brokers or program administrators may be discontinued at any time. Even if the relationships do continue, they may not be on terms that are profitable for us. We distribute a significant portion of our Residential Earthquake, Commercial Earthquake, Specialty Homeowners and Hawaii Hurricane products through longstanding relationships with two program administrators. Each of the four products managed by the program administrators operates as a separate program that is governed by an independent, separately negotiated agreement with unique terms and conditions, including geographic scope, key men provisions, economics and exclusivity. These programs also feature separate managerial oversight and leadership, policy administration systems and retail agents originating policies. In total, these four programs accounted for $104.9 million or 67.7% of our gross written

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premiums for the year ended December 31, 2018. This amount includes our Value Select Residential Earthquake program, which represents the majority of our Residential Earthquake premium and is administered through a mutually exclusive program administrator agreement with Arrowhead for the states of California, Oregon and Washington. The termination of a relationship with one or more significant brokers or program administrators could result in lower gross written premiums and could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations or business prospects.

Unexpected changes in the interpretation of our coverage or provisions, including loss limitations and exclusions, in our policies could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

        There can be no assurances that specifically negotiated loss limitations or exclusions in our policies will be enforceable in the manner we intend. As industry practices and legal, judicial, social, and other conditions change, unexpected and unintended issues related to claims and coverage may emerge. For example, many of our policies limit the period during which a policyholder may bring a claim, which may be shorter than the statutory period under which such claims can be brought against our policyholders. While these limitations and exclusions help us assess and mitigate our loss exposure, it is possible that a court or regulatory authority could nullify or void a limitation or exclusion or legislation could be enacted modifying or barring the use of such limitations or exclusions. These types of governmental actions could result in higher than anticipated losses and loss adjustment expenses, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations. In addition, court decisions, such as the 1995 Montrose decision in California could read policy exclusions narrowly so as to expand coverage, thereby requiring insurers to create and write new exclusions.

        These issues may adversely affect our business by either broadening coverage beyond our underwriting intent or by increasing the frequency or severity of claims. In some instances, these changes may not become apparent until sometime after we have issued insurance contracts that are affected by the changes. As a result, the full extent of liability under our insurance contracts may not be known for many years after a contract is issued.

Competition for business in our industry is intense.

        We face competition from other specialty insurance companies, standard insurance companies and underwriting agencies that are larger than we are and that have greater financial, marketing, and other resources than we do. Some of these competitors also have longer operating history and more market recognition than we do in certain lines of business. In addition, we compete against state or other publicly managed enterprises including the California Earthquake Authority ("CEA"), the National Flood Insurance Program and the Texas Wind Insurance Association. If the CEA decided to provide coverage to non-CEA member carriers or lessened the capital requirements for membership, we would face additional competition in our markets, and our operating results could be adversely affected. Furthermore, it may be difficult or prohibitively expensive for us to implement technology systems and processes that are competitive with the systems and processes of these larger companies.

        In particular, competition in the insurance industry is based on many factors, including price of coverage, the general reputation and perceived financial strength of the company, relationships with brokers, terms and conditions of products offered, ratings assigned by independent rating agencies, speed of claims payment and reputation, and the experience and reputation of the members of our underwriting team in the particular lines of insurance and reinsurance we seek to underwrite. In recent years, the insurance industry has undergone increasing consolidation, which may further increase competition.

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        A number of new, proposed or potential industry or legislative developments could further increase competition in our industry. These developments include:

    An increase in capital-raising by companies in our lines of business, which could result in new entrants to our markets and an excess of capital in the industry; and

    The deregulation of commercial insurance lines in certain states and the possibility of federal regulatory reform of the insurance industry, which could increase competition from standard carriers.

        We may not be able to continue to compete successfully in the insurance markets. Increased competition in these markets could result in a change in the supply and demand for insurance, affect our ability to price our products at risk-adequate rates and retain existing business, or underwrite new business on favorable terms. If this increased competition so limits our ability to transact business, our operating results could be adversely affected.

The failure of our information technology and telecommunications systems could adversely affect our business.

        Our business is highly dependent upon our information technology and telecommunications systems, including our underwriting system. We rely on these systems to interact with brokers and insureds, to underwrite business, to prepare policies and process premiums, to perform actuarial and other modeling functions, to process claims and make claims payments, and to prepare internal and external financial statements and information. Some of these systems may include or rely on third-party systems not located on our premises or under our control. Events such as natural catastrophes, terrorist attacks, industrial accidents or computer viruses may cause our systems to fail or be inaccessible for extended periods of time. While we have implemented business contingency plans and other reasonable plans to protect our systems, sustained or repeated system failures or service denials could severely limit our ability to write and process new and renewal business, provide customer service, pay claims in a timely manner or otherwise operate in the ordinary course of business.

        Our operations depend on the reliable and secure processing, storage, and transmission of confidential and other data and information in our computer systems and networks. Computer viruses, hackers, employee misconduct, and other external hazards could expose our systems to security breaches, cyber-attacks or other disruptions. In addition, we routinely transmit and receive personal, confidential and proprietary data and information by electronic means and are subject to numerous data privacy laws and regulations enacted in the jurisdictions in which we do business.

        While we have implemented security measures designed to protect against breaches of security and other interference with our systems and networks, our systems and networks may be subject to breaches or interference. Any such event may result in operational disruptions as well as unauthorized access to or the disclosure or loss of our proprietary information or our customers' data and information, which in turn may result in legal claims, regulatory scrutiny and liability, reputational damage, the incurrence of costs to eliminate or mitigate further exposure, the loss of customers or affiliated advisors, reputational harm or other damage to our business. In addition, the trend toward general public notification of such incidents could exacerbate the harm to our business, financial condition and results of operations. Even if we successfully protect our technology infrastructure and the confidentiality of sensitive data, we could suffer harm to our business and reputation if attempted security breaches are publicized. We cannot be certain that advances in criminal capabilities, discovery of new vulnerabilities, attempts to exploit vulnerabilities in our systems, data thefts, physical system or network break-ins or inappropriate access, or other developments will not compromise or breach the technology or other security measures protecting the networks and systems used in connection with our business.

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Any failure to protect our intellectual property rights could impair our ability to protect our intellectual property, proprietary technology platform and brand, or we may be sued by third parties for alleged infringement of their proprietary rights.

        Our success and ability to compete depend in part on our intellectual property, which includes our rights in our proprietary technology platform and our brand. We primarily rely on copyright, trade secret and trademark laws, and confidentiality agreements with our employees, customers, service providers, partners and others to protect our intellectual property rights. However, the steps we take to protect our intellectual property may be inadequate. Litigation brought to protect and enforce our intellectual property rights could be costly, time-consuming and distracting to management and could result in the impairment or loss of portions of our intellectual property. Additionally, our efforts to enforce our intellectual property rights may be met with defenses, counterclaims and countersuits attacking the validity and enforceability and scope of our intellectual property rights. Our failure to secure, protect and enforce our intellectual property rights could adversely affect our brand and adversely impact our business.

        Our success depends also in part on our not infringing on the intellectual property rights of others. Our competitors, as well as a number of other entities and individuals, may own or claim to own intellectual property relating to our industry. In the future, third parties may claim that we are infringing on their intellectual property rights, and we may be found to be infringing on such rights. Any claims or litigation could cause us to incur significant expenses and, if successfully asserted against us, could require that we pay substantial damages or ongoing royalty payments, prevent us from offering our services, or require that we comply with other unfavorable terms. Even if we were to prevail in such a dispute, any litigation could be costly and time-consuming and divert the attention of our management and key personnel from our business operations.

Because we provide our program administrators with specific quoting and binding authority, if any of them fail to comply with pre-established guidelines, our results of operations could be adversely affected.

        We market and distribute certain of our insurance products through program administrators that have limited quoting and binding authority and that in turn sell our insurance products to insureds through retail agents and wholesale brokers. These program administrators can bind certain risks without our initial approval. If any of these program administrators fail to comply with our underwriting guidelines and the terms of their appointments, we could be bound on a particular risk or number of risks that were not anticipated when we developed the insurance products or estimated losses and loss adjustment expenses. Such actions could adversely affect our results of operations.

Because our business depends on insurance brokers and program administrators, we are exposed to certain risks arising out of our reliance on these distribution channels that could adversely affect our results.

        Certain premiums from policyholders, where the business is produced by brokers, are collected directly by the brokers and forwarded to our U.S. insurance subsidiary. In certain jurisdictions, when the insured pays its policy premium to its broker for payment on behalf of our U.S. insurance subsidiary, the premium might be considered to have been paid under applicable insurance laws and regulations. Accordingly, the insured would no longer be liable to us for those amounts, whether or not we have actually received the premium from that broker. Consequently, we assume a degree of credit risk associated with the brokers with which we work. We review the financial condition of potential new brokers before we agree to transact business with them. Although the failure by any of our brokers to remit premiums to us has not been material to date, there may be instances where our brokers collect premiums but do not remit them to us and we may be required under applicable law to provide the coverage set forth in the policy despite the related premiums not being paid to us.

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        Because the possibility of these events occurring depends in large part upon the financial condition and internal operations of our brokers, we monitor broker behavior and review financial information on an as-needed basis. If we are unable to collect premiums from our brokers in the future, our underwriting profits may decline and our financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

Our failure to accurately and timely pay claims could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.

        We must accurately and timely evaluate and pay claims that are made under our policies. Many factors affect our ability to pay claims accurately and timely, including the training and experience of our claims representatives, including our third party claims administrators ("TPAs"), the effectiveness of our management, and our ability to develop or select and implement appropriate procedures and systems to support our claims functions and other factors. Our failure to pay claims accurately and timely could lead to regulatory and administrative actions or material litigation, undermine our reputation in the marketplace and materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.

        In addition, if we do not manage our TPAs effectively, or if our TPAs are unable to effectively handle our volume of claims, our ability to handle an increasing workload could be adversely affected. In addition to potentially requiring that growth be slowed in the affected markets, our business could suffer from decreased quality of claims work which, in turn, could adversely affect our operating margins.

We employ third-party licensed software for use in our business, and the inability to maintain these licenses, errors in the software we license or the terms of open source licenses could result in increased costs or reduced service levels, which would adversely affect our business.

        Our business relies on certain third-party software obtained under licenses from other companies. We anticipate that we will continue to rely on such third-party software in the future. Although we believe that there are commercially reasonable alternatives to the third-party software we currently license, this may not always be the case, or it may be difficult or costly to replace. In addition, integration of new third-party software may require significant work and require substantial investment of our time and resources. Our use of additional or alternative third-party software would require us to enter into license agreements with third parties, which may not be available on commercially reasonable terms or at all. Many of the risks associated with the use of third-party software cannot be eliminated, and these risks could negatively affect our business.

        Additionally, the software powering our technology systems incorporates software covered by open source licenses. The terms of many open source licenses have not been interpreted by U.S. courts, and there is a risk that the licenses could be construed in a manner that imposes unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our ability to operate our systems. In the event that portions of our proprietary software are determined to be subject to an open source license, we could be required to publicly release the affected portions of our source code or re-engineer all or a portion of our technology systems, each of which could reduce or eliminate the value of our technology systems. Such risk could be difficult or impossible to eliminate and could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

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Adverse economic factors, including recession, inflation, periods of high unemployment or lower economic activity could result in the sale of fewer policies than expected or an increase in the frequency of claims and premium defaults, and even the falsification of claims, or a combination of these effects, which, in turn, could affect our growth and profitability.

        Factors, such as business revenue, economic conditions, the volatility and strength of the capital markets, and inflation can affect the business and economic environment. These same factors affect our ability to generate revenue and profits. In an economic downturn that is characterized by higher unemployment, declining spending, and reduced corporate revenue, the demand for insurance products is generally adversely affected, which directly affects our premium levels and profitability. Negative economic factors may also affect our ability to receive the appropriate rate for the risk we insure with our policyholders and may adversely affect the number of policies we can write, and our opportunities to underwrite profitable business. In an economic downturn, our customers may have less need for insurance coverage, cancel existing insurance policies, modify their coverage or not renew the policies they hold with us. Existing policyholders may exaggerate or even falsify claims to obtain higher claims payments. These outcomes would reduce our underwriting profit to the extent these factors are not reflected in the rates we charge.

        We underwrite a significant portion of our insurance in California and Texas. Any economic downturn in either state could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

Performance of our investment portfolio is subject to a variety of investment risks that may adversely affect our financial results.

        Our results of operations depend, in part, on the performance of our investment portfolio. We seek to hold a diversified portfolio of investments that is managed by a professional investment advisory management firm in accordance with our investment policy and routinely reviewed by our Investment Committee. Our investments are subject to general economic conditions and market risks as well as risks inherent to particular securities.

        Our primary market risk exposures relate to changes in interest rates and equity prices. Future increases in interest rates could cause the values of our fixed maturity securities portfolios to decline, with the magnitude of the decline depending on the duration of securities included in our portfolio and the amount by which interest rates increase. Some fixed maturity securities have call or prepayment options, which create possible reinvestment risk in declining rate environments. Other fixed maturity securities, such as mortgage-backed and asset-backed securities, carry prepayment risk or, in a rising interest rate environment, may not prepay as quickly as expected.

        The value of our investment portfolio is subject to the risk that certain investments may default or become impaired due to deterioration in the financial condition of one or more issuers of the securities we hold, or due to deterioration in the financial condition of an insurer that guarantees an issuer's payments on such investments. Downgrades in the credit ratings of fixed maturities also have a significant negative effect on the market valuation of such securities.

        Such factors could reduce our net investment income and result in realized investment losses. Our investment portfolio is subject to increased valuation uncertainties when investment markets are illiquid. The valuation of investments is more subjective when markets are illiquid, thereby increasing the risk that the estimated fair value (i.e., the carrying amount) of the securities we hold in our portfolio does not reflect prices at which actual transactions would occur.

        We also invest in marketable equity securities, generally through mutual funds and exchange-traded funds. These securities are carried on the balance sheet at fair market value and are subject to

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potential losses and declines in market value. Our equity invested assets totaled $25.2 million as of December 31, 2018.

        Risks for all types of securities are managed through the application of our investment policy, which establishes investment parameters that include but are not limited to, maximum percentages of investment in certain types of securities and minimum levels of credit quality, which we believe are within applicable guidelines established by the National Association of Insurance Commissioners ("NAIC"), the Oregon Division of Financial Regulation and the California Department of Insurance.

        Although we seek to preserve our capital, we cannot be certain that our investment objectives will be achieved, and results may vary substantially over time. In addition, although we seek to employ investment strategies that are not correlated with our insurance and reinsurance exposures, losses in our investment portfolio may occur at the same time as underwriting losses and, therefore, exacerbate the adverse effect of the losses on us.

We could be forced to sell investments to meet our liquidity requirements.

        We invest the premiums we receive from our insureds until they are needed to pay policyholder claims. Consequently, we seek to manage the duration of our investment portfolio based on the duration of our losses and loss adjustment expense reserves to provide sufficient liquidity and avoid having to liquidate investments to fund claims. Risks such as inadequate losses and loss adjustment reserves or unfavorable trends in litigation could potentially result in the need to sell investments to fund these liabilities. We may not be able to sell our investments at favorable prices or at all. Sales could result in significant realized losses depending on the conditions of the general market, interest rates, and credit issues with individual securities.

Our debt agreements contain restrictions that limit our flexibility in operating our business.

        In September 2018, we issued $20.0 million aggregate principal amount of Floating Rate Senior Secured Notes due 2028 to several qualified institutional buyers. Our Floating Rate Senior Secured Notes mature on September 6, 2028 and bear interest at a rate, reset quarterly, equal to the three month treasury rate plus 6.50% per annum, payable quarterly. The indenture governing our outstanding notes contains various covenants that limit our ability to engage in specified types of transactions. These covenants limit our and certain of our subsidiaries' ability to, among other things:

    pay dividends on, repurchase or make distributions in respect of our capital stock or make other restricted payments;

    make certain investments;

    sell or transfer assets;

    create liens;

    consolidate, merge, sell or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of our assets; and

    enter into certain transactions with our affiliates.

        Under the indenture governing our outstanding notes, we are required to satisfy and maintain specified financial ratios. Our ability to meet those financial ratios can be affected by events beyond our control, and there can be no assurance that we will continue to meet those ratios. A breach of any of these covenants could result in a default under our indenture. Upon the occurrence of an event of default under the indenture governing our outstanding notes, the holders of the notes could elect to declare all amounts outstanding under the indenture to be immediately due and payable. If our cash flows and capital resources are insufficient to fund our debt service obligations or if we are otherwise

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unable to repay the notes when due, we could face substantial liquidity problems and might be required to dispose of material assets or operations to meet our debt service and other obligations.

We are subject to extensive regulation, which may adversely affect our ability to achieve our business objectives. In addition, if we fail to comply with these regulations, we may be subject to penalties, including fines and suspensions, which may adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

        Our U.S. insurance company subsidiary, Palomar Specialty Insurance Company, is subject to extensive regulation in Oregon, its state of domicile, California, where it is commercially domiciled, and to a lesser degree, the other states in which it operates. Our Bermuda reinsurance subsidiary, Palomar Specialty Reinsurance Company Bermuda Ltd. ("Palomar Re"), is subject to regulation in Bermuda. Most insurance regulations are designed to protect the interests of insurance policyholders, as opposed to the interests of investors or stockholders. These regulations generally are administered by a department of insurance in each state and relate to, among other things, capital and surplus requirements, investment and underwriting limitations, affiliate transactions, dividend limitations, changes in control, solvency and a variety of other financial and non-financial aspects of our business. Significant changes in these laws and regulations could further limit our discretion or make it more expensive to conduct our business. State insurance regulators and the Bermuda Monetary Authority (the "BMA"), also conduct periodic examinations of the affairs of insurance and reinsurance companies and require the filing of annual and other reports relating to financial condition, holding company issues and other matters. These regulatory requirements may impose timing and expense constraints that could adversely affect our ability to achieve some or all of our business objectives.

        Our U.S. insurance subsidiary is part of an "insurance holding company system" within the meaning of applicable California and Oregon statutes and regulations. As a result of such status, certain transactions between our U.S. insurance subsidiary and one or more of their affiliates, such as a tax sharing agreement or cost sharing arrangement, may not be effected unless the insurer has provided notice of that transaction to the California Department of Insurance or the Oregon Division of Financial Regulation, as applicable, at least 30 days prior to engaging in the transaction and the California Department of Insurance or the Oregon Division of Financial Regulation, as applicable, has not disapproved such transaction within the 30-day time period. These prior notification requirements may result in business delays and additional business expenses. If our U.S. insurance subsidiary fails to file a required notification or fail to comply with other applicable insurance regulations in California or Oregon, we may be subject to significant fines and penalties and our working relationship with the California Department of Insurance or the Oregon Division of Financial Regulation, as applicable, may be impaired.

        In addition, state insurance regulators have broad discretion to deny or revoke licenses for various reasons, including the violation of regulations. In some instances, where there is uncertainty as to applicability, we follow practices based on our interpretations of regulations or practices that we believe generally to be followed by the industry. These practices may turn out to be different from the interpretations of regulatory authorities. If we do not have the requisite licenses and approvals or do not comply with applicable regulatory requirements, state insurance regulators could preclude or temporarily suspend us from carrying on some or all of our activities or could otherwise penalize us. This could adversely affect our ability to operate our business. Further, changes in the level of regulation of the insurance industry or changes in laws or regulations themselves or interpretations by regulatory authorities could interfere with our operations and require us to bear additional costs of compliance, which could adversely affect our ability to operate our business.

        Our U.S. insurance subsidiary is subject to risk-based capital requirements, based upon the "risk based capital model" adopted by the NAIC, and other minimum capital and surplus restrictions imposed under Oregon and California law. These requirements establish the minimum amount of risk-based capital necessary for a company to support its overall business operations. It identifies

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property and casualty insurers that may be inadequately capitalized by looking at certain inherent risks of each insurer's assets and liabilities and its mix of net written premium. Insurers falling below a calculated threshold may be subject to varying degrees of regulatory action, including supervision, rehabilitation or liquidation. Failure to maintain our risk-based capital at the required levels could adversely affect the ability of our U.S. insurance subsidiary to maintain regulatory authority to conduct our business. See also "Regulation—Required Licensing."

        Our Bermuda reinsurance subsidiary is subject to regulation from the European Union. The European Union adopted the Economic Substance Act 2018 and the Economic Substance Regulations 2018 (together, the "ES Requirements"). As an insurance company, our Bermuda subsidiary conducts a relevant activity and will be subject to the ES Requirements. As a result, our Bermuda subsidiary may be required to change or increase our business operations in Bermuda in order to meet the new requirements. The timeframe for implementation and compliance with the ES Requirements is challenging, with compliance required with effect from July 1, 2019.

        On March 12, 2019, Bermuda was included on a list of non-cooperative tax jurisdictions by the European Commission. The European Commission has proposed, but not implemented, sanctions for jurisdictions on this non-cooperative list such as restrictions on the European Fund for Sustainable Development, the European Fund for Strategic Investment and the External Lending Mandate from channeling funds through entities listed in such jurisdictions. Additionally, European Union Member States may apply sanctions at the national level against the listed jurisdictions. These measures may include increased monitoring and audits, withholding taxes, special documentation requirements and anti-abuse provisions.

We may become subject to additional government or market regulation, which may have a material adverse impact on our business.

        Our business could be adversely affected by changes in state laws, including those relating to asset and reserve valuation requirements, surplus requirements, limitations on investments and dividends, enterprise risk and risk-based capital requirements, and, at the federal level, by laws and regulations that may affect certain aspects of the insurance industry, including proposals for preemptive federal regulation. The U.S. federal government generally has not directly regulated the insurance industry except for certain areas of the market, such as insurance for flood, nuclear and terrorism risks. However, the federal government has undertaken initiatives or considered legislation in several areas that may affect the insurance industry, including tort reform, corporate governance and the taxation of reinsurance companies. In addition, the Bermuda reinsurance regulatory framework has become subject to increased scrutiny in many jurisdictions. As a result, the BMA has implemented and imposed additional requirements on the companies it regulates, which requirements could adversely impact the operations of our reinsurance subsidiary.

Changes in tax laws as a result of the enactment of recent tax legislation could impact our operations and profitability.

        Legislation commonly known as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the "Tax Act") was signed into law on December 22, 2017. The Tax Act made significant changes to the U.S. federal income tax rules for taxation of individuals and corporations, generally effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017. In the case of individuals, the tax brackets have been adjusted, the top federal income rate has been reduced to 37%, special rules have reduced taxation of certain income earned through pass-through entities and various deductions have been eliminated or limited, including limiting the deduction for state and local taxes to $10,000 per year, decreasing the mortgage interest deduction on new homes to $750,000 and eliminating the home equity line of credit interest deduction for loans that are not considered home acquisition debt.

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        Changes in these deductions may affect taxpayers in states with high residential home prices and high state and local taxes, such as California, and may also negatively impact the housing market. This in turn may negatively impact our growth in these markets if there is lower demand in the housing market as a consequence of the Tax Act.

If states increase the assessments that Palomar Specialty Insurance Company is required to pay, our business, financial condition and results of operations would suffer.

        Certain jurisdictions in which Palomar Specialty Insurance Company is admitted to transact business require property and casualty insurers doing business within that jurisdiction to participate in insurance guaranty associations. These organizations pay contractual benefits owed pursuant to insurance policies issued by impaired, insolvent or failed insurers. They levy assessments, up to prescribed limits, on all member insurers in a particular state on the basis of the proportionate share of the premiums written by member insurers in the lines of business in which the impaired, insolvent or failed insurer is engaged. States may also assess admitted companies in order to fund their respective department of insurance operations. Some states permit member insurers to recover assessments paid through full or partial premium tax offset or in limited circumstances by surcharging policyholders.

        Palomar Specialty Insurance Company is licensed to conduct insurance operations on an admitted basis in 25 states and has applied for state approval for licenses in four additional states. As Palomar Specialty Insurance Company grows, our share of any assessments in each state in which it underwrites business on an admitted basis may increase. We paid assessments of $9,587 in 2017 and $1.1 million in 2018. The increase in assessments paid during 2018 was primarily due to amounts assessed by the Texas Windstorm Insurance Association and Texas Fair Plan Association relating to Hurricane Harvey, with such amounts recovered from our reinsurers. We cannot predict with certainty the amount of future assessments, because they depend on factors outside our control, such as insolvencies of other insurance companies as well as the occurrence of significant catastrophes similar to Hurricane Harvey. Generally speaking, assessments are covered by our catastrophe XOL treaties and, to the extent we have experienced a net loss from an event in excess of our net retention, assessments would be recovered from our reinsurers with no additional expense to us. However, although reinsurance makes the reinsurer liable to us to the extent the risk is transferred or ceded to the reinsurer, it does not relieve us (the ceding insurer) of our primary liability to our policyholders. Significant assessments could result in higher than expected operating expenses and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. In addition, while some states permit member insurers to recover assessments paid through full or partial premium tax offset or, in limited circumstances, by surcharging policyholders, there is no certainty that offsets or surcharges will be permitted in connection with any future assessments.

Because we are a holding company and substantially all of our operations are conducted by our insurance subsidiaries, our ability to pay dividends and service our debt obligations depends on our ability to obtain cash dividends or other permitted payments from our insurance subsidiaries.

        The continued operation and growth of our business will require substantial capital. Accordingly, after the completion of this offering, we do not intend to declare and pay cash dividends on shares of our common stock in the foreseeable future. See "Dividend Policy." Because we are a holding company with no business operations of our own, our ability to pay dividends to stockholders and meet our debt payment obligations largely depends on dividends and other distributions from our insurance subsidiaries, Palomar Specialty Insurance Company and Palomar Re. State insurance laws, including the laws of Oregon and California, and the laws of Bermuda restrict the ability of Palomar Specialty Insurance Company and Palomar Re, respectively, to declare stockholder dividends. State insurance regulators require insurance companies to maintain specified levels of statutory capital and surplus. The maximum dividend distribution absent the approval or non-disapproval of the insurance regulatory

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authority in Oregon and California is limited by Oregon law at ORS 732.576 and California law at Cal. Ins. Code 1215.5(g). Dividend payments are further limited to that part of available policyholder surplus that is derived from net profits on our business. State insurance regulators have broad powers to prevent the reduction of statutory surplus to inadequate levels, and there is no assurance that dividends up to the maximum amounts calculated under any applicable formula would be permitted. Moreover, state insurance regulators that have jurisdiction over the payment of dividends by Palomar Specialty Insurance Company may in the future adopt statutory provisions more restrictive than those currently in effect.

        Our Bermuda reinsurance subsidiary is highly regulated and is required to comply with various conditions before it is able to pay dividends or make distributions to us. Bermuda law, including the Insurance Act 1978, as amended ("Insurance Act") and the Companies Act 1981, as amended ("Companies Act") impose restrictions on our Bermuda reinsurance subsidiary's ability to pay dividends to us based on solvency margins and surplus and capital requirements. These restrictions, and any other future restrictions adopted by the BMA, could have the effect, under certain circumstances, of significantly reducing dividends or other amounts payable to us by our Bermuda reinsurance subsidiary without affirmative approval of the BMA.

        Any determination to pay dividends in the future will be at the discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend upon results of operations, financial condition, contractual restrictions pursuant to our debt agreements, our indebtedness, restrictions imposed by applicable law and other factors our Board of Directors deems relevant. Consequently, investors may need to sell all or part of their holdings of our common stock after price appreciation, which may never occur, as the only way to realize any future gains on their investment. Investors seeking immediate cash dividends should not purchase our common stock.

Our operating results have in the past varied from quarter to quarter and may not be indicative of our long-term prospects.

        Our operating results are subject to fluctuation and have historically varied from quarter to quarter. We expect our quarterly results to continue to fluctuate in the future due to a number of factors, including the general economic conditions in the markets where we operate, the frequency of occurrence or severity of catastrophe or other insured events, fluctuating interest rates, claims exceeding our loss reserves, competition in our industry, deviations from expected premium retention rates of our existing policies and contracts, adverse investment performance, and the cost of reinsurance coverage.

        In particular, we seek to underwrite products and make investments to achieve favorable returns on tangible shareholder's equity over the long term. In addition, our opportunistic nature and focus on long-term growth in tangible equity may result in fluctuations in gross written premiums from period to period as we concentrate on underwriting contracts that we believe will generate better long-term, rather than short-term, results. Accordingly, our short-term results of operations may not be indicative of our long-term prospects.

We may act based on inaccurate or incomplete information regarding the accounts we underwrite.

        We rely on information provided by insureds or their representatives when underwriting insurance policies. While we may make inquiries to validate or supplement the information provided, we may make underwriting decisions based on incorrect or incomplete information. It is possible that we will misunderstand the nature or extent of the activities or facilities and the corresponding extent of the risks that we insure because of our reliance on inadequate or inaccurate information.

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Our employees could take excessive risks, which could negatively affect our financial condition and business.

        As an insurance enterprise, we are in the business of binding certain risks. The employees who conduct our business, including executive officers and other members of management, underwriters, product managers and other employees, do so in part by making decisions and choices that involve exposing us to risk. These include decisions such as setting underwriting guidelines and standards, product design and pricing, determining which business opportunities to pursue, and other decisions. We endeavor, in the design and implementation of our compensation programs and practices, to avoid giving our employees incentives to take excessive risks. Employees may, however, take such risks regardless of the structure of our compensation programs and practices. Similarly, although we employ controls and procedures designed to monitor employees' business decisions and prevent them from taking excessive risks, these controls and procedures may not be effective. If our employees take excessive risks, the impact of those risks could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and business operations.

We may require additional capital in the future, which may not be available or may only be available on unfavorable terms.

        Our future capital requirements depend on many factors, including our ability to write new business successfully and to establish premium rates and reserves at levels sufficient to cover losses. To the extent that the funds generated by this offering are insufficient to fund future operating requirements and cover claim losses, we may need to raise additional funds through financings or curtail our growth. Many factors will affect the amount and timing of our capital needs, including our growth rate and profitability, our claims experience, and the availability of reinsurance, market disruptions, and other unforeseeable developments. If we need to raise additional capital, equity or debt financing may not be available at all or may be available only on terms that are not favorable to us. In the case of equity financings, dilution to our stockholders could result. In the case of debt financings, we may be subject to covenants that restrict our ability to freely operate our business. In any case, such securities may have rights, preferences and privileges that are senior to those of the shares of common stock offered hereby. If we cannot obtain adequate capital on favorable terms or at all, we may not have sufficient funds to implement our operating plans and our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially adversely affected.

We may not be able to manage our growth effectively.

        We intend to grow our business in the future, which could require additional capital, systems development and skilled personnel. However, we must be able to meet our capital needs, expand our systems and our internal controls effectively, allocate our human resources optimally, identify and hire qualified employees and effectively incorporate the components of any businesses we may acquire in our effort to achieve growth. The failure to manage our growth effectively could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

If actual renewals of our existing contracts do not meet expectations, our written premium in future years and our future results of operations could be materially adversely affected.

        Most of our contracts are written for a one-year term. In our financial forecasting process, we make assumptions about the rates of renewal of our prior year's contracts. The insurance and reinsurance industries have historically been cyclical businesses with intense competition, often based on price. If actual renewals do not meet expectations or if we choose not to write a renewal because of pricing conditions, our written premium in future years and our future operations would be materially adversely affected.

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We may change our underwriting guidelines or our strategy without stockholder approval.

        Our management has the authority to change our underwriting guidelines or our strategy without notice to our stockholders and without stockholder approval. As a result, we may make fundamental changes to our operations without stockholder approval, which could result in our pursuing a strategy or implementing underwriting guidelines that may be materially different from the strategy or underwriting guidelines described in the section titled "Business" or elsewhere in this prospectus.

The effects of litigation on our business are uncertain and could have an adverse effect on our business.

        As is typical in our industry, we continually face risks associated with litigation of various types, including disputes relating to insurance claims under our policies as well as other general commercial and corporate litigation. Although we are not currently involved in any material litigation with our customers, other members of the insurance industry are the target of class action lawsuits and other types of litigation, some of which involve claims for substantial or indeterminate amounts, and the outcomes of which are unpredictable. This litigation is based on a variety of issues, including insurance and claim settlement practices. We cannot predict with any certainty whether we will be involved in such litigation in the future or what impact such litigation would have on our business.

Changes in accounting practices and future pronouncements may materially affect our reported financial results.

        Developments in accounting practices may require us to incur considerable additional expenses to comply, particularly if we are required to prepare information relating to prior periods for comparative purposes or to apply the new requirements retroactively. The impact of changes in current accounting practices and future pronouncements cannot be predicted but may affect the calculation of net income, shareholder's equity and other relevant financial statement line items.

        Our U.S. insurance subsidiary, Palomar Specialty Insurance Company, is required to comply with statutory accounting principles ("SAP"). SAP and various components of SAP are subject to constant review by the NAIC and its task forces and committees, as well as state insurance departments, in an effort to address emerging issues and otherwise improve financial reporting. Various proposals are pending before committees and task forces of the NAIC, some of which, if enacted, could have negative effects on insurance industry participants. The NAIC continuously examines existing laws and regulations. We cannot predict whether or in what form such reforms will be enacted and, if so, whether the enacted reforms will positively or negatively affect us.

We rely on the use of credit scoring in pricing and underwriting certain of our insurance policies and any legal or regulatory requirements that restrict our ability to access credit score information could decrease the accuracy of our pricing and underwriting process and thus decrease our ability to be profitable.

        We use credit scoring as a factor in pricing and underwriting decisions where allowed by state law. Consumer groups and regulators have questioned whether the use of credit scoring unfairly discriminates against some groups of people and are calling for laws and regulations to prohibit or restrict the use of credit scoring in underwriting and pricing. Laws or regulations that significantly curtail or regulate the use of credit scoring, if enacted in a large number of states in which we operate, could impact the integrity of our pricing and underwriting processes, which could, in turn, materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects, and make it harder for us to be profitable over time.

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Risks Related to This Offering and Ownership of Our Common Stock

Our costs will increase significantly as a result of operating as a public company, and our management will be required to devote substantial time to complying with public company regulations.

        As a public company, we will incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company. After completion of this offering, we will be subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, which will require, among other things, that we file with the SEC annual, quarterly and current reports with respect to our business and financial condition and therefore we will need to have the ability to prepare financial statements that comply with all SEC reporting requirements on a timely basis. In addition, we will be subject to other reporting and corporate governance requirements, including certain requirements of and certain provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the regulations promulgated thereunder, which will impose significant compliance obligations upon us. In particular, we must perform system and process evaluation and testing of our internal control over financial reporting to allow management and, to the extent that we are no longer an "emerging growth company" as defined in the JOBS Act, our independent registered public accounting firm to report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting, as required by Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. Our compliance with Section 404 will require that we incur substantial accounting expense and expend significant management efforts. We currently do not have an internal audit group. We will need to hire additional accounting and financial staff with appropriate public company experience and technical accounting knowledge to satisfy the ongoing requirements of Section 404 and provide internal audit services.

        The Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the Dodd-Frank Act, as well as new rules subsequently implemented by the SEC and Nasdaq, have increased regulation of, and imposed enhanced disclosure and corporate governance requirements on, public companies. Our efforts to comply with these evolving laws, regulations and standards will increase our operating costs and divert management's time and attention from revenue-generating activities.

        These changes will also place significant additional demands on our finance and accounting staff and on our financial accounting and information systems. We may need to hire additional accounting and financial staff with appropriate public company reporting experience and technical accounting knowledge. Other expenses associated with being a public company include increases in auditing, accounting and legal fees and expenses, investor relations expenses, increased directors' fees and director and officer liability insurance costs, registrar and transfer agent fees and listing fees, as well as other expenses. As a public company, we will be required, among other things, to:

    prepare and file periodic reports and distribute other stockholder communications, in compliance with the federal securities laws and requirements of Nasdaq;

    define and expand the roles and the duties of our Board of Directors and its committees;

    institute more comprehensive compliance and investor relations functions; and

    evaluate and maintain our system of internal control over financial reporting, and report on management's assessment thereof, in compliance with rules and regulations of the SEC and the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board.

        We may not be successful in implementing these requirements, and implementing them could materially adversely affect our business. The increased costs will decrease our net income and may require us to reduce costs in other areas of our business or increase the prices of our products or services. For example, we expect these rules and regulations to make it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance and we may be required to incur substantial costs to maintain the same or similar coverage. We cannot predict or estimate the amount or timing of additional costs we may incur to respond to these requirements. The impact of these

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requirements could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified persons to serve on our Board of Directors, our Board committees or as executive officers.

        In addition, if we fail to implement the required controls with respect to our internal accounting and audit functions, our ability to report our results of operations on a timely and accurate basis could be impaired. If we do not implement the required controls in a timely manner or with adequate compliance, we may be subject to sanctions or investigation by regulatory authorities, such as the SEC or Nasdaq. Any such action could harm our reputation and the confidence of investors in, and clients of, our company and could negatively affect our business and cause the price of our shares of common stock to decline.

We will be required by Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act to evaluate the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. If we are unable to achieve and maintain effective internal controls, our operating results and financial condition could be harmed and the market price of our common stock may be negatively affected.

        As a public company with SEC reporting obligations, we will be required to document and test our internal control procedures to satisfy the requirements of Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, which will require annual assessments by management of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting beginning with the annual report for our fiscal year ended December 31, 2019. We are an emerging growth company, and thus we are exempt from the auditor attestation requirement of Section 404(b) of Sarbanes-Oxley until such time as we no longer qualify as an emerging growth company. See also "—We qualify as an emerging growth company, and any decision on our part to comply with reduced reporting and disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies could make our common stock less attractive to investors." Regardless of whether we qualify as an emerging growth company, we will still need to implement substantial internal control systems and procedures in order to satisfy the reporting requirements under the Exchange Act and applicable requirements.

        During the course of our assessment, we may identify deficiencies that we are unable to remediate in a timely manner. Testing and maintaining our internal control over financial reporting may also divert management's attention from other matters that are important to the operation of our business. We may not be able to conclude on an ongoing basis that we have effective internal control over financial reporting in accordance with Section 404(b) of Sarbanes-Oxley. If we conclude that our internal control over financial reporting is not effective, we cannot be certain as to the timing of completion of our evaluation, testing and remediation actions or their effect on our operations. Moreover, any material weaknesses or other deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting may impede our ability to file timely and accurate reports with the SEC. Any of the above could cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information or our common stock listing on Nasdaq to be suspended or terminated, which could have a negative effect on the trading price of our common stock.

We qualify as an emerging growth company, and any decision on our part to comply with reduced reporting and disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies could make our common stock less attractive to investors.

        We are an "emerging growth company," and, for as long as we continue to be an emerging growth company, we currently intend to take advantage of exemptions from various reporting requirements applicable to other public companies but not to "emerging growth companies," including, but not limited to, not being required to have our independent registered public accounting firm audit our internal control over financial reporting under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our registration statements, periodic reports and proxy statements and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on

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executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. We will cease to be an emerging growth company upon the earliest of: (i) the end of the fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the IPO; (ii) the first fiscal year after our annual gross revenue is $1.07 billion or more; (iii) the date on which we have, during the previous three-year period, issued more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt securities; or (iv) the end of any fiscal year in which the market value of our common stock held by non-affiliates exceeded $700 million as of the end of the second quarter of that fiscal year.

        We cannot predict whether investors will find our common stock less attractive if we choose to rely on these exemptions while we are an emerging growth company. If some investors find our common stock less attractive as a result of any choices to reduce future disclosure, there may be a less active trading market for our common stock and the price of our common stock may be more volatile.

        Under the JOBS Act, emerging growth companies can also delay adopting new or revised accounting standards until such time as those standards apply to private companies. We plan to avail ourselves of this exemption from new or revised accounting standards and, therefore, we may not be subject to the same new or revised accounting standards as other public companies that are not emerging growth companies.

We are a "controlled company" within the meaning of the rules and regulations of Nasdaq. As a result, we qualify for, and intend to continue to rely on, exemptions from corporate governance requirements that provide protection to stockholders of other companies.

        After completion of this offering, Genstar Capital will continue to control a majority of the voting power of our outstanding common stock. As a result, we will be a "controlled company" within the meaning of the Nasdaq Marketplace Rules. Under these rules, a company of which more than 50% of the voting power is held by an individual, group or another company is a "controlled company" and may elect not to comply with some corporate governance requirements, including:

    the requirement that a majority of our Board of Directors consist of "independent directors";

    the requirement that we have a compensation committee that is composed entirely of independent directors with a written charter addressing the committee's purpose and responsibilities;

    the requirement that we have a nominating and corporate governance committee that is composed entirely of independent directors with a written charter addressing the committee's purpose and responsibilities; and

    the requirement for an annual performance evaluation of the compensation and nominating and corporate governance committees.

        Following this offering, we intend to continue to utilize certain of these exemptions. Accordingly, you will not have the same protections afforded to stockholders of companies that are subject to all of the corporate governance standards of the Nasdaq Marketplace Rules.

        In addition, Nasdaq has developed listing standards regarding compensation committee independence requirements and the role and disclosure of compensation consultants and other advisers to the compensation committee that, among other things, requires:

    compensation committees be composed of independent directors, as determined pursuant to new independence requirements;

    compensation committees be explicitly charged with hiring and overseeing compensation consultants, legal counsel and other committee advisors; and

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    compensation committees be required to consider, when engaging compensation consultants, legal counsel or other advisors, independence factors, including factors that examine the relationship between the consultant or advisor's employer and us.

        As a controlled company, we will not be subject to these compensation committee independence requirements.

There is no existing market for our common stock, and you cannot be certain that an active trading market will develop or a specific share price will be established.

        Prior to this offering, there has been no public market for shares of our common stock. We have applied to list our common stock on Nasdaq under the symbol "PLMR." We cannot predict the extent to which investor interest in our company will lead to the development of a trading market on such exchange or otherwise or how liquid that market might become. If an active and liquid trading market does not develop, you may have difficulty selling your shares of common stock at an attractive price, or at all. The initial public offering price for the shares of our common stock will be determined by negotiations between us and the underwriters, and may not be indicative of the price that will prevail in the trading market following this offering. The market price for our common stock may decline below the initial public offering price, and our stock price is likely to be volatile.

Our operating results and stock price may be volatile, or may decline regardless of our operating performance, and you could lose all or part of your investment.

        Our quarterly operating results are likely to fluctuate in the future as a publicly traded company. In addition, securities markets worldwide have experienced, and are likely to continue to experience, significant price and volume fluctuations. This market volatility, as well as general economic, market or political conditions, could subject the market price of our shares to wide price fluctuations regardless of our operating performance. You should consider an investment in our common stock to be risky, and you should invest in our common stock only if you can withstand a significant loss and wide fluctuation in the market value of your investment. The market price of our common stock could be subject to significant fluctuations after this offering in response to the factors described in this "Risk Factors" section and other factors, many of which are beyond our control. Among the factors that could affect our stock price are:

    market conditions in the broader stock market;

    actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly financial and operating results;

    introduction of new products or services by us or our competitors;

    issuance of new or changed securities analysts' reports or recommendations;

    results of operations that vary from expectations of securities analysis and investors;

    short sales, hedging and other derivative transactions in our common stock;

    guidance, if any, that we provide to the public, any changes in this guidance or our failure to meet this guidance;

    strategic actions by us or our competitors;

    announcement by us, our competitors or our acquisition targets;

    sales, or anticipated sales, of large blocks of our stock, including by our directors, executive officers and principal stockholders;

    additions or departures in our Board or Directors, senior management or other key personnel;

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    regulatory, legal or political developments;

    public response to press releases or other public announcements by us or third parties, including our filings with the SEC;

    litigation and governmental investigations;

    changing economic conditions;

    changes in accounting principles;

    any indebtedness we may incur or securities we may issue in the future;

    default under agreements governing our indebtedness;

    exposure to capital and credit market risks that adversely affect our investment portfolio or our capital resources;

    changes in our credit ratings;

    exchange rate fluctuations; and

    other events or factors, including those from natural disasters, war, actors of terrorism or responses to these events.

        The securities markets have from time to time experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that often have been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of particular companies. As a result of these factors, investors in our common stock may not be able to resell their shares at or above the initial offering price. These broad market fluctuations, as well as general market, economic and political conditions, such as recessions, loss of investor confidence or interest rate changes, may negatively affect the market price of our common stock.

        In addition, the stock markets, including Nasdaq, have experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have affected and continue to affect the market prices of equity securities of many companies. If any of the foregoing occurs, it could cause our stock price to fall and may expose us to securities class action litigation that, even if unsuccessful, could be costly to defend, divert management's attention and resources or harm our business.

Sales of outstanding shares of our common stock into the market in the future could cause the market price of our common stock to drop significantly, even if our business is doing well.

        Upon completion of this offering, we will have outstanding an aggregate of approximately 22,625,000 shares of our common stock, assuming no exercise of the underwriters' option to purchase additional shares. Of these shares, 5,625,000 shares to be sold in this offering will be freely tradable without restriction or further registration under the Securities Act, unless such shares are held by our directors, executive officers or any of our affiliates, as that term is defined in Rule 144 under the Securities Act. All remaining shares of common stock outstanding following this offering will be "restricted securities" within the meaning of Rule 144 under the Securities Act. Restricted securities may not be sold in the public market unless the sale is registered under the Securities Act or an exemption from registration is available. We intend to grant registration rights to Genstar Capital with respect to shares of our common stock. Any shares registered pursuant to the registration rights agreement that we expect to amend and restate in connection with this offering described in "Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions" will be freely tradable in the public market following a 180-day lock-up period as described below. Sales of our common stock in the public market after this offering, or the perception that these sales could occur, could cause the market price of our common stock to decline and may make it more difficult for us to sell equity or equity-linked securities in the future at a time and at a price that we deem necessary or appropriate.

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        In connection with this offering, our directors, executive officers, and all of our stockholders have each agreed to enter into "lock-up" agreements with the underwriters and thereby be subject to a lock-up period, meaning that they and their permitted transferees will not be permitted to sell any shares of our common stock for 180 days after the date of this prospectus, subject to certain customary exceptions without the prior consent of the representatives of the underwriters. Although we have been advised that there is no present intention to do so, the representatives may, in their sole discretion, release all or any portion of the shares from the restrictions in any of the lock-up agreements described above. See "Underwriting." Possible sales of these shares in the market following the waiver or expiration of such agreements could exert significant downward pressure on our stock price.

        We expect that upon the consummation of this offering, our Board of Directors and our stockholders will have approved the 2019 Equity Incentive Plan and the 2019 Employee Stock Purchase Plan that will permit us to issue, among other things, stock options, restricted stock units and restricted stock to eligible employees (including our named executive officers), directors and advisors, as determined by the compensation committee of the Board of Directors. We intend to file a registration statement under the Securities Act, as soon as practicable after the consummation of this offering, to cover the issuance of shares upon the exercise of awards granted, and of shares granted, under the 2019 Equity Incentive Plan and the 2019 Employee Stock Purchase Plan. As a result, any shares issued under the 2019 Equity Incentive Plan and the 2019 Employee Stock Purchase Plan after the consummation of this offering also will be freely tradable in the public market. If equity securities are granted under the 2019 Equity Incentive Plan and the 2019 Employee Stock Purchase Plan and it is perceived that they will be sold in the public market, then the price of our common stock could decline.

        Also, in the future, we may issue our securities in connection with investments or acquisitions. The amount of shares of our common stock issued in connection with an investment or acquisition could constitute a material portion of our then outstanding shares of our common stock.

Investors in this offering will suffer immediate and substantial dilution.

        The initial public offering price is substantially higher than the net stockholders' tangible book value per share of our common stock based on the total value of our tangible assets less our total liabilities divided by our shares of common stock outstanding immediately following this offering. Therefore, if you purchase common stock in this offering, you will experience immediate and substantial dilution in net tangible book value per share after consummation of this offering. You may experience additional dilution upon future equity issuances. See "Dilution."

The issuance of additional stock, our stock incentive plans or otherwise will dilute all other stockholdings.

        After this offering, based upon the assumed initial public offering price of $16.00 per share, which is the midpoint of the estimated offering price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, we will have an aggregate of 474,735,000 shares of common stock authorized but unissued and not reserved for issuance under our equity incentive plans, options granted to our directors, employees and consultants, or otherwise, assuming no exercise of the underwriters' option to purchase additional shares. We may issue all of these shares without any action or approval by our stockholders. The issuance of additional shares could be dilutive to existing holders.

Genstar Capital will be able to exert significant influence over us and our corporate decisions.

        Immediately following the completion of this offering, Genstar Capital is expected to own, in the aggregate, approximately 64.0% of our outstanding common stock (or approximately 61.6% if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full). So long as Genstar Capital owns a significant amount of our outstanding common stock, Genstar Capital will be able to exert

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significant voting influence over us and our corporate decisions, including any matter requiring stockholder approval regardless of whether others believe that the matter is in our best interests. For example, Genstar Capital will be able to exert significant influence over the vote in any election of directors and any amendment of our charter. Genstar Capital may act in a manner that advances their best interests and not necessarily those of other stockholders, including investors in this offering, by, among other things:

    delaying, preventing or deterring a change in control of us;

    entrenching our management or our Board of Directors; or

    influencing us to enter into transactions or agreements that are not in the best interests of all stockholders.

        In connection with this offering, we will enter into the Stockholders Agreement with Genstar Capital. The Stockholders Agreement specifies that we will not take certain significant actions specified therein without the prior written consent of Genstar Capital, including, but not limited to, (i) amendments or modifications to our or our subsidiaries' organizational documents in a manner that adversely affects Genstar Capital, (ii) making any payment or declaration of any dividend or other distribution on any shares of our common stock, (iii) merging or consolidating with or into any other entity, or transferring all or substantially all of our or our subsidiaries' assets, taken as a whole, to another entity, or entering into or agreeing to undertake any transaction that would constitute a "Change of Control" as defined in our or our subsidiaries' credit facilities or note indentures, (iv) other than in the ordinary course of business with vendors, customers and suppliers, entering into or effecting any (A) acquisition by us or any of our subsidiaries of the equity interests or assets of any person, or the acquisition by us or any of our subsidiaries of any business, properties, assets, or person, in one transaction or a series of related transactions or (B) disposition of assets of us or any of our subsidiaries or the shares or other equity interests of any of our subsidiary, in each case where the amount of consideration for any such acquisition or disposition exceeds $15 million in any single transaction, or an aggregate amount of $30 million in any series of transactions during a calendar year, (v) undertaking any liquidation, dissolution or winding up, and (vi) changing the size of the Board of Directors. See "Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions—Stockholders Agreement."

        The concentration of ownership could deprive stockholders of an opportunity to receive a premium for their common stock as part of a sale of our company and may ultimately affect the market price of our common stock. In addition, the requirement to obtain Genstar Capital's prior consent for certain transactions, including acquisitions and dispositions, may adversely impact our ability to operate our business or take advantage of certain opportunities.

Our Stockholders Agreement will provide Genstar Capital with the right to nominate up to 50% of our directors.

        Under the Stockholders Agreement, Genstar Capital has the right, but not the obligation, to nominate (a) 50% of our directors, as long as Genstar Capital beneficially owns 50% or more of our outstanding common stock, (b) 40% of our directors, as long as Genstar Capital beneficially owns 40% or more, but less than 50% of our outstanding common stock, (c) 30% of our directors, as long as Genstar Capital beneficially owns 30% or more, but less than 40% of our outstanding common stock, (d) 20% of our directors, as long as Genstar Capital beneficially owns 20% or more, but less than 30% of our outstanding common stock, (e) 10% of our directors, as long as Genstar Capital beneficially owns 10% or more, but less than 20% of our outstanding common stock, in each case rounded up to the nearest whole number of directors. If Genstar Capital is able to exert significant influence over our Board of Directors as a result of their nomination rights pursuant to the Stockholders Agreement, our other stockholders may have limited ability to influence corporate matters and, as a result, we may take actions that our other stockholders do not view as beneficial.

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Two of our directors have relationships with Genstar Capital, which may cause conflicts of interest with respect to our business.

        Following this offering, two of our directors will be affiliated with Genstar Capital. Our Genstar Capital-affiliated directors have fiduciary duties to us and, in addition, have duties to Genstar Capital. As a result, these directors may face real or apparent conflicts of interest with respect to matters affecting both us and Genstar Capital, whose interests may be adverse to ours in some circumstances.

Our certificate of incorporation provides that Genstar Capital has no obligation to offer us corporate opportunities.

        Genstar Capital and the members of our Board of Directors who are affiliated with Genstar Capital, by the terms of our certificate of incorporation, will not be required to offer us any corporate opportunity of which they become aware and could take any such opportunity for themselves or offer it to other companies in which they have an investment, unless such opportunity is expressly offered to them solely in their capacity as our directors. We, by the terms of our certificate of incorporation, expressly renounce any interest in any such corporate opportunity to the extent permitted under applicable law, even if the opportunity is one that we would reasonably be deemed to have pursued if given the opportunity to do so. Our certificate of incorporation cannot be amended to eliminate our renunciation of any such corporate opportunity arising prior to the date of any such amendment. Genstar Capital is in the business of making investments in portfolio companies and may from time to time acquire and hold interests in businesses that compete with us, and Genstar Capital has no obligation to refrain from acquiring competing businesses. Any competition could intensify if an affiliate or subsidiary of Genstar Capital were to enter into or acquire a business similar to ours. These potential conflicts of interest could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects if attractive corporate opportunities are allocated by Genstar Capital to itself, its portfolio companies or its other affiliates instead of to us.

Our management will have broad discretion over the use of the proceeds we receive in this offering and might not apply the proceeds in ways that increase the value of your investment.

        Our management will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds from the sale of shares by us in this offering, including for any of the purposes described in the section entitled "Use of Proceeds," and you will not have the opportunity as part of your investment decision to assess whether the net proceeds are being used appropriately. Because of the number and variability of factors that will determine our use of the net proceeds from the sale of shares by us in this offering, their ultimate use may vary substantially from their currently intended use. Our management may not apply our net proceeds in ways that ultimately increase the value of your investment. The failure by our management to apply these funds effectively could harm our business. If we do not invest or apply the net proceeds from the sale of shares by us in this offering in ways that enhance stockholder value, we may fail to achieve expected financial results, which could cause our stock price to decline.

Anti-takeover provisions in our organizational documents could delay a change in management and limit our share price.

        Provisions of our certificate of incorporation and bylaws could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire control of us even if such a change in control would increase the value of our common stock and prevent attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current Board of Directors or management.

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        We will have a number of anti-takeover devices that will be in place prior to the completion of this offering that will hinder takeover attempts and could reduce the market value of our common stock or prevent sale at a premium. Our anti-takeover provisions:

    will permit the Board of Directors to establish the number of directors and fill any vacancies and newly created directorships;

    will provide that our Board of Directors will be classified into three classes with staggered, three year terms and that directors may only be removed for cause in the event Genstar Capital no longer beneficially owns a majority of our common stock;

    will require super-majority voting to amend provisions in our certificate of incorporation and bylaws;

    will include blank-check preferred stock, the preference, rights and other terms of which may be set by the Board of Directors and could delay or prevent a transaction or a change in control that might involve a premium price for our common stock or otherwise benefit our stockholders;

    will eliminate the ability of our stockholders to call special meetings of stockholders;

    will specify that special meetings of our stockholders can be called only by our Board of Directors, the chairman of our Board of Directors, or our chief executive officer;

    will prohibit stockholder action by other than unanimous written consent, in the event Genstar Capital no longer beneficially owns a majority of our common stock;

    will provide that vacancies on our Board of Directors may be filled only by a majority of directors then in office, even though less than a quorum;

    will prohibit cumulative voting in the election of directors; and

    will establish advance notice requirements for nominations for election to our Board of Directors or for proposing matters that can be acted upon by stockholders at annual stockholder meetings.

        In addition, as a Delaware corporation, we will be subject to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law in the event Genstar Capital no longer beneficially owns a majority of our common stock. These provisions may prohibit large stockholders, in particular those owning 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock (excluding Genstar Capital), from merging or combining with us for a period of time.

Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws provide that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the exclusive forum for substantially all disputes between us and our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders' ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers or employees.

        Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws provide that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware is the exclusive forum for the following civil actions:

    any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf;

    any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty by any of our directors, officers, employees or agents or our stockholders;

    any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the DGCL or our certificate of incorporation or bylaws or as to which the DGCL confers jurisdiction on the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware;

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    any action to interpret, apply, enforce or determine the validity of our certificate of incorporation or our bylaws; or

    any action asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine.

        However, this provision would not apply to suits brought to enforce a duty or liability created by the Exchange Act. Furthermore, this provision applies to Securities Act claims and Section 22 of the Securities Act creates concurrent jurisdiction for federal and state courts over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Securities Act or the rules and regulations thereunder. Accordingly, there is uncertainty as to whether a court would enforce such provision, and our stockholders will not be deemed to have waived our compliance with the federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder. This choice of forum provision, if enforced, may limit a shareholder's ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other employees, which may discourage such lawsuits against us and our directors, officers and other employees, although our stockholders will not be deemed to have waived our compliance with federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder. Alternatively, if a court were to find the choice of forum provision contained in our certificate of incorporation and bylaws to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, our stock price and trading volume could decline.

        The trading market for our common stock will depend, in part, on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business and our industry. We do not currently have, and may never obtain, research coverage by securities and industry analysts. If no securities or industry analysts commence coverage of our company, the trading price for our common stock would likely be negatively impacted. If we obtain securities or industry analyst coverage and if one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrades our common stock or publishes inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, our stock price would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts ceases coverage of us or fails to publish reports on us regularly, demand for our common stock could decrease, which could cause our stock price and trading volume to decline.

Applicable insurance laws may make it difficult to effect a change of control.

        Under applicable Oregon and California insurance laws and regulations, no person may acquire control of a domestic insurer until written approval is obtained from the state insurance commissioner following a public hearing on the proposed acquisition. Such approval would be contingent upon the state insurance commissioner's consideration of a number of factors including, among others, the financial strength of the proposed acquiror, the acquiror's plans for the future operations of the domestic insurer and any anti-competitive results that may arise from the consummation of the acquisition of control. Oregon and California insurance laws and regulations pertaining to changes of control apply to both the direct and indirect acquisition of ten percent or more of the voting stock of an Oregon-domiciled or California-domiciled insurer. Accordingly, the acquisition of ten percent or more of our common stock would be considered an indirect change of control of Palomar Holdings, Inc. and would trigger the applicable change of control filing requirements under Oregon and California insurance laws and regulations, absent a disclaimer of control filing and its acceptance by the Oregon and California Insurance Departments. These requirements may discourage potential acquisition proposals and may delay, deter or prevent a change of control of Palomar Holdings, Inc., including through transactions that some or all of the stockholders of Palomar Holdings, Inc. might consider to be desirable. See also "Regulation—Changes of Control."

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

        This prospectus contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the federal securities laws, which statements involve substantial risks and uncertainties. Forward-looking statements generally relate to future events or our future financial or operating performance. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements because they contain words such as "may", "will", "should", "expects", "plans", "anticipates", "could", "intends", "target", "projects", "contemplates", "believes", "estimates", "predicts", "would", "potential" or "continue" or the negative of these words or other similar terms or expressions that concern our expectations, strategy, plans or intentions. These forward-looking statements include, among others, statements relating to our future financial performance, our business prospects and strategy, anticipated financial position, liquidity and capital needs and other similar matters. These forward-looking statements are based on management's current expectations and assumptions about future events, which are inherently subject to uncertainties, risks and changes in circumstances that are difficult to predict.

        Our actual results may differ materially from those expressed in, or implied by, the forward-looking statements included in this prospectus as a result of various factors, including, among others:

    claims arising from unpredictable and severe catastrophe events could reduce our earnings and shareholder's equity and limit our ability to underwrite new insurance policies;

    the inability to purchase third-party reinsurance or otherwise expand our catastrophe coverage in amounts that are commercially acceptable to us or on terms that adequately protect us;

    the inherent uncertainty of models resulting in actual losses that are materially different than our estimates;

    a decline in our financial strength rating adversely affecting the amount of business we write;

    reinsurance counterparty credit risk;

    the concentration of our business in California and Texas;

    the potential loss of one or more key executives or an inability to attract and retain qualified personnel adversely affecting our results of operations;

    our reliance on a select group of brokers;

    the failure of any of the loss limitations or exclusions we employ, or changes in other claims or coverage issues, having a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations;

    unexpected changes in the interpretation of our coverage or provisions;

    adverse economic factors, including recession, inflation, periods of high unemployment or lower economic activity resulting in the sale of fewer policies than expected or an increase in frequency or severity of claims and premium defaults or both, affecting our growth and profitability;

    the performance of our investment portfolio adversely affecting our financial results;

    being forced to sell investments to meet our liquidity requirements;

    the limitations and restrictions placed upon our business by our debt agreements;

    extensive regulation adversely affecting our ability to achieve our business objectives or the failure to comply with these regulations adversely affecting our financial condition and results of operations;

    we may become subject to additional government or market regulation;

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    the possibility that states could increase the assessments that Palomar Specialty Insurance Company is required to pay;

    the ability to pay dividends and service our debt obligations being dependent on our ability to obtain cash dividends or other permitted payments from our insurance subsidiary;

    fluctuation and variance in our operating results;

    the possibility that we act based on inaccurate or incomplete information regarding the accounts we underwrite;

    our employees, underwriters and other associates taking excessive risks;

    our inability to obtain future additional capital or obtaining additional capital on unfavorable terms;

    the failure of our information technology and telecommunications systems;

    our inability to protect our trademarks or other intellectual property rights;

    our inability to maintain, or errors in, our third-party and open source licensed software;

    the inability to manage our growth effectively;

    the intense competition for business in our industry;

    the failure of renewals of our existing contracts to meet expectations could affect our written premiums in the future;

    our inability to underwrite risks accurately and charge competitive yet profitable rates to our policyholders;

    the effects of litigation having an adverse effect on our business;

    changes in accounting practices;

    our failure to accurately and timely pay claims;

    legal or regulatory requirements that restrict our ability to access credit score information for purposes of pricing and underwriting our insurance policies;

    increased costs as a result of being a public company;

    the failure to maintain effective internal controls in accordance with Sarbanes-Oxley; and

    the ability of Genstar Capital to exert significant influence over us and our corporate decisions.

        We have based the forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus primarily on our current expectations and projections about future events and trends that we believe may affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, prospects, business strategy and financial needs. The outcome of the events described in these forward-looking statements is subject to risks, uncertainties, assumptions and other factors described in the section captioned "Risk Factors" and elsewhere in this prospectus. These risks are not exhaustive. Other sections of this prospectus include additional factors that could adversely impact our business and financial performance. Furthermore, new risks and uncertainties emerge from time to time and it is not possible for us to predict all risks and uncertainties that could have an impact on the forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus. We cannot assure you that the results, events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements will be achieved or occur, and actual results, events or circumstances could differ materially from those described in the forward-looking statements.

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        In addition, statements that "we believe" and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based upon information available to us as of the date of this prospectus, and while we believe such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements.

        You should read this prospectus and the documents that we reference in this prospectus and have filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part with the understanding that our actual future results, levels of activity, performance and achievements may be materially different from what we expect. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.

        The forward-looking statements made in this prospectus relate only to events as of the date on which such statements are made. We undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements after the date of this prospectus or to conform such statements to actual results or revised expectations, except as required by law.

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USE OF PROCEEDS

        We estimate that the net proceeds to us from the sale of shares of our common stock in this offering will be approximately $80.5 million, based upon the assumed initial public offering price of $16.00 per share, which is the midpoint of the estimated offering price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, and after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. If the underwriters exercise their over-allotment option in full, we estimate that the net proceeds to be received by us will be approximately $93.0 million, after deducting underwriting discounts, commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

        A $1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed initial public offering price of $16.00 per share would increase (decrease) the net proceeds that we receive from this offering by approximately $5.2 million, assuming that the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same and after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. Similarly, each increase (decrease) of 1.0 million in the number of shares offered by us would increase (decrease) the net proceeds that we receive from this offering by approximately $14.9 million, assuming that the assumed initial public offering price remains the same and after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

        The principal purposes of this offering are to increase our capitalization and financial flexibility, create a public market for our common stock and thereby enable access to the public equity markets for us and our stockholders. We intend to use the net proceeds to us from this offering to make contributions to the capital of Palomar Specialty Insurance Company, one of our insurance subsidiaries, in order to grow our business and for other general corporate purposes. We presently intend to contribute approximately $25.0 million to $40.0 million to Palomar Specialty Insurance Company. We do not intend to contribute capital to any of our other subsidiaries. In addition, we intend to use approximately $20.5 million (comprised of $20.0 million in face amount and a 2% prepayment premium) to repay our outstanding Floating Rate Senior Secured Notes, which mature on September 6, 2028. We intend to use the remainder of the net proceeds for working capital and other general corporate purposes.

        This expected use of net proceeds from this offering represents our intentions based on our current plans and business conditions, which could change in the future as our plans and business conditions evolve. As a result, our management will have broad discretion over the uses of the net proceeds from this offering and investors will be relying on the judgement of our management regarding the application of the net proceeds from this offering.

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DIVIDEND POLICY

        We currently intend to retain any future earnings for use in the operation of our business and do not intend to declare or pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Any further determination to pay dividends on our capital stock will be at the discretion of our board of directors, subject to applicable laws, and will depend on our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, general business conditions, and other factors that our board of directors considers relevant. As a holding company, our ability to pay dividends depends on our receipt of cash dividends from our operating subsidiaries, which may further restrict our ability to pay dividends as a result of restrictions on their ability to pay dividends to us.

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CAPITALIZATION

        The following table sets forth cash and cash equivalents, as well as our capitalization, as of December 31, 2018:

    on an actual basis;

    on a pro forma basis to give effect to: (i) a $5.1 million dividend payable accrual and corresponding reduction in retained earnings for a one-time cash distribution made in March 2019 to enable the Company's sole shareholder, GC Palomar Investor LP, to distribute funds to its partners to satisfy the tax obligation incurred in connection with the domestication transactions, and (ii) a $23.0 million stock compensation charge related to the modification and acceleration of the vesting of certain employees' Class P unit awards in GC Palomar Investor LP, which is reflected as an increase in addition paid-in capital and corresponding reduction to retained earnings; and

    on a pro forma as adjusted basis to give effect to: (i) the pro forma adjustments set forth above and (ii) the issuance and sale by us of 5,625,000 shares of common stock in our initial public offering, and the receipt of the net proceeds from our sale of these shares at an assumed initial public offering price of common stock of $16.00 per share, the midpoint of the price range on the cover page of this prospectus, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.
 
  As of December 31, 2018  
 
  Actual   Pro forma   Pro forma
as adjusted(1)
 
 
   
  (unaudited)
   
 
 
  (in thousands, except shares and per
share data)

 

Cash and cash equivalents

  $ 9,525   $ 9,525   $ 89,984  

Liabilities and shareholder's equity:

                   

Liabilities:

                   

Long-term notes payable

  $ 19,079   $ 19,079   $ 19,079  

Shareholder's equity:

                   

Common stock, $0.0001 par value, 500,000,000 shares authorized and 17,000,000 shares issued and outstanding actual and pro forma; 22,625,000 shares issued and outstanding pro forma as adjusted

    2     2     2  

Additional paid-in capital

    68,498     91,459     171,918  

Accumulated other comprehensive (loss) income

    (563 )   (563 )   (563 )

Retained earnings

    28,355     275     275  

Total shareholder's equity

    96,292     91,173     171,632  

Total capitalization

  $ 115,371   $ 110,252   $ 190,711  

(1)
A $1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed initial public offering price of our common stock of $16.00 per share, which is the midpoint of the estimated offering price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, would increase (decrease) the as adjusted amount of cash, and cash equivalents, additional paid-in capital, total stockholders' deficit and total capitalization by approximately $5.2 million, assuming that the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same and after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. We may also increase or decrease the number of shares we are offering. Each increase (decrease) of 1.0 million in the number of shares offered by us would increase (decrease) the as adjusted amount of additional paid-in capital, total stockholders' deficit and total capitalization by approximately $14.9 million, assuming that the assumed initial public offering price remains the same and after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

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DILUTION

        If you invest in our common stock in this offering, your interest will be immediately diluted to the extent of the difference between the initial public offering price per share of our common stock in this offering and the net tangible book value per share of our common stock after this offering. As of December 31, 2018, after giving effect to the domestication transactions, we had a historical net tangible book value of $95.5 million, or $5.62 per share of common stock. Our net tangible book value represents total tangible assets less total liabilities, all divided by the number of shares of common stock outstanding on such date.

        After giving effect to the sale of 5,625,000 shares of common stock in this offering at an assumed initial public offering price of $16.00 per share, the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus and after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, our as adjusted net tangible book value at December 31, 2018 would have been approximately $176.0 million, or $7.78 per share. This represents an immediate increase in as adjusted net tangible book value of $2.16 per share to existing stockholders and an immediate dilution of $8.22 per share to new investors. The following table illustrates this per share dilution:

Assumed initial public offering price per share

        $ 16.00  

Historical net tangible book value per share as of December 31, 2018

  $ 5.62        

Increase in pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share attributable to new investors

    2.16        

Pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering

          7.78  

Dilution per share to investors in this offering

        $ 8.22  

        A $1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed initial public offering price of common stock of $16.00 per share, the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, would increase (decrease) our pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering by $0.23, and would increase (decrease) dilution per share to new investors in this offering by $0.77, assuming that the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same and after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. Similarly, each increase of 1.0 million shares in the number of shares offered by us would increase our pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering by approximately $0.30 per share and decrease the dilution to new investors by approximately $0.30 per share and each decrease of 1.0 million shares in the number of shares offered by us would decrease our pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering by approximately $0.33 per share and increase the dilution to new investors by approximately $0.33 per share, assuming that the assumed initial public offering price remains the same, and after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

        If the underwriters fully exercise their option to purchase additional shares to cover over-allotments, if any, pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value after this offering would increase to approximately $8.03 per share, and there would be an immediate dilution of approximately $7.97 per share to investors in this offering.

        We may choose to raise additional capital due to market conditions or strategic considerations even if we believe we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans. Furthermore, we may choose to issue common stock as part or all of the consideration in acquisitions as part of our planned growth strategy. To the extent that we raise additional capital through the sale of equity or

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convertible debt securities, the issuance of these securities could result in further dilution to our stockholders.

        The above table and discussion includes 17,000,000 shares of common stock outstanding as of December 31, 2018, after giving effect to the domestication transactions, and excludes:

    2,400,000 shares of common stock reserved for issuance under our 2019 Equity Incentive Plan, including options to purchase shares of common stock and restricted stock unit awards representing an aggregate amount of 990,081 shares of common stock, based on an assumed offering price of $16.00, the midpoint of the range set forth on the cover of this prospectus, that our Compensation Committee intends to grant to employees and non-employee directors following the effectiveness of the registration statement on Form S-1 of which this prospectus forms a part and pricing of this offering. The option awards will vest monthly over a two to four year period with a one year cliff and the restricted stock unit awards will vest annually;

    240,000 shares of common stock under our 2019 Employee Stock Purchase Plan; and

    the exercise of the underwriters' option to purchase additional shares to cover over-allotments, if any.

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SELECTED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL AND OTHER DATA

        The following tables present our selected consolidated financial and other data as of and for the periods indicated.

        The selected consolidated statements of operations data for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, and the selected consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016 are derived from our annual consolidated financial statements. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results that should be expected in any future period.

        You should read this data together with our audited consolidated financial statements and related notes, as well as the information under the captions "Summary Consolidated Financial and Other Data" and "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations," included elsewhere in this prospectus. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of our future results.

 
  Years ended December 31,  
 
  2018   2017   2016  
 
  ($ in thousands)
 

Revenue:

                   

Gross written premiums

  $ 154,891   $ 120,234   $ 82,287  

Ceded written premiums

    (82,949 )   (46,951 )   (29,636 )

Net written premiums

    71,942     73,283     52,651  

Net earned premiums

    69,897     55,545     40,322  

Commission and other income

    2,405     1,188     260  

Total underwriting revenue(1)

    72,302     56,733     40,582  

Losses and loss adjustment expenses

    6,274     12,125     7,292  

Acquisition expenses

    28,224     25,522     17,340  

Other underwriting expenses

    17,957     15,146     10,153  

Underwriting income(1)

    19,847     3,940     5,797  

Interest expense

    (2,303 )   (1,745 )   (1,634 )

Net investment income

    3,238     2,125     1,615  

Net realized and unrealized (losses) gains on investments

    (2,569 )   608     499  

Income before income taxes

    18,213     4,928     6,277  

Income tax (benefit) expense

    (6 )   1,145     (337 )

Net income

    18,219     3,783     6,614  

Adjustments

                   

Expenses associated with IPO and tax restructuring

    1,110          

Expenses associated with retirement of surplus notes

    495          

Adjusted net income(1)

    19,824     3,783     6,614  

Key Financial and Operating Metrics

                   

Return on equity

    20.9 %   5.0 %   9.6 %

Adjusted return on equity(1)

    22.7 %   5.0 %   9.6 %

Loss ratio

    9.0 %   21.8 %   18.1 %

Expense ratio

    62.6 %   71.1 %   67.5 %

Combined ratio

    71.6 %   92.9 %   85.6 %

(1)
See "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Financial Measures" for a reconciliation of the non-GAAP financial measures in accordance with GAAP.

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  December 31,  
Selected Balance Sheet Data
  2018   Pro Forma 2018
(unaudited)(1)
  2017   2016  
 
  (in thousands)
 

Total investments

  $ 147,391         $ 125,499   $ 104,821  

Cash and cash equivalents

    9,525           10,780     9,755  

Premium receivable

    18,633           15,087     11,242  

Deferred policy acquisition costs

    14,052           15,161     10,654  

Reinsurance recoverable

    14,562           14,632     1,543  

Prepaid reinsurance premium

    18,284           3,175     1,648  

Other assets

    8,687           4,021     5,469  

Total assets

    231,134           188,355     145,132  

Accounts payable and other accrued liabilities

    9,245     14,364     6,497     4,259  

Reserve for losses and loss adjustment expenses

    16,061           17,784     4,778  

Unearned premiums

    79,130           61,976     42,710  

Ceded premium payable

    10,607           5,069     1,582  

Other liabilities

    720           1,528     1,721  

Long-term notes payable

    19,079           17,087     16,973  

Total liabilities

    134,842     139,961     109,941     72,023  

Total shareholder's equity

    96,292     91,173     78,414     73,109  

(1)
See Financial Statements, Note 2, Significant Accounting Policies, "Unaudited Pro Forma Balance Sheet Information" for description of the adjustments made to the historical balance sheet to arrive at the pro forma information

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MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

        The following discussion of our historical results of operations and our liquidity and capital resources should be read together with the consolidated financial statements and related notes that appear elsewhere in this prospectus. In addition to historical financial information, this prospectus contains "forward-looking statements." You should review the "Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements" and "Risk Factors" sections of this prospectus for factors and uncertainties that may cause our actual future results to be materially different from those in our forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements in this prospectus are based on information available to us as of the date hereof, and we assume no obligation to update any such forward-looking statements.

Overview

        We are a rapidly growing and profitable company focused on the provision of specialty property insurance. We focus on certain markets that we believe are underserved by other insurance companies, such as the markets for earthquake, wind and flood insurance. We provide specialty property insurance products in our target markets to both individuals and businesses. We use proprietary data analytics and a modern technology platform to offer our customers flexible products with customized and granular pricing on an admitted basis. We distribute our products through multiple channels, including retail agents, program administrators, wholesale brokers, and in partnership with other insurance companies. Our business strategy is supported by a comprehensive risk transfer program with reinsurance coverage that we believe provides both consistency of earnings and appropriate levels of protection in the event of a major catastrophe. Our management team combines decades of insurance industry experience across specialty underwriting, reinsurance, program administration, distribution, and analytics.

        Founded in 2014, we have significantly grown our business and have generated attractive returns. We have organically increased gross written premium from $16.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2014, our first year of operations, to $154.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2018, a CAGR of approximately 75%. Our return on equity and combined ratio were 20.9% and 71.6%, respectively, for the year ended December 31, 2018. During 2018, we experienced average monthly premium retention rates above 90% for our Residential Earthquake, Residential Flood and Hawaii Hurricane lines and approximately 84% overall across all lines of business, providing strong visibility into future revenue. In February 2019, A.M. Best affirmed our "A–" (Excellent) (Outlook Stable) rating for Palomar Specialty Insurance Company and affirmed our "A–" (Excellent) (Outlook Stable) group rating for Palomar Holdings, Inc. This rating reflects A.M. Best's opinion of our financial strength, operating performance and ability to meet obligations to policyholders and is not an evaluation directed towards the protection of investors.

Components of Our Results of Operations

Gross Written Premiums

        Gross written premiums are the amounts received or to be received for insurance policies written or assumed by us during a specific period of time without reduction for policy acquisition costs, reinsurance costs or other deductions. The volume of our gross written premiums in any given period is generally influenced by:

    New business submissions;

    Binding of new business submissions into policies;

    Renewals of existing policies; and

    Average size and premium rate of bound policies.

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Ceded Written Premiums

        Ceded written premiums are the amount of gross written premiums ceded to reinsurers. We enter into reinsurance contracts to limit our exposure to potential losses as well as to provide additional capacity for growth. Ceded written premiums are earned over the reinsurance contract period in proportion to the period of risk covered. The volume of our ceded written premiums is impacted by the level of our gross written premiums and any decision we make to increase or decrease limits, retention levels and co-participations.

Net Earned Premiums

        Net earned premiums represent the earned portion of our gross written premiums, less the earned portion that is ceded to third-party reinsurers under our reinsurance agreements. Our insurance policies generally have a term of one year and premiums are earned pro rata over the term of the policy.

Commission and Other Income

        Commission and other income consists of commissions earned on policies written on behalf of third party insurance companies and where we have no exposure to the insured risk and certain fees earned in conjunction with underwriting policies.

Losses and Loss Adjustment Expenses

        Losses and loss adjustment expenses represent the costs incurred for losses. These expenses are a function of the size and term of the insurance policies we write and the loss experience associated with the underlying coverage. In general, our losses and loss adjustment expenses are affected by:

    The occurrence, frequency and severity of catastrophe events such as earthquakes, hurricanes and floods in the areas where we underwrite polices relating to these perils;

    Our net reinsurance recoverables;

    The volume and severity of non-catastrophe attritional losses;

    The mix of business written by us;

    The geographic location and characteristics of the policies we underwrite;

    Changes in the legal or regulatory environment related to the business we write;

    Trends in legal defense costs; and

    Inflation in housing and construction costs.

        Losses and loss adjustment expenses are based on an actuarial analysis of the estimated losses, including losses incurred during the period and changes in estimates from prior periods. Losses and loss adjustment expenses may be paid out over a period of years.

Acquisition Expenses

        Acquisition expenses are principally comprised of the commissions we pay retail agents, program administrators and wholesale brokers, net of ceding commissions we receive on business ceded under certain reinsurance contracts. In addition, acquisition expenses include premium-related taxes. Acquisition expenses related to each policy we write are deferred and amortized to expense in proportion to the premium earned over the policy life.

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Other Underwriting Expenses

        Other underwriting expenses represent the general and administrative expenses of our insurance operations including employee salaries and benefits, technology costs, office rent, and professional services fees such as legal, accounting, and actuarial services.

Interest Expense

        Interest expense consists primarily of interest expense on our surplus notes through September 2018 and our Floating Rate Senior Secured Notes after September 2018.

Net Investment Income

        We earn investment income on our portfolio of invested assets. Our invested assets are primarily comprised of fixed maturity securities, and may also include cash and cash equivalents, and equity securities. The principal factors that influence net investment income are the size of our investment portfolio, the yield on that portfolio and expenses due to external investment managers. As measured by amortized cost, which excludes changes in fair value, such as changes in interest rates, the size of our investment portfolio is mainly a function of our invested equity capital along with premium we receive from our insureds, less payments on policyholder claims and other operating expenses.

Net Realized and Unrealized Gains and Losses on Investments

        Net realized and unrealized gains and losses on investment are a function of the difference between the amount received by us on the sale of a security and the security's cost-basis, as well as any "other-than-temporary" impairments recognized in earnings. In addition, beginning in 2018, we carry our equity securities at fair value with unrealized gains and losses included in this line. Prior to 2018, unrealized gains and losses on equity securities were included in accumulated other comprehensive income as a separate component of shareholder's equity.

Income Tax Expense

        Currently our income tax expense consists mainly of state income taxes imposed by certain states in which we operate. In addition, our income tax expense has been and will continue to be significantly impacted by the value of our deferred tax assets and liabilities, particularly our U.S. federal income net operating loss carryforwards which may or may not be realizable. In addition, tax legislation such as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (the "Tax Act") significantly impacts our current and future income tax expense. Among other things, the Tax Act, enacted on December 22, 2017 lowers the U.S. federal corporate tax rate from 35% to 21% starting January 1, 2018.

Key Financial and Operating Metrics

        We discuss certain key financial and operating metrics, described below, which provide useful information about our business and the operational factors underlying our financial performance.

        Underwriting revenue is a non-GAAP financial measure defined as total revenue, excluding net investment income and net realized and unrealized gains and losses on investments. See "—Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Financial Measures" for a reconciliation of total revenue to underwriting revenue in accordance with GAAP.

        Underwriting income is a non-GAAP financial measure defined as income before income taxes excluding net investment income, net realized and unrealized gains and losses on investments and interest expense. See "—Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Financial Measures" for a reconciliation of income before income taxes to underwriting income in accordance with GAAP.

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        Adjusted net income is a non-GAAP financial measure defined as net income excluding the impact of expenses relating to various transactions that we consider to be unique and non-recurring in nature. See "—Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Financial Measures" for a reconciliation of net income to adjusted net income in accordance with GAAP.

        Return on equity is net income expressed on an annualized basis as a percentage of average beginning and ending shareholder's equity during the period.

        Adjusted return on equity is a non-GAAP financial measure defined as adjusted net income expressed on an annualized basis as a percentage of average beginning and ending shareholder's equity during the period. See "—Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Financial Measures" for a reconciliation of return on equity to adjusted return on equity in accordance with GAAP.

        Loss ratio, expressed as a percentage, is the ratio of losses and loss adjustment expenses, to net earned premiums.

        Expense ratio, expressed as a percentage, is the ratio of underwriting, acquisition and other underwriting expenses net of commission and other income to net earned premiums.

        Combined ratio is a non-GAAP financial measure defined as the sum of the loss ratio and the expense ratio. A combined ratio under 100% generally indicates an underwriting profit. A combined ratio over 100% generally indicates an underwriting loss.

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Results of Operations

Year ended December 31, 2018 compared to year ended December 31, 2017

        The following table summarizes our results for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017:

 
  Years ended
December 31,
   
   
 
 
   
  Percent
Change
 
 
  2018   2017   Change  
 
  ($ in thousands)
   
 

Revenue:

                         

Gross written premiums

  $ 154,891   $ 120,234   $ 34,657     28.8 %

Ceded written premiums

    (82,949 )   (46,951 )   (35,998 )   76.7 %

Net written premiums

    71,942     73,283     (1,341 )   (1.8 )%

Net earned premiums

    69,897     55,545     14,352     25.8 %

Commission and other income

    2,405     1,188     1,217     102.4 %

Total underwriting revenue

    72,302     56,733     15,569     27.4 %

Losses and loss adjustment expenses

    6,274     12,125     (5,851 )   (48.3 )%

Acquisition expenses

    28,224     25,522     2,702     10.6 %

Other underwriting expenses

    17,957     15,146     2,811     18.6 %

Underwriting income

    19,847     3,940     15,907     403.7 %

Interest expense

    (2,303 )   (1,745 )   (558 )   32.0 %

Net investment income

    3,238     2,125     1,113     52.4 %

Net realized and unrealized (losses) gains on investments

    (2,569 )   608     (3,177 )   (522.5 )%

Income before income taxes

    18,213     4,928     13,285     269.6 %

Income tax (benefit) expense

    (6 )   1,145     (1,151 )   (100.5 )%

Net income

    18,219     3,783     14,436     381.6 %

Adjustments:

                         

Expenses associated with IPO and tax restructuring

    1,110         1,110     N/A  

Expenses associated with retirement of surplus notes

    495         495     N/A  

Adjusted net income

    19,824   $ 3,783   $ 16,041     424.0 %

Key Financial and Operating Metrics

                         

Return on equity

    20.9 %   5.0 %            

Adjusted return on equity

    22.7 %   5.0 %            

Loss ratio

    9.0 %   21.8 %            

Expense ratio

    62.6 %   71.1 %            

Combined ratio

    71.6 %   92.9 %            

Gross Written Premiums

        Gross written premiums were $154.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to $120.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2017, an increase of $34.7 million, or 28.8%. Premium growth in 2018 was due primarily to an increased volume of policies written across our lines of business which was driven by expansion of our product, geographic and distribution footprint as well as strong premium retention rates for our existing book of business. The changes in gross written premiums were most notable in the following lines of business:

    Residential Earthquake, which represented approximately 52.7% of our gross written premiums in 2018, increased by $24.4 million, or 42.5%, for the year ended December 31, 2018 over the prior year.

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    Specialty Homeowners, which represented approximately 17.9% of our gross written premiums in 2018, increased by $1.2 million, or 4.4%, for the year ended December 31, 2018 over the prior year.

    Commercial Earthquake, which represented approximately 13.5% of our gross written premiums in 2018, decreased by $2.1 million, or 9.2%, for the year ended December 31, 2018 over the prior year.

    Commercial All Risk, which represented approximately 9.3% of our gross written premiums in 2018, increased by $7.0 million, or 95.8%, for the year ended December 31, 2018 over the prior year.

    Hawaii Hurricane, which represented approximately 5.2% of our gross written premiums in 2018, increased by $2.8 million or 52.7%, for the year ended December 31, 2018 over the prior year.

Ceded Written Premiums

        Ceded written premiums increased $36.0 million, or 76.7%, to $82.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 from $46.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. The increase was primarily due to increased excess of loss reinsurance cost due to higher exposure from the growth of our portfolio, as well as increased ceding of written premium related to our Specialty Homeowners operations in the state of Texas. As of June 2018, we act as a fronting carrier for these operations and cede substantially all of the risk and premium in exchange for a fronting fee. Ceded written premiums as a percentage of gross written premiums increased to 53.6% for the year ended December 31, 2018 from 39.0% for the year ended December 31, 2017.

Net Written Premiums

        Net written premiums decreased $1.3 million, or 1.8%, to $71.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 from $73.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. The decrease was primarily due to higher ceded written premiums under reinsurance agreements.

Net Earned Premiums

        Net earned premiums increased $14.4 million, or 25.8%, to $69.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 from $55.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2017 due primarily to the earned portion of the higher gross written premiums described above offset by the earned portion of the higher ceded written premiums described above under reinsurance agreements for the year ended December 31, 2018. The below table shows the amount of premiums we earned on a gross and net basis:

 
  Year Ended
December 31,
   
   
 
 
  2018   2017   Change   % Change  
 
  ($ in thousands)
   
   
 

Gross earned premiums

  $ 137,759   $ 100,961   $ 36,798     36.4 %

Ceded earned premiums

    (67,862 )   (45,416 )   (22,446 )   49.4 %

Net earned premiums

  $ 69,897   $ 55,545   $ 14,352     25.8 %

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Commission and Other Income

        Commission and other income increased $1.2 million, or 102.4%, to $2.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 from $1.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2017 due primarily to an increase in the volume of REI policies written and resulting increase in associated commission income.

Losses and Loss Adjustment Expenses

        Losses and loss adjustment expenses decreased $5.9 million, or 48.3%, to $6.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 from $12.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. The decrease primarily relates to lower losses, and favorable prior year loss development, net of reinsurance, during 2018 versus 2017. The Company incurred $6.5 million of loss due to Hurricane Harvey in 2017. This event increased our loss ratio by 11.7% for the year end December 31, 2017.

Acquisition Expenses

        Acquisition expenses increased $2.7 million, or 10.6%, to $28.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 from $25.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. The primary reason for the increase was due to higher earned premiums offset by higher earned ceding commissions on ceded business, as well as a change in the overall mix of business produced. Acquisition expenses as a percentage of gross earned premiums were 20.5% for the year ended December 31, 2018 and 25.3% for the year ended December 31, 2017.

Other Underwriting Expenses

        Other underwriting expenses increased $2.8 million, or 18.6%, to $17.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 from $15.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. The increase was primarily due to increased staffing, professional fees and other expenses necessary to support our growth. Other underwriting expenses as a percentage of gross earned premiums were 13.0% for the year ended December 31, 2018 and 15.0% for the year ended December 31, 2017.

Interest Expense

        Interest expense increased $0.6 million, or 32.0%, to $2.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 from $1.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. The increase was primarily due to $0.5 million in charges associated with paying off the Surplus Note in September 2018.

Net Investment Income and Net Realized and Unrealized Gains (Losses) on Investments

        Net investment income increased $1.1 million, or 52.4%, to $3.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 from $2.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. The primary reason for the increase was a higher average balance of investments during the year ended December 31, 2018. Net realized and unrealized gains on investments decreased $3.2 million, or 52.3%, to a $2.5 million loss for the year ended December 31, 2018 from a gain of $0.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. The primary reason for the decrease was $6.0 million of unrealized losses on equity securities offset by $3.5 million of net realized investment gains during the year. We mainly invest in investment grade fixed maturity securities, including U.S. government issues, state government issues, mortgage and asset-backed obligations, and corporate bonds with the remainder of investments

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in equity securities. The following table summarizes the components of our investment income for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017:

 
  Year Ended
December 31,
   
   
 
 
  2018   2017   Change   % Change  
 
  ($ in thousands)
   
   
 

Interest income

  $ 3,036   $ 1,916   $ 1,120     58.5 %

Dividend income

    514     514          

Less: investment management fees and expenses

    (312 )   (305 )   (7 )   2.3 %

Net investment income

  $ 3,238   $ 2,125   $ 1,113     52.4 %

Net realized and unrealized (losses) gains on investments

    (2,569 )   608     (3,177 )   (522.5 )%

Total

  $ 669   $ 2,733   $ (2,064 )   (75.5 )%

Income Tax (Benefit) Expense

        Income tax (benefit) expense decreased $1.1 million to an immaterial benefit for the year ended December 31, 2018 from a $1.1 million expense for the year ended December 31, 2017. Income tax expense was higher in the prior year primarily due to the recognition of a $0.9 million valuation allowance on deferred tax assets in 2017. We recorded a valuation allowance in 2017 due to 3-year cumulative losses and a large catastrophe event during 2017. We increased the valuation allowance by $0.7 million in 2018 due to an increase in net deferred tax assets. The amount of our deferred tax assets considered realizable could be adjusted if estimates of future taxable income during the carryforward period are increased or if objective negative evidence in the form of cumulative losses is no longer present.

        We are subject to income taxes in certain jurisdictions in which we operate. We generate taxable income in our U.S. subsidiaries. We earn income in Bermuda, a non-taxable jurisdiction, primarily as a result of quota share reinsurance agreements between our U.S. insurance subsidiary and Palomar Re, and the investment income earned in Palomar Re. Effective January 1, 2016, our U.S. insurance subsidiary and Palomar Re entered into a quota share reinsurance agreement under which the U.S. insurance subsidiary ceded 35% of the earthquake gross premiums earned as well as losses and loss adjustment expenses to Palomar Re in exchange for a 20% ceding commission. Effective January 1, 2017, the agreement was amended and the cession was decreased to 26.5% with a 25% ceding commission. Effective September 1, 2017, the agreement was amended and the cession was decreased to 0%. Effective January 1, 2018, the agreement was amended, the cession was increased to 50%, and the Hawaii Hurricane gross premiums earned and losses and loss adjustment expenses were added to the lines of business. As a result of our multinational operations our effective tax rate is currently below that of a fully U.S. based operation.

        Following the domestication transactions, we expect that all of our income will be subject to U.S. income tax.

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Year ended December 31, 2017 compared to year ended December 31, 2016

        The following table summarizes our results for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016:

 
  Years ended
December 31,
   
   
 
 
   
  Percent
Change
 
 
  2017   2016   Change  
 
  ($ in thousands)
   
 

Revenue:

                         

Gross written premiums

  $ 120,234   $ 82,287   $ 37,947     46.1 %

Ceded written premiums

    (46,951 )   (29,636 )   (17,315 )   58.4 %

Net written premiums

    73,283     52,651     20,632     39.2 %

Net earned premiums

    55,545     40,322     15,223     37.8 %

Commission and other income

    1,188     260     928     356.9 %

Total underwriting revenue(1)

    56,733     40,582     16,151     39.8 %

Losses and loss adjustment expenses

    12,125     7,292     4,833     66.3 %

Acquisition expenses

    25,522     17,340     8,182     47.2 %

Other underwriting expenses

    15,146     10,153     4,993     49.2 %

Underwriting income(1)

    3,940     5,797     (1,857 )   (32.0 )%

Interest expense

    (1,745 )   (1,634 )   (111 )   6.8 %

Net investment income

    2,125     1,615     510     31.6 %

Net realized gains on investments

    608     499     109     21.8 %

Income before income taxes

    4,928     6,277     (1,349 )   (21.5 )%

Income tax expense (benefit)

    1,145     (337 )   1,482     (439.8 )%

Net income

    3,783     6,614     (2,831 )   (42.8 )%

Adjustments

                 

Adjusted net income(1)

  $ 3,783   $ 6,614   $ (2,831 )   (42.8 )%

Key Financial and Operating Metrics

                         

Return on equity

    5.0 %   9.6 %            

Adjusted return on equity(1)

    5.0 %   9.6 %            

Loss ratio

    21.8 %   18.1 %            

Expense ratio

    71.1 %   67.5 %            

Combined ratio

    92.9 %   85.6 %            

(1)
See "—Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Financial Measures" for a reconciliation of total revenue to underwriting revenue in accordance with GAAP.

        Net income was $3.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to $6.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2016, a decrease of $2.8 million or 43%. This decrease was primarily driven by higher losses incurred, particularly from Hurricane Harvey, higher acquisition expenses and premium taxes and higher other underwriting expenses, offset in part by higher net earned premiums, and commission and other income.

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Gross Written Premiums

        Gross written premiums were $120.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to $82.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2016, an increase of $37.9 million, or 46.1%. Premium growth in 2017 was due primarily to an increased volume of policies written across our lines of business which was driven by expansion of our product, geographic and distribution footprint as well as strong premium retention rates for our existing book of business. The changes in gross written premiums were most notable in the following lines of business:

    Residential Earthquake, which represented approximately 47.7% of our gross written premiums in 2017, increased by $24.7 million, or 75.5% for the year ended December 31, 2017 over the prior year.

    Specialty Homeowners, which represented approximately 22.0% of our gross written premiums in 2017, increased by $2.1 million, or 8.7%, for the year ended December 31, 2017 over the prior year.

    Commercial Earthquake, which represented approximately 19.2% of our gross written premiums in 2017, increased by $2.5 million, or 12.1% for the year ended December 31, 2017 over the prior year.

    Commercial All Risk, which represented approximately 6.1% of our gross written premiums in 2017, increased by $5.5 million, or 310.4% for the year ended December 31, 2017 over the prior year.

    Hawaii Hurricane, which represented approximately 4.4% of our gross written premiums in 2017, increased by $2.5 million or 85.3% for the year ended December 31, 2017 over the prior year.

Ceded Written Premiums

        Ceded written premiums increased $17.3 million, or 58.4% to $46.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2017 from $29.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. The increase was primarily due to higher gross written premiums, increased exposure from the growth of our portfolio, and reinstatement premium incurred as a result of Hurricane Harvey. Ceded written premiums as a percentage of gross written premiums increased to 39.0% for the year ended December 31, 2017 from 36.0% for the year ended December 31, 2016.

Net Written Premiums

        Net written premiums increased $20.6 million, or 39.2% to $73.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2017 from $52.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. The increase was primarily due to higher gross written premiums, offset by higher ceded written premiums under reinsurance agreements.

Net Earned Premiums

        Net earned premiums increased $15.2 million or 37.8% to $55.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2017 from $40.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 due primarily to the earned portion of the higher gross written premiums described above offset by the earned portion of

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the higher ceded written premiums under reinsurance agreements for the year ended December 31, 2017. The below table shows the amount of premiums we earned on a gross and net basis:

 
  Year Ended
December 31,
   
   
 
 
  2017   2016   Change   % Change  
 
  ($ in thousands)
   
   
 

Gross earned premiums

  $ 100,961   $ 69,316   $ 31,645     45.7 %

Ceded earned premiums

    (45,416 )   (28,994 )   (16,422 )   56.6 %

Net earned premiums

  $ 55,545   $ 40,322   $ 15,223     37.8 %

Commission and Other Income

        Commission and other income increased $0.9 million, or 356.9%, to $1.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2017 from $0.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 due primarily to higher commission income due to an increased volume of REI policies written.

Losses and Loss Adjustment Expenses

        Losses and loss adjustment expenses increased $4.8 million, or 66.3%, to $12.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2017 from $7.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. The increase primarily relates to losses, net of reinsurance, of which $6.5 million was due to Hurricane Harvey. This event increased our loss ratio by 11.7% for the year end December 31 2017.

Acquisition Expenses

        Acquisition expenses increased $8.2 million or 47.2% to $25.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2017 from $17.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. The primary reason for the increase was due to higher earned premiums as well as a change in the overall mix of the business produced. Acquisition expenses as a percentage of gross earned premiums were 25.3% for the year ended December 31, 2017 and 25.0% for the year ended December 31, 2016.

Other Underwriting Expenses

        Other underwriting expenses increased $5.0 million or 49.2% to $15.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2017 from $10.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. The increase was primarily due to higher salaries, rent, professional fees and other expenses necessary to support our growth. In addition, other underwriting expenses were impacted by $2.3 million in expenses relating to transaction costs associated with the issuance of catastrophe bonds in June 2017. Other underwriting expenses as a percentage of gross earned premiums were 15.0% for the year ended December 31, 2017 and 14.6% for the year ended December 31, 2016.

Interest Expense

        Interest expense increased $0.1 million or 6.8% to $1.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2017 from $1.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. The increase was primarily due to the increase in interest rates tied to LIBOR during 2017.

Net Investment Income and Net Realized Gains (Losses) on Investments

        Net investment income increased $0.5 million or 31.6% to $2.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2017 from $1.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. The primary reason for the increase was a higher average balance of investments during the year ended December 31, 2017. We mainly invest in investment grade fixed maturity securities, including U.S. government issues, state

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government issues, mortgage and asset-backed obligations, and corporate bonds with the remainder of investments in equity securities. The following table summarizes the components of our investment income for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016:

 
  Year Ended
December 31,
   
   
 
 
  2017   2016   Change   % Change  
 
  ($ in thousands)
   
   
 

Interest income

  $ 1,916   $ 1,425   $ 491     34.5 %

Dividend income

    514     472     42     8.9 %

Less: investment management fees and expenses

    (305 )   (282 )   (23 )   8.2 %

Net investment income

  $ 2,125   $ 1,615   $ 510     31.6 %

Net realized gains on investments

    608     499     109     21.8 %

Total

  $ 2,733   $ 2,114   $ 619     29.3 %

Income Tax Expense (Benefit)

        Income tax expense increased $1.5 million to a $1.2 million expense for the year ended December 31, 2017 from a $0.3 million benefit for the year ended December 31, 2016. The increase was primarily due to the recognition of a $0.9 million valuation allowance on our deferred tax asset. In 2017 we assessed available positive and negative evidence to estimate whether sufficient future taxable income would be generated to permit use of the existing deferred tax assets. Among the factors considered were the three-year cumulative losses incurred and the increased frequency and severity of large catastrophic events for the year ended December 31, 2017. Based on this evaluation, during 2017, a valuation allowance of $0.9 million was recorded to recognize only the portion of the deferred tax asset that is more likely than not to be realized. The amount of the deferred tax asset considered realizable, however, could be adjusted if estimates of future taxable income during the carryforward period are increased or if objective negative evidence in the form of cumulative losses is no longer present.

Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Financial Measures

Underwriting Revenue

        We define underwriting revenue as total revenue excluding net investment income and net realized and unrealized gains and losses on investments. Underwriting revenue represents revenue generated by our underwriting operations and allows us to evaluate our underwriting performance without regard to investment income. We use this metric as we believe it gives our management and other users of our financial information useful insight into our underlying business performance. Underwriting revenue should not be viewed as a substitute for total revenue calculated in accordance with GAAP, and other companies may define underwriting revenue differently.

 
  Year Ended December 31,  
 
  2018   2017   2016  
 
  (in thousands)
 

Total revenues

  $ 72,971   $ 59,466   $ 42,696  

Net investment income

    (3,238 )   (2,125 )   (1,615 )

Net realized and unrealized losses (gains) on investments

    2,569     (608 )   (499 )

Underwriting revenue

  $ 72,302   $ 56,733   $ 40,582  

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Underwriting Income

        We define underwriting income as income before income taxes excluding net investment income, net realized and unrealized gains and losses on investments, and interest expense. Underwriting income represents the pre-tax profitability of our underwriting operations and allows us to evaluate our underwriting performance without regard to investment income. We use this metric as we believe it gives our management and other users of our financial information useful insight into our underlying business performance. Underwriting income should not be viewed as a substitute for pre-tax income calculated in accordance with GAAP, and other companies may define underwriting income differently.

 
  Year Ended December 31,  
 
  2018   2017   2016  
 
  (in thousands)
 

Income before income taxes

  $ 18,213   $ 4,928   $ 6,277  

Net investment income

    (3,238 )   (2,125 )   (1,615 )

Net realized and unrealized losses (gains) on investments

    2,569     (608 )   (499 )

Interest expense

    2,303     1,745     1,634  

Underwriting income

  $ 19,847   $ 3,940   $ 5,797  

Adjusted Net Income

        We define adjusted net income as net income excluding the impact of expenses relating to various transactions that we consider to be unique and possibly non-recurring in nature. We did not have any adjustments to 2017 and 2016 net income. We use adjusted net income as an internal performance measure in the management of our operations because we believe it gives our management and other users of our financial information useful insight into our results of operations and our underlying business performance. Adjusted net income should not be viewed as a substitute for net income calculated in accordance with GAAP, and other companies may define adjusted net income differently.

 
  Year Ended December 31,  
 
  2018   2017   2016  
 
  (in thousands)
 

Net income

  $ 18,219   $ 3,783   $ 6,614  

Adjustments:

                   

Expenses associated with IPO and tax restructuring

    1,110          

Expenses associated with retirement of surplus notes

    495          

Adjusted net income

  $ 19,824   $ 3,783   $ 6,614  

Adjusted Return on Equity

        We define adjusted return on equity as adjusted net income expressed on an annualized basis as a percentage of average beginning and ending shareholder's equity during the period. We did not have any adjustments to 2017 and 2016 net income. We use adjusted return on equity as an internal performance measure in the management of our operations because we believe it gives our management and other users of our financial information useful insight into our results of operations and our underlying business performance. Adjusted return on equity should not be viewed as a

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substitute for return on equity calculated in accordance with GAAP, and other companies may define adjusted return on equity differently.

 
  Year Ended December 31,  
 
  2018   2017   2016  
 
  ($ in thousands)
 

Adjusted return on equity calculation:

                   

Numerator: adjusted net income

  $ 19,824   $ 3,783   $ 6,614  

Denominator: average shareholder's equity:

    87,353     75,762     69,065  

Adjusted return on equity

    22.7 %   5.0 %   9.6 %

Tangible Shareholder's Equity

        We define tangible shareholder's equity as shareholder's equity less intangible assets. Our definition of tangible shareholder's equity may not be comparable to that of other companies, and it should not be viewed as a substitute for shareholder's equity calculated in accordance with GAAP. We use tangible shareholder's equity internally to evaluate the strength of our balance sheet and to compare returns relative to this measure.

 
  December 31,  
 
  2018   2017   2016  
 
  (in thousands)
 

Shareholder's equity

  $ 96,292   $ 78,414   $ 73,109  

Less: Intangible assets

    744     744     744  

Tangible shareholder's equity

  $ 95,548   $ 77,670   $ 72,365  

Liquidity and Capital Resources

Sources and Uses of Funds

        We operate as a holding company with no business operations of our own. Consequently, our ability to pay dividends to stockholders, meet debt payment obligations and pay taxes and administrative expenses is largely dependent on dividends or other distributions from our subsidiaries and affiliates, whose ability to pay us is highly regulated.

        Our U.S. insurance company subsidiary is restricted by statute as to the amount of dividends that it may pay without the prior approval of the Oregon and California Insurance Commissioners. Generally, insurers may pay dividends without advance regulatory approval only from earned surplus and only to the extent that all dividends paid in the twelve months ending on the date of the proposed dividend do not exceed the greater of (i) 10% of their policyholders' surplus as of December 31 of the preceding year or (ii) 100% of their net income (excluding realized investment gains or losses) for the calendar year preceding the year in which the value is being determined. In addition, a domestic insurer may only declare a dividend from earned surplus, which does not include surplus arising from unrealized capital gains or revaluation of assets. A domestic insurer may declare a dividend from other than earned surplus only if the Insurance Commissioner approves the declaration prior to payment of the dividend. Our U.S. insurance company subsidiary may not pay a dividend or distribution to us in 2019 without the prior approval of the Oregon and California Insurance Commissioners due to our U.S. Insurance Company Subsidiary's negative earned surplus as of December 31, 2018. In addition, there is no assurance that dividends of the maximum amount calculated under any applicable formula would be permitted by state insurance regulators. In the future, state insurance regulatory authorities may adopt statutory provisions more restrictive than those currently in effect.

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        Insurance companies in the United States are also required by state law to maintain a minimum level of policyholder's surplus. Oregon and California's state insurance regulators have a risk-based capital standard designed to identify property and casualty insurers that may be inadequately capitalized based on inherent risks of the insurer's assets and liabilities and its mix of net written premium. Insurers falling below a calculated threshold may be subject to varying degrees of regulatory action. As of December 31, 2018, the total adjusted capital of our U.S. insurance subsidiary was in excess of its respective prescribed risk-based capital requirements.

        Under the Insurance Act and related regulations, our Bermuda reinsurance subsidiary is required to maintain certain solvency and liquidity levels, which it maintained as of December 31, 2018 and 2017.

        Our Bermuda reinsurance subsidiary maintains a Class 3A license and thus must maintain a minimum liquidity ratio in which the value of its relevant assets is not less than 75% of the amount of its relevant liabilities for general business. Relevant assets include cash and cash equivalents, fixed maturity securities, accrued interest income, premiums receivable, losses recoverable from reinsurers, and funds withheld. The relevant liabilities include total general business insurance reserves and total other liabilities, less sundry liabilities. As of December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, we met the minimum liquidity ratio requirement.

        Bermuda regulations limit the amount of dividends and return of capital paid by a regulated entity. A Class 3A insurer is prohibited from declaring or paying a dividend if it is in breach of its minimum solvency margin, its enhanced capital requirement, or its minimum liquidity ratio, or if the declaration or payment of such dividend would cause such a breach. If a Class 3A insurer has failed to meet its minimum solvency margin on the last day of any financial year, it will also be prohibited, without the approval of the BMA, from declaring or paying any dividends during the next financial year. Furthermore, the Insurance Act limits the ability of our Bermuda reinsurance subsidiary to pay dividends or make capital distributions by stipulating certain margin and solvency requirements and by requiring approval from the BMA prior to a reduction of 15% or more of a Class 3A insurer's total statutory capital as reported on its prior year statutory balance sheet. Moreover, an insurer must submit an affidavit to the BMA, sworn by at least two directors and the principal representative in Bermuda of the Class 3A insurer, at least seven days prior to payment of any dividend which would exceed 25% of that insurer's total statutory capital and surplus as reported on its prior year statutory balance sheet. The affidavit must state that in the opinion of those swearing the declaration of such dividend has not caused the insurer to fail to meet its relevant margins.

        Further, under the Companies Act, our Bermuda reinsurance subsidiary may only declare or pay a dividend, or make a distribution out of contributed surplus, if it has no reasonable grounds for believing that: (1) it is, or would after the payment be, unable to pay its liabilities as they become due or (2) the realizable value of its assets would be less than its liabilities.

        Pursuant to Bermuda regulations, the maximum amount of dividends and return of capital available to be paid by a reinsurer is determined pursuant to a formula. Under this formula, the maximum amount of dividends and return of capital available to us from our Bermuda subsidiary during 2018 without approval from the BMA is calculated to be approximately $2.4 million, and as of December 2018, the BMA approved a $13.7 million dividend. All dividends are subject to annual enhanced solvency requirement calculations.

Cash Flows

        Our primary sources of cash flow are written premiums, investment income, reinsurance recoveries, sales and redemptions of investments, and proceeds from offerings of debt securities. We use our cash flows primarily to pay operating expenses, losses and loss adjustment expenses, and income taxes.

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        Our cash flows from operations may differ substantially from our net income due to non-cash charges or due to changes in balance sheet accounts.

        The timing of our cash flows from operating activities can also vary among periods due to the timing by which payments are made or received. Some of our payments and receipts, including loss settlements and subsequent reinsurance receipts, can be significant. Therefore, their timing can influence cash flows from operating activities in any given period. The potential for a large claim under an insurance or reinsurance contract means that our insurance subsidiaries may need to make substantial payments within relatively short periods of time, which would have a negative impact on our operating cash flows.

        We generated positive cash flows from operations in each of the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016 and management believes that cash receipts from premium, proceeds from investment sales and redemptions, investment income and reinsurance recoveries, if necessary, are sufficient to cover cash outflows in the foreseeable future.

        The following table summarizes our cash flows for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016:

 
  Year ended
December 31,
 
 
  2018   2017   2016  
 
  ($ in thousands)
 

Cash provided by (used in):

                   

Operating activities

  $ 22,808   $ 20,248   $ 15,825  

Investing activities

    (25,365 )   (19,128 )   (11,531 )

Financing activities

    1,549          

Change in cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash

  $ (1,008 ) $ 1,120   $ 4,294  

        Our cash flow from operating activities has been positive in each of the last three years. Variations in operating cash flow between periods are primarily driven by variations in our gross and ceded written premiums and the volume and timing of premium receipts, claim payments, and reinsurance payments. In addition, fluctuations in losses and loss adjustment expenses and other insurance operating expenses impact operating cash flow.

        Cash used in investing activities for each of the last three years related primary to purchases of fixed income and equity securities in excess of sales and maturities.

        Cash provided by financing activities in 2018 was related to the issuance of floating rate notes and the payoff of surplus notes in September 2018. There was no cash flow from financing activities in 2017 or 2016.

        We do not have any current plans for material capital expenditures other than current operating requirements. We believe that we will generate sufficient cash flows from operations to satisfy our liquidity requirements for at least the next 12 months and beyond. The key factor that will affect our future operating cash flows is the frequency and severity of catastrophic loss events. To the extent our future operating cash flows are insufficient to cover our net losses from catastrophic events, we had $157.3 million in cash and investment securities available at December 31, 2018. We also have the ability to access additional capital through pursuing third-party borrowings, sales of our equity or debt securities or entrance into a reinsurance arrangement.

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Notes Payable

2015 Surplus Notes

        On February 3, 2015, we issued surplus notes totaling $17.5 million in exchange for cash to four non-affiliated holders. The surplus notes had a term of 7 years with a maturity on February 3, 2022. The surplus notes had restrictions as to payments of interest and principal and any such payment required the prior approval of the Oregon Insurance Commissioner before such payments can be made. The surplus notes were repaid in full in September 2018.

2018 Floating Rate Notes

        In September 2018, we completed a private placement financing of $20.0 million floating rate senior secured notes (the "Floating Rate Notes"). The Floating Rate Notes mature on September 6, 2028 and bear interest at a rate, reset quarterly, equal to the three-month treasury rate plus 6.50% per annum, payable quarterly in arrears on March 20, June 20, September 20 and December 20 of each year, commencing on December 20, 2018.

        Palomar Insurance Holdings, Inc. ("Palomar Insurance Holdings") may redeem the Floating Rate Notes at its option, in whole or in part, at any time at certain redemption prices. Prior to September 6, 2020, Palomar Insurance Holdings may redeem the Floating Rate Notes at its option, in whole at any time or in part from time to time, at a redemption price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the Floating Rate Notes redeemed, plus a "make-whole" premium and accrued and unpaid interest and additional interest, if any. If a change of control occurs, Palomar Insurance Holdings must offer to purchase the Floating Rate Notes at 100% of their principal amount, plus accrued and unpaid interest.

        The Floating Rate Notes are fully and unconditionally guaranteed on a senior secured basis by a pledge of the capital stock owned by Palomar Holdings, Inc. of its equity interests in Palomar Insurance Holdings Such security interest consists of a first-priority lien with respect to the collateral.

        The Floating Rate Notes contain certain customary affirmative and negative covenants and events of default. The negative covenants limit Palomar Insurance Holdings' ability to, among other things, incur additional indebtedness, create liens on certain assets, pay dividends or prepay junior debt or make other restricted payments, make certain loans, acquisitions or investments, engage in transactions with affiliates, conduct asset sales, restrict dividends from subsidiaries or restrict liens, or merge, consolidate, sell or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of Palomar Insurance Holdings' assets.

        Immediately after the closing of the 2018 Floating Rate Notes financing, we used surplus funds, as required by the agreement governing the Notes, to pay down our existing $17.5 million of surplus notes described above. We incurred a pre-payment penalty of $0.1 million which, along with unamortized debt issuance costs of $0.4 million, was charged to income in 2018.

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Contractual Obligations and Commitments

        The following table illustrates our contractual obligations and commercial commitments by due date as of December 31, 2018:

 
  Total   Less Than
One Year
  One Year
to Less Than
Three Years
  Three Years
to Less Than
Five Years
  More
Than
Five Years
 
 
   
  (in thousands)
 

Reserves for losses and loss adjustment expenses

  $ 16,061   $ 10,191   $ 5,158   $ 712   $  

Long-term notes payable

    20,000                 20,000  

Interest payable

    17,281     1,777     3,554     3,554     8,396  

Operating lease obligations

    4,281     720     1,504     1,591     466  

Total

  $ 57,623   $ 12,688   $ 10,216   $ 5,857   $ 28,862  

        The reserve for losses and loss adjustment expenses represent management's estimate of the ultimate cost of settling losses. As more fully discussed in "—Critical Accounting Policies—Reserve for Losses and Loss Adjustment Expenses" below, the estimation of the reserve for losses and loss adjustment expenses is based on various complex and subjective judgments. Actual losses paid may differ, perhaps significantly, from the reserve estimates reflected in our consolidated financial statements. Similarly, the timing of payment of our estimated losses is not fixed and there may be significant changes in actual payment activity. The assumptions used in estimating the likely payments due by period are based on our historical claims payment experience and industry payment patterns, but due to the inherent uncertainty in the process of estimating the timing of such payments, there is a risk that the amounts paid can be significantly different from the amounts disclosed above.

        The amounts in the above table represent our gross estimates of known liabilities as of December 31, 2018 and do not include any allowance for claims for future events within the time period specified. Accordingly, it is highly likely that the total amounts of obligations paid by us in the time periods shown will be greater than those indicated in the table.

        Interest on debt obligations was calculated using the LIBOR rate as of December 31, 2018 with the assumption that interest rates would remain flat over the remainder of the period that the debt was outstanding.

Financial Condition

Shareholder's Equity

        At December 31, 2018, total shareholder's equity was $96.3 million and tangible shareholder's equity was $95.5 million, compared to total shareholder's equity of $78.4 million and tangible shareholder's equity of $77.7 million as of December 31, 2017. The increase in both total and tangible shareholder's equity was primarily due to net income earned for the year ended December 31, 2018.

        Tangible shareholder's equity is a non-GAAP financial measure. See "—Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Financial Measures" for a reconciliation of shareholder's equity to tangible shareholder's equity in accordance with GAAP.

Investment Portfolio

        Our primary investment objectives are to maintain liquidity, preserve capital and generate a stable level of investment income. We purchase securities that we believe are attractive on a relative value basis and seek to generate returns in excess of predetermined benchmarks. Our Board of Directors determines our investment guidelines in compliance with applicable regulatory restrictions on asset

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type, quality and concentration. Our current investment guidelines allow us to invest in taxable and tax-exempt fixed maturities, as well as publicly traded mutual funds and common stock of individual companies. Our cash and invested assets consist of cash and cash equivalents, fixed maturity securities, and equity securities. As of December 31, 2018, the majority of our investment portfolio, or $122.2 million, was comprised of fixed maturity securities that are classified as available-for-sale and carried at fair value with unrealized gains and losses on these securities, net of applicable taxes, reported as a separate component of accumulated other comprehensive income. Also included in our investment portfolio were $25.2 million of equity securities. In addition, we maintained a non-restricted cash and cash equivalent balance of $9.5 million at December 31, 2018. Our fixed maturity securities, including cash equivalents, had a weighted average effective duration of 3.93 and 2.37 years and an average rating of "–Aa3/AA–" and "A1/A+" at December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively. Our fixed income investment portfolio had a book yield of 3.0% as of December 31, 2018, compared to 1.9% as of December 31, 2017.

        At December 31, 2018 and 2017 the amortized cost and fair value on available-for-sale securities were as follows:

December 31, 2018
  Amortized
Cost or Cost
  Fair
Value
  % of Total
Fair Value
 
 
  ($ in thousands)
 

Fixed maturities:

                   

U.S. Governments

  $ 15,299   $ 15,269     12.5 %

States, territories, and possessions

    1,227     1,221     1.0 %

Political subdivisions

    825     815     0.7 %

Special revenue excluding mortgage/asset-backed securities

    12,429     12,453     10.2 %

Industrial and miscellaneous

    65,885     65,126     53.3 %

Mortgage/asset-backed securities

    27,284     27,336     22.3 %

Total available-for-sale investments

  $ 122,949   $ 122,220     100.0 %

 

December 31, 2017
  Amortized
Cost or Cost
  Fair
Value
  % of Total
Fair Value
 
 
  ($ in thousands)
 

Fixed maturities:

                   

U.S. Governments

  $ 13,393   $ 13,285     10.6 %

States, territories, and possessions

    3,188     3,197     2.5 %

Political subdivisions

    4,118     4,067     3.2 %

Special revenue excluding mortgage/asset-backed securities

    24,039     23,914     19.1 %

Industrial and miscellaneous

    44,582     44,531     35.5 %

Mortgage/asset-backed securities

    12,981     12,919     10.3 %

Total fixed maturities

    102,301     101,913     81.2 %

Equity securities

    19,569     23,586     18.8 %

Total available-for-sale investments

  $ 121,870   $ 125,499     100.0 %

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        The following tables provide the credit quality of investment securities as of December 31, 2018 and 2017:

December 31, 2018
  Estimated
Fair Value
  % of Total  
 
  ($ in thousands)
 

Rating

             

AAA

  $ 57,693     47.2 %

AA

    13,023     10.7 %

A

    33,030     27.0 %

BBB

    17,984     14.7 %

B

    490     0.4 %