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Table of Contents

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM 10-K

 

 

(Mark One)

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021

OR

 

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

 

For the transition period from                      to                     

Commission File Number: 001-38843

 

 

OneSpaWorld Holdings Limited

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

 

Commonwealth of The Bahamas

 

Not Applicable

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

 

 

Harry B. Sands, Lobosky Management Co. Ltd.

Office Number 2

Pineapple Business Park
Airport Industrial Park

P.O. Box N-624

 Nassau, Island of New Providence, Commonwealth of The Bahamas 

 

Not Applicable

(Address of principal executive offices)

 

(Zip code)

 

 

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (242) 322-2670

 

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class

 

Trading Symbol(s)

 

Name of each exchange on

which registered

Common Shares, par value (U.S.) $0.0001 per share

 

OSW

 

The Nasdaq Capital Market

 

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.       Yes      No

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.      Yes      No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.      Yes      No.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (Section 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).      Yes      No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

 

Accelerated filer

 

 

 

 

 

Non-accelerated filer

 

Smaller reporting company

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emerging growth company

 

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).      Yes      No

The aggregate market value of the registrant’s common shares held by non-affiliates was $659,091,058 as of June 30, 2021, based on the closing price of the common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market on June 30, 2021, which is the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter. Shares of the registrant’s common stock held by each director and executive officer and by each entity or person that, to the registrant’s knowledge, owned 10% or more of the registrant’s outstanding common shares as of June 30, 2021 have been excluded from this number in that these persons may be deemed affiliates of the registrant. This determination of affiliate status is not necessarily conclusive for other purposes.

As of February 25, 2022, the registrant had 78,646,455 voting shares and 13,421,914 non-voting shares of common stock issued and outstanding.

 

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of our Proxy Statement prepared for our 2022 Annual Meeting of Shareholders are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

 

 

 


Table of Contents

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

Page

 

 

PART I

2

 

 

ITEM 1. BUSINESS

2

 

 

ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS

14

 

 

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

30

 

 

ITEM 2. PROPERTIES

30

 

 

ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

30

 

 

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

30

 

 

PART II

30

 

 

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED SHAREHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

30

 

 

ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

31

 

 

ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

34

 

 

ITEM 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

46

 

 

ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA

48

 

 

ITEM 9. CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE

48

 

 

ITEM 9A. CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

48

 

 

ITEM 9B. OTHER INFORMATION

48

 

 

PART III

48

 

 

ITEM 10. DIRECTORS, EXECUTIVE OFFICERS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

48

 

 

ITEM 11. EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION

48

 

 

ITEM 12. SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT AND RELATED SHAREHOLDER MATTERS

49

 

 

ITEM 13. CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED TRANSACTIONS, AND DIRECTOR INDEPENDENCE

49

 

 

ITEM 14. PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTING FEES AND SERVICES

49

 

 

PART IV

50

 

 

ITEM 15. EXHIBITS, FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES

50

 

 

 

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OneSpaWorld Holdings Limited (“OneSpaWorld,” the “Company,” “we,” “our, “us” and other similar terms refer to OneSpaWorld Holdings Limited and its consolidated subsidiaries).

 

CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

From time to time, including in this report and other disclosures, we may issue “forward-looking” statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). These forward-looking statements reflect our current views about future events and are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors which may cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. We attempt, whenever possible, to identify these statements by using words like “will,” “may,” “could,” “should,” “would,” “believe,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “forecast,” “future,” “intend,” “plan,” “estimate” and similar expressions of future intent or the negative of such terms.

 

Such forward-looking statements include statements impacted by or statements regarding:

 

the impact of COVID-19 on the industries in which the Company operates and the Company’s business, operations, results of operations and financial condition, including cash flows and liquidity;

 

the demand for the Company’s services together with the possibility that the Company may be adversely affected by other economic, business, and/or competitive factors or changes in the business environment in which the Company operates;

 

changes in consumer preferences or the markets for the Company’s services and products;

 

changes in applicable laws or regulations;

 

competition for the Company’s services and the availability of competition for opportunities for expansion of the Company’s business;

 

difficulties of managing growth profitably;

 

the loss of one or more members of the Company’s management team;

 

changes in the market for the products we offer for sale;

 

other risks and uncertainties included from time to time in the Company’s reports (including all amendments to those reports) filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission;

 

other risks and uncertainties indicated in this Annual Report on Form 10-K/A, including those set forth under the section entitled “Risk Factors”; and

 

other statements preceded by, followed by or that include the words “estimate,” “plan,” “project,” “forecast,” “intend,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “seek,” “target” or similar expressions.

These forward-looking statements are based on information available as of the date of this report and current expectations, forecasts and assumptions, and involve a number of judgments, risks and uncertainties. Accordingly, forward-looking statements should not be relied upon as representing our views as of any subsequent date. We do not undertake any obligation to update forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date they were made, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as may be required under applicable securities laws.

As a result of known and unknown risks and uncertainties, our actual results or performance may be materially different from those expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. For a discussion of the risks involved in our business and investing in our common shares, see the section entitled “Risk Factors.”

Should one or more of these risks or uncertainties materialize, or should any of the assumptions underlying our forward-looking statements prove incorrect, actual results may vary in material respects from those expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. You should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements.

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PART I

ITEM 1. BUSINESS

 

General

At our core, we are a global services company. With over 90% market share in the historically highly attractive outsourced maritime health and wellness market, we are the market leader at nearly 20x the size of our closest maritime competitor. Over the last 50 years, we have built our leading market position on our depth of staff expertise; broad and innovative service and product offerings; expansive global recruitment, training and logistics platform; and decades-long relationships with cruise line and destination resort partners. Throughout our history, our mission has been simple: helping guests look and feel their best during and after their stay. We serve a critical role for our cruise line and destination resort partners, operating a complex and increasingly important aspect of their overall guest experience. Decades of investment and know-how have allowed us to construct an unmatched global infrastructure to manage the complexity of our operations. We have consistently expanded our onboard offerings with innovative, leading-edge service and product introductions, and developed a powerful back-end recruiting, training and logistics platform to manage our operational complexity, maintain our industry-leading quality standards and maximize revenue per center. The combination of our renowned recruiting and training platform, deep labor pool, global logistics and supply chain infrastructure and proven revenue management capabilities represents a significant competitive advantage that we believe is not economically feasible to replicate. These competitive advantages have served our business well during these extremely challenging times for our industry.

Impact of Coronavirus (COVID-19)

In the face of the global impact of the coronavirus (“COVID-19”) pandemic, our cruise line partners paused their guest cruise operations and the majority of our U.S. and Caribbean-based destination resort spas temporarily closed in mid-March 2020. During 2021, we initiated our resumption of spa operations on cruise ships and in destination resorts in a phased manner, in concert with our cruise line and resort partners. As of February 25, 2022, our health and wellness centers on 105 ships of our cruise line partners and in 48 destination resort spas were operating as part of our gradual return to service.

The extent of the effects of COVID-19 on our business is uncertain and will depend on future developments, including, but not limited to, the duration and continued severity of COVID-19 and the length of time it takes to return the Company to profitability. The ongoing effects of COVID-19 have had, and will continue to have, a material negative impact on our financial results and liquidity.

We have implemented a number of proactive measures to mitigate the financial and operational impacts of COVID-19, including completing a private placement and various capital market transactions, reduction of capital expenditures and operating expenses, borrowing on our revolving credit facility, deferring payment of dividends declared and the suspension of our dividend program. To the extent necessary, we will continue to pursue other opportunities to improve our liquidity.

Our Business

The majority of our revenue and profits are earned through long-term revenue sharing agreements with cruise line partners that economically align both parties and contribute to our attractive asset-light financial profile. These agreements average approximately five years in length and provide us with the exclusive right to offer health, fitness, beauty and wellness services and the ability to sell complementary products onboard the ships we serve. Under these long-term agreements, cruise line partners retain a specified percentage of revenues from all our sales onboard. This inherent alignment encourages collaboration in all aspects of our operations, including facility design, product innovation, pre- and post-cruise sales opportunities, capacity utilization initiatives and other data-driven strategies to drive increased guest traffic and revenue growth. Most of our cruise line agreements encompass 100% of a partner cruise line’s existing fleet and all new ships introduced by the cruise line during the term of the agreement. As opposed to fixed-rent landlords, cruise lines and destination resorts serve as our aligned economic partners.

We are recognized by our cruise line and destination resort partners and our guests for our comprehensive suite of services and products. We curate and deliver a broad range of offerings centered on providing specific health, fitness, beauty, and wellness solutions to meet our guests’ lifestyle routines or objectives. These services include: (i) traditional body, salon, and skin care services and products; (ii) self-service fitness facilities, specialized fitness classes and personal fitness training; (iii) innovative pain management, detoxifying programs and comprehensive body composition analyses; (iv) weight management programs and products; and (v) advanced medi-spa services, among others. We also offer our guests access to leading beauty and wellness brands including ELEMIS ®, Kérastase ® and Dysport ®, with many brands offered exclusively by us in the cruise market. On average, during normal operating conditions, including prior to the near cessation of our operations due to COVID-19, guests spend $230 per visit and our solution sales approach drives substantial retail sales, with approximately 25% of our revenues derived from the sale of retail products.

Our state-of-the-art health, fitness, beauty and wellness centers are designed and branded for each cruise line and destination resort to optimize the guest experience, align with our partners’ overall hospitality atmosphere and maximize productivity. Centers can

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employ up to 105 highly trained professionals and range in size from 200 to over 30,000 square feet, depending on the cruise line or destination resort partner’s needs.

Our cruise line relationships average over 20 years and encompass substantially all of the major global cruise lines, including Carnival Cruise Line, Royal Caribbean Cruises, Princess Cruises, Norwegian Cruise Lines, Celebrity Cruises, Costa Cruises and Holland America, among many others. These partnerships extend across contemporary, premium, luxury and budget cruise lines that operate ships regionally and globally. We maintain what we believe to be an exceptional contract renewal rate with our cruise line partners, having renewed approximately 94% of our contracts based on ship count over the last 15 years, including 100% of our contracts with ships larger than 3,500 berths. We have not only maintained relationships with existing cruise line partners, but also have a history of winning contracts and gaining market share. In August 2021, we extended our current agreement with Azamara through May 2026. On land, we have longstanding relationships with the world’s leading destination hotel and resort operators, including Marriott, Hilton, Wyndham, Atlantis, ClubMed, Caesars Entertainment, Lotte, Loews, Four Seasons, and Mohegan Sun, among others.

Our Operations and Performance

We are a Bahamian international business company that earns a substantial portion of our revenue in low- or no-tax jurisdictions, benefitting from a comparatively low effective cash tax rate. Additionally, we have minimal capital expenditures, as our cruise line and destination resort partners typically fund the build-out, maintenance, and refurbishment of our health and wellness centers. The combination of our attractive tax rate and asset-light operating model leads to a financial profile that delivers comparatively high Unlevered After-Tax Free Cash Flow. In fiscal 2017, 2018 and 2019, prior to the cessation of operations due to the COVID-19 pandemic, we converted approximately 90% of our Adjusted EBITDA to Unlevered After-Tax Free Cash Flow.

We have historically driven strong financial performance and believe our leading market position in a growing industry, differentiated business model and entrenched cruise line and destination resort partner relationships position our business for future growth. Due to the impact of COVID-19 on our operations in 2020 and 2021, current year data is not meaningful. However, for the year ended December 31, 2019, we achieved revenues of $562.2 million, Adjusted EBITDA of $59.0 million, Net Loss of $56.7 million and Unlevered After-Tax Free Cash Flow of $55.4 million.

Attractive Market Opportunity

 

Despite the adverse conditions impacting global operations and economies resulting from the COVID-19 outbreak, we continue to operate at the intersection of the historically attractive health and wellness and travel leisure industries. We believe we are well-positioned to grow as the cruise industry recovers from the COVID-19 pandemic.

 

Historical Cruise Industry Growth

 

Prior to COVID-19, the cruise industry had been among the fastest-growing segments in the travel leisure industry, including through the recessions of 2001 and 2008-2010. We estimate, based on annual statistics published by Cruise Lines International Association (“CLIA”), that global passenger counts had grown every year until 2020 from approximately 6.3 million passengers in 1995 to an all-time high of approximately 30.0 million passengers in 2019, representing a compound annual growth rate of 6.7%. This passenger growth had been driven by consistent, significant investments in new cruise ship capacity, strong loyalty among experienced cruisers and the large and growing appeal of cruising to all demographics, including millennials. From 2018 to 2020, the Caribbean, Bahamas and Bermuda were the top cruise destinations, representing 44% of passenger volume during that period, according to the CLIA. Although the COVID-19 pandemic has significantly adversely affected, and continues to affect, passenger volume in the global cruise industry, passenger volume has started to recover since a number of cruise lines restarted their operations beginning in July 2021. CLIA forecasts passenger volume to exceed 2019 levels by the end of 2023 and possibly by the end of 2022. Additionally, in a survey of international vacationers conducted by CLIA in connection with its 2022 State of the Cruise Industry Outlook, 80% of respondents who had previously been on a cruise said that they were likely to cruise again in the next few years, with millennials representing 85% of the cruise passenger respondents who plan to cruise again.

 

Historically Large and Growing Health and Wellness Industry

 

Our health and wellness centers cater to guests seeking a continuation of their health, fitness, beauty and wellness activities while traveling and those who want to trial services while away from home. As consumers increasingly incorporate health and wellness activities into their daily lives, they are placing a higher priority on health and wellness services while traveling and vacationing. According to CLIA, passenger volume in a baseline forecast on cruises is expected to surpass 2019 levels by the end of 2023, with passenger volume in an upside forecast projected to recover to 101% of 2019 levels by the end of 2022. Further, according to CLIA, the same percentage of travelers who have cruised before the pandemic say they will cruise again.

 

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Our Evolution

 

Our history dates back to the early 1960’s, when we opened the world’s first salons at sea onboard transatlantic cruise ships, including the Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth II. Over more than 50 years, we have continuously defined and redefined the onboard health, fitness, beauty and wellness category by consistently expanding our onboard offerings with innovative and leading-edge service and product introductions, while developing the powerful back-end recruiting, training and logistics platforms to manage and optimize the complexity of our operations and maintain our industry-leading quality standards. We have successfully evolved the onboard health, fitness, beauty and wellness category from what was once a consumer-centric amenity for passengers to a key onboard revenue driver for our cruise line partners.

In 2015, a consortium led by L Catterton acquired Steiner Leisure, the holding company of OneSpaWorld at that time. Since then, OneSpaWorld has strengthened its already proven platform by leveraging L Catterton’s expertise in consumer services, consumer products, multi-unit retail operations and customer acquisition, among other expertise. OneSpaWorld has enhanced collaboration with its cruise line and destination resort partners to reinforce its market leading position and introduced innovative revenue initiatives to accelerate its revenue growth. Key recent initiatives include:

 

executing an effective return to service as our cruise line and destination resort partners resumed operations;

 

reopening our London Wellness Academy, which is integral to our status as a leader in training and certification;

 

continued innovation in our service and product offerings, coupled with enhanced consultative sales training techniques, resulting in a shifting revenue mix toward higher value-add and higher priced services, higher-priced products, and higher attachment rates for product purchases in connection with a guest service;

 

enhancing and expanding collaboration with cruise line and destination resort partners;

 

expanding pre-marketing, pre-booking and pre-payment platforms with optimal positioning on cruise line websites;

 

employing data-driven, dynamic pricing of services to optimize facility utilization and revenue generation; and

 

incorporating advanced direct marketing programs, including personalized communications and value promotions, to drive consumer demand.

On March 19, 2019 (the “Business Combination Date”), OneSpaWorld consummated a business combination pursuant to a Business Combination Agreement, dated as of November 1, 2018 (as amended on January 7, 2019, by Amendment No. 1 to the Business Combination Agreement), by and among Steiner Leisure Limited (“SLL”, “Steiner Leisure,” “Steiner,” or “Parent”), Steiner U.S. Holdings, Inc., Nemo (UK) Holdco, Ltd., Steiner UK Limited, Steiner Management Services, LLC, Haymaker Acquisition Corp. (“Haymaker”), OneSpaWorld, Dory US Merger Sub, LLC, Dory Acquisition Sub, Limited, Dory Intermediate LLC, and Dory Acquisition Sub, Inc. (the “Business Combination”), in which Haymaker acquired from Steiner operating business known as OSW Predecessor (“OSW”). Prior to the consummation of the Business Combination, OneSpaWorld was a wholly-owned subsidiary of Steiner Leisure. On the Business Combination Date, OneSpaWorld became the ultimate parent company of the Haymaker and OSW company.

Prior to the cessation of our cruise line and land-based destination resort operations due to COVID-19, our comprehensive suite of premium health, fitness, beauty and wellness services and products reached more consumers than ever before, with 175 centers onboard cruise ships addressing a captive audience of over 20 million passengers annually, and 68 destination resort centers serving global travelers at premier destination resorts around the world.

Our Strengths

 

As noted above, we cannot yet fully predict the impacts of COVID-19 on the travel leisure industry or on our business. Despite this uncertainty, we believe that our competitive strengths historically have positioned us, and will continue to position us, as a leader in the hospitality-based health and wellness industry and the category dominant leader in the cruise industry.

 

Global Leader in the Hospitality-Based Health and Wellness Industry

 

As the pre-eminent global operator of health and wellness centers onboard cruise ships and a leading operator of health and wellness centers at destination resorts worldwide, we are at the center of the intersection between the health and wellness and travel leisure industries. In 2018, the Global Wellness Institute reported that global wellness tourism was a $639 billion industry. We command over 90% market share in the highly attractive outsourced maritime health and wellness market and we are nearly 20x the size of our closest competitor. Through our market share, we have had access to a captive audience of over 20 million passengers.

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Cruise ship guests are an attractive demographic, with average annual household incomes of over $100,000. As a result of our scale, our captive consumer audience, and consumers’ increasing desire for more health, fitness, beauty and wellness services and products, we are well-positioned in the global health and wellness industry and have a large and highly attractive addressable consumer market at sea and on land.

 

Differentiated Business Model That Would Be Difficult and Uneconomic to Replicate

 

For more than 50 years, our business model has been built through investment in global infrastructure and training, decades-long relationships with our cruise line and destination resort partners and our reputation for offering our guests a best-in-class health, fitness, beauty and wellness experience. Our robust infrastructure and processes required to operate and maximize revenue across our network of global health and wellness centers separates us from our peers. In 2021, we embarked on over 2,000 voyages that welcomed over three million passengers at more than 73 ports of embarkation. Our business model is centered on providing our cruise line and destination resort partners with the following solutions:

 

 

Creating Extraordinary Guest Experiences —We pride ourselves on creating extraordinary guest experiences in our health and wellness facilities, offering our cruise line and destination resort partners’ guests a comprehensive suite of premium health, wellness, fitness and beauty services, treatments, and products.

 

Global Recruiting, Training and Logistics —Prior to the near cessation of our operations due to COVID-19, we recruited, trained and managed over 3,000 health, fitness, beauty and wellness professionals annually around the world, representing 88 nationalities and 24 spoken languages. With seven global training facilities, we serve each cruise line’s needs for specific onboard staff with complex language, cultural and service modality requirements and are the only company with the infrastructure to commission highly trained staff at over 1,200 ports of call worldwide. Our commitment to our onboard and destination resort staff has proven to be an essential element of our successful return to service performance.

 

Supply Chain and Logistics —We manage the complex delivery of all products and supplies to our health and wellness centers onboard vessels operating itineraries around the world, leveraging proprietary data to accurately forecast and stock each health and wellness center. Products and supplies can only be loaded at designated ports around the world during a limited window of time while the ship is in port, in many cases overnight, adding to the complexity of the process.

 

Yield and Revenue Management —We have developed proprietary technology, processes and staff training tools to consistently measure, analyze and maximize onboard and destination resort revenue and profitability.

 

Exclusive Relationships with Global Brands —Due to our scale, superior operations, industry longevity and attractive captive consumer audience, prior to the near cessation of our operations due to COVID-19, we had over 1,100 product SKUs sourced from over 75 vendors offered through the OneSpaWorld platform at sea, including ELEMIS, Kérastase, Thermage ®, GoodFeet ® Arch Supports and GO SMILE ® Teeth Whitening.

 

Facility Design and Branding Expertise —We design our state-of-the-art health and wellness centers specifically for each cruise line vessel and destination resort, creating bespoke branding, guest experience, guest services offerings, complementary retail products assortment, and competitive differentiation for each of our cruise line and destination resort partners to optimize guest experiences and maximize productivity and financial performance.

The above capabilities have contributed to building a differentiated and defensible strategy around our leading market position in a historically growing and attractive industry.

Unmatched Breadth of Service and Product Offering

 

We offer our guests a comprehensive suite of health, fitness, beauty and wellness services and products to meet any and all of their needs. We are continuously innovating and evolving our offerings based on the latest trends and tailor our service and product offerings to regional preferences. In addition to conventional services, we offer the latest in fitness, a full range of massage treatments, nutrition/weight management consultations, teeth whitening, and acupuncture, among a broad spectrum of personal care services. OneSpaWorld has also introduced innovative, higher-ticket medi-spa services at sea, including BOTOX ® Cosmetic, Dysport, Restylane ®, CoolSculpting ®, Thermage and dermal fillers, among others. With our captive audience of over 20 million cruise guests annually, OneSpaWorld is a compelling distribution channel for leading health, fitness, beauty and wellness brands. Renowned brands, including ELEMIS and Kérastase, have partnered with us for exclusive distribution at sea. Cruise line and destination resort partners depend on us to provide their guests with the best and broadest assortment of services and products to enhance their vacation experience and the competitive positioning and consumer value of their brands.

 

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Entrenched Partnerships with Economic Alignment

 

We have cultivated partnerships with most of the largest and most reputable cruise lines and premier resorts in the world. Our cruise line relationships average over 20 years and encompass substantially all of the major global cruise lines, including Carnival Cruise Line, Royal Caribbean Cruises, Princess Cruises, Norwegian Cruise Lines, Celebrity Cruises, Crystal Cruises, Costa Cruises, Seabourn Cruise Line, Virgin Voyages, and Holland America, among many others. The majority of our revenues and profits are earned through our long-term revenue sharing agreements with our cruise line partners that economically align both parties and create a collaborative relationship. On land, we partner with market leaders at highly attractive destinations, including Atlantis Paradise Island Bahamas, The Ocean Club, a Four Seasons Resort, Hilton Hawaiian Village Beach Resort and Spa, and the Mohegan Sun Resort, among others. Our long-standing relationships, with economic alignment at the core, strengthen our competitive advantage.

 

Highly Visible and Predictable Revenue Streams

 

Historically, we have had access to over 20 million passengers annually, with potential long-term passenger growth expected in the future, post the COVID-19 pandemic, as new ships are commissioned in the industry. This new ship growth is highly visible as demonstrated in a publicly available global order book outlining over five years of new ship orders. Across our contracts, OneSpaWorld typically operates on all ships in a fleet and on new ships added during the contract term, securing both existing and new ship revenue. A new ship requires approximately two to four years to be built and is rarely delayed, as cruise lines typically sell out the vessel’s maiden voyage over a year in advance. New ships do not have a revenue ramp-up period given these advanced marketing efforts. Our cruise line partners are experts at dependably filling their ships with passengers, as demonstrated by the industry’s historical average occupancy rate of above 100%, even through recessionary periods. Due to historically consistent industry practices and decades of proprietary operating history data, OneSpaWorld has had strong visibility into our future revenue realization for the next three to five years. Despite current market conditions related to COVID-19, we expect these revenue streams to rebound in the future to historical levels.

Asset-Light Model with After-Tax Free Cash Flow Generation

 

Third parties typically fund the build-out, maintenance, and refurbishment of our onboard health and wellness centers, resulting in an asset-light profile with minimal capex required. Our capital expenditures averaged 1% of revenues over the three years preceding the near cessation of our operations due to COVID-19. Being a Bahamian international business company and earning a significant portion of our revenue in low-tax or no-tax jurisdictions, including international waters, our effective cash tax rate had been approximately 1% over the three years preceding the near cessation of our operations due to COVID-19. This combination translates to exceptional after-tax free cash flow. Annually, from 2017 through 2019, we converted approximately 90% of our Adjusted EBITDA to Unlevered After-Tax Free Cash Flow.

 

Seasoned and Proven Leadership Team

 

OneSpaWorld is led by a management team that has operated the Company for nearly 20 years. Our Executive Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer, Leonard Fluxman, and our Chief Financial Officer and Chief Operating Officer, Stephen Lazarus, together led OneSpaWorld's predecessor company, Steiner Leisure, as a public company for more than a decade. Mr. Fluxman and Mr. Lazarus now lead an internally developed senior management team with over 150 years of combined industry experience.

Additionally, our Chief Commercial Officer, Susan Bonner, has over 20 years of experience in the cruise line sector and is a seasoned executive with a proven track record and significant background in strategy, revenue management, operations management, sales, and marketing. We also benefit from Haymaker’s investing and operational experience at Fortune 500 companies, particularly in the consumer and hospitality sectors. The OneSpaWorld management team’s deep experience and proven track record in managing the business in both public and private markets positions OneSpaWorld as an attractive vehicle for future long-term growth within the global hospitality-based health and wellness industry.

Growth Strategies

Our management plans to continue growing the business through the following strategies:

 

Capture Highly Visible New Ship Growth with Current Cruise Line Partners

 

We expect to continue to benefit long-term from a return to the cruise industry’s capacity for growth, with a consistent and visible pipeline of new ships commissioned annually by our cruise line partners. By the end of 2023, our existing cruise line partners

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are expected to introduce 23 new ships. Through established cruise line partner relationships, current contracts, and an approximately 94% contract renewal rate over the last 15 years, we are well-positioned to capture new ship growth over the long term.

Expand Market Share by Adding New Potential Cruise Line Partners

 

Although we have over 90% market share in the outsourced maritime health and wellness market, there is an opportunity to continue to grow our market share by winning new contracts. We also routinely meet with cruise lines that do not currently outsource their health and wellness centers or utilize our smaller competitors, but that may have an interest in contracting with us in the future due to our strong reputation and historical results. As evidenced by our successful history of winning new contracts, we remain focused on continuing to protect and grow our dominant market share at sea.

Continue Launching More Value-Added Services and Products

 

We have successfully innovated services and products to meet guests’ ever-changing needs, attract more guests and generate more revenue per guest. Medi-spa has been a highly successful innovation for OneSpaWorld at sea and is now a critical component of our offerings. Performed by licensed physicians, the medi-spa offerings provide the latest cosmetic medical services to guests, such as non-surgical cosmetic procedures, including BOTOX Cosmetic, Dysport, Restylane, CoolSculpting, Thermage, and dermal fillers. Guests purchasing medi-spa services spend on average up to 10x more than on traditional health, beauty and wellness services. We continue to roll out incremental revenue opportunities, including the Capillus® Laser Therapy Cap and HypericeTM percussion and vibration therapy products and related services. We will continue to focus on launching higher value-add services and products that meet guest demands, align with and enhance our cruise line and destination resort partner brands, optimize health and wellness center utilization, and maximize center-level profitability.

Focus on Enhancing Health and Wellness Center Productivity

 

Cruise lines have become increasingly focused on growing onboard revenue as a way to enhance revenue beyond traditional cabin ticket sales. Between 2013 and 2019, onboard spend on the three largest cruise operators we serve increased by $2.6 billion, from $6.5 billion to $9.1 billion. According to an independent global consulting study, 45% of passengers say they are interested in using our health and wellness centers onboard. We are focused on collaborating with cruise line partners to increase passenger penetration and maximize revenue yield through the following initiatives:

 

 

Increase Pre-Booking and Pre-Payment Capture Rate —We are working with our cruise line partners to expand our marketing efforts to engage guests upon booking their vacation experience, well before boarding a ship, through pre-booking. Pre-booked appointments can yield approximately 30% more revenue than services booked onboard the ship. Due to our success across select cruise lines that have implemented pre-booking capabilities, we are in the process of implementing pre-booking across additional partner cruise lines.

 

Expand Targeted Marketing and Promotion Initiatives —We are now directly marketing and distributing promotions to onboard passengers as a result of enhanced collaboration with select cruise line partners. These promotions are personalized and individually tailored to guests’ profiles and have successfully driven traffic and revenue at our health and wellness centers. Examples include “happy anniversary” messages to couples, “happy birthday” notes to individual guests, and promotional retail credits offered to guests who visit our centers before the end of their cruise. Guests that received these customized promotions were responsible for approximately 8% of revenues generated during the year ended December 31, 2021.

 

Utilize Technology to Increase Utilization and Enhance Service Mix —We have recently begun to successfully introduce and expand technology-enabled dynamic pricing initiatives with selected cruise line partners. While dynamic pricing strategies have historically been applied manually by onboard staff, we are currently rolling out online and pre-cruise access to drive off-peak utilization rates and fill higher-demand time slots with higher-value bookings. This enhanced dynamic pricing capability is currently available with only a few cruise line partners, representing a significant opportunity for revenue growth as it is rolled out and optimized fleet-wide.

 

Extend Retail Beyond the Ship —Our Shop & Ship program provides guests the ability to buy retail products onboard and have products shipped directly to their home to avoid the hassle of packing products in their luggage. On average, a Shop & Ship customer spends more than 3.5x the amount of a non-Shop & Ship customer on retail products. The Shop & Ship program, combined with our e-commerce platform timetospa.com, gives us the ability to maintain a connection with each guest beyond the cruise voyage.

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Health and Wellness Services

 

We curate and deliver an ever-innovating broad range of offerings for our cruise line and destination resort partners, centered around a holistic wellness approach, which includes:

 

Spa and Beauty. We offer massages and a broad variety of other body and beauty treatments including facials, hair cutting and styling, manicures and pedicures, and tanning. Additionally, we offer teeth whitening services in the majority of our onboard health and wellness centers.

 

Medi-spa. We offer medi-spa services on the majority of our ships. Our service menu consists of the leading medi-spa brands, including BOTOX Cosmetic, Dysport, Restylane, CoolSculpting, Thermage, dermal fillers, and microneedling, among others. Medi-spa services are administered by certified medical physicians. Prior to the cessation of our operations due to COVID-19, medi-spa services were available on 99 ships. Subject to the continued resumption of operations by our cruise line partners, by the end of 2022, we expect to offer medi-spa services on 130 ships.

 

Fitness. We offer guests use of fitness centers as well as paid services by a fitness professional to our cruise and destination resort guests. The fitness centers offer guests use of strength equipment, cardiovascular equipment such as treadmills, elliptical machines, exercise bicycles and rowing and stair machines. Boutique fitness classes, including yoga, Pilates, F45 Training, cycling, and aerobics, are also available to guests for a fee or at no charge, depending on the class. Our fitness instructors are available to provide paid services, such as body composition analysis and personal training.

 

Nutrition. In addition to fitness services, we offer guests paid services including personal nutritional and dietary advice, weight management, nutrition coaching and detoxification. Guests can begin a program on the cruise and remain connected to our professional coach after the cruise to ensure successful completion of the program, such as a nutrition or detoxification plan, including by continuing to purchase nutritional and detoxification products via or e-commerce platform timetospa.com.

 

Health. We first introduced acupuncture in 2005 and have since rapidly expanded our health and pain management, offerings to be one of our largest categories. Today, we offer acupuncture, electro acupuncture, cupping, posture and gait analysis, GoodFeet Arch Supports, physical therapy, and NormaTec ® recovery. Our services are enhanced by our retail channel; GoodFeet, a premium arch support insert, is now a leading retail product for us.

 

Mind-Body and Wellness. We also offer our guests yoga, Tai Chi and sound therapy in addition to meditation and biofeedback.

Products

 

We sell over 1,100 branded product SKUs sourced from over 75 vendors due to our scale, superior operations, industry longevity and attractive captive audience at sea and on land. We sell products from leading brands, including ELEMIS, Thermage, Dysport, GoodFeet Arch Supports and GO SMILE Teeth Whitening. We have an exclusive 10-year supply agreement with ELEMIS. We believe we have a leading retail attachment rate based on the number of products purchased in conjunction with a service compared to the broader consumer personal care services and retail industry. During 2021, approximately 20% of our revenues come from product sales, enabling incremental revenue even at full treatment room utilization.

 

We utilize three warehouses, consisting of one 27,000 square foot bonded warehouse in Miami, FL, one 21,600 square foot warehouse in Miami, FL, and one 5,000 square foot warehouse in New Jersey. The Miami warehouses provide fulfillment services for cruise inventory, and the New Jersey warehouse provides fulfillment for e-commerce and the Shop & Ship program.

 

Health and Wellness Centers

As of December 31, 2021, we operated state-of-the-art health and wellness centers on 170 ships, including virtually all of the major cruise lines globally, and 52 land-based destination resorts, principally in the United States, the Caribbean and Asia. Centers are designed and branded for each cruise and destination resort partner to optimize the guest experience, maximize revenues and align with our partners’ brand and hospitality environment. Centers can range in size from approximately 200 square feet to over 30,000 square feet and generally provide fitness areas, treatment rooms and salons, as well as elaborate thermal suites and/or saunas. Cruise centers are generally located on higher ship decks, which encourages increased passenger interest and guest traffic.

 

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Facility Design

 

Our cruise line and destination resort partners each seek differentiated health and wellness experiences for their guests. As such, we provide design capabilities for our cruise line and destination resort partners, creating bespoke branding and design consulting to optimize guest experiences and maximize revenues. We operate health and wellness centers under proprietary brands of Mandara ® and Chavana ®, as well as brands curated specifically for each cruise line, complete with cruise line and/or ship-specific service menus. Prior to the near cessation of our operations due to COVID-19, as of December 31, 2019, we had 39 health and wellness centers under the Mandara brand, 11 centers under the Chavana brand, and one center under our destination resort health and wellness brand, “Glow ®, a Mandara Spa.”

Principal Cruise Line Customers

A significant portion of our revenue is generated from each of the following cruise lines, which accounted for more than 10% of our total revenues in 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively: Carnival (including Carnival, Carnival Australia, Costa, Cunard, Holland America, P&O, Princess, and Seabourn cruise lines): 36.7%, 43.4%, and 46.7%, Royal Caribbean (including Royal Caribbean, Celebrity Cruises, Pullmantur, Azamara and Silversea cruise lines): 22.8%, 20.9%, and 23.1%, and Norwegian Cruise Line (including Norwegian Cruise Line, Oceania Cruises and Regent Seven Seas Cruises): 11.4%, 16.3%, and 14.7%. These companies, combined, accounted for 140 of the 170 ships served by OneSpaWorld as of December 31, 2021. Our contracts are signed at the cruise line-level, not with the parent operator, giving OneSpaWorld a diverse customer base despite parent-level consolidation. Our contracts average five years in duration.

The numbers of ships served as of December 31, 2021 under cruise line agreements with the respective cruise lines are listed below:

 

Cruise Line

Ships Served

 

Royal Caribbean (2)

 

25

 

Carnival (1)

 

24

 

Norwegian (3)

 

17

 

Princess (1)

 

14

 

Celebrity (2)

 

11

 

Costa (1)

 

11

 

Holland America (1)

 

11

 

Silversea  (2)

 

8

 

Oceania (3)

 

6

 

P&O (1)

 

6

 

Windstar

 

6

 

Regent (3)

 

5

 

Seabourn (1)

 

5

 

Disney

 

4

 

Azamara  (2)

 

3

 

Crystal

 

3

 

Cunard

 

3

 

Dream

 

2

 

Marella

 

2

 

Saga

 

2

 

Carnival Australia (1)

 

1

 

Virgin

 

1

 

Total

 

170

 

 

 

(1)

Carnival Corporation, the parent company of Carnival Cruise Line, also owns Carnival Australia, Costa, Holland America, P&O, Princess, and Seabourn.

 

(2)

Azamara, Celebrity, and Silversea are owned by Royal Caribbean.

 

(3)

Oceania and Regent are owned by Norwegian Cruise Lines.

 

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Destination Resort Locations and Partners

As of December 31, 2021, we provided health and wellness services at destination resorts in the following locations:

 

Country

 

Number of Destination Resort Spas

 

Maldives

 

 

14

 

United States (1)

 

 

12

 

Malaysia

 

 

10

 

Indonesia

 

 

2

 

Bahamas

 

 

3

 

Palau

 

 

2

 

Russia

 

 

2

 

United Arab Emirates

 

 

2

 

Japan

 

 

2

 

Bahrain

 

 

1

 

Aruba

 

 

1

 

Egypt

 

 

1

 

Total

 

 

52

 

 

(1)

Includes Puerto Rico.

Cruise Line and Destination Resort Agreements

 

Through our cruise line and destination resort agreements, we have the exclusive right to offer health, fitness, beauty and wellness services and the ability to sell complementary products onboard the ships and at the destination resorts we serve. Under the cruise line agreements, guests pay for our services through our cruise line partners, who retain a specified percentage of gross receipts from such sales before remitting the remainder to us. Our revenue share agreements result in a highly variable cost model, where the primary fixed costs are the meals and accommodations for our shipboard employees. Most of our cruise line agreements cover all of the then-operating ships of a cruise line and typically new ships are added to ships in service through an amendment to the agreement. The agreements have specified terms ranging from three to 10.7 years, with an average remaining term per ship of approximately 3.7 years as of December 31, 2021. Cruise lines can terminate the agreements with limited or no advance notice under certain circumstances, including, among other things, the withdrawal of a ship from the cruise trade, the sale or lease of a ship, or our failure to achieve specified passenger service standards. However, we have never had a contract terminated prior to our respective expiration date.

 

We operate our destination resort centers pursuant to agreements with the owners of the properties involved. Our destination resort centers generally are required to pay rent based on a percentage of our revenues, with others having fixed rents. Some of our destination resort center agreements also require that we make minimum rental payments irrespective of the amount of our revenues. The terms of the agreements for our destination resort centers generally range from five to 20 years (including the terms of renewals available at our option). In the U.S. and Caribbean, destination resort centers generally have a higher investment cost and lower revenue share with higher staff costs and contracts lasting ten years on average. In Asia, destination resort centers have lower investment cost, higher revenue share, lower staff costs, and contracts averaging five years.

 

Marketing and Promotion

 

We promote our services and products to cruise passengers and destination resort guests through targeted marketing, including pre-and post-cruise emails, website advertising, on-site demonstrations and seminars, video presentations shown on in-cabin/in-room television, ship newsletters, tours of our centers, and dedicated signage around the ship. We also encourage our employees to cross-sell, as they believe that such cross-promotional activities frequently result in our customers purchasing services and/or products in addition to those they initially contemplated buying. For example, we cross-sell our fitness body assessment with detox programs, vitamins, and seaweed wraps. We also maintain a dedicated sales desk to facilitate pre-cruise health and wellness services booking and to disseminate health and wellness information for charters and other groups of cruise passengers.

 

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Recent collaborative initiatives with cruise line partners have proven to enhance performance across certain key performance indicators. We have developed a fully integrated pre-booking platform, which allows guests to book health and wellness treatments six to eight weeks prior to the voyage. Pre-booked and pre-paid guests on average spend approximately 30% more than guests who book services once already onboard. We recently introduced a new pricing strategy, simplifying the choice architecture for our guests while continuing to make price adjustments across multiple areas within our spas. Guests have responded positively, resulting in an increased service spend coupled with a higher frequency of longer treatments booked, and a shift toward booking relatively more premium and signature services. We have begun rolling out our dynamic pricing model to our full cruise fleet, which provides the ability to optimize demand and maximize utilization of our health and wellness centers. We continually monitor the results of our marketing efforts and adjust our strategies in order to use our marketing resources in a cost-effective manner.

Competition

 

On cruise ships, we compete with passenger activity alternatives for onboard passenger dollars. We also compete with other maritime wellness facility providers, including cruise lines that insource the activity, as well as potential other outsource providers. Across the destination resorts business, we compete with other outsource providers of health, fitness, beauty and wellness services to hotel and destination resort operators. The destination resorts business is highly fragmented, and there is no one leader within this category.

 

Seasonality

 

A significant portion of our revenues are generated onboard cruise ships and are subject to specific individual cruise itineraries as to time of year and geographic location, among other factors. As a result, we experience varying degrees of seasonality as the demand for cruises is stronger in the Northern Hemisphere during the summer months and during holidays. Accordingly, the third quarter and holiday periods generally result in the highest revenue yields for us. Further, cruises and destination resorts have been negatively affected by the frequency and intensity of hurricanes, which may be impacted by climate change. The negative impact of hurricanes in the Northern Hemisphere is highest during peak hurricane season from August to October.

 

Trademarks

 

We hold or control numerous trademarks in the United States and a number of other countries. Our most recognized health and wellness products and services trademarks are for Mandara and Chavana. We believe that the use of our trademarks is important in establishing and maintaining our reputation for providing high quality health and wellness services, as well as cosmetic goods, and we are committed to protecting these trademarks by all appropriate legal means.

 

Registrations for the OneSpaWorld, Mandara and Chavana trademarks, among others, have been obtained in a number of countries throughout the world. We continue to apply for other trademark registrations in various countries.

While a number of the trademarks we use have been registered in the United States and other countries, the registrations of other trademarks that we use are pending. Recently, we have adopted the mark “OneSpaWorld” as the trade name of our maritime health and wellness business to reflect our position as a global provider of shipboard products and services.

We license “Mandara” for use by luxury destination resorts in certain Asian countries.

Sustainability and Social Responsibility

With a deep-seated devotion to the environment and the cultures we encounter and embrace, we strive for a better tomorrow by effecting positive change in the lives of stakeholders – our guests, employees, and the inhabitants of the destinations we visit and the locations where we operate and call home.

We believe that our impact on the environment, how we manage our relationships with our employees, our cruise and destination resort guests, our suppliers, and the communities where we operate, and the accountability of our leadership to our employees and our stockholders are all critically important to our business. Our company has undertaken a number of strategies to further these objectives, including programs to incorporate sustainability practices, improve data privacy and cybersecurity, increase employee diversity, ensure a respectful workplace, and invest in our communities. Our Board of Directors is responsible for promoting the long-term sustainable growth of the Company, including considering the social and environmental goals of the Company. See “Human Capital” for a more comprehensive description of our social responsibility initiatives.

With respect to environmental matters, we are collaborating with our third party product suppliers to introduce improved packaging solutions to reduce environmental impact. We have been implementing sustainability strategies by reducing paper usage and plastic water bottles, as well as recycling paper in the workplace, installing light sensors to reduce electricity consumption, and changing packaging materials from polystyrene to recyclable pillow packs. With respect to governance issues, we maintain policies

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with respect to ethical trading, confidential and non-public personal information, anti-fraud, anti-corruption, third party risk management, trade control compliance, data transfers, internal auditing services, global privacy, and global regulatory compliance.

Human Capital

As a pre-eminent global operator of health and wellness services, our people are essential to our operations and core to the long-term success of our Company. Our employees are responsible for upholding our purpose, integrity, and accountability, representing OneSpaWorld’s mission and values as a global health and wellness company. To attract and retain the best talent, we strive to embed a culture where employees can bring their whole selves to work.

 

Our Board of Directors directly oversees procedures and corporate culture which promotes and upholds the ethical conduct of the Company’s business, including adopting and monitoring compliance with the Company’s Code of Ethics, which, among other things, sets forth the Company’s policy of promoting high standards of integrity by and toward employees in the course of business dealings. The Compensation Committee of our Board is responsible for advising the Board with respect to the compensation philosophy, policies, and equity plans pertaining to our employees, intended to attract, engage, and retain talented personnel. The Audit Committee of our Board is responsible for establishing procedures for the treatment of anonymous employee complaints or concerns received by the Company, through the Company’s Ethics Hotline or otherwise. The Nominating and Governance Committee of our Board is responsible for developing, recommending to the Board, and reviewing on an ongoing basis the adequacy of the Company’s diversity and sustainability policies, as well as reviewing and recommending to the Board changes to the Company’s Code of Ethics.

 

During the first and second quarters of 2020, in response to the near cessation of our operations due to COVID-19, we took steps to mitigate the adverse impacts of the pandemic, including repatriating 3,220 of our cruise ship personnel to their homes around the world.

 

Our People. As a Company that provides health and wellness services and products, our employees are the bedrock of our cruise and resort guest experience. As of December 31, 2021, we had a total of 2,905 full-time employees. Of that number, 2,717 worked in health and wellness operations and 310 represented management and sales personnel and support staff, while 39 were involved in recruiting and training. We have one health and wellness center manager in each location and can have up to 83 total staff depending on the size of the center. As a global operation, we have a diverse team of employees who represent the locations and markets we serve and in which we operate. Approximately 369 of our employees were located in the United States. We believe our relationship with our employees is strong.

Diversity & Inclusion. Our Company achieves success by recruiting, training, supporting and resourcing employees from diverse demographic and socioeconomic populations across the globe, so as to best serve our cruise line and destination resort partners and their diverse global cruise line and destination resort base. We maintain an unwavering commitment to diversity and inclusion among our staff. OneSpaWorld is an equal opportunity employer, and we promote and celebrate diversity and inclusion in the workplace. We advertise U.S. corporate and destination resort spa positions on a human resources applicant tracking system, which provides visibility toward all applicants, including diverse candidates. As of December 31, 2021, our employees had the following attributes:

 

 

 

Female

 

 

 

 

Male

Employees

 

 

2,205

 

 

 

 

437

Manager Staff

 

189

 

 

 

 

71

Executive Officers

 

1

 

 

 

 

2

 

In order to successfully achieve our goals toward diversity and inclusion, we strive to educate employees, managers, and leadership on these essential topics. Among other things, we provide annual trainings on the following topics: culture of civility, anti-harassment best practices, cultivating a respectful workplace, anti-harassment crash course: steering clear of sexual harassment, and halting harassment: prevention basics for management.

Talent Attraction. Our continued success is dependent on our ability to attract qualified employees. Our goal in recruiting and training new employees is to have available a sufficient number of skilled personnel trained in our customer service philosophy. Our cruise line and destination resort staff are sourced from over 95 countries. We recruit prospective shipboard health and wellness center employees from geographies including Australia, the British Isles, Canada, the Caribbean, continental Europe, India, Indonesia, Mauritius, the Philippines, South Africa, South America, and Thailand, providing an ample pipeline of talent from a wide range of demographics.

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Talent Retention: Compensation and Benefits. We strive to provide competitive pay and benefits for our employees.

Shipboard spa employees typically are employed under nine month-long agreements with fixed terms. Our compensation arrangements include commissions received in connection with the provision of services and sales of products in our spas. We make available to all our shipboard employees comprehensive health and dental care, free of charge during the terms of their employment agreements, and provide long-term disability and death compensation, among other benefits. We provide our shipboard employees with transportation to their home countries free of charge following the completion of their employment terms. Our shipboard employees and their families and friends are entitled to discounts on the services and products we offer for sale, as well as personalized fitness and wellness programs. In recent years, we have improved staff retention, resulting in a more experienced staff across our fleet.

Employees at our destination resorts generally are employed without contracts, on an at-will basis, although most of our employees in Asia have one- or two-year contracts. Our U.S. corporate and destination resort spa employees are eligible to receive the following company benefits, some of which are Company sponsored, and some of which are voluntary: medical, dental, vision, 401(k) retirement plan, short term disability, long term disability, critical illness, flexible spending account, basic life insurance and basic accidental death and dismemberment, medical indemnity, off the job accident insurance, spouse life insurance and accidental death and dismemberment, child life insurance and accidental death and dismemberment. We provide an employee assistance program free of charge to our employees and members of their households, offering face-to-face mental health counseling sessions with a local provider, legal assistance, financial consultations, resources and referrals for childcare assistance and adoption, eldercare, pet care, and consultations with fraud resolution specialists intended to prevent identity theft.

Health and Safety. The health and safety of our employees remains our highest priority. During 2021, COVID-19 continued to pose a significant risk to our employees. We have undertaken a number of initiatives in connection with our reopening plan and our response to COVID-19, including the continuation of the availability of a remote work environment for our corporate employees. All staff returning to ships are required to complete training modules prior to returning to sea. We created a comprehensive manual entitled “Guidelines for Protection and Sanitization,” or “GPS,” which includes, among others, protocols for sanitization by service, modality and area, behavior, workplace controls, the use of personal protective equipment, social distancing, recognizing signs of COVID-19, and reporting procedures. As of the date of this report, more than 2,500 of our shipboard staff have successfully completed this training. In conjunction with corporate employees returning to our corporate office in Coral Gables, employees will be required to complete a training course regarding compliance with COVID-19 protocols, in alignment with CDC guidelines.

Culture and Ethics. We strive to bring our culture of ethical behavior to the forefront of our organization, and it is our values and mission that binds our business together. We visited over 1,200 global ports of call and operated 69 destination resorts in over 13 countries as of December 31, 2019, prior to the near cessation of our operations due to the COVID-19 pandemic. We have instituted best practices to ensure that we continue to operate to the highest standards, including requiring all our employees to familiarize themselves during the training with, and adhere strictly to, our Code of Ethics and other corporate policies.

Training and Development. Our business relies on the ever-changing needs and desires of our customer base. These changes require that our employees are armed with best-in-class training and development in emerging areas of health and wellness. We also operate in areas that are subject to regulation and licensing. To respond to these challenges, we have developed extensive training and licensing practices. Our efforts include training at our London Wellness Academy and our satellite training facilities in South Africa and the Philippines, ranging from two to six weeks depending on the profession and modality of each employee, onboard training for certain of our shipboard employees, and management training courses at our Coral Gables office. All our employees are required to complete sexual harassment training, and our shipboard employees also complete health and safety training upon boarding the vessels on which they serve. Certain shipboard employees also complete additional training on safe practices in providing our services, and training on cleaning and sanitization of our equipment and spa facilities. Our employees also receive training using our comprehensive “GPS” manual prior to returning to work.

We encourage our employees to progress through roles of increasing responsibility within our corporate structure during their tenures by providing numerous opportunities for development and training support. Most senior positions held by our Coral Gables and London Wellness Academy employees are occupied by individuals who began their careers as members of our shipboard spa teams. In our corporate office in Coral Gables, employees receive annual refresher and development training through the Company’s state of the art learning management system, and are required to review a variety of learning modules containing training content relevant to our globally diverse organization. As a substitute for our in-person training programs for existing and prospective staff, we have sought to limit our costs and our carbon footprint by offering eLearning modules for our

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shipboard staff, which we have integrated into our learning management system platform. The eLearning modules have also been an important component of our efforts to safely train our staff in a remote manner during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Succession Planning. The success of our business relies on the steady and experienced leadership of key employees. We continually strive to foster the personal and professional development of senior management and other critical roles throughout the organization. As a result, we have developed a strong group of leaders with lengthy tenures. The performance of our senior management team members is subject to ongoing monitoring and evaluation, intended to ensure efficient identification of potential successors and smooth transitions within the team.

Government Regulation

 

Our business is subject to certain international, U.S. federal, state and local laws, and regulations and policies in jurisdictions in which we operate. Such laws, regulations and policies impact areas of our business, including securities, anti-discrimination, anti-fraud, data protection and security. We are also subject to anti-corruption and bribery laws and government economic sanctions, including applicable regulations under the U.S. Treasury’s Office of Foreign Asset Control and the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”). The FCPA and similar anti-corruption and bribery laws in other jurisdictions generally prohibit companies and their intermediaries from making improper payments to government officials for the purpose of obtaining or generating business.

 

Website Access to SEC Reports

 

Our website can be found at onespaworld.com. Information contained on our website is not part of this report.

 

We make available, free of charge through our website, our annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act as soon as is reasonably practicable after we electronically file them with, or furnish them to, the Securities and Exchange Commission.

 

ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS

 

An investment in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks described below before making an investment decision. Our business, prospects, financial condition, or operating results could be harmed, and have been harmed, by any of these risks, as well as other risks not currently known to us or that we currently consider immaterial. The trading price of our securities could decline, and has declined, due to any of these risks, and, as a result, you may lose all or part of your investment.

 

Risks Related to Our Business

 

Actual or Threatened Epidemics or Pandemics may Have an Adverse Effect on our Business, Financial Condition and Results of Operation

 

The COVID-19 pandemic and measures taken in response to the pandemic have had, and may continue to have, an adverse impact on our business. Steps have been taken by various countries to advise citizens to avoid non-essential travel, to implement closures of non-essential operations, and to implement quarantines and lockdowns to contain the spread of the virus, which have had a dampening effect on the economy and global demand for travel. While the ongoing roll-out of vaccines across a number of countries is a promising milestone in global efforts to contain and eliminate COVID-19, a number of uncertainties remain, including whether any additional vaccines or vaccine booster shots will receive regulatory approval, the risk of differing interpretations and assessments by the scientific community during the peer review/publication process, widespread adoption of the vaccines by consumers, the availability of raw materials needed to manufacture vaccines in sufficient quantities, and challenges in the storage, distribution and administration of vaccines. Uncertainty remains as to when a sufficient number of individuals will be vaccinated, permitting travel restrictions to be lifted. New COVID-19 variants that have emerged in recent months have the potential to increase the lethality, have increased the spread of COVID-19, may reduce vaccine effectiveness, and may prolong the duration of the pandemic, materially negatively impacting our business performance, results of operations and financial condition, including liquidity.

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (“CDC”) issued a Framework for Conditional Sailing Order on October 30, 2020, which outlines a phased approach for gradually permitting cruise ship passenger operations in U.S. waters, subject to certain conditions and guidelines. The Conditional Sailing Order and related measures, such as technical guidelines, currently operate as nonbinding recommendations for cruise lines arriving in or departing from a port in Florida, which most Florida-porting ships have chosen to voluntarily follow. On October 25, 2021, the CDC announced a temporary extension to the Framework for Conditional Sailing Order through January 15, 2022, due to the continued spread of the Delta variant. Following the expiration of this extension, the CDC recommends that cruise ships operating in U.S. waters choose to participate in the CDC’s COVID-19 Program for Cruise Ships. There can be no assurance as to when our cruise line partners will be able to receive conditional

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sailing certificates for additional ships or whether they can remain in compliance with the Conditional Sailing Order and their conditional sailing certificates, once obtained.

The COVID-19 pandemic has materially adversely impacted our business, operations, results of operations and financial condition, including liquidity, and is expected to continue to materially adversely impact our business, operations, results of operations and financial condition, including liquidity, in fiscal year 2022 and possibly thereafter. We cannot presently estimate the extent to which the pandemic will impact our business, which will depend on a number of factors, such as the duration and scope of the pandemic; the negative impact it has on global and regional economies and economic activity, including the duration and magnitude of its impact on unemployment rates and consumer discretionary spending; its short and longer-term impact on the demand for travel, transient and group business, and levels of consumer confidence; our ability to successfully navigate the impacts of the pandemic; actions governments, businesses and individuals take in response to the pandemic, including limiting or banning travel and cruises; and how quickly economies, travel and cruise activity, and demand for our services recover after the pandemic subsides. The COVID-19 pandemic also presents a significant threat to our employees’ well-being and morale, which has impacted employee productivity and may impact employee retention going forward.

To date we have incurred, and expect to continue to incur, significant costs caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. In light of the ongoing suspension of cruise voyages, the Company has taken steps to reduce expenses, including to date repatriating our shipboard staff furloughing certain destination resort spa personnel, capital expenditures and operating expenses, deferring payment of dividends declared and the suspension of our dividend program. Such steps, and further changes we may make in the future to reduce costs, may negatively impact guest loyalty, customer preferences, or our ability to attract and retain employees, destination resort partners or investors, and our reputation and market share may suffer as a result. Notwithstanding the mitigating actions we have undertaken, the Company continues to incur significant ongoing expenses. We may also incur additional COVID-19 related costs if we are subject to greater hygiene-related protocols in our services that are mandated by government authorities or other international authorities. In addition, the industry as a whole may be subject to enhanced health and hygiene requirements in attempts to counteract future outbreaks, which requirements may be costly and take a significant amount of time to implement.

COVID-19 has caused heightened volatility and disruptions in the global credit and financial markets, and this may adversely affect our ability to borrow and could increase our counterparty credit risks. Additionally, the outbreak of COVID-19 may have adverse negative impacts on restrictions in the agreements governing our indebtedness that require us to maintain minimum levels of liquidity and otherwise limit our flexibility in operating our business, including the significant portion of assets that are collateral under these agreements.

As a result of COVID-19, some credit agencies may downgrade our credit ratings in the future. If our credit ratings are downgraded in the future, or if general market conditions were to ascribe a higher risk to our credit rating levels, our industry, or our company, our access to capital and the cost of debt financing will be further negatively impacted. The interest rate we pay on our existing debt instruments is affected by our credit ratings. Accordingly, a downgrade may cause our cost of borrowing to further increase.

We Depend on Our Agreements with Cruise Lines and Destination Resort Health and Wellness Centers; if These Agreements Terminate, Our Business Would Be Harmed

A significant portion of our revenues are generated from our cruise ship health and wellness operations, which have been adversely impacted by the outbreak of COVID-19. In light of the current market conditions and the other impacts caused by COVID-19, our cruise line and destination resort spa agreements may not be renewed after their expiration date on similar terms or at all. Any renewals may cause further reductions in our margins, as the amounts we pay to cruise lines and land-based venues may increase upon entering into renewals of agreements.

In addition, these agreements provide for termination by the cruise lines with limited or no advance notice under certain circumstances, including, among other things, the withdrawal of a ship from the cruise trade, the sale or lease of a ship or our failure to achieve specified passenger service standards. Due to the impact of COVID-19, six vessels on which we operated health and wellness centers have been taken out of service permanently by our cruise line partners, and 20 vessels on which we operated health and wellness centers prior to the COVID-19 pandemic have been sold to other cruise line operators, including operators we currently serve. We are engaged in discussions with these cruise line operators regarding agreements to continue operation of our health and wellness centers aboard these ships; however, there can be no assurance that we will execute satisfactory agreements in the future. Termination or nonrenewal of cruise line agreements, either upon completion of their terms or prior thereto, could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition. Some of our land-based destination resort health and wellness center agreements also provide for termination with limited advance notice under certain circumstances.

As a result of the consolidation of the cruise industry, the number of independent cruise lines has decreased in recent years, and this trend may continue. Also, some cruise lines have ceased operating and this may happen to other cruise lines in the future. As a result of these factors, a small number of cruise companies, all of which currently are our customers, dominate the cruise industry.

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We Depend on the Cruise Industry and Their Risks Are Risks to Us

The cruise industry has never before experienced a complete cessation of its operations. The public concern over the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, coupled with a drop in demand for international travel and leisure, and restrictions on international travel and immigration, have adversely affected the demand for cruises. In addition, COVID-19 has caused and may continue to cause some cruise lines to declare bankruptcy or cause their lenders to declare a default, accelerate the related debt, or foreclose on collateral. Such bankruptcies, accelerations or foreclosures could, in some cases, result in the termination of our agreements with certain of our cruise line partners and eliminate our anticipated income and cash flows, which could negatively affect our results of operations. Cruise lines in bankruptcy may not have sufficient assets to pay us termination fees, other unpaid fees, or reimbursements we are owed under their agreements with us. Even if some cruise lines do not declare bankruptcy, they may be unable or unwilling to pay us amounts to which we are entitled on a timely basis or at all. Cruise lines compete for consumer disposable leisure time dollars with virtually all other vacation alternatives. Demand for cruises is dependent on the underlying economic strength of the countries from which cruise lines source their passengers. Economic changes such as unemployment, economic uncertainty, and the threat of a global recession reduce disposable income or consumer confidence in the countries from which our cruise line partners source their passengers and have affected the demand for vacations, including cruise vacations, which are discretionary purchases.

Despite the general historic trend of growth in the volume of cruise passengers prior to the outbreak of COVID-19, the impacts related to COVID-19 may have a material adverse effect on the number of future cruise passengers once voyages resume. A future resurgence of COVID-19, or the outbreak of another pandemic, could cause a cessation of cruise operations again, even after voyages resume.

According to CLIA, 51% of passengers in the global cruise industry were sourced from North America, our core market, from 2018 to 2020. Prior to the outbreak of COVID-19, there was also a growing number of passengers sourced from outside North America in markets such as Western Europe, Asia, Australasia and South America. A significant portion of the cruise industry’s growth is expected to come from expansion of markets outside of our core North American market. We believe that non-North American passengers spend less on our services and products than North American passengers.

Our health and wellness centers on ships operating in the North American market are currently our best performing centers, and there can be no assurance that we will be able to generate the same revenue performance in non-North American markets. Additionally, our cruise line partners dictate the itineraries and geographies where their ships sail, and they may change itineraries to be less favorable to our revenue performance.

Other recent trends are those of certain cruise lines reducing the number of cruises to certain long-standing destinations and replacing them with alternative exotic destinations, as well as extending the length of voyages. As the cruise industry continues to resume operations after its virtual cessation due to the COVID-19 pandemic, such replacements and extensions could result in cruises producing lower revenues per voyage than produced in prior years, which may impact our revenues.

Accidents and other incidents involving cruise ships can materially adversely affect the cruise industry, as well as our results of operations and financial condition. Among other things, accidents reduce our revenues and increase the costs of our maritime-related insurance. In addition, accidents can adversely affect consumer demand for cruise vacations.

Other risks to the cruise industry include unscheduled withdrawals of ships from service, delays in new ship introductions, environmental violations by cruise lines, and restricted access of cruise ships to environmentally sensitive regions, hurricanes and other adverse weather conditions and increases in fuel costs. For example, in the past, hurricanes have caused the withdrawal of ships that we served from service for use in hurricane relief efforts, as well as the temporary closing of cruise ports and the destruction of facilities. A number of cruise ships have experienced outbreaks of illnesses such as norovirus, E.coli, measles and COVID-19 that have affected, at times, hundreds of passengers on a ship.

Severe weather conditions, both at sea and at ports of embarkation, also could adversely affect the cruise industry. The cruise industry also relies to a significant extent on airlines to transport passengers to ports of embarkation. A drastic reduction in airline services, and travel and immigration related restrictions due to the impacts of COVID-19, have adversely affected us. In addition, any strikes or other disruptions of airline service, including those that could follow terrorist attacks or armed hostilities, could adversely affect the ability of cruise passengers or our shipboard staff to reach their ports of embarkation, or could cause cancellation of cruises.

Cruise ships have increasingly had, and are expected to continue to have, itineraries which provide for the ships to be in port during cruises. When cruise ships are in port, our revenues are adversely affected compared with our revenues when cruise ships are at sea.

Cruise ships periodically go into dry-dock for routine maintenance, repairs and refurbishment for periods ranging from one to three weeks. Cruise ships also may be taken out of service unexpectedly for non-routine maintenance and repairs as a result of damage from an accident or otherwise, such as the Oasis of the Seas and Carnival Horizon incidents in 2019 and 2021, respectively. A ship also may go out of service with respect to us if it is transferred to a cruise line we do not serve or if it is retired from service. While we

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attempt to plan appropriately for the scheduled removal from service of ships we serve, unexpected removals from service of ships we serve can hamper the efficient distribution of our shipboard personnel, in addition to causing unexpected reductions in our shipboard revenues.

The cruise lines’ capacity has grown in recent years and is expected to continue to grow over the next few years as new ships are introduced. In order to utilize the new capacity, it is likely that the cruise industry will need to increase its share of the overall vacation market. In order to increase that market share, cruise lines may be required to offer discounted fares to prospective passengers, which would have the potentially adverse effects on us described above.

We Are Required to Make Minimum Payments under Our Agreements and May Face Increasing Payments to Cruise Lines and Owners of Our Destination Resort Health and Wellness Centers

We are obligated to make minimum annual payments to certain cruise lines and owners of our land-based venues regardless of the amount of revenues we receive from customers. We may also be required to make such minimum annual payments under any future agreements into which we enter. Accordingly, we could be obligated to pay more in minimum payments than the amount we collect from customers. As of December 31, 2021, these payments were required by four of the agreements for our destination resort health and wellness centers.

As of December 31, 2021, we guaranteed total minimum payments to owners of our land-based venues of approximately $2.9 million in the aggregate for 2022. Upon resumption of cruising and as we renew or enter into new agreements with cruise lines and land-based venues, we may experience increases in such required payments. As of December 31, 2021, there were no minimum payments guarantee amounts to cruise lines.

We Depend on the Continued Viability of the Ships and Destination Resort Health and Wellness Centers We Serve

 

Our revenues from our shipboard guests and guests at our destination resort health and wellness centers can only be generated if the ships and land-based venues we serve are open for business and continue to operate. Historically, some smaller cruise lines we served have ceased operating for economic reasons. We cannot be assured of the continued viability of any of the land-based venues (including our ability to protect our investments in build-outs of health and wellness centers) or cruise lines that we serve, particularly in the event of recurrence of the more severe aspects of the economic slowdown experienced in certain prior years, which may occur due to the COVID-19 pandemic or other disruptions. To the extent that cruise lines or land-based venues we serve, or could potentially serve in the future, cease to operate all or a portion of their operations, our results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.

 

Increased Costs Could Adversely Impact our Financial Results

 

To date we have incurred, and expect to continue to incur, significant costs until COVID-19 is contained relating to transportation, including repatriation, of our staff and hygiene-related protocols in our services that are mandated by government authorities or other international authorities. In addition, we expect that the industry as a whole will be subject to enhanced health and hygiene requirements with respect to COVID-19 and to counteract future outbreaks, which requirements may be costly and take a significant amount of time to implement across our global fleet cruise operations.

 

The currently existing restrictions on air travel and immigration due to the impacts of COVID-19, coupled with government mandated social-distancing norms, could increase transportation costs in the future. In addition to the adverse effects described above, periods of higher fuel costs in the future can adversely affect us directly. We depend on commercial airlines for the transportation of our shipboard employees to and from the ships we serve and, as a result, we pay for a relatively large number of flights for these employees each year. During times of higher fuel costs, such as those experienced in certain prior years, airfares, including those applicable to the transportation of our employees, have been increased by the airlines we have utilized. Additionally, increased fuel costs could also add to the costs of delivery of our products to the ships we serve and other destinations in the future. Higher fuel charges also increase the cost to consumers of transportation to cruise ship destination ports and to venues where we operate our destination resort health and wellness centers, and also increase the cost of utilities at our destination resort health and wellness centers. Periods of increasing fuel costs would likely cause these transportation costs to correspondingly increase. Extended periods of increased airfares could adversely impact our results of operations and financial condition.

Increases in prices of other commodities utilized by us in our business could adversely affect us. For example, in certain prior years, as a result of increases in the cost of cotton, the cost to us of linens and uniforms utilized in our operations has increased. Our land-based health and wellness operations also have experienced an increase in the cost of electrical utilities. Increases in minimum wage obligations in jurisdictions where we employ personnel have also affected us directly and could adversely impact our results of operation and financial condition.

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We Depend on Our Key Officers and Qualified Employees

 

Our ability to mitigate the impacts of COVID-19 and our continued success will depend to a significant extent on our senior executive officers, including Leonard Fluxman, our Executive Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer, and Stephen Lazarus, our Chief Financial Officer and Chief Operating Officer. The unanticipated loss of the services of either of these persons or other key management personnel, due to illness, resignation or otherwise could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Our future success after the COVID-19 pandemic subsides is dependent on our ability to recruit and retain personnel qualified to perform our services. Shipboard employees typically are employed pursuant to agreements with terms of nine months. Our land-based health and wellness employees generally are employed without contracts, on an at-will basis. Other providers of shipboard health and wellness services compete with us for shipboard personnel. We also compete with destination resort health and wellness centers and other employers for our shipboard and land-based health and wellness personnel. After the effects of COVID-19 are controlled, and after we resume our operations, we may not be able to assemble a sufficient number of employees possessing the requisite training and skills necessary to conduct our business. Our inability to attract a sufficient number of qualified personnel in the future to provide our services and products could adversely impact our results of operations and financial condition. In addition, due to the impacts of COVID-19, the immigration approval processes in the United States has experienced severe backlog and may in the future proceed at a slower pace than previously had been the case. Since many of our shipboard employees are not United States citizens, exacerbation of this trend of immigration restrictions caused by COVID-19 could adversely affect our ability to meet our shipboard staffing needs on a timely basis.

Almost all of our shipboard personnel come from jurisdictions outside the United States. Due to the restrictions on international travel and immigration caused by COVID-19, our ability to obtain non-United States shipboard employees in the future will be subject to regulations in certain countries from which we source a number of our employees and, in the case of one country, control by an employment company that acts on behalf of employees and potential employees from that country. In addition, in that country, we are required to deal with local employment companies to facilitate the hiring of employees. Our ability to obtain shipboard employees from those countries on economic terms that are acceptable to us may be hampered by our inability to enter into an acceptable agreement with the applicable local employment company.

In addition, the various jurisdictions where we operate our health and wellness centers have their own licensing or similar requirements applicable to our employees, which could affect our ability to open new health and wellness centers on a timely basis or adequately staff existing health and wellness centers. The ship we serve that is United States-based also is subject to United States labor law requirements that can result in delays in obtaining adequate staffing.

Possible Adverse Changes in United States or Foreign Tax Laws or Changes in Our Business Could Increase Our Taxes

 

Background

 

We are a Bahamas international business company (“IBC”) that owns, among other entities, OneSpaWorld (Bahamas) Limited (formerly known as Steiner Transocean Limited) (“OneSpaWorld (Bahamas)”), our principal subsidiary and a Bahamas IBC that conducts our shipboard operations, primarily outside United States waters (which constitutes most of our shipboard activities), and One Spa World LLC, a Florida limited liability company that performs administrative services in connection with our operations in exchange for fees from OneSpaWorld (Bahamas) and other subsidiaries.

 

We also own, directly or indirectly, the shares of additional subsidiaries organized in the United States, the United Kingdom and other taxable jurisdictions, as well as subsidiaries organized in jurisdictions that do not subject the subsidiaries to taxation.

Currently, we and our non-United States subsidiaries are not subject to Bahamas income tax or other (including United States federal) income tax, except as set forth below. Our United States subsidiaries are subject to United States federal income tax as a consolidated group at a regular corporate rate of 21%. Generally, any dividends paid by our United States holding company to its parent, are subject to a 30% United States withholding tax. Other than as described below, we believe that none of the income generated by our non-United States subsidiaries should be effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States and, accordingly, that such income should not be subject to United States federal income tax.

A foreign corporation generally is subject to United States federal corporate income tax at a rate of 21% on its taxable income that is effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States (“effectively connected income” or “ECI”). A foreign corporation also can be subject to a branch profits tax of 30% imposed on “dividend equivalent amounts” of its after-tax earnings that are ECI.

ECI may include any type of income from sources within the United States (“U.S.-source income”), but only limited types of income from sources without the United States (“foreign-source income”). OneSpaWorld (Bahamas) has three types of income: income from the provision of health and wellness services, income from the sales of health and wellness products and income from

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leasing (at rates determined on an arm’s length basis) our shipboard employees and space to a United States subsidiary that performs health and wellness services and sells health and wellness products while the ships are in United States waters and pays OneSpaWorld (Bahamas) the amounts referenced above (the “U.S. Waters Activities”).

We believe that most of OneSpaWorld (Bahamas)’s shipboard income should be treated as foreign-source income under the U.S. Treasury Department regulations for determining the source of such income (the “source rule regulations”). This belief is based on the following:

 

all of the functions performed, resources employed and risks assumed in connection with the performance of the above-mentioned services and sales (other than OneSpaWorld (Bahamas)’s involvement in the U.S. Waters Activities) occur outside of the United States; and

 

income to OneSpaWorld (Bahamas) from the U.S. Waters Activities is ECI, and thus subject to United States income taxation, but constitutes a small percentage of OneSpaWorld (Bahamas)’s total income.

To the extent that our belief about the source of OneSpaWorld (Bahamas)’s shipboard income is correct, such income would not be ECI because such income is income of a character (compensation for services, gains on sales of certain property, and rental income from the lease of tangible property) that cannot be treated as ECI unless it is treated as U.S.-source income. However, OneSpaWorld (Bahamas)’s shipboard income generated while in port in The Bahamas is subject to the payment of a 10% VAT payable to the Bahamas Department of Inland Revenue.

The Risks to OneSpaWorld

Under United States Treasury Department regulations, as of January 1, 2007, all or a portion of OneSpaWorld (Bahamas)’s income for periods commencing on or after that date could be subject to United States federal income tax at a rate of up to 35% with respect to income earned prior to January 1, 2018 and 21% with respect to income earned thereafter:

 

to the extent the income from OneSpaWorld (Bahamas)’s shipboard operations that OneSpaWorld believes are performed outside of United States territorial waters is considered by the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) to be attributable to functions performed, resources employed or risks assumed within the United States or its possessions or territorial waters;

 

to the extent the income from OneSpaWorld (Bahamas)’s sale of health and wellness products for use, consumption, or disposition in international waters is considered by the IRS to be attributable to functions performed, resources employed or risks assumed within the United States, its possessions or territorial waters; or

 

to the extent that passage of title or transfer of ownership of products sold by OneSpaWorld (Bahamas) for use, consumption or disposition outside international waters, takes place in the United States or a United States office materially participates in such sales.

If OneSpaWorld (Bahamas) were considered to be a controlled foreign corporation (“CFC”) for purposes of the source rule regulations, any of its shipboard income would be considered U.S.-source income and would be subject to United States federal income tax unless such income is attributable to functions performed, resources employed or risks assumed in a foreign country or countries.

A foreign corporation is a CFC if more than 50% of (i) the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote or (ii) the total value of the stock of such corporation is owned or considered as owned by “United States shareholders” (“U.S. shareholders”) on any day during the taxable year of such corporation. A “U.S. Shareholder,” generally, means a “United States person” (“U.S. person”) who owns directly, indirectly or constructively at least 10% of the voting power or value of the stock of a foreign corporation. A “U.S. person” is a citizen or resident of the United States, a domestic partnership, a domestic corporation, any domestic estate or a trust over which a United States court is able to exercise administrative supervision and over which one or more U.S. persons have authority to control all substantial decisions.

Under certain “downward attribution” rules made applicable by a provision of Pub. L. No. 115-97, enacted December 22, 2017 (known as the “Tax Cuts and Jobs Act” (“TCJA”)), to determine the CFC status of a foreign corporate subsidiary of a foreign parent corporation that also has a U.S. subsidiary, the foreign subsidiary may in certain circumstances be treated as a CFC based solely on its brother-sister relationship to the U.S. subsidiary. However, on September 22, 2020, the Federal Register published an amendment to the source rule regulations (the “2020 amendment”), providing that for purposes of that regulation, the status of a foreign corporation as a CFC or not is determined without regard to the above-mentioned provision of the TCJA. The 2020 amendment applies to taxable years of foreign corporations ending on or after October 1, 2019. For taxable years of foreign corporations ending before October 1, 2019, a taxpayer may apply such provisions to the last taxable year of a foreign corporation beginning before January 1, 2018, and each

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subsequent taxable year of the foreign corporation, provided that the taxpayer and U.S. persons that are related (within the meaning of section 267 or 707) to the taxpayer consistently apply such provisions with respect to all foreign corporations.

Accordingly, solely for purposes of the source rule regulations, we believe that OneSpaWorld (Bahamas) should not be characterized as a CFC. This should allow us to treat most of our shipboard income, which is earned by a foreign corporation that would not be a CFC but for the TCJA provision referred to above, to be foreign source income to the same extent as income earned by a foreign corporation that is not a CFC.

If OneSpaWorld (Bahamas) is subject to United States federal income tax (at a rate of 21%) on its income that is ECI, it also would be subject to a branch profits tax of 30% on its annual dividend equivalent amount (a measure of its after-tax earnings that are considered to be withdrawn, from its United States business).

Certain non-United States jurisdictions may also assert that OneSpaWorld (Bahamas)’s income is subject to their income tax.

Some of our United Kingdom, Bahamas and United States subsidiaries provide goods and/or services to us and certain of our other subsidiaries. The United Kingdom or United States tax authorities may assert that some or all of these transactions do not contain arm’s length terms. In that event, income or deductions could be reallocated among our subsidiaries in a manner that could increase the United Kingdom or United States tax on us. This reallocation also could result in the imposition of interest and penalties.

We cannot assure you that the tax laws on which we have relied to minimize our income taxes will remain unchanged in the future.

Our land-based operations, the income from which is generally taxable, have significantly increased and we intend to consider land-based opportunities in the future (though we cannot assure you that we will be successful in finding appropriate opportunities). To the extent that we are able to effectively implement this strategy, the amount of our income that is subject to tax would increase.

The Success of Health and Wellness Centers Depends on the Hospitality Industry

 

We are dependent on the hospitality industry for the success of destination resort centers. The public concern over the COVID-19 pandemic, coupled with a drop in demand for international travel and leisure, and restrictions on international travel and immigration have adversely affected the hospitality industry. To the extent that consumers do not choose to stay at venues where we operate health and wellness centers, over which we have no control, our business, operations, results of operations and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.

 

The considerations described above regarding the effects of adverse economic conditions on the cruise industry apply similarly to the hospitality industry, including the destination resorts where we have operations. Periods of economic slowdown result in reduced destination resort occupancy rates and decreased spending by destination resort guests, including at the destination resorts where we operate health and wellness centers. The recurrence of challenging economic conditions, as well as instances of increased fuel costs, which have occurred in certain prior years, could result in lower destination resort occupancy, which would have a direct, adverse effect on the number of destination resort guests that purchase our health and wellness services and products at the venues in question. Accordingly, such lower occupancy rates at the destination resorts we serve could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.

The following are other risks related to the hospitality industry:

 

changes in the national, regional and local conditions (including major national or international terrorist attacks, armed hostilities, such as the recent invasion of Ukraine, or other significant adverse events, including an oversupply of hotel properties or a reduction in demand for hotel rooms);

 

the possible loss of funds expended for build-outs of health and wellness centers at venues that fail to open, underperform or close due to economic slowdowns or otherwise;

 

the attractiveness of the venues to consumers and competition from comparable venues in terms of, among other things, accessibility and cost;

 

the outbreaks of illnesses, such as the COVID-19 outbreak, or the perceived risk of such outbreaks, in locations where we operate land-based health and wellness centers or locations from which guests of such wellness centers are sourced;

 

weather conditions, including natural disasters, such as earthquakes, hurricanes, tsunamis and floods, which may be exacerbated due to climate change;

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possible labor unrest or changes in economics based on collective bargaining activities;

 

changes in ownership, maintenance or room rates of, or popular travel patterns and guest demographics at the venues we serve;

 

possible conversion of guest rooms at hotels to condominium units and the decrease in health and wellness center usage that often accompanies such conversions, and the related risk that condominium hotels are less likely to be suitable venues for our health and wellness centers;

 

reductions in destination resort occupancy during major renovations or as a result of damage or other causes;

 

acquisition by destination resort chains of health and wellness service providers to create captive “in-house” brands and development by destination resort chains of their own proprietary health and wellness service providers, reducing the opportunity for third-party health and wellness providers like us; and

 

the financial condition of the airline industry, which, as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, resulted in an elimination of, or reduction in, airline service to locations where we operate destination resort facilities, which has resulted and could continue to result in fewer guests at those venues.

We Compete with Passenger Activity Alternatives

We compete with passenger activity alternatives on cruise ships and with competing providers of services and products similar to our services and products seeking agreements with cruise lines. Casinos, bars and a variety of shops are found on almost all of the ships served by us. In addition, ships dock in ports which provide opportunities for additional shopping as well as other activities that compete with us for passenger attention and disposable income, and cruise ships are increasingly offering itineraries providing for greater numbers of port days. Cruise ships also typically offer swimming pools and other recreational facilities and activities, as well as musical and other entertainment, all without additional charge to the passengers. Certain cruise lines we serve and have formerly served have engaged the services of third parties or their own personnel for the operation of the health and wellness centers for all or some of their ships. Additional cruise lines could take similar actions in the future. In addition, there are certain other entities offering services in the cruise industry similar to those provided by us and we may not be able to serve new cruise ships that come into service and that are not covered by our cruise line agreements.

Many of the land-based venues that we serve or may serve in the future offer recreational entertainment facilities and activities similar to those offered on cruise ships, often without additional charge to guests. A number of the hotels we serve also offer casino gambling. These activities and facilities compete with us for customer time and disposable income. Our destination resort health and wellness centers also compete with other health and wellness centers in their vicinities, as well as with other beauty, relaxation or other therapeutic alternatives. These include salons that offer these services at prices significantly lower than those charged by us. We believe, however, that the prices charged by us are appropriate for the quality of the experience we provide in our respective markets. In addition, we also compete, both for customers and for contracts with hotels, with health and wellness centers and beauty salons owned or operated by companies that have offered their destination resort health and wellness services longer than we have, some of which enjoy greater name recognition with customers and prospective customers than health and wellness centers operated by us. Also, a number of these health and wellness center operators may have greater resources than we do. Further, some hotel operators provide health and wellness services themselves. If we are unable to compete effectively in one or more areas of our operations, our results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.

Risks Relating to Non-U.S. Operations and Hostilities

The cruise lines we serve operate in waters and call on ports throughout the world and our destination resort health and wellness centers are located in a variety of countries. Operating internationally exposes us to a number of risks, including increased exposure to a wider range of regional and local economic conditions, volatile local political conditions, potential changes in duties and taxes, including changing and/or uncertain interpretations of existing tax laws and regulations, required compliance with additional laws and policies affecting cruising, vacation or maritime businesses or governing the operations of foreign-based companies, currency fluctuations, interest rate movements, difficulties in operating under local business environments, port quality and availability in certain regions, U.S. and global anti-bribery laws or regulations, imposition of trade barriers and restrictions on repatriation of earnings.

Operating globally also exposes us to numerous and sometimes conflicting legal, regulatory and tax requirements. In many parts of the world, including countries in which we operate, practices in the local business communities might not conform to international business standards. We must adhere to policies designed to promote legal and regulatory compliance as well as applicable laws and regulations. However, we might not be successful in ensuring that our employees, agents, representatives and other third parties with whom we associate throughout the world properly adhere to them. Failure by us, our employees or any of these third parties to adhere to our policies or applicable laws or regulations could result in penalties, sanctions, damage to our reputation and related costs which in turn could negatively affect our results of operations and cash flows.

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As a global operator, our business may also be impacted by changes in U.S. policy or priorities in areas such as trade, immigration and/or environmental or labor regulations, among others. Depending on the nature and scope of any such changes, they could impact our domestic and international business operations. Any such changes, and any international response to them, could potentially introduce new barriers to passenger or crew travel and/or cross border transactions, impact our guest experience and/or increase our operating costs.

The waters and countries in which we operate include geographic regions that, from time to time, experience political and civil unrest and armed hostilities. Political unrest in areas where we operate health and wellness centers also has adversely affected our operations and continued political unrest in the Middle East has adversely affected the travel industry in that region. The threat of additional attacks and of armed hostilities internationally, such as the hostilities in Eastern Europe and Ukraine, or locally, may cause prospective travelers to cancel their plans, including plans for cruise or land-based venue vacations. Weaker cruise industry and land-based venue performance could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.

Increased Severe Weather, Including as A Result of Climate Change, Can Disrupt Our Operations

 

Our operations may be impacted by adverse weather patterns or other natural disasters, such as hurricanes, earthquakes, floods, fires, tornados, tsunamis, typhoons and volcanic eruptions. Most scientists have concluded that increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the Earth’s atmosphere that contribute to climate change could have significant physical effects on weather conditions, such as increased frequency and severity of hurricanes, storms, droughts, floods, and other climatic events. It is possible that cruises we serve could be forced to alter itineraries or cancel a cruise or a series of cruises or tours due to these or other factors. Extreme weather events, such as hurricanes, floods and typhoons, may not only cause disruption, alteration, or cancellation of cruises and closures of destination resort health and wellness centers but may also adversely impact commercial airline flights and other transport or prevent certain individuals from electing to utilize our offerings altogether. In addition, these extreme weather conditions could result in increased wave and wind activity, which would make it more challenging to sail and dock ships and could cause sea/motion sickness among guests and crew on the ships we serve. These events could have an adverse impact on the safety and satisfaction of cruising and could have an adverse impact on our net revenue yields and profitability. Additionally, these extreme weather conditions could impact our ability to provide our cruise products and services as well as to obtain insurance coverage for operations in such areas at reasonable rates.

Risk of Early Termination of Land-Based Health and Wellness Center Agreements

 

A number of our land-based health and wellness center agreements provide that landlords may terminate the agreement prior to its expiration date (provided, in some cases, that we receive certain compensation with respect to our build-out expenses and earnings lost as a result of such termination). While we always attempt to negotiate the best deal we can in this regard, we may not be able to successfully negotiate a termination fee in any of our future agreements or that any amounts we would receive in connection with such termination accurately reflects the economic value of the assets we would be leaving behind as a result of such termination. In addition, in the event of certain terminations of an agreement with a land-based venue, such as by the venue operator after our breach of an agreement, or as a result of the bankruptcy of a venue, even if we have a provision in our agreement providing for a termination payment, we could receive no compensation with respect to build-out expenditures we have incurred.

 

We also attempt to obtain terms in our land-based health and wellness center agreements that protect us in the event that the lessor’s lender forecloses and takes over the property in question. However, we cannot always obtain such protective “non-disturbance” terms. In the event that the lender to a land-based venue owner under an agreement where no such non-disturbance term is included forecloses on that property, our agreement could be terminated prior to the expiration of its term. In such case, in addition to the loss of income from that health and wellness center, we could lose the residual value of any investment we made to build out that facility.

 

Delays in New Ship Introductions Could Slow Our Growth

 

Our growth depends, in part, on our serving new cruise ships brought into service. A number of cruise lines we serve have experienced in the past and recently, and could experience in the future, delays in bringing new ships into service. In addition, there is a limited number of shipyards in the world capable of constructing large cruise ships in accordance with the standards of major cruise lines. This also may contribute to delays in new ship construction. Such delays could slow our growth and have an adverse impact on our results of operations and financial condition.

Changes in and Compliance with Laws and Regulations Relating to Environment, Health, Safety, Security, Data Privacy and Protection, Tax and Anti-Corruption Under Which We Operate May Lead to Litigation, Enforcement Actions, Fines, or Penalties

 

We are subject to numerous international, national, state and local laws, regulations and treaties, including social issues, health and safety (including related to the COVID-19 pandemic), security, data privacy and protection, and tax, among other matters. Failure to comply with these laws, regulations, treaties and agreements has led and could lead to enforcement actions, fines, civil or criminal penalties or the assertion of litigation claims and damages. COVID-19 will increase regulatory and partner requirements exposing us

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to risks and uncertainties in connection with our ability to develop strategies to enhance our health and safety protocols to adapt to the current pandemic environments unique challenges once operations resume and to otherwise safely resume our operations when conditions allow. We will be required to coordinate and cooperate with the CDC, U.S. and other nation governments, and global public health authorities to take precautions to protect the health, safety and security of guests and shipboard personnel and implement certain precautions once operations resume in the future. New legislation, regulations or treaties, or changes thereto, could impact our operations and would likely subject us to increased compliance costs in the future. We could also be subject to litigation alleging non-compliance with the new legislation. In addition, training of crew may become more time consuming and may increase our operating costs due to increasing regulatory and other requirements.

 

Environmental laws and regulations or liabilities arising from past or future releases of, or exposure to, hazardous substances or vessel discharges, including ballast water and waste disposal, could materially adversely affect our business, profitability and financial condition. Some environmental groups have lobbied for more stringent regulation of cruise ships. Various agencies and regulatory organizations have enacted or are considering new regulations or policies, such as stricter emission limits to reduce greenhouse gas effects, which could adversely impact the cruise industry.

Our guest and employee relationships provide us with access to sensitive data. We are subject to laws and requirements related to the treatment and protection of such sensitive data. We may be subject to legal liability and reputational damage if we do not comply with data privacy and protection regulations. Various governments, agencies and regulatory organizations have enacted and are considering new regulations and implementation of rules for existing regulations. Additional requirements could negatively impact our ability to market cruises to consumers and increase our costs.

We are subject to the European Union (“EU”) General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”), which came into effect in May 2018 and imposes significant obligations to businesses that sell products or services to EU customers or otherwise control or process personal data of EU residents. Should we violate or not comply with the GDPR, or any other applicable laws or regulations, contractual requirements relating to data security and privacy, either intentionally or unintentionally, or through the acts of intermediaries, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations, as well as subject us to significant fines, litigation, losses, third-party damages and other liabilities.

We are subject to the examination of our income tax returns by tax authorities in the jurisdictions where we operate. There can be no assurance that the outcome from these examinations will not adversely affect our profitability.

As budgetary constraints continue to adversely impact the jurisdictions in which we operate, increases in income or other taxes affecting our operations may be imposed. Some social activist groups have lobbied for more taxation on income generated by cruise companies. Certain groups have also generated negative publicity for us. In recent years, certain members of the U.S. Congress have proposed various forms of legislation that would result in higher taxation on income generated by cruise companies.

Our global operations subject us to potential liability under anti-corruption, economic sanctions, and other laws and regulations. The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the UK Bribery Act and other anti-corruption laws and regulations (“Anti-Corruption Laws”) prohibit corrupt payments by our employees, vendors, or agents. While we devote substantial resources to our global compliance programs and have implemented policies, training, and internal controls designed to reduce the risk of corrupt payments, our employees, vendors, or agents may violate our policies. Our failure to comply with Anti-Corruption Laws could result in significant fines and penalties, criminal sanctions against us, our officers, or our employees, prohibitions or limitations on the conduct of our business, and damage to our reputation. Operations outside the U.S. may also be affected by changes in economic sanctions, trade protection laws, policies, and other regulatory requirements affecting trade and investment. We may be subject to legal liability and reputational damage if we improperly sell goods or otherwise operate improperly in areas subject to economic sanctions such as Crimea, Iran, North Korea, Cuba, Sudan, and Syria, or if we improperly engage in business transactions with persons subject to economic sanctions.

These various international laws and regulations could lead and have led to enforcement actions, fines, civil or criminal penalties or the assertion of litigation claims and damages. In addition, improper conduct by our employees or agents could damage our reputation and lead to litigation or legal proceedings that could result in significant awards or settlements to plaintiffs and civil or criminal penalties, including substantial monetary fines. Such events could lead to an adverse impact on our financial condition or profitability, even if the monetary damage is mitigated by our insurance coverage.

As a result of ship or other incidents, litigation claims, enforcement actions and regulatory actions and investigations, including, without limitation, those arising from personal injury, loss of life, loss of or damage to personal property, business interruption losses or environmental damage to any affected coastal waters and the surrounding areas, may be asserted or brought against various parties, including us. The time and attention of our management may also be diverted in defending such claims, actions and investigations. We may also incur costs both in defending against any claims, actions and investigations and for any judgments, fines, or civil or criminal penalties if such claims, actions or investigations are adversely determined and not covered by our insurance policies.

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We Could be Subject to Governmental Investigations or Penalties, Legal Proceedings, Litigation, and Class Actions Related to the COVID-19 Pandemic that Could Adversely Impact our Reputation, Financial Condition, and Results of Operations

 

Legal proceedings or litigation against us related to the COVID-19 pandemic brought by our employees, customers, cruise line partners, resort partners, shareholders, creditors or others could lead to tangible adverse effects on our business, including damages payments, payments under settlement agreements and fines.

Disagreements with our cruise line or destination resort partners could also result in litigation. The nature of our responsibilities under our agreements with cruise line and destination resort partners enforce the standards required for our brands and may be subject to interpretation and will from time to time give rise to disagreements, which may include disagreements over the need for payments, reimbursements and other costs. Such disagreements may be more likely during difficult business environments, such as the one we have seen in recent months due to the adverse impacts of COVID-19. We seek to resolve any disagreements to develop and maintain positive relations with current and potential cruise line and destination resort partners, but we cannot provide assurance that we can always do so. Failure to resolve such disagreements may result in litigation in the future. If any such litigation results in an adverse judgment, settlement, or court order, we could suffer significant losses, our profits could be reduced, or our future ability to operate our business could be constrained.

While payments under some claims and lawsuits, or settlements of claims and lawsuits, may be covered by insurance such that the maximum amount of our liability, net of any insurance recoverable, could be typically limited to our self-insurance retention levels, the position that insurance companies will take with respect to claims related to COVID-19 is uncertain.

Product Liability and Other Potential Claims Could Adversely Affect Us

 

The nature and use of our products and services could give rise to liability if a customer were injured while receiving one of our services. Guests at our health and wellness centers could be injured, among other things, in connection with their use of our fitness equipment, sauna facilities or other facilities. If any of these events occurred, we could incur substantial litigation expense and be required to make payments in connection with settlements of claims or as a result of judgments against us.

 

We maintain insurance to cover a number of risks associated with our business. While we seek to obtain comprehensive insurance coverage at commercially reasonable rates, we cannot be certain that appropriate insurance will be available to us in the future on commercially reasonable terms or at all. Our insurance policies are subject to coverage limit, exclusions and deductible levels and are subject to non-renewal upon termination at the option of the applicable insurance company. Our inability to obtain insurance coverage at commercially reasonable rates for the potential liabilities that we face could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition. In addition, in connection with insured claims, we bear the risks associated with the fact that insurers often control decisions relating to pre-trial settlement of claims and other significant aspects of claims and their decisions may prove to not be in our best interest in all cases.

We believe that our current coverage is adequate to protect us against most of the significant risks involved in the conduct of our business, but we self-insure or use higher deductibles for various risks. Accordingly, we are not protected against all risks (including failures by third-party service providers such as insurance brokers to fulfill their duties), which could result in unexpected increases in our expenses in the event of certain claims against us.

If the types of services we offer increase, the potential for claims against us also could increase. We self-insure potential claims regarding certain of our medi-spa services. High visibility claims also could cause us to receive adverse publicity and suffer a loss of sales, and, therefore, our results of operations and financial condition could be materially adversely affected in such cases. We are, and may in the future be, subject to other legal proceedings, including claims presented as class actions. Litigation is subject to many uncertainties, and we cannot predict the outcome of individual matters. It is reasonably possible that the final resolution of these matters could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.

Our Indebtedness Could Adversely Affect Our Financial Condition and Ability to Operate and We May Incur Additional Debt

 

As of December 31, 2021, we have $234.5 million of secured indebtedness under our First Lien Term Loan Facility and Second Lien Term Loan Facility, and our First Lien Revolving Facility (collectively, the “Credit Facilities”). Our debt level and the terms of our financing arrangements could adversely affect our financial condition and limit our ability to successfully implement our growth strategies. In addition, under the Credit Facilities, certain of our direct and indirect subsidiaries have granted the lenders a security interest in substantially all of their assets. Our ability to meet our debt service obligations will depend on our future performance, which will be affected by the other risk factors described herein. If we do not generate enough cash flow to pay our debt service obligations, we may be required to refinance all or part of our existing debt, sell our assets, borrow more money or raise equity. We may not be able to take any of these actions on a timely basis, on terms satisfactory to us, or at all.

 

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The Credit Facilities bear interest at variable rates. If market interest rates increase, variable rate debt will create higher debt service requirements, which could adversely affect our cash flow.

Our Credit Facilities Contain Financial and Other Covenants. The Failure to Comply with Such Covenants Could Have An Adverse Effect on Us

Our Credit Facilities contain certain financial covenants and a number of traditional negative covenants, including limitations on our ability to, among other things, incur and/or undertake asset sales and other dispositions, liens, indebtedness, certain acquisitions, and investments, consolidations, mergers, reorganizations and other fundamental changes, payment of dividends and other distributions to equity and warrant holders and prepayments of material subordinated debt, in each case, subject to customary exceptions. Any failure to comply with the restrictions of the Credit Facilities, including any failure to comply with certain financial covenants due to the negative effects of COVID-19 on our revenue and results of operations, may result in an event of default under the agreements. If an event of default occurs, the lenders under the Credit Facilities are entitled to take various actions, including the acceleration of amounts due under the Credit Facilities and all actions permitted to be taken by a secured creditor, subject to customary intercreditor provisions among the first and second lien secured parties.

Our First and Second Lien Term Facilities Are Tied to LIBOR

The London interbank offered rate (“LIBOR”), is the basic rate of interest used in lending between banks on the London interbank market and is widely used as a reference for setting the interest rate on loans globally. Our current portfolio of debt and financial instruments currently tied to LIBOR consists of the Company’s First and Second Lien Term Facilities. On July 27, 2017, the United Kingdom’s Financial Conduct Authority, which regulates LIBOR, announced that it intends to phase out LIBOR by the end of 2021. It is unclear if at that time whether or not LIBOR will cease to exist, or if new methods of calculating LIBOR will be established such that it continues to exist after 2021 or if replacement conventions will be developed. The U.S. Federal Reserve, in conjunction with the Alternative Reference Rates Committee, a steering committee comprised of large U.S. financial institutions, is considering replacing U.S. Dollar LIBOR with a new index calculated by short-term repurchase agreements, backed by Treasury securities (“SOFR”). SOFR is observed and backward-looking, which stands in contrast with LIBOR under the current methodology, which is an estimated forward-looking rate and relies, to some degree, on the expert judgment of submitting panel members. Given that SOFR is a secured rate backed by government securities, it will be a rate that does not take into account bank credit risk (as is the case with LIBOR). Whether or not SOFR attains market traction as a LIBOR replacement tool remains in question. As such, the future of LIBOR at this time is uncertain. At this time, due to a lack of consensus as to what rate or rates may become accepted alternatives to LIBOR, it is impossible to predict the effect of any such alternatives on our liquidity. However, if LIBOR ceases to exist, we may need to renegotiate certain of our financing agreements that utilize LIBOR as a factor in determining the interest rate to replace LIBOR with the new standard that is established. As of December 31, 2021, we had $234.5 million in outstanding indebtedness tied to LIBOR.

We Restated Our Previously Issued Consolidated Financial Statements as of December 31, 2020 and 2019 and for the Year Ended December 31, 2020 (Successor), and the Period from March 20, 2019 to December 31, 2019 (Successor), Which May Lead to Additional Risks and Uncertainties, Including Loss of Investor Confidence and Negative Impacts on Our Share Price

On April 12, 2021, the SEC staff issued a public statement entitled “Staff Statement on Accounting and Reporting Considerations for Warrants issued by Special Purpose Acquisition Companies (“SPACs”)” (the “Statement”). On May 10, 2021, we amended our 2020 Form 10-K to restate previously issued consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2020 and 2019 and for the year ended December 31, 2020 (Successor), and the Period from March 20, 2019 to December 31, 2019 (Successor) (the “Affected Periods”). The restatement related to accounting for warrants incorrectly as components of equity as opposed to liabilities. The restatement of the financial statements (the “Restatement”) had no impact on our liquidity, cash, cash equivalents, or adjusted EBITDA for the Affected Periods. We expect that we will recognize non-cash gains or losses due to the quarterly fair valuation of our Warrants and that such gains or losses could be material.

As a result of the foregoing matters, we may become subject to additional risks and uncertainties, including, among others, unanticipated costs for accounting and legal fees, the increased possibility of legal proceedings, shareholder lawsuits, governmental agency investigations, and inquiries by the Nasdaq Capital Market or other regulatory bodies, which could cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information and could subject our Company to civil or criminal penalties, shareholder class actions or derivative actions. We could face monetary judgments, penalties or other sanctions that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations and could cause our share price to decline. If any such actions occur, they may consume a significant amount of management’s time and attention and may result in additional legal, accounting, insurance and other costs. If we do not prevail in any such proceedings, we could be required to pay damages or settlement costs. In addition, the Restatement and related matters could impair our reputation. Each of these occurrences could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and share price.

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We Identified a Material Weakness in our Internal Control over Financial Reporting as of December 31, 2020; if we are Unable to Establish and Maintain an Effective System of Internal Control over Financial Reporting in the Future, we may not be able to Accurately Report our Financial Results, or do so in a Timely Manner, Which may Adversely Affect Investor Confidence in us and Materially Adversely Affect our Business and Operating Results.

Following the issuance of the SEC’s Statement, on April 30, 2021, our management and our audit committee concluded that, in light of the Statement, it was appropriate to restate our previously issued audited financial statements for the Affected Periods. See “—We Restated Our Previously Issued Consolidated Financial Statements as of December 31, 2020 and 2019 and for the Year Ended December 31, 2020 (Successor), and the Period from March 20, 2019 to December 31, 2019 (Successor), Which May Lead to Additional Risks and Uncertainties, Including Loss of Investor Confidence and Negative Impacts on Our Share Price.” As part of such process, our management and audit committee determined that our disclosure controls and procedures for the Affected Periods were not effective with respect to the classification of our Warrants as components of equity as opposed to liabilities, and that the foregoing arose as a result of a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting.

A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented, or detected and corrected on a timely basis. Effective internal controls are necessary for us to provide reliable financial reports and prevent fraud. As of the date of the filing of this report, we have completed our remediation plan for the material weakness we identified in relation to the Restatement of our financial statements for the Affected Periods. While management believes that the remedial efforts have resolved the identified material weakness, there is no assurance that such remedial efforts will ultimately have the intended effects or that additional remedial actions will not be necessary.

If we identify any new material weakness in the future, any such newly identified material weakness could limit our ability to prevent or detect a misstatement of our accounts or disclosures that could result in a material misstatement of our annual or interim financial statements. In such case, we may be unable to maintain compliance with securities law requirements regarding accurate and timely filing of periodic reports and with applicable Nasdaq listing requirements, investors may lose confidence in our financial reporting, and our stock price may decline as a result. We cannot assure you that the measures we have taken to date, or any measures we may take in the future, will be sufficient to avoid potential future material weaknesses. Additionally, as a result of the material weakness we identified in our internal controls over financial reporting for the Affected Periods, the Restatement, the change in the accounting treatment of our Warrants, as well as other matters raised or that may in the future be raised by the SEC, we may in the future be exposed to litigation or other disputes concerning, among others, claims invoking the federal and state securities laws, contractual claims or other claims arising from the Restatement and the material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting and the preparation of our financial statements. Any such litigation or dispute, regardless of its outcome, could have a material adverse effect on our business, operations, financial condition, results of operations and share price.

If We Are Unable to Execute Our Growth Strategies, Including Our Ability to Offer and Integrate New Services and Products, Our Business Could Be Adversely Affected

 

The demands of consumers with respect to health and wellness services and products continue to evolve. Among other things, there is a continuing trend to add services at health and wellness centers similar to those traditionally provided in medical facilities, including services relating to skin care. If we are unable to identify and capture new audiences, our ability to successfully integrate additional services and products will be adversely affected. Our ability to provide certain additional services depends on our ability to find appropriate third parties with whom to work in connection with these services and, in certain cases, could be dependent on our ability to fund substantial costs. We cannot assure that we will be able to find such appropriate third parties or be able to fund such costs. We also cannot assure that we will be able to continue to expand our health and wellness services sufficiently to keep up with consumer demand. Accordingly, we may not be able to successfully implement our growth strategies or continue to maintain sales at our current rate, or at all. If we fail to implement our growth strategies, our revenue and profitability may be negatively impacted, which would adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Our Business Could Be Adversely Affected if We Are Unable to Successfully Protect Our Trademarks or Obtain New Trademarks

 

The market for our services and products depends to a significant extent upon the value associated with our brand names. Although we take appropriate steps to protect our brand names, in the future, we may not be successful in asserting trademark protection in connection with our efforts to grow our business or otherwise due to the nature of certain of our marks or for other reasons. In addition, the laws of certain foreign countries may not protect our intellectual property rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States. The costs required to protect our trademarks and trade names may be substantial. If other parties infringe on our intellectual property rights, the value of our brands in the marketplace may be diluted. In addition, any infringement of our intellectual property rights would likely result in a commitment of our time and resources to protect these rights through litigation or otherwise. One or more adverse judgments with respect to these intellectual property rights could negatively impact our ability to compete and could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

 

We Are Subject to Currency Risk

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Fluctuations in currency exchange rates compared to the U.S. Dollar can impact our results of operations, most significantly because we pay for the administration of recruitment and training of our shipboard personnel in U.K. Pounds Sterling and Euros. Accordingly, while the relative strength of the U.S. Dollar has improved recently, renewed weakness of the U.S. Dollar against those currencies can adversely affect our results of operations, as has occurred in some recent years. To the extent that the U.K. Pound Sterling or the Euro is stronger than the U.S. Dollar, our results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.

 

We May Be Exposed to the Threat of Cyber Attacks and/or Data Breaches, which Could Cause Business Disruptions and Loss

 

Cyberattacks can vary in scope and intent from economically driven attacks to malicious attacks targeting our key operating systems with the intent to disrupt, disable or otherwise cripple our maritime and/or land-based operations. This can include any combination of phishing attacks, malware and/or viruses targeted at our key systems. The breadth and scope of this threat has grown over time, and the techniques and sophistication used to conduct cyberattacks, as well as the sources and targets of the attacks, change frequently. While we invest time, effort and capital resources to secure our key systems and networks, we cannot provide assurance that we will be successful in preventing or responding to all such attacks.

A successful cyberattack may target us directly, or may be the result of a third-party vendor’s inadequate care. In either scenario, we may suffer damage to our key systems and/or data that could interrupt our operations, adversely impact our reputation and brand and expose us to increased risks of governmental investigation, litigation and other liability, any of which could adversely affect our business. Furthermore, responding to such an attack and mitigating the risk of future attacks could result in additional operating and capital costs in systems technology, personnel, monitoring and other investments.

Even if we are fully compliant with legal and/or industry standards and any relevant contractual requirements, we still may not be able to prevent security breaches involving sensitive data and/or critical systems. Any breach, theft, loss, or fraudulent use of guest, employee, third-party or company data, could adversely impact our reputation and brand and our ability to retain or attract new customers, and expose us to risks of data loss, business disruption, governmental investigation, litigation and other liability, any of which could adversely affect our business. Significant capital investments and other expenditures could be required to remedy the problem and prevent future breaches, including costs associated with additional security technologies, personnel, experts and credit monitoring services for those whose data has been breached. Further, if we or our vendors experience significant data security breaches or fail to detect and appropriately respond to significant data security breaches, we could be exposed to government enforcement actions and private litigation.

Changes in Privacy Law Could Adversely Affect Our Ability to Market Our Services Effectively

 

Our ability to market our services effectively is an important component of our business. We rely on a variety of direct marketing techniques, including telemarketing, email marketing, and direct mail. Any further restrictions under laws such as the Telemarketing Sales Rule, the CAN-SPAM Act of 2003, the GDPR, and various United States state laws or new federal laws regarding marketing and solicitation, or international data protection laws that govern these activities, could adversely affect the continuing effectiveness of telemarketing, email, and postal mailing techniques and could force further changes in our marketing strategy. If this were to occur, we may be unable to develop adequate alternative marketing strategies, which could impact our ability to effectively market and sell our services.

 

Risks Related to Ownership of Our Securities

 

Steiner Leisure Owns a Significant Portion of Our Shares and Has Representation on Our Board; Steiner Leisure May Have Interests That Differ from Those of Other Shareholders

 

As of the date of this report, approximately 21% of our common shares are beneficially owned by Steiner Leisure. Two of our directors were nominated by Steiner Leisure, and as a result, Steiner Leisure may be able to significantly influence the outcome of matters submitted for director action, subject to our directors’ obligation to act in the interest of all of our shareholders, and for shareholder action, including the designation and appointment of the OneSpaWorld Board of Directors (and committees thereof) and approval of significant corporate transactions, including business combinations, consolidations and mergers. The influence of Steiner Leisure over our management could have the effect of delaying or preventing a change in control or otherwise discouraging a potential acquirer from attempting to obtain control of us, which could cause the market price of our common shares to decline or prevent our shareholders from realizing a premium over the market price for our common shares.

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Under the “Business Opportunities” section of our Third Amended and Restated Memorandum of Association and Second Amended and Restated Articles of Association (our “Articles”), among other things, we have renounced any interest or expectancy of us or our subsidiaries being offered an opportunity to participate in any potential transaction opportunities available to Steiner Leisure and certain of its affiliates and related parties, such parties have no obligation to communicate or offer such potential transaction opportunities to us, and such parties will have no duty to refrain from engaging in the same or similar businesses as us. Prospective investors in our common shares should consider that the interests of Steiner Leisure may differ from their interests in material respects.

 

If We Fail to Maintain an Effective System of Internal Control over Financial Reporting, We May Not Be Able to Accurately Report Our Financial Results or Prevent Fraud; as a Result, Shareholders Could Lose Confidence in Our Financial and Other Public Reporting, Which Is Likely to Negatively Affect Our Business and the Market Price of Our Common Shares

Effective internal control over financial reporting is necessary for us to provide reliable financial reports and prevent fraud. Any failure to implement required new or improved controls, or difficulties encountered in our implementation could cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations. In addition, any testing conducted by us, or any testing conducted by our independent registered public accounting firm, may reveal deficiencies in our internal controls over financial reporting that are deemed to be material weaknesses or that may require prospective or retroactive changes to our financial statements or identify other areas for further attention or improvement. Inferior internal controls could also cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information, which is likely to negatively affect our business and the market price of our shares.

We are required to disclose changes made in our internal controls and procedures on a quarterly basis and our management is required to assess the effectiveness of these controls annually. However, for as long as we are an “emerging growth company” under the JOBS Act, our independent registered public accounting firm will not be required to attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. We could be an “emerging growth company” for up to five years following the date we became a public company, until 2024. In the event we satisfy certain requirements, including, without limitation, qualifying as a “large accelerated filer” due the aggregate market value of our common shares held by non-affiliates exceeding $700 million, our independent registered public accounting firm would be required to attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. An independent assessment of the effectiveness of our internal controls could detect problems that our management’s assessment might not. Undetected material weaknesses in our internal controls could lead to financial statement restatements and require us to incur the expense of remediation.

The Market Price and Trading Volume of Our Common Shares Has Been and May Continue to Be Volatile

 

The market price and trading volume of our common shares may be volatile and could decline significantly, as has recently happened as a result of COVID-19 and related economic uncertainty. We cannot assure that the market price of our common shares will not fluctuate widely or decline significantly in the future in response to a number of factors, including, without limitation, the following:

 

 

the continuation and impact of the COVID-19 pandemic;

 

the realization of any of the risk factors presented in this Annual Report on Form 10-K;

 

actual or anticipated differences in our estimates, or in the estimates of analysts, for our revenues, results of operations, level of indebtedness, liquidity or financial condition;

 

performance and departures of key personnel;

 

failure to comply with the requirements of Nasdaq;

 

failure to comply with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act or other laws or regulations;

 

future issuances, sales or resales, or anticipated issuances, sales or resales, of our common shares, such as additional sales of common shares through the Company’s ATM Program;

 

publication of research reports about us, the cruise industry, or the hospitality industry generally;

 

the performance and market valuations of our cruise line partners and of companies in the travel leisure industry;

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broad disruptions in the financial markets, as have occurred as a result of COVID-19, including sudden disruptions in the credit markets;

 

speculation in the press or investment community with respect to the factors impacting our business, including the risk factors presented in this Annual Report on Form 10-K;

 

actual, potential or perceived operational and internal control, accounting or financial reporting issues; and

 

changes in accounting principles, policies and guidelines.

In the past, securities class-action litigation has been instituted against companies following periods of volatility in the market price of their shares. This type of litigation could result in substantial costs and divert our management’s attention and resources, materially adversely impacting our business, operations, results of operations, financial condition and liquidity.

If Securities or Industry Analysts Do Not Publish Research, Publish Inaccurate or Unfavorable Research or Cease Publishing Research About Us, Our Share Price and Trading Volume Could Decline Significantly

 

The market for our common shares will depend in part on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. If one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrade their opinions about our business or our common shares, publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about us, or cease publishing about us regularly, demand for our common shares could decrease, which might cause our share price and trading volume to decline significantly.

 

Future Issuances of Debt Securities and/or Equity Securities May Adversely Affect Us, Including the Market Price of Our Common Shares, and May Be Dilutive to Our Existing Shareholders

 

In the future, we may incur debt and/or issue equity ranking senior to our common shares. Those securities will generally have priority upon liquidation. Such securities also may be governed by an indenture or other instrument containing covenants restricting our operating flexibility. Additionally, any convertible or exchangeable securities that we issue in the future may have rights, preferences and privileges more favorable than those of our common shares. Because our decision to issue debt and/or equity in the future will depend, in part, on market conditions and other factors beyond our control, we cannot predict or estimate the amount, timing, nature or success of our future capital raising efforts. As a result, future capital raising efforts may reduce the market price of our common shares and be dilutive to our existing shareholders.

 

You May Have Difficulty Enforcing Judgments Against Us

 

We are an international business company incorporated under the laws of the Commonwealth of The Bahamas. A substantial portion of our assets are located outside the United States. As a result, it may be difficult or impossible to:

 

 

effect service of process within the United States upon us; or

 

enforce, against us, court judgments obtained in U.S. courts, including judgments relating to U.S. federal securities laws.

It is unlikely that Bahamian courts would entertain original actions against Bahamian companies, their directors or officers predicated solely upon U.S. federal securities laws. The Bahamian courts may apply any rule of Bahamian law which is mandatory irrespective of the governing law and may refuse to apply a rule of such governing law of the relevant documents, if it is manifestly incompatible with the public policy of The Bahamas. Furthermore, judgments based upon any civil liability provisions of the U.S. federal securities laws are not directly enforceable in The Bahamas. Rather, a lawsuit must be brought in The Bahamas on any such judgment. The courts of The Bahamas would recognize a U.S. judgment as a valid judgment, and permit the same to provide the basis of a fresh action in The Bahamas and should give a judgment based thereon without there being a re-trial or reconsideration of the merits of the case provided that (i) the courts in the United States had proper jurisdiction under Bahamian conflict of law rules over the parties subject to such judgment, (ii) the judgment is for a debt or definite sum of money other than a sum payable in respect of taxes or charges of a like nature or in respect of a fine or penalty, (iii) the U.S. courts did not contravene the rules of natural justice of The Bahamas, (iv) the judgment was not obtained by fraud on the part of the party in whose favor the judgment was given or of the court pronouncing it, (v) the enforcement of such judgment would not be contrary to the public policy of The Bahamas, (vi) the correct procedures under the laws of The Bahamas are duly complied with, (vii) the judgment is not inconsistent with a prior Bahamian judgment in respect of the same matter and (viii) enforcement proceedings are instituted within six years after the date of such judgment.

Certain Provisions in Our Articles May Limit Shareholders’ Ability to Affect a Change in Management or Control

 

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Our Articles include certain provisions which may have the effect of delaying or preventing a future takeover or change in control of us that shareholders may consider to be in their best interests. Among other things, our Articles provide for a classified Board serving staggered terms of three years, super majority voting requirements with respect to certain significant transactions and restrictions on the acquisition of greater than 9.99% ownership without our Board’s approval. Our equity plans and our officers’ employment agreements provide certain rights to plan participants and those officers, respectively, in the event of a change in control of us. Additionally, with the 2020 Private Placement and the related Investment Agreement, our Articles were amended to create a new class of non-voting common shares (the “Non-Voting Common Shares”). The Non-Voting Common shares will automatically be converted into Voting Common Shares upon the occurrence of certain events as set forth in the Articles. Each Non-Voting Common Share will automatically convert into one Voting Common Share, upon the occurrence of a Qualified Transfer of such Non-Voting Common Share or with the prior consent of our Board of Directors. A “Qualified Transfer” means a transfer (x) to a third party that is not (1) an affiliate of such holder nor (2) a person whose ownership thereof would result in such shares being treated as constructively owned by such holder under Section 958(b) of the U.S. Tax Code, applicable Treasury Regulations and other official guidance (a Person described in this clause (x), an “Unrelated Person”), and (y) that is not otherwise prohibited under the Articles. This may dilute the voting power of the current common shareholders. In addition to the Non-Voting Shares, we have issued deferred shares and warrants as more fully described elsewhere in this report. These deferred shares and warrants may further reduce the control and voting power of a common shareholder.

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.

 

ITEM 2. PROPERTIES

 

Our destination resort spas are operated under agreements with the destination resort operators or owners, as the case may be, of those venues. Our other facilities, including our warehouses, are leased from the owners of the venues where they are located. Our principal office is located in Nassau, The Bahamas, and we lease an office building in Coral Gables, Florida where certain administrative functions are located.

We believe that our existing facilities are adequate for our current and planned levels of operations and that alternative sites are readily available on competitive terms in the event that any of our material leases are not renewed.

None.

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.

 

PART II

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED SHAREHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Market Information

Our common shares are traded on The Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “OSW.” As of February 25, 2022, there were 26 registered holders of our common shares and one registered holder of non-voting common shares. In addition to our common shares that trade on Nasdaq, the Company has begun an ATM Program (more fully described herein) that permits, but does not require, the Company to sell common shares.

Dividends

We adopted a cash dividend program in November 2019, with an initial quarterly cash dividend payment of $0.04 per common share. However, as a result of the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on our business, our Board of Directors re-evaluated our current dividend program and has determined, in order to increase our financial flexibility and reallocate our capital resources, to defer the previously authorized and declared quarterly dividend to be paid on May 29, 2020 and to temporarily suspend the dividend program until further notice.

Repurchases and Sales of Unregistered Securities

We have no recent repurchases of any securities or sales of any unregistered securities.

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Stock Performance Graph

 

The following graph compares the change in the cumulative total shareholder return on our common shares against the cumulative total return (assuming reinvestment of dividends) of the Nasdaq Composite® (United States and Foreign) Index, and the Dow Jones U.S. Travel and Leisure Index for the period beginning January 1, 2021 and ending December 31, 2021.

 

As a result of the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on our business, our Board of Directors re-evaluated our current dividend program and determined, in order to increase our financial flexibility and reallocate our capital resources, to temporarily suspend our dividend program until further notice.

 

The graph assumes that $100.00 was invested on January 4, 2021 in our common shares at a per share price of $9.67, the closing price on that date, and in each of the comparative indices. The share price performance on the following graph is not necessarily indicative of future share price performance.

 

COMPARISON OF CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURN

Among OneSpaWorld Holdings Limited, the Nasdaq Composite Index, and the Dow Jones US Travel & Leisure Index

 

 

 

 

1/31

 

2/28

 

3/31

 

4/30

 

5/31

 

6/30

 

7/31

 

8/31

 

9/30

 

10/31

 

11/30

 

12/31

 

OneSpaWorld Holdings Limited

$

(73.63

)

$

57.23

 

$

289.03

 

$

254.86

 

$

207.45

 

$

355.85

 

$

(21.00

)

$

75.15

 

$

67.72

 

$

259.07

 

$

343.23

 

$

28.53

 

NASDAQ Composite

$

73.05

 

$

155.44

 

$

85.20

 

$

198.78

 

$

129.42

 

$

242.31

 

$

320.95

 

$

373.89

 

$

384.51

 

$

360.59

 

$

515.40

 

$

480.94

 

Dow Jones US Travel & Leisure

$

13.26

 

$

104.75

 

$

276.82

 

$

305.16

 

$

253.02

 

$

296.14

 

$

224.97

 

$

223.96

 

$

247.23

 

$

264.42

 

$

242.60

 

$

171.22

 

 

ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

The following tables contain selected historical financial data for the Company, derived from the audited consolidated financial statements of OSW Predecessor included elsewhere in this report. The information below should be read in conjunction with the section entitled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the audited consolidated financial statements of the Company, and the notes related thereto, included elsewhere in this report.

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Successor

 

 

 

Predecessor

 

 

Year Ended December 31, 2021

 

Year Ended December 31, 2020

 

March 20, 2019 to December 31, 2019

 

 

 

January 1, 2019 to March 19, 2019

 

 

Year Ended December 31, 2018

 

(In thousands)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

REVENUES

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Service Revenues

$

115,945

 

$

93,682

 

$

339,793

 

 

 

$

91,280

 

 

$

410,927

 

Product Revenues

 

28,086

 

 

27,243

 

 

103,988

 

 

 

 

27,172

 

 

 

129,851

 

Total Revenues

 

144,031

 

 

120,925

 

 

443,781

 

 

 

 

118,452

 

 

 

540,778

 

COST OF REVENUES AND OPERATING EXPENSES

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cost of services

 

108,939

 

 

107,258

 

 

292,844

 

 

 

 

76,836

 

 

 

352,382

 

Cost of products

 

26,646

 

 

31,976

 

 

90,353

 

 

 

 

23,957

 

 

 

110,793

 

Administrative

 

15,526

 

 

18,957

 

 

13,986

 

 

 

 

2,498

 

 

 

9,937

 

Salary, benefits and payroll taxes

 

28,151

 

 

20,138

 

 

32,300

 

 

 

 

29,349

 

 

 

15,624

 

Amortization of intangible assets

 

16,829

 

 

16,823

 

 

13,174

 

 

 

 

755

 

 

 

3,521

 

Goodwill and tradename intangible assets impairment

 

 

 

190,777

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total cost of revenues and operating expenses

 

196,091

 

 

385,929

 

 

442,657

 

 

 

 

133,395

 

 

 

492,257

 

(Loss) income from operations

 

(52,060

)

 

(265,004

)

 

1,124

 

 

 

 

(14,943

)

 

 

48,521

 

OTHER (EXPENSE) INCOME, NET

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interest expense and warrant issuance costs

 

(13,488

)

 

(16,089

)

 

(13,522

)

 

 

 

(6,316

)