EX-4.1 2 ride-20201231xex4d1.htm EX-4.1

Exhibit 4.1

LORDSTOWN MOTORS CORP.

DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES REGISTERED PURSUANT TO

SECTION 12 OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934, AS AMENDED

AS OF DECEMBER 31, 2020

As of December 31, 2020, Lordstown Motors Corp. (“we,” “our,” “us” or the “Company”) had the following two classes of securities registered under Section 12 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”): (i) Class A common stock, $0.0001 par value per share and (ii) public warrants, exercisable for one share of Class A common stock for $11.50 per share. On January 27, 2021, all then outstanding public warrants were redeemed. The following description of the public warrants reflects the terms in effect as of December 31, 2020.

The following is a summary of the material terms of our Class A common stock and the public warrants as of December 31, 2020. It is not intended to be a complete summary of the rights and preferences of our securities, and is qualified by reference to our Charter, Bylaws and the warrant-related documents described herein, which are included as exhibits to the Annual Report on Form 10-K of which this exhibit forms a part, and the applicable provisions of Delaware law. Defined terms used herein and not defined herein shall have the meaning ascribed to such terms in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K of which this exhibit forms a part.

Authorized and Outstanding Stock

Class A Common Stock

The Charter authorizes the issuance of 312,000,000 shares of capital stock, $0.0001 par value per share, consisting of 300,000,000 shares of Class A common stock and 12,000,000 shares of undesignated preferred stock. The outstanding shares of Class A common stock are duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid and non-assessable.

Voting Power

Except as otherwise required by law or as otherwise provided in any certificate of designation for any series of preferred stock, the holders of Class A common stock possess all voting power for the election of our directors and all other matters requiring stockholder action, and at all times vote together as one class on all matters properly submitted to a vote of the stockholders. Holders of Class A common stock are entitled to one vote per share on matters to be voted on by stockholders.

Dividends

Holders of Class A common stock will be entitled to receive such dividends and other distributions, if any, as may be declared from time to time by the board of directors in its discretion out of funds legally available therefor and shall share equally on a per share basis in such dividends and distributions.

Liquidation, Dissolution and Winding Up

In the event of any voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution, distribution of assets or winding up, holders of the Class A common stock will be entitled to receive an equal amount per share of all of our assets of whatever kind available for distribution to stockholders, after the rights of the holders of the preferred stock have been satisfied.

Preemptive or Other Rights

Our stockholders have no preemptive or other subscription rights and there are no sinking fund or redemption provisions applicable to Class A common stock.

Election of Directors

Our Charter provides that our board of directors is divided into three classes, each of which generally


serves for a term of three years with only one class of directors being elected in each year. There is no cumulative voting with respect to the election of directors.

Preferred Stock

Our Charter provides that shares of preferred stock may be issued from time to time in one or more series. Our board of directors is authorized to fix the voting rights, if any, designations, powers, preferences and relative, participating, optional, special and other rights, if any, of each such series and any qualifications, limitations and restrictions thereof. Our board of directors is able to, without stockholder approval, issue preferred stock with voting and other rights that could adversely affect the voting power and other rights of the holders of the Class A common stock and could have anti-takeover effects. The ability of our board of directors to issue preferred stock without stockholder approval could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change of control of us or the removal of existing management.

We have no preferred stock outstanding as of the date hereof.

Public Warrants

Each whole warrant entitles the registered holder to purchase one whole share of our Class A common stock at a price of $11.50 per share, subject to adjustment as discussed below, at any time on or after November 22, 2020. Pursuant to the warrant agreement, a warrant holder may exercise its warrants only for a whole number of shares of Class A common stock. This means that only a whole warrant may be exercised at any given time by a warrant holder. The warrants will expire on October 23, 2025, at 5:00 p.m., New York City time, or earlier upon redemption or liquidation.

We will not be obligated to deliver any shares of Class A common stock pursuant to the exercise of a warrant and will have no obligation to settle such warrant exercise unless a registration statement under the Securities Act with respect to the shares of Class A common stock underlying the warrants is then effective and a prospectus relating thereto is current, subject to our satisfying our obligations described below with respect to registration. No warrant will be exercisable and we will not be obligated to issue shares of Class A common stock upon exercise of a warrant unless Class A common stock issuable upon such warrant exercise has been registered, qualified or deemed to be exempt under the securities laws of the state of residence of the registered holder of the warrants. In the event that the conditions in the two immediately preceding sentences are not satisfied with respect to a warrant, the holder of such warrant will not be entitled to exercise such warrant and such warrant may have no value and expire worthless. In no event will we be required to net cash settle any warrant. We agreed that as soon as practicable, but in no event later than November 16, 2020, we would use our reasonable best efforts to file, and by December 22, 2020, to have declared effective, a registration statement for the registration, under the Securities Act, of the shares of Class A common stock issuable upon exercise of the warrants. Pursuant to such agreement, we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commision (at our sole cost and expense) such registration statement, which became effective on December 4, 2020. We will use our reasonable best efforts to maintain the effectiveness of such registration statement, and a current prospectus relating thereto, until the expiration of the warrants in accordance with the provisions of the warrant agreement. Notwithstanding the above, if our Class A common stock is at the time of any exercise of a warrant not listed on a national securities exchange such that it satisfies the definition of a “covered security” under Section 18(b)(1) of the Securities Act, we may, at our option, require holders of public warrants who exercise their warrants to do so on a “cashless basis” in accordance with Section 3(a)(9) of the Securities Act and, in the event we so elect, we will not be required to file or maintain in effect a registration statement, but we will be required to use our best efforts to register or qualify the shares under applicable blue sky laws to the extent an exemption is not available.

Redemption of Warrants for Cash

Once the warrants become exercisable, we may call the warrants for redemption:

·

in whole and not in part;

·

at a price of $0.01 per warrant;


·

upon not less than 30 days prior written notice of redemption (the 30-day redemption period) to each warrant holder; and

·

if, and only if, the reported last sale price of the Class A common stock equals or exceeds $18.00 per share (as adjusted for stock splits, stock dividends, reorganizations, recapitalizations and the like) for any 20 trading days within a 30-trading day period ending three business days before we send the notice of redemption to the warrant holders.

If and when the warrants become redeemable by us, we may exercise our redemption right even if we are unable to register or qualify the underlying securities for sale under all applicable state securities laws.

We have established the last of the redemption criterion discussed above to prevent a redemption call unless there is at the time of the call a significant premium to the warrant exercise price. If the foregoing conditions are satisfied and we issue a notice of redemption of the warrants, each warrant holder will be entitled to exercise its warrant prior to the scheduled redemption date. However, the price of the Class A common stock may fall below the $18.00 redemption trigger price (as adjusted for stock splits, stock dividends, reorganizations, recapitalizations and the like) as well as the $11.50 (for whole shares) warrant exercise price after the redemption notice is issued.

Redemption of Warrants for Shares of Class A Common Stock

Commencing January 21, 2021, we may redeem the outstanding warrants:

·

in whole and not in part;

·

at a price equal to a number of shares of Class A common stock to be determined by reference to the table below, based on the redemption date and the fair market value of our Class A common stock (as defined below) except as otherwise described below;

·

upon a minimum of 30 days prior written notice of redemption;

·

if, and only if, the last reported sale price of our Class A common stock equals or exceeds $10.00 per share (as adjusted for stock splits, stock dividends, reorganizations, recapitalizations and the like) on the trading day prior to the date on which we send the notice of redemption to the warrant holders;

·

if, and only if, the private placement warrants are also concurrently exchanged at the same price (equal to a number of shares of Class A common stock) as the outstanding public warrants, as described above; and

·

if, and only if, there is an effective registration statement covering the shares of Class A common stock issuable upon exercise of the warrants and a current prospectus relating thereto available throughout the 30-day period after written notice of redemption is given.

The numbers in the table below represent the “redemption prices,” or the number of shares of Class A common stock that a warrant holder will receive upon redemption by us pursuant to this redemption feature, based on the “fair market value” of our Class A common stock on the corresponding redemption date, determined based on the average of the last reported sales price for the 10 trading days ending on the third trading day prior to the date on which the notice of redemption is sent to the holders of warrants, and the number of months that the corresponding redemption date precedes the expiration date of the warrants, each as set forth in the table below. The stock prices set forth in the column headings of the table below will be adjusted as of any date on which the number of shares issuable upon exercise of a warrant is adjusted. The adjusted stock prices in the column headings will equal the stock prices immediately prior to such adjustment, multiplied by a fraction, the numerator of which is the number of shares deliverable upon exercise of a warrant immediately prior to such adjustment and the denominator of which is the number of shares deliverable upon exercise of a warrant as so adjusted. The number of shares in the table below shall be adjusted in the same manner and at the same time as the number of shares issuable upon exercise of a warrant.


Redemption Date

Fair Market Value of Class A Common Stock

(period to expiration of Warrants)

    

$

10.00

    

$

11.00

    

$

12.00

    

$

13.00

    

$

14.00

    

$

15.00

    

$

16.00

    

$

17.00

    

$

18.00

57 months

0.257

0.277

0.294

0.310

0.324

0.337

0.348

0.358

0.365

54 months

0.252

0.272

0.291

0.307

0.322

0.335

0.347

0.357

0.365

51 months

0.246

0.268

0.287

0.304

0.320

0.333

0.346

0.357

0.365

48 months

0.241

0.263

0.283

0.301

0.317

0.332

0.344

0.356

0.365

45 months

0.235

0.258

0.279

0.298

0.315

0.330

0.343

0.356

0.365

42 months

0.228

0.252

0.274

0.294

0.312

0.328

0.342

0.355

0.364

39 months

0.221

0.246

0.269

0.290

0.309

0.325

0.340

0.354

0.364

36 months

0.213

0.239

0.263

0.285

0.305

0.323

0.339

0.353

0.364

33 months

0.205

0.232

0.257

0.280

0.301

0.320

0.337

0.352

0.364

30 months

0.196

0.224

0.250

0.274

0.297

0.316

0.335

0.351

0.364

27 months

0.185

0.214

0.242

0.268

0.291

0.313

0.332

0.350

0.364

24 months

0.173

0.204

0.233

0.260

0.285

0.308

0.329

0.348

0.364

21 months

0.161

0.193

0.223

0.252

0.279

0.304

0.326

0.347

0.364

18 months

0.146

0.179

0.211

0.242

0.271

0.298

0.322

0.345

0.363

15 months

0.130

0.164

0.197

0.230

0.262

0.291

0.317

0.342

0.363

12 months

0.111

0.146

0.181

0.216

0.250

0.282

0.312

0.339

0.363

9 months

0.090

0.125

0.162

0.199

0.237

0.272

0.305

0.336

0.362

6 months

0.065

0.099

0.137

0.178

0.219

0.259

0.296

0.331

0.362

3 months

0.034

0.065

0.104

0.150

0.197

0.243

0.286

0.326

0.361

0 months

0.042

0.115

0.179

0.233

0.281

0.323

0.361

The exact fair market value and redemption date may not be set forth in the table above, in which case, if the fair market value is between two values in the table or the redemption date is between two redemption dates in the table, the number of shares of Class A common stock to be issued for each warrant redeemed will be determined by a straight-line interpolation between the number of shares set forth for the higher and lower fair market values and the earlier and later redemption dates, as applicable, based on a 365 or 366-day year, as applicable. For example, if the average last reported sale price of our Class A common stock for the 10 trading days ending on the third trading date prior to the date on which the notice of redemption is sent to the holders of the warrants is $11 per share, and at such time there are 57 months until the expiration of the warrants, we may choose to, pursuant to this redemption feature, redeem the warrants at a “redemption price” of 0.277 shares of Class A common stock for each whole warrant. For an example where the exact fair market value and redemption date are not as set forth in the table above, if the average last reported sale price of our Class A stock for the 10 trading days ending on the third trading date prior to the date on which the notice of redemption is sent to the holders of the warrants is $13.50 per share, and at such time there are 38 months until the expiration of the warrants, we may choose to, pursuant to this redemption feature, redeem the warrants at a “redemption price” of 0.298 shares of Class A common stock for each whole warrant. Finally, as reflected in the table above, we can redeem the warrants for no consideration in the event that the warrants are “out of the money” (i.e. the trading price of our Class A common stock is below the exercise price of the warrants) and about to expire.

Any public warrants held by our officers or directors will be subject to this redemption feature, except that such officers and directors shall only receive “fair market value” for such public warrants so redeemed (“fair market value” for such public warrants held by our officers or directors being defined as the last reported sale price of the public warrants on such redemption date).


This redemption feature differs from the typical warrant redemption features used in other blank check offerings, which typically only provide for a redemption of warrants for cash (other than the private placement warrants) when the trading price for the Class A common stock exceeds $18.00 per share for a specified period of time. This redemption feature is structured to allow for all of the outstanding warrants (other than the private placement warrants) to be redeemed when the Class A common stock is trading at or above $10.00 per share, which may be at a time when the trading price of our Class A common stock is below the exercise price of the warrants. We have established this redemption feature to provide us with the flexibility to redeem the warrants for shares of Class A common stock, instead of cash, for “fair value” without the warrants having to reach the $18.00 per share threshold set forth above under “—Redemption of Warrants for Cash.” Holders of the warrants will, in effect, receive a number of shares representing fair value for their warrants based on a Black-Scholes option pricing model with a fixed volatility input as of the date of our initial public offering. This redemption right provides us not only with an additional mechanism by which to redeem all of the outstanding warrants, in this case, for shares of Class A common stock, and therefore have certainty as to (1) our capital structure as the warrants would no longer be outstanding and would have been exercised or redeemed and (2) to the amount of cash provided by the exercise of the warrants and available to us, and also provides a ceiling to the theoretical value of the warrants as it locks in the “redemption prices” we would pay to warrant holders if we chose to redeem warrants in this manner. We will effectively be required to pay fair value to warrant holders if we choose to exercise this redemption right and it will allow us to quickly proceed with a redemption of the warrants for shares of Class A common stock if we determine it is in our best interest to do so. As such, we would redeem the warrants in this manner when we believe it is in our best interest to update our capital structure to remove the warrants and pay fair value to the warrant holders. In particular, it would allow us to quickly redeem the warrants for shares of Class A common stock, without having to negotiate a redemption price with the warrant holders, which in some situations, may allow us to more quickly and easily close a business combination. In addition, the warrant holders will have the ability to exercise the warrants prior to redemption if they should choose to do so.

As stated above, we can redeem the warrants when the Class A common stock is trading at a price starting at $10, which is below the exercise price of $11.50, because it will provide certainty with respect to our capital structure and cash position while providing warrant holders with fair value (in the form of shares of Class A common stock). If we choose to redeem the warrants when the Class A common stock is trading at a price below the exercise price of the warrants, this could result in the warrant holders receiving fewer shares of Class A common stock than they would have received if they had chosen to wait to exercise their warrants for shares of Class A common stock if and when Class A common stock trading at a price higher than the exercise price of $11.50.

No fractional shares of Class A common stock will be issued upon redemption. If, upon redemption, a holder would be entitled to receive a fractional interest in a share, we will round down to the nearest whole number of the number of shares of Class A common stock to be issued to the holder.

Redemption Procedures and Cashless Exercise

If we call the warrants for redemption for cash as described above, our management will have the option to require any holder that wishes to exercise its warrant to do so on a “cashless basis.” In determining whether to require all holders to exercise their warrants on a “cashless basis,” our management will consider, among other factors, our cash position, the number of warrants that are outstanding and the dilutive effect on our stockholders of issuing the maximum number of shares of Class A common stock issuable upon the exercise of our warrants. If our management takes advantage of this option, all holders of warrants would pay the exercise price by surrendering their warrants for that number of shares of Class A common stock equal to the quotient obtained by dividing (x) the product of the number of shares of Class A common stock underlying the warrants, multiplied by the excess of the “fair market value” (defined below) over the exercise price of the warrants by (y) the fair market value. The “fair market value” shall mean the average last reported sale price of the Class A common stock for the 10 trading days ending on the third trading day prior to the date on which the notice of redemption is sent to the holders of warrants. If our management takes advantage of this option, the notice of redemption will contain the information necessary to calculate the number of shares of Class A common stock to be received upon exercise of the


warrants, including the “fair market value” in such case. Requiring a cashless exercise in this manner will reduce the number of shares to be issued and thereby lessen the dilutive effect of a warrant redemption. We believe this feature is an attractive option to us if we do not need the cash from the exercise of the warrants after our initial business combination. If we call our warrants for redemption and our management does not take advantage of this option, our sponsor, our anchor investor and their permitted transferees would still be entitled to exercise their private placement warrants for cash or on a cashless basis using the same formula described above that other warrant holders would have been required to use had all warrant holders been required to exercise their warrants on a cashless basis, as described in more detail below.

A holder of a warrant may notify us in writing in the event it elects to be subject to a requirement that such holder will not have the right to exercise such warrant, to the extent that after giving effect to such exercise, such person (together with such person’s affiliates), to the warrant agent’s actual knowledge, would beneficially own in excess of 4.8% or 9.8% (or such other amount as a holder may specify) of the shares of Class A common stock outstanding immediately after giving effect to such exercise.

If the number of outstanding shares of Class A common stock is increased by a stock dividend payable in shares of Class A common stock, or by a split-up of shares of Class A common stock or other similar event, then, on the effective date of such stock dividend, split-up or similar event, the number of shares of Class A common stock issuable on exercise of each warrant will be increased in proportion to such increase in the outstanding shares of Class A common stock. A rights offering to holders of Class A common stock entitling holders to purchase shares of Class A common stock at a price less than the fair market value will be deemed a stock dividend of a number of shares of Class A common stock equal to the product of (i) the number of shares of Class A common stock actually sold in such rights offering (or issuable under any other equity securities sold in such rights offering that are convertible into or exercisable for Class A common stock) multiplied by (ii) one (1) minus the quotient of (x) the price per share of Class A common stock paid in such rights offering divided by (y) the fair market value. For these purposes (i) if the rights offering is for securities convertible into or exercisable for Class A common stock, in determining the price payable for Class A common stock, there will be taken into account any consideration received for such rights, as well as any additional amount payable upon exercise or conversion and (ii) fair market value means the volume weighted average price of Class A common stock as reported during the ten (10) trading day period ending on the trading day prior to the first date on which the shares of Class A common stock trade on the applicable exchange or in the applicable market, regular way, without the right to receive such rights.

In addition, if we, at any time while the warrants are outstanding and unexpired, pay a dividend or make a distribution in cash, securities or other assets to the holders of Class A common stock on account of such shares of Class A common stock (or other shares of our capital stock into which the warrants are convertible), other than (a) as described above, (b) certain ordinary cash dividends, (c) to satisfy the redemption rights of the holders of Class A common stock in connection with a proposed initial business combination, (d) to satisfy the redemption rights of the holders of Class A common stock in connection with a stockholder vote to amend our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, to modify the substance or timing of our obligation to redeem 100% of our Class A common stock if we do not complete our initial business combination within the timeframe set forth in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, or (e) in connection with the redemption of our public shares upon our failure to complete our initial business combination, then the warrant exercise price will be decreased, effective immediately after the effective date of such event, by the amount of cash and/or the fair market value of any securities or other assets paid on each share of Class A common stock in respect of such event.

If the number of outstanding shares of our Class A common stock is decreased by a consolidation, combination, reverse stock split or reclassification of shares of Class A common stock or other similar event, then, on the effective date of such consolidation, combination, reverse stock split, reclassification or similar event, the number of shares of Class A common stock issuable on exercise of each warrant will be decreased in proportion to such decrease in outstanding shares of Class A common stock.

Whenever the number of shares of Class A common stock purchasable upon the exercise of the warrants is adjusted, as described above, the warrant exercise price will be adjusted by multiplying the warrant exercise price immediately prior to such adjustment by a fraction (x) the numerator of which will be the number of shares of Class A common stock purchasable upon the exercise of the warrants


immediately prior to such adjustment, and (y) the denominator of which will be the number of shares of Class A common stock so purchasable immediately thereafter.

In case of any reclassification or reorganization of the outstanding shares of Class A common stock (other than those described above or that solely affects the par value of such shares of Class A common stock), or in the case of any merger or consolidation of us with or into another corporation (other than a consolidation or merger in which we are the continuing corporation and that does not result in any reclassification or reorganization of our outstanding shares of Class A common stock), or in the case of any sale or conveyance to another corporation or entity of the assets or other property of us as an entirety or substantially as an entirety in connection with which we are dissolved, the holders of the warrants will thereafter have the right to purchase and receive, upon the basis and upon the terms and conditions specified in the warrants and in lieu of the shares of our Class A common stock immediately theretofore purchasable and receivable upon the exercise of the rights represented thereby, the kind and amount of shares of stock or other securities or property (including cash) receivable upon such reclassification, reorganization, merger or consolidation, or upon a dissolution following any such sale or transfer, that the holder of the warrants would have received if such holder had exercised their warrants immediately prior to such event. If less than 70% of the consideration receivable by the holders of Class A common stock in such a transaction is payable in the form of common stock in the successor entity that is listed for trading on a national securities exchange or is quoted in an established over-the-counter market, or is to be so listed for trading or quoted immediately following such event, and if the registered holder of the warrant properly exercises the warrant within thirty days following public disclosure of such transaction, the warrant exercise price will be reduced as specified in the warrant agreement based on the Black-Scholes value (as defined in the warrant agreement) of the warrant. The warrants were issued in registered form under a warrant agreement between American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, as warrant agent, and us. The warrant agreement provides that the terms of the warrants may be amended without the consent of any holder to cure any ambiguity or correct any defective provision, but requires the approval by the holders of at least 50% of the then outstanding public warrants to make any change that adversely affects the interests of the registered holders of public warrants.

In addition, if we issue additional shares of common stock or equity-linked securities for capital raising purposes in connection with the closing of our initial business combination at a newly issued price of less than $9.20 per share of common stock (with such issue price or effective issue price to be determined in good faith by our board of directors, and in the case of any such issuance to our initial stockholders or their respective affiliates, without taking into account any founder shares held by them, as applicable, prior to such issuance), the exercise price of the warrants will be adjusted (to the nearest cent) to be equal to 115% of the newly issued price.

The warrants may be exercised upon surrender of the warrant certificate on or prior to the expiration date at the offices of the warrant agent, with the exercise form on the reverse side of the warrant certificate completed and executed as indicated, accompanied by full payment of the exercise price (or on a cashless basis, if applicable), by certified or official bank check payable to us, for the number of warrants being exercised. The warrant holders do not have the rights or privileges of holders of Class A common stock or any voting rights until they exercise their warrants and receive shares of Class A common stock. After the issuance of shares of Class A common stock upon exercise of the warrants, each holder will be entitled to one (1) vote for each share held of record on all matters to be voted on by stockholders.

No fractional shares will be issued upon exercise of the warrants. If, upon exercise of the warrants, a holder would be entitled to receive a fractional interest in a share, we will, upon exercise, round down to the nearest whole number of shares of Class A common stock to be issued to the warrant holder.

Certain Anti-Takeover Provisions of Delaware Law, Our Charter and the Bylaws

Special Meetings of Stockholders

Our Charter provides that special meetings of our stockholders may be called only by the Chairman of the Board, the Chief Executive Officer, or the board of directors pursuant to a resolution adopted by a majority of the board of directors. Subject to the rights, if any, of the holders of any outstanding series of preferred stock, and to the requirements of applicable law, stockholders may not call special meetings.


Advance Notice Requirements for Stockholder Proposals and Director Nominations

Our Bylaws provide that stockholders seeking to bring business before our annual meeting of stockholders, or to nominate candidates for election as directors at our annual meeting of stockholders, must provide timely notice of their intent in writing. To be timely, a stockholder’s notice will need to be received by our secretary at our principal executive offices not later than the close of business on the 90th day nor earlier than the open of business on the 120th day prior to the anniversary date of the immediately preceding annual meeting of stockholders, provided, however, that in the event that the annual meeting is more than 30 days before or more than 60 days after such anniversary date (or if there has been no prior annual meeting), notice by the stockholder to be timely must be so delivered not earlier than the close of business on the 120th day before the meeting and not later than the later of (x) the close of business on the 90th day before the meeting or (y) the close of business on the 10th day following the day on which public announcement of the date of the annual meeting is first made by us. Pursuant to Rule 14a-8 of the Exchange Act, proposals seeking inclusion in our annual proxy statement must comply with the notice periods contained in such rule.

Our Bylaws specify certain requirements as to the form and content of a stockholder’s notice for an annual meeting. These provisions may limit our stockholders’ ability to bring matters before our annual meeting of stockholders or make nominations for directors at our annual meeting of stockholders.

Authorized but Unissued Shares

Our authorized but unissued Class A common stock and preferred stock are available for future issuances without stockholder approval and could be utilized for a variety of corporate purposes, including future offerings to raise additional capital, acquisitions and employee benefit plans. The existence of authorized but unissued and unreserved Class A common stock and preferred stock could render more difficult or discourage an attempt to obtain control of us by means of a proxy contest, tender offer, merger or otherwise.

Exclusive Forum Selection for Certain Lawsuits

The Charter provides that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, to the fullest extent permitted by law, a state court located within the State of Delaware (or, if no court located within the State of Delaware has jurisdiction, the federal district court for the District of Delaware) shall be the sole and exclusive forum for any internal or intra-corporate claim or any action asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine as defined by the laws of the State of Delaware, including, but not limited to (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf; (ii) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers or other employees or stockholders to us or our stockholders; or (iii) any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the DGCL or the Charter or the Bylaws (in each case, as they may be amended from time to time), or as to which the DGCL confers jurisdiction on the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Charter provides that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, to the fullest extent permitted by law, the sole and exclusive forum for any action asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act or any rule or regulation promulgated thereunder (in each case, as amended) shall be the federal district court for the District of Delaware (or, if such court does not have jurisdiction over such action, any other federal district court of the United States); provided, however, that if the foregoing provisions are, or the application of such provisions to any person or entity or any circumstance is, illegal, invalid or unenforceable, the sole and exclusive forum for any action asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act or any rule or regulation promulgated thereunder (in each case, as amended) will be the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware. To the fullest extent permitted by law, any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring or holding any interest in our shares of capital stock will be deemed to have notice of and consented to the forum provision in the Charter.

Although we believe the forum provision of our Charter benefits us by providing increased consistency in the application of Delaware law in the types of lawsuits to which it applies, a court may determine that this provision is unenforceable, and to the extent it is enforceable, the provision may have


the effect of discouraging lawsuits against our directors and officers, although our stockholders will not be deemed to have waived our compliance with federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder.

The Charter provides that the exclusive forum provision will be applicable to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law. Section 27 of the Exchange Act creates exclusive federal jurisdiction over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or the rules and regulations thereunder. As a result, the exclusive forum provision will not apply to suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or any other claim for which the federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction.

Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law

We are subject to the provisions of Section 203 of the DGCL regulating corporate takeovers. This statute prevents certain Delaware corporations, under certain circumstances, from engaging in a “business combination” with:

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a stockholder who owns 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock (otherwise known as an interested stockholder);

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an affiliate of an interested stockholder; or

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an associate of an interested stockholder, for three years following the date that the stockholder became an interested stockholder.

A “business combination” includes a merger or sale of more than 10% of our assets. However, the above provisions of Section 203 do not apply if:

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our board of directors approves the transaction that made the stockholder an interested stockholder, prior to the date of the transaction;

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after the completion of the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, that stockholder owned at least 85% of our voting stock outstanding at the time the transaction commenced, other than statutorily excluded shares of common stock; or

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on or subsequent to the date of the transaction, the business combination is approved by our board of directors and authorized at a meeting of our stockholders, and not by written consent, by an affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the outstanding voting stock not owned by the interested stockholder.

Classified Board

Our Charter provides that our board of directors is classified into three classes of directors. As a result, in most circumstances, a person can gain control of our board of directors only by successfully engaging in a proxy contest at two or more annual meetings.

Limitation on Liability and Indemnification of Directors and Officers

The Charter limits our directors’ liability to the fullest extent permitted under the DGCL. The DGCL provides that directors of a corporation will not be personally liable for monetary damages for breach of their fiduciary duties as directors, except for liability:

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for any transaction from which the director derives an improper personal benefit;

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for any act or omission not in good faith or that involves intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law;

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for any unlawful payment of dividends or redemption of shares; or

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for any breach of a directors duty of loyalty to the corporation or its stockholders.

If the DGCL is amended to authorize corporate action further eliminating or limiting the personal liability of directors, then the liability of our directors will be eliminated or limited to the fullest extent permitted by the DGCL, as so amended.


Delaware law and the Charter provide that we will, in certain situations, indemnify our directors and officers and may (as provided in the Bylaws) indemnify other employees and other agents, to the fullest extent permitted by law. Any indemnified person is also entitled, subject to certain limitations, to advancement, direct payment, or reimbursement of reasonable expenses (including attorneys’ fees and disbursements) in advance of the final disposition of the proceeding.

In addition, we have entered into separate indemnification agreements with our directors and officers. These agreements, among other things, require us to indemnify our directors and officers for certain expenses, including attorneys’ fees, judgments, fines, and settlement amounts incurred by a director or officer in any action or proceeding arising out of their services as one of our directors or officers or as a director or officer of any other company or enterprise to which the person provides services at our request.

We maintain a directors’ and officers’ insurance policy pursuant to which our directors and officers are insured against liability for actions taken in their capacities as directors and officers. We believe these provisions in the Charter and the Bylaws and these indemnification agreements are necessary to attract and retain qualified persons as directors and officers.

Lock-Up Restrictions

Certain of our stockholders are subject to certain restrictions on transfer until the termination of applicable lock-up periods under the Registration Rights and Lock-Up Agreement and other agreements.