(Mark One)



For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022






For the transition period from to

Commission File Number: 001-38843



OneSpaWorld Holdings Limited

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)




Commonwealth of The Bahamas


Not Applicable

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)


(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)



Harry B. Sands, Lobosky Management Co. Ltd.

Office Number 2

Pineapple Business Park
Airport Industrial Park

P.O. Box N-624

Nassau, Island of New Providence, Commonwealth of The Bahamas


Not Applicable

(Address of principal executive offices)


(Zip code)



Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (242) 322-2670



Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:


Title of each class


Trading Symbol(s)


Name of each exchange on

which registered

Common Shares, par value (U.S.) $0.0001 per share




The Nasdaq Capital Market



Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes No

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (Section 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.


Large accelerated filer


Accelerated filer






Non-accelerated filer


Smaller reporting company









Emerging growth company



If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes No

The aggregate market value of the registrant’s common shares held by non-affiliates was $487,248,664 as of June 30, 2022, based on the closing price of the common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market on June 30, 2022, which is the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter. Shares of the registrant’s common stock held by each director and executive officer and by each entity or person that, to the registrant’s knowledge, owned 10% or more of the registrant’s outstanding common shares as of June 30, 2022 have been excluded from this number in that these persons may be deemed affiliates of the registrant. This determination of affiliate status is not necessarily conclusive for other purposes.

As of February 25, 2023, the registrant had 79,544,055 voting shares and 13,421,914 non-voting shares of common stock issued and outstanding.



Portions of our Proxy Statement prepared for our 2023 Annual Meeting of Shareholders are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.













































































































OneSpaWorld Holdings Limited (“OneSpaWorld,” the “Company,” “we,” “our, “us” and other similar terms refer to OneSpaWorld Holdings Limited and its consolidated subsidiaries).




From time to time, including in this report and other disclosures, we may issue “forward-looking” statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). These forward-looking statements reflect our current views about future events and are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors which may cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. We attempt, whenever possible, to identify these statements by using words like “will,” “may,” “could,” “should,” “would,” “believe,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “forecast,” “future,” “intend,” “plan,” “estimate” and similar expressions of future intent or the negative of such terms.


Such forward-looking statements include statements impacted by or statements regarding:

the continuing impact of COVID-19 on the industries in which the Company operates and the Company’s business, operations, results of operations and financial condition, including cash flows and liquidity;
the demand for the Company’s services together with the possibility that the Company may be adversely affected by other economic, business, and/or competitive factors or changes in the business environment in which the Company operates;
changes in consumer preferences or the markets for the Company’s services and products;
changes in applicable laws or regulations;
competition for the Company’s services and the availability of competition for opportunities for expansion of the Company’s business;
difficulties of managing growth profitably;
the loss of one or more members of the Company’s management team;
changes in the market for the products we offer for sale;
other risks and uncertainties included from time to time in the Company’s reports (including all amendments to those reports) filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission;
other risks and uncertainties indicated in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including those set forth under the section entitled “Risk Factors”; and
other statements preceded by, followed by or that include the words “estimate,” “plan,” “project,” “forecast,” “intend,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “seek,” “target” or similar expressions.

These forward-looking statements are based on information available as of the date of this report and current expectations, forecasts and assumptions, and involve a number of judgments, risks and uncertainties. Accordingly, forward-looking statements should not be relied upon as representing our views as of any subsequent date. We do not undertake any obligation to update forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date they were made, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as may be required under applicable securities laws.

As a result of known and unknown risks and uncertainties, our actual results or performance may be materially different from those expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. For a discussion of the risks involved in our business and investing in our common shares, see the section entitled “Risk Factors.”

Should one or more of these risks or uncertainties materialize, or should any of the assumptions underlying our forward-looking statements prove incorrect, actual results may vary in material respects from those expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. You should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements.







At our core, we are a global services company. With over 90% market share in the historically highly attractive outsourced maritime health and wellness market, we are the market leader at more than 20x the size of our closest maritime competitor. Over the last 50 years, we have built our leading market position on our depth of staff expertise; broad and innovative service and product offerings; expansive global recruitment, training and logistics platform; and decades-long relationships with cruise line and destination resort partners. Throughout our history, our mission has been simple: helping guests look and feel their best during and after their stay. We serve a critical role for our cruise line and destination resort partners, operating a complex and increasingly important aspect of their overall guest experience. Decades of investment and know-how have allowed us to construct an unmatched global infrastructure to manage the complexity of our operations. We have consistently expanded our onboard offerings with innovative, leading-edge service and product introductions, and developed a powerful back-end recruiting, training and logistics platform to manage our operational complexity, maintain our industry-leading quality standards and maximize revenue per center. The combination of our renowned recruiting and training platform, deep labor pool, global logistics and supply chain infrastructure and proven revenue management capabilities represents a significant competitive advantage that we believe is not economically feasible to replicate. These competitive advantages have served our business well during these extremely challenging times for our industry.

Impact of Coronavirus (COVID-19)

In the face of the global impact of the coronavirus (“COVID-19”) pandemic, our cruise line partners paused their guest cruise operations and the majority of our U.S. and Caribbean-based destination resort spas temporarily closed in mid-March 2020. During 2021, we initiated our resumption of spa operations on cruise ships and in destination resorts in a phased manner, in concert with our cruise line and resort partners. The potential continuing extent of the effects of COVID-19 on our business is uncertain and will depend on future developments. As of February 25, 2023, our health and wellness centers on 177 ships of our cruise line partners and in 49 destination resort spas were operating as part of our continuing return to service.

We took a number of proactive measures to mitigate the financial and operational impacts of COVID-19, including completing a private placement and various capital market transactions, reduction of capital expenditures and operating expenses, borrowing on our revolving credit facility, deferring payment of dividends declared, and the suspension of our dividend program. To the extent necessary, we will continue to pursue other opportunities to improve our liquidity.

Our Business

The majority of our revenue and profits are earned through long-term revenue sharing agreements with cruise line partners that economically align both parties and contribute to our attractive asset-light financial profile. These agreements average approximately six years in length and provide us with the exclusive right to offer health, fitness, beauty and wellness services and the ability to sell complementary products onboard the ships we serve. Under these long-term agreements, cruise line partners retain a specified percentage of revenues from all our sales onboard. This inherent alignment encourages collaboration in all aspects of our operations, including facility design, product innovation, pre- and post-cruise sales opportunities, capacity utilization initiatives and other data-driven strategies to drive increased guest traffic and revenue growth. Most of our cruise line agreements encompass 100% of a partner cruise line’s existing fleet and all new ships introduced by the cruise line during the term of the agreement. As opposed to fixed-rent landlords, cruise lines and destination resorts serve as our aligned economic partners.

We are recognized by our cruise line and destination resort partners and our guests for our comprehensive suite of services and products. We curate and deliver a broad range of offerings centered on providing specific health, fitness, beauty, and wellness solutions to meet our guests’ lifestyle routines or objectives. These services include: (i) traditional body, salon, and skin care services and products; (ii) self-service fitness facilities, specialized fitness classes and personal fitness training; (iii) innovative pain management, detoxifying programs and comprehensive body composition analyses; (iv) weight management programs and products; and (v) advanced medi-spa services, among others. We also offer our guests access to leading beauty and wellness brands including ELEMIS ®, Kérastase ®, BOTOX® Cosmetic, Dysport ®, Restylane®, Perlane®, Thermage®, CoolSculpting®, truSculpt® 3D, and truSculpt® iD, with many brands offered exclusively by us in the cruise market. On average, during the year ended December 31, 2022, guests spent approximately $270 per visit. Additionally, our solution sales approach drives substantial retail sales, with approximately 18% of our revenues derived from the sale of retail products during the year ended December 31, 2022.

Our state-of-the-art health, fitness, beauty and wellness centers are designed and branded for each cruise line and destination resort to optimize the guest experience, align with our partners’ overall hospitality atmosphere and maximize productivity. During the



year ended December 31, 2022, centers employed up to 79 highly trained professionals and ranged in size up to over 30,000 square feet, depending on the cruise line or destination resort partner’s needs.

Our cruise line relationships average over 20 years and encompass substantially all of the major global cruise lines, including Carnival Cruise Line, Royal Caribbean Cruises, Princess Cruises, Norwegian Cruise Lines, Celebrity Cruises, Costa Cruises and Holland America, among many others, as well as recent additions to the industry, such as Virgin Voyages. These partnerships extend across contemporary, premium, luxury and budget cruise lines that operate ships regionally and globally. We maintain what we believe to be an exceptional contract renewal rate with our cruise line partners, having renewed approximately 94% of our contracts based on ship count over the last 15 years, including 100% of our contracts with ships larger than 3,500 berths. We have not only maintained relationships with existing cruise line partners, but also have a history of winning contracts and gaining market share. In August 2021, we extended our current agreement with Azamara through May 2026. In November 2022, we extended our current agreement with Norwegian Cruise Lines through December 2029 for all ships across their three brands. On land, we have longstanding relationships with the world’s leading destination hotel and resort operators, including Marriott, Hilton, Wyndham, Atlantis, ClubMed, Caesars Entertainment, Lotte, Loews, Four Seasons, and Mohegan Sun, among others.

Our Operations and Performance

We are a Bahamian international business company that earns a substantial portion of our revenue in low- or no-tax jurisdictions, benefiting from a comparatively low effective cash tax rate. Additionally, we have minimal capital expenditures, as our cruise line and destination resort partners typically fund the build-out, maintenance, and refurbishment of our health and wellness centers. The combination of our attractive tax rate and asset-light operating model leads to a financial profile that delivers comparatively high Unlevered After-Tax Free Cash Flow. Annually, from fiscal 2017 through 2019, and post-pandemic, in fiscal 2022, we converted approximately 90% of our Adjusted EBITDA to Unlevered After-Tax Free Cash Flow.

Historically, with the exception of the adverse impact of the recent pandemic discussed elsewhere herein, and since the resumption of our spa operations on cruise ships and in destination resorts, we have driven strong financial performance and believe our leading market position in a growing industry, differentiated business model, and entrenched cruise line and destination resort partner relationships position our business for continued growth. For the year ended December 31, 2022, we achieved revenues of $546.3 million, Adjusted EBITDA of $50.4 million, Net Income of $53.2 million and Unlevered After-Tax Free Cash Flow of $45.1 million.

Attractive Market Opportunity


We operate at the intersection of the historically attractive health and wellness and travel leisure industries. We believe we are well-positioned to grow as the cruise industry continues to recover from the COVID-19 pandemic.


Historical Cruise Industry Growth


Prior to COVID-19, the cruise industry had been among the fastest-growing segments in the travel leisure industry, including through the recessions of 2001 and 2008-2010. We estimate, based on annual statistics published by Cruise Lines International Association (“CLIA”), that global passenger counts had grown every year until 2020 from approximately 6.3 million passengers in 1995 to an all-time high of approximately 30.0 million passengers in 2019, representing a compound annual growth rate of 6.7%. This passenger growth had been driven by consistent, significant investments in new cruise ship capacity, strong loyalty among experienced cruisers and the large and growing appeal of cruising to all demographics, including millennials. From 2018 to 2020, the Caribbean, Bahamas and Bermuda were the top cruise destinations, representing 44% of passenger volume during that period, according to the CLIA. Although the COVID-19 pandemic has significantly adversely affected, and continues to affect, passenger volume in the global cruise industry, passenger volume has started to recover since a number of cruise lines restarted their operations beginning in July 2021. In its most recently published State of the Cruise Industry Outlook, CLIA forecasted passenger volume to exceed 2019 levels by the end of 2022 or 2023, and reported the results of a survey of international vacationers indicating that 80% of respondents who had previously been on a cruise said that they were likely to cruise again in the next few years, with millennials representing 85% of the cruise passenger respondents who plan to cruise again. New consumer sentiment data released by CLIA during the third quarter of 2022 indicated that the demand and perception of cruise holidays are now greater than in 2019.


Historically Large and Growing Health and Wellness Industry


Our health and wellness centers cater to guests seeking a continuation of their health, fitness, beauty and wellness activities while traveling and those who want to trial services while away from home. As consumers increasingly incorporate health and wellness activities into their daily lives, they are placing a higher priority on health and wellness services while traveling and vacationing. In its most recently published State of the Cruise Industry Outlook, CLIA forecasted passenger volume to exceed 2019



levels by the end of 2022 or 2023, and reported the results of a survey of international vacationers indicating that 80% of respondents who had previously been on a cruise said that they were likely to cruise again in the next few years. Seasoned cruise passengers are joined by millennials, representing 85% of the respondents who plan to cruise again. New consumer sentiment data released by CLIA during the third quarter of 2022 indicated that the demand and perception of cruise holidays are now greater than in 2019.


Our Evolution


Our history dates back to the early 1960’s, when we opened the world’s first salons at sea onboard transatlantic cruise ships, including the Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth II. Over more than 50 years, we have continuously defined and redefined the onboard health, fitness, beauty and wellness category by consistently expanding our onboard offerings with innovative and leading-edge service and product introductions, while developing the powerful back-end recruiting, training and logistics platforms to manage and optimize the complexity of our operations and maintain our industry-leading quality standards. We have successfully evolved the onboard health, fitness, beauty and wellness category from what was once a consumer-centric amenity for passengers to a key onboard revenue driver for our cruise line partners.

In 2015, a consortium led by L Catterton acquired Steiner Leisure, the holding company of OneSpaWorld at that time. Since then, OneSpaWorld has strengthened its already proven platform by leveraging L Catterton’s expertise in consumer services, consumer products, multi-unit retail operations and customer acquisition, among other expertise. OneSpaWorld has enhanced collaboration with its cruise line and destination resort partners to reinforce its market leading position and introduced innovative revenue initiatives to accelerate its revenue growth. Key recent initiatives include:

continued innovation in our service and product offerings, coupled with enhanced consultative sales training techniques, resulting in a shifting revenue mix toward higher value-add and higher priced services, higher-priced products, and higher attachment rates for product purchases in connection with a guest service;
enhancing and expanding collaboration with cruise line and destination resort partners;
expanding pre-marketing, pre-booking and pre-payment platforms with optimal positioning on cruise line websites;
employing data-driven, dynamic pricing of services to optimize facility utilization and revenue generation; and
incorporating advanced direct marketing programs, including personalized communications and value promotions, to drive consumer demand.

On March 19, 2019 (the “Business Combination Date”), OneSpaWorld consummated a business combination pursuant to a Business Combination Agreement, dated as of November 1, 2018 (as amended on January 7, 2019, by Amendment No. 1 to the Business Combination Agreement), by and among Steiner Leisure Limited (“SLL”, “Steiner Leisure,” “Steiner,” or “Parent”), Steiner U.S. Holdings, Inc., Nemo (UK) Holdco, Ltd., Steiner UK Limited, Steiner Management Services, LLC, Haymaker Acquisition Corp. (“Haymaker”), OneSpaWorld, Dory US Merger Sub, LLC, Dory Acquisition Sub, Limited, Dory Intermediate LLC, and Dory Acquisition Sub, Inc. (the “Business Combination”), in which Haymaker acquired from Steiner operating business known as OSW Predecessor (“OSW”). Prior to the consummation of the Business Combination, OneSpaWorld was a wholly-owned subsidiary of Steiner Leisure. On the Business Combination Date, OneSpaWorld became the ultimate parent company of the Haymaker and OSW company.

Prior to the cessation of our cruise line and land-based destination resort operations due to COVID-19, our comprehensive suite of premium health, fitness, beauty and wellness services and products reached more consumers than ever before, with 175 centers onboard cruise ships addressing a captive audience of over 20 million passengers annually, and 68 destination resort centers serving global travelers at premier destination resorts around the world.

Our Strengths


Despite the recent impacts of COVID-19 on the travel leisure industry and our business, we believe that our competitive strengths historically have positioned us, and will continue to position us, as a leader in the hospitality-based health and wellness industry and the category dominant leader in the cruise industry.


Global Leader in the Hospitality-Based Health and Wellness Industry




As the pre-eminent global operator of health and wellness centers onboard cruise ships and a leading operator of health and wellness centers at destination resorts worldwide, we are at the center of the intersection between the health and wellness and travel leisure industries. In 2022, the Global Wellness Institute reported that global wellness tourism was a $814.6 billion industry. We are the market leader at more than 20x the size of our closest maritime competitor. Through our market share, we have had access to a captive audience of over 20 million passengers annually. Cruise ship guests are an attractive demographic, with average annual household incomes of over $100,000. As a result of our scale, our captive consumer audience, and consumers’ increasing desire for more health, fitness, beauty and wellness services and products, we are well-positioned in the global health and wellness industry and have a large and highly attractive addressable consumer market at sea and on land.


Differentiated Business Model That Would Be Difficult and Uneconomic to Replicate


For more than 50 years, our business model has been built through investment in global infrastructure, supply chain logistics and training, decades-long relationships with our cruise line and destination resort partners and our reputation for offering our guests a best-in-class health, fitness, beauty and wellness experience. Our robust infrastructure and processes required to operate and maximize revenue across our network of global health and wellness centers separates us from existing and prospective peers. In 2022, we embarked on over 6,500 voyages that welcomed over 15 million passengers at more than 193 ports of embarkation, and placed over 4,800 individuals, more than 60% of whom were previously employed by OneSpaWorld, in various positions at our shipboard health and wellness centers. Our business model is centered on providing our cruise line and destination resort partners with the following solutions:


Creating Extraordinary Guest Experiences —We pride ourselves on creating extraordinary guest experiences in our health and wellness facilities, offering our cruise line and destination resort partners’ guests a comprehensive suite of premium health, wellness, fitness and beauty services, treatments, and products.
Global Recruiting, Training and Logistics —We recruit, train and manage over 5,000 health, fitness, beauty and wellness professionals annually around the world, representing 88 nationalities and 27 spoken languages. With seven global training facilities, we serve each cruise line’s needs for specific onboard staff with complex language, cultural and service modality requirements and are the only company with the infrastructure to commission highly trained staff at over 1,100 ports of call worldwide. Our commitment to our onboard and destination resort staff has proven to be an essential element of our successful return to service performance.
Supply Chain and Logistics —We managed the complex delivery of all products and supplies to our health and wellness centers onboard 177 vessels operating 3,407 itineraries around the world during 2022, leveraging proprietary data to accurately forecast and stock each health and wellness center. Products and supplies can only be loaded at designated ports around the world during a limited window of time while the ship is in port, in many cases overnight, adding to the complexity of the process.
Yield and Revenue Management —We have developed proprietary technology, processes and staff training tools to consistently measure, analyze and maximize onboard and destination resort revenue and profitability.
Exclusive Relationships with Global Brands —Due to our scale, superior operations, industry longevity and attractive captive consumer audience, through the OneSpaWorld platform at sea, we offer for sale and utilize in our services more than 1,400 product SKUs sourced from over 75 vendors, including ELEMIS, Grown Alchemist, Kérastase, Thermage, GoodFeet® Arch Supports, HypericeTM, and GO SMILE® Teeth Whitening, among others.
Facility Design and Branding Expertise —We design our state-of-the-art health and wellness centers specifically for each cruise line vessel and destination resort, creating bespoke branding, guest experience, guest services offerings, complementary retail products assortment, and competitive differentiation for each of our cruise line and destination resort partners to optimize guest experiences and maximize productivity and financial performance.

The above capabilities have contributed to building a differentiated and defensible strategy around our leading market position in a historically growing and attractive industry.

Unmatched Breadth of Service and Product Offering


We offer our guests a comprehensive suite of health, fitness, beauty and wellness services and products to meet any and all of their needs. We are continuously innovating and evolving our offerings based on the latest trends and tailor our service and product offerings to regional preferences. In addition to conventional personal care services, we offer the latest in fitness, a full range of



massage treatments, nutrition/weight management consultations, teeth whitening, acupuncture, and innovative, higher-ticket medi-spa services at sea, including BOTOX® Cosmetic, Dysport, Restylane, CoolSculpting, Thermage and dermal fillers, among our broad and ever-expanding spectrum of choices. With our captive audience of, historically, over 20 million cruise guests annually, OneSpaWorld is a compelling distribution channel for leading health, fitness, beauty and wellness brands. Renowned brands, including ELEMIS and Kérastase, have partnered with us for exclusive distribution at sea. Cruise line and destination resort partners depend on us to provide their guests with the best and broadest assortment of services and products to enhance their vacation experience and the competitive positioning and consumer value of their brands.


Entrenched Partnerships with Economic Alignment


We have cultivated partnerships with most of the largest and most reputable cruise lines and premier resorts in the world. Our cruise line relationships average over 20 years and encompass substantially all of the major global cruise lines, including Carnival Cruise Line, Royal Caribbean Cruises, Princess Cruises, Norwegian Cruise Lines, Celebrity Cruises, Costa Cruises, Seabourn Cruise Line, Virgin Voyages, and Holland America, among many others. The majority of our revenues and profits are earned through our long-term revenue sharing agreements with our cruise line partners that economically align both parties and create a collaborative relationship. On land, we partner with market leaders at highly attractive destinations, including Atlantis Paradise Island Bahamas, The Ocean Club, a Four Seasons Resort, Hilton Hawaiian Village Beach Resort and Spa, and the Mohegan Sun Resort, among others. Our long-standing relationships, with economic alignment at the core, strengthen our competitive advantage.


Highly Visible and Predictable Revenue Streams


Historically, we have had access to over 20 million passengers annually, with potential long-term passenger growth expected in the future, post the COVID-19 pandemic, as new ships are commissioned in the industry. This new ship growth is highly visible as demonstrated in a publicly available global order book outlining over five years of new ship orders. Across our contracts, OneSpaWorld typically operates on all ships in a fleet and on new ships added during the contract term, securing both existing and new ship revenue. A new ship requires approximately two to four years to be built and is rarely delayed, as cruise lines typically sell out the vessel’s maiden voyage over a year in advance. New ships do not have a revenue ramp-up period given these advanced marketing efforts. Our cruise line partners are experts at dependably filling their ships with passengers, as demonstrated by the industry’s historical average occupancy rate of above 100%, even through recessionary periods. Due to historically consistent industry practices and decades of proprietary operating history data, OneSpaWorld has had strong visibility into our future revenue realization for the next three to five years. Despite recent market conditions related to COVID-19, we have seen these revenue streams rebound throughout fiscal 2022 toward and, in certain cases, above, historical levels.

Asset-Light Model with After-Tax Free Cash Flow Generation


Our cruise line partners typically fund the build-out, maintenance, and refurbishment of our onboard health and wellness centers, resulting in an asset-light profile with minimal capex required. Our capital expenditures averaged 1% of revenues over the three years preceding the near cessation of our operations due to COVID-19. Being a Bahamian international business company and earning a significant portion of our revenue in low-tax or no-tax jurisdictions, including international waters, our effective cash tax rate had been approximately 2% over the three years preceding the near cessation of our operations due to COVID-19. This combination translates to exceptional after-tax free cash flow. Annually, from fiscal 2017 through 2019, and post-pandemic, in fiscal 2022, we converted approximately 90% of our Adjusted EBITDA to Unlevered After-Tax Free Cash Flow.


Seasoned and Proven Leadership Team


OneSpaWorld is led by a management team that has operated the Company for nearly 20 years. Our Executive Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer, Leonard Fluxman, and our Chief Financial Officer and Chief Operating Officer, Stephen Lazarus, together led OneSpaWorld's predecessor company, Steiner Leisure, as a public company for more than a decade. Mr. Fluxman and Mr. Lazarus now lead an internally developed senior management team with over 150 years of combined industry experience.

Additionally, our Chief Commercial Officer, Susan Bonner, has over 20 years of experience in the cruise line sector and is a seasoned executive with a proven track record and significant background in strategy, revenue management, operations management, sales, and marketing. We benefit from Haymaker’s investing and operational experience at Fortune 500 companies, particularly in the consumer and hospitality sectors. We also have the advantage of extensive industry and related subject matter expertise brought to us by our Board members, including Glenn Fusfield. Until his retirement in 2021, Mr. Fusfield served as Chief Executive Officer of OneSpaWorld. Prior to this role, Mr. Fusfield held various positions of increasing responsibility with the Company for more than 20 years, preceded by 12 years of cruise industry experience. The OneSpaWorld management team’s deep experience and proven track



record in managing the business in both public and private markets positions OneSpaWorld as an attractive vehicle for future long-term growth within the global hospitality-based health and wellness industry.

Growth Strategies

Our management plans to continue growing the business through the following strategies:


Capture Highly Visible New Ship Growth with Current Cruise Line Partners


We expect to continue to benefit long-term from a return to the cruise industry’s capacity for growth, with a consistent and visible pipeline of new ships commissioned annually by our cruise line partners. By the end of 2025, our existing cruise line partners are expected to introduce 21 new ships. Through established cruise line partner relationships, current contracts, competitive positioning of our operating infrastructure, track record of delivering extraordinary guest experiences, and an approximately 94% contract renewal rate over the last 15 years, we are well-positioned to capture new ship growth over the long term.

Expand Market Share by Adding New Potential Cruise Line Partners


Although we have more than 20x market share of our nearest competitor in the outsourced maritime health and wellness market, there is an opportunity to continue to grow by winning new contracts. We also routinely meet with cruise lines that do not currently outsource their health and wellness centers or utilize our smaller competitors, but that may have an interest in contracting with us in the future due to our strong reputation and historical results. As evidenced by our successful history of winning new contracts, we remain focused on continuing to protect and grow our dominant market share at sea.

Continue Launching Innovative New Value-Added Services and Products


We have successfully innovated services and products to meet guests’ ever-changing needs, attract more guests and generate more revenue and profitability per guest. Medi-spa has been a highly successful innovation for OneSpaWorld at sea and is now an accretive component of our offerings. Performed by medically licensed professionals, the medi-spa offerings provide the latest cosmetic medical services to guests, such as non-surgical cosmetic procedures, including BOTOX Cosmetic, Dysport, Restylane, CoolSculpting, Thermage, and dermal fillers. Guests purchasing medi-spa services spend on average up to 5x more than on traditional health, beauty and wellness services. We continue to roll out incremental revenue opportunities, including the Capillus® Laser Therapy Cap and Hyperice percussion and vibration therapy products and related services. We will continue to focus on launching higher value-add services and products that meet guest demands, align with and enhance our cruise line and destination resort partner brands, optimize health and wellness center utilization, and maximize center-level profitability.

Focus on Enhancing Health and Wellness Center Productivity


Cruise lines have become increasingly focused on growing onboard revenue as a way to enhance revenue beyond traditional cabin ticket sales. Between 2013 and 2019, onboard spend on the three largest cruise operators we serve increased by $2.6 billion, from $6.5 billion to $9.1 billion. We are focused on collaborating with cruise line partners to increase passenger penetration and maximize revenue yield through the following initiatives:


Increase Pre-Booking and Pre-Payment Capture Rate —We are working with our cruise line partners to expand our marketing efforts to engage guests upon booking their vacation experience, well before boarding a ship, through pre-booking. Pre-booked appointments can yield approximately 30% more revenue than services booked onboard the ship. Due to our success across select cruise lines that have implemented pre-booking capabilities, we are in the process of implementing pre-booking across additional partner cruise lines.
Expand Targeted Marketing and Promotion Initiatives —We are now directly marketing and distributing promotions to onboard passengers as a result of enhanced collaboration with select cruise line partners. These promotions are personalized and individually tailored to guests’ profiles and have successfully driven traffic and revenue at our health and wellness centers. Examples include “happy anniversary” messages to couples, “happy birthday” notes to individual guests, and promotional retail credits offered to guests who visit our centers before the end of their cruise. Guests that received these customized promotions were responsible for approximately 11% of revenues generated during the year ended December 31, 2022.



Utilize Technology to Increase Utilization and Enhance Service Mix —We have recently begun to successfully introduce and expand technology-enabled dynamic pricing initiatives with selected cruise line partners. While dynamic pricing strategies have historically been applied manually by onboard staff, we are currently rolling out online and pre-cruise access to drive off-peak utilization rates and fill higher-demand time slots with higher-value bookings. This enhanced dynamic pricing capability is currently available with only a few cruise line partners, representing a significant opportunity for revenue growth as it is rolled out and optimized fleet-wide.
Extend Retail Beyond the Ship —Our Shop & Ship program provides guests the ability to buy retail products onboard and have products shipped directly to their home to avoid the hassle of packing products in their luggage. On average, a Shop & Ship customer spends more than 3.5x the amount of a non-Shop & Ship customer on retail products. The Shop & Ship program, combined with our e-commerce platform timetospa.com, gives us the ability to maintain a connection with each guest beyond the cruise voyage.

Health and Wellness Services


We curate and deliver an ever-innovating broad range of offerings for our cruise line and destination resort partners, centered around a holistic wellness approach, which includes:

Spa and Beauty. We offer a specialized suite of massage and body care services and therapies, together with a broad range of beauty treatments, including facials, hair cutting and styling, manicures and pedicures, and teeth whitening services, among other services custom-designed for our cruise line and destination resort partners.
Thermal suites. We offer guests the option to purchase passes for dedicated thermal suite areas on many of the ships where we operate health and wellness centers. Thermal suites are typically located on higher decks and offer sweeping views of the ocean, enabling our guests to relax, recharge, and enjoy various hot and cold hydro-therapies and related amenities, such as thermal loungers, infrared saunas, snow rooms, laconiums (dry heat saunas), caldarium chambers (herbal steam rooms), and hammams (Turkish-style steam rooms). Certain thermal suites also offer cold plunge pools, large therapeutic jacuzzis, and rooms surrounding occupants with layers of body cleansing salt crystals.
Medi-spa. We offer medi-spa services on the majority of our ships. Our service menu consists of the leading medi-spa brands, including BOTOX Cosmetic, Dysport, Restylane, CoolSculpting, Thermage, dermal fillers, and microneedling, among others. Medi-spa services are administered by medically licensed professionals. By the end of 2023, we expect to offer medi-spa services on 134 ships.
Fitness. We offer guests use of premier fitness centers, featuring industry leading brands, programming and equipment, as well as personalized training services and expert consultation by our fitness professionals. These fitness centers offer guests use of strength equipment and cardiovascular equipment, such as treadmills, elliptical machines, exercise bicycles and rowing and stair machines featuring premier brands including Technogym®, Life Fitness, Peloton and TRX®. Boutique fitness classes, including yoga, Pilates, F45 Training, certain Xponential Fitness brands, and indoor cycling are also available to guests for a fee or at no charge, depending on the class. Our fitness instructors are available to provide paid services, such as body composition analysis and personal training.
Nutrition. We offer guests paid personal nutritional and dietary consultation, weight management, nutrition coaching and detoxification. Guests can begin a program on the cruise or at certain of our land-based health and wellness centers and remain engaged with our professional coaches through the successful completion of their programs, generating ongoing purchases of nutritional and detoxification products via our e-commerce platform timetospa.com.
Health. Our health and pain management offerings present one of our largest and most profitable categories. Our offerings include acupuncture, electro acupuncture, cupping, posture and gait analysis, GoodFeet Arch Supports, physical therapy, and NormaTec® recovery. Our services are enhanced by our retail sale of our product offerings associated with the services.
Mind-Body and Wellness. We offer our guests yoga, Tai Chi and sound therapy in addition to meditation and biofeedback.



We sell over 1,100 branded product SKUs sourced from over 75 vendors due to our scale, superior operations, industry longevity and attractive captive audience at sea and on land. We sell products from leading brands, including ELEMIS, Thermage,



Dysport, GoodFeet Arch Supports and GO SMILE Teeth Whitening. We have an exclusive 10-year supply agreement with ELEMIS. We believe we have a leading retail attachment rate based on the number of products purchased in conjunction with a service compared to the broader consumer personal care services and retail industry. During 2022, product sales comprised approximately 18% of our revenues, enabling incremental revenue even at full treatment room utilization.


We utilize three warehouses, consisting of one 27,000 square foot bonded warehouse in Miami, FL, one 21,600 square foot warehouse in Miami, FL, and one 5,000 square foot warehouse in New Jersey. The Miami warehouses provide fulfillment services for cruise inventory, and the New Jersey warehouse provides fulfillment for e-commerce and our Shop & Ship program.


Health and Wellness Centers

As of December 31, 2022, we operated state-of-the-art health and wellness centers on 179 ships, including virtually all of the major cruise lines globally, and 50 land-based destination resorts, principally in the United States, the Caribbean and Asia. Centers are designed and branded for each cruise and destination resort partner to optimize the guest experience, maximize revenues and align with our partners’ brands and hospitality environment. Centers can range in size to more than 30,000 square feet and generally provide fitness areas, treatment rooms and salons, as well as elaborate thermal suites and/or saunas. Onboard heath and wellness centers are generally located on higher ship decks, which encourages increased passenger interest and guest traffic.




Facility Design


Our cruise line and destination resort partners each seek differentiated health and wellness experiences for their guests. As such, we provide design capabilities for our cruise line and destination resort partners, creating bespoke branding and design consulting to optimize guest experiences and maximize revenues. We operate health and wellness centers under proprietary brands of Mandara® and Chavana®, as well as brands curated specifically for each cruise line, complete with cruise line and/or ship-specific service menus. As of December 31, 2022, we had 36 health and wellness centers under the Mandara brand, eight centers under the Chavana brand, and one center under our destination resort health and wellness brand, “Glow ®, a Mandara Spa.”

Principal Cruise Line Customers

A significant portion of our revenue is generated from the following cruise lines, each of which accounted for more than 10% of our total revenues in 2022, 2021 and 2020, respectively: Carnival (including Carnival, Carnival Australia, Costa, Cunard, Holland America, P&O, Princess, and Seabourn cruise lines): 41.0%, 43.4%, and 46.7%, Royal Caribbean (including Royal Caribbean, Celebrity Cruises, Pullmantur, Azamara and Silversea cruise lines): 28.0%, 20.9%, and 23.1%, and Norwegian Cruise Line (including Norwegian Cruise Line, Oceania Cruises and Regent Seven Seas Cruises): 15.6%, 16.3%, and 14.7%. These companies, combined, accounted for 160 of the 179 ships served by OneSpaWorld as of December 31, 2022. Our contracts are signed at the cruise line-level, not with the parent operator, giving OneSpaWorld a diverse customer base despite parent-level consolidation. Our contracts average five years in duration.

The numbers of ships served as of December 31, 2022 under cruise line agreements with the respective cruise lines are listed below:


Cruise Line

Ships Served


Royal Caribbean (2)




Carnival (1)




Norwegian (3)




Princess (1)




Celebrity (2)




Costa (1)




Holland America (1)




Silversea (2)




Oceania (3)




P&O (1)








Regent (3)




Seabourn (1)
























Carnival Australia (1)













Carnival Corporation, the parent company of Carnival Cruise Line, also owns Carnival Australia, Costa, Holland America, P&O, Princess, and Seabourn.
Celebrity and Silversea are owned by Royal Caribbean.
Oceania and Regent are owned by Norwegian Cruise Lines.




Destination Resort Locations and Partners

As of December 31, 2022, we provided health and wellness services at destination resorts in the following locations:




Number of
Resort Spas







United States (1)






























United Arab Emirates































(1) Includes Puerto Rico.

Cruise Line and Destination Resort Agreements


Through our cruise line and destination resort agreements, we have the exclusive right to offer health, fitness, beauty and wellness services and the ability to sell complementary products onboard the ships and at the destination resorts we serve. Under the cruise line agreements, guests pay for our services through our cruise line partners, who retain a specified percentage of gross receipts from such sales before remitting the remainder to us. Our revenue share agreements result in a highly variable cost model, where the primary fixed costs are the meals and accommodations for our shipboard employees. Most of our cruise line agreements cover all of the then-operating ships of a cruise line and typically new ships are added to ships in service through an amendment to the agreement. The agreements have specified terms ranging from three to 9.4 years, with an average remaining term per ship of approximately 3.7 years as of December 31, 2022. Cruise lines can terminate the agreements with limited or no advance notice under certain circumstances, including, among other things, the withdrawal of a ship from the cruise trade, the sale or lease of a ship, or our failure to achieve specified passenger service standards. However, we have never had a contract terminated prior to our respective expiration date.


We operate our destination resort health and wellness centers pursuant to agreements with the owners of the properties involved. Our destination resort health and wellness centers generally are required to pay rent based on a percentage of our revenues, with others having fixed rents. Some of our destination resort agreements also require that we make minimum rental payments irrespective of the amount of our revenues. The terms of the agreements for our destination resort health and wellness centers generally range from five to 20 years (including the terms of renewals available at our option). In the U.S. and Caribbean, destination resort health and wellness centers generally have a higher investment cost and lower revenue share with higher staff costs and contracts lasting ten years on average. In Asia, destination resort health and wellness centers have lower investment cost, higher revenue share, lower staff costs, and contracts averaging five years.


Marketing and Promotion


We promote our services and products to cruise passengers and destination resort guests through targeted marketing, including pre-and post-cruise emails, website advertising, on-site demonstrations and seminars, video presentations shown on in-cabin/in-room television, ship newsletters, tours of our centers, and dedicated signage around the ship. We also encourage our employees to cross-sell, as they believe that such cross-promotional activities frequently result in our customers purchasing services and/or products in addition to those they initially contemplated buying. For example, we cross-sell our fitness body assessment with detox programs, vitamins, and seaweed wraps. We also maintain a dedicated sales desk to facilitate pre-cruise health and wellness services booking and to disseminate health and wellness information for charters and other groups of cruise passengers.




Recent collaborative initiatives with cruise line partners have proven to enhance performance across certain key performance indicators. We have developed a fully integrated pre-booking platform, which allows guests to book health and wellness treatments six to eight weeks prior to the voyage. Pre-booked and pre-paid guests on average spend approximately 30% more than guests who book services once already onboard. We recently introduced a new pricing strategy, simplifying the choice architecture for our guests while continuing to make price adjustments across multiple areas within our spas. Guests have responded positively, resulting in an increased service spend coupled with a higher frequency of longer treatments booked, and a shift toward booking relatively more premium and signature services. We have begun rolling out our dynamic pricing model to our full cruise fleet, which provides the ability to optimize demand and maximize utilization of our health and wellness centers. We continually monitor the results of our marketing efforts and adjust our strategies in order to use our marketing resources in a cost-effective manner.



On cruise ships, we compete with passenger activity alternatives for onboard passenger dollars. We also compete with other maritime wellness facility providers, including cruise lines that insource the activity, as well as potential other outsource providers. Across the destination resorts business, we compete with other outsource providers of health, fitness, beauty and wellness services to hotel and destination resort operators. The destination resorts business is highly fragmented, and there is no one leader within this category.




A significant portion of our revenues are generated onboard cruise ships and are subject to specific individual cruise itineraries as to time of year and geographic location, among other factors. As a result, we experience varying degrees of seasonality as the demand for cruises is stronger in the Northern Hemisphere during the summer months and during holidays. Accordingly, the third quarter and holiday periods generally result in the highest revenue yields for us. Further, cruises and destination resorts have been negatively affected by the frequency and intensity of hurricanes, which may be impacted by climate change. The negative impact of hurricanes in the Northern Hemisphere is highest during peak hurricane season from August to October.




We hold or control numerous trademarks in the United States and a number of other countries. Our most recognized health and wellness products and services trademarks are for Mandara and Chavana. We believe that the use of our trademarks is important in establishing and maintaining our reputation for providing high quality health and wellness services, as well as cosmetic goods, and we are committed to protecting these trademarks by all appropriate legal means.


Registrations for the OneSpaWorld, Mandara and Chavana trademarks, among others, have been obtained in a number of countries throughout the world. We continue to apply for other trademark registrations in various countries.

While a number of the trademarks we use have been registered in the United States and other countries, the registrations of other trademarks that we use are pending. Recently, we have adopted the mark “OneSpaWorld” as the trade name of our maritime health and wellness business to reflect our position as a global provider of shipboard products and services.

We license “Mandara” for use by luxury destination resorts in certain Asian countries.

Sustainability and Social Responsibility

We strive daily to effect a positive impact on the environment and the lives of our employees, our guests, and the people and cultures of the communities we visit, where we operate, and where we call home. In so doing, we seek to create long-term value for our crise line and destination resort partners and our shareholders.

How we manage our impact on the environment and the communities where we operate, our relationships with all constituencies across our business, and the accountability of our leadership to our employees and our shareholders are all critically important to the success of our business. Our strategic priorities to achieve these objectives include programs to incorporate sustainability practices into all elements of our business, assure a respectful and equitable workplace fostering broad employee diversity and inclusive opportunity, enhance employee support and personal and career development, strengthen data privacy and cybersecurity, and invest in our communities, including by supporting local organizations and programs that align with our values of wellness, diversity, and sustainability. Our Board of Directors is responsible for guiding management to achieve these objectives and for supervising and promoting these initiatives toward effecting the long-term sustainable growth of the Company.



With respect to environmental matters, we collaborate with our third-party product suppliers to introduce improved packaging solutions to reduce environmental impact. We implement sustainability strategies to reduce paper usage and plastic containers, recycle materials used in the workplace, utilize light sensors to reduce electricity consumption, and require changes to packaging materials from polystyrene to recyclable pillow packs, among other initiatives.

With respect to our employees, we recruit and invest in retaining and advancing individuals with diverse demographic and socioeconomic backgrounds, experiences, and talents, prioritizing their personal and professional development and their health and safety in our shipboard and land-based facilities. See “Human Capital,” below, for further description of our social responsibility objectives and initiatives.

With respect to governance, we maintain policies intended to assure ethical trading, confidential and non-public personal information, anti-fraud, anti-corruption, third party risk management, trade control compliance, data transfers, internal auditing services, global privacy, and global regulatory compliance, among others.

Our Board of Directors directly oversees procedures and corporate culture promoting and upholding the ethical conduct of the Company’s business, including adopting and monitoring compliance with the Company’s Code of Ethics, which sets forth the Company’s policies of promoting high standards of integrity by and toward our employees. The Compensation Committee of our Board is responsible for advising the Board with respect to the compensation philosophy, policies, and procedures pertaining to our employees, in order to attract, retain and motivate the most talented personnel. The Audit Committee of our Board is responsible for establishing procedures for identifying and fully addressing employee complaints and concerns through the Company’s Ethics Hotline and otherwise. The Nominating and Governance Committee of our Board is responsible for developing, recommending to the Board, and reviewing on an ongoing basis the Company’s social responsibility and sustainability policies, as well as reviewing and recommending to the Board enhancements to the Company’s Code of Ethics.

Human Capital

As a pre-eminent global operator of health and wellness services, our people are essential to our operations and core to the long-term success of our Company. Our employees are responsible for upholding our purpose, integrity, and accountability, and representing OneSpaWorld’s mission and values as a global health and wellness company. To attract, retain, motivate and advance the best talent, we strive to embed a culture where employees can safely thrive in an environment supportive of their unique personalities, boundaries, talents, passions, strengths, challenges, responsibilities, and personal and career goals.

Our People. As a Company that provides health and wellness services and products, our employees are the bedrock of our cruise and resort guest experience. As of December 31, 2022, we had a total of 4,452 full-time employees, of which 3,415 worked in health and wellness center operations on cruise ships and in destination resorts around the world, 976 represented corporate management and operational support staff, and 61 were involved in recruiting and training. We have one general manager in each cruise ship and destination resort health and wellness center, typically an assistant manager training to become a general manager, and up to 79 total staff depending on the scale of the health and wellness center. As a global operation, we have diverse teams of employees representative of the partners and markets we serve and in which we operate. We believe our employee relationships are strong across our business, as evidenced by the promotion of 100% of our health and wellness center general managers to their roles, an average tenure of nine years for employees at our Coral Gables office, and 20-30 year tenures of our senior leaders, many of whom started with the Company as shipboard health and wellness center team members and advanced to positions at our Coral Gables office and London Wellness Academy.
Culture and Ethics. Culture of ethical behavior is at the forefront of our organization, binding our values and mission across every aspect of our business. We have instituted best practices to ensure that we continue to operate to the highest standards, including requiring all our employees to familiarize themselves during the training with, and adhere strictly to, our Code of Ethics and our corporate social responsibility and sustainability policies.
Diversity & Inclusion. Our Company achieves success by recruiting, training, supporting and resourcing our employees from diverse global populations, so as to best serve our cruise line and destination resort partners' diverse global customer base. We maintain an unwavering commitment to diversity and inclusion among our staff. OneSpaWorld is an equal opportunity employer, and we promote and celebrate diversity and inclusion in the workplace. Our employees are sourced globally and represent 88 nationalities, speaking 27 languages. In addition, at our corporate offices in the U.S. and U.K. and our North America health and



wellness centers, our employee base is comprised of eight distinct ethnicities. As of December 31, 2022, our employees had the following attributes:










Employees (non-management)









Manager Staff








Senior Management








Executive Officers












We educate employees, managers, and leadership on our essential objectives, strategies and initiatives to achieve broad diversity and inclusion across every element of our business. Among other initiatives, we provide annual trainings for all of our employees to assure awareness and adherence to our policies, practices, and procedures toward effecting a culture of civility, harassment prevention, reporting and intervention in all respects, and a fully respectful workplace.

Talent Attraction. Our success depends on our ability to recruit and train employees skilled in our customer service philosophy. We recruit prospective shipboard health and wellness center employees from a broad spectrum of geographies providing a pipeline of diverse talent from a wide range of demographics and economies. We are proud to bring valuable long-term employment and career opportunities to individuals residing and supporting families in major economies such as Australia, the British Isles, Canada, continental Europe, India, Indonesia, Mauritius, the Philippines, South Africa, South America, and Thailand, as well as smaller, less developed employment markets such as Bhutan, the Caribbean, Madagascar, Nepal, Nigeria, Ukraine, Zambia, and Zimbabwe, among others. We advertise U.S. corporate and destination resort health and wellness center positions on a human resources applicant tracking system, which provides visibility toward all applicants, including diverse candidates.

Countries from which we recruited personnel during 2022 are highlighted in blue on the map below.




Talent Retention: Compensation and Benefits. We strive to provide competitive pay and benefits for our employees.

Shipboard health and wellness center employees typically are employed under nine month-long agreements with fixed terms. Our compensation structure includes commissions received in connection with the provision of services and sales of products in our health and wellness centers. We make available to all our shipboard employees comprehensive health and dental care, free of charge during the terms of their employment agreements, as well as long-term disability and accidental death coverage, among other benefits. We provide transportation for our shipboard employees to and from their home countries. Our shipboard employees and their families and friends enjoy discounts on the services and products we offer for sale, as well as personalized fitness and wellness programs. We have continuously improved staff retention, resulting in a more experienced staff across our fleet.

Our U.S. corporate and destination resort health and wellness center employees are eligible to receive Company sponsored benefits, including medical, dental and vision insurance coverage, 401(k) retirement plan participation, personal short and long-term disability, critical illness coverage, flexible spending accounts, basic life insurance and basic accidental death and dismemberment coverage, medical indemnity, and off the job accident insurance, as well as family member life insurance and accidental death and dismemberment coverage. We also provide an employee assistance program free of charge to our employees and members of their households, offering face-to-face mental health counseling sessions with a local provider, legal assistance, financial consultations, resources and referrals for childcare assistance and adoption, eldercare, pet care, and consultations with fraud resolution specialists intended to prevent identity theft.

Training and Development. Our business proactively innovates to serve the ever-changing needs and desires of our cruise line and destination resort partners and their guests. To do so, we arm our employees with best-in-class training and development in emerging areas of health and wellness and encourage all of our employees to apply a mindset of innovation. We also operate in areas that are subject to regulation and licensing. To respond to these challenges, we have developed extensive training and licensing practices. Our efforts include training at our London Wellness Academy and our satellite training facilities in India, South Africa and the Philippines, ranging from two to six weeks depending on the profession and modality of each employee, onboard training for certain of our shipboard employees, and management training courses at our Coral Gables office. All our employees are required to complete sexual harassment training, and our shipboard employees also complete health and safety training upon boarding the vessels on which they serve. Certain shipboard employees also complete additional training on safe practices in providing our services, and training on cleaning and sanitization of our equipment and spa facilities. Our employees also receive training using our comprehensive manual entitled “Guidelines for Protection and Sanitization,” or “GPS,” prior to returning to work.

We train, support, and encourage our employees to progress through roles of increasing responsibility within our corporate structure during their tenures by providing numerous opportunities for development and training support. Most senior corporate positions are served by employees who began their careers as members of our shipboard health and wellness center teams. In our



offices, employees receive annual career development training through the Company’s state of the art learning management system featuring subject-specific learning modules relevant to our globally complex operations and diverse organization. Sustainability objectives are infused into our employee training and development curriculum and execution via eLearning modules for our shipboard staff, to limit our carbon footprint associated with the impact of in-person training. Our eLearning modules have also been an important component of our efforts to safely train our staff in a remote manner since the commencement of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Health and Safety. The health and safety of our employees is our highest priority. Upon the commencement of the COVID-19 pandemic, we conceived and implemented initiatives to mitigate risks to our employees. During the first and second quarters of 2020, in response to the near cessation of our operations due to COVID-19, we devised and implemented immediate and ongoing actions to mitigate the extraordinary and unprecedented adverse impact of the pandemic on our personnel. Our initiatives included coordinating with our cruise line partners to assure repatriating safely all of our 3,220 shipboard personnel to their families and homes around the world.
Succession Planning. The success of our business relies on the devoted and experienced leadership of our cruise ship and destination resort health and wellness center managers and our corporate leaders, both senior executives and operational managers. We continually strive to foster the personal and professional development of managers throughout the organization. As a result, as discussed under “Our People,” above, we have developed a strong group of leaders with lengthy tenures. The performance of our senior management team members is subject to ongoing monitoring and evaluation, intended to ensure efficient identification of potential successors and smooth transitions within the team.

Government Regulation


Our business is subject to certain international, U.S. federal, state and local laws, and regulations and policies in jurisdictions in which we operate. Such laws, regulations and policies impact areas of our business, including securities, anti-discrimination, anti-fraud, data protection and security. We are also subject to anti-corruption and bribery laws and government economic sanctions, including applicable regulations under the U.S. Treasury’s Office of Foreign Asset Control and the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”). The FCPA and similar anti-corruption and bribery laws in other jurisdictions generally prohibit companies and their intermediaries from making improper payments to government officials for the purpose of obtaining or generating business.


Website Access to SEC Reports


Our website can be found at onespaworld.com. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, the websites referenced throughout this Annual Report on Form 10-K are not incorporated into this report. Further, references to website addresses throughout this Annual Report on Form 10-K are intended to be inactive textual references only.


We make available, free of charge through our website, our annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act as soon as is reasonably practicable after we electronically file them with, or furnish them to, the Securities and Exchange Commission.




An investment in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks described below before making an investment decision. Our business, prospects, financial condition, or operating results could be harmed, and have been harmed, by any of these risks, as well as other risks not currently known to us or that we currently consider immaterial. The trading price of our securities could decline, and has declined, due to any of these risks, and, as a result, you may lose all or part of your investment.


Risks Related to Our Business


Actual or Threatened Epidemics or Pandemics may Have an Adverse Effect on our Business, Financial Condition and Results of Operations


Pandemics have had in the past, and may continue to have in the future, an adverse impact on our business, operations, results of operations and financial condition, including liquidity. We could become subject to actions taken by governments, businesses and individuals in response to the recent pandemic or future pandemics, including limiting or banning travel and cruises. A recurrence of



the recent pandemic or future pandemics could have a negative impact on global and regional economies and economic activity, including an impact on unemployment rates and consumer discretionary spending, a short and/or longer-term impact on the demand for travel, transient and group business, and levels of consumer confidence. A recurrence of the recent pandemic or future pandemics could also present a significant threat to our employees’ well-being and morale, which may impact employee productivity and employee retention.

In response to the recent pandemic, we took steps to reduce expenses, including repatriating our shipboard staff, furloughing certain destination resort health and wellness center personnel, capital expenditures and operating expenses, deferring payment of dividends declared and the suspension of our dividend program. If we were required to take such steps again in the future, guest loyalty, customer preferences, or our ability to attract and retain employees, destination resort partners or investors, may be negatively impacted, and our reputation and market share could suffer as a result. We may also incur additional costs if we are subject to greater hygiene-related protocols in our services that are mandated by government authorities or other international authorities. In addition, the industry as a whole may be subject to enhanced health and hygiene requirements in attempts to counteract future outbreaks, which requirements may be costly and take a significant amount of time to implement.

The recent pandemic caused, and future pandemics may again cause, heightened volatility and disruptions in the global credit and financial markets, and this may adversely affect our ability to borrow and could increase our counterparty credit risks. Additionally, future pandemics may have adverse negative impacts on restrictions in the agreements governing our indebtedness that require us to maintain minimum levels of liquidity and otherwise limit our flexibility in operating our business, including the significant portion of assets that are collateral under these agreements.

Some credit agencies may downgrade our credit ratings in the future as a result of a pandemic. If our credit ratings are downgraded, or if general market conditions were to ascribe a higher risk to our credit rating levels, our industry, or our company, our access to capital and the cost of debt financing could be negatively impacted. The interest rate we pay on our existing debt instruments is affected by our credit ratings. Accordingly, a downgrade may cause our cost of borrowing to further increase.

We Depend on Our Agreements with Cruise Lines and Destination Resort Health and Wellness Centers; if These Agreements Terminate, Our Business Would Be Harmed

A significant portion of our revenues are generated from our cruise ship health and wellness operations, which were adversely impacted by the recent pandemic, and could be adversely impacted again by pandemics in the future. In the event our cruise line and destination resort agreements are not renewed after their expiration date on similar terms or at all, which could result in reductions in our margins, as the amounts we pay to cruise lines and land-based venues may increase upon entering into renewals of agreements.

In addition, these agreements provide for termination by the cruise lines with limited or no advance notice under certain circumstances, including, among other things, the withdrawal of a ship from the cruise trade, the sale or lease of a ship or our failure to achieve specified passenger service standards. Due to the impact of the recent pandemic, six vessels on which we operated health and wellness centers were taken out of service permanently by our cruise line partners, and 20 vessels on which we operated health and wellness centers prior to the pandemic were sold to other cruise line operators, including operators we currently serve. We are engaged in discussions with these cruise line operators regarding agreements to continue operation of our health and wellness centers aboard these ships; however, there can be no assurance that we will execute satisfactory agreements in the future. Termination or nonrenewal of cruise line agreements, either upon completion of their terms or prior thereto, could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition. Some of our land-based destination resort health and wellness center agreements also provide for termination with limited advance notice under certain circumstances.

As a result of the consolidation of the cruise industry, the number of independent cruise lines has decreased in recent years, and this trend may continue. Also, some cruise lines have ceased operating and this may happen to other cruise lines in the future. As a result of these factors, a small number of cruise companies, all of which currently are our customers, dominate the cruise industry.

We Depend on the Cruise Industry and Their Risks Are Risks to Us

Prior to the recent pandemic, the cruise industry had never before experienced a complete cessation of its operations. The public concern over the recent pandemic, coupled with a drop in demand for international travel and leisure, and restrictions on international travel and immigration, adversely affected the demand for cruises. In addition, the recent pandemic caused, and may continue to cause, some cruise lines to declare bankruptcy or cause their lenders to declare a default, accelerate the related debt, or foreclose on collateral. Such bankruptcies, accelerations or foreclosures could, in some cases, result in the termination of our agreements with certain of our cruise line partners and eliminate our anticipated income and cash flows, which could negatively affect our results of operations. Cruise lines in bankruptcy may not have sufficient assets to pay us termination fees, other unpaid fees, or reimbursements



we are owed under their agreements with us. Even if some cruise lines do not declare bankruptcy, they may be unable or unwilling to pay us amounts to which we are entitled on a timely basis or at all. Cruise lines compete for consumer disposable leisure time dollars with virtually all other vacation alternatives. Demand for cruises is dependent on the underlying economic strength of the countries from which cruise lines source their passengers. Economic changes such as unemployment, economic uncertainty, and the threat of a global recession reduce disposable income or consumer confidence in the countries from which our cruise line partners source their passengers and have affected the demand for vacations, including cruise vacations, which are discretionary purchases.

According to CLIA, 51% of passengers in the global cruise industry were sourced from North America, our core market, from 2018 to 2020. Prior to the outbreak of COVID-19, there was also a growing number of passengers sourced from outside North America in markets such as Western Europe, Asia, Australasia and South America. A significant portion of the cruise industry’s growth is expected to come from expansion of markets outside of our core North American market. We believe that non-North American passengers spend less on our services and products than North American passengers.

Our health and wellness centers on ships operating in the North American market are currently our best performing centers, and there can be no assurance that we will be able to generate the same revenue performance in non-North American markets. Additionally, our cruise line partners dictate the itineraries and geographies where their ships sail, and they may change itineraries to be less favorable to our revenue performance.

Other recent trends are those of certain cruise lines reducing the number of cruises to certain long-standing destinations and replacing them with alternative exotic destinations, as well as extending the length of voyages. As the cruise industry continues to resume operations, such replacements and extensions could result in cruises producing lower revenues per voyage than produced in prior years, which may impact our revenues.

Accidents and other incidents involving cruise ships can materially adversely affect the cruise industry, as well as our results of operations and financial condition. Among other things, accidents reduce our revenues and increase the costs of our maritime-related insurance. In addition, accidents can adversely affect consumer demand for cruise vacations.

Other risks to the cruise industry include unscheduled withdrawals of ships from service, delays in new ship introductions, environmental violations by cruise lines, and restricted access of cruise ships to environmentally sensitive regions, hurricanes and other adverse weather conditions and increases in fuel costs. For example, in the past, hurricanes have caused the withdrawal of ships that we served from service for use in hurricane relief efforts, as well as the temporary closing of cruise ports and the destruction of facilities. A number of cruise ships have experienced outbreaks of illnesses such as norovirus, E.coli, measles and COVID-19 that have affected, at times, hundreds of passengers on a ship.

Severe weather conditions, both at sea and at ports of embarkation, also could adversely affect the cruise industry. The cruise industry also relies to a significant extent on airlines to transport passengers to ports of embarkation. A drastic reduction in airline services, and travel and immigration related restrictions due to the impacts of the recent pandemic, have adversely affected us. In addition, any strikes or other disruptions of airline service, including those that could follow terrorist attacks or armed hostilities, could adversely affect the ability of cruise passengers or our shipboard staff to reach their ports of embarkation, or could cause cancellation of cruises.

Cruise ships have increasingly had, and are expected to continue to have, itineraries which provide for the ships to be in port during cruises. When cruise ships are in port, our revenues are adversely affected compared with our revenues when cruise ships are at sea.

Cruise ships periodically go into dry-dock for routine maintenance, repairs and refurbishment for periods ranging from one to three weeks. Cruise ships also may be taken out of service unexpectedly for non-routine maintenance and repairs as a result of damage from an accident or otherwise, such as the Oasis of the Seas and Carnival Horizon incidents in 2019 and 2021, respectively. A ship also may go out of service with respect to us if it is transferred to a cruise line we do not serve or if it is retired from service. While we attempt to plan appropriately for the scheduled removal from service of ships we serve, unexpected removals from service of ships we serve can hamper the efficient distribution of our shipboard personnel, in addition to causing unexpected reductions in our shipboard revenues.

The cruise lines’ capacity has grown in recent years and is expected to continue to grow over the next few years as new ships are introduced. In order to utilize the new capacity, it is likely that the cruise industry will need to increase its share of the overall vacation market. In order to increase that market share, cruise lines may be required to offer discounted fares to prospective passengers, which would have the potentially adverse effects on us described above.



We Are Required to Make Minimum Payments under Our Agreements and May Face Increasing Payments to Cruise Lines and Owners of Our Destination Resort Health and Wellness Centers

We are obligated to make minimum annual payments to certain cruise lines and owners of our land-based venues regardless of the amount of revenues we receive from customers. We may also be required to make such minimum annual payments under any future agreements into which we enter. Accordingly, we could be obligated to pay more in minimum payments than the amount we collect from customers. As of December 31, 2022, these payments were required by four of the agreements for our destination resort health and wellness centers.

As of December 31, 2022, we guaranteed total minimum payments to owners of our land-based venues of approximately $2.9 million in the aggregate for 2022. As we renew or enter into new agreements with cruise lines and land-based venues, we may experience increases in such required payments. As of December 31, 2022, there were no minimum payments guarantee amounts to cruise lines.

We Depend on the Continued Viability of the Ships and Destination Resort Health and Wellness Centers We Serve


Our revenues from our shipboard guests and guests at our destination resort health and wellness centers can only be generated if the ships and land-based venues we serve are open for business and continue to operate. Historically, some smaller cruise lines we served have ceased operating for economic reasons. We cannot be assured of the continued viability of any of the land-based venues (including our ability to protect our investments in build-outs of health and wellness centers) or cruise lines that we serve, particularly in the event of recurrence of the more severe aspects of the economic slowdown experienced in certain prior years, which may recur due to a future pandemic or other disruptions. To the extent that cruise lines or land-based venues we serve, or could potentially serve in the future, cease to operate all or a portion of their operations, our results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.


Increased Costs Could Adversely Impact our Financial Results


To date we have incurred, and expect to continue to incur, significant costs due to the recent pandemic, including costs relating to transportation, including repatriation, of our staff, and hygiene-related protocols in our services that are mandated by government authorities or other international authorities. In addition, we expect that the industry as a whole will continue to be subject to enhanced health and hygiene requirements, which requirements may be costly and take a significant amount of time to implement across our global fleet of cruise operations.


Periods of higher fuel costs can adversely affect us directly. We depend on commercial airlines for the transportation of our shipboard employees to and from the ships we serve and, as a result, we pay for a relatively large number of flights for these employees each year. During times of higher fuel costs, such as those experienced in certain prior years, airfares, including those applicable to the transportation of our employees, have been increased by the airlines we have utilized. Additionally, increased fuel costs could also add to the costs of delivery of our products to the ships we serve and other destinations in the future. Higher fuel charges also increase the cost to consumers of transportation to cruise ship destination ports and to venues where we operate our destination resort health and wellness centers, and also increase the cost of utilities at our destination resort health and wellness centers. Periods of increasing fuel costs would likely cause these transportation costs to correspondingly increase. Extended periods of increased airfares could adversely impact our results of operations and financial condition.

Increases in prices of other commodities utilized by us in our business could adversely affect us. For example, in certain prior years, as a result of increases in the cost of cotton, the cost to us of linens and uniforms utilized in our operations has increased. Our land-based health and wellness operations also have experienced an increase in the cost of electrical utilities. Increases in minimum wage obligations in jurisdictions where we employ personnel have also affected us directly and could adversely impact our results of operation and financial condition.

We Depend on Our Key Officers and Qualified Employees


Our continued success will depend to a significant extent on our senior executive officers, including Leonard Fluxman, our Executive Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer, Stephen Lazarus, our Chief Financial Officer and Chief Operating Officer, and Susan Bonner, our Chief Commercial Officer. The unanticipated loss of the services of any of these persons or other key management personnel, due to illness, resignation or otherwise could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Our success is dependent on our ability to recruit and retain personnel qualified to perform our services. Shipboard employees typically are employed pursuant to agreements with terms of nine months. Our land-based health and wellness employees generally



are employed without contracts, on an at-will basis. Other providers of shipboard health and wellness services compete with us for shipboard personnel. We also compete with destination resort health and wellness centers and other employers for our shipboard and land-based health and wellness personnel. Our inability to attract a sufficient number of qualified personnel in the future to provide our services and products could adversely impact our results of operations and financial condition. In addition, due to the impacts of the recent pandemic, the immigration approval processes in the United States experienced severe backlog and may in the future proceed at a slower pace than previously had been the case. Since many of our shipboard employees are not United States citizens, continuation or exacerbation of this trend of immigration restrictions could adversely affect our ability to meet our shipboard staffing needs on a timely basis.

Almost all of our shipboard personnel come from jurisdictions outside the United States. Our ability to obtain non-United States shipboard employees in the future is subject to regulations in certain countries from which we source a number of our employees and, in the case of one country, control by an employment company that acts on behalf of employees and potential employees from that country. In addition, in that country, we are required to deal with local employment companies to facilitate the hiring of employees. Our ability to obtain shipboard employees from those countries on economic terms that are acceptable to us may be hampered by our inability to enter into an acceptable agreement with the applicable local employment company.

In addition, the various jurisdictions where we operate our health and wellness centers have their own licensing or similar requirements applicable to our employees, which could affect our ability to open new health and wellness centers on a timely basis or adequately staff existing health and wellness centers. The ship we serve that is United States-based also is subject to United States labor law requirements that can result in delays in obtaining adequate staffing.

Possible Adverse Changes in United States or Foreign Tax Laws or Changes in Our Business Could Increase Our Taxes




We are a Bahamas international business company (“IBC”) that owns, among other entities, OneSpaWorld (Bahamas) Limited (formerly known as Steiner Transocean Limited) (“OneSpaWorld (Bahamas)”), our principal subsidiary and a Bahamas IBC that conducts our shipboard operations, primarily outside United States waters (which constitutes most of our shipboard activities), and One Spa World LLC, a Florida limited liability company that performs administrative services in connection with our operations in exchange for fees from OneSpaWorld (Bahamas) and other subsidiaries.


We also own, directly or indirectly, the shares of additional subsidiaries organized in the United States, the United Kingdom and other taxable jurisdictions, as well as subsidiaries organized in jurisdictions that do not subject the subsidiaries to taxation.

Currently, we and our non-United States subsidiaries are not subject to Bahamas income tax or other (including United States federal) income tax, except as set forth below. Our United States subsidiaries are subject to United States federal income tax as a consolidated group at a regular corporate rate of 21%. Generally, any dividends paid by our United States holding company to its parent, are subject to a 30% United States withholding tax. Other than as described below, we believe that none of the income generated by our non-United States subsidiaries should be effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States and, accordingly, that such income should not be subject to United States federal income tax.

A foreign corporation generally is subject to United States federal corporate income tax at a rate of 21% on its taxable income that is effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States (“effectively connected income” or “ECI”). A foreign corporation also can be subject to a branch profits tax of 30% imposed on “dividend equivalent amounts” of its after-tax earnings that are ECI.

ECI may include any type of income from sources within the United States (“U.S.-source income”), but only limited types of income from sources without the United States (“foreign-source income”). OneSpaWorld (Bahamas) has three types of income: income from the provision of health and wellness services, income from the sales of health and wellness products and income from leasing (at rates determined on an arm’s length basis) our shipboard employees and space to a United States subsidiary that performs health and wellness services and sells health and wellness products while the ships are in United States waters and pays OneSpaWorld (Bahamas) the amounts referenced above (the “U.S. Waters Activities”).

We believe that most of OneSpaWorld (Bahamas)’s shipboard income should be treated as foreign-source income under the U.S. Treasury Department regulations for determining the source of such income (the “source rule regulations”). This belief is based on the following:



all of the functions performed, resources employed and risks assumed in connection with the performance of the above-mentioned services and sales (other than OneSpaWorld (Bahamas)’s involvement in the U.S. Waters Activities) occur outside of the United States; and
income to OneSpaWorld (Bahamas) from the U.S. Waters Activities is ECI, and thus subject to United States income taxation, but constitutes a small percentage of OneSpaWorld (Bahamas)’s total income.

To the extent that our belief about the source of OneSpaWorld (Bahamas)’s shipboard income is correct, such income would not be ECI because such income is income of a character (compensation for services, gains on sales of certain property, and rental income from the lease of tangible property) that cannot be treated as ECI unless it is treated as U.S.-source income. However, OneSpaWorld (Bahamas)’s shipboard income generated while in port in The Bahamas is subject to the payment of a 10% VAT payable to the Bahamas Department of Inland Revenue.

The Risks to OneSpaWorld

Under United States Treasury Department regulations, as of January 1, 2007, all or a portion of OneSpaWorld (Bahamas)’s income for periods commencing on or after that date could be subject to United States federal income tax at a rate of up to 35% with respect to income earned prior to January 1, 2018 and 21% with respect to income earned thereafter:

to the extent the income from OneSpaWorld (Bahamas)’s shipboard operations that OneSpaWorld believes are performed outside of United States territorial waters is considered by the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) to be attributable to functions performed, resources employed or risks assumed within the United States or its possessions or territorial waters;
to the extent the income from OneSpaWorld (Bahamas)’s sale of health and wellness products for use, consumption, or disposition in international waters is considered by the IRS to be attributable to functions performed, resources employed or risks assumed within the United States, its possessions or territorial waters; or
to the extent that passage of title or transfer of ownership of products sold by OneSpaWorld (Bahamas) for use, consumption or disposition outside international waters, takes place in the United States or a United States office materially participates in such sales.

If OneSpaWorld (Bahamas) were considered to be a controlled foreign corporation (“CFC”) for purposes of the source rule regulations, any of its shipboard income would be considered U.S.-source income and would be subject to United States federal income tax unless such income is attributable to functions performed, resources employed or risks assumed in a foreign country or countries.

A foreign corporation is a CFC if more than 50% of (i) the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote or (ii) the total value of the stock of such corporation is owned or considered as owned by “United States shareholders” (“U.S. shareholders”) on any day during the taxable year of such corporation. A “U.S. Shareholder,” generally, means a “United States person” (“U.S. person”) who owns directly, indirectly or constructively at least 10% of the voting power or value of the stock of a foreign corporation. A “U.S. person” is a citizen or resident of the United States, a domestic partnership, a domestic corporation, any domestic estate or a trust over which a United States court is able to exercise administrative supervision and over which one or more U.S. persons have authority to control all substantial decisions.

Under certain “downward attribution” rules made applicable by a provision of Pub. L. No. 115-97, enacted December 22, 2017 (known as the “Tax Cuts and Jobs Act” (“TCJA”)), to determine the CFC status of a foreign corporate subsidiary of a foreign parent corporation that also has a U.S. subsidiary, the foreign subsidiary may in certain circumstances be treated as a CFC based solely on its brother-sister relationship to the U.S. subsidiary. However, on September 22, 2020, the Federal Register published an amendment to the source rule regulations (the “2020 amendment”), providing that for purposes of that regulation, the status of a foreign corporation as a CFC or not is determined without regard to the above-mentioned provision of the TCJA. The 2020 amendment applies to taxable years of foreign corporations ending on or after October 1, 2019. For taxable years of foreign corporations ending before October 1, 2019, a taxpayer may apply such provisions to the last taxable year of a foreign corporation beginning before January 1, 2018, and each subsequent taxable year of the foreign corporation, provided that the taxpayer and U.S. persons that are related (within the meaning of section 267 or 707) to the taxpayer consistently apply such provisions with respect to all foreign corporations.

Accordingly, solely for purposes of the source rule regulations, we believe that OneSpaWorld (Bahamas) should not be characterized as a CFC. This should allow us to treat most of our shipboard income, which is earned by a foreign corporation that



would not be a CFC but for the TCJA provision referred to above, to be foreign source income to the same extent as income earned by a foreign corporation that is not a CFC.

If OneSpaWorld (Bahamas) is subject to United States federal income tax (at a rate of 21%) on its income that is ECI, it also would be subject to a branch profits tax of 30% on its annual dividend equivalent amount (a measure of its after-tax earnings that are considered to be withdrawn, from its United States business).

Certain non-United States jurisdictions may also assert that OneSpaWorld (Bahamas)’s income is subject to their income tax.

Some of our United Kingdom, Bahamas and United States subsidiaries provide goods and/or services to us and certain of our other subsidiaries. The United Kingdom or United States tax authorities may assert that some or all of these transactions do not contain arm’s length terms. In that event, income or deductions could be reallocated among our subsidiaries in a manner that could increase the United Kingdom or United States tax on us. This reallocation also could result in the imposition of interest and penalties.

We cannot assure you that the tax laws on which we have relied to minimize our income taxes will remain unchanged in the future.

Our land-based operations, the income from which is generally taxable, have significantly increased and we intend to consider land-based opportunities in the future (though we cannot assure you that we will be successful in finding appropriate opportunities). To the extent that we are able to effectively implement this strategy, the amount of our income that is subject to tax would increase.

The Success of Health and Wellness Centers Depends on the Hospitality Industry


We are dependent on the hospitality industry for the success of destination resort centers. The public concern over the recent pandemic, coupled with a drop in demand for international travel and leisure, and restrictions on international travel and immigration have adversely affected the hospitality industry. To the extent that consumers do not choose to stay at venues where we operate health and wellness centers, over which we have no control, our business, operations, results of operations and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.


The considerations described above regarding the effects of adverse economic conditions on the cruise industry apply similarly to the hospitality industry, including the destination resorts where we have operations. Periods of economic slowdown result in reduced destination resort occupancy rates and decreased spending by destination resort guests, including at the destination resorts where we operate health and wellness centers. The recurrence of challenging economic conditions, as well as instances of increased fuel costs, which have occurred in certain prior years, could result in lower destination resort occupancy, which would have a direct, adverse effect on the number of destination resort guests that purchase our health and wellness services and products at the venues in question. Accordingly, such lower occupancy rates at the destination resorts we serve could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.

The following are other risks related to the hospitality industry:

changes in the national, regional and local conditions (including major national or international terrorist attacks, armed hostilities, such as the recent invasion of Ukraine, or other significant adverse events, including an oversupply of hotel properties or a reduction in demand for hotel rooms);
the possible loss of funds expended for build-outs of health and wellness centers at venues that fail to open, underperform or close due to economic slowdowns or otherwise;
the attractiveness of the venues to consumers and competition from comparable venues in terms of, among other things, accessibility and cost;
the outbreaks of illnesses, such as the recent pandemic, or the perceived risk of such outbreaks, in locations where we operate land-based health and wellness centers or locations from which guests of such wellness centers are sourced;
weather conditions, including natural disasters, such as earthquakes, hurricanes, tsunamis and floods, which may be exacerbated due to climate change;
possible labor unrest or changes in economics based on collective bargaining activities;



changes in ownership, maintenance or room rates of, or popular travel patterns and guest demographics at the venues we serve;
possible conversion of guest rooms at hotels to condominium units and the decrease in health and wellness center usage that often accompanies such conversions, and the related risk that condominium hotels are less likely to be suitable venues for our health and wellness centers;
reductions in destination resort occupancy during major renovations or as a result of damage or other causes;
acquisition by destination resort chains of health and wellness service providers to create captive “in-house” brands and development by destination resort chains of their own proprietary health and wellness service providers, reducing the opportunity for third-party health and wellness providers like us; and
the financial condition of the airline industry, which has eliminated or reduced airline service to locations where we operate destination resort facilities, which has resulted and could continue to result in fewer guests at those venues.

We Compete with Passenger Activity Alternatives

We compete with passenger activity alternatives on cruise ships and with competing providers of services and products similar to our services and products seeking agreements with cruise lines. Casinos, bars and a variety of shops are found on almost all of the ships served by us. In addition, ships dock in ports which provide opportunities for additional shopping as well as other activities that compete with us for passenger attention and disposable income, and cruise ships are increasingly offering itineraries providing for greater numbers of port days. Cruise ships also typically offer swimming pools and other recreational facilities and activities, as well as musical and other entertainment, all without additional charge to the passengers. Certain cruise lines we serve and have formerly served have engaged the services of third parties or their own personnel for the operation of the health and wellness centers for all or some of their ships. Additional cruise lines could take similar actions in the future. In addition, there are certain other entities offering services in the cruise industry similar to those provided by us and we may not be able to serve new cruise ships that come into service and that are not covered by our cruise line agreements.

Many of the land-based venues that we serve or may serve in the future offer recreational entertainment facilities and activities similar to those offered on cruise ships, often without additional charge to guests. A number of the hotels we serve also offer casino gambling. These activities and facilities compete with us for customer time and disposable income. Our destination resort health and wellness centers also compete with other health and wellness centers in their vicinities, as well as with other beauty, relaxation or other therapeutic alternatives. These include salons that offer these services at prices significantly lower than those charged by us. We believe, however, that the prices charged by us are appropriate for the quality of the experience we provide in our respective markets. In addition, we also compete, both for customers and for contracts with hotels, with health and wellness centers and beauty salons owned or operated by companies that have offered their destination resort health and wellness services longer than we have, some of which enjoy greater name recognition with customers and prospective customers than health and wellness centers operated by us. Also, a number of these health and wellness center operators may have greater resources than we do. Further, some hotel operators provide health and wellness services themselves. If we are unable to compete effectively in one or more areas of our operations, our results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.

Risks Relating to Non-U.S. Operations and Hostilities

The cruise lines we serve operate in waters and call on ports throughout the world and our destination resort health and wellness centers are located in a variety of countries. Operating internationally exposes us to a number of risks, including increased exposure to a wider range of regional and local economic conditions, volatile local political conditions, potential changes in duties and taxes, including changing and/or uncertain interpretations of existing tax laws and regulations, required compliance with additional laws and policies affecting cruising, vacation or maritime businesses or governing the operations of foreign-based companies, currency fluctuations, interest rate movements, difficulties in operating under local business environments, port quality and availability in certain regions, U.S. and global anti-bribery laws or regulations, imposition of trade barriers and restrictions on repatriation of earnings.

Operating globally also exposes us to numerous and sometimes conflicting legal, regulatory and tax requirements. In many parts of the world, including countries in which we operate, practices in the local business communities might not conform to international business standards. We must adhere to policies designed to promote legal and regulatory compliance as well as applicable laws and regulations. However, we might not be successful in ensuring that our employees, agents, representatives and other third parties with whom we associate throughout the world properly adhere to them. Failure by us, our employees or any of these third parties to adhere



to our policies or applicable laws or regulations could result in penalties, sanctions, damage to our reputation and related costs which in turn could negatively affect our results of operations and cash flows.

As a global operator, our business may also be impacted by changes in U.S. policy or priorities in areas such as trade, immigration and/or environmental or labor regulations, among others. Depending on the nature and scope of any such changes, they could impact our domestic and international business operations. Any such changes, and any international response to them, could potentially introduce new barriers to passenger or crew travel and/or cross border transactions, impact our guest experience and/or increase our operating costs.

The waters and countries in which we operate include geographic regions that, from time to time, experience political and civil unrest and armed hostilities. Political unrest in areas where we operate health and wellness centers also has adversely affected our operations and continued political unrest in the Middle East has adversely affected the travel industry in that region. The threat of additional attacks and of armed hostilities internationally, such as the hostilities in Eastern Europe and Ukraine, or locally, may cause prospective travelers to cancel their plans, including plans for cruise or land-based venue vacations. Weaker cruise industry and land-based venue performance could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.

Increasing Scrutiny and Changing Expectations From Investors, Lenders, Customers, Government Regulators and Other Market Participants with Respect to our Environmental, Social and Governance (“ESG”) Policies and Activities may Impose Additional Costs on us or Expose us to Additional Risks.

Companies across all industries and around the globe are facing increasing scrutiny relating to their ESG policies and activities. Investors, lenders and other market participants are increasingly focused on ESG practices and in recent years have placed increasing importance on the implications and social cost of their investments. Investment in funds that specialize in companies that perform well in assessments performed by ESG raters are increasingly popular, and major institutional investors have emphasized the importance of such ESG measures to their investment decisions. Responding to ESG considerations, including diversity and inclusion, environmental stewardship, support for local communities, labor conditions and human rights, ethics and compliance with law and corporate governance and transparency, and implementing goals and initiatives involve risks and uncertainties and depend in part on third-party performance or data that is outside our control.


In February 2021, the Acting Chair of the SEC issued a statement directing the Division of Corporation Finance to enhance its focus on climate-related disclosure in public company filings and in March 2021 the SEC announced the creation of a Climate and ESG Task Force in the Division of Enforcement. We risk damage to our brand and reputation or limited access to capital markets and loans, if we fail to adapt to or comply with investor, lender or other stakeholder expectations and standards and potential government regulation in a number of areas, such as diversity and inclusion, environmental stewardship, support for local communities, and corporate governance and transparency. In addition, compliance with standards and regulation may result in additional costs.

Increased Severe Weather, Including as A Result of Climate Change, Can Disrupt Our Operations


Our operations may be impacted by adverse weather patterns or other natural disasters, such as hurricanes, earthquakes, floods, fires, tornadoes, tsunamis, typhoons and volcanic eruptions. Most scientists have concluded that increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the Earth’s atmosphere that contribute to climate change could have significant physical effects on weather conditions, such as increased frequency and severity of hurricanes, storms, droughts, floods, and other climatic events. It is possible that cruises we serve could be forced to alter itineraries or cancel a cruise or a series of cruises or tours due to these or other factors. Extreme weather events, such as hurricanes, floods and typhoons, may not only cause disruption, alteration, or cancellation of cruises and closures of destination resort health and wellness centers but may also adversely impact commercial airline flights and other transport or prevent certain individuals from electing to utilize our offerings altogether. In addition, these extreme weather conditions could result in increased wave and wind activity, which would make it more challenging to sail and dock ships and could cause sea/motion sickness among guests and crew on the ships we serve. These events could have an adverse impact on the safety and satisfaction of cruising and could have an adverse impact on our net revenue yields and profitability. Additionally, these extreme weather conditions could impact our ability to provide our cruise products and services as well as to obtain insurance coverage for operations in such areas at reasonable rates.

Risk of Early Termination of Land-Based Health and Wellness Center Agreements


A number of our land-based health and wellness center agreements provide that landlords may terminate the agreement prior to its expiration date (provided, in some cases, that we receive certain compensation with respect to our build-out expenses and earnings lost as a result of such termination). While we always attempt to negotiate the best deal we can in this regard, we may not be able to successfully negotiate a termination fee in any of our future agreements or that any amounts we would receive in connection with such



termination accurately reflects the economic value of the assets we would be leaving behind as a result of such termination. In addition, in the event of certain terminations of an agreement with a land-based venue, such as by the venue operator after our breach of an agreement, or as a result of the bankruptcy of a venue, even if we have a provision in our agreement providing for a termination payment, we could receive no compensation with respect to build-out expenditures we have incurred.


We also attempt to obtain terms in our land-based health and wellness center agreements that protect us in the event that the lessor’s lender forecloses and takes over the property in question. However, we cannot always obtain such protective “non-disturbance” terms. In the event that the lender to a land-based venue owner under an agreement where no such non-disturbance term is included forecloses on that property, our agreement could be terminated prior to the expiration of its term. In such case, in addition to the loss of income from that health and wellness center, we could lose the residual value of any investment we made to build out that facility.


Delays in New Ship Introductions Could Slow Our Growth


Our growth depends, in part, on our serving new cruise ships brought into service. A number of cruise lines we serve have experienced in the past and recently, and could experience in the future, delays in bringing new ships into service. In addition, there is a limited number of shipyards in the world capable of constructing large cruise ships in accordance with the standards of major cruise lines. This also may contribute to delays in new ship construction. Such delays could slow our growth and have an adverse impact on our results of operations and financial condition.

Changes in and Compliance with Laws and Regulations Relating to Environment, Health, Safety, Security, Data Privacy and Protection, Tax and Anti-Corruption Under Which We Operate May Lead to Litigation, Enforcement Actions, Fines, or Penalties


We are subject to numerous international, national, state and local laws, regulations and treaties, including social issues, health and safety, security, data privacy and protection, and tax, among other matters. Failure to comply with these laws, regulations, treaties and agreements has led and could lead to enforcement actions, fines, civil or criminal penalties or the assertion of litigation claims and damages. We are required to coordinate and cooperate with the CDC, U.S. and other nation governments, and global public health authorities to take precautions to protect the health, safety and security of guests and shipboard personnel and implement certain precautions. New legislation, regulations or treaties, or changes thereto, could impact our operations and would likely subject us to increased compliance costs in the future. We could also be subject to litigation alleging non-compliance with the new legislation. In addition, training of crew may become more time consuming and may increase our operating costs due to increasing regulatory and other requirements.


Environmental laws and regulations or liabilities arising from past or future releases of, or exposure to, hazardous substances or vessel discharges, including ballast water and waste disposal, could materially adversely affect our business, profitability and financial condition. Some environmental groups have lobbied for more stringent regulation of cruise ships. Various agencies and regulatory organizations have enacted or are considering new regulations or policies, such as stricter emission limits to reduce greenhouse gas effects, which could adversely impact the cruise industry.

Our guest and employee relationships provide us with access to sensitive data. We are subject to laws and requirements related to the treatment and protection of such sensitive data. We may be subject to legal liability and reputational damage if we do not comply with data privacy and protection regulations. Various governments, agencies and regulatory organizations have enacted and are considering new regulations and implementation of rules for existing regulations. Additional requirements could negatively impact our ability to market cruises to consumers and increase our costs.

Among other regulations, we are subject to the European Union General Data Protection Regulation (“EU GDPR”) and UK General Data Protection Regulation (“UK GDPR”), which impose significant obligations to businesses that sell products or services to EU and UK customers or otherwise control or process personal data of EU or UK residents. Should we violate or not comply with the EU GDPR or the UK GDPR, or any other applicable laws or regulations, contractual requirements relating to data security and privacy, either intentionally or unintentionally, or through the acts of intermediaries, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations, as well as subject us to significant fines, litigation, losses, third-party damages and other liabilities.

We are subject to the examination of our income tax returns by tax authorities in the jurisdictions where we operate. There can be no assurance that the outcome from these examinations will not adversely affect our profitability.

As budgetary constraints continue to adversely impact the jurisdictions in which we operate, increases in income or other taxes affecting our operations may be imposed. Some social activist groups have lobbied for more taxation on income generated by cruise



companies. Certain groups have also generated negative publicity for us. In recent years, certain members of the U.S. Congress have proposed various forms of legislation that would result in higher taxation on income generated by cruise companies.

Our global operations subject us to potential liability under anti-corruption, economic sanctions, and other laws and regulations. The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the UK Bribery Act and other anti-corruption laws and regulations (“Anti-Corruption Laws”) prohibit corrupt payments by our employees, vendors, or agents. While we devote substantial resources to our global compliance programs and have implemented policies, training, and internal controls designed to reduce the risk of corrupt payments, our employees, vendors, or agents may violate our policies. Our failure to comply with Anti-Corruption Laws could result in significant fines and penalties, criminal sanctions against us, our officers, or our employees, prohibitions or limitations on the conduct of our business, and damage to our reputation. Operations outside the U.S. may also be affected by changes in economic sanctions, trade protection laws, policies, and other regulatory requirements affecting trade and investment. We may be subject to legal liability and reputational damage if we improperly sell goods or otherwise operate improperly in areas subject to economic sanctions such as Crimea, Iran, North Korea, Cuba, Sudan, and Syria, or if we improperly engage in business transactions with persons subject to economic sanctions.

These various international laws and regulations could lead and have led to enforcement actions, fines, civil or criminal penalties or the assertion of litigation claims and damages. In addition, improper conduct by our employees or agents could damage our reputation and lead to litigation or legal proceedings that could result in significant awards or settlements to plaintiffs and civil or criminal penalties, including substantial monetary fines. Such events could lead to an adverse impact on our financial condition or profitability, even if the monetary damage is mitigated by our insurance coverage.

As a result of ship or other incidents, litigation claims, enforcement actions and regulatory actions and investigations, including, without limitation, those arising from personal injury, loss of life, loss of or damage to personal property, business interruption losses or environmental damage to any affected coastal waters and the surrounding areas, may be asserted or brought against various parties, including us. The time and attention of our management may also be diverted in defending such claims, actions and investigations. We may also incur costs both in defending against any claims, actions and investigations and for any judgments, fines, or civil or criminal penalties if such claims, actions or investigations are adversely determined and not covered by our insurance policies.

We Could be Subject to Governmental Investigations or Penalties, Legal Proceedings, Litigation, and Class Actions that Could Adversely Impact our Reputation, Financial Condition, and Results of Operations


Legal proceedings or litigation against us brought by our employees, customers, cruise line partners, resort partners, shareholders, creditors or others could lead to tangible adverse effects on our business, including damages payments, payments under settlement agreements and fines. Disagreements with our cruise line or destination resort partners could also result in litigation. The nature of our responsibilities under our agreements with cruise line and destination resort partners enforce the standards required for our brands and may be subject to interpretation and will from time to time give rise to disagreements, which may include disagreements over the need for payments, reimbursements and other costs. We seek to resolve any disagreements to develop and maintain positive relations with current and potential cruise line and destination resort partners, but we cannot provide assurance that we can always do so. Failure to resolve such disagreements may result in litigation in the future. If any such litigation results in an adverse judgment, settlement, or court order, we could suffer significant losses, our profits could be reduced, or our future ability to operate our business could be constrained.

While payments under some claims and lawsuits, or settlements of claims and lawsuits, may be covered by insurance such that the maximum amount of our liability, net of any insurance recoverable, could be typically limited to our self-insurance retention levels, we cannot guaranty such an outcome in all instances.

Product Liability and Other Potential Claims Could Adversely Affect Us


The nature and use of our products and services could give rise to liability if a customer were injured while receiving one of our services. Guests at our health and wellness centers could be injured, among other things, in connection with their use of our fitness equipment, sauna facilities or other facilities. If any of these events occurred, we could incur substantial litigation expense and be required to make payments in connection with settlements of claims or as a result of judgments against us.


We maintain insurance to cover a number of risks associated with our business. While we seek to obtain comprehensive insurance coverage at commercially reasonable rates, we cannot be certain that appropriate insurance will be available to us in the future on commercially reasonable terms or at all. Our insurance policies are subject to coverage limit, exclusions and deductible levels and are subject to non-renewal upon termination at the option of the applicable insurance company. Our inability to obtain insurance coverage at commercially reasonable rates for the potential liabilities that we face could have a material adverse effect on



our results of operations and financial condition. In addition, in connection with insured claims, we bear the risks associated with the fact that insurers often control decisions relating to pre-trial settlement of claims and other significant aspects of claims and their decisions may prove to not be in our best interest in all cases.

We believe that our current coverage is adequate to protect us against most of the significant risks involved in the conduct of our business, but we self-insure or use higher deductibles for various risks. Accordingly, we are not protected against all risks (including failures by third-party service providers such as insurance brokers to fulfill their duties), which could result in unexpected increases in our expenses in the event of certain claims against us.

If the types of services we offer increase, the potential for claims against us also could increase. We self-insure potential claims regarding certain of our medi-spa services. High visibility claims also could cause us to receive adverse publicity and suffer a loss of sales, and, therefore, our results of operations and financial condition could be materially adversely affected in such cases. We are, and may in the future be, subject to other legal proceedings, including claims presented as class actions. Litigation is subject to many uncertainties, and we cannot predict the outcome of individual matters. It is reasonably possible that the final resolution of these matters could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.

Our Indebtedness Could Adversely Affect Our Financial Condition and Ability to Operate and We May Incur Additional Debt


As of December 31, 2022, we have $215.7 million of secured indebtedness under our First Lien Term Loan Facility and Second Lien Term Loan Facility, and our First Lien Revolving Facility (collectively, the “Credit Facilities”). Our debt level and the terms of our financing arrangements could adversely affect our financial condition and limit our ability to successfully implement our growth strategies. In addition, under the Credit Facilities, certain of our direct and indirect subsidiaries have granted the lenders a security interest in substantially all of their assets. Our ability to meet our debt service obligations will depend on our future performance, which will be affected by the other risk factors described herein. If we do not generate enough cash flow to pay our debt service obligations, we may be required to refinance all or part of our existing debt, sell our assets, borrow more money or raise equity. We may not be able to take any of these actions on a timely basis, on terms satisfactory to us, or at all.


The Credit Facilities bear interest at variable rates. If market interest rates increase, variable rate debt will create higher debt service requirements, which could adversely affect our cash flow.

Our Credit Facilities Contain Financial and Other Covenants. The Failure to Comply with Such Covenants Could Have An Adverse Effect on Us

Our Credit Facilities contain certain financial covenants and a number of traditional negative covenants, including limitations on our ability to, among other things, incur and/or undertake asset sales and other dispositions, liens, indebtedness, certain acquisitions, and investments, consolidations, mergers, reorganizations and other fundamental changes, payment of dividends and other distributions to equity and warrant holders and prepayments of material subordinated debt, in each case, subject to customary exceptions. Any failure to comply with the restrictions of the Credit Facilities may result in an event of default under the agreements. If an event of default occurs, the lenders under the Credit Facilities are entitled to take various actions, including the acceleration of amounts due under the Credit Facilities and all actions permitted to be taken by a secured creditor, subject to customary intercreditor provisions among the first and second lien secured parties.

Our First and Second Lien Term Facilities Are Tied to LIBOR

The United Kingdom’s Financial Conduct Authority (the “FCA”), which regulates LIBOR, stopped persuading or compelling banks to submit LIBOR rates after 2021, and on December 31, 2021, ICE Benchmark Administration, the administrator of LIBOR, with the support of the Federal Reserve Board and the FCA, ceased publication of USD LIBOR for the one week and two month U.S. dollar LIBOR tenors. Publications related to all other LIBOR tenors will cease immediately on June 30, 2023. In the U.S, the Alternative Reference Rates Committee formally recommended the Secured Overnight Financing Rate, or “SOFR,” plus a recommended spread adjustment, as the replacement for USD LIBOR. The application of or transition to SOFR or any other alternative reference rate could increase our interest expense or may introduce operational risks in our accounting or financial reporting and other aspects of our business. As of December 31, 2022, we had $215.7 million in outstanding indebtedness tied to LIBOR and are currently renegotiating certain of our financing agreements.

Any of these occurrences could materially and adversely affect our borrowing costs, financial condition, and results of operations.



If We Are Unable to Execute Our Growth Strategies, Including Our Ability to Offer and Integrate New Services and Products, Our Business Could Be Adversely Affected


The demands of consumers with respect to health and wellness services and products continue to evolve. Among other things, there is a continuing trend to add services at health and wellness centers similar to those traditionally provided in medical facilities, including services relating to skin care. If we are unable to identify and capture new audiences, our ability to successfully integrate additional services and products will be adversely affected. Our ability to provide certain additional services depends on our ability to find appropriate third parties with whom to work in connection with these services and, in certain cases, could be dependent on our ability to fund substantial costs. We cannot assure that we will be able to find such appropriate third parties or be able to fund such costs. We also cannot assure that we will be able to continue to expand our health and wellness services sufficiently to keep up with consumer demand. Accordingly, we may not be able to successfully implement our growth strategies or continue to maintain sales at our current rate, or at all. If we fail to implement our growth strategies, our revenue and profitability may be negatively impacted, which would adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.


Our Business Could Be Adversely Affected if We Are Unable to Successfully Protect Our Trademarks or Obtain New Trademarks


The market for our services and products depends to a significant extent upon the value associated with our brand names. Although we take appropriate steps to protect our brand names, in the future, we may not be successful in asserting trademark protection in connection with our efforts to grow our business or otherwise due to the nature of certain of our marks or for other reasons. In addition, the laws of certain foreign countries may not protect our intellectual property rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States. The costs required to protect our trademarks and trade names may be substantial. If other parties infringe on our intellectual property rights, the value of our brands in the marketplace may be diluted. In addition, any infringement of our intellectual property rights would likely result in a commitment of our time and resources to protect these rights through litigation or otherwise. One or more adverse judgments with respect to these intellectual property rights could negatively impact our ability to compete and could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.


We Are Subject to Currency Risk


Fluctuations in currency exchange rates compared to the U.S. Dollar can impact our results of operations, most significantly because we pay for the administration of recruitment and training of our shipboard personnel in U.K. Pounds Sterling and Euros. Accordingly, while the relative strength of the U.S. Dollar has improved recently, renewed weakness of the U.S. Dollar against those currencies can adversely affect our results of operations, as has occurred in some recent years. To the extent that the U.K. Pound Sterling or the Euro is stronger than the U.S. Dollar, our results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.


We May Be Exposed to the Threat of Cyber Attacks and/or Data Breaches, which Could Cause Business Disruptions and Loss


Cyberattacks can vary in scope and intent from economically driven attacks to malicious attacks targeting our key operating systems with the intent to disrupt, disable or otherwise cripple our maritime and/or land-based operations. This can include any combination of phishing attacks, malware and/or viruses targeted at our key systems. The breadth and scope of this threat has grown over time, and the techniques and sophistication used to conduct cyberattacks, as well as the sources and targets of the attacks, change frequently. While we invest time, effort and capital resources to secure our key systems and networks, we cannot provide assurance that we will be successful in preventing or responding to all such attacks.

A successful cyberattack may target us directly, or may be the result of a third-party vendor’s inadequate care. In either scenario, we may suffer damage to our key systems and/or data that could interrupt our operations, adversely impact our reputation and brand and expose us to increased risks of governmental investigation, litigation and other liability, any of which could adversely affect our business. Furthermore, responding to such an attack and mitigating the risk of future attacks could result in additional operating and capital costs in systems technology, personnel, monitoring and other investments.

Even if we are fully compliant with legal and/or industry standards and any relevant contractual requirements, we still may not be able to prevent security breaches involving sensitive data and/or critical systems. Any breach, theft, loss, or fraudulent use of guest, employee, third-party or company data, could adversely impact our reputation and brand and our ability to retain or attract new customers, and expose us to risks of data loss, business disruption, governmental investigation, litigation and other liability, any of which could adversely affect our business. Significant capital investments and other expenditures could be required to remedy the problem and prevent future breaches, including costs associated with additional security technologies, personnel, experts and credit monitoring services for those whose data has been breached. Further, if we or our vendors experience significant data security breaches or fail to detect and appropriately respond to significant data security breaches, we could be exposed to government enforcement actions and private litigation.



Cybersecurity has become a top priority for regulators around the world, and some jurisdictions have enacted laws requiring companies to notify individuals of data security breaches involving certain types of personal data. In February 2018, the SEC issued guidance stating that public companies are expected to have controls and procedures that relate to cybersecurity disclosure, and are required under the federal securities laws to disclose information relating to certain cyber-attacks or other information security breaches. In March 2022, the SEC proposed new cybersecurity disclosure requirements intended to increase the transparency of publicly traded organizations’ cybersecurity practices, and has placed cybersecurity risk disclosure and compliance requirements on its rule-making agenda for 2023. If we fail to comply with the relevant laws and regulations relating to cybersecurity, we could suffer financial loss, a disruption of our business, liability to investors, regulatory intervention or reputational damage.

Changes in Privacy Law Could Adversely Affect Our Ability to Market Our Services Effectively


Our ability to market our services effectively is an important component of our business. We rely on a variety of direct marketing techniques, including telemarketing, email marketing, and direct mail. Any further restrictions under laws such as the Telemarketing Sales Rule, the CAN-SPAM Act of 2003, the EU and UK GDPR, and various United States state laws or new federal laws regarding marketing and solicitation, or international data protection laws that govern these activities, could adversely affect the continuing effectiveness of telemarketing, email, and postal mailing techniques and could force further changes in our marketing strategy. If this were to occur, we may be unable to develop adequate alternative marketing strategies, which could impact our ability to effectively market and sell our services.


If we fail to comply with the laws and regulations relating to the protection of data privacy, we could be exposed to suits for breach of contract or to governmental proceedings. In addition, our relationships and reputation could be harmed, which could inhibit our ability to retain existing cruise line and destination resort partners. Further, if more restrictive privacy laws or rules are adopted by authorities in the future, our compliance costs may increase and our ability to perform due diligence on, and monitor the risk of, our current and potential cruise line and destination resort partners may decrease, which could create liability for us. Additionally, our opportunities for growth may be curtailed by our compliance capabilities or reputational harm, and our potential liability for security breaches may increase.


Risks Related to Ownership of Our Securities


Steiner Leisure Owns a Significant Portion of Our Shares and Has Representation on Our Board; Steiner Leisure May Have Interests That Differ from Those of Other Shareholders


As of the date of this report, approximately 21% of our common shares are beneficially owned by Steiner Leisure. Two of our directors were nominated by Steiner Leisure, and as a result, Steiner Leisure may be able to significantly influence the outcome of matters submitted for director action, subject to our directors’ obligation to act in the interest of all of our shareholders, and for shareholder action, including the designation and appointment of the OneSpaWorld Board of Directors (and committees thereof) and approval of significant corporate transactions, including business combinations, consolidations and mergers. The influence of Steiner Leisure over our management could have the effect of delaying or preventing a change in control or otherwise discouraging a potential acquirer from attempting to obtain control of us, which could cause the market price of our common shares to decline or prevent our shareholders from realizing a premium over the market price for our common shares.




Under the “Business Opportunities” section of our Third Amended and Restated Memorandum of Association and Second Amended and Restated Articles of Association (our “Articles”), among other things, we have renounced any interest or expectancy of us or our subsidiaries being offered an opportunity to participate in any potential transaction opportunities available to Steiner Leisure and certain of its affiliates and related parties, such parties have no obligation to communicate or offer such potential transaction opportunities to us, and such parties will have no duty to refrain from engaging in the same or similar businesses as us. Prospective investors in our common shares should consider that the interests of Steiner Leisure may differ from their interests in material respects.


If We Fail to Maintain an Effective System of Internal Control over Financial Reporting, We May Not Be Able to Accurately Report Our Financial Results or Prevent Fraud; as a Result, Shareholders Could Lose Confidence in Our Financial and Other Public Reporting, Which Is Likely to Negatively Affect Our Business and the Market Price of Our Common Shares

Effective internal control over financial reporting is necessary for us to provide reliable financial reports and prevent fraud. Any failure to implement required new or improved controls, or difficulties encountered in our implementation could cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations. In addition, any testing conducted by us, or any testing conducted by our independent registered public accounting firm, may reveal deficiencies in our internal controls over financial reporting that are deemed to be material weaknesses or that may require prospective or retroactive changes to our financial statements or identify other areas for further attention or improvement. Inferior internal controls could also cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information, which is likely to negatively affect our business and the market price of our shares.

We are required to disclose changes made in our internal controls and procedures on a quarterly basis and our management is required to assess the effectiveness of these controls annually. However, for as long as we are an “emerging growth company” under the JOBS Act, our independent registered public accounting firm will not be required to attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. We could be an “emerging growth company” for up to five years following the date we became a public company, until 2024. In the event we satisfy certain requirements, including, without limitation, qualifying as a “large accelerated filer” due the aggregate market value of our common shares held by non-affiliates exceeding $700 million, our independent registered public accounting firm would be required to attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. An independent assessment of the effectiveness of our internal controls could detect problems that our management’s assessment might not. Undetected material weaknesses in our internal controls could lead to financial statement restatements and require us to incur the expense of remediation.

The Market Price and Trading Volume of Our Common Shares Has Been and May Continue to Be Volatile


The market price and trading volume of our common shares may be volatile and could decline significantly, as recently happened as a result of COVID-19 and related economic uncertainty. We cannot assure that the market price of our common shares will not fluctuate widely or decline significantly in the future in response to a number of factors, including, without limitation, the following:


the recurrence of the COVID-19 pandemic or emergence of a new epidemic or pandemic;
the realization of any of the risk factors presented in this Annual Report on Form 10-K;
actual or anticipated differences in our estimates, or in the estimates of analysts, for our revenues, results of operations, level of indebtedness, liquidity or financial condition;
performance and departures of key personnel;
failure to comply with the requirements of Nasdaq;
failure to comply with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act or other laws or regulations;
future issuances, sales or resales, or anticipated issuances, sales or resales, of our common shares;
publication of research reports about us, the cruise industry, or the hospitality industry generally;
the performance and market valuations of our cruise line partners and of companies in the travel leisure industry;



broad disruptions in the financial markets, as occurred as a result of the recent pandemic, including sudden disruptions in the credit markets;
speculation in the press or investment community with respect to the factors impacting our business, including the risk factors presented in this Annual Report on Form 10-K;
actual, potential or perceived operational and internal control, accounting or financial reporting issues; and
changes in accounting principles, policies and guidelines.

In the past, securities class-action litigation has been instituted against companies following periods of volatility in the market price of their shares. This type of litigation could result in substantial costs and divert our management’s attention and resources, materially adversely impacting our business, operations, results of operations, financial condition and liquidity.

If Securities or Industry Analysts Do Not Publish Research, Publish Inaccurate or Unfavorable Research or Cease Publishing Research About Us, Our Share Price and Trading Volume Could Decline Significantly


The market for our common shares will depend in part on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. If one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrade their opinions about our business or our common shares, publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about us, or cease publishing about us regularly, demand for our common shares could decrease, which might cause our share price and trading volume to decline significantly.


Future Issuances of Debt Securities and/or Equity Securities May Adversely Affect Us, Including the Market Price of Our Common Shares, and May Be Dilutive to Our Existing Shareholders


In the future, we may incur debt and/or issue equity ranking senior to our common shares. Those securities will generally have priority upon liquidation. Such securities also may be governed by an indenture or other instrument containing covenants restricting our operating flexibility. Additionally, any convertible or exchangeable securities that we issue in the future may have rights, preferences and privileges more favorable than those of our common shares. Because our decision to issue debt and/or equity in the future will depend, in part, on market conditions and other factors beyond our control, we cannot predict or estimate the amount, timing, nature or success of our future capital raising efforts. As a result, future capital raising efforts may reduce the market price of our common shares and be dilutive to our existing shareholders.


You May Have Difficulty Enforcing Judgments Against Us


We are an international business company incorporated under the laws of the Commonwealth of The Bahamas. A substantial portion of our assets are located outside the United States. As a result, it may be difficult or impossible to:


effect service of process within the United States upon us; or
enforce, against us, court judgments obtained in U.S. courts, including judgments relating to U.S. federal securities laws.

It is unlikely that Bahamian courts would entertain original actions against Bahamian companies, their directors or officers predicated solely upon U.S. federal securities laws. The Bahamian courts may apply any rule of Bahamian law which is mandatory irrespective of the governing law and may refuse to apply a rule of such governing law of the relevant documents, if it is manifestly incompatible with the public policy of The Bahamas. Furthermore, judgments based upon any civil liability provisions of the U.S. federal securities laws are not directly enforceable in The Bahamas. Rather, a lawsuit must be brought in The Bahamas on any such judgment. The courts of The Bahamas would recognize a U.S. judgment as a valid judgment, and permit the same to provide the basis of a fresh action in The Bahamas and should give a judgment based thereon without there being a re-trial or reconsideration of the merits of the case provided that (i) the courts in the United States had proper jurisdiction under Bahamian conflict of law rules over the parties subject to such judgment, (ii) the judgment is for a debt or definite sum of money other than a sum payable in respect of taxes or charges of a like nature or in respect of a fine or penalty, (iii) the U.S. courts did not contravene the rules of natural justice of The Bahamas, (iv) the judgment was not obtained by fraud on the part of the party in whose favor the judgment was given or of the court pronouncing it, (v) the enforcement of such judgment would not be contrary to the public policy of The Bahamas, (vi) the correct procedures under the laws of The Bahamas are duly complied with, (vii) the judgment is not inconsistent with a prior Bahamian judgment in respect of the same matter and (viii) enforcement proceedings are instituted within six years after the date of such judgment.



Certain Provisions in Our Articles May Limit Shareholders’ Ability to Affect a Change in Management or Control


Our Articles include certain provisions which may have the effect of delaying or preventing a future takeover or change in control of us that shareholders may consider to be in their best interests. Among other things, our Articles provide for a classified Board serving staggered terms of three years, super majority voting requirements with respect to certain significant transactions and restrictions on the acquisition of greater than 9.99% ownership without our Board’s approval. Our equity plans and our officers’ employment agreements provide certain rights to plan participants and those officers, respectively, in the event of a change in control of us. Additionally, with the 2020 Private Placement and the related Investment Agreement, our Articles were amended to create a new class of non-voting common shares (the “Non-Voting Common Shares”). The Non-Voting Common shares will automatically be converted into Voting Common Shares upon the occurrence of certain events as set forth in the Articles. Each Non-Voting Common Share will automatically convert into one Voting Common Share, upon the occurrence of a Qualified Transfer of such Non-Voting Common Share or with the prior consent of our Board of Directors. A “Qualified Transfer” means a transfer (x) to a third party that is not (1) an affiliate of such holder nor (2) a person whose ownership thereof would result in such shares being treated as constructively owned by such holder under Section 958(b) of the U.S. Tax Code, applicable Treasury Regulations and other official guidance (a Person described in this clause (x), an “Unrelated Person”), and (y) that is not otherwise prohibited under the Articles. This may dilute the voting power of the current common shareholders. In addition to the Non-Voting Shares, we have issued deferred shares and warrants as more fully described elsewhere in this report. These deferred shares and warrants may further reduce the control and voting power of a common shareholder.






Our destination resort spas are operated under agreements with the destination resort operators or owners, as the case may be, of those venues. Our other facilities, including our warehouses, are leased from the owners of the venues where they are located. Our principal office is located in Nassau, The Bahamas, and we lease an office building in Coral Gables, Florida where certain administrative functions are located.

We believe that our existing facilities are adequate for our current and planned levels of operations and that alternative sites are readily available on competitive terms in the event that any of our material leases are not renewed.



Not applicable.



Market Information

Our common shares are traded on The Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “OSW.” As of February 17, 2023, there were 19 registered holders of our common shares and one registered holder of non-voting common shares.


We adopted a cash dividend program in November 2019, with an initial quarterly cash dividend payment of $0.04 per common share. However, as a result of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business, our Board of Directors re-evaluated our current dividend program and has determined, in order to increase our financial flexibility and reallocate our capital resources, to defer the previously authorized and declared quarterly dividend to be paid on May 29, 2020 and to temporarily suspend the dividend program until further notice.



Repurchases and Sales of Unregistered Securities

We have no recent repurchases of any securities or sales of any unregistered securities.



Stock Performance Graph


The following graph compares the change in the cumulative total shareholder return on our common shares against the cumulative total return (assuming reinvestment of dividends) of the Nasdaq Composite® (United States and Foreign) Index, and the Dow Jones U.S. Travel and Leisure Index for the period beginning March 19, 2019 and ending December 31, 2022.


The graph assumes that $100.00 was invested on March 19, 2019 in our common shares and in each of the comparative indices. The share price performance on the following graph is not necessarily indicative of future share price performance.



Among OneSpaWorld Holdings Limited, the Nasdaq Composite Index, and the Dow Jones US Travel & Leisure Index






OneSpaWorld Holdings Limited


Nasdaq Composite


Dow Jones U.S. Travel & Leisure

March 19, 2019


$ 100.00


$ 100.00


$ 100.00

August 31, 2019







January 31, 2020







June 30, 2020







November 30, 2020







April 30, 2021







September 30, 2021







February 28, 2022







July 31, 2022







December 31, 2022










The following tables contain selected historical financial data for the Company. The information below should be read in conjunction with the section entitled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the audited consolidated financial statements of the Company, and the notes related thereto, included elsewhere in this report.


Year Ended December 31,









(In thousands)














Service revenues










Product revenues










   Total revenues

















Cost of services










Cost of products




















Salary, benefits and payroll taxes










Amortization of intangible assets










Goodwill and tradename intangible assets impairment








Total cost of revenues and operating expenses










 Income (loss) from operations

















Interest expense










Interest income









Change in fair value of warrant liabilities










Total other income (expense), net










Income (loss) before income tax expense






























Adjusted EBITDA (1)










Unlevered After-Tax Free Cash Flow (1)










% Conversion












December 31,









Balance Sheet Data (In thousands):







Working Capital (2)










Total Assets










Total Liabilities










Total Shareholders' Equity











We define Adjusted EBITDA as Net Income plus Provision for Income Taxes, Other Income, Noncontrolling Interest, Interest Expense and Warrant Issuance Costs, Change in Fair Value of Warrant Liabilities and Depreciation & Amortization, with adjustments for non-recurring items, related party transactions, contribution from the historical timetospa.com channel, purchase price accounting adjustments, discrepancies between cash and booked Provision for Income Taxes and non-cash contract expenses. We define Unlevered After-Tax Free Cash Flow as Adjusted EBITDA minus capital expenditures and cash taxes paid.


Working capital calculated as current assets less current liabilities, less cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash.



The following table reconciles Net Income (Loss) to Adjusted EBITDA and Unlevered After-Tax Free Cash Flow for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020:



Year Ended December 31,


(In thousands)









Net Income (Loss)












Provision (Benefit) for Income Taxes












Interest Income











Interest expense and warrant issuance costs












Goodwill and trade name impairment charges










Depreciation & Amortization












Stock-based Compensation












Business Combination Costs (a)










Addback for Non-Cash Prepaid Expenses (b)