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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

FORM 20-F

(Mark One)

REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR

SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

Date of event requiring this shell company report

Commission File Number 001-39374

Inventiva S.A.

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter and translation of Registrant’s name into English)

FRANCE

(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

50 rue de Dijon

21121 Daix France

(Address of principal executive offices)

Frédéric Cren

Chief Executive Officer

Inventiva S.A.

50 rue de Dijon

21121 Daix France

Tel: +33 3 80 44 75 00

info@inventivapharma.com

(Name, Telephone, Email and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act.

Title of each class

Trading Symbol(s)

Name of each exchange on which registered

American Depositary Shares, each representing one ordinary share, nominal value €0.01 per share

IVA

The Nasdaq Global Market

Ordinary shares, nominal value €0.01 per share*

*

The Nasdaq Global Market*

*Not for trading, but only in connection with the registration of the American Depositary Shares.

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act. None

Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act. None

Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report.

Ordinary shares: 40,873,551 shares outstanding as of December 31, 2021

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes  No

If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See definition of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:

U.S. GAAP

International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board Other

If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow. Item 17 Item 18

If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes No

TABLE OF CONTENTS

    

Page

INTRODUCTION

3

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

4

PART I

7

Item 1.

Identity of Director, Senior Management and Advisers.

7

Item 2.

Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable.

7

Item 3.

Key Information.

7

Our Pipeline

65

Item 4A.

Unresolved Staff Comments.

81

Item 5.

Operating and Financial Review and Prospects.

81

Item 6.

Directors, Senior Management and Employees.

95

Item 7.

Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions.

108

Item 8.

Financial Information.

112

Item 9.

The Offer and Listing.

113

Item 10.

Additional Information.

114

Item 11.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.

123

Item 12.

Description of Securities Other than Equity Securities.

124

PART II

126

Item 13.

Defaults, Dividend Arrearages and Delinquencies.

126

Item 14.

Material Modifications to the Rights of Security Holders and Use of Proceeds.

126

Item 15.

Disclosure Controls and Procedures.

126

Item 16A.

Audit Committee Financial Expert.

127

Item 16B.

Code of Business Conduct and Ethics.

127

Item 16C.

Principal Accountant Fees and Services.

127

Item 16D.

Exemptions from the Listing Standards for Audit Committees.

128

Item 16E.

Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers.

128

Item 16F.

Change in Registrant’s Certifying Accountant.

128

Item 16G.

Corporate Governance.

128

Item 16H.

Mine Safety Disclosure.

129

Item 16I

Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections.

129

PART III

129

Item 17.

Financial Statements.

129

Item 18.

Financial Statements.

129

Item 19.

Exhibits.

130

SIGNATURES

131

INDEX TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

F-1

2

INTRODUCTION

Unless otherwise indicated, “Inventiva,” “the company,” “our company,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer to Inventiva S.A.

“INVENTIVA,” “PanNASH,” the Inventiva logo and other trademarks or service marks of Inventiva S.A. appearing in this Annual Report on Form 20-F, or annual report, are the property of Inventiva S.A. Solely for convenience, the trademarks, service marks and trade names referred to in this annual report are listed without the ® and ™ symbols, but such references should not be construed as any indicator that their respective owners will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, their right thereto. All other trademarks, trade names and service marks appearing in this annual report are the property of their respective owners. We do not intend to use or display other companies’ trademarks and trade names to imply any relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, any other companies.

Our audited consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards, or IFRS, as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board, or IASB. Our consolidated financial statements included in this annual report are presented in euros and, unless otherwise specified, all monetary amounts are in euros. All references in this annual report to “$,” “US$,” “U.S.$,” “U.S. dollars,” “dollars” and “USD” mean U.S. dollars and all references to “€” and “euros,” mean euros, unless otherwise noted. Throughout this annual report, references to ADSs mean ADSs or ordinary shares represented by such ADSs, as the case may be.

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report on Form 20-F, or annual report, contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, that are based on our management’s beliefs and assumptions and on information currently available to our management. All statements other than present and historical facts and conditions contained in this annual report, including statements regarding our future results of operations and financial positions, business strategy, plans and our objectives for future operations, are forward-looking statements. When used in this annual report, the words “anticipate,” “believe,” “can,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “is designed to,” “may,” “might,” “plan,” “will,” “would,” “potential,” “predict,” “objective,” “should,” or the negative of these and similar expressions identify forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements about:

·

our plans to develop and commercialize our product candidates;

·

the timing of initiation of our planned clinical trials;

·

the timing of the availability of data from our clinical trials;

·

the timing of any planned investigational new drug, or IND, application or new drug application, or NDA;

·

our plans to research, develop and commercialize our current and future product candidates;

·

our ability to successfully cooperate with existing partners or enter into new partnerships, and to fulfill our obligations under any such partnership agreements;

·

our ability to enter into a partnership with a third party for the development and commercialization of odiparcil;

·

the plans of our partner, AbbVie Inc., or AbbVie, to develop and commercialize cedirogant;

·

the amount and timing of any regulatory and commercial milestone payments, or royalty payments, for cedirogant;

·

the clinical utility, potential benefits and market acceptance of our product candidates;

·

our commercialization, marketing and manufacturing capabilities and strategy;

·

our ability to identify additional products or product candidates with significant commercial potential;

·

our expectations related to the sufficiency of our capital resources;

·

developments and projections relating to our competitors and our industry;

·

the impact of government laws and regulations;

·

the potential effects of the recent COVID-19 pandemic on our business and, operations and clinical development timelines and plans;

·

our intellectual property position;

·

our estimate regarding future revenue, expenses, capital requirements and need for additional financing; and

unfavorable conditions in our industry, the global economy or global supply chain, including financial and credit market fluctuations, international trade relations, political turmoil, natural catastrophes, warfare (such as the conflict involving Russia and Ukraine), and terrorist attacks; and

4

·

other risks and uncertainties, including those listed in this annual report under the caption Risk Factors.

You should refer to the section of this annual report titled “Item 3.D-Risk Factors” for a discussion of important factors that may cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by our forward-looking statements. As a result of these factors, we cannot assure you that the forward-looking statements in this annual report will prove to be accurate. Furthermore, if our forward-looking statements prove to be inaccurate, the inaccuracy may be material. In light of the significant uncertainties in these forward-looking statements, you should not regard these statements as a representation or warranty by us or any other person that we will achieve our objectives and plans in any specified time frame or at all. We undertake no obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law.

You should read this annual report and the documents that we reference in this annual report and have filed as exhibits to this annual report completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.

This annual report contains market data and industry forecasts that were obtained from industry publications. These data involve a number of assumptions and limitations, and you are cautioned not to give undue weight to such estimates. We have not independently verified any third-party information. While we believe the market position, market opportunity and market size information included in this annual report is generally reliable, such information is inherently imprecise.

Summary Risk Factors

·

We are a clinical-stage company with no approved products and no historical product revenues, which makes it difficult to assess our future prospects and financial results.

·

We have incurred significant losses since our inception and anticipate that we will continue to incur significant losses for the foreseeable future.

·

We will require substantial additional funding, which may not be available to us on acceptable terms, or at all.

·

We are heavily dependent on the success of our product candidate lanifibranor. We cannot give any assurance that any product candidate, or any other compounds in development, will successfully complete clinical trials, receive regulatory approval or be commercialized.

·

The regulatory approval processes of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, the European Medicines Agency, or EMA, and other comparable regulatory authorities are lengthy, time consuming and inherently unpredictable.

·

Results of earlier studies and trials as well as data from any interim analysis of ongoing clinical trials may not be predictive of future trial results.

·

We have conducted, and continue to conduct, clinical trials, including our NASH lanifibranor Phase III, or NATiV3, trial in various jurisdictions, including Ukraine, Russia and other Eastern European countries, and geopolitical events, such as the conflict between Russia and Ukraine could delay the initiation, enrollment and completion of our clinical trials on anticipated timelines or at all.

·

We currently have no marketing and sales organization. To the extent any of our product candidates for which we maintain commercial rights is approved for marketing, if we are unable to establish marketing and sales capabilities or enter into agreements with third parties to market and sell our product candidates, we may not be able to effectively market and sell any product candidates or generate product revenues.

·

We face significant competition for our drug discovery and development efforts, and if we do not compete effectively, our commercial opportunities will be reduced or eliminated.

·

We may encounter substantial delays in our clinical trials or we may fail to demonstrate safety and efficacy to the satisfaction of applicable regulatory authorities.

5

·

We rely completely on third parties to manufacture our pre-clinical and clinical drug supplies and we intend to rely on third parties to produce commercial supplies of any approved product candidate.

·

Voting control with respect to our company is concentrated in the hands of Frédéric Cren, our Chief Executive Officer, Pierre Broqua, our Deputy Chief Executive Officer and Chief Scientific Officer, and our significant shareholders and affiliates, who will continue to be able to exercise significant influence on us.

·

We are a French public limited company, and the rights of shareholders in companies subject to French corporate law differ in material respects from the rights of shareholders of corporations incorporated in the United States.

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PART I

Item 1.  Identity of Director, Senior Management and Advisers.

Not applicable.

Item 2.  Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable.

Not applicable.

Item 3.  Key Information.

A.  [Reserved]

B.    Capitalization and Indebtedness

Not applicable.

C.    Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds

Not applicable.

D.    Risk Factors

Our business faces significant risks. You should carefully consider all of the information set forth in this annual report and in our other filings with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, including the following risk factors which we face and which are faced by our industry. Our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially adversely affected by any of these risks. This report also contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Our results could materially differ from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements, as a result of certain factors including the risks described below and elsewhere in this annual report and our other SEC filings. See “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” above.

Risks related to our Financial Position and Need for Additional Capital

We are a clinical-stage company with no approved products and no historical product revenues, which makes it difficult to assess our future prospects and financial results.

We are a clinical-stage biotechnology company and we have not yet generated any revenue from product sales. Pharmaceutical product development is a highly speculative undertaking and involves a substantial degree of uncertainty. Our operations to date have been limited to developing our technology and undertaking clinical trials of our product candidates lanifibranor and odiparcil, and pre-clinical and clinical studies of other compounds in development. Lanifibranor is in clinical development and has not been approved for sale and we may never have any product approved for commercialization. We decided to focus our clinical efforts on the development of lanifibranor and suspend our clinical efforts relating to odiparcil, and we are reviewing available options to optimize potential further development of odiparcil for the treatment of MPS VI and may seek a third-party partner to help pursue the development and commercialization of odiparcil. We have not yet demonstrated an ability to overcome many of the risks and uncertainties frequently encountered by companies in new and rapidly evolving fields, particularly in the pharmaceutical area. Consequently, the ability to predict our future operating results or business prospects is more limited than if we had a longer operating history or approved products on the market.

Our ability to generate revenue from product sales and achieve and maintain profitability depends on our ability, alone or with any future partners, to successfully complete the development of, and obtain the regulatory approvals necessary to commercialize, lanifibranor, odiparcil and any additional product candidates that we may pursue in the future. Currently, lanifibranor is our only product candidate in clinical development. Our prospects, including our ability to finance our operations and generate revenue from product sales, therefore will depend substantially on the development and commercialization of lanifibranor, as other programs in our pre-clinical

7

portfolio are still in earlier stages of development. Since our inception in 2011, the majority of our revenue has been derived from our reliance on research partnerships unrelated to lanifibranor, and we do not anticipate generating revenue from product sales for the next several years, if ever. Our ability to generate revenue from product sales depends heavily on our or any future partners’ success in:

·

timely and successful completion of clinical development of lanifibranor, our current clinical-stage product candidate, cedirogant, or any future product candidates;

·

obtaining and maintaining regulatory and marketing approvals for lanifibranor and any future product candidates for which we successfully complete clinical trials;

·

launching and commercializing any product candidates for which we obtain regulatory and marketing approval by establishing a sales force, marketing and distribution infrastructure or, alternatively, cooperating with a commercialization partner;

·

obtaining coverage and adequate reimbursement from government and third-party payors for our current or any future product candidates, if approved, both in the United States and internationally, and reaching acceptable agreements with foreign government and third-party payors on pricing terms;

·

developing, validating and maintaining a commercially viable, sustainable, scalable, reproducible and transferable manufacturing process for lanifibranor or any future product candidates that are compliant with current good manufacturing practices, or cGMP;

·

establishing and maintaining supply and manufacturing relationships with third parties that can provide an adequate amount and quality of drugs and services to support our planned clinical development, as well as the market demand for lanifibranor and any future product candidates, if approved;

·

obtaining market acceptance, if and when approved, of lanifibranor or any future product candidates as a viable treatment option by physicians, patients, third-party payors and others in the medical community;

·

effectively addressing any competing technological and market developments;

·

implementing additional internal systems and infrastructure, as needed;

·

negotiating favorable terms in any partnership, licensing or other arrangements into which we may enter, and performing our obligations pursuant to such arrangements;

·

maintaining, protecting and expanding our portfolio of intellectual property rights, including patents, trade secrets and know-how;

·

avoiding and defending against third-party interference or infringement claims; and

·

attracting, hiring and retaining qualified personnel.

We have incurred significant losses since our inception and anticipate that we will continue to incur significant losses for the foreseeable future. We have never generated any revenue from product sales and may never achieve or maintain profitability.

We have incurred significant operating losses since our inception in 2011. We incurred net losses of €49.6 million, €33.6 million and €30.2 million for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively. We expect to continue to incur significant expenses and increasing operating losses for the foreseeable future. We have devoted substantially all of our efforts to acquisition and pre-clinical and clinical development of our product candidates, as well as to building our intellectual property portfolio, research programs, management team and infrastructure. It could be several years, if ever, before we or our partners have a commercialized product and our commercialized products, if any, may not be profitable. The net losses we incur may fluctuate significantly from quarter to quarter and year to year. We anticipate that our expenses will increase significantly in connection with our ongoing activities as we:

·

continue the ongoing and planned clinical development of lanifibranor;

8

·

initiate pre-clinical studies and clinical trials with respect to our other development programs;

·

develop, maintain, expand and protect our intellectual property portfolio;

·

manufacture, or have manufactured, clinical and commercial supplies of our product candidates;

·

seek marketing approvals for our current and future product candidates that successfully complete clinical trials;

·

establish a sales, marketing and distribution infrastructure to commercialize any product candidate for which we may obtain marketing approval;

·

hire additional administrative, clinical, regulatory and scientific personnel; and

·

incur additional costs associated with operating as a public company in the United States following the completion of our initial public offering.

In order to become and remain profitable, we will need to develop and eventually commercialize, on our own or with partners, one or more product candidates with significant market potential. This will require us to be successful in a range of challenging activities, including completing clinical trials of our product candidates, developing commercial scale manufacturing processes, obtaining marketing approval, manufacturing, marketing and selling any current and future product candidates for which we may obtain marketing approval, and satisfying any post-marketing requirements. We may never succeed in any or all of these activities and, even if we do, we may never generate revenue from product sales or achieve profitability.

Because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with pharmaceutical products and development, we are unable to accurately predict the timing or amount of increased expenses or when, or if, we will be able to achieve profitability. If we are required by the FDA, or other regulatory authorities such as the EMA, to perform studies and trials in addition to those currently expected, or if there are any delays in the development or in the completion of any planned or future pre-clinical studies or clinical trials of our current or future product candidates, our expenses could increase and profitability could be further delayed.

Even if we do achieve profitability, we may not be able to sustain or increase profitability on a quarterly or annual basis. Our failure to become and remain profitable would decrease the value of our company and could impair our ability to raise capital, maintain our research and development efforts, expand our business or continue our operations. A decline in the value of our company also could cause the price of the ordinary shares and ADSs to decline.

We will require substantial additional funding, which may not be available to us on acceptable terms, or at all, and failure to obtain this necessary capital when needed may force us to delay, limit or terminate our product candidate development efforts or other operations.

Our operations have consumed substantial amounts of cash since inception. We are currently conducting Phase III development for lanifibranor. Developing pharmaceutical product candidates, including conducting clinical trials, is expensive, lengthy and risky, and we expect our research and development expenses to increase substantially in connection with our ongoing activities, particularly as we advance through later stages of clinical development. We will require substantial additional future capital in order to complete clinical development and, if we are successful, to commercialize any of our current product candidates. Accordingly, we will continue to require substantial additional capital to continue our clinical development activities and potentially engage in commercialization activities. Because successful development of our product candidates is uncertain, we are unable to estimate the actual funds we will require to complete research and development and commercialize our product candidates.

The amount and timing of our future funding requirements will depend on many factors, including but not limited to:

·

the progress, costs, results of and timing of our ongoing and planned clinical trials;

·

our ability to reach milestones under our existing partnership arrangements or enter into additional partnership agreements that would generate milestone payments, licensing fees or other sources of income;

9

·

the willingness of the FDA, EMA and other comparable regulatory authorities to accept our clinical trials and pre-clinical studies and other work as the basis for review and approval of product candidates;

·

the outcome, costs and timing of seeking and obtaining regulatory approvals from the FDA, EMA and other comparable regulatory authorities;

·

the need for additional or expanded pre-clinical studies and clinical trials beyond those that we envision conducting with respect to our current and future product candidates;

·

the success of our current partners and any future partners, and the economic and other terms of any licensing, cooperation or other similar arrangements into which we may enter;

·

the number of product candidates and indications that we pursue;

·

the timing and costs associated with manufacturing our product candidates for clinical trials and pre-clinical studies and, if approved, for commercial sale;

·

the timing and costs associated with establishing sales and marketing capabilities;

·

market acceptance of any approved product candidates;

·

the costs of acquiring, licensing or investing in additional businesses, products, product candidates and technologies;

·

the cost to maintain, expand and defend the scope of our intellectual property portfolio, including the amount and timing of any payments we may be required to make, or that we may receive, in connection with licensing, filing, prosecution, defense and enforcement of any patents or other intellectual property rights;

·

our need and ability to hire additional management, development and scientific personnel; and

·

our need to implement additional internal systems and infrastructure, including financial and reporting systems.

As of December 31, 2021, we had €86.6 million of cash and cash equivalents and €8.8 million of short-term deposits.

We estimate that we will be able to fund our operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements through the first quarter of 2023 based on (i) our existing cash and cash equivalents, (ii) our short-term deposits amounting to €8.8 million as of December 31, 2021, (iii) the milestone payment for the Phase IIb clinical study with cedirogant by AbbVie in the amount of €4 million we received in January 2022, and (iv) a reimbursement of CIR we expect to receive in 2022 for a total amount of €4.4 million. This estimate is based on our current business plan and does not include any potential milestones payable to or from us, nor any additional expenditures related to the potential continued development of odiparcil or resulting from the potential in-licensing or acquisition of additional product candidates or technologies, or any associated development we may pursue. This period could be shortened if there are any significant increases beyond our expectations in spending on development programs or more rapid progress of development programs than anticipated. We may have based this on assumptions that are incorrect and we may end up using our resources sooner than anticipated. We expect that we will need to raise substantial additional funds in the future. Any additional fundraising efforts may divert our management from their day-to-day activities, which may adversely affect our ability to develop and, if approved, commercialize our product candidates. In addition, our ability to raise necessary financing could be impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic and its effects on market conditions. in addition to market impacts as a result of geopolitical events, including relating to Russia's invasion of Ukraine. If we are unable to obtain funding on a timely basis, we may be required to significantly curtail, delay or discontinue one or more of our research or development programs or the commercialization of any approved product or be unable to expand our operations or otherwise capitalize on our business opportunities, as desired, which could impair our growth prospects.

10

Raising additional capital may cause dilution to our existing shareholders, restrict our operations or require us to relinquish rights to our product candidates or technologies.

We may seek additional funding through a combination of equity offerings, debt financings, partnerships and/or licensing arrangements. To the extent that we raise additional capital through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, your ownership interest will be diluted, and the terms may include liquidation or other preferences that adversely affect the rights of our shareholders. The incurrence of additional indebtedness and/or the issuance of certain equity securities could result in increased fixed payment obligations and could also result in certain additional restrictive covenants, such as limitations on our ability to incur additional debt and/or issue additional equity, limitations on our ability to acquire or license intellectual property rights and other operating restrictions that could adversely impact our ability to conduct our business. In addition, issuance of additional equity securities, or the possibility of such issuance, may cause the market price of our ordinary shares or ADSs to decline. In the event that we enter into partnerships and/or licensing arrangements in order to raise capital, we may be required to accept unfavorable terms, including relinquishing or licensing to a third party on unfavorable terms our rights to technologies or product candidates that we otherwise would seek to develop or commercialize ourselves or potentially reserve for future potential arrangements when we might be able to achieve more favorable terms. Additional funding may not be available to us on acceptable terms, or at all. If we are unable to obtain funding on a timely basis, we may be required to significantly curtail one or more of programs or cease operations altogether.

In addition, we have issued, and may in the future issue additional, equity securities as consideration for business development transactions, which may also dilute our existing shareholders’ or holders of our ADSs ownership interests. In August 2021, we filed a shelf registration statement on Form F-3, or the Shelf Registration Statement, pursuant to which we may offer and sell ordinary shares, ADSs representing ordinary shares and warrants to purchase ordinary shares or ADSs for aggregate gross sale proceeds of up to $300.0 million, of which we may offer and sell up to $100.0 million from time to time pursuant to an “At-The-Market” sales agreement we entered into in August 2021 with Jefferies LLC, as agent, subject to the terms and conditions described in the sales agreement and SEC rules and regulations. We raised $30 million in gross proceeds through that program in September 2021 and $1.9 million in October 2021. If we make further sales under our “At-The-Market” offering program or the Shelf Registration Statement, or otherwise the sales could dilute our shareholders, reduce the price of our ordinary shares or ADSs, or impede our ability to raise future capital.

If we raise additional funds through partnerships, strategic alliances or marketing, distribution or licensing arrangements with third parties, we may have to relinquish valuable rights, future revenue streams, products or product candidates or grant licenses on terms that may not be favorable to us. If we choose to pursue a partnership for any of our product candidates, we may be required to relinquish certain valuable rights depending on the terms of such a transaction. If we are unable to raise additional funds through equity or debt financings when needed, we may be required to grant rights to develop and market products or product candidates that we would otherwise prefer to develop and market ourselves.

Risks Related to Product Development, Regulatory Approval and Commercialization

We are heavily dependent on the success of our product candidate lanifibranor. We cannot give any assurance that any product candidate, or any other compounds in development, will successfully complete clinical trials, receive regulatory approval or be commercialized.

We do not have any drugs that have received regulatory approval and may never be able to develop marketable products. We expect that a substantial portion of our efforts and expenses for the foreseeable future will be devoted to the clinical development of lanifibranor, and as a result, our business currently depends heavily on the successful development, regulatory approval and commercialization of this product candidate. The development of lanifibranor has been and will continue to be a time-consuming and costly process, and may leave us with insufficient resources to advance other programs. In 2020, we decided to focus our clinical efforts on the development of lanifibranor and suspend our clinical efforts relating to odiparcil. We cannot be certain that lanifibranor will receive regulatory approval or be successfully commercialized, even if we receive regulatory approval. The research, testing, manufacturing, safety, efficacy, labeling, approval, sale, marketing and distribution of our product candidates are, and will remain, subject to comprehensive regulation by the FDA in the United States, the European Union and EMA in Europe and regulatory authorities in other countries, with regulations differing from country to country.

We will not be permitted to market our drug candidates in the United States or Europe until we receive approval of an NDA from the FDA or a marketing authorization application, or MAA, from the European Commission (based on the positive opinion of the EMA), respectively. We have not submitted any marketing applications for any of our product candidates. NDAs and MAAs must include

11

extensive preclinical and clinical data and supporting information to establish the drug candidate’s safety and effectiveness for each desired indication. NDAs and MAAs must also include significant information regarding the chemistry, manufacturing and controls for the drug. Obtaining approval of a NDA or a MAA is a lengthy, expensive and uncertain process, and we may not be successful in obtaining approval. We have received a fast track and breakthrough therapy designation from the FDA for the development of lanifibranor for the treatment of NASH. In September 2021, the FDA decided that this designation also encompasses the treatment of NASG with compensated cirrhosis. While the fast track designation for lanifibranor in NASH permits close and regular contact between us and the FDA, the FDA and the EMA review processes can take more than one year to complete and approval is never guaranteed. If we submit a NDA to the FDA, the FDA must decide whether to accept or reject the submission for filing, before even reviewing the scientific basis. Regulators of other jurisdictions, such as the EMA, have their own procedures for approval of drug candidates. Failure to obtain regulatory approval for lanifibranor or odiparcil in the United States, Europe or other jurisdictions by us or our potential partners will prevent us from commercializing and marketing lanifibranor or odiparcil in such jurisdictions.

Even if we were to successfully obtain approval from the FDA, EMA and comparable foreign regulatory authorities for our product candidates, any approval might contain significant limitations related to use restrictions for specified age groups, warnings, precautions or contraindications, or may be subject to burdensome post-approval study or risk management requirements. Furthermore, even if we or our future partners obtain regulatory approval for lanifibranor or odiparcil, we will still need to develop a commercial infrastructure, or otherwise develop relationships with partners to commercialize, establish a commercially viable pricing structure and obtain coverage and adequate reimbursement from third-party payors, including and government healthcare programs. If we, or our future partners, are unable to successfully commercialize lanifibranor or odiparcil, we may not be able to generate sufficient revenue to continue our business.

We may seek accelerated approval from FDA and conditional authorization from EMA if our Phase III NATiV3 trial of lanifibranor for NASH is successful at the 72 week endpoint, but even if granted, accelerated approval and conditional authorization require completion of the trial to obtain full approval.

If the Part 1 data from our NATiV3 Phase III clinical trial of lanifibranor for NASH are positive, we intend to seek approval under the FDA’s accelerated approval pathway and the EMA’s conditional authorization pathway. A product may be eligible for accelerated approval if it treats a serious or life-threatening condition, generally provides a meaningful advantage over available therapies, and demonstrates an effect on a surrogate endpoint that is reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit. As a condition of approval, the FDA may require that a sponsor of a product receiving accelerated approval perform adequate and well-controlled post-marketing clinical trials. These confirmatory trials must be completed with due diligence. In addition, the FDA currently requires as a condition for accelerated approval pre-approval of promotional materials, which could adversely impact the timing of the commercial launch of the product. Even if we do receive accelerated approval or conditional authorization, we may not experience a faster development or regulatory review or approval process, and receiving accelerated approval does not provide assurance of ultimate full FDA or EMA approval.

Due to our limited resources and access to capital, we must and have in the past decided to prioritize development of certain product candidates; these decisions may prove to have been wrong and may adversely affect our revenues.

Because we have limited resources and access to capital to fund our operations, we must decide which product candidates to pursue and the amount of resources to allocate to each. As such, we are currently primarily focused on the development of lanifibranor. Our decisions concerning the allocation of research, partnership, management and financial resources toward particular compounds, product candidates or therapeutic areas may not lead to the development of viable commercial products and may divert resources away from better opportunities. For example, we recently decided to focus our clinical efforts on the development of lanifibranor. As part of this decision, we suspended our clinical efforts relating to odiparcil. In addition, we previously committed resources to pursuing the development of lanifibranor for the treatment of patients with systemic sclerosis, or SSc, through clinical trials. However, following the results of a Phase IIb clinical trial of lanifibranor for the treatment of SSc, we ceased development of lanifibranor in this indication in February 2019. Similarly, our potential decisions to delay, terminate or partner with third parties in respect of certain product development programs, including regarding the suspension of our development of odiparcil, may also prove not to be optimal and could cause us to miss valuable opportunities. If we make incorrect determinations regarding the market potential of our product candidates or misread trends in the pharmaceutical industry, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.

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The clinical and commercial success of lanifibranor , as well as our other product candidates, will depend on a number of factors, many of which are beyond our control, and we or our partners may be unable to complete the development or commercialization of our product candidates or our other compounds in development.

The clinical and commercial success of lanifibranor , as well as our other product candidates and compounds in development will depend on a number of factors, including the following:

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the timely completion of pre-clinical studies and clinical trials by us and our partners;

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our and our partners ability to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of our product candidates to the satisfaction of the relevant regulatory authorities;

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whether we or our partners are required by the FDA or other regulatory authorities to conduct additional pre-clinical studies or clinical trials, and the scope and nature of such studies or trials, prior to approval to market our products;

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the timely receipt of necessary marketing approvals from the FDA, the EMA and other comparable regulatory authorities, including pricing and reimbursement determinations;

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the ability to successfully commercialize our product candidates, if approved, for marketing and sale by the FDA, the EMA or other comparable regulatory authorities, whether alone or in partnership with others;

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our ability and the ability of our third party manufacturing partners to manufacture quantities of our product candidates at quality levels necessary to meet regulatory requirements and at a scale sufficient to meet anticipated demand at a cost that allows us to achieve profitability;

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our and our partners success in educating health care providers and patients about the benefits, risks, administration and use of our product candidates, if approved;

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acceptance of our product candidates, if approved, as safe and effective by patients and the healthcare community;

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the achievement and maintenance of compliance with all regulatory requirements applicable to our product candidates;

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the maintenance of an acceptable safety profile of our products following any approval;

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the availability, perceived advantages, relative cost, relative safety, and relative efficacy of alternative and competitive treatments;

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our and our partners ability to obtain and sustain coverage and an adequate level of pricing or reimbursement for our products by third party payors;

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our and our partners ability to enforce successfully the intellectual property rights for our product candidates and against the products of potential competitors; and

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our and our partners ability to avoid or succeed in third party claims, including patent infringement claims, and patent interference, reexamination, post grant review, derivation, and opposition proceedings, and other proceedings at the USPTO and foreign patent offices.

Many of these factors are beyond our control. Accordingly, we cannot assure you that we will ever be able to achieve profitability through the sale of, or royalties from, our product candidates. If we or our partners are not successful in obtaining approval for and commercializing our product candidates, or are delayed in completing those efforts, our business and operations would be adversely affected.

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The regulatory approval processes of the FDA, the EMA and other comparable regulatory authorities are lengthy, time consuming and inherently unpredictable, and if we are ultimately unable to obtain regulatory approval for our product candidates, our business will be substantially harmed.

The time required to obtain approval by the FDA, the EMA and other comparable regulatory authorities is unpredictable but typically takes many years following the commencement of clinical trials and depends upon numerous factors, including the substantial discretion of the regulatory authorities. In addition, approval policies, regulations, or the type and amount of clinical data necessary to gain approval may change during the course of a product candidate’s clinical development and may vary among jurisdictions. To date, substantially all of our clinical development has been conducted outside the United States.

Although the FDA may accept data from clinical trials conducted outside the United States, acceptance of this data is subject to certain conditions imposed by the FDA. Furthermore, while these clinical trials are subject to applicable local laws, FDA acceptance of the data will be dependent upon its determination that the trials also comply with all applicable U.S. laws and regulations. There can be no assurance that the FDA will accept data from trials conducted outside of the United States. If the FDA does not accept the data from any clinical trials that we or our partners conduct outside the United States, it would likely result in the need for additional clinical trials, which would be costly and time-consuming and delay or permanently halt our ability to develop and market these or other product candidates in the United States. We have not obtained regulatory approval for any product candidate and it is possible that none of our existing product candidates or any product candidates we may seek to develop in the future will ever obtain regulatory approval.

Our product candidates could fail to receive regulatory approval for many reasons, including the following:

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the FDA, the EMA or other comparable regulatory authorities may disagree with the design or implementation of our clinical trials;

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we may be unable to demonstrate to the satisfaction of the FDA, the EMA or other comparable regulatory authorities that a product candidate is safe and effective for its proposed indication;

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the results of clinical trials may not meet the level of statistical significance required by the FDA, the EMA or other comparable regulatory authorities for approval;

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we may be unable to demonstrate that a product candidates clinical and other benefits outweigh its safety risks;

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the FDA, the EMA or other comparable regulatory authorities may disagree with our interpretation of data from pre-clinical studies or clinical trials;

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the data collected from clinical trials of our product candidates may not be sufficient to support the submission of an NDA or other submission or to obtain regulatory approval in the United States, Europe or elsewhere;

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the FDA, the EMA or other comparable regulatory authorities may fail to approve the manufacturing processes or facilities of third-party manufacturers with which we contract for clinical and commercial supplies or such processes or facilities may not pass a pre-approval inspection; and the approval policies or regulations of the FDA, the EMA or other comparable regulatory authorities may change or differ from one another significantly in a manner rendering our clinical data insufficient for approval.

This lengthy approval process as well as the unpredictability of future clinical trial results may result in our or our partners’ failure to obtain regulatory approval to market lanifibranor and/or other product candidates, which would harm our business, results of operations and prospects significantly. In addition, even if we were to obtain approval, regulatory authorities may approve any of our product candidates for fewer or more limited indications than we request, may grant approval contingent on the performance of costly post-marketing clinical trials, or may approve a product candidate with a label that does not include the labeling claims necessary or desirable for the successful commercialization of that product candidate. In certain jurisdictions, regulatory authorities may not approve the price we intend to charge for our products. Any of the foregoing scenarios could materially harm the commercial prospects for our product candidates.

We have not previously submitted an NDA, an MAA, or any similar drug approval filing to the FDA, the EMA or any comparable regulatory authority for any product candidate, and we cannot be certain that any of our product candidates will be successful in clinical

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trials or receive regulatory approval. Further, our product candidates may not receive regulatory approval even if they are successful in clinical trials. Even if we successfully obtain regulatory approvals to market one or more of our product candidates, our revenues will be dependent, to a significant extent, upon the size of the markets in the territories for which we gain regulatory approval and have commercial rights or share in revenues from the exercise of such rights. If the markets for patient subsets that we are targeting are not as significant as we estimate, we may not generate significant revenues from sales of such products, if approved.

Even if we receive regulatory approval for any of our product candidates, we will be subject to ongoing obligations and continued regulatory review, which may result in significant additional expense. Additionally, our product candidates, if approved, could be subject to labeling and other restrictions and market withdrawal and we may be subject to penalties if we fail to comply with regulatory requirements or experience unanticipated problems with our products.

Any regulatory approvals that we receive for our product candidates may also be subject to limitations on the approved indicated uses for which the product may be marketed or to the conditions of approval, or contain requirements for potentially costly post-marketing testing, including Phase IV clinical trials, and surveillance to monitor the safety and efficacy of the product candidate, and we may be required to include labeling that includes significant use or distribution restrictions or significant safety warnings, including boxed warnings.

If the FDA, EMA or any other comparable regulatory authority approves any of our product candidates, the manufacturing processes, labeling, packaging, distribution, adverse event reporting, storage, advertising, promotion and recordkeeping for the product will be subject to extensive and ongoing regulatory requirements. These requirements include submissions of safety and other post-marketing information and reports, registration requirements and continued compliance with current good manufacturing practices, or cGMPs, and good clinical practices, or GCPs, for any clinical trials that we conduct post-approval. Later discovery of previously unknown problems with a product, including adverse events of unanticipated severity or frequency, or with our third-party manufacturers or manufacturing processes, or failure to comply with regulatory requirements, may result in, among other things:

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restrictions on the marketing or manufacturing of the product, withdrawal of the product from the market, or voluntary product recalls;

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fines, untitled or warning letters or holds on clinical trials;

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refusal by the FDA, the EMA or any other comparable regulatory authority to approve pending applications or supplements to approved applications filed by us, or suspension or revocation of product approvals;

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product seizure or detention, or refusal to permit the import or export of products; and

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injunctions or the imposition of civil or criminal penalties.

Moreover, if any of our product candidates are approved, our product labeling, advertising and promotion will be subject to regulatory requirements and continuing regulatory review. The FDA strictly regulates the promotional claims that may be made about drug products. In particular, a product may not be promoted for uses that are not approved by the FDA as reflected in the product’s approved labeling.

Any government investigation of alleged violations of law could require us to expend significant time and resources in response and could generate negative publicity. The occurrence of any event or penalty described above may inhibit our or our partners’ ability to develop or commercialize lanifibranor or other product candidates, and harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

In addition, the policies of the FDA, the EMA and other comparable regulatory authorities may change and additional government regulations may be enacted that could prevent, limit or delay regulatory approval of our product candidates. If we are slow or unable to adapt to changes in existing requirements or the adoption of new requirements or policies, or if we are not able to maintain regulatory compliance, we may lose any marketing approval that we may have obtained, which would adversely affect our business, prospects and ability to achieve or sustain profitability.

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Clinical development is a lengthy and expensive process with an uncertain outcome, and results of earlier studies and trials as well as data from any interim analysis of ongoing clinical trials may not be predictive of future trial results. Clinical failure can occur at any stage of clinical development.

Clinical testing is expensive and can take many years to complete, and its outcome is inherently uncertain. Failure can occur at any time during the clinical trial process. Although product candidates may demonstrate promising results in early clinical (human) trials and pre-clinical (animal) studies, they may not prove to be effective in subsequent clinical trials. For example, testing on animals may occur under different conditions than testing in humans and therefore the results of animal studies may not accurately predict human experience. Likewise, early clinical studies may not be predictive of eventual safety or effectiveness results in larger-scale pivotal clinical trials. The results of pre-clinical studies and previous clinical trials as well as data from any interim analysis of ongoing clinical trials of our product candidates, as well as studies and trials of other products with similar mechanisms of action to our product candidates, may not be predictive of the results of ongoing or future clinical trials. There can be significant variability in safety and/or efficacy results between different trials of the same product candidate due to numerous factors, including changes in trial protocols, differences in composition of the patient populations, adherence to the dosing regimen and other trial protocols and the rate of dropout among clinical trial participants. For example, certain of the completed clinical trials for lanifibranor were conducted in patients with type 2 diabetes, which is a different indication than we are currently pursuing. The results generated in trials for lanifibranor in this other indication do not ensure that the current or future clinical trials for lanifibranor in NASH will continue to demonstrate similar safety and/or efficacy results.

In addition, we did not control the pre-clinical and clinical development of lanifibranor and odiparcil prior to 2012 and we have relied on Abbott Laboratories, or Abbott, and Abbott’s partners to have conducted such research and development in accordance with the applicable protocol, legal, regulatory and scientific standards, having accurately reported the results of all clinical trials conducted prior to our acquisition of lanifibranor and odiparcil, and having correctly collected and interpreted the data from these studies and trials. To the extent any of these has not occurred, expected development time and costs may be increased which could adversely affect any future revenue from lanifibranor and odiparcil by us or our partners.

Product candidates in later stages of clinical trials may fail to show the desired safety and efficacy traits despite having progressed through pre-clinical studies and earlier clinical trials. In addition to the safety and efficacy traits of any product candidate, clinical trial failures may result from a multitude of factors including flaws in trial design, dose selection, placebo effect and patient enrollment criteria. A number of companies in the pharmaceutical industry have suffered significant setbacks in advanced clinical trials due to lack of efficacy or adverse safety profiles, notwithstanding promising results in earlier trials, and it is possible that we will as well. Based upon negative or inconclusive results, we or our partners may decide, or regulators may require us, to conduct additional clinical trials or pre-clinical studies. For example, we previously pursued the development of lanifibranor for the treatment of patients with SSc. However, following the results of our Phase IIb clinical trial of lanifibranor for the treatment of SSc, we ceased development of lanifibranor in this indication in February 2019. In addition, data obtained from trials and studies are susceptible to varying interpretations, and regulators may not interpret our data as favorably as we do, which may delay, limit or prevent regulatory approval.

We may encounter substantial delays in our clinical trials or we may fail to demonstrate safety and efficacy to the satisfaction of applicable regulatory authorities.

We may experience delays in our ongoing clinical trials and we do not know whether planned clinical trials will begin on time, need to be redesigned, enroll patients on time or be completed on schedule, if at all. We previously experienced such delays with the initiation of our recently completed Phase IIb clinical trial of lanifibranor in patients with NASH and our Phase 1b/II clinical trial of odiparcil in a pediatric population with MPS VI, as well as delays in our plans to report data related to each of these trials. For example, the recruitment and screening of new patients for the Phase II trial of lanifibranor in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, or NAFLD, was temporarily suspended due to the COVID-19 pandemic, and the trial results are now expected in the second half of 2022, as opposed to the first half of 2022 as previously expected. In addition, currently there is a conflict involving Russia and Ukraine, and our NATiV3 clinical trial of lanifibranor includes trial sites located in Ukraine, Russia and other Eastern European countries. This may impact our ability to conduct our Phase III trial in Ukraine, Russia and potentially in other Eastern European countries, and may prevent us from enrolling patients and conducting clinical trial activities at sites in these countries. This could negatively impact the anticipated timing and completion of our clinical trials and/or analyses of clinical results, which could materially harm our business. In addition, clinical trials can be delayed for a variety of reasons, including delays related to:

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obtaining regulatory approval to commence a trial;

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reaching agreement on acceptable terms with prospective contract research organizations, or CROs, and clinical trial sites, the terms of which can be subject to extensive negotiation and may vary significantly among different CROs and trial sites;

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obtaining Institutional Review Board, or IRB, or ethics committee approval at each site;

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obtaining regulatory concurrence on the design and parameters for the trial;

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obtaining approval for the designs of our clinical development programs for each country targeted for trial enrollment;

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recruiting suitable patients to participate in a trial, which may be impacted by the number of competing trials that are enrolling patients;

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having patients complete a trial or return for post-treatment follow-up;

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clinical sites deviating from trial protocol or dropping out of a trial;

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adding new clinical trial sites;

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manufacturing sufficient quantities of product candidate or obtaining sufficient quantities of comparator drug for use in clinical trials;

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the availability of adequate financing and other resources; or

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the COVID-19 pandemic and related responses and measures.

We could encounter delays if a clinical trial is suspended or terminated by us, by the IRBs or ethics committees of the institutions in which such trials are being conducted, by the data and safety monitoring board for such trial or by the FDA, the EMA or other comparable regulatory authorities. A suspension or termination may be imposed due to a number of factors, including failure to conduct the clinical trial in accordance with regulatory requirements or our clinical protocols, inspection of the clinical trial operations or trial site by the FDA, the EMA or other comparable regulatory authorities resulting in the imposition of a clinical hold, safety issues or adverse side effects, failure to demonstrate a benefit from using a drug, changes in governmental regulations or administrative actions, manufacturing issues or lack of adequate funding to continue the clinical trial. For example, it is possible that safety issues or adverse side effects could be observed in our trials for lanifibranor in NASH, which could result in a delay, suspension or termination of those trials. If we experience delays in the completion of, or termination of, any clinical trial of our product candidates, the commercial prospects of our product candidates will be harmed, and our ability to generate product revenues from any of these product candidates will be delayed. For example, we decided to focus our clinical efforts on the development of lanifibranor. As part of this decision, we suspended our clinical efforts relating to odiparcil. In addition, any delays in completing our clinical trials will increase our costs, slow down our product candidate development and approval process and jeopardize our ability to commence product sales and generate revenues. Any of these occurrences may harm our business, financial condition and prospects significantly. In addition, many of the factors that cause or lead to a delay in the commencement or completion of clinical trials may also ultimately lead to the denial of regulatory approval of our product candidates.

If lanifibranor or any other product candidate is found to be unsafe or lack efficacy, we will not be able to obtain regulatory approval for it and our business would be materially harmed. For example, if the results of our Phase III clinical trial for lanifibranor in NASH do not achieve the primary efficacy endpoints or demonstrates unexpected safety findings, the prospects for approval of lanifibranor, as well as the price of our ordinary shares or ADSs, would be materially and adversely affected.

Moreover, principal investigators for our clinical trials may serve as our scientific advisors or consultants from time to time and receive compensation in connection with such services. Under certain circumstances, we may be required to report some of these relationships to the FDA or other regulatory authorities. The FDA or other regulatory authorities may conclude that a financial relationship between us and a principal investigator has created a conflict of interest or otherwise affected interpretation of the trial results. The FDA or other regulatory authority may therefore question the integrity of the data generated at the applicable clinical trial site and the utility of the clinical trial itself may be jeopardized. This could result in a delay in approval, or rejection, of our marketing

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applications by the FDA or other regulatory authority, as the case may be, and may ultimately lead to the denial of marketing approval of one or more of our product candidates.

Enrollment and retention of patients in clinical trials is an expensive and time-consuming process and could be made more difficult or rendered impossible by multiple factors outside our control, including difficulties in identifying NASH and psoriasis patients and significant competition for recruiting NASH and psoriasis patients in clinical trials.

Identifying and qualifying patients to participate in our clinical trials is critical to our success. We may encounter delays in enrolling, or be unable to enroll, a sufficient number of patients to complete any of our clinical trials, and even once enrolled we may be unable to retain a sufficient number of patients to complete any of our trials. In particular, as a result of the inherent difficulties in diagnosing NASH and the significant competition for recruiting NASH patients in clinical trials, we experienced delays in recruiting patients with NASH for our recently completed trial of lanifibranor in that indication and we or our potential future partners may be unable to enroll the patients we need to complete clinical trials on a timely basis, or at all. These challenges could be exacerbated if the FDA or EMA require us or our partners to conduct pivotal trials of lanifibranor in larger patient populations than we anticipate.

Additionally, patient enrollment and retention in clinical trials depends on many factors, including the size of the patient population, the nature of the trial protocol, our ability to recruit clinical trial investigators with the appropriate competencies and experience, the existing body of safety and efficacy data with respect to the study drug, the number and nature of competing treatments and ongoing clinical trials of competing drugs for the same disease, the proximity of patients to clinical sites and the eligibility criteria for the trials, our ability to obtain and maintain patient consents and the risk that patients enrolled in clinical trials will drop out of the trials before completion. Furthermore, any negative results we may report in clinical trials of our product candidates, or results that we report that are less favorable or perceived to be less favorable than those reported with respect to competitor product candidates, may make it difficult or impossible to recruit and retain patients in other clinical trials of those product candidates. Delays or failures in planned patient enrollment or retention may result in increased costs, program delays or both, which could have a harmful effect on our ability to develop lanifibranor, or could render further development impossible. In addition, we may rely on CROs and clinical trial sites to ensure proper and timely conduct of our future clinical trials and, while we intend to enter into agreements governing their services, we will be limited in our ability to compel their actual performance.

We are developing certain of our product candidates in combination with other therapies, and safety or supply issues with combination use products may delay or prevent development and approval of our therapeutic candidates.

We are developing certain of our product candidates in combination with one or more approved or investigational therapies. Even if any product candidate we develop were to receive marketing approval or be commercialized for use in combination with other existing therapies, we would continue to be subject to the risks that the FDA, EMA or similar foreign regulatory authorities could revoke approval of the therapy used in combination with our product or that safety, efficacy, manufacturing or supply issues could arise with any of those existing therapies. If the therapies we use in combination with our product candidates are replaced as the standard of care for the indications we choose for any of our product candidates, the EMA, FDA or similar foreign regulatory authorities outside may require us to conduct additional clinical trials. The occurrence of any of these risks could result in our own products, if approved, being removed from the market or being less successful commercially.

We also may evaluate our product candidates in combination with one or more therapies that have not yet been approved for marketing by the FDA, EMA or similar foreign regulatory authorities. We will not be able to market and sell any product candidate we develop in combination with an unapproved therapy if that unapproved therapy does not ultimately obtain marketing approval. In addition, unapproved therapies face the same risks described with respect to our product candidates currently in development, including the potential for serious adverse effects, delay in their clinical trials and lack of FDA or EMA approval.

If the FDA, EMA or similar foreign regulatory authorities do not approve these other therapies or revoke their approval of, or if safety, efficacy, manufacturing, or supply issues arise with, the therapies we choose to evaluate in combination with our product candidates, we may be unable to obtain approval of or market any such product candidate.

We may not be successful in our efforts to discover and develop additional product candidates.

A key element of our strategy is to build a pipeline of product candidates and progress these product candidates through clinical development for the treatment of a variety of diseases. Although our research and development efforts to date have resulted in a pipeline

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of product candidates directed at various diseases, we may not be able to develop product candidates that are safe and effective. Even if we are successful in continuing to build our pipeline, the potential product candidates that we identify may not be suitable for clinical development, including as a result of being shown to have harmful side effects or other characteristics that indicate that they are unlikely to be products that will receive marketing approval and achieve market acceptance. If we do not continue to successfully develop and begin to commercialize product candidates, we will face difficulty in obtaining product revenues in future periods, which could result in significant harm to our financial position and adversely affect the price of our ordinary shares or ADSs.

We have received Orphan Drug Designation from the FDA and the European Commission and Rare Pediatric Disease Designation from the FDA for odiparcil for the treatment of MPS VI, and we may seek Orphan Drug Designation for our future product candidates, however we may be unable to maintain the benefits associated with Orphan Drug Designation, including the potential for market exclusivity, which could limit the potential profitability of our drug candidates, if approved.

Regulatory authorities in some jurisdictions, including the United States and the European Union, may designate drugs for relatively small patient populations as orphan drugs. Under the Orphan Drug Act of 1983, the FDA may designate a drug as an orphan drug if it is a drug intended to treat a rare disease or condition, which is generally defined as a patient population of fewer than 200,000 individuals in the United States, or if it affects more than 200,000, there is no reasonable expectation that sales of the drug in the United States will be sufficient to offset the costs of developing and making the drug available in the United States. Generally, if a drug with an orphan drug designation subsequently receives the first marketing approval for an indication for which it receives the designation, then the drug is eligible for a seven-year period of marketing exclusivity in the United States and a ten-year period of marketing exclusivity in the European Union during which the competent authority may not approve another marketing application for the same drug for the same indication, except in limited circumstances, such as if a subsequent application demonstrates that its product is clinically superior. During an orphan drug’s exclusivity period, however, competitors may receive approval for drugs with different active moieties for the same indication as the approved orphan drug, or for drugs with the same active moiety as the approved orphan drug, but for different indications. Orphan drug exclusivity could block the approval of one of our products for seven years if a competitor obtains approval for a drug with the same active moiety intended for the same indication before we do, unless we are able to demonstrate that grounds for withdrawal of the orphan drug exclusivity exist or that our product is clinically superior. Further, if a designated orphan drug receives marketing approval for an indication broader than the rare disease or condition for which it received orphan drug designation, it may not be entitled to exclusivity. A designated orphan drug may not receive orphan drug exclusivity if it is approved for a use that is broader than the indication for which it received orphan drug designation.

We have received orphan drug designation from the FDA and from the EMA for odiparcil for the treatment of MPS VI. We intend to pursue orphan drug designation for other future drug candidates as applicable. Even if we obtain orphan drug designation for a drug candidate, we may not obtain orphan exclusivity, and any such exclusivity, if attained, may not effectively protect the drug from the competition of different drugs for the same condition, which could be approved during the exclusivity period. Additionally, after an orphan drug is approved, the FDA could subsequently approve another application for the same indication if the FDA concludes that the later drug is shown to be safer, more effective or makes a major contribution to patient care. Orphan drug exclusive marketing rights in the United States also may be lost if the FDA later determines that the request for designation was materially defective or if the manufacturer is unable to assure sufficient quantity of the drug to meet the needs of patients with the rare disease or condition. The failure to obtain an orphan drug designation for any drug candidates we may develop, the inability to maintain that designation for the duration of the applicable period, or the inability to obtain or maintain orphan drug exclusivity could reduce our ability to make sufficient sales of the applicable drug candidate to balance our expenses incurred to develop it, which would have a negative impact on our operational results and financial condition.

In addition, we have received Rare Pediatric Disease Designation from the FDA for odiparcil for the treatment of MPS VI. The FDA defines a “rare pediatric disease” as a serious or life-threatening disease in which the serious or life-threatening manifestations primarily affect individuals aged from birth to 18 years and the disease affects fewer than 200,000 individuals in the United States or affects more than 200,000 in the United States and for which there is no reasonable expectation that the cost of developing and making in the United States a drug for such disease or condition will be received from sales in the United States of such drug. Under the FDA’s Rare Pediatric Disease Priority Review Voucher, or PRV, program, upon the approval of a NDA for the treatment of a rare pediatric disease, the sponsor of such application would be eligible for a Rare Pediatric Disease PRV that can be used to obtain priority review for a subsequent NDA. The PRV may be sold or transferred an unlimited number of times. Congress has extended the PRV program, with potential for PRVs to be granted until September 30, 2026. This program has been subject to criticism, including by the FDA, and it is possible that the value of any such PRV may decrease such that we are not able to realize the benefits of such PRV, even if obtained.

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Fast Track and Breakthrough Therapy Designations from the FDA may not actually lead to a faster development or regulatory review or approval process.

The FDA has granted Fast Track and Breakthrough Therapy Designations to lanifibranor for the treatment of patients with NASH.

If a product is intended for the treatment of a serious or life-threatening condition and the product demonstrates the potential to address unmet medical needs for this condition, the product sponsor may apply for Fast Track Designation. Similarly, breakthrough therapy designation may be requested and granted for products that are intended, alone or in combination with one or more other products, to treat a serious or life-threatening condition and preliminary clinical evidence indicates that the product may demonstrate substantial improvement over currently approved therapies on one or more clinically significant endpoints. Even though we have received Fast Track and Breakthrough Therapy Designations for lanifibranor for the treatment of NASH we may not experience a faster development process, review or approval compared to conventional FDA procedures and these designations do not change the approval standards of the FDA. The FDA may withdraw such designations if it believes that the designation is no longer supported by data from our clinical development program.

The EMA, FDA and other regulatory agencies actively enforce the laws and regulations prohibiting the promotion of drugs for off-label uses. If we are found to have improperly promoted off-label use, we may become subject to significant liability.

The EMA, FDA and other regulatory agencies strictly regulate the promotional claims that may be made about prescription drug products, such as our product candidates, if approved. In particular, a product may not be promoted for uses that are not approved by the EMA, FDA or such other regulatory agencies as reflected in the product’s approved labeling. For example, if we receive marketing approval for lanifibranor for NASH, physicians, in their professional medical judgment, may nevertheless prescribe the drug product to their patients in a manner that is inconsistent with the approved label. If we are found to have promoted such off-label use, we may become subject to significant liability under the U.S. federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, or FDCA, and other statutory authorities, such as laws prohibiting false claims for reimbursement. The federal government has levied large civil and criminal fines against companies for alleged improper promotion and has enjoined several companies from engaging in off-label promotion. The FDA has also requested that companies enter into consent decrees or permanent injunctions under which specified promotional conduct is changed or curtailed. If we cannot successfully manage the promotion of our products, if approved, we could become subject to significant liability, which would harm our reputation and negatively impact our financial condition.

Even if any of our product candidates are commercialized, they may not be accepted by physicians, healthcare payors, patients or the medical community in general, and may also become subject to market conditions that could harm our business.

Even if we obtain regulatory approval for one or more of our product candidates, the product may not gain market acceptance or prevalent usage among physicians, healthcare payors, patients and the medical community, which is critical to commercial success. Our current product candidates both treat diseases which may not frequently be identified by physicians. For example, because various co-morbidities often confound the diagnosis of NASH and NASH diagnosis currently requires liver biopsy, many physicians may not be trained to identify or treat NASH specifically, which could lead to limited prescribing of lanifibranor even if the product candidate obtains regulatory approval and is commercialized. Market acceptance of any product candidate for which we receive approval depends on a number of factors, including:

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the efficacy and safety as demonstrated in clinical trials;

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the timing of market introduction of the product candidate as well as competitive products;

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the clinical indications for which the product candidate is approved and physician and medical community awareness of and familiarity with such indications;

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acceptance by physicians, the medical community and patients of the product candidate as a safe and effective treatment;

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with respect to lanifibranor, the perception of PPAR agonists as a class of drugs;

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the convenience of prescribing and initiating patients on the product candidate;

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the potential and perceived advantages of such product candidate over alternative treatments;

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the cost of treatment in relation to alternative treatments, including any similar generic treatments;

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pricing and the availability of coverage and adequate reimbursement by third-party payors;

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relative convenience and ease of administration;

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the prevalence and severity of adverse side effects; and

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the effectiveness of sales and marketing efforts.

If our product candidates are approved but fail to achieve an adequate level of acceptance by physicians, healthcare payors, patients and the medical community, we will not be able to generate significant revenues, and we may not become or remain profitable.

We currently have no marketing and sales organization. To the extent any of our product candidates for which we maintain commercial rights is approved for marketing, if we are unable to establish marketing and sales capabilities or enter into agreements with third parties to market and sell our product candidates, we may not be able to effectively market and sell any product candidates, or generate product revenues.

We currently do not have a marketing or sales organization for the marketing, sales and distribution of pharmaceutical products. In order to independently commercialize any product candidates that receive marketing approval and for which we maintain commercial rights, we would have to build marketing, sales, distribution, managerial and other non-technical capabilities or make arrangements with third parties to perform these services, and we may not be successful in doing so. Factors that may inhibit our efforts to commercialize our products on our own include:

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our inability to recruit, train and retain adequate numbers of effective sales and marketing personnel;

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the inability of sales personnel to obtain access to physicians, educate physicians about patients for whom our product candidates may be appropriate treatment options and attain adequate numbers of physicians to prescribe any drugs;

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the inability of reimbursement professionals to negotiate arrangements for formulary access, reimbursement, and other acceptance by payors;

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restricted or closed distribution channels that make it difficult to distribute our products to segments of the patient population;

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the lack of complementary medicines to be offered by sales personnel, which may put us at a competitive disadvantage relative to companies with more extensive product lines; and

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unforeseen costs and expenses associated with creating an independent sales and marketing organization.

In the event of successful development of lanifibranor or any other product candidates in those indications where we can do so in a capital efficient manner, we may elect to build a targeted specialty sales force which will be expensive and time consuming. Any failure or delay in the development of our internal sales, marketing and distribution capabilities would adversely impact the commercialization of these products. With respect to our product candidates for larger indications, we may partner with third parties that have direct sales forces and established distribution systems, either to augment our own sales force and distribution systems or in lieu of our own sales force and distribution systems. If we are unable to enter into partnerships with third parties for the commercialization of approved products, if any, on acceptable terms or at all, or if any such partner does not devote sufficient resources to the commercialization of our product or otherwise fails in commercialization efforts, we may not be able to successfully commercialize any of our product candidates that receive regulatory approval. If we are not successful in commercializing our product candidates, either on our own or through partnerships with one or more third parties, our future revenue will be materially and adversely impacted.

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Even if we obtain and maintain approval for our current and future product candidates from the FDA, we may nevertheless be unable to obtain approval for our product candidates outside of the United States, which would limit our market opportunities and could harm our business.

Approval of a product candidate in the United States by the FDA does not ensure approval of such product candidate by regulatory authorities in other countries or jurisdictions, and approval by one foreign regulatory authority does not ensure approval by regulatory authorities in other foreign countries or by the FDA. If approved, sales of lanifibranor and any future product candidate outside of the United States will be subject to foreign regulatory requirements governing clinical trials and marketing approval. Even if the FDA grants marketing approval for a product candidate, comparable regulatory authorities of foreign countries also must approve the manufacturing and marketing of the product candidate in those countries. Approval procedures vary among jurisdictions and can involve requirements and administrative review periods different from, and more onerous than, those in the United States, including additional pre-clinical studies or clinical trials. In many countries outside the United States, a product candidate must be approved for reimbursement before it can be approved for sale in that country. In some cases, the price that we intend to charge for any product candidates, if approved, is also subject to approval. Obtaining approval for lanifibranor or any future product candidate in the European Union from the European Commission following the opinion of the EMA or in other foreign jurisdictions, if we choose to submit a marketing authorization application there, would be a lengthy and expensive process. Even if a product candidate is approved, the FDA, the EMA or other foreign regulatory authorities, as the case may be, may limit the indications for which the drug may be marketed, require extensive warnings on the drug labeling or require expensive and time-consuming additional clinical trials or reporting as conditions of approval.

Obtaining foreign regulatory approvals and compliance with foreign regulatory requirements could result in significant delays, difficulties and costs for us and could delay or prevent the introduction of lanifibranor or any future product candidate in certain countries.

Further, clinical trials conducted in one country may not be accepted by regulatory authorities in other countries. Also, regulatory approval for lanifibranor or any future product candidate may be withdrawn. If we fail to comply with the regulatory requirements, our target market will be reduced and our ability to realize the full market potential of lanifibranor or any future product candidate will be negatively impacted, and our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations could be harmed.

Coverage and reimbursement decisions by third-party payors may have an adverse effect on pricing and market acceptance.

There is significant uncertainty related to the third-party coverage and reimbursement of newly approved drugs. To the extent that we retain commercial rights following clinical development, we would seek approval to market our product candidates in the United States, the European Union and other selected jurisdictions. Market acceptance and sales of our product candidates, if approved, in both domestic and international markets will depend significantly on the availability of coverage and adequate reimbursement from third-party payors for any of our product candidates and may be affected by existing and future healthcare reform measures. Government authorities and other third-party payors, such as private health insurers and health maintenance organizations, decide which drugs they will cover and establish payment levels. We cannot be certain that coverage and adequate reimbursement will be available for any of our product candidates, if approved. We cannot guarantee that we will be able to obtain price levels and reimbursement rates as high as those granted to other products that may be approved for the treatment of NASH or the various forms of psoriasis, particularly because these products may have a different therapeutic approach from those developed by us. Also, we cannot be certain that reimbursement policies will not reduce the demand for any of our product candidates, if approved. If reimbursement is not available or is available on a limited basis for any of our product candidates, if approved, we or our partners may not be able to successfully commercialize any such product candidate. Reimbursement by a third-party payor may depend upon a number of factors, including, without limitation, the third-party payor’s determination that use of a product is:

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a covered benefit under its health plan;

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safe, effective and medically necessary;

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appropriate for the specific patient;

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cost-effective; and

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neither experimental nor investigational.

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Obtaining coverage and reimbursement approval for a product from a government or other third-party payor is a time consuming and costly process that could require us to provide supporting scientific, clinical and cost-effectiveness data for the use of our products to the payor. We may not be able to provide data sufficient to gain acceptance with respect to coverage and reimbursement at a satisfactory level. If reimbursement of our future products, if any, is unavailable or limited in scope or amount, such as may result where alternative or generic treatments are available, we may be unable to achieve or sustain profitability.

In the United States, the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003, or MMA, changed the way Medicare covers and pays for pharmaceutical products. The legislation established Medicare Part D, which expanded Medicare coverage for outpatient prescription drug purchases by the elderly but provided authority for limiting the number of drugs that will be covered in any therapeutic class. The MMA also introduced a new reimbursement methodology based on average sales prices for physician- administered drugs. Any negotiated prices for any of our product candidates, if approved, covered by a Part D prescription drug plan will likely be lower than the prices we might otherwise obtain outside of the Medicare Part D prescription drug plan.

Moreover, no uniform policy for coverage and reimbursement exists in the United States, and coverage and reimbursement can differ significantly from payor to payor. While Medicare Part D applies only to drug benefits for Medicare beneficiaries, private third-party payors often follow Medicare coverage policy and payment limitations in setting their own payment rates, but also have their own methods and approval process apart from Medicare determinations. Any reduction in payment under Medicare Part D may result in a similar reduction in payments from non-governmental payors.

In certain countries, particularly in the European Union, the pricing of prescription pharmaceuticals is subject to governmental control. In these countries, pricing negotiations with governmental authorities can take considerable time after the receipt of marketing approval for a product candidate. To obtain reimbursement or pricing approval in some countries, we may be required to conduct additional clinical trials that compare the cost-effectiveness of our product candidates to other available therapies. If reimbursement of any of our product candidates, if approved, is unavailable or limited in scope or amount in a particular country, or if pricing is set at unsatisfactory levels, we may be unable to achieve or sustain profitability of our products in such country.

The delivery of healthcare in the European Union, including the establishment and operation of health services and the pricing and reimbursement of medicines, is almost exclusively a matter for national, rather than EU, law and policy. National governments and health service providers have different priorities and approaches to the delivery of healthcare and the pricing and reimbursement of products in that context. In general, however, the healthcare budgetary constraints in most EU member states have resulted in restrictions on the pricing and reimbursement of medicines by relevant health service providers. Coupled with ever-increasing EU and national regulatory burdens on those wishing to develop and market products, this could prevent or delay marketing approval of our product candidates, restrict or regulate post-approval activities and affect our or our partners’ ability to commercialize any products for which we obtain marketing approval.

Changes in healthcare law and implementing regulations, as well as changes in healthcare policy, may impact our business in ways that we cannot currently predict, and may have a significant adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

In the United States and some foreign jurisdictions, there have been, and continue to be, several legislative and regulatory changes and proposed changes regarding the healthcare system that could prevent or delay marketing approval of drug candidates, restrict or regulate post-approval activities, and affect our ability to profitably sell any drug candidates for which we obtain marketing approval. Among policy makers and payors in the United States and elsewhere, including in the European Union, there is significant interest in promoting changes in healthcare systems with the stated goals of containing healthcare costs, improving quality and/or expanding access. In the United States, the pharmaceutical industry has been a particular focus of these efforts and has been significantly affected by major legislative initiatives.

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, or collectively the Affordable Care Act, substantially changed the way healthcare is financed by both the government and private insurers, and significantly impacts the U.S. pharmaceutical industry. The Affordable Care Act, among other things: (1) increased the minimum Medicaid rebates owed by manufacturers under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program and expanded rebate liability from fee-for-service Medicaid utilization to include the utilization of Medicaid managed care organizations as well; (2) established a branded prescription drug fee that pharmaceutical manufacturers of branded prescription drugs must pay to the federal government; (3) expanded the list of covered entities eligible to participate in the 340B drug pricing program by adding new entities to the program; (4) established a new Medicare Part D coverage gap discount program, in which manufacturers must agree to offer 70% point-of-sale discounts off negotiated

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prices of applicable brand drugs to eligible beneficiaries during their coverage gap period, as a condition for the manufacturer’s outpatient drugs to be covered under Medicare Part D; (5) extended manufacturers’ Medicaid rebate liability to covered drugs dispensed to individuals who are enrolled in Medicaid managed care organizations; (6) expanded eligibility criteria for Medicaid programs by, among other things, allowing states to offer Medicaid coverage to additional individuals and by adding new mandatory eligibility categories for individuals with income at or below 133% of the federal poverty level, thereby potentially increasing manufacturers’ Medicaid rebate liability; (7) created a new methodology by which rebates owed by manufacturers under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program are calculated for certain drugs and biologics, including our product candidates, that are inhaled, infused, instilled, implanted or injected; (8) established a new Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute to oversee, identify priorities in, and conduct comparative clinical effectiveness research, along with funding for such research; (9) established a Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation at the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, or CMS, to test innovative payment and service delivery models to lower Medicare and Medicaid spending, potentially including prescription drug spending; and (10) created a licensure framework for follow-on biologic products.

There have been judicial, Congressional, and executive branch challenges to certain aspects of the Affordable Care Act. For example, President Trump signed Executive Orders and other directives designed to delay the implementation of certain provisions of the Affordable Care Act or otherwise circumvent some of the requirements for health insurance mandated by the Affordable Care Act. Additionally, CMS issued a final rule in 2018 that gave states greater flexibility in setting benchmarks for insurers in the individual and small group marketplaces, which may have the effect of relaxing the essential health benefits required under the Affordable Care Act for plans sold through such marketplaces. Concurrently, Congress considered legislation that would repeal or repeal and replace all or part of the Affordable Care Act. While Congress has not passed comprehensive repeal legislation, several bills affecting the implementation of certain taxes under the Affordable Care Act have been signed into law. The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act includes a provision repealing, effective January 1, 2019, the tax-based shared responsibility payment imposed by the Affordable Care Act on certain individuals who fail to maintain qualifying health coverage for all or part of a year that is commonly referred to as the “individual mandate.” Further, the 2020 federal spending package permanently eliminated, effective January 1, 2020, the Affordable Care Act-mandated “Cadillac” tax on high-cost employer-sponsored health coverage and medical device tax and, effective January 1, 2021, also eliminates the health insurer tax. Moreover, the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018, or the BBA, among other things, amended the Affordable Care Act, effective January 1, 2019, to close the coverage gap in most Medicare drug plans, commonly referred to as the “donut hole.” In December 2018, CMS published a new final rule permitting further collections and payments to and from certain Affordable Care Act qualified health plans, or QHPs, and health insurance issuers under the Affordable Care Act risk adjustment program in response to the outcome of federal district court litigation regarding the method CMS uses to determine this risk adjustment. On April 27, 2020, the United States Supreme Court reversed a Federal Circuit decision that previously upheld Congress’ denial of $12 billion in “risk corridor” funding. Congress may consider additional legislation to repeal, or repeal and replace, other elements of the Affordable Care Act. On June 17, 2021, the U.S. Supreme Court dismissed a challenge on procedural grounds that argued that the Affordable Care Act is unconstitutional in its entirety because the individual mandate was repealed by Congress. Thus, the Affordable Care Act will remain in effect in its current form. Prior to the U.S. Supreme Court ruling, on January 28, 2021, President Biden issued an executive order that initiated a special enrollment period for purposes of obtaining health insurance coverage through the Affordable Care Act marketplace. The executive order also instructed certain governmental agencies to review and reconsider their existing policies and rules that limit access to healthcare, including among others, reexamining Medicaid demonstration projects and waiver programs that include work requirements, and policies that create unnecessary barriers to obtaining access to health insurance coverage through Medicaid or the Affordable Care Act. It is possible that the Affordable Care Act will be subject to judicial or Congressional challenges in the future. It is unclear how such challenges and the healthcare reform measures of the Biden administration will impact the Affordable Care Act and our business. We continue to evaluate the Affordable Care Act and its possible repeal and replacement, as the extent to which any such changes may impact our business or financial condition remains uncertain.

Other legislative changes have been proposed and adopted since the Affordable Care Act was enacted. These changes include aggregate reductions to Medicare payments to providers of up to 2% per fiscal year pursuant to the Budget Control Act of 2011 and subsequent laws, which began in 2013 and, due to subsequent legislative amendments to the statute, including the BBA, and the Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act, will remain in effect through 2031 unless additional Congressional action is taken. The Coronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security Act, or CARES Act, and other COVID-19 relief legislation suspended the 2% Medicare sequester from May 1, 2020 through March 31, 2022. Under current legislation, the actual reduction in Medicare payments will vary from 1% in 2022 to up to 3% in the final fiscal year of this sequester. Additionally, on March 11, 2021, President Biden signed the American Rescue Plan Act of 2021 into law, which eliminates the statutory Medicaid drug rebate cap, currently set at 100% of a drug’s average manufacturer price, for single source and innovator multiple source drugs, beginning January 1, 2024. New laws may result in additional reductions in Medicare and other healthcare funding, which may adversely affect customer demand and affordability for our

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products and, accordingly, the results of our financial operations. Additional changes that may affect our business include the expansion of new programs such as Medicare payment for performance initiatives for physicians under the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015, or MACRA, which ended the use of the statutory formula and established a quality payment program, also referred to as the Quality Payment Program. The Quality Payment Program has two tracks, one known as the merit based incentive payment system for providers in the fee-for service Medicare program, and the advanced alternative payment model for providers in specific care models, such as accountable care organizations. In November 2019, CMS issued a final rule finalizing the changes to the Quality Payment Program. At this time, it is unclear how the introduction of the Medicare quality payment program will impact overall physician reimbursement. It is also possible that additional governmental action is taken in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Also, there has been heightened governmental scrutiny recently over the manner in which drug manufacturers set prices for their marketed products, which has resulted in several Congressional inquiries and proposed and enacted federal and state legislation designed to, among other things, bring more transparency to product pricing, review the relationship between pricing and manufacturer patient programs, and reform government program reimbursement methodologies for drug products. For example, at the federal level, on July 24, 2020 and September 13, 2020, President Trump announced several executive orders related to prescription drug pricing that seek to implement several of the administration’s proposals. As a result, the FDA concurrently released a final rule and guidance in September 2020 providing pathways for states to build and submit importation plans for drugs from Canada. Further, on November 20, 2020, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or HHS, finalized a regulation removing safe harbor protection for price reductions from pharmaceutical manufacturers to plan sponsors under Part D, either directly or through pharmacy benefit managers, unless the price reduction is required by law. The implementation of the rule has been delayed by the Biden administration from January 1, 2022 to January 1, 2023 in response to ongoing litigation. The rule also creates a new safe harbor for price reductions reflected at the point-of-sale, as well as a safe harbor for certain fixed fee arrangements between pharmacy benefit managers and manufacturers, the implementation of which have also been delayed to January 1, 2023. In July 2021, the Biden administration released an executive order, “Promoting Competition in the American Economy,” with multiple provisions aimed at prescription drugs. In response to Biden’s executive order, on September 9, 2021, HHS released a Comprehensive Plan for Addressing High Drug Prices that outlines principles for drug pricing reform and sets out a variety of potential legislative policies that Congress could pursue as well as potential administrative actions HHS can take to advance these principles. No legislation or administrative actions have been finalized to implement these principles. It is unclear whether these or other similar policy initiatives will be implemented in the future. At the state level, legislatures have increasingly passed legislation and implemented regulations designed to control pharmaceutical and biological product pricing, including price or patient reimbursement constraints, discounts, restrictions on certain product access and marketing cost disclosure and transparency measures, and, in some cases, designed to encourage importation from other countries and bulk purchasing. For example, since 2016, Vermont requires certain manufacturers identified by the state to justify their price increases.

We expect that these and other healthcare reform measures that may be adopted in the future, may result in more rigorous coverage criteria and lower reimbursement, and in additional downward pressure on the price that we receive for any approved product. Any reduction in reimbursement from Medicare or other government-funded programs may result in a similar reduction in payments from private payors. The implementation of cost containment measures or other healthcare reforms may prevent us from being able to generate revenue, attain profitability or commercialize our drugs, once marketing approval is obtained. We cannot predict what healthcare reform initiatives may be adopted in the future. However, it is possible that there will be further legislation or regulation that could harm the business, financial condition and results of operations. Further, it is possible that additional governmental action is taken in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.

In the European Union, coverage and reimbursement status of any drug candidates for which we obtain regulatory approval are provided for by the national laws of EU Member States. The requirements may differ across the EU Member States. Also at the national level, actions have been taken to enact transparency laws regarding payments between pharmaceutical companies and health care professionals.

We face significant competition for our drug discovery and development efforts, and if we do not compete effectively, our commercial opportunities will be reduced or eliminated.

The biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries are intensely competitive and subject to rapid and significant technological change. Our drug discovery and development efforts may target diseases and conditions that are already subject to existing therapies or that are being developed by our competitors, many of which have substantially greater resources, larger research and development staffs and facilities, more experience in completing pre-clinical testing and clinical trials, and formulation, marketing and manufacturing capabilities than we do. As a result of these resources, our competitors may develop drug products that render our products obsolete or

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noncompetitive by developing more effective drugs or by developing their products more efficiently. Our ability to develop competitive products would be limited if our competitors succeeded in obtaining regulatory approvals for drug candidates more rapidly than we were able to or in obtaining patent protection or other intellectual property rights that limited our drug development efforts. Any drug products resulting from our research and development efforts, or from our joint efforts with partners or licensees, might not be able to compete successfully with our competitors’ existing and future products, or obtain regulatory approval in the United States, European Union or elsewhere. Further, we may be subject to additional competition from alternative forms of treatment, including generic or over-the-counter drugs.

Novo Nordisk A/S, Galmed Pharmaceuticals Ltd. and Madrigal Pharmaceuticals are investigating product candidates in Phase III clinical trials for the treatment of NASH, while other companies have product candidates for the treatment of NASH that are in earlier stages of pre-clinical or clinical development. After an FDA rejection, Intercept Pharmaceuticals, Inc. is in the process of new data analysis and expects to hold a pre-submission meeting with FDA in the first half of 2022 for its NASH product candidate. The marketing authorization applicable in the EU for ocaliva for advanced fibrosis was withdrawn in December 2021. Important announcements are expected in 2022, especially Madrigal Phase III clinical data in patients with F2 and F3 fibrosis and Intercept Phase III clinical data in patients with compensated cirrhosis due to NASH. Other companies, including Gilead Sciences, Inc. have product candidates for the treatment of NASH that are in earlier stages of pre-clinical or clinical development. ERT is the standard of care for the treatment of MPS with current therapies being marketed by BioMarin Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Sanofi Genzyme, Shire Plc and Ultragenyx Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Additional ERTs, as well as gene therapy approaches to treating MPS, are in various stages of pre-clinical and clinical development conducted by different companies, including Abeona Therapeutics Inc., ArmaGen, Inc., Eloxx Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Sanofi Genzyme, Esteve Pharmaceuticals, S.A., Lysogene S.A., Orchard Therapeutics plc, REGENXBIO Inc., Sangamo Therapeutics, Inc. and Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited. In the MPS VI subtype, the MeuSix consortium is developing a gene therapy approach and is conducting a multicenter Phase I/II clinical trial to investigate the safety and efficacy of its AAV-mediated gene therapy. Several RORy inverse agonist programs for the treatment of psoriasis are in various stages of pre-clinical and clinical development conducted by different companies, including Boehringer Ingelheim, Japan Tobacco and Immunic therapeutics. Several companies are also developing other treatments to moderate-to-severe psoriasis, including Bristol Myers Squibb, Ventyx Therapeutics and Dice Therapeutics.

Several RORy inverse agonist programs for the treatment of psoriasis are currently in development. Boehringer Ingelheim is developing bevurogant, which is currently in Phase II clinical trials. Aurigene is developing AUR-101, which is also in Phase II clinical trials. Japan Tobacco is developing JTE-761, and Immunic Therapeutics is developing IMU-935, both of which are in Phase I clinical trials. In addition, several pharmaceutical companies are trying to develop other efficacious and safe oral approaches in moderate-to-severe psoriasis. Bristol Myers Squibb is developing deucratinib, a TYK2 inhibitor, Ventyx Therapeutics is developing a TYK2 inhibitor named VTX958, and Dice Therapeutics is developing a drug with an oral IL-17 mode of action named SO11806 which is also in Phase I clinical trials.

Mergers and acquisitions in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries could result in even more resources being concentrated among a small number of our competitors. Competition may reduce the number and types of patients available to us to participate in clinical trials, particularly with respect to NASH, because some patients who might have opted to enroll in our trials may instead opt to enroll in a trial being conducted by one of our competitors.

Our product candidates may cause undesirable side effects or have other properties that could delay or prevent their regulatory approval, limit the commercial profile of an approved label, or result in significant negative consequences following marketing approval, if any.

Results of our trials could reveal a high and unacceptable severity and prevalence of certain side effects. In such an event, our trials could be suspended or terminated and the FDA, the EMA or comparable regulatory authorities could order us to cease further development of or deny approval of our product candidates for any or all targeted indications. The drug-related side effects could affect patient recruitment or the ability of enrolled patients to complete the trial or result in potential product liability claims. Any of these occurrences may harm our business, financial condition and prospects significantly.

If one or more of our product candidates receives marketing approval, and we or others later identify undesirable side effects caused by such products, a number of potentially significant negative consequences could result, including:

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regulatory authorities may withdraw approvals of such product;

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regulatory authorities may require additional warnings on the label;

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we may be required to create a medication guide outlining the risks of such side effects for distribution to patients;

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we could be sued and held liable for harm caused to patients; and

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our reputation may suffer.

Any of these events could prevent us from achieving or maintaining market acceptance of the particular product candidate, if approved, and could significantly harm our business, results of operations and prospects.

Clinical trials of our product candidates may not uncover all possible adverse effects that patients may experience.

Clinical trials are conducted in representative samples of the potential patient population which may have significant variability. Clinical trials are by design based on a limited number of subjects and of limited duration for exposure to the product used to determine whether, on a potentially statistically significant basis, the planned safety and efficacy of any product candidate can be achieved. As with the results of any statistical sampling, we cannot be sure that all side effects of our product candidates may be uncovered, and it may be the case that only with a significantly larger number of patients exposed to the product candidate for a longer duration, may a more complete safety profile be identified. Further, even larger clinical trials may not identify rare serious adverse effects or the duration of such studies may not be sufficient to identify when those events may occur. There have been other products that have been approved by the regulatory authorities but for which safety concerns have been uncovered following approval. Such safety concerns have led to labelling changes or withdrawal of products from the market, and any of our product candidates may be subject to similar risks.

Although to date we have not seen evidence of significant safety concerns with our product candidates currently in clinical trials, patients treated with our products, if approved, may experience adverse reactions and it is possible that the FDA or other regulatory authorities may ask for additional safety data as a condition of, or in connection with, our efforts to obtain approval of our product candidates. If safety problems occur or are identified after our product candidates reach the market, we may, or regulatory authorities may require us to amend the labeling of our products, recall our products or even withdraw approval for our products.

We may not be able to conduct, or contract others to conduct, animal testing in the future, which could harm our research and development activities.

Certain laws and regulations relating to drug development require us to test our product candidates on animals before initiating clinical trials involving humans. Animal testing activities have been the subject of controversy and adverse publicity. Animal rights groups and other organizations and individuals have attempted to stop animal testing activities by pressing for legislation and regulation in these areas and by disrupting these activities through protests and other means. To the extent the activities of these groups are successful, our research and development activities may be interrupted or delayed.

The lack of a reliable non-invasive method for the diagnosis of NASH is likely to present a major challenge to lanifibranor’s market penetration, if ever commercialized.

Liver biopsy is the standard approach for the diagnosis of inflammation and fibrosis associated with NASH. However, the procedure-related morbidity and, in rare cases, mortality, sample errors, costs, patient discomfort and thus lack of patient interest in undergoing the procedure limit its use. As such, only patients with a high risk of NASH, which includes patients with metabolic syndrome and an indication of NAFLD are generally sent for liver biopsy. Because NASH tends to be asymptomatic until the disease progresses, many individuals with NASH remain undiagnosed until the disease has reached its late stages, if at all. The lack of a reliable non-invasive method for the diagnosis of NASH is likely to present a major challenge to lanifibranor’s market penetration, as many practitioners and patients may not be aware that a patient suffers from NASH and requires treatment. As such, use of lanifibranor might not be as wide-spread as our actual target market and this may limit the commercial potential of lanifibranor.

A further challenge to lanifibranor’s market penetration is that currently a liver biopsy is the standard approach for measuring improvement in NASH patients. Because it would be impractical to subject all patients that take lanifibranor, when and if it approved, to regular and repeated liver biopsies, it will be difficult to demonstrate lanifibranor’s effectiveness to practitioners and patients unless

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and until a reliable non-invasive method for the diagnosis and monitoring of NASH becomes available, as to which there can be no assurance.

While other companies in the industry are currently working on advancing non-invasive diagnostic approaches, none of these has been clinically validated, and the timetable for commercial validation, if at all, is uncertain. Moreover, such diagnostics may also be subject to regulation by FDA or other regulatory authorities as medical devices and may require premarket clearance or approval.

Our business could be adversely affected by the effects of health epidemics, including the COVID-19 pandemic, in regions where we or third parties on which we rely have significant concentrations of clinical trial sites, manufacturing facilities or other business operations. The COVID-19 pandemic could materially affect our operations, including at our headquarters in France and at our clinical trial sites, as well as the business or operations of our manufacturers, CROs or other third parties with whom we conduct business.

Our business could be adversely affected by health epidemics in regions where we have concentrations of clinical trial sites or other business operations, and could cause significant disruption in the operations of third-party manufacturers and CROs upon whom we rely. We have implemented various measures, including work-from-home policies to address and minimize the impact of the various waves of COVID-19 on our employees and customers and to support their health and safety while promoting business continuity. The effects of executive orders and our work-from-home policies may negatively impact productivity, disrupt our business and delay our clinical programs and timelines, the magnitude of which will depend, in part, on the length and severity of the restrictions and other limitations on our ability to conduct our business in the ordinary course. These and similar, and perhaps more severe, disruptions in our operations could negatively impact our business, operating results and financial condition.

Quarantines, shelter-in-place and similar government orders, or the perception that such orders, shutdowns or other restrictions on the conduct of business operations could occur, related to COVID-19 or other infectious diseases could impact our personnel and the personnel at third-party research and manufacturing facilities in the United States, the European Union and other countries. We are working closely with our staff and contractors to manage our supply chain activities and to mitigate potential disruptions in product supply due to the Covid-19 pandemic. However, if the pandemic persists for an extended period of time and begins to impact critical distribution systems, we could experience disruptions in our supply chain and operations. The availability and cost of the products necessary for our activity could also be impacted, in particular for experimental drugs and drugs used as a basis for comparison for clinical trials.

In addition, our clinical trials have been and may continue to be affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Clinical site initiation and patient enrollment have been and may continue to be delayed due to prioritization of hospital resources toward the COVID-19 pandemic. Research and recruitment of new patients in the Phase II study in NAFLD conducted at the University of Florida has been suspended, and due to delays in recruitment and screening of new patients, the results of the Phase II NAFLD trial of lanifibranor are now expected in the second half of 2022, as opposed to the first half as previously expected. Some patients may not be able to comply with clinical trial protocols if quarantines impede patient movement or interrupt healthcare services. Similarly, our ability to recruit and retain patients and principal investigators and site staff who, as healthcare providers, may have heightened exposure to COVID-19 and adversely impact our clinical trial operations. Furthermore, changes in local regulations as part of a response to the COVID-19 outbreak may require us to change the ways in which our clinical trials are conducted, which may result in unexpected costs, or discontinue the clinical trials altogether especially in case of delays due to necessary interactions with local regulators, ethics committees and other important agencies and contractors triggered by limitations in employee resources or forced furlough of government employees. For these reasons, the COVID-19 crisis could still have a significant impact on the development of lanifibranor and in particular on the Phase III clinical trial in NASH.

To date, we have not experienced delays in the timing of our interactions with regulatory authorities. However, we could be affected by such delays, for example, due to the absence of regulatory authority personnel, their inability to conduct the in-person inspections required for regulatory approval or the diversion of efforts and attention of regulatory authorities to COVID-19.

The spread of COVID-19, which has caused a broad impact globally, may materially affect us economically. While the potential economic impact brought by, and the duration of, COVID-19 may be difficult to assess or predict, a widespread pandemic could result in significant disruption of global financial markets, reducing our ability to access capital, which could in the future negatively affect our liquidity. In addition, a recession or market correction resulting from the spread of COVID-19 could materially affect our business and the value of our common stock.

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Although the impact of COVID-19 on our business and operations have been limited so far, the global pandemic continues to rapidly evolve. Given the general disruption of global health care systems and other risks and uncertainties associated with the pandemic, the extent to which COVID-19 may affect our activity and clinical trials will depend on future developments, which cannot be predicted with certainty, such as the final geographic distribution of the disease, its duration, restrictions on travel, the progress of vaccination and the social distancing measures in the European Union, the United States and other countries, business closures or disruptions and the effectiveness of measures taken in these countries. In addition, the extent of the negative impact of this epidemic on the financial markets and on the Company's share price is unknown at this time.

Risks Related to Our Reliance on Third Parties

We may not be successful in establishing development and commercialization partnerships, including with respect to odiparcil, which could adversely affect, and potentially prohibit, our ability to develop our product candidates.

Developing pharmaceutical products, conducting clinical trials, obtaining regulatory approval, establishing manufacturing capabilities and marketing approved products are expensive. Accordingly, we have sought and may in the future seek to enter into partnerships with companies that have more resources and experience. If we are unable to obtain a partner for our product candidates, we may be unable to advance the development of our product candidates through late-stage clinical development and seek approval in any market. In situations where we enter into a development and commercial partnership arrangement for a product candidate, we may also seek to establish additional partnerships for development and commercialization in territories outside of those addressed by the first partnership arrangement for such product candidate. If we are unable to enter into any development and commercial partnerships and/or sales and marketing arrangements on acceptable terms, or at all, we may be unable to successfully develop and seek regulatory approval for our product candidates and/or effectively market and sell approved products, if any.

In 2020, we decided to focus our clinical efforts on the development of lanifibranor and suspend our clinical efforts relating to odiparcil. In the future, we may partner with third-party partners for the development and commercialization of odiparcil or other product candidates. If we are unable to obtain a partner for odiparcil or any of our product candidates, we may be unable to advance the development of odiparcil which could have a negative impact on our business, results of operations, financial condition and growth prospects. Even if we are able to establish such a partnership, there can no assurance that such partnership will be successful. If we partner with a third party for development and commercialization of odiparcil, we can expect to relinquish some or all of the control over the potential success of odiparcil to the third party. We will likely have limited control over the amount and timing of resources that our partners dedicate to the development or commercialization of odiparcil, or any other product candidate. Our ability to generate revenues from these arrangements will depend on our partners’ abilities and efforts to successfully perform the functions assigned to them in these arrangements. Partnerships involving odiparcil, or our other product candidates, could pose numerous risks to us, including the following:

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partners have significant discretion in determining the efforts and resources that they will apply to these partnerships and may not perform their obligations as expected;

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partners may deemphasize or not pursue development and commercialization of odiparcil or our other product candidates or may elect not to continue or renew development or commercialization programs based on clinical trial results, changes in the partners strategic focus, including as a result of a sale or disposition of a business unit or development function, or available funding or external factors such as an acquisition that diverts resources or creates competing priorities;

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partners may delay clinical trials, provide insufficient funding for a clinical trial program, stop a clinical trial or abandon a product candidate, repeat or conduct new clinical trials or require a new formulation of a product candidate for clinical testing;

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partners could independently develop, or develop with third parties, products that compete directly or indirectly with our product candidates if the partners believe that competitive products are more likely to be successfully developed or can be commercialized under terms that are more economically attractive than ours;

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a partner with marketing and distribution rights to multiple products may not commit sufficient resources to the marketing and distribution of our product relative to other products;

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partners may not properly obtain, maintain, defend or enforce our intellectual property rights or may use our proprietary information and intellectual property in such a way as to invite litigation or other intellectual property related proceedings that could jeopardize or invalidate our proprietary information and intellectual property or expose us to potential litigation or other intellectual property related proceedings;

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disputes may arise between the partners and us that result in the delay or termination of the research, development or commercialization of our product candidates or that result in costly litigation or arbitration that diverts management attention and resources;

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partnerships may be terminated and, if terminated, may result in a need for additional capital to pursue further development or commercialization of the applicable product candidates;

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partnership agreements may not lead to development or commercialization of product candidates in the most efficient manner or at all; and

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if a partner of ours were to be involved in a business combination, the continued pursuit and emphasis on our drug development or commercialization program could be delayed, diminished or terminated.

We may not be successful in maintaining development and commercialization partnerships, including our partnership with AbbVie for the development and commercialization of cedirogant, and any partner may not devote sufficient resources to the development or commercialization of our product candidates or may otherwise fail in development or commercialization efforts, which could adversely affect our ability to develop certain of our product candidates and our financial condition and operating results.

The partnership arrangements that we have established, and any partnership arrangements that we may enter into in the future, may not ultimately be successful, which could have a negative impact on our business, results of operations, financial condition and growth prospects. If we partner with a third party for development and commercialization of a product candidate, we can expect to relinquish some or all of the control over the future success of that product candidate to the third party. For example, in our partnership with AbbVie, AbbVie is solely responsible for clinical development of cedirogant and any other product candidates developed through the partnership, and is the owner of all intellectual property rights resulting from the partnership. We are dependent AbbVie to perform and fund development activities for cedirogant, including clinical testing, regulatory filings and the manufacture and marketing. It is possible that a partner may not devote sufficient resources to the development or commercialization of our product candidate or may otherwise fail in development or commercialization efforts, in which event the development and commercialization of such product candidate could be delayed or terminated and our business could be substantially harmed. For example, we previously entered into a partnership with Boehringer Ingelheim, or BI, for the development of new treatments for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, which ended in November 2019 following BI’s decision to prioritize other products in its portfolio.

In addition, the terms of any partnership or other arrangement that we establish may not be favorable to us or may not be perceived as favorable, which may negatively impact the trading price of our ordinary shares or ADSs. In some cases, we may be responsible for continuing development of a product candidate or research program under a partnership and the payment we receive from our partner may be insufficient to cover the cost of this development. Moreover, partnerships and sales and marketing arrangements are complex and time consuming to negotiate, document and implement and they may require substantial resources to maintain.

We are subject to a number of additional risks associated with our dependence on partnerships with third parties, the occurrence of which could cause our partnership arrangements to fail. Conflicts may arise between us and partners, such as conflicts concerning the interpretation of clinical data, the achievement of milestones, the interpretation of financial provisions or the ownership of intellectual property developed during the partnership. If any such conflicts arise, a partner may have significantly greater financial and managerial resources on which to draw and could act in its own self-interest, which may be adverse to our best interests. Any such disagreement between us and a partner could result in one or more of the following, each of which could delay or prevent the development or commercialization of our product candidates, and in turn prevent us from generating sufficient revenues to achieve or maintain profitability:

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reductions in the payment of royalties or other payments we believe are due pursuant to the applicable partnership arrangement;

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actions taken by a partner inside or outside our partnership which could negatively impact our rights or benefits under our partnership including termination of the partnership for convenience by the partner; or

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unwillingness on the part of a partner to keep us informed regarding the progress of its development and commercialization activities or to permit public disclosure of the results of those activities.

If our partnerships on research and development candidates do not result in the successful development and commercialization of products or if one of our partners terminates its agreement with us, we may not receive any future research funding or milestone or royalty payments under the partnership. If we do not receive the funding we expect under these agreements, the development of our product candidates could be delayed and we may need additional resources to develop product candidates.

We rely on third parties to conduct our pre-clinical studies and clinical trials. If these third parties do not successfully carry out their contractual duties or meet expected deadlines, we may not be able to obtain regulatory approval for or commercialize our product candidates and our business could be substantially harmed.

We have relied upon and plan to continue to rely upon CROs to monitor and manage data for our pre-clinical and clinical programs. We rely on these parties for execution of our pre-clinical studies and clinical trials, and we control only certain aspects of their activities. We and our CROs also rely upon clinical sites and investigators for the performance of our clinical trials in accordance with the applicable protocols and applicable legal, regulatory and scientific standards. Nevertheless, we are responsible for ensuring that each of our studies and trials is conducted in accordance with the applicable protocol and applicable legal and regulatory requirements and scientific standards, and our reliance on CROs as well as clinical sites and investigators does not relieve us of our regulatory responsibilities. We, our CROs, as well as the clinical sites and investigators are required to comply with current GCPs, which are regulations and guidelines enforced by the FDA, the Competent Authorities of the Member States of the European Economic Area, or EEA, and comparable regulatory authorities for all of our products in clinical development.

Regulatory authorities enforce these GCPs through periodic inspections of trial sponsors, investigators and clinical sites. If we, any of our CROs or any of the clinical sites or investigators fail to comply with applicable GCPs, the clinical data generated in our clinical trials may be deemed unreliable and the FDA, EMA or comparable regulatory authorities may require us to perform additional clinical trials before approving our marketing applications. We cannot assure you that upon inspection by a given regulatory authority, such regulatory authority will determine that any of our clinical trials comply with GCP regulations. We also cannot assure you that our CROs, as well as the clinical sites and investigators, will perform our clinical trials in accordance with the applicable protocols as well as applicable legal and regulatory requirements and scientific standards, or report the results obtained in a timely and accurate manner. Furthermore, the operations of our CROs may be constrained or disrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition to GCPs, our clinical trials must be conducted with product produced under cGMP regulations. While we have agreements governing activities of our CROs, we have limited influence over the actual performance of our CROs as well as the performance of clinical sites and investigators. In addition, significant portions of the clinical trials for our product candidates are and will continue to be conducted outside of France, which makes it more difficult for us to monitor CROs as well as clinical sites and investigators and perform visits of our clinical sites, and requires us to rely heavily on CROs to ensure the proper and timely conduct of our clinical trials in accordance with the applicable protocols and compliance with applicable regulations, including GCPs. Failure to comply with applicable protocols and regulations in the conduct of the clinical trials for our product candidates may require us to repeat clinical trials, which would delay the regulatory approval process.

Some of our CROs have an ability to terminate their respective agreements with us if it can be reasonably demonstrated that the safety of the subjects participating in our clinical trials warrants such termination, if we make a general assignment for the benefit of our creditors or if we are liquidated.

If any of our relationships with these CROs terminate, we may not be able to enter into arrangements with alternative CROs or to do so on commercially reasonable terms. In addition, our CROs are not our employees, and except for remedies available to us under our agreements with such CROs, we cannot control whether or not they devote sufficient time and resources to our pre-clinical and clinical programs. If CROs do not successfully carry out their contractual duties or obligations or meet expected deadlines, if they need to be replaced, or if the quality or accuracy of the clinical data they obtain is compromised due to the failure (including by clinical sites or investigators) to adhere to our clinical protocols, regulatory requirements or for other reasons, our clinical trials may be extended, delayed or terminated and we may not be able to obtain regulatory approval for or successfully commercialize our product candidates.

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As a result, our results of operations and the commercial prospects for our product candidates would be harmed, our costs could increase substantially and our ability to generate revenues could be delayed significantly.

Switching or adding additional CROs involves additional cost and requires management time and focus. In addition, there is a natural transition period when a new CRO commences work. As a result, delays may occur, which can materially impact our ability to meet our desired clinical development timelines. Though we carefully manage our relationships with our CROs, there can be no assurance that we will not encounter challenges or delays in the future or that these delays or challenges will not have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and prospects.

We rely completely on third parties to manufacture our pre-clinical and clinical drug supplies and we intend to rely on third parties to produce commercial supplies of any approved product candidate. Manufacturers are subject to significant regulation with respect to manufacturing our products. The manufacturing facilities on which we rely may not continue to meet regulatory requirements and may have limited capacity.

If, for any reason, we were to experience an unexpected loss of supply of our product candidates or placebo or comparator drug used in certain of our clinical trials, whether as a result of manufacturing, supply or storage issues or otherwise, we could experience delays, disruptions, suspensions or terminations of, or be required to restart or repeat, any pending or ongoing clinical trials. We do not currently have, nor do we plan to acquire, the infrastructure or capability internally to manufacture our pre-clinical and clinical drug supplies and we lack the resources and the capability to manufacture any of our product candidates on a clinical or commercial scale. The facilities used by our contract manufacturers or other third-party manufacturers to manufacture our product candidates are subject to the FDA’s, EMA’s and other comparable regulatory authorities’ pre-approval inspections that will be conducted after we submit our NDA to the FDA or the required approval documents to any other relevant regulatory authority. We do not control the implementation of the manufacturing process of, and are completely dependent on, our contract manufacturers or other third-party manufacturers for compliance with the cGMPs for manufacture of both active drug substances and finished drug products. If our contract manufacturers or other third-party manufacturers cannot successfully manufacture material that conforms to applicable specifications and the strict regulatory requirements of the FDA, EMA or others, we will not be able to secure and/or maintain regulatory approvals for our products manufactured at these facilities. In addition, we have no control over the ability of our contract manufacturers or other third-party manufacturers to maintain adequate quality control, quality assurance and qualified personnel. If the FDA, EMA or other comparable regulatory authority finds deficiencies at these facilities for the manufacture of our product candidates or if it withdraws any approval because of deficiencies at these facilities in the future, we may need to find alternative manufacturing facilities, which would significantly impact our ability to develop, obtain regulatory approval for or market our product candidates, if approved. Further, our agreements with our contract and other third-party manufacturers generally limit these parties’ liability to us and we therefore may not be able to obtain reimbursement for losses or damages that we incur as a result of actions by such parties.

We rely on our manufacturers to purchase from third-party suppliers the materials necessary to produce our product candidates for our clinical trials. There are a limited number of suppliers for raw materials that we use to manufacture our drugs and there may be a need to assess alternate suppliers to prevent a possible disruption of the manufacture of the materials necessary to produce our product candidates for our clinical trials, and if approved, for commercial sale. We do not have any control over the process or timing of the acquisition of these raw materials by our manufacturers. Moreover, we currently do not have any agreements for the commercial production of these raw materials. Although we generally do not begin a clinical trial unless we believe we have access to a sufficient supply of a product candidate to complete the clinical trial, any significant delay in the supply of a product candidate, or the raw material components thereof, for an ongoing clinical trial due to the need to replace a contract manufacturer or other third-party manufacturer could considerably delay completion of our clinical trials, product testing and potential regulatory approval of our product candidates. If our manufacturers or we are unable to purchase these raw materials after regulatory approval has been obtained for our product candidates, the commercial launch of our product candidates would be delayed or there would be a shortage in supply, which would impair our ability to generate revenues from the sale of our product candidates. Additionally, if we receive regulatory approval for our product candidates, we may experience unforeseen difficulties or challenges in the manufacture of our product candidates on a commercial scale compared to the manufacture for clinical purposes.

We expect to continue to depend on contract manufacturers or other third-party manufacturers for the foreseeable future. We currently obtain our supplies of finished drug product through individual purchase orders. We have not entered into long-term agreements with our current contract manufacturers or with any alternate fill/finish suppliers. Although we intend to do so prior to any commercial launch in order to ensure that we maintain adequate supplies of finished drug product, we may be unable to enter into such an agreement or do so on commercially reasonable terms, which could have a material adverse impact upon our business.

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We are dependent on single-source suppliers for some of the components and materials used in, and the processes required to develop, our development candidates and investigational medicines.

We currently depend on single-source suppliers for some of the components and materials used in lanifibranor. We cannot ensure that these suppliers will remain in business, have sufficient capacity or supply to meet our needs, or that they will not be purchased by one of our competitors or another company that is not interested in continuing to work with us. Our use of single-source suppliers of raw materials, components and finished goods exposes us to several risks, including:

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delays to the development timelines for our product candidates;

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interruption of supply resulting from modifications to or discontinuation of a suppliers operations;

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delays in product shipments resulting from uncorrected defects, reliability issues, or a suppliers variation in a component;

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a lack of long-term supply arrangements for key components with our suppliers;

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inability to obtain adequate supply in a timely manner, or to obtain adequate supply on commercially reasonable terms;

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difficulty and cost associated with locating and qualifying alternative suppliers for our components in a timely manner;

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production delays related to the evaluation and testing of components from alternative suppliers, and corresponding regulatory qualifications;

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delay in delivery due to our suppliers prioritizing other customer orders over ours;

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damage to our reputation caused by defective components produced by our suppliers;

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potential price increases; and

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delays due to the COVID-19 pandemic or geopolitical events, including the pending conflict between Russia and Ukraine.

There are, in general, relatively few alternative sources of supply for substitute components. These vendors may be unable or unwilling to meet our future demands for our clinical trials or commercial sale.

Establishing additional or replacement suppliers for these components, materials, and processes could take a substantial amount of time and it may be difficult to establish replacement suppliers who meet regulatory requirements. Any disruption in supply from any single-source supplier could lead to supply delays or interruptions which would damage our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects. If we have to switch to a replacement supplier, the manufacture and delivery of our product candidates could be interrupted for an extended period, which could adversely affect our business. Establishing additional or replacement suppliers for any of the components used in our product candidates, if required, may not be accomplished quickly. If we are able to find a replacement supplier, the replacement supplier would need to be qualified and may require additional regulatory authority approval, which could result in further delay.

Any interruption or delay in the supply of components or materials, or our inability to obtain components or materials from alternate sources at acceptable prices in a timely manner, could impair our ability to meet the demand for our investigational medicines.

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Manufacturing issues may arise that could increase product and regulatory approval costs or delay commercialization of our products.

As the manufacturing processes are scaled up they may reveal manufacturing challenges or previously unknown impurities that could require resolution in order to proceed with our planned clinical trials and obtain regulatory approval for the commercial marketing of our products. In the future, we may identify manufacturing issues or impurities that could result in delays in the clinical program and regulatory approval for our products, increases in our operating expenses, or failure to obtain or maintain approval for our products. Our reliance on third-party manufacturers entails risks, including the following:

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the inability to meet our product specifications, including product formulation, and quality requirements consistently;

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a delay or inability to procure or expand sufficient manufacturing capacity;

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manufacturing and product quality issues, including those related to scale-up of manufacturing;

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costs and validation of new equipment and facilities required for scale-up;

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a failure to comply with cGMP and similar quality standards;

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the inability to negotiate manufacturing agreements with third parties under commercially reasonable terms;

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termination or nonrenewal of manufacturing agreements with third parties in a manner or at a time that is costly or damaging to us;

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the reliance on a limited number of sources, and in some cases, single sources for key materials, such that if we are unable to secure a sufficient supply of these key materials, we will be unable to manufacture and sell our product candidates in a timely fashion, in sufficient quantities or under acceptable terms;

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the lack of qualified backup suppliers for those materials that are currently purchased from a sole or single source supplier;

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operations of our third-party manufacturers or suppliers could be disrupted by conditions unrelated to our business or operations, including the bankruptcy of the manufacturer or supplier;

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disruption of the distribution of chemical supplies between the U.K. and E.U. due to the United Kingdom exiting the European Union, or Brexit;

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carrier disruptions or increased costs that are beyond our control; and

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the failure to deliver our products under specified storage conditions and in a timely manner.

Any of these events could lead to delays in any clinical study we may undertake, failure to obtain regulatory approval or impact our ability to successfully commercialize any product candidates. Some of these events could be the basis for FDA or other regulatory authorities’ action, including injunction, recall, seizure, or total or partial suspension of production.

Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property

If we are unable to obtain and maintain patent protection for our product candidates, or if the patent protection obtained is not sufficiently broad in scope or is non-exclusive, our competitors could develop and commercialize products and technology similar or identical to our product candidates, and our ability to successfully commercialize any product candidates we may develop may be adversely affected.

Our commercial success depends on obtaining and maintaining proprietary rights to our product candidates and other compounds in development for the treatment of NASH, MPS and other diseases, as well as successfully defending these rights against third party

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challenges. We will only be able to protect our product candidates and our other compounds in development, and their uses from unauthorized use by third parties to the extent that valid and enforceable patents or effectively protected trade secrets, cover them.

Our ability to obtain patent protection for our product candidates and other compounds in development is uncertain due to a number of factors, including:

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we may not have been the first to make the inventions covered by pending patent applications or issued patents;

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we may not have been the first to file patent applications for our product candidates or the compositions we developed or for their uses;

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others may independently develop identical, similar or alternative products or compositions and uses thereof;

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our disclosures in patent applications may not be sufficient to meet the statutory requirements for patentability;

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any or all of our pending patent applications may not result in issued patents;

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we may choose not to seek or obtain patent protection in countries that may eventually provide us a significant business opportunity;

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any patents issued to us may not provide a basis for commercially viable products, may not provide any competitive advantages, or may be successfully challenged, narrowed, invalidated or circumvented by third parties;

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our compositions and methods may not be patentable;

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others may design around our patent claims to produce competitive products which fall outside of the scope of our patents; or

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others may identify prior art or other bases which could invalidate our patents.

Even if we have or obtain patents covering our product candidates or compositions, we may still be barred from making, using and selling our product candidates or technologies because of the patent rights of others. Others may have filed, and in the future may file, patent applications covering compositions or products that are similar or identical to ours. If a patent owned by a third party covers one of our product candidates or its use, this could materially affect our ability to develop the product candidate or sell the resulting product if approved. Because patent applications in the United States are not published until 18 months from their priority date, there may be currently pending applications unknown to us that may later result in issued patents that our product candidates or compositions may infringe. Additionally, because the scope of claims in pending patent applications can change, there may be pending applications whose claims do not currently cover any of our product candidates but may be altered such that one or more of our product candidates are covered when the resulting patent issues. These patent applications may have priority over patent applications filed by us.

Moreover, even if we are able to obtain patent protection, such patent protection may be insufficient to achieve our business objectives. For example, the coverage claimed in a patent application can be significantly reduced before the patent is issued, and its scope can be reinterpreted after issuance, which could allow others develop products that are similar to, or better than, ours in a way that is not covered by the claims of our patents. Furthermore, some of our owned and in-licensed patents and patent applications are, and may in the future be, co-owned with third parties. If we are unable to obtain an exclusive license to any such third party co-owners’ interest in such patents or patent applications, such co-owners may be able to license their rights to other third parties, including our competitors, and our competitors could market competing products and technology. In addition, we may need the cooperation of any such co-owners of our patents in order to enforce such patents against third parties, and such cooperation may not be provided to us. Therefore, even if patent applications we rely on issue as patents, they may not provide us with any meaningful protection, prevent third parties from competing with us, or otherwise provide us with any competitive advantage.

Obtaining and maintaining a patent portfolio entails significant expense and resources. Part of the expense includes periodic maintenance fees, renewal fees, annuity fees, various other governmental fees on patents and/or applications due in several stages over the lifetime of patents and/or applications, as well as the cost associated with complying with numerous procedural provisions during the patent application process. We may or may not choose to pursue or maintain protection for particular inventions. In addition, there

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are situations in which failure to make certain payments or noncompliance with certain requirements in the patent process can result in abandonment or lapse of a patent or patent application, resulting in partial or complete loss of patent rights in the relevant jurisdiction. If we choose to forgo patent protection or allow a patent application or patent to lapse purposefully or inadvertently, our competitive position could suffer.

Moreover, in future partnerships, we may not have the right to control the preparation, filing or prosecution of patent applications, or to maintain the patents, covering technology subject to our partnership or license agreements with third parties. In addition, in future partnerships, our counterparty may have the right to enforce the patent rights subject to the applicable agreement without our involvement or consent or to otherwise control the enforcement of such patent rights. Therefore, these patents and patent applications may not be prosecuted or enforced in a manner consistent with the best interests of our business.

Legal actions to enforce our patent rights can be expensive and may involve the diversion of significant management time. In addition, these legal actions could be unsuccessful and could also result in the invalidation of our patents or a finding that they are unenforceable. We may or may not choose to pursue litigation or other actions against those that have infringed on our patents, or used them without authorization, due to the associated expense and time commitment of monitoring these activities. If we fail to protect or to enforce our intellectual property rights successfully, our competitive position could suffer, which could harm our results of operations.

Pharmaceutical patents and patent applications involve highly complex legal and factual questions, which, if determined adversely to us, could negatively impact our patent position.

The patent positions of biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies can be highly uncertain and involve complex legal and factual questions. The interpretation and breadth of claims allowed in some patents covering pharmaceutical compositions may be uncertain and difficult to determine, and are often affected materially by the facts and circumstances that pertain to the patented compositions and the related patent claims. The standards of the United States Patent and Trademark Office, or USPTO, the European Patent Office, and other foreign counterparts are sometimes uncertain and could change in the future.

Consequently, the issuance and scope of patents cannot be predicted with certainty. Patents, if issued, may be challenged, invalidated or circumvented. Certain U.S. patents and patent applications may also be subject to interference proceedings, and U.S. patents may be subject to reexamination proceedings, post-grant review and/or inter partes review and derivation proceedings in the USPTO. European patents and other foreign patents may be subject also to opposition or comparable proceedings in the corresponding foreign patent office, which could result in either loss of the patent or denial of the patent application or loss or reduction in the scope of one or more of the claims of the patent or patent application. In addition, such interference, reexamination, post-grant review, inter partes review and opposition proceedings may be costly. Accordingly, rights under any issued patents may not provide us with sufficient protection against competitive products or processes.

In addition, changes in or different interpretations of patent laws in the United States, Europe, and other jurisdictions may permit others to use our discoveries or to develop and commercialize our technology and products without providing any compensation to us, or may limit the number of patents or claims we can obtain. The laws of some countries do not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as U.S. and European laws and those countries may lack adequate rules and procedures for defending our intellectual property rights. If we fail to obtain and maintain patent protection and trade secret protection of our product candidates, we could lose our competitive advantage and competition we face would increase, reducing any potential revenues and adversely affecting our ability to attain or maintain profitability.

Developments in patent law could have a negative impact on our business.

As is the case with other biopharmaceutical companies, our success is heavily dependent on intellectual property, particularly patents. Obtaining and enforcing patents in the biopharmaceutical industry involves both technological and legal complexity and is therefore costly, time consuming and inherently uncertain. Changes in either the patent laws or interpretation of the patent laws in the United States could increase the uncertainties and costs. Recent patent reform legislation in the United States and other countries, including the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act (the Leahy-Smith Act), signed into law on September 16, 2011, could increase those uncertainties and costs surrounding the prosecution of our patent applications and the enforcement or defense of our issued patents. The Leahy-Smith Act includes a number of significant changes to U.S. patent law. These include provisions that affect the way patent applications are prosecuted, redefine prior art and provide more efficient and cost-effective avenues for competitors to challenge the validity of patents. These include allowing third-party submission of prior art to the USPTO during patent prosecution and additional

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procedures to attack the validity of a patent by USPTO administered post-grant proceedings, including post-grant review, inter partes review, and derivation proceedings. After March 2013, under the Leahy-Smith Act, the United States transitioned to a first inventor to file system in which, assuming that the other statutory requirements are met, the first inventor to file a patent application will be entitled to the patent on an invention regardless of whether a third party was the first to invent the claimed invention. However, the Leahy-Smith Act and its implementation could increase the uncertainties and costs surrounding the prosecution of our patent applications and the enforcement or defense of our issued patents, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

The U.S. Supreme Court has ruled on several patent cases in recent years, either narrowing the scope of patent protection available in certain circumstances or weakening the rights of patent owners in certain situations. Depending on future actions by the U.S. Congress, the U.S. courts, the USPTO and the relevant law-making bodies in other countries, the laws and regulations governing patents could change in unpredictable ways that would weaken our ability to obtain new patents or to enforce our existing patents and patents that we might obtain in the future.

If we are unable to protect the confidentiality of our trade secrets, our business and competitive position would be harmed.

In addition to patent protection, because we operate in the highly technical field of development of therapies, we rely in part on trade secret protection in order to protect our proprietary technology and processes. However, trade secrets are difficult to protect. It is our policy to enter into confidentiality and intellectual property assignment agreements with our employees, consultants, outside scientific partners, sponsored researchers, and other advisors. These agreements generally require that the other party keep confidential and not disclose to third parties any confidential information developed by the party or made known to the party by us during the course of the party’s relationship with us. These agreements also generally provide that inventions conceived by the party in the course of rendering services to us will be our exclusive property. However, these agreements may not be honored and may not effectively assign intellectual property rights to us. Adequate remedies may not exist in the event of unauthorized use or disclosure of our confidential information. The disclosure of our trade secrets would impair our competitive position and may materially harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

In addition to contractual measures, we try to protect the confidential nature of our proprietary information using physical and technological security measures. Such measures may not, for example, in the case of misappropriation of a trade secret by an employee or third party with authorized access, provide adequate protection for our proprietary information. Our security measures may not prevent an employee or consultant from misappropriating our trade secrets and providing them to a competitor, and recourse we take against such misconduct may not provide an adequate remedy to protect our interests fully. Enforcing a claim that a party illegally disclosed or misappropriated a trade secret can be difficult, expensive, and time-consuming, and the outcome is unpredictable. In addition, courts outside the United States may be less willing to protect trade secrets, with protection varying across Europe and in other countries. Trade secrets may be independently developed by others in a manner that could prevent legal recourse by us. If any of our confidential or proprietary information, such as our trade secrets, were to be disclosed or misappropriated, or if any such information was independently developed by a competitor, our competitive position could be harmed.

We will not seek to protect our intellectual property rights in all jurisdictions throughout the world and we may not be able to adequately enforce our intellectual property rights even in the jurisdictions where we seek protection.

Filing, prosecuting and defending patents on our product candidates in all countries and jurisdictions throughout the world would be prohibitively expensive, and our intellectual property rights in some countries could be less extensive than those in the United States and Europe, assuming that rights are obtained in the United States and Europe. Furthermore, even if patents are granted based on our European patent applications, we may not choose to perfect or maintain our rights in all available European countries. In addition, the laws of some foreign countries do not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as laws in the United States and Europe. Consequently, we may not be able to prevent third parties from practicing our inventions in all countries, or from selling or importing products made using our inventions. The statutory deadlines for pursuing patent protection in individual foreign jurisdictions are based on the priority dates of each of our patent applications.

Competitors may use our technologies in jurisdictions where we do not pursue and obtain patent protection to develop their own products and further, may export otherwise infringing products to territories where we have patent protection, but enforcement is not as strong as that in the United States and Europe. These products may compete with our products and our patents or other intellectual property rights may not be effective or sufficient to prevent them from competing. Even if we pursue and obtain issued patents in

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particular jurisdictions, our patent claims or other intellectual property rights may not be effective or sufficient to prevent third parties from so competing.

The laws of some foreign countries do not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States and Europe. Many companies have encountered significant problems in protecting and defending intellectual property rights in certain foreign jurisdictions. The legal systems of some countries, particularly developing countries, do not favor the enforcement of patents and other intellectual property protection, especially those relating to pharmaceuticals or biotechnologies. This could make it difficult for us to stop the infringement of our patents, if obtained, or the misappropriation of our other intellectual property rights. For example, many foreign countries have compulsory licensing laws under which a patent owner must grant licenses to third parties. In addition, many countries limit the enforceability of patents against third parties, including government agencies or government contractors. In these countries, patents may provide limited or no benefit. Patent protection must ultimately be sought on a country-by-country basis, which is an expensive and time-consuming process with uncertain outcomes. Accordingly, we may choose not to seek patent protection in certain countries, and we will not have the benefit of patent protection in such countries.

Proceedings to enforce our patent rights in foreign jurisdictions could result in substantial costs and divert our efforts and attention from other aspects of our business, could put our patents at risk of being invalidated or interpreted narrowly, could put our patent applications at risk of not issuing and could provoke third parties to assert claims against us. We may not prevail in any lawsuits that we initiate and the damages or other remedies awarded, if any, may not be commercially meaningful. In addition, changes in the law and legal decisions by courts in the United States, Europe and other jurisdictions may affect our ability to obtain adequate protection for our technology and the enforcement of intellectual property.

Accordingly, our efforts to enforce our intellectual property rights around the world may be inadequate to obtain a significant commercial advantage from the intellectual property that we develop or license.

We may be subject to claims by third parties asserting ownership or commercial rights to inventions we develop or obligations to make compensatory payments to employees.

Third parties may in the future make claims challenging the inventorship or ownership of our intellectual property. We have written agreements with partners that provide for the ownership of intellectual property arising from our partnerships. These agreements provide that we must negotiate certain commercial rights with partners with respect to joint inventions or inventions made by our partners that arise from the results of the partnership. In some instances, there may not be adequate written provisions to address clearly the resolution of intellectual property rights that may arise from a partnership. If we cannot successfully negotiate sufficient ownership and commercial rights to the inventions that result from our use of a third-party partner’s materials where required, or if disputes otherwise arise with respect to the intellectual property developed with the use of a partner’s samples, we may be limited in our ability to capitalize on the market potential of these inventions. In addition, we may face claims by third parties that our agreements with employees, contractors, or consultants obligating them to assign intellectual property to us are ineffective, or in conflict with prior or competing contractual obligations of assignment, which could result in ownership disputes regarding intellectual property we have developed or will develop and interfere with our ability to capture the commercial value of such inventions. Litigation may be necessary to resolve an ownership dispute, and if we are not successful, we may be precluded from using certain intellectual property, or may lose our exclusive rights in that intellectual property. Either outcome could have an adverse impact on our business.

While it is our policy to require our employees and contractors who may be involved in the development of intellectual property to execute agreements assigning such intellectual property to us, we may be unsuccessful in executing or obtaining such an agreement with each party who, in fact, develops intellectual property that we regard as our own. In addition, such agreements may be breached or may not be self-executing, and we may be forced to bring claims against third parties, or defend claims they may bring against us, to determine the ownership of what we regard as our intellectual property. If we fail in prosecuting or defending any such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable intellectual property rights or personnel.

Third parties may assert that our employees or consultants have wrongfully used or disclosed confidential information or misappropriated trade secrets.

We employ individuals who were previously employed at universities, pharmaceutical companies or biopharmaceutical companies, including our competitors or potential competitors. Although we try to ensure that our employees and consultants do not use the proprietary information or know-how of others in their work for us, we may be subject to claims that we or our employees, consultants

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or independent contractors have inadvertently or otherwise used or disclosed intellectual property, including trade secrets or other proprietary information, of a former employer or other third parties. Litigation may be necessary to defend against these claims. If we fail in defending any such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable intellectual property rights or personnel. Even if we are successful in defending against such claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and be a distraction to management and other employees.

A dispute concerning the infringement or misappropriation of our proprietary rights or the proprietary rights of others could be time consuming and costly, and an unfavorable outcome could harm our business.

Our success will depend in part on our ability to operate without infringing the intellectual property and proprietary rights of third parties. We cannot assure you that our business, products and methods do not or will not infringe the patents or other intellectual property rights of third parties.

There is significant litigation in the pharmaceutical industry regarding patent and other intellectual property rights. While we are not currently subject to any pending intellectual property litigation, and are not aware of any such threatened litigation, we may be exposed to future litigation by third parties based on claims that our product candidates, technologies or activities infringe the intellectual property rights of others. If our development activities are found to infringe any such intellectual property rights, we may have to pay significant damages or seek licenses to such rights. For example, a patentee could prevent us from using the patented drugs or compositions. We may need to resort to litigation to enforce a patent issued to us, to protect our trade secrets, or to determine the scope and validity of third-party proprietary rights. From time to time, we may hire scientific personnel or consultants formerly employed by other companies involved in one or more areas similar to the activities conducted by us. Either we or these individuals may be subject to allegations of trade secret misappropriation or other similar claims as a result of prior affiliations. Even if we are successful in these proceedings, we may incur substantial costs and divert management time and attention in pursuing these proceedings, which could have a material adverse effect on us. If we are unable to avoid infringing the rights of others, we may be required to seek a license, defend an infringement action or challenge the validity of such rights in court, or redesign our products. Patent and other intellectual property litigation is costly and time consuming. We may not have sufficient resources to bring these actions to a successful conclusion. Any adverse ruling or perception of an adverse ruling in defending ourselves against these claims could have a material adverse impact on our cash position and the price of our ordinary shares or ADSs. Any legal action against us or our partners could lead to:

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payment of substantial damages for past use of the asserted intellectual property and potentially treble damages, if we are found to have willfully infringed a partys patent rights;

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injunctive or other equitable relief that may effectively block our ability to further develop, commercialize, and sell our product candidates; or

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us or our partners having to enter into license arrangements that may not be available on commercially acceptable terms, if at all, all of which could have a material adverse impact on our cash position and business and financial condition. As a result, we could be prevented from commercializing current or future product candidates.

Any of these risks coming to fruition could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.

Issued patents covering our product candidates could be found to be invalid or unenforceable if challenged in court.

If we or one of our licensing partners initiated legal proceedings against a third party to enforce a patent covering our product candidate, the defendant could counterclaim that the patent covering our product candidate is invalid and/or unenforceable. In patent litigation, defendant counterclaims alleging invalidity and/or unenforceability are commonplace. Grounds for a validity challenge include alleged failures to meet any of several statutory requirements in most jurisdictions, including lack of novelty, obviousness or non-enablement. In the United States, grounds for unenforceability assertions include allegations that someone connected with prosecution of the patent withheld relevant information from the USPTO, or made a misleading statement, during prosecution. Third parties may also raise similar claims before administrative bodies in the United States or abroad, even outside the context of litigation. Such mechanisms include re-examination, post grant review and equivalent proceedings in foreign jurisdictions (e.g., opposition proceedings). Such proceedings could result in revocation or amendment of our patents in such a way that they no longer cover our product candidates or competitive products. The outcome following legal assertions of invalidity and unenforceability is unpredictable.

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With respect to validity, for example, we cannot be certain that there is no invalidating prior art, of which we and the patent examiner were unaware during prosecution. If a defendant were to prevail on a legal assertion of invalidity and/or unenforceability, we would lose at least part, and perhaps all, of the patent protection on our product candidates. Such a loss of patent protection would have a material adverse impact on our business.

Patent terms may be inadequate to protect our competitive position on our product candidates for an adequate amount of time.

Given the amount of time required for the development, testing and regulatory review of new product candidates such as lanifibranor, patents protecting such candidates might expire before or shortly after such candidates are commercialized. We expect to seek extensions of patent terms in the United States and, if available, in other countries where we are prosecuting patents. In the United States, the Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984 permits extension of the term of one U.S. patent that includes at least one claim covering the composition of matter of an FDA-approved drug, an FDA-approved method of treatment using the drug and/or a method of manufacturing the FDA-approved drug. The extended patent term cannot exceed the shorter of five years beyond the non-extended expiration of the patent or 14 years from the date of the FDA approval of the drug. However, the applicable authorities, including the FDA and the USPTO in the United States, and any equivalent regulatory authority in other countries, may not agree with our assessment of whether such extensions are available, and may refuse to grant extensions to our patents, or may grant more limited extensions than we request. Further, we may not elect to extend the most beneficial patent to us or the claims underlying the patent that we choose to extend could be invalidated. If any of the foregoing occurs, our competitors may be able to take advantage of our investment in development and clinical trials by referencing our clinical and pre-clinical data and launch their drug earlier than might otherwise be the case.

Intellectual property rights do not address all potential threats to any competitive advantage we may have.

The degree of future protection afforded by our intellectual property rights is uncertain because intellectual property rights have limitations, and intellectual property rights may not adequately protect our business or permit us to maintain our competitive advantage. The following examples are illustrative:

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Others may be able to make compounds that are the same as or similar to our current or future product candidates but that are not covered by the claims of the patents that we own or have exclusively licensed.

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We or any of our licensors or partners might not have been the first to make the inventions covered by the issued patent or pending patent application that we own or have exclusively licensed.

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We or any of our licensors or partners might not have been the first to file patent applications covering certain of our inventions.

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Others may independently develop similar or alternative technologies or duplicate any of our technologies without infringing our intellectual property rights.

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The prosecution of our pending patent applications may not result in granted patents.

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Granted patents that we own or have exclusively licensed may not provide us with any competitive advantages, or may be held invalid or unenforceable, as a result of legal challenges by our competitors.

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Patent protection on our product candidates may expire before we are able to develop and commercialize the product, or before we are able to recover our investment in the product.

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Our competitors might conduct research and development activities in the United States and other countries that provide a safe harbor from patent infringement claims for such activities, as well as in countries in which we do not have patent rights, and may then use the information learned from such activities to develop competitive products for sale in markets where we intend to market our product candidates.

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If our trademarks and trade names are not adequately protected, then we may not be able to build name recognition in our markets of interest and our business may be adversely affected.

Our registered or unregistered trademarks or trade names may be challenged, infringed, circumvented or declared generic or determined to be infringing on other marks. We may not be able to protect our rights to these trademarks and trade names, which we need to build name recognition by potential partners or customers in our markets of interest. For example, we have not yet registered our company name as a trademark with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Over the long term, if we are unable to establish name recognition based on our trademarks and trade names, then we may not be able to compete effectively and our business may be adversely affected. In addition, some of our trademarks may conflict with trademarks of others. In the event of a conflict, a third party could bring claims against us that could cause us to incur substantial expenses or restrict our ability to use certain marks. Any of the foregoing could have an adverse effect on our business.

Risks Related to Our Organization, Structure and Operation

Our future success depends on our ability to retain the members of our management and to attract, retain and motivate qualified personnel. If we are not successful in attracting and retaining highly qualified personnel, we may not be able to successfully implement our business strategy.

Our industry has experienced a high rate of turnover of management personnel in recent years. Our ability to compete in the highly competitive biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries depends upon our ability to attract and retain highly qualified managerial, scientific and medical personnel. We are highly dependent on our management, scientific and medical personnel, especially our executive officers: Frédéric Cren, our Chief Executive Officer, and Pierre Broqua, our Deputy Chief Executive Officer and Chief Scientific Officer, whose services are critical to the successful implementation of our product candidate acquisition, development and regulatory strategies. We are not aware of any present intention of any of these individuals to leave our company. Although we maintain “key man” insurance with respect to certain of our key employees, this insurance may be insufficient to compensate us for the losses we may incur if we no longer have the services of such key employees. In order to induce valuable employees to continue their employment with us, we have provided founder’s share warrants (bons de souscription de parts de créateur d’entreprise), share warrants (bons de souscription d’actions) and free shares (actions gratuites) that vest over time. The value to employees of such warrants and free shares that vest over time is significantly affected by movements in our share price that are beyond our control, and may at any time be insufficient to counteract more lucrative offers from other companies.

Despite our efforts to retain valuable employees, members of our management, scientific and development teams may terminate their employment with us. The loss of the services of any of the members of management or other key employees and our inability to find suitable replacements could harm our business, financial condition and prospects. Our success also depends on our ability to continue to attract, retain and motivate highly skilled junior, mid-level, and senior managers as well as junior, mid-level, and senior scientific and medical personnel.

We may not be able to attract or retain qualified management and scientific personnel in the future due to the intense competition for a limited number of qualified personnel among biopharmaceutical, biotechnology, pharmaceutical and other businesses. Many of the other pharmaceutical companies that we compete against for qualified personnel have greater financial and other resources, different risk profiles and a longer history in the industry than we do. They also may provide more diverse opportunities and better chances for career advancement. Some of these characteristics may be more appealing to high quality candidates than what we have to offer. If we are unable to continue to attract and retain high quality personnel, the rate and success at which we can develop and commercialize product candidates will be limited.

If we fail to manage our growth effectively, our ability to develop and commercialize products could suffer.

We expect that if our drug discovery efforts continue to generate drug candidates, our clinical drug candidates continue to progress in development, and we continue to build our development, medical and commercial organizations, we will require significant additional investment in personnel, management and resources. Our ability to achieve our research, development and commercialization objectives depends on our ability to respond effectively to these demands and expand our internal organization, systems, controls and facilities to accommodate additional anticipated growth. If we are unable to manage our growth effectively, our business could be harmed and our ability to execute our business strategy could suffer.

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If product liability lawsuits are brought against us, we may incur substantial liabilities and may be required to limit commercialization of any of our product candidates, if approved.

We face an inherent risk of product liability as a result of the clinical testing of our product candidates and will face an even greater risk if we commercialize any products. For example, we may be sued if any product we develop allegedly causes injury or is found to be otherwise unsuitable during product testing, manufacturing, marketing or sale. Any such product liability claims may include allegations of defects in manufacturing, defects in design, a failure to warn of dangers inherent in the product, negligence, strict liability and a breach of warranties. Physicians and patients may not comply with any warnings that identify known potential adverse effects and patients who should not use our products. Claims could also be asserted under state consumer protection acts. If we cannot successfully defend ourselves against product liability claims, we may incur substantial liabilities or be required to stop development or, if approved, limit commercialization of our product candidates. Even successful defense would require significant financial and management resources. Regardless of the merits or eventual outcome, liability claims may result in:

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delay or termination of clinical trials;

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injury to our reputation;

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withdrawal of clinical trial participants;

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initiation of investigations by regulators;

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costs to defend the related litigation;

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a diversion of managements time and our resources;

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substantial monetary awards to trial participants or patients;

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decreased demand for our product candidates;

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product recalls, withdrawals or labeling, marketing or promotional restrictions;

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loss of revenues from product sales; and

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the inability to commercialize any of our product candidates, if approved.

Our inability to obtain and retain sufficient product liability insurance at an acceptable cost to protect against potential product liability claims could prevent or inhibit the development or commercialization of our product candidates. We currently carry clinical trial liability insurance at levels which we believe are appropriate for our clinical trials. Although we maintain such insurance, any claim that may be brought against us could result in a court judgment or settlement in an amount that is not covered, in whole or in part, by our insurance or that is in excess of the limits of our insurance coverage. Our insurance policies also have various exclusions, and we may be subject to a product liability claim for which we have no coverage. We will have to pay any amounts awarded by a court or negotiated in a settlement that exceed our coverage limitations or that are not covered by our insurance, and we may not have, or be able to obtain, sufficient capital to pay such amounts.

Risks from the improper conduct of employees, agents, contractors, or partners could adversely affect our reputation and our business, prospects, operating results, and financial condition.

We cannot ensure that our compliance controls, policies, and procedures will in every instance protect us from acts committed by our employees, agents, contractors, or partners that would violate the laws or regulations of the jurisdictions in which we operate, including, without limitation, healthcare, employment, foreign corrupt practices, environmental, competition, and patient privacy and other privacy laws and regulations. Such improper actions could subject us to civil or criminal investigations, and monetary and injunctive penalties, and could adversely impact our ability to conduct business, operating results, and reputation.

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In particular, our business activities may be subject to the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, or FCPA, and similar anti-bribery or anti-corruption laws, regulations or rules of other countries in which we operate, including the U.K. Bribery Act. The FCPA generally prohibits offering, promising, giving, or authorizing others to give anything of value, either directly or indirectly, to a non-U.S. government official in order to influence official action, or otherwise obtain or retain business. The FCPA also requires public companies to make and keep books and records that accurately and fairly reflect the transactions of the corporation and to devise and maintain an adequate system of internal accounting controls. Our business is heavily regulated and therefore involves significant interaction with public officials, including officials of non-U.S. governments. Additionally, in many other countries, the health care providers who prescribe pharmaceuticals are employed by their government, and the purchasers of pharmaceuticals are government entities; therefore, our dealings with these prescribers and purchasers are subject to regulation under the FCPA. Recently the SEC and Department of Justice have increased their FCPA enforcement activities with respect to pharmaceutical companies. There is no certainty that all of our employees, agents, contractors, or partners, or those of our affiliates, will comply with all applicable laws and regulations, particularly given the high level of complexity of these laws. Violations of these laws and regulations could result in significant administrative, civil and criminal fines and sanctions against us, our officers, or our employees, the closing down of our facilities, requirements to obtain export licenses, cessation of business activities in sanctioned countries, exclusion from participation in federal healthcare programs including Medicare and Medicaid, implementation of compliance programs, integrity oversight and reporting obligations, and prohibitions on the conduct of our business. Any such violations could include prohibitions on our ability to offer our products in one or more countries and could materially damage our reputation, our brand, our international expansion efforts, our ability to attract and retain employees, and our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition.

We could be subject to liabilities under environmental, health and safety laws or regulations, or fines, penalties or other sanctions, if we fail to comply with such laws or regulations or otherwise incur costs that could have a material adverse effect on the success of our business.

We are subject to numerous French and U.S. federal, state, local and foreign environmental, health and safety laws, regulations, and permitting requirements, including those governing laboratory procedures, decontamination activities and the handling, transportation, use, remediation, storage, treatment and disposal of hazardous materials and wastes. Our operations involve the use of hazardous and flammable materials, including chemicals, radioactive isotopes and biological materials and produce hazardous waste products. We generally contract with third parties for the disposal of these materials and wastes. We cannot eliminate the risk of contamination or injury from these materials or wastes either at our sites or at third party disposal sites. In the event of such contamination or injury, we could be held liable for any resulting damages, and any liability could exceed our resources. We also could incur significant costs associated with civil or criminal fines and penalties. Although we maintain workers’ compensation insurance to cover us for costs and expenses we may incur due to injuries to our employees resulting from the use of hazardous materials or other work-related injuries, this insurance may not provide adequate coverage against potential liabilities.

In addition, we may incur substantial costs in order to comply with current or future environmental, health and safety laws, regulations or permitting requirements. These current or future laws, regulations and permitting requirements may impair our research, development or production efforts. Failure to comply with these laws, regulations and permitting requirements also may result in substantial fines, penalties or other sanctions.

We are subject to stringent and changing obligations related to privacy, data security, and data protection. Our actual or perceived failure to comply with such obligations could lead to regulatory investigations or actions; litigation; fines and penalties; disruptions of our business operations; reputational harm; loss of revenue or profits; loss of customers or sales; and other adverse business consequences.

In the ordinary course of business, we collect, receive, store, process, generate, use, transfer, disclose, make accessible, protect, secure, dispose of, transmit, and share (commonly known as processing ) sensitive information, including personal data, proprietary and confidential business data, trade secrets, intellectual property, data we collect about trial participants in connection with clinical trials, and sensitive third-party data. Our data processing activities subject us to numerous data privacy, data security, and data protection obligations, such as various laws, regulations, guidance, industry standards, external and internal privacy and security policies, contracts, and other obligations that govern the processing of sensitive information by us and on our behalf.

We and any potential partners may be subject to federal, state, and foreign data protection laws and regulations (i.e., laws and regulations that address privacy, data security and data protection). In the United States, numerous federal and state laws and regulations, including federal health information privacy laws, state data breach notification laws, state health information privacy laws, and federal

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and state consumer protection laws (e.g., Section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act), that govern the processing of personal data could apply to our operations or the operations of our partners. For example, the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018, or CCPA, imposes obligations on covered businesses. These obligations include, but are not limited to, providing specific disclosures in privacy notices and affording California residents certain rights related to their personal data. The CCPA allows for statutory fines for noncompliance (up to $7,500 per violation). In addition, it is anticipated that the California Privacy Rights Act of 2020, or CPRA, effective January 1, 2023, will expand the CCPA. Additionally, the CPRA establishes a new California Privacy Protection Agency to implement and enforce the CPRA, which could increase the risk of enforcement. Although the CCPA and the CPRA exempt some data processed in the context of clinical trials as well as protected health information under HIPAA, the CCPA and the CPRA may increase compliance costs and potential liability with respect to other personal data we maintain about California residents. Other states have enacted data privacy laws. For example, Virginia passed the Consumer Data Protection Act, and Colorado passed the Colorado Privacy Act, both of which become effective in 2023. However, both of these laws exclude protected health information that is subject to HIPAA.”

In addition, we may obtain health information from third parties (including research institutions from which we obtain clinical trial data) that are subject to privacy and security requirements under federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, or HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act of 2009, or HITECH. HIPAA imposes specific requirements relating to the privacy, security, and transmission of individually identifiable health information. Depending on the facts and circumstances, we could be subject to civil, criminal, and administrative penalties if we violate HIPAA.

Several foreign jurisdictions, including the European Union, or the EU, its Member States, the United Kingdom, Brazil, and Australia, among others, have adopted legislation and regulations that increase or change the requirements governing the collection, use, disclosure and transfer of the personal data of individuals in these jurisdictions. These laws and regulations are complex and change frequently, at times due to changes in political climate, and existing laws and regulations are subject to different and conflicting interpretations, which adds to the complexity of processing personal data from these jurisdictions. These laws have the potential to result in investigations, claims, increased costs of compliance, risks of noncompliance and penalties for noncompliance.

The European Union’s and United Kingdom’s implementation of Regulation (EU) 2016/679, known as the General Data Protection Regulation, or the EU and UK GDPR, as well as EU Member States’ and the United Kingdom’s implementing national legislations, apply to the collection and processing of personal data, including health-related information, by companies located in the European Economic Area, or EEA or the United Kingdom. In certain circumstances, the EU and UK GDPR also apply to companies located outside of the EEA or United Kingdom and processing personal data of individuals located in the EEA or United Kingdom.

These laws impose strict obligations on the ability to process personal data, including health-related information. These include, amongst others, requirements relating to (1) limiting the processing of personal data to only what is necessary for a specified, explicit and legitimate purpose, (2) obtaining a legal basis for the processing of personal data, (3) obtaining, in some situations, the consent of the individuals to whom the personal data relates, (4) the information provided to the individuals about how their personal data is used, (5) ensuring the security and confidentiality of the personal data by implementing and maintaining appropriate technical and organizational safeguards, (6) the obligation to notify, in certain circumstances, regulatory authorities and affected individuals of personal data breaches, (7) extensive internal privacy governance obligations, and (7) obligations to honor rights of individuals in relation to their personal data (for example, the right to access, correct and delete their data).

The EU and UK GDPR impose strict rules on the transfer of personal data outside of the EEA or the United Kingdom respectively, to countries which are deemed to have inadequate levels of data protection safeguards in place, such as the United States. The European Commission released a set of “Standard Contractual Clauses,” or SCCs, that are designed to be a valid mechanism to facilitate personal data transfers out of the EEA to these jurisdictions. Currently, the SCCs are a valid mechanism to transfer personal data outside of the EEA, but there exists some uncertainty regarding whether the SCCs will remain a valid mechanism. Additionally, the SCCs impose additional compliance burdens, such as conducting transfer impact assessments to determine whether additional security measures are necessary to protect the at-issue personal data. In addition, Switzerland similarly restricts personal data transfers outside of those jurisdictions to countries that do not provide an adequate level of personal data protection. If we cannot implement a valid compliance mechanism for cross-border data transfers, we may face increased exposure to regulatory actions, substantial fines, and injunctions against processing or transferring personal data from Europe or other foreign jurisdictions. The inability to export personal data to the United States could significantly and negatively impact our business operations, including by limiting our ability to collaborate with parties that are subject to such cross-border data transfer or localization laws; or requiring us to increase our personal data processing capabilities and infrastructure in foreign jurisdictions at significant expense.

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Also, in certain countries, in particular France, the conduct of clinical trials is subject to compliance with specific provisions of the Act No.78-17 of 6 January 1978 on Information Technology, Data Files and Civil Liberties, as amended, and in particular Section 3 of the Chapter III of the Title II relating to the processing of personal data in the health sector. These provisions require, among others, the filing of compliance undertakings with “standard methodologies” adopted by the French Data Protection Authority (the CNIL), or, if not complying, obtaining a specific authorization from the CNIL.

Potential pecuniary fines for noncompliance with the EU and UK GDPR include fines of up to the greater of €20 million/£17.5 million or 4% of the total worldwide annual turnover of the preceding financial year. In addition to administrative fines, a wide variety of other potential enforcement powers are available to competent supervisory authorities to investigate potential and suspected violations of the EU and UK GDPR, including audit and inspection rights, and powers to impose a temporary or definitive limitation, including a ban on processing of personal data. The EU and UK GDPR also confer a right of action on data subjects to lodge complaints with supervisory authorities and obtain compensation for damages resulting from noncompliance with the EU or UK GDPR. The EU and UK GDPR have increased our responsibility and liability in relation to personal data that we process, and we may be required to put in place additional potential mechanisms to ensure compliance with the EU and UK data protection rules.

Compliance with U.S. and international data protection laws and regulations could require us to take on more onerous obligations in our contracts, restrict our ability to collect, use and disclose data, or in some cases, impact our ability to operate in certain jurisdictions. Failure to comply with these laws and regulations could result in government enforcement actions (which could include civil, criminal and administrative penalties), private litigation, and/or adverse publicity and could negatively affect our operating results and business. Moreover, clinical trial subjects, employees and other individuals about whom we or our potential partners obtain personal data, as well as the providers who share this information with us, may limit our ability to collect, use and disclose the information. We or third parties we work with may also experience a data breach which could subject us to liability under data protection laws. Claims that we have violated individuals’ privacy rights, failed to comply with data protection laws, or breached our contractual obligations, even if we are not found liable, could be expensive and time-consuming to defend and could result in adverse publicity that could harm our business.

Our current and future operations are subject to applicable fraud and abuse, transparency, government price reporting, and other healthcare laws and regulations. If we are unable to comply, or have not fully complied, with such laws, we could face substantial penalties.

Healthcare providers, physicians and third-party payors will play a primary role in the recommendation and prescription of any future drug candidates we may develop and any drug candidates for which we obtain marketing approval. Our current and future arrangements with healthcare providers, physicians, third-party payors and customers may expose us to broadly applicable fraud and abuse and other healthcare laws and regulations that may affect the business or financial arrangements and relationships through which we would market, sell and distribute our products. Even though we do not and will not control referrals of healthcare services or bill directly to Medicare, Medicaid or other third-party payors, federal and state healthcare laws and regulations pertaining to fraud and abuse and patients’ rights are and will be applicable to our business. The laws that may affect our ability to operate include, but are not limited to:

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The federal Anti-Kickback Statute, which prohibits any person or entity from, among other things, knowingly and willfully soliciting, receiving, offering or paying any remuneration, directly or indirectly, overtly or covertly, in cash or in kind, to induce or reward either the referral of an individual for, or the purchase, order or recommendation of an item or service reimbursable, in whole or in part, under a federal healthcare program, such as the Medicare and Medicaid programs. The term remuneration has been broadly interpreted to include anything of value. The federal Anti-Kickback Statute has also been interpreted to apply to arrangements between pharmaceutical manufacturers on the one hand and prescribers, purchasers, and formulary managers on the other hand. There are a number of statutory exceptions and regulatory safe harbors protecting some common activities from prosecution.

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Federal civil and criminal false claims laws, such as the False Claims Act, or FCA, which can be enforced by private citizens through civil qui tam actions and civil monetary penalty laws, prohibit individuals or entities from, among other things, knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, false, fictitious or fraudulent claims for payment of federal funds, and knowingly making, using or causing to be made or used a false record or statement material to a false or fraudulent claim to avoid, decrease or conceal an obligation to pay money to the federal government. For example, pharmaceutical companies have been prosecuted under the FCA in connection with their alleged off-label promotion of drugs, purportedly concealing price concessions in the pricing information submitted to the government for government price reporting purposes, and allegedly

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providing free product to customers with the expectation that the customers would bill federal health care programs for the product. In addition, a claim including items or services resulting from a violation of the federal Anti-Kickback Statute constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the FCA. As a result of a modification made by the Fraud Enforcement and Recovery Act of 2009, a claim includes any request or demand for money or property presented to the U.S. government. In addition, manufacturers can be held liable under the FCA even when they do not submit claims directly to government payors if they are deemed to cause the submission of false or fraudulent claims.

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HIPAA, among other things, imposes criminal liability for executing or attempting to execute a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program, including private third-party payors, knowingly and willfully embezzling or stealing from a healthcare benefit program, willfully obstructing a criminal investigation of a healthcare offense, and creates federal criminal laws that prohibit knowingly and willfully falsifying, concealing or covering up a material fact or making any materially false, fictitious or fraudulent statement or representation, or making or using any false writing or document knowing the same to contain any materially false, fictitious or fraudulent statement or entry in connection with the delivery of or payment for healthcare benefits, items or services.

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HIPAA, as amended by HITECH, and their implementing regulations, which impose privacy, security and breach reporting obligations with respect to individually identifiable health information upon entities subject to the law, such as health plans, healthcare clearinghouses and certain healthcare providers, known as covered entities, and their respective business associates and their subcontractors that perform services for them that involve individually identifiable health information. HITECH also created new tiers of civil monetary penalties, amended HIPAA to make civil and criminal penalties directly applicable to business associates, and gave state attorneys general new authority to file civil actions for damages or injunctions in U.S. federal courts to enforce HIPAA laws and seek attorneys fees and costs associated with pursuing federal civil actions.

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Federal and state consumer protection and unfair competition laws, which broadly regulate marketplace activities and activities that potentially harm consumers.

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The federal transparency requirements under the Physician Payments Sunshine Act, created under the Affordable Care Act, which requires, among other things, certain manufacturers of drugs, devices, biologics and medical supplies reimbursed under Medicare, Medicaid, or the Childrens Health Insurance Program to report to CMS information related to payments and other transfers of value provided to physicians (defined to include doctors, dentists, optometrists, podiatrists and chiropractors), other healthcare professionals (such as physician assistants and nurse practitioners), and teaching hospitals, as well as information regarding physician ownership and investment interests, including such ownership and investment interests held by a physicians immediate family members.

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State and foreign law equivalents of each of the above federal laws, such as anti-kickback and false claims laws, that may impose similar or more prohibitive restrictions, and may apply to items or services reimbursed by non-governmental third-party payors, including private insurers.

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State and foreign laws that require pharmaceutical companies to implement compliance programs, comply with the pharmaceutical industrys voluntary compliance guidelines and the relevant compliance guidance promulgated by the federal government, or to track and report gifts, compensation and other remuneration provided to physicians and other health care providers, marketing expenditures and/or drug pricing, state and local laws that require the registration of pharmaceutical sales representatives and other federal, state and foreign laws that govern the privacy and security of health information or personally identifiable information in certain circumstances, including state health information privacy and data breach notification laws which govern the collection, use, disclosure, and protection of health-related and other personal information, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and often are not pre-empted by HIPAA, thus requiring additional compliance efforts.

We have entered into consulting and scientific advisory board arrangements with physicians and other healthcare providers, including some who could influence the use of our drug candidates, if approved. Because of the complex and far-reaching nature of these laws, regulatory agencies may view these transactions as prohibited arrangements that must be restructured, or discontinued, or for which we could be subject to other significant penalties. We could be adversely affected if regulatory agencies interpret our financial relationships with providers who may influence the ordering and use of our drug candidates, if approved, to be in violation of applicable laws.

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The scope and enforcement of each of these laws is uncertain and subject to rapid change in the current environment of healthcare reform. Federal and state enforcement bodies have recently increased their scrutiny of interactions between healthcare companies and healthcare providers, which has led to a number of investigations, prosecutions, convictions and settlements in the healthcare industry. Responding to investigations can be time-and resource-consuming and can divert management’s attention from the business. Any such investigation or settlement could increase our costs or otherwise have an adverse effect on our business.

Ensuring that our business arrangements with third parties comply with applicable healthcare laws and regulations will likely be costly. If our operations are found to be in violation of any of these laws or any other current or future governmental laws and regulations that may apply to us, we may be subject to significant civil, criminal and administrative penalties, damages, fines, disgorgement, imprisonment, exclusion from government funded healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, contractual damages, reputational harm, diminished profits and future earnings, additional reporting obligations and oversight if we become subject to a corporate integrity agreement or other agreement to resolve allegations of non-compliance with these laws, and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations, any of which could substantially disrupt our operations. If any of the physicians or other healthcare providers or entities with whom we expect to do business is found to be not in compliance with applicable laws, they may be subject to criminal, civil or administrative sanctions, including exclusions from government funded healthcare programs.

We must maintain effective internal control over financial reporting, and if we are unable to do so, the accuracy and timeliness of our financial reporting may be adversely affected, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, investor confidence and market price.

We must maintain effective internal control over financial reporting in order to accurately and timely report our results of operations and financial condition. In addition, as a U.S. public company, Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, requires, among other things, that we assess the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures annually and the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting at the end of each fiscal year. Beginning with this Annual Report, we were required to perform system and process evaluation and testing of our internal control over financial reporting to allow our management to report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. However, while we remain an emerging growth company, we will not be required to include an attestation report on internal control over financial reporting issued by our independent registered public accounting firm. We will incur substantial additional professional fees and internal costs to expand our accounting and finance functions in addition to expending significant management efforts.

The rules governing the standards that must be met for our management to assess our internal control over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act are complex and require significant documentation, testing and possible remediation. These stringent standards require that our audit committee be advised and regularly updated on management’s review of internal control over financial reporting. We have designed, our internal control over financial reporting in order to comply with this obligation. This process is time-consuming, costly and complicated. In addition, our independent registered public accounting firm will be required to attest to the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting beginning with our annual report following the date on which we are no longer an “emerging growth company,” which will occur upon the earliest of: (1) the last day of the fiscal year in which we have total annual gross revenue of $1.07 billion or more; (2) December 31, 2025; (3) the date on which we have issued more than $1.0 billion in nonconvertible debt during the previous three years; and (4) the date on which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer under the rules of the SEC. Our management may not be able to effectively and timely implement controls and procedures that adequately respond to the increased regulatory compliance and reporting requirements that will be applicable to us as a U.S. public company. If we fail to staff our accounting and finance function adequately or maintain internal control over financial reporting adequate to meet the demands that will be placed upon us as a U.S. public company, including the requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, our business and reputation may be harmed and the price of our ordinary shares or ADSs may decline.

Furthermore, investor perceptions of us may be adversely affected, which could cause a decline in the market price of our ordinary shares or ADSs.

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If our information technology systems or sensitive information, or those of third parties upon which we rely, are or were compromised, we could experience adverse consequences resulting from such compromise, including but not limited to regulatory investigations or actions; litigation; fines and penalties; disruptions of our business operations; reputational harm; loss of revenue or profits; loss of customers or sales; and other adverse consequences.

In the ordinary course of our business, we collect, receive, store, process, generate, use, transfer, disclose, make accessible, protect, secure, dispose of, transmit, and share proprietary, confidential, and sensitive data, including personal data (such as health-related data), intellectual property, and trade secrets (collectively, sensitive information). We rely upon third-party service providers and technologies to operate critical business systems to process sensitive information in a variety of contexts, including, without limitation, third-party providers of cloud-based infrastructure, encryption and authentication technology, employee email, and other functions. Our ability to monitor these third parties’ information security practices is limited, and these third parties may not have adequate information security measures in place. We share or receive sensitive information with or from third parties.

Cyberattacks, malicious internet-based activity, and online and offline fraud are prevalent and continue to increase. These threats are becoming increasingly difficult to detect. These threats come from a variety of sources, including traditional computer “hackers,” threat actors, personnel (such as through theft or misuse), sophisticated nation-states, and nation-state-supported actors. We and the third parties upon which we rely may be subject to a variety of evolving threats, including but not limited to social-engineering attacks (including through phishing attacks), malicious code (such as viruses and worms), malware (including as a result of advanced persistent threat intrusions), denial-of-service attacks (such as credential stuffing), personnel misconduct or error, ransomware attacks, supply-chain attacks, software bugs, server malfunctions, software or hardware failures, loss of data or other information technology assets, adware, telecommunications failures, earthquakes, fires, floods, and other similar threats. Ransomware attacks, including by organized criminal threat actors, nation-states, and nation-state-supported actors, are becoming increasingly prevalent and severe and can lead to significant interruptions in our operations, loss of data and income, reputational harm, and diversion of funds. Extortion payments may alleviate the negative impact of a ransomware attack, but we may be unwilling or unable to make such payments due to, for example, applicable laws or regulations prohibiting such payments. Similarly, supply-chain attacks have increased in frequency and severity, and we cannot guarantee that third parties and infrastructure in our supply chain or our third-party partners’ supply chains have not been or will not be compromised or that they do not contain exploitable defects or bugs that could result in a breach of or disruption to our information technology systems or the third-party information technology systems that support us and our services.

The COVID-19 pandemic and our remote workforce poses increased risks to our information technology systems and data, as more of our employees work from home, utilizing network connections outside our premises. Future or past business transactions (such as acquisitions or integrations) could also expose us to additional cybersecurity risks and vulnerabilities, as our systems could be negatively affected by vulnerabilities present in acquired or integrated entities’ systems and technologies.

Any of the previously identified threats (or similar threats) could cause a security incident or other interruption. A security incident or other interruption could result in unauthorized, unlawful, or accidental acquisition, modification, destruction, loss, alteration, encryption, disclosure of, or access to our sensitive information. A security incident or other interruption could disrupt our ability (and that of third parties upon whom we rely) to conduct our clinical trials and operate our business. We may expend significant resources or modify our business activities (including our clinical trial activities) to try to protect against security incidents. Certain data privacy and security obligations may require us to implement and maintain specific security measures, industry-standard or reasonable security measures to protect our information technology systems and sensitive information. While we have implemented security measures designed to protect against cybersecurity incidents, we cannot ensure all the risks will be mitigated by those measures. We have not always been able in the past and may be unable in the future to detect vulnerabilities in our information technology systems (including our products) because such threats and techniques change frequently, are often sophisticated in nature, and may not be detected until after a security incident has occurred. Audit plans are aimed to limit the non-detection of those vulnerabilities. Despite our efforts to identify and remediate vulnerabilities, if any, in our information technology systems (including our products), our efforts may not always be successful. For example, in November 2021, a malicious third party exploited a vulnerability in our email server and gained unauthorized access to our email environment. The forensic investigations have shown that only our email system was affected. While this incident did not expose any personal or proprietary data and, therefore, did not require notification under applicable laws and regulations, we voluntarily notified the Commission nationale de l'informatique et des libertés (CNIL), which could result in litigation and potential liability for us, damage our brand and reputation, or otherwise harm our business. Any claims or investigations may result in our incurring significant external and internal legal and advisory costs, as well as the diversion of management’s attention from the operation of our business.

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In addition, with respect to any future incidents, applicable data privacy and security obligations may require us to notify relevant stakeholders of security incidents. Such disclosures are costly, and the disclosures or the failure to comply with such requirements could lead to adverse consequences. If we (or a third party upon whom we rely) experience a security incident or are perceived to have experienced a security incident, we may experience adverse consequences. These consequences may include: government enforcement actions (for example, investigations, fines, penalties, audits, and inspections); additional reporting requirements and/or oversight; restrictions on processing sensitive information (including personal data); litigation (including class claims); indemnification obligations; negative publicity; reputational harm; monetary fund diversions; interruptions in our operations (including availability of data); financial loss; and other similar harms. Further, the loss of product development or clinical trial data could result in delays in our regulatory approval efforts and significantly increase our costs to recover or reproduce the data. To the extent that any security incident results in a loss of, or damage to, our sensitive information or applications, or inappropriate disclosure of sensitive information, we could incur liability and our development programs and the development of our product candidates could be delayed.

Our contracts may not contain limitations of liability, and even where they do, there can be no assurance that limitations of liability in our contracts are sufficient to protect us from liabilities, damages, or claims related to our data privacy and security obligations.

We are subject to governmental export and import controls that could limit our ability to operate our business and subject us to liability if we are not in compliance with applicable laws.

We are subject to export control and import laws and regulations and various economic and trade sanctions regulations administered by the U.S. Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Controls. Exports of our product candidates must be made in compliance with these laws and regulations. If we fail to comply with these laws and regulations, we and certain of our employees could be subject to substantial civil or criminal penalties, including the possible loss of export or import privileges; fines, which may be imposed on us and responsible employees or managers; and, in extreme cases, the incarceration of responsible employees or managers.

In addition, changes in our product candidates or changes in applicable export or import laws and regulations may create delays in the introduction or provision of our product candidates in other jurisdictions, prevent others from using our product candidates or, in some cases, prevent the export or import of our product candidates to certain countries, governments or persons altogether. Any limitation on our ability to export or provide our product candidates could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. U.S. or other jurisdictions’ sanctions that may be imposed as a result of the conflict between Russia and Ukraine may impact our ability to continue activities at clinical trial sites within regions covered by such sanctions, in particular as certain trial sites in our Phase III clinical trial of lanifibranor are located in Ukraine, Russia and Eastern Europe, which could negatively impact the completion of such trial and materially harm our business.

Business interruptions could delay us in the process of developing our product candidates.

Loss of our laboratory facilities through fire or other causes could have an adverse effect on our ability to continue to conduct our business. We currently have insurance coverage to compensate us for such business interruptions; however, such coverage may prove insufficient to fully compensate us for the damage to our business resulting from any significant property or casualty loss to our facilities.

We may undertake strategic acquisitions in the future and any difficulties from integrating such acquisitions could adversely affect our share price, operating results and results of operations.

We may acquire companies, businesses and products that complement or augment our existing business. We may not be able to integrate any acquired business successfully or operate any acquired business profitably. Integrating any newly acquired business could be expensive and time-consuming. Integration efforts often take a significant amount of time, place a significant strain on managerial, operational and financial resources, result in loss of key personnel and could prove to be more difficult or expensive than we predict. The diversion of our management’s attention and any delay or difficulties encountered in connection with any future acquisitions we may consummate could result in the disruption of our on-going business or inconsistencies in standards and controls that could negatively affect our ability to maintain third-party relationships. Moreover, we may need to raise additional funds through public or private debt or equity financing, or issue additional shares, to acquire any businesses or products, which may result in dilution for shareholders or the incurrence of indebtedness.

As part of our efforts to acquire companies, business or product candidates or to enter into other significant transactions, we conduct business, legal and financial due diligence with the goal of identifying and evaluating material risks involved in the transaction. Despite

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our efforts, we ultimately may be unsuccessful in ascertaining or evaluating all such risks and, as a result, might not realize the intended advantages of the transaction. If we fail to realize the expected benefits from acquisitions we may consummate in the future or have consummated in the past, whether as a result of unidentified risks or liabilities, integration difficulties, regulatory setbacks, litigation with current or former employees and other events, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected. If we acquire product candidates, we will also need to make certain assumptions about, among other things, development costs, the likelihood of receiving regulatory approval and the market for such product candidates. Our assumptions may prove to be incorrect, which could cause us to fail to realize the anticipated benefits of these transactions.

In addition, we will likely experience significant charges to earnings in connection with our efforts, if any, to consummate acquisitions. For transactions that are ultimately not consummated, these charges may include fees and expenses for investment bankers, attorneys, accountants and other advisors in connection with our efforts. Even if our efforts are successful, we may incur, as part of a transaction, substantial charges for closure costs associated with elimination of duplicate operations and facilities and acquired in-process research and development charges. In either case, the incurrence of these charges could adversely affect our results of operations for particular periods.

Our international operations subject us to various risks, and our failure to manage these risks could adversely affect our results of operations.

We face significant operational risks as a result of doing business internationally, such as:

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fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates;

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differing payor reimbursement regimes, governmental payors or patient self-pay systems and price controls;

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potentially adverse and/or unexpected tax consequences, including penalties due to the failure of tax planning or due to the challenge by tax authorities on the basis of transfer pricing and liabilities imposed from inconsistent enforcement;

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potential changes to the accounting standards, which may influence our financial situation and results;

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becoming subject to the different, complex and changing laws, regulations and court systems of multiple jurisdictions and compliance with a wide variety of foreign laws, treaties and regulations;

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changes in a specific countrys or regions political or economic conditions, including in the United Kingdom as a result of Brexit;

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reduced protection of, or significant difficulties in enforcing, intellectual property rights in certain countries;

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difficulties in attracting and retaining qualified personnel;

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restrictions imposed by local labor practices and laws on our business and operations, including unilateral cancellation or modification of contracts;

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rapid changes in global government, economic and political policies and conditions, political or civil unrest or instability, terrorism or epidemics and other similar outbreaks or events, and potential failure in confidence of our suppliers or customers due to such changes or events; and

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tariffs, trade protection measures, import or export licensing requirements, trade embargoes and other trade barriers.

At the end of 2021 and into 2022, tensions between the U.S. and Russia escalated when Russia amassed large numbers of military ground forces and support personnel on the Ukraine-Russia border and, in February 2022, Russia invaded Ukraine. In response, NATO has deployed additional military forces to Eastern Europe, including to Lithuania, and the Biden administration announced certain sanctions against Russia. The invasion of Ukraine and the retaliatory measures that have been taken, or could be taken in the future, by the U.S., NATO, and other countries have created global security concerns that could result in a regional conflict and otherwise have a lasting impact on regional and global economies, any or all of which could disrupt our supply chain and adversely affect our ability to

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conduct ongoing and future clinical trials of our product candidates, including our ongoing Phase III clinical trial for lanifibranor, which currently includes trial sites located in Ukraine, Russia and Eastern European countries. This may impact our ability to conduct the trial in Ukraine, Russia and potentially in other Eastern European countries, and may prevent us from enrolling patients at sites in these countries. This could negatively impact the anticipated timing and completion of our clinical trials and/or analyses of clinical results, including our Phase III clinical trial in lanifibranor, which could materially harm our business.

If we are unable to use tax loss carryforwards and/or tax credits to reduce future taxable income or benefit from favorable tax legislation, our business, results of operations and financial condition may be adversely affected.

At December 31, 2021, we had cumulative carry forward tax losses of €191.8 million in France. These are available to carry forward and offset against future taxable income for an indefinite period in France. If we are unable to use tax loss carryforwards to reduce future taxable income, our business, results of operations and financial condition may be adversely affected. In France, the use of these carry forward tax losses is capped at €1 million annually, plus 50% of the fraction of profits exceeding this limit. The unutilized balance of these tax losses can be carried forward to subsequent years and set-off under the same conditions without any time limits. However, it is possible that future fiscal changes could limit our ability to utilize the balance of any tax loses, which could adversely affect our results.

As a company active in research and development in France, we have benefited from certain research and development incentives including, for example, the French research tax credit (credit d’impôt recherche), or CIR. These tax credits can be used to offset French corporate income tax due. The excess portion beyond that used to offset corporate income tax due is generally refunded in cash at the end of a three-year fiscal period; however, as long as we are considered a small or medium-sized entity (petite ou moyenne entreprise) in France, the CIR tax credit is refundable in the fiscal year after it is generated, provided that we comply with eligibility requirements. The research and development incentives are calculated based on the amount of eligible research and development expenditures. The French CIR tax credit amounted to €3.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2021. In addition, the French tax authorities have audited in the past, and may again audit in the future, research and development programs in respect of which a tax credit has been claimed in order to assess whether it qualifies for the tax credit regime. The tax authorities may challenge our eligibility for, or our calculation of, certain tax reductions and/or deductions in respect of our research and development activities and expenditures, and should the French tax authorities be successful, we may be liable for additional corporate income tax, and penalties and interest related thereto, which could have a significant impact on our results of operations and future cash flows. For example, in August 2018, we received a collection notice in the amount of €1.9 million, including penalties and late payment interest, related to our CIRs for the 2013, 2014 and 2015 taxable years. On January 7, 2020, we initiated mediation with respect to the CIR reassessment for the 2013, 2014 and 2015 taxable years and received the mediator's response on January 28, 2021 waiving €0.3 million corresponding to the part of the dispute related to the subcontracting expenses in consideration of the recent changes in the jurisprudence and the last decision of the Council of State in July 2020 on the eligibility of subcontracting expenses in the evaluation of the research tax credit. On January 25, 2021 the Administrative Court of Dijon informed us of the dismissal of the contentious claim regarding the amounts claimed for the fiscal years 2013, 2014 and 2015. Abbott and Inventiva decided not to appeal the decision. On February 10, 2021, we requested the payment from Abbott of €2.0 million corresponding to the maximum amount covered by an indemnity clause in an agreement with Abbott. The entire payment was received during the first quarter of 2021. On February 11, 2021, we received formal notice to pay the amounts due to the French tax authorities under the notice of assessment issued on August 17, 2018 for an amount of €1.9 million. On June 9, 2021, in agreement with the French tax authorities, we paid €1.8 million, including €1.3 million by offsetting VAT credit receivables. As a result, we wired the amount of €0.5 million. On August 9, 2021, following this payment, the tax authorities informed us of the release of part of the bank guarantee provided in 2019 and 2020 for an amount of €1.6 million, corresponding to the portion with regard to payroll taxes. Consequently, Crédit Agricole has accepted the lifting of the pledge over cash for €1.0 million. Furthermore, if the French government decides to eliminate, or reduce the scope or the rate of, the research and development incentive benefit, either of which it could decide to do at any time, our results of operations could be adversely affected.

We may be exposed to significant foreign exchange risk.

We incur portions of our expenses, and may in the future derive revenues, in currencies other than the euro, in particular, the U.S. dollar. As a result, we are exposed to foreign currency exchange risk as our results of operations and cash flows are subject to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates. We currently do not engage in hedging transactions to protect against uncertainty in future exchange rates between particular foreign currencies and the euro. Therefore, for example, an increase in the value of the euro against the U.S. dollar could be expected to have a negative impact on our revenue and earnings growth as U.S. dollar revenue and earnings, if any,

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would be translated into euros at a reduced value. We cannot predict the impact of foreign currency fluctuations, and foreign currency fluctuations in the future may adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

The requirements of being a U.S. public company may strain our resources and divert management’s attention.

We are required to comply with various corporate governance and financial reporting requirements under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the Securities and Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, and the rules and regulations adopted by the Securities and Exchange Commission and the Public Corporation Accounting Oversight Board. Further, compliance with various regulatory reporting requires significant commitments of time from our management and our directors, which reduces the time available for the performance of their other responsibilities. Our failure to track and comply with the various rules may materially adversely affect our reputation, ability to obtain the necessary certifications to financial statements, lead to additional regulatory enforcement actions, and could adversely affect the value of our ordinary shares or ADSs.

Risks Related to Ownership of our Ordinary Shares and ADSs

The market price of our equity securities may be volatile, and purchasers of our ordinary shares or ADSs or could incur substantial losses.

The market price for our ordinary shares and ADSs may be volatile. From January 1, 2021 to December 31, 2021, the closing price of our ADSs ranged from a high of $19.00 to a low of $10.52 per ADS. The stock market in general and the market for biopharmaceutical companies in particular have experienced extreme volatility that has often been unrelated to the operating performance of particular companies. As a result of this volatility, investors may not be able to sell their ordinary shares or ADSs at or above the price originally paid for the security. The market price for our ordinary shares and ADSs may be influenced by many factors, including:

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actual or anticipated fluctuations in our financial condition and operating results;

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actual or anticipated changes in our growth rate relative to our competitors;

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competition from existing products or new products that may emerge;

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announcements by us, our partners or our competitors of significant acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures, partnerships, or capital commitments;

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our ability to enter into a partnership with a third party for the development and commercialization of odiparcil;

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the amount and timing of any regulatory and commercial milestone payments, or royalty payments, for cedirogant;

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failure to meet or exceed financial estimates and projections of the investment community or that we provide to the public;

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issuance of new or updated research or reports by securities analysts;

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fluctuations in the valuation of companies perceived by investors to be comparable to us;

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share price and volume fluctuations attributable to inconsistent trading volume levels of our shares;

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market manipulation, including coordinated buying or selling activities;

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additions or departures of key management or scientific personnel;

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disputes or other developments related to proprietary rights, including patents, litigation matters, and our ability to obtain patent protection for our technologies;

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changes to coverage policies or reimbursement levels by commercial third-party payors and government payors and any announcements relating to coverage policies or reimbursement levels;

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announcement or expectation of additional debt or equity financing efforts;

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sales of our ordinary shares or ADSs by us, our insiders or our other shareholders; and

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general economic and market conditions.

These and other market and industry factors may cause the market price and demand for our ordinary shares or ADSs to fluctuate substantially, regardless of our actual operating performance, which may limit or prevent investors from readily selling their ordinary shares or ADSs and may otherwise negatively affect the liquidity of our capital shares.

If we do not achieve our projected development and commercialization goals in the timeframes we announce and expect, our business will be harmed and the price of our securities could decline as a result.

We sometimes estimate for planning purposes the timing of the accomplishment of various scientific, clinical, regulatory and other product development objectives. These milestones may include our expectations regarding the commencement or completion of scientific studies, clinical trials, the submission of regulatory filings, or commercialization objectives. From time to time, we may publicly announce the expected timing of some of these milestones, such as the completion of an ongoing clinical trial, the receipt of data from a clinical trial, the initiation of other clinical programs, receipt of marketing approval, or a commercial launch of a product. For example, data from our recently completed Phase IIb clinical trial of lanifibranor for the treatment of patients with NASH was delayed due to challenges in patient enrollment.

The achievement of many of these milestones may be outside of our control. All of these milestones are based on a variety of assumptions which may cause the timing of achievement of the milestones to vary considerably from our estimates, including:

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our available capital resources or capital constraints we experience;

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the rate of progress, costs and results of our clinical trials and research and development activities, including the extent of scheduling conflicts with participating clinicians and partners, and our ability to identify and enroll patients who meet clinical trial eligibility criteria;

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our receipt of approvals by the EMA, FDA and other regulatory agencies and the timing thereof;

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other actions, decisions or rules issued by regulators;

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our ability to access sufficient, reliable and affordable supplies of compounds and raw materials used in the manufacture of our product candidates;

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the efforts of our partners with respect to the commercialization of our products; and

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the securing of, costs related to, and timing issues associated with, product manufacturing as well as sales and marketing activities.

If we fail to achieve announced milestones in the timeframes we expect, the commercialization of our product candidates may be delayed, our business and results of operations may be harmed, and the trading price of our ordinary shares and ADSs may decline as a result.

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Voting control with respect to our company is concentrated in the hands of Frédéric Cren, our Chief Executive Officer, Pierre Broqua, our Deputy Chief Executive Officer and Chief Scientific Officer, and our significant shareholders and affiliates who will continue to be able to exercise significant influence on us.

In accordance with French law, double voting rights automatically attach to each ordinary share of companies listed on a regulated market (such as the Euronext Paris, where our ordinary shares are listed) that is held of record in the name of the same shareholder for a period of at least two years, except as otherwise set forth in a company’s bylaws. Our bylaws do not exclude such double voting rights. However, under French law, ordinary bearer shares in the form of ADSs are not eligible for double voting rights. To our knowledge, among our shareholders who hold ordinary shares to which are attached double voting rights, Frédéric Cren, our Chief Executive Officer and Pierre Broqua, our Deputy Chief Executive Officer and Chief Scientific Officer hold the most significant portion. Double voting rights attach to the 5,612,224 ordinary shares held by Frédéric Cren, and to the 3,882,500 ordinary shares held by Pierre Broqua, as of December 31, 2021. Given the double voting rights per share attributed to ordinary shares held by Mr. Cren and Dr. Broqua, Mr. Cren and Dr. Broqua together beneficially own approximately 23.2% of our outstanding ordinary shares (including ordinary shares underlying ADSs), but control approximately 36.0% of the voting rights of our outstanding share capital as of December 31, 2021. As a result, Mr. Cren and Dr. Broqua, if they act together, have a significant influence over all matters that require approval by our shareholders, such as the election of directors and approval of significant corporate transactions. Such corporate action might be taken even if other shareholders oppose them. This concentration of ownership might also have the effect of delaying or preventing a change of control of our company that other shareholders may view as beneficial. As members of our board of directors, Mr. Cren and Dr. Broqua have a duty to act without self-interest, on a well-informed basis and to not make any decision against our corporate interest (intérêt social) considering the interests of our shareholders, employees and other stakeholders as a whole. However, as shareholders, Mr. Cren and Dr. Broqua are entitled to vote their shares in their own interests, which may not always be in the interests of our shareholders generally. In addition, Mr. Cren and Dr. Broqua have the ability to control the management and major strategic investments of our company as a result of their positions as our Chief Executive Officer and Deputy Chief Executive Officer and Chief Scientific Officer, respectively.

Further, our executive officers, directors, current 5% or greater shareholders and affiliated entities, including BVF Partners L.P., New Enterprise Associates and Sofinnova Crossover I SLP, together beneficially own approximately 41.7% of our outstanding ordinary shares (including ordinary shares underlying ADSs) and approximately 33.6% of the voting rights of our outstanding share capital as of December 31, 2021. As a result, these shareholders, if they act together, will have control over all matters that require approval of our shareholders.

This concentrated control limits your ability to influence corporate matters for the foreseeable future and potentially in perpetuity, particularly because purchasers of ADSs or ordinary shares in the open market will be unlikely to meet the requirements to have double voting rights attach to any ordinary shares held by them. This concentrated control could also discourage a potential investor from acquiring our ADSs or ordinary shares and might harm the market price of our ADSs or ordinary shares.

Fluctuations in the exchange rate between the U.S. dollar and the euro may increase the risk of holding our ordinary shares and ADSs.

Our ordinary shares currently trade on Euronext Paris in euros, while our ADSs trade on Nasdaq in U.S. dollars. Fluctuations in the exchange rate between the U.S. dollar and the euro may result in temporary differences between the value of our ADSs and the value of our ordinary shares, which may result in heavy trading by investors seeking to exploit such differences.

In addition, as a result of fluctuations in the exchange rate between the U.S. dollar and the euro, the U.S. dollar equivalent of the proceeds that a holder of our ADSs would receive upon the sale in France of any ordinary shares withdrawn from the depositary and the U.S. dollar equivalent of any cash dividends paid in euros on our ordinary shares represented by our ADSs could also decline.

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or publish inaccurate research or unfavorable research about our business, the price of our ordinary shares and ADSs and trading volume could decline.

The trading market for our ordinary shares and ADSs depends in part on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. If no or few securities or industry analysts cover our company, the trading price for our ordinary shares and ADSs would be negatively impacted. If one or more of the analysts who covers us downgrades our ordinary shares and ADSs or publishes incorrect or unfavorable research about our business, the price of our ordinary shares and ADSs would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts ceases coverage of our company or fails to publish reports on us regularly, or downgrades our ordinary shares

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and ADSs, demand for our ordinary shares and ADSs could decrease, which could cause the price of our ordinary shares and ADSs or trading volume to decline.

We have no present intention to pay dividends on our ordinary shares in the foreseeable future and, consequently, your only opportunity to achieve a return on your investment during that time is if the price of our ordinary shares or ADSs, as applicable, appreciates.

We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our ordinary shares and we have no present intention to pay dividends in the foreseeable future. Any recommendation by our board of directors to pay dividends will depend on many factors, including our financial condition (including losses carried-forward), results of operations, legal requirements and other factors. Further, under French law, the determination of whether we have been sufficiently profitable to pay dividends is made on the basis of our statutory financial statements prepared and presented in accordance with accounting standards applicable in France. In addition, payment of dividends may subject us to additional taxes under French law. See “Item 10.B-Memorandum and Articles of Association” for further details on the limitations on our ability to declare and pay dividends. Therefore, we may be more restricted in our ability to declare dividends than companies not based in France. If the price of our ordinary shares or ADSs declines before we pay dividends, you will incur a loss on your investment, without the likelihood that this loss will be offset in part or at all by potential future cash dividends.

The rights of shareholders in companies subject to French corporate law differ in material respects from the rights of shareholders of corporations incorporated in the United States.

We are a French public limited company (société anonyme). Our corporate affairs are governed by our bylaws and by the laws governing companies incorporated in France. The rights of shareholders and the responsibilities of members of our board of directors are in many ways different from the rights and obligations of shareholders in companies governed by the laws of U.S. jurisdictions. For example, in the performance of its duties, our board of directors is required by French law to consider the interests of our company, its shareholders, its employees and other stakeholders, rather than solely our shareholders and/or creditors. It is possible that some of these parties will have interests that are different from, or in addition to, your interests as a shareholder or holder of ADSs. Further, in accordance with French law, double voting rights automatically attach to each ordinary share of companies listed on a regulated market (such as the Euronext Paris, where our ordinary shares are listed) that is held of record in the name (action au nominatif) of the same shareholder for a period of at least two years, except as otherwise set forth in a company’s bylaws. Our bylaws currently do not exclude such double voting rights; however, the holders of two-thirds of our outstanding voting rights may vote to amend our bylaws to exclude such double voting rights at any extraordinary general meeting of our shareholders. See the sections of this annual report titled “Item 6. Directors, Senior Management and Employees-Board Practices” and the documents referenced in “Item 10. Additional Information-Memorandum and Articles of Association.”

Our bylaws and French corporate law contain provisions that may delay or discourage a takeover attempt.

Provisions contained in our bylaws and French corporate law could make it more difficult for a third-party to acquire us, even if doing so might be beneficial to our shareholders. In addition, provisions of our bylaws impose various procedural and other requirements, which could make it more difficult for shareholders to effect certain corporate actions. These provisions include the following:

·

under French law, the owner of 90% of the share capital and voting rights of a public company with registered seat in France and whose shares are listed on a regulated market in a Member State of the European Union or in a state party to the European Economic Area, or EEA, Agreement, including France, has the right to force out minority shareholders following a tender offer made to all shareholders;

·

under French law, a non-French resident must file a declaration for statistical purposes with the Bank of France (Banque de France) within twenty working days following the date of certain direct foreign investments in us, including any purchase of our ADSs. In particular, such filings are required in connection with investments exceeding e 15 million that lead to the acquisition of at least 10% of our Companys share capital or voting rights or cross such 10% threshold; see the section of this prospectus titled Limitations affecting shareholders of a French company;

·

under French law, certain investments in a French company relating to certain strategic industries that are considered essential for the protection of public health, such as biotechnologies, by individuals or entities are subject to prior authorization of the Ministry of Economy pursuant to Law n°2019-486 (and as from April 1, 2020 pursuant to the decree n°2019-1590);

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·

a merger (i.e., in a French law context, a stock for stock exchange following which our company would be dissolved into the acquiring entity and our shareholders would become shareholders of the acquiring entity) of our company into a company incorporated in the European Union would require the approval of our board of directors as well as a two-thirds majority of the votes cast by the shareholders present, represented by proxy or voting by mail at the relevant meeting;

·

a merger of our company into a company incorporated outside of the European Union would require 100% of our shareholders to approve it;

·

under French law, a cash merger is treated as a share purchase and would require the consent of each participating shareholder;

·

our shareholders have granted and may grant in the future our board of directors broad authorizations to increase our share capital or to issue additional ordinary shares or other securities, such as warrants, to our shareholders, the public or qualified investors, including as a possible defense following the launching of a tender offer for our shares;

·

our shareholders have preferential subscription rights on a pro rata basis on the issuance by us of any additional securities for cash or a set-off of cash debts, which rights may only be waived by the extraordinary general meeting (by a two-thirds majority vote) of our shareholders or on an individual basis by each shareholder;

·

our Chief Executive Officer and Deputy Chief Executive Officer have double voting rights with respect to ordinary shares held by them, and their interests may not be aligned with those of our shareholders more generally with respect to a takeover attempt;

·

our board of directors has the right to appoint directors to fill a vacancy created by the resignation or death of a director, for the remaining duration of such directors term of office and subject to the approval by the shareholders of such appointment at the next shareholders meeting, which prevents shareholders from having the sole right to fill vacancies on our board of directors;

·

our board of directors can be convened by our chairman, or our managing director, if any, upon request made to the chairman or, when no board meeting has been held for more than three consecutive months, by directors representing at least one third of the total number of directors;

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our board of directors meetings can only be regularly held if at least half of the directors attend either physically or by way of videoconference or teleconference enabling the directors identification and ensuring their effective participation in the boards decisions;

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our shares are nominative or bearer, if the legislation so permits, according to the shareholders choice;

·

approval of at least a majority of the votes cast by shareholders present, represented by a proxy, or voting by mail at the relevant ordinary shareholders general meeting is required to remove directors with or without cause;

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advance notice is required for nominations to the board of directors or for proposing matters to be acted upon at a shareholders meeting, except that a vote to remove and replace a director can be proposed at any shareholders meeting without notice;

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our bylaws can be amended in accordance with applicable laws;

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the crossing of certain thresholds has to be disclosed and can impose certain obligations; see the documents referenced in the section of this annual report titled Item 10. Additional Information-Memorandum and Articles of Association;

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transfers of shares shall comply with applicable insider trading laws and regulations and, in particular, with the Regulation (EU) No 596/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 April 2014 on market abuse, or Market Abuse Regulation; and

·

pursuant to French law, our bylaws, including the sections relating to the number of directors and election and removal of a director from office, may only be modified by a resolution adopted by at least a two-third majority of the votes cast by our shareholders present, represented by a proxy or voting by mail at the meeting.

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Holders of our ADSs are not treated as shareholders of our company.

Holders of our ADSs are not treated as shareholders of our company, unless they withdraw the ordinary shares underlying our ADSs. The depositary, or its nominee, is the holder of the ordinary shares underlying our ADSs. Holders of ADSs therefore do not have any rights as shareholders of our company, other than the rights that they have pursuant to the deposit agreement.

You may not be able to exercise your right to vote the ordinary shares underlying your ADSs.

Holders of ADSs may exercise voting rights with respect to the ordinary shares represented by the ADSs only in accordance with the provisions of the deposit agreement. The deposit agreement provides that, upon receipt of notice of any meeting of holders of our ordinary shares, the depositary will fix a record date for the determination of ADS holders who shall be entitled to give instructions for the exercise of voting rights. Upon timely receipt of notice from us, if we so request, the depositary shall distribute to the holders as of the record date (1) the notice of the meeting or solicitation of consent or proxy sent by us and (2) a statement as to the manner in which instructions may be given by the holders.

Holders of ADSs may instruct the depositary to vote the ordinary shares underlying their ADSs. Otherwise, ADS holders will not be able to exercise their right to vote, unless they withdraw the ordinary shares underlying the ADSs they hold. However, ADS holders may not know about the meeting far enough in advance to withdraw those ordinary shares. If we ask for instructions from holders of ADSs, the depositary, upon timely notice from us, will notify them of the upcoming vote and arrange to deliver our voting materials to them. We cannot guarantee ADS holders that they will receive the voting materials in time to ensure that they can instruct the depositary to vote their ordinary shares or to withdraw their ordinary shares so that they can vote them themselves. If the depositary does not receive timely voting instructions from a holder of ADSs, it may give a proxy to a person designated by us to vote the ordinary shares underlying such holder’s ADSs. In addition, the depositary and its agents are not responsible for failing to carry out voting instructions or for the manner of carrying out voting instructions. This means that ADS holders may not be able to exercise their right to vote, and there may be nothing they can do if the ordinary shares underlying their ADSs are not voted as they requested.

The right as a holder of ADSs to participate in any future preferential subscription rights or to elect to receive dividends in shares may be limited, which may cause holders of our ADSs to be diluted.

According to French law, if we issue additional securities for cash, current shareholders will have preferential subscription rights for these securities on a pro rata basis unless they waive those rights at an extraordinary meeting of our shareholders (by a two-thirds majority vote) or individually by each shareholder. However, our ADS holders in the United States will not be entitled to exercise or sell such rights unless we register the rights and the securities to which the rights relate under the U.S. Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act or an exemption from the registration requirements is available. In addition, the deposit agreement provides that the depositary will not make rights available to purchasers of ADSs in the U.S. offering unless the distribution to ADS holders of both the rights and any related securities are either registered under the Securities Act or exempted from registration under the Securities Act. Further, if we offer holders of our ordinary shares the option to receive dividends in either cash or shares, under the deposit agreement the depositary may require satisfactory assurances from us that extending the offer to holders of ADSs does not require registration of any securities under the Securities Act before making the option available to holders of ADSs. We are under no obligation to file a registration statement with respect to any such rights or securities or to endeavor to cause such a registration statement to be declared effective. Moreover, we may not be able to establish an exemption from registration under the Securities Act. Accordingly, ADS holders may be unable to participate in our rights offerings or to elect to receive dividends in shares and may experience dilution in their holdings. In addition, if the depositary is unable to sell rights that are not exercised or not distributed or if the sale is not lawful or reasonably practicable, it will allow the rights to lapse, in which case you will receive no value for these rights.

Holders of ADSs may be subject to limitations on the transfer of their ADSs and the withdrawal of the underlying ordinary shares.

ADSs are transferable on the books of the depositary. However, the depositary may close its books at any time or from time to time when it deems expedient in connection with the performance of its duties. The depositary may refuse to deliver, transfer or register transfers of ADSs generally when our books or the books of the depositary are closed, or at any time if we or the depositary think it is advisable to do so because of any requirement of law, government or governmental body, or under any provision of the deposit agreement, or for any other reason, subject to the right of ADS holders to cancel their ADSs and withdraw the underlying ordinary shares. Temporary delays in the cancellation of your ADSs and withdrawal of the underlying ordinary shares may arise because the depositary has closed its transfer books or we have closed our transfer books, the transfer of ordinary shares is blocked to permit voting

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at a shareholders’ meeting or we are paying a dividend on our ordinary shares. In addition, ADS holders may not be able to cancel their ADSs and withdraw the underlying ordinary shares when they owe money for fees, taxes and similar charges and when it is necessary to prohibit withdrawals in order to comply with any laws or governmental regulations that apply to ADSs or to the withdrawal of ordinary shares or other deposited securities.

ADS holders may not be entitled to a jury trial with respect to claims arising under the deposit agreement, which could result in less favorable outcomes to the plaintiff(s) in any such action.

The deposit agreement governing our ADSs provides that holders and beneficial owners of ADSs irrevocably waive the right to a trial by jury in any legal proceeding arising out of or relating to the deposit agreement or the ADSs, including in respect of claims under federal securities laws, against us or the depositary to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law. If this jury trial waiver provision is prohibited by applicable law, an action could nevertheless proceed under the terms of the deposit agreement with a jury trial. To our knowledge, the enforceability of a jury trial waiver under the federal securities laws has not been finally adjudicated by a federal court. However, we believe that a jury trial waiver provision is generally enforceable under the laws of the State of New York, which govern the deposit agreement, by a court of the State of New York or a federal court, which have non-exclusive jurisdiction over matters arising under the deposit agreement, applying such law. In determining whether to enforce a jury trial waiver provision, New York courts and federal courts will consider whether the visibility of the jury trial waiver provision within the agreement is sufficiently prominent such that a party has knowingly waived any right to trial by jury. We believe that this is the case with respect to the deposit agreement and the ADSs. In addition, New York courts will not enforce a jury trial waiver provision in order to bar a viable setoff or counterclaim sounding in fraud or one which is based upon a creditor’s negligence in failing to liquidate collateral upon a guarantor’s demand, or in the case of an intentional tort claim (as opposed to a contract dispute), none of which we believe are applicable in the case of the deposit agreement or the ADSs. No condition, stipulation or provision of the deposit agreement or ADSs serves as a waiver by any holder or beneficial owner of ADSs or by us or the depositary of compliance with any provision of the federal securities laws. If you or any other holder or beneficial owner of ADSs brings a claim against us or the depositary in connection with such matters, you or such other holder or beneficial owner may not be entitled to a jury trial with respect to such claims, which may have the effect of limiting and discouraging lawsuits against us and/or the depositary. If a lawsuit is brought against us and/or the depositary under the deposit agreement, it may be heard only by a judge or justice of the applicable trial court, which would be conducted according to different civil procedures and may result in different outcomes than a trial by jury would have had, including results that could be less favorable to the plaintiff(s) in any such action, depending on, among other things, the nature of the claims, the judge or justice hearing such claims, and the venue of the hearing.

We are an “emerging growth company” under the JOBS Act and will be able to avail ourselves of reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies, which could make our ordinary shares or ADSs less attractive to investors.

We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the U.S. Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, or the JOBS Act, and we intend to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not “emerging growth companies,” including not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and shareholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. In addition, Section 107 of the JOBS Act also provides that an emerging growth company can take advantage of the extended transition period provided in Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act, for complying with new or revised accounting standards. We will not take advantage of the extended transition period provided under Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act for complying with new or revised accounting standards. Since IFRS makes no distinction between public and private companies for purposes of compliance with new or revised accounting standards, the requirements for our compliance as a private company and as a public company are the same. We cannot predict if investors will find our ordinary shares or ADSs less attractive because we may rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our ordinary shares or ADSs less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our ordinary shares or ADSs and the price of our ordinary shares or ADSs may be more volatile. We may take advantage of these reporting exemptions until we are no longer an emerging growth company. We will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest of (1) the last day of the fiscal year in which we have total annual gross revenue of $1.07 billion or more; (2) December 31, 2025; (3) the date on which we have issued more than $1.0 billion in nonconvertible debt during the previous three years; and (4) the date on which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer under the rules of the SEC.

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As a foreign private issuer, we are exempt from a number of rules under the U.S. securities laws and are permitted to file less information with the SEC than a U.S. company. This may limit the information available to holders of ordinary shares or ADSs.

We are a foreign private issuer, as defined in the SEC’s rules and regulations and, consequently, we are not subject to all of the disclosure requirements applicable to public companies organized within the United States. For example, we are exempt from certain rules under the Exchange Act that regulate disclosure obligations and procedural requirements related to the solicitation of proxies, consents or authorizations applicable to a security registered under the Exchange Act, including the U.S. proxy rules under Section 14 of the Exchange Act. In addition, our officers and directors are exempt from the reporting and “short-swing” profit recovery provisions of Section 16 of the Exchange Act and related rules with respect to their purchases and sales of our securities. Moreover, while we currently make annual and semi-annual filings with respect to our listing on Euronext Paris and file financial reports on an annual and semi-annual basis, we are not required to file periodic reports and financial statements with the SEC as frequently or as promptly as U.S. domestic issuers and are not required to file quarterly reports on Form 10-Q or current reports on Form 8-K under the Exchange Act. Accordingly, there is, and will continue to be, less publicly available information concerning our company than there would be if we were not a foreign private issuer.

As a foreign private issuer, we are permitted and we follow certain home country practices in relation to corporate governance matters that differ significantly from Nasdaq’s corporate governance standards. These practices may afford less protection to shareholders than they would enjoy if we complied fully with the corporate governance standards of the Nasdaq Global Market.

As a foreign private issuer listed on the Nasdaq Global Market, we are subject to Nasdaq’s corporate governance standards. However, Nasdaq rules provide that foreign private issuers are permitted to follow home country corporate governance practices in lieu of Nasdaq’s corporate governance standards as long as notification is provided to Nasdaq of the intention to take advantage of such exemptions. We rely on exemptions for foreign private issuers and follow French corporate governance practices in lieu of Nasdaq’s corporate governance standards, to the extent possible. Certain corporate governance practices in France, which is our home country, differ significantly from Nasdaq corporate governance standards.

For example, as a French company, neither the corporate laws of France nor our bylaws require a majority of our directors to be independent and we can include non-independent directors as members of our remuneration committee, and our independent directors are not required to hold regularly scheduled meetings at which only independent directors are present. Nevertheless, the Middlenext Code (middlenext Code de gouvernement d’entreprise) recommends that a majority of the directors be independent (as construed under such code) in a widely-held company like ours. The Middlenext Code only applies on a “comply-or-explain” basis and we may in the future either decide not to apply this recommendation or change the corporate code to which we refer.

We are also exempt from provisions set forth in Nasdaq rules which require an issuer to provide in its bylaws for a generally applicable quorum, and that such quorum may not be less than one-third of the outstanding voting stock. Consistent with French law, our bylaws provide that, at the first meeting convened, a quorum requires the presence of shareholders having at least (1) 20% of the shares entitled to vote in the case of an ordinary shareholders’ general meeting or at an extraordinary shareholders’ general meeting where shareholders are voting on a capital increase by capitalization of reserves, profits or share premium (in case of lack of quorum, no quorum is required at the second meeting convened), or (2) 25% of the shares entitled to vote in the case of any other extraordinary shareholders’ general meeting (in case of lack of quorum, it is decreased to at least 20% of the shares entitled to vote at the second meeting convened).

As a foreign private issuer, we are required to comply with Rule 10A-3 of the Exchange Act, relating to audit committee composition and responsibilities. Under French law, the audit committee may only have an advisory role and appointment of our statutory auditors, in particular, must be decided by the shareholders at our annual meeting.

Therefore, our shareholders may be afforded less protection than they otherwise would have under Nasdaq’s corporate governance standards applicable to U.S. domestic issuers. For an overview of our corporate governance practices, see “Item 6. Directors, Senior Management and Employees-Board Practices.”

We may lose our foreign private issuer status in the future, which could result in significant additional cost and expense.

While we currently qualify as a foreign private issuer, the determination of foreign private issuer status is made annually on the last business day of an issuer’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter and, accordingly, the next determination will be made with

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respect to us on June 30, 2021. In the future, we would lose our foreign private issuer status if we fail to meet the requirements necessary to maintain our foreign private issuer status as of the relevant determination date. We will remain a foreign private issuer until such time that more than 50% of our outstanding voting securities are held by U.S. residents and any of the following three circumstances applies: (1) the majority of our executive officers or directors are U.S. citizens or residents; (2) more than 50% of our assets are located in the United States; or (3) our business is administered principally in the United States.

The regulatory and compliance costs to us under U.S. securities laws as a U.S. domestic issuer may be significantly more than costs we incur as a foreign private issuer. If we are not a foreign private issuer, we will be required to file periodic reports and registration statements on U.S. domestic issuer forms with the SEC, which are more detailed and extensive in certain respects than the forms available to a foreign private issuer. We would be required under current SEC rules to prepare our financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, rather than IFRS, and modify certain of our policies to comply with corporate governance practices associated with U.S. domestic issuers. Such conversion of our financial statements to U.S. GAAP would involve significant time and cost. In addition, we may lose our ability to rely upon exemptions from certain corporate governance requirements on U.S. stock exchanges that are available to foreign private issuers such as the ones described herein and exemptions from procedural requirements related to the solicitation of proxies.

U.S. investors may have difficulty enforcing civil liabilities against our company and directors and senior management and the experts named in this prospectus.

Certain members of our board of directors and senior management and certain experts named in this prospectus are non-residents of the United States, and all or a substantial portion of our assets and the assets of such persons are located outside the United States. As a result, it may not be possible to serve process on such persons or us in the United States or to enforce judgments obtained in U.S. courts against them or us based on civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the United States. Additionally, it may be difficult to assert U.S. securities law claims in actions originally instituted outside of the United States. Foreign courts may refuse to hear a U.S. securities law claim because foreign courts may not be the most appropriate forums in which to bring such a claim. Even if a foreign court agrees to hear a claim, it may determine that the law of the jurisdiction in which the foreign court resides, and not U.S. law, is applicable to the claim. Further, if U.S. law is found to be applicable, the content of applicable U.S. law must be proved as a fact, which can be a time-consuming and costly process, and certain matters of procedure would still be governed by the law of the jurisdiction in which the foreign court resides. In particular, there is some doubt as to whether French courts would recognize and enforce certain civil liabilities under U.S. securities laws in original actions or judgments of U.S. courts based upon these civil liability provisions. In addition, awards of punitive damages in actions brought in the United States or elsewhere may be unenforceable in France. An award for monetary damages under the U.S. securities laws would be considered punitive if it does not seek to compensate the claimant for loss or damage suffered but is intended to punish the defendant. French law provides that a shareholder, or a group of shareholders, may initiate a legal action to seek indemnification from the directors of a corporation in the corporation’s interest if it fails to bring such legal action itself. If so, any damages awarded by the court are paid to the corporation and any legal fees relating to such action may be borne by the relevant shareholder or the group of shareholders.

The enforceability of any judgment in France will depend on the particular facts of the case as well as the laws and treaties in effect at the time. The United States and France do not currently have a treaty providing for recognition and enforcement of judgments (other than arbitration awards) in civil and commercial matters. See “Enforcement of civil liabilities.”

U.S. holders of our ADSs may suffer adverse tax consequences if we are characterized as a passive foreign investment company.

Generally, if, for any taxable year, at least 75% of our gross income is passive income, or at least 50% of the value of our assets is attributable to assets that produce passive income or are held for the production of passive income, we would be characterized as a passive foreign investment company, or PFIC, for U.S. federal income tax purposes. For purposes of these tests, passive income includes dividends, interest, and gains from the sale or exchange of investment property and rents and royalties other than rents and royalties which are received from unrelated parties in connection with the active conduct of a trade or business.

Assets that produce or are held for the production of passive income may include cash, even if held as working capital or raised in a public offering, marketable securities, and other assets that may produce passive income.

Our status as a PFIC will depend on the composition of our income and the composition and value of our assets (which, may be determined in large part by reference to the market value of our ADSs, which may be volatile) from time to time. With respect to the

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taxable year ended December 31, 2020, we do not believe that we were a PFIC, and we do not anticipate being classified as a PFIC with respect to the 2021 taxable year. Our status as a PFIC is a fact-intensive determination made on an annual basis and we cannot provide any assurances regarding our PFIC status for the past, current or future taxable years. Our U.S. counsel expresses no opinion regarding our past, current or future PFIC status. If we are characterized as a PFIC, our U.S. holders may suffer adverse tax consequences, including having gains realized on the sale of our ADSs treated as ordinary income, rather than as capital gain and the loss of the preferential rate applicable to dividends received on our ADSs by individuals who are U.S. holders, and having interest charges apply to distributions by us and the proceeds of sales of the ADSs. A U.S. shareholder of a PFIC generally may mitigate these adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences by making a “qualified electing fund,” or QEF, election, or, to a lesser extent, a “mark to market” election. If we determine that we are a PFIC for any taxable year, we will use commercially reasonable efforts to, and currently expect to, provide the necessary information for U.S. holders to make a QEF election. For further discussion of the PFIC rules and the adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences in the event we are classified as a PFIC, see the section of this annual report titled “Item 10. Additional Information-Taxation.”

Item 4.  Information on the Company.

A.    History and Development of the Company

We were founded in 2011 and incorporated in France under the legal name Inventiva S.A. as a société anonyme, or S.A., in 2016. Our principal executive offices are located at 50 rue de Dijon, 21121 Daix, France and Our telephone number is +33 3 80 44 75 00. We are registered at the Dijon Trade and Companies Register (Registre du commerce et des sociétés) under the number 537 530 255. Our agent for service of process in the United States is Cogency Global Inc., 122 East 42nd Street, 18th Floor, New York, New York 10168.

In February 2017, we completed the initial public offering of our ordinary shares on Euronext Paris, raising €48.5 million in gross proceeds. In July 2020, we completed the initial public offering of our ordinary shares in the form of American Depositary Shares, or ADSs, on the Nasdaq Global Market, raising approximately $107.7 million in gross proceeds (or €94.1 million based on exchange rate on July 15, 2020, the date of receipt of funds). We established an “At-The-Market” program for an aggregate gross sales proceeds of up to $100,000,000 in August 2021 and raised $30 million in gross proceeds through that program in September 2021 and $1.9 million in October 2021.

Our actual capital expenditures for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019 amounted to €534,000, €292,000 and €136,000, respectively. These capital expenditures primarily consisted of acquisition of research equipment and technical installation.

The SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy information statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC. The address of that site is http://www.sec.gov. Our website address is www.inventivapharma.com. The reference to our website is an inactive textual reference only and information contained in, or that can be accessed through, our website or any other website cited in this annual report is not part of this annual report.

B.    Business Overview

Overview

We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on the development of oral small molecule therapies for the treatment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, or NASH and other diseases with significant unmet medical need. We have built a pipeline backed by a discovery engine with an extensive library of proprietary molecules, a wholly-owned research and development facility and a team with significant expertise and experience in the development of compounds that target nuclear receptors, transcription factors and epigenetic modulation. Leveraging these assets and expertise, we are advancing lanifibranor for the treatment of NASH, as well as a pipeline of earlier stage programs in oncology and other diseases with significant unmet medical need.

Lanifibranor for the Treatment of NASH. We are developing our lead product candidate, lanifibranor, for the treatment of patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, or NASH, a progressive, chronic liver disease for which there are currently no approved therapies. NASH is believed to affect 12% of the United States adult population and is a leading cause of cirrhosis, liver transplantation and liver cancer. Compared to the general population, patients with NASH have a ten-fold greater risk of liver-related mortality. NASH is characterized by a metabolic process known as steatosis, or the excessive accumulation of fat in the liver, inflammation and ballooning of liver cells and progressive liver fibrosis that can ultimately lead to cirrhosis. Lanifibranor is an orally-available small molecule in

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development for the treatment of NASH that acts to induce anti-fibrotic, anti-inflammatory and beneficial vascular and metabolic changes in the body by activating all three peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, or PPAR, isoforms. PPARs are well-characterized nuclear receptor proteins that regulate gene expression, and their relevance for the fibrotic, inflammatory, vascular and metabolic processes that characterize NASH is well-established. While there are other PPAR agonists that target only one or two PPAR isoforms, lanifibranor is the only pan-PPAR agonist, meaning that it targets the three isoforms, in clinical development. We believe that this pan-PPAR approach provides for a combination of anti-fibrotic, anti-inflammatory and beneficial vascular and metabolic effects that cannot be obtained with single and dual PPAR agonists. In June 2020, we announced positive topline results from our NATIVE Phase IIb clinical trial of lanifibranor in patients with NASH. In this trial, treatment with lanifibranor at a dose of 1,200 mg met the primary endpoint of a reduction in inflammation and ballooning with no worsening of fibrosis after 24 weeks of treatment, while continuing to show the favorable tolerability profile observed in prior clinical trials of lanifibranor. Treatment with lanifibranor at doses of 800 mg and 1,200 mg also met the key secondary endpoints of resolution of NASH with no worsening of fibrosis and, at the 1,200 mg dose, improvement in liver fibrosis without worsening NASH, which are the primary endpoints relevant for seeking accelerated approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, and the European Medical Agency, or EMA, after completion of our Phase III clinical trial, if successful. On October 12, 2020, the FDA granted Breakthrough Therapy designation to lanifibranor for the treatment of NASH based on Phase IIb data, in addition to Fast Track designation which was previously granted to lanifibranor in this indication. In September 2021, the FDA decided that the Fast Track designation previously granted to lanifibranor in NASH encompasses the treatment of NASH patients with compensated cirrhosis, following a Fast Track designation request filed by Inventiva with the FDA in August 2021. We believe that lanifibranor is the first oral drug candidate to be granted this status for the treatment of NASH since January 2015. The Breakthrough Therapy designation by the FDA is intended to expedite the development and review of drug candidates for serious or life-threatening conditions. To qualify for this designation, drug candidates must show preliminary clinical evidence that they may demonstrate a substantial improvement on at least one clinically significant endpoint over available therapies or over placebo if there are no approved therapies. In October 2021, we announced the publication of NATIVE results in the New England Journal of Medicine. In December 2021, we announced positive results of a clinical QT/QTc study demonstrating lanifibranor had no impact on QT/QTc intervals. This study assessed lanifibranor impact on cardiac repolarization and was conducted in accordance with FDA guidance in a Phase I double-blind clinical trial. The trial enrolled 217 healthy subjects who were randomized into 4 arms: placebo, lanifibranor 1200mg/day, lanifibranor 2400 mg/day and moxifloxacin 400mg/ day (positive control). The primary endpoint was electrocardiogram (ECG) and monitored during the first 24 hours. Results showed that repeated daily administration of lanifibranor dosed at 2-fold higher than anticipated maximal therapeutic dose had no effect on cardiac electrical activity as shown by achieving the pre-specified primary endpoint of demonstrating no prolongation of the QT interval in healthy subjects. Lanifibranor was well tolerated at both dose levels. Five of our abstracts were accepted for presentation at the Liver Meeting 2021 organized by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases in November 2021. As a whole, these abstracts provide additional data and analyses for lanifibranor. The first abstract (Publication #1920) focuses on the improvement of insulin resistance and the reversal to normoglycemia in patients with non-cirrhotic NASH and prediabetes treated with lanifibranor. The second abstract (Publication #1921) demonstrates the beneficial effect of lanifibranor on the reduction of hepatic steatosis and shows a correlation with markers of lipid and glucose metabolism. The third abstract (Publication #1938) highlights the correlation between NASH resolution and fibrosis improvement following lanifibranor treatment. The fourth abstract (Publication #1874) focuses on the positive effect of lanifibranor therapy in reducing Liver Sinusoidal Endothelial Cell capillarization. The fifth abstract (Publication #1919) demonstrates that lanifibranor improves NASH, fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction in a hamster model of diet-induced NASH and diastolic dysfunction.

In light of the Phase IIb results, we initiated a Phase III clinical trial of lanifibranor in NASH. Following the end-of-Phase II meeting with the FDA and the receipt of the Scientific Advice letter from the EMA during the fourth quarter of 2020, the Phase III trial design and clinical strategy were discussed with both regulatory authorities and are summarized as follows:

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Submission for U.S. accelerated approval and EU conditional approval of lanifibranor is expected to be based on a 72-week histology analysis - We plan to seek to obtain accelerated approval in the United States and conditional approval in the EU for lanifibranor based on a pre-specified histology analysis in approximately 900 patients if we are able to establish a positive benefit-risk ratio after 72 weeks of treatment.

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Primary composite endpoint expected to be a combination of NASH resolution and fibrosis improvement - The primary composite endpoint of patients having both NASH resolution and fibrosis improvement of at least one stage will be used for the 72 week histology analysis. The endpoint is designed to predict a significant improvement of prognostic risk and, if met, may support a label for the treatment of NASH and the improvement in liver fibrosis in adult non-cirrhotic NASH patients. During our NATIVE Phase IIb clinical trial, this endpoint was met with statistical significance by both doses of 800 mg and 1,200 mg, including in NASH patients with F2/F3 fibrosis, the patient population that will be included in the Phase III trial, as

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well as in NASH patients with type two diabetes. Endpoints of NASH resolution and no worsening of fibrosis, and improvement of fibrosis with no worsening of NASH will be included as key secondary endpoints. Additional supportive histologic endpoints, non-invasive markers of liver fibrosis and steatohepatitis as well as effects on lipids and insulin resistance will also be evaluated.

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Long-term use to be established after 72 weeks - The duration of 72 weeks was considered adequate by both the FDA and EMA to establish long-term use as well as dose and cumulative drug exposure. With this trial, the proposed size of the safety database required for marketing application would be consistent with regulatory guidelines.

Named NATiV3 (NASH lanifibranor Phase III trial), the trial has been designed as a double-blind, placebo-controlled global pivotal Phase III clinical trial to assess the potential benefit of lanifibranor treatment on liver-related clinical outcomes. Patients will be randomized 1:1:1 to receive lanifibranor (800mg once daily or 1200mg once daily) or placebo. The trial will remain blinded after the pre-specified histological analysis and continue in a total of approximately 2,000 patients until the occurrence of a pre-specified number of adverse liver-related clinical events, including progression to cirrhosis. The trial would be completed on a post-marketing basis in the event that U.S. accelerated approval or EU conditional approval is received. Statistical powering of 90% was considered for the sample size calculations of the Phase III clinical trial. Part 1 of the trial was initiated in September 2021, with Part 1 referring to a 72 week treatment in approximately 900 patients allowing to seek accelerated approval in the United States and conditional approval in the EU for lanifibranor based on a pre-specified histology analysis; this part of the study is followed by an extension period (Part 2), the end date of which depends on a pre-defined number of clinical events. The anticipated timeline for Part 1 of the study is, subject to potential delays as further described below:

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Last Patient First Visit - expected in the second half of 2022.

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Last Patient Last Visit - expected in the first half of 2024.

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Publication of topline results - expected in the second half of 2024.

However, the recent invasion of Ukraine by Russia and the retaliatory measures that have been taken, or could be taken in the future, by the U.S., NATO, and other countries have created global security concerns that could result in a regional conflict and otherwise have a lasting impact on regional and global economies, any or all of which could disrupt our supply chain and adversely affect our ability to conduct ongoing and future clinical trials of our product candidates, and delay the overall timeline of our ongoing Phase III clinical trial for lanifibranor, including the anticipated timeline for Part 1 set forth above, prevent or otherwise adversely affect our ability to conduct the ongoing Phase III clinical trial for lanifibranor, which currently includes trial sites located in Ukraine, Russia and Eastern European countries. This may impact our ability to conduct the trial in Ukraine, Russia and potentially in other Eastern European countries, and may prevent us from enrolling patients at sites in these countries. This could negatively impact the anticipated timing and completion of our Phase III clinical trial in lanifibranor, which could materially harm our business.

In October 2021, we announced the design of LEGEND, a Phase IIa combination trial with lanifibranor and SGLT2 inhibitor empaglifozin, in patients with NASH and Type-2 Diabetes. The primary efficacy endpoint of the trial is a change in Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) at the end of the 24-week treatment compared to baseline. Secondary endpoints include changes in liver enzymes, glycaemic and lipids parameters, inflammatory markers and body fat composition. A total of 63 patients with T2D will be randomized into the trial, in several sites in the United States and Europe. The diagnosis of non-cirrhotic NASH will be based on historic histology evaluation or a combination of non-invasive methods including imaging and serum metabolic diagnostic tests, or probable NASH. The initiation of the trial is planned for the first half of 2022 and the publication of top line results is expected for the second half of 2023.

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