0001104659-20-105312.txt : 20200915 0001104659-20-105312.hdr.sgml : 20200915 20200915172908 ACCESSION NUMBER: 0001104659-20-105312 CONFORMED SUBMISSION TYPE: S-1/A PUBLIC DOCUMENT COUNT: 38 FILED AS OF DATE: 20200915 DATE AS OF CHANGE: 20200915 FILER: COMPANY DATA: COMPANY CONFORMED NAME: Inhibikase Therapeutics, Inc. CENTRAL INDEX KEY: 0001750149 STANDARD INDUSTRIAL CLASSIFICATION: BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS (NO DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES) [2836] IRS NUMBER: 000000000 STATE OF INCORPORATION: DE FISCAL YEAR END: 1231 FILING VALUES: FORM TYPE: S-1/A SEC ACT: 1933 Act SEC FILE NUMBER: 333-240036 FILM NUMBER: 201176835 BUSINESS ADDRESS: STREET 1: 3350 RIVERWOOD PARKWAY SE, SUITE 1900 CITY: ATLANTA STATE: GA ZIP: 30339 BUSINESS PHONE: 678-392-3419 MAIL ADDRESS: STREET 1: 3350 RIVERWOOD PARKWAY SE, SUITE 1900 CITY: ATLANTA STATE: GA ZIP: 30339 S-1/A 1 tm2024520-4_s1a.htm S-1/A tm2024520-4_s1a - block - 21.6971222s
As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on September 15, 2020
Registration Statement No. 333-240036
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
AMENDMENT NO. 1
TO
FORM S-1
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
INHIBIKASE THERAPEUTICS, INC.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
2836
26-3407249
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(Primary Standard Industrial
Classification Code Number)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
3350 Riverwood Parkway SE, Suite 1900
Atlanta, GA 30339
(678) 392-3419
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of Registrant’s principal executive offices)
Milton H. Werner, Ph.D.
President and Chief Executive Officer
Inhibikase Therapeutics, Inc.
3350 Riverwood Parkway SE, Suite 1900
Atlanta, GA 30339
(678) 392-3419
(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)
Copies to:
Merrill M. Kraines, Esq.
Troutman Pepper Hamilton Sanders LLP
The New York Times Building, 37th Floor
620 Eighth Avenue
New York, NY 10018-1405
(212) 808-2711
Leslie Marlow, Esq.
Hank Gracin, Esq.
Patrick J. Egan, Esq.
Gracin & Marlow LLP
Chrysler Building
405 Lexington Avenue, 26th Floor
New York, NY 10174
(212) 907-6457
Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: As soon as practicable after the effective date of this registration statement.
If any of the securities being registered on this form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, check the following box. ☒
If this form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
If this form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
If this form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of  “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act. ☐
CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE
Title of Each Class of Securities to be Registered
Proposed Maximum
Aggregate
Offering Price(1)(2)
Amount of
Registration Fee(3)
Common Stock, $0.001 par value per share
$ 28,750,000.00 $ 3,731.75
Representative’s Warrants(4)
Common Stock issuable upon exercise of Representative’s Warrants(5)
$ 1,562,500.00 $ 202.81
Total
$ 30,312,500.00 $ 3,934.56
(1)
Includes 340,909 shares that the underwriters have an option to purchase.
(2)
Estimated solely for the purpose of computing the amount of the registration fee pursuant to Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.
(3)
Calculated pursuant to Rule 457(o) based on an estimate of the proposed maximum aggregate offering price of the securities registered hereunder to be sold by the registrant, and includes the offering price of shares of common stock that the underwriters have an option to purchase to cover over-allotments, if any.
(4)
No fee required pursuant to Rule 457(g).
(5)
We have agreed to issue to the representative of the underwriters warrants to purchase the number of shares of our common stock (the “Representative’s Warrants”) in the aggregate equal to five percent (5%) of the shares of our common stock to be issued and sold in this offering (excluding shares issuable upon exercise of the over-allotment option described herein). The Representative’s Warrants are exercisable for a price per share equal to 125% of the public offering price. As estimated solely for the purpose of calculating the registration fee pursuant to Rule 457(g), the proposed maximum aggregate offering price of the Representative’s Warrants is $1,562,500, which is equal to 125% of $1,250,000 (5% of $25,000,000).
The Registrant hereby amends this Registration Statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this Registration Statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or until the Registration Statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

The information in this preliminary prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting offers to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.
PRELIMINARY PROSPECTUS
SUBJECT TO COMPLETION
DATED SEPTEMBER  15, 2020
2,272,727 Shares
Common Stock
[MISSING IMAGE: lg_ikt.jpg]
Inhibikase Therapeutics, Inc.
This is a firm commitment initial public offering of shares of common stock of Inhibikase Therapeutics, Inc. We are offering 2,272,727 shares of our common stock. We anticipate that the initial public offering price of our shares will be between $10.00 and $12.00 per share.
Prior to this offering, there has been no public market for our common stock. We have applied to list our shares of common stock on The Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “IKT.” No assurance can be given that our application will be approved. The closing of this offering is contingent upon the successful listing of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market.
We are an “emerging growth company” and a “smaller reporting company,” each as defined under the federal securities laws and, as such, have elected to comply with certain reduced reporting requirements for this prospectus and may elect to do so in future filings. See the section titled “Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company and a Smaller Reporting Company.”
Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 14. Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense. The securities are not being offered in any jurisdiction where the offer is not permitted.
Per Share
Total
Initial Public offering price
$      $     
Underwriting discounts and commissions(1)
$ $
Proceeds to us, before expenses
$ $
(1)
Underwriting discounts and commissions do not include a non-accountable expense allowance equal to 1.0% of the initial public offering price payable to the underwriters. The registration statement, of which this prospectus is a part, also registers for sale warrants to purchase 113,636 shares of our common stock to be issued to the representative of the underwriters. We have agreed to issue the warrants to the representative of the underwriters as a portion of the underwriting compensation payable to the underwriters in connection with this offering. See “Underwriting” for a description of compensation payable to the underwriters.
We have granted a 45-day option to the representative of the underwriters to purchase up to 340,909 additional shares of common stock from us solely to cover over-allotments, if any, at the public offering price, less underwriting discounts and commissions.
The underwriter expects to deliver the shares of our common stock against payment therefor on or about      , 2020, subject to customary closing conditions.
ThinkEquity
a division of Fordham Financial Management, Inc.
The date of this prospectus is           , 2020

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Prospectus
1
10
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14
71
73
74
76
77
79
81
95
135
145
156
158
160
165
167
171
176
176
176
177
F-1
We and the underwriters have not authorized anyone to provide you any information other than that contained in this prospectus or in any free writing prospectus prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you, and you should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus or in any such free writing prospectus. We take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. We and the underwriters are not making an offer to sell nor a solicitation of any offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus is accurate only as of the date on the front cover of this prospectus. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since that date.
For investors outside of the United States: we have not and the underwriters have not done anything that would permit this offering or possession or distribution of this prospectus in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required, other than the United States. Persons outside of the United States who come into possession of this prospectus must inform themselves about, and observe any restrictions relating to, the offering of the shares of common stock and the distribution of this prospectus outside of the United States.
i

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY
This summary highlights selected information contained elsewhere in this prospectus and is qualified in its entirety by the more detailed information and financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. It does not contain all of the information that may be important to you and your investment decision. You should carefully read this entire prospectus, including the matters set forth under the sections titled “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our financial statements and related notes. In this prospectus, unless context requires otherwise, references to “we,” “us,” “our,” or “the Company” refer to Inhibikase Therapeutics, Inc. See the section titled “Glossary” starting at page 177 for definitions of key scientific and technical terms used in this prospectus.
Overview
We are a clinical stage pharmaceutical company developing therapeutics for Parkinson’s Disease, or PD, and related disorders that arise inside and outside of the brain. We filed two Investigational New Drug, or IND, applications with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, in the first quarter of 2019 for our lead asset candidate, IkT-148009. One IND is for the treatment of Parkinson’s Disease, while the second is for treatment of gastrointestinal, or GI, complications that arise as early symptoms of PD in patients. We initiated clinical development of IkT-148009 for the treatment of PD in 2019. First dosing of patients for treatment of PD is expected to commence shortly after the conclusion of this offering. Clinical development of IkT-148009 for the GI complications in PD patients will cross-reference the first human study of IkT-148009 for the treatment of PD.
Our programs utilize small molecule, oral protein kinase inhibitors to treat PD and its GI complications. We have shown in animal models of progressive PD that our lead clinical candidate, IkT-148009, is a brain penetrant Abelson tyrosine kinase, or c-Abl inhibitor that halts disease progression and reverses functional loss in the brain and reverses neurological dysfunction in the GI tract. The ability to halt progression and restore function was shown in animal models of progressive disease that mimic the rate of disease progression and the extent of functional loss in the brain and/or the GI tract as found in patients with PD. We believe our therapeutic approach is disease-modifying. Our understanding of how and why PD progresses has led us to believe that functional loss in Parkinson’s patients may be at least partially reversed. Based on the measurements in animal models, we believe patients treated with IkT-148009 may have their disease progression slowed or halted, we may see a progressive reduction in the need for symptomatic or supportive therapy and/or we may ultimately eliminate the need for symptomatic therapy. However, it is unknown whether the disease modification seen in the animal models will occur in the human disease following treatment with IkT-148009.
In our opinion, the multi-decade failures in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as PD result from a lack of understanding of the biochemistry of the disease processes involved. Neurodegeneration is marked by a progressive degeneration and loss of function of neurons which send and receive signals from the brain. Historically, the cause of a neurodegenerative disease was thought to be a “plaque” made up of a misfolded and/or aggregated protein(s). Therapeutic approaches, therefore, sought to remove “plaque” from the brain. To our knowledge, a “plaque”-focused treatment strategy has not resulted in approval of any medication that can alter the course of a neurodegenerative disease, and has not resulted in a therapeutic benefit in PD. We believe we are different. We identified the proteins that become dysfunctional in a disease pathway and sought to understand how a dysfunctional protein causes disease. We believe our approach to PD and other neurological diseases has identified the underlying cause of disease and led to an understanding of how individual proteins are linked together to define the disease process. Using this strategy, we believe we have discovered at least one enzyme that plays a pivotal role in the disease process for PD, c-Abl. We have developed novel protein kinase inhibitors against c-Abl, which we believe can alter the disease course for PD. c-Abl chemically modifies one of the “plaque” proteins in PD, known as alpha-synuclein. Chemical modification creates what we believe to be the true toxic entity of the disease. Treatment with IkT-148009 may prevent chemical modification and, at least in animal models of progressive disease, leads to clearance of the toxic form of alpha-synuclein.
In addition to programs in PD, our platform drug discovery and delivery technologies have identified additional opportunities, including a potential treatment for bacterial or viral infections in the brain using a single agent at fixed dose, and an oncology opportunity in stable-phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, or
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CML. Our product for CML, IkT-001Pro, is a prodrug of the anticancer agent Imatinib. A prodrug is a compound that, after administration, is metabolized by the body into a pharmacologically active drug. Imatinib is an FDA designated Orphan Drug and is the standard-of-care treatment for stable-phase CML. In the United States, orphan drug designation entitles a party to incentives such as opportunities for grant funding towards clinical trial costs, tax advantages, and user-fee waivers. We plan to submit an IND to initiate clinical development for IkT-001Pro in the first quarter of 2021. Subject to future FDA agreements related to the clinical protocol design and execution of the clinical development program, we believe that clinical development of IkT-001Pro could possibly be completed in the first half of 2022. We intend to submit a new drug application, or NDA, for IkT-001Pro pursuant to Section 505(b)(2) of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, which specifies the requirements for approval. This pathway would allow us to rely, in part, on data in the public domain or the FDA’s prior conclusions regarding the safety and effectiveness of an approved compound. Consistent with FDA guidance on the 505(b)(2) pathway, we will seek input from the FDA as to what should be included in the application prior to submission of the 505(b)(2) application. Pursuit of this oncology opportunity will seek to validate the pharmacology advantage of our prodrug technology in a well understood patient population with an approved drug substance. If we are able to validate IkT-001Pro in oncology, we will evaluate whether the pharmacology advantages we discover about IkT-001Pro could be applied to novel drug substances, such as IkT-148009.
We believe we are one of the pioneers of the application of protein kinase inhibitors to non-oncology indications, including neurodegeneration and infectious diseases, as well as their more traditional role in the treatment of cancer. As of the date of this prospectus, more than 90% of the Company’s total revenue has been received from Private, State and Federal granting agencies, including the National Institutes of Health, the Department of Defense and the Michael J. Fox Foundation. These agencies use extensive scientific peer review in deciding which projects to fund that could impact human disease. Our ability to advance the Company on the basis of scientific peer review reflects the potential our scientific peers see for the possible success of our therapeutic programs.
In the 12 months following this offering, the Company anticipates completing required safety and tolerability studies in elderly healthy volunteers for IkT -148009, initiating a Phase 1b study in treatment naïve and early stage Parkinson’s patients with GI complications for IkT-148009 and conducting chronic toxicology studies in rats and monkeys for IkT-148009 for chronic drug administration. Advancement of IkT-148009 into Phase 1b and Phase 2 proof-of-concept is subject to review of the safety, tolerability and toxicology studies by the FDA and agreement on the protocol to be proposed for these trials. We further anticipate advancing IkT-001Pro into clinical development, conducting dose calibrating studies relative to Imatinib alone and designing and executing a clinical analysis of the potential safety benefit of IkT-001Pro relative to Imatinib alone.
Our Programs
Our portfolio is focused on developing protein kinase inhibitors to treat PD in the brain and GI tract that arise from dysfunctional alpha-synuclein in PD patients. Using IkT-148009, we intend to clinically evaluate the impact of c-Abl inhibition on newly diagnosed PD patients, patients early in the course of PD, and PD patients with GI complications. We are pursuing clinical development using a sequential Phase 1/ Phase 2 development approach, with the details of the Phase 2 studies subject to agreements with the FDA regarding trial design and the outcome of the Phase 1 clinical trial. The Phase 1/Phase 2 development program, subject to FDA approval, would be followed with one or more Phase 3 clinical trials that we believe could lead to completion of the clinical development program in 2024. IkT-148009 is intended to treat PD in treatment-naïve and early-stage PD patients, along with GI complications such as difficulty in swallowing, or dysphagia, and for treatment of neurogenic constipation. Human clinical trials are typically conducted in three sequential phases, which may overlap or be combined. In Phase 1, the drug is initially introduced into healthy human subjects or patients with the target disease or condition and tested for safety, dosage tolerance, absorption, metabolism, distribution, excretion and, if possible, to gain an early indication of its effectiveness. In Phase 2, the drug is administered to a limited patient population to identify possible adverse effects and safety risks, to evaluate the efficacy of the product for specific targeted diseases and to determine dosage tolerance and optimal dosage. In Phase 3, the drug is administered to an
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expanded patient population, generally at geographically dispersed clinical trial sites, in well-controlled clinical trials to generate enough data to statistically evaluate the efficacy and safety of the product for approval, to establish the overall risk-benefit profile of the product, and to provide adequate information for the labeling of the product.
We have also developed an alternate delivery approach for oral kinase inhibitors by converting them into prodrugs. We developed IkT-001Pro to alter the way a protein kinase inhibitor is absorbed in the GI tract and to address certain side effects of Imatinib-therapy in blood and stomach cancers. We believe demonstrating the benefits of this technology in a well-known patient population will validate the utility of our prodrug technology. We plan to submit an IND for IkT-001Pro in the first quarter of 2021. Subject to future FDA agreements related to the clinical protocol design and positive clinical results, we believe that clinical development could possibly be completed in the first half of 2022. Approval of IkT-001Pro would be sought pursuant to the FDA’s 505(b)(2) pathway. If approved by the FDA, we would seek to partner this program with a pharmaceutical company to produce and market IkT-001Pro to the CML treatment community. Depending on the terms of the partnership, we may realize some revenue from this partnership that could financially contribute to our primary efforts in neurodegenerative diseases. Primary research with payors suggests an accessible market exists for IkT-001Pro in stable-phase CML patients. Successful validation of our prodrug approach in IkT-001Pro will potentially enable extension of this technology to other development programs, including IkT-148009.
Additional research programs will seek to develop medications for other alpha-synuclein-related diseases, specifically Dementia with Lewy Body, or DLB, and Multiple System Atrophy, or MSA, as well as our programs in anti-infectives that target host-factors to block viral or bacterial infections in the brain with a single agent at fixed dose. Our first application intends to treat infectious disease by suppressing John Cunningham virus, or JCV, virus infection, the cause of Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy, or PML.
Our pipeline of research and development programs is outlined below.
[MISSING IMAGE: tm2024520d1-tbl_pipe4clr.jpg]
(1)
‘Clinical Development’ progress bars represent the current state of the indicated programs. Four indications will be pursued for IkT-148009, which will be pursued through two INDs, one focused on treatment in the brain in treatment-naïve or early-stage patients and the second focused on GI complications of PD patients. All four indication paths will share the same Phase 1 study in elderly healthy volunteers. The Company anticipates initiating a Phase 1b study in treatment naïve and early stage Parkinson’s patients with GI complications for IkT-148009 in the next 12 months. The Phase 2 study may be shared in whole or in part for all four indications. IkT-148x refers to a series of portfolio compounds being evaluated for these indications in preclinical models that are from the same chemical family as IkT-148009. For biomarker status, ‘Validated’ refers to proof of target engagement in the target tissue which has been performed using rodent tissues and fluids. We are currently developing methods for using clinical samples for validating our ability to confirm target engagement in patients. ‘Validating’ in this context indicates ongoing efforts to prove target engagement using proprietary sources and methods under development from human tissues and fluids. Target engagement measures if and to what extent a compound occupies its target. ‘Can be used for patient selection’ refers to our ability to use one or more markers we are currently ‘Validating’ to screen patients for the presence of that marker as a means of defining the patients most likely to benefit from the proposed treatment.
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Our Strategy

Identification and characterization of the pathway(s) governing neurodegenerative disease: We select our therapeutic targets by identification and characterization of disease pathways that we believe drive neurodegenerative disease and elucidate the biochemistry of pathway proteins to enable small molecule targeting to treat PD and related disorders, often involving clinically validated targets.

Proprietary method of drug discovery in neurodegeneration: We use a Re-engineering Approach with Metabolism Preserved method, or RAMP™, to imprint the properties we desire from an approved medication onto a new molecular entity for treatment inside and outside of the brain. Using RAMP™, we believe we can design the pharmacology profile of our product candidates using an existing medication as a template.

Delivering neurodegenerative treatments as a prodrug to improve pharmacology and safety: A prodrug is a compound that, after administration, is metabolized by the body into a pharmacologically active drug. Our prodrug technology has been shown in animal models to suppress GI and other adverse events commonly associated with oral protein kinase inhibitors and improve drug absorption from the GI tract. We believe this technology enhances drug distribution into the target tissues, which we believe will improve safety and tolerability of our protein kinase inhibitors for neurodegenerative and other diseases. We must demonstrate any safety benefit using this prodrug technology in clinical trials in collaboration and consultation with the FDA.
We believe that the application of these principles will significantly increase the probability of our success and will shorten the time required to bring effective therapeutics to patients with neurodegenerative and other diseases.
Our Indications
Parkinson’s Disease and other diseases caused by dysfunctional alpha-synuclein.   PD is the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disease of the Central Nervous System, or CNS, with 7,000,000 to 10,000,000 cases worldwide. Historically characterized by the progressive loss of dopamine-secreting neurons near the brainstem, PD’s pathology is now recognized to be a global disease of the brain as well as the autonomic nervous system, including nerves in the GI tract. We believe the development of widespread pathology in PD arises from damage caused by toxic alpha-synuclein. Our lead candidate for PD, IkT-148009, has been shown in animal models to be a selective, small molecule protein kinase inhibitor of c-Abl that is brain penetrant. We believe c-Abl is crucial for proper neuronal development, and plays a role in the functional integrity of healthy, adult neurons. Using new animal models, we and our collaborators have shown that PD may better be described as a disease of hyperactivation of c-Abl, which acts on dysfunctional alpha-synuclein to drive neurodegeneration inside and outside of the brain. C-Abl acts as a checkpoint, determining whether dysfunctional alpha-synuclein is tagged to be enzymatically degraded and discarded, or whether dysfunctional alpha-synuclein commits a neuron to degeneration and death. Inhibition of c-Abl by IkT-148009, our lead clinical candidate, blocks neurodegeneration in progressive disease in animal models and significantly reverses functional loss following therapeutic administration. It is unknown whether disease modification will occur in humans following treatment with IkT-148009. We anticipate up to four clinical indications using IkT-148009 will emerge from our clinical development programs that may modify the disease course in the brain and/or GI tract.
Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML).   The earliest application of our prodrug technology is to treat stable-phase CML, and we are using this program to validate our prodrug technology in an established patient population prior to its application to neurodegenerative disease. IkT-001Pro is a prodrug of the anti-cancer agent Imatinib that we believe may offer distinct safety advantages over the generic and branded forms of Imatinib to treat CML and related diseases. Up to one-half of Imatinib patients experience on-dosing side effects in the GI tract that diminish adherence to daily therapy. Failure to adhere to therapy significantly reduces likelihood of treatment success. In non-human primates, IkT-001Pro suppressed these GI side effects on dosing, resulting in a 5-fold increase in the No Observed Adverse Event Level, or NOAEL, relative to the NOAEL of Imatinib itself in non-human primates. NOAEL is the lowest level of exposure to a drug at which there are no adverse effects. In both a solid and liquid tumor model in mice,
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IkT-001Pro was just as active as Imatinib, but at 15% lower dose, because the prodrug more efficiently delivers Imatinib to the target tissue in these models. Since the frequency and severity of side effects from Imatinib vary linearly with oral dose, this data suggests further safety improvements in Imatinib treatment might be realized through dose lowering without sacrificing efficacy. We are preparing an IND for IkT-001Pro and plan a submission to the FDA in the first quarter of 2021. Subject to future FDA agreements related to the clinical protocol design, execution of the clinical development program and positive clinical results, we believe that clinical development could possibly be completed in first half of 2022. Approval of IkT-001Pro would be sought pursuant to an NDA submitted under Section 505(b)(2) of the FDCA since IkT-001Pro is an alternate form of delivery of an approved drug substance. If approved by the FDA, we would seek to partner this program with a pharmaceutical company to produce and market IkT-001Pro to the CML treatment community. Depending on the terms of the partnership, we may realize some revenue from this partnership that could financially contribute to our primary efforts in neurodegenerative disease.
We have submitted data and information for IkT-148009 in PD and IkT-001Pro in oncology to two FDA divisions: Neurology Division and the Division of Hematology Products, Office of Hematology and Oncology Products, respectively. For each division, we presented preclinical toxicology data in comparison to Imatinib, because comparative toxicology aids in predicting the safety margin for our lead products in human patients. This comparative toxicology approach is being used to seek early entry into the target patient population, because our compounds closely mirror Imatinib in terms of Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Elimination, or ADME, properties. Using this comparative toxicology approach, we believe we have lowered the risk-profile for our novel product candidates during clinical development. See “Business  —  Government Regulation” elsewhere in this prospectus for an overview of the drug regulatory approval process.
Research Programs in Other Neurological Disorders:    In addition to the programs in PD and CML, we are evaluating development opportunities with other molecules that emerged from the RAMPTM discovery program. These opportunities include research programs in a Parkinson’s-related disease, Dementia with Lewy Body or DLB, that shares with Parkinson’s Disease the activation of c-Abl and the formation of alpha-synuclein aggregates that are chemically modified. DLB is related to Parkinson’s Disease but lacks an early manifestation of motor neuron dysfunction. It is characterized by progressive loss of cognitive function.
We have also begun animal studies related to two orphan diseases, Multiple System Atrophy (MSA) and Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML). An orphan disease is defined by the FDA as a disease or condition with a patient population of fewer than 200,000 in the United States. MSA is a rare disease characterized by alpha-synuclein chemical modification, but unlike Parkinson’s Disease itself, the chemically modified alpha -synuclein does not arise in neurons, rather, aggregates of chemically modified alpha-synuclein arise in oligodendroglial cells. There are approximately 15,000 to 50,000 cases of MSA in the United States. MSA is characterized by simultaneous central and autonomic nervous system failures across multiple organ systems. As MSA shares the hallmarks of c-Abl activation and alpha-synuclein chemical modification with Parkinson’s Disease, we believe that c-Abl inhibitor therapy holds promise as a treatment. We are working in collaboration with experts at Rush University on this research program.
PML is a rare neurological infection that arises from the John Cunningham virus, or JCV, a human polyomavirus. JCV resides in most adult humans in both the kidney and bone marrow, but, when a patient undergoes treatment for certain autoimmune disorders, like MS or Crohn’s Disease, such treatments can stimulate JCV migration into the brain and result in a progressive, fatal disorder. PML is exceedingly rare and generally only arises in patients who have an underlying suppression of viral immune responses or take a primary treatment whose mode of action is to suppress cellular immunity. We are working in collaboration with experts at Louisiana State University to explore this development opportunity.
We currently have worldwide commercialization rights to all of our development programs and IP protection until 2033 or later.
Our management team and board of directors are critical components for the development of our business model and the execution of our strategy. We are led by executives with an average of over 20 years of relevant senior leadership experience, including executives with significant experience developing and
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commercializing branded and generic pharmaceuticals at large multinational pharmaceutical and biotech companies. Our team has significant experience in commercialization of pharmaceutical products, translational science, drug evaluation, clinical development, regulatory affairs and business development.
Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Our Operations
The novel coronavirus SARS-Cov2, or COVID-19, pandemic is causing significant, industry-wide delays in clinical trials. There are multiple causes of these delays, including reluctance of patients to enroll or continue in trials for fear of exposure to COVID-19, local and regional shelter-in-place orders and regulations that discourage, hamper, or prohibit patient visits, healthcare providers and health systems shifting away from clinical trials toward the acute care of COVID-19 patients and the FDA and other regulators making product candidates for the treatment of COVID-19 a priority over product candidates unrelated to the pandemic. As of the date of this prospectus, the COVID-19 pandemic has had an impact upon our operations, although we believe that impact is not material.
As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, commencement of enrollment of our clinical trials may be delayed. In addition, after enrollment in these trials, if patients contract COVID-19 during participation in our trials or are subject to isolation or shelter in place restrictions, this may cause them to drop out of our trials, miss scheduled doses or follow-up visits or otherwise fail to follow trial protocols. If patients are unable to follow the trial protocols or if our trial results are otherwise affected by the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on patient participation or actions taken to mitigate COVID-19 spread, the integrity of data from our trials may be compromised or not accepted by the FDA or other regulatory authorities, which could impact or delay a clinical development program. The COVID-19 pandemic may also impact manufacturing and/or distribution of materials necessary for the completion of our clinical trials in the future.
We note the high level of difficulty in projecting the effects of COVID-19 on our programs and our company, given the rapid and dramatic evolution in the course and impact of the pandemic and the societal and governmental response to it.
Risks Associated with Our Business
Our business is subject to numerous risks and uncertainties that you should consider before investing in our company. These risks are described more fully in the section titled “Risk Factors” in this prospectus. These risks include, but are not limited to, the following:

We are a clinical stage drug development company with limited resources, a limited operating history and have no products approved for commercial sale, which may make it difficult to evaluate our current business and predict our future success and viability.

The recent and ongoing COVID-19 pandemic could materially affect our operations, as well as the business or operations of third parties with whom we conduct business. Our business could be adversely affected by the effects of other future health epidemics or pandemics in regions where we or third parties on which we rely have significant business operations.

If we are unable to successfully raise additional capital, our future clinical trials and product development could be limited and our long-term viability may be threatened.

Our independent registered public accounting firm has included an explanatory paragraph relating to our ability to continue as a going concern in its report on our audited financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2019, included in this prospectus.

Drug development is a highly uncertain undertaking and involves a substantial degree of risk. We have never generated any revenue from product sales, we may never generate any revenue from product sales, and we may fail to generate further revenue from grants or contracts or to be profitable.

We have incurred significant net losses since our inception and anticipate that we will continue to incur net losses for the foreseeable future.
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If we fail to obtain additional financing, we may be unable to complete the development of and, if approved, we may be unable to commercialize any of our product candidates.

Due to the significant resources required for the development of our programs, and depending on our ability to access capital, we must prioritize development of certain product candidates. We may expend our limited resources on programs that do not yield a successful product candidate and fail to capitalize on product candidates or indications that may be more profitable or for which there is a greater likelihood of success.

Our business is highly dependent on the success of our initial product candidates targeting neurodegenerative diseases. All of our product candidates will require significant nonclinical and/or clinical development before we can seek regulatory approval for and launch a product commercially.

We currently contract with various research institutions to perform the research and development activities needed to develop our products, and if we ever choose to or need to find alternative research institutions, we may not be able to do so at all or, if we are able to do so, it may be costly and may cause significant delays in the development and commercialization of our products.

Research, development, and commercialization of pharmaceutical products are inherently risky. We are heavily dependent on the successful use of our RAMP™ drug discovery program and the product candidates that emerge from it and which are undergoing preclinical development. We cannot give any assurance that any of our product candidates will receive regulatory approval, which is necessary before they can be commercialized.

Positive results from early preclinical studies of our product candidates are not necessarily predictive of the results of later preclinical studies and any future clinical trials of our product candidates. If we cannot show positive results or replicate any positive results from our earlier preclinical studies of our product candidates in our later preclinical studies and future clinical trials, we may be unable to successfully develop, obtain regulatory approval for and commercialize our product candidates.

We have no history of completing clinical trials for novel drug substances or commercializing pharmaceutical products, which may make it difficult to evaluate the prospects for our future viability.

We face significant competition in an environment of rapid technological and scientific change, and there is a possibility that our competitors may achieve regulatory approval before us or develop therapies that are safer, more advanced or more effective than ours, which may negatively impact our ability to successfully market or commercialize any product candidates we may develop and ultimately harm our financial condition.

The regulatory approval processes of the FDA, the European Medicines Agency, or EMA and comparable foreign regulatory authorities are lengthy, time consuming, and inherently unpredictable. Regulatory authorities have substantial discretion in the approval process and may refuse to accept an application, may disagree with our regulatory strategy or proposed pathway for approval or may decide that our data are insufficient for approval and require additional preclinical, clinical or other studies. If we are ultimately unable to obtain regulatory approval for our product candidates, we will be unable to generate product revenue and our business will be substantially harmed.

We expect to depend in whole or in part on collaborations with third parties for the research, development and commercialization of any product candidates we may develop. If any such collaborations are not successful, we may not be able to realize the market potential of those product candidates.

If we are unable to obtain and maintain patent protection for any product candidates we develop, our competitors could develop and commercialize products or technology similar or identical to ours, and our ability to successfully commercialize any product candidates we may develop, and our technology may be adversely affected.
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We currently rely on and expect to continue to rely on third parties to conduct our clinical trials and preclinical testing, as well as any future research and clinical trials, and those third parties may not perform satisfactorily, including failing to meet deadlines for the completion of such trials, research, or testing.

We contract with third parties for the manufacture of materials for our research programs and preclinical studies and expect to continue to do so for any future clinical trials and for commercialization of any product candidates that we may develop. This reliance on third parties carries and may increase the risk that we will not have sufficient quantities of such materials or product candidates that we may develop and commercialize, or that such supply will not be available to us at an acceptable cost, which could delay, prevent, or impair our development or commercialization efforts.

We depend on third party suppliers for key raw materials used in the manufacturing processes for our product candidates, and the loss of these third party suppliers or their inability to supply us with adequate raw materials could harm our business.

We currently rely on a small number of suppliers for manufacturing our drug products.

Our disclosure controls and procedures may not prevent or detect all errors or acts of fraud.

Insiders will continue to have substantial influence over us after this offering, which could limit your ability to affect the outcome of key transactions, including a change of control.
Corporate Information
We were incorporated in Delaware in 2010 as a successor to a Georgia limited liability company, and commenced operations in September 2008. Our principal executive offices are located at 3350 Riverwood Parkway SE, Suite 1900, Atlanta, Georgia, 30339. We also maintain offices at One Marina Park Drive, Suite 1410, Boston, Massachusetts, 02210. Our telephone numbers are (678) 392-3419 and (617) 936-0184. Our website address is www.inhibikase.com. Information contained on our website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus, and it should not be considered to be part of this prospectus.
We use Inhibikase Therapeutics, the Inhibikase Therapeutics logo, and other marks to represent us in the United States and other countries. We have applied to register our primary trademarks in our primary market, the United States. Although the applications have been approved by the Trademark Office, and were unopposed when they were published for opposition, they have not issued to registration, and will not be registered until we use them on products in at least clinical trials, and file the required statements of use with the Trademark Office. We have not applied to register our trademarks in any foreign country and do not know if they are available for use or registration outside of the United States. This prospectus contains references to our logo and service marks and to those belonging to other entities. Solely for convenience, trademarks and trade names referred to in this prospectus, including logos, artwork and other visual displays, may appear without the ® or ™ symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate in any way that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights to our logo and trade names or the rights of the applicable licensor. We do not intend our use or display of other entities’ names, trade names, trademarks or service marks to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, any other entity.
Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company and a Smaller Reporting Company
We qualify as an “emerging growth company” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, as amended, or the JOBS Act. As an “emerging growth company,” we may take advantage of specified reduced disclosure and other requirements that are otherwise applicable generally to public companies. These provisions include, but are not limited to:

requiring only two years of audited financial statements in addition to any required unaudited interim financial statements with correspondingly reduced “Management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations” in our Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, filings;
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reduced disclosure about our executive compensation arrangements;

no non-binding advisory votes on executive compensation or golden parachute arrangements; and

exemption from compliance with the auditor attestation requirement in the assessment of our internal control over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes Oxley Act of 2002, or SOX.
We may take advantage of these exemptions for up to five years or such earlier time that we are no longer an “emerging growth company.” We will continue to remain an “emerging growth company” until the earliest of the following: (i) the last day of the fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the date of the completion of this offering; (ii) the last day of the fiscal year in which our total annual gross revenue is equal to or more than $1.07 billion; (iii) the date on which we have issued more than $1 billion in nonconvertible debt during the previous three years; or (iv) the date on which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer under the rules of the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC.
We are also a “smaller reporting company” as defined in the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, and have elected to take advantage of certain of the scaled disclosures available to smaller reporting companies. To the extent that we continue to qualify as a “smaller reporting company” as such term is defined in Rule 12b-2 under the Exchange Act, after we cease to qualify as an emerging growth company, certain of the exemptions available to us as an “emerging growth company” may continue to be available to us as a “smaller reporting company,” including exemption from compliance with the auditor attestation requirements pursuant to SOX and reduced disclosure about our executive compensation arrangements. We will continue to be a “smaller reporting company” until we have $250 million or more in public float (based on our common stock) measured as of the last business day of our most recently completed second fiscal quarter or, in the event we have no public float (based on our common stock) or a public float (based on our common stock) that is less than $700 million, annual revenues of $100 million or more during the most recently completed fiscal year.
We may choose to take advantage of some, but not all, of these exemptions. We have taken advantage of reduced reporting requirements in this prospectus. Accordingly, the information contained herein may be different from the information you receive from other public companies in which you hold stock. In addition, the JOBS Act provides that an emerging growth company may take advantage of an extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards, delaying the adoption of these accounting standards until they would apply to private companies. We have elected to avail ourselves of the extended transition period for complying with new or revised financial accounting standards. As a result of the accounting standards election, we will not be subject to the same implementation timing for new or revised accounting standards as other public companies that are not emerging growth companies which may make comparison of our financials to those of other public companies more difficult.
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THE OFFERING
Common stock offered by us
2,272,727 shares (or 2,613,636 shares if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares to cover over-allotments, if any)
Common stock to be outstanding after this offering
10,514,342 shares (or 10,855,251 shares if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares to cover over-allotments, if any)
Underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares of common stock from us
340,909 shares (which may be purchased from us for 45 days from the date of this prospectus to cover over-allotments, if any)
Use of proceeds
We estimate that the net proceeds from our issuance and sale of 2,272,727 shares of our common stock in this offering will be approximately $21.2 million, assuming an initial public offering price of $11.00 per share, which is the midpoint of the estimated initial public offering price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, and after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. If the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full to cover over-allotments, if any, we estimate that our net proceeds will be approximately $24.7 million.
We currently anticipate using the net proceeds from this offering, together with our existing resources, as follows: (1) to fund the costs of our Phase 1 clinical trial for IkT-148009 in elderly healthy volunteers and to validate target engagement markers in the central and peripheral nervous system; (2) for a Phase 1b study in treatment naïve and early stage PD patients with GI complications, subject to FDA approval; (3) to fund comparative pivotal chronic toxicology studies of IkT-148009 v. Imatinib in rats for 3 and 6 months and monkeys for 3 and 9 months; (4) for IkT-148009 Phase 2 proof-of-concept site evaluation, enrollment and preparation; (5) to complete cGMP manufacturing of IkT-001Pro, prepare and complete the IND for IkT-001Pro and to conduct clinical dose- calibration studies for IkT-001Pro relative to Imatinib and evaluate safety and tolerability benefits in patients with Stable-phase CML; (6) to repay a $42,534 loan with a maturity date of January 1, 2021 and bearing an interest rate of 5.25% from our former outside counsel which matures coincident with this offering; and (7) the remainder, to fund general research and development activities, medicinal chemistry for additional molecules and IND-enabling studies, team building, working capital and other general corporate activities including open accounts payable as reflected in the financial statements. See the section titled “Use of Proceeds” for additional information.
Representative’s Warrants
The registration statement of which this prospectus is a part also registers for sale warrants to purchase 113,636 shares of our common stock which we will issue to the representative of
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the underwriters as a portion of the underwriting compensation payable to the underwriters in connection with this offering. The warrants will be exercisable for a four-and-one-half year period commencing 180 days following the effective date of the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part at an exercise price equal to 125% of the initial public offering price of the common stock. Please see “Underwriting — Representative’s Warrants” for a description of these warrants.
Risk Factors
See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 14 and the other information included in this prospectus for a discussion of factors you should carefully consider before investing in our securities.
Proposed Nasdaq Capital Market trading symbol
We have applied to list our shares of common stock on The Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “IKT”. No assurance can be given that our application will be approved. The closing of this offering is contingent upon the successful listing of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market.
You should carefully read the “Risk Factors” section of this prospectus for a discussion of factors that you should consider before deciding to invest in our common stock.
The number of shares of our common stock to be outstanding after this offering is based on the 8,206,706 shares of our common stock outstanding as of August 31, 2020, and excludes the following:

3,369,144 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of options to purchase shares of common stock outstanding as of August 31, 2020, with a weighted-average exercise price of $1.78 per share;

650,948 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of warrants to purchase shares of common stock outstanding as of August 31, 2020, with a weighted average exercise price of  $5.16 per share;

1,001,638 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance as of August 31, 2020, under our 2011 Equity Incentive Plan, or 2011 Plan; and

8,650,000 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2020 Equity Incentive Plan, or 2020 Plan, which will be effective upon the closing of this offering.
Unless otherwise indicated, this prospectus reflects and assumes the following:

no exercise of outstanding options or warrants;

no exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase up to 340,909 additional shares of our common stock from us to cover over-allotments, if any;

no exercise of the representative’s warrants to be issued upon consummation of this offering at an exercise price equal to 125% of the initial offering price of the common stock;

the filing and effectiveness of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and the effectiveness of our amended and restated bylaws, which will occur immediately prior to the completion of this offering;

a one-for-1.14396 reverse stock split of our common stock effected on August 24, 2020; and

an initial public offering price of $11.00 per share, which is the midpoint of the estimate of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus.
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SUMMARY FINANCIAL DATA
The following tables summarize our financial data for the periods and as of the dates indicated. We have derived the statements of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018 from our audited financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus. The statements of operations data for the six months ended June 30, 2020 and 2019 and the balance sheet data as of June 30, 2020 have been derived from our unaudited condensed financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus and have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America on the same basis as the annual audited financial statements and, in the opinion of management, the unaudited data reflects all adjustments, consisting only of normal recurring adjustments, necessary for the fair presentation of the financial information in those statements. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of results that may be expected in the future, and results for the period ended June 30, 2020 are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the full year ending December 31, 2020. You should read the following summary financial data together with our financial statements and the related notes appearing elsewhere in this prospectus and the information in the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”
Six Months Ended
June 30,
Year Ended
December 31,
2020
2019
2019
2018
(unaudited)
Statements of Operations Data:
Total revenue
$ 490,372 $ 758,033 $ 1,122,740 $ 4,040,955
Operating expenses:
Research and development
(546,289) (2,029,828) (2,552,711) (3,647,108)
Selling, general and administrative
(898,019) (2,799,484) (4,268,177) (2,515,968)
Loss from operations
(953,936) (4,071,279) (5,698,148) (2,122,121)
Other expense:
Interest expense, net
(15,373) (9,276) (24,835) (30,332)
Net loss
$ (969,309) $ (4,080,555) $ (5,722,983) $ (2,152,453)
Net loss per share of common stock, basic and
diluted(1)
$ (0.12) $ (0.50) $ (0.70) $ (0.27)
Weighted average number of shares outstanding, basic
and diluted(1)
8,181,836 8,180,937 8,180,937 8,013,931
Pro forma net loss per share, basic and diluted (unaudited)(2)
(0.09) (0.39)
Pro forma weighted-average common shares
outstanding, basic and diluted (unaudited)(2)
10,502,773 10,501,874
(1)
See Note 8 to our audited financial statements appearing at the end of this prospectus for details on the calculation of basic and diluted net loss per share attributable to common stockholders for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018 and Note 8 to our unaudited condensed financial statements for details on the calculation of basic and diluted net loss per share attributable to common stockholders for the six months ended June 30, 2020 and 2019.
(2)
The pro forma net loss per share and number of weighted-average common shares outstanding in the table above reflects (i) the conversion of certain of our outstanding convertible notes into an aggregate of 34,909 shares of common stock upon the closing of this offering, (ii) the issuance of 13,301 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of certain warrants at a weighted-average exercise price of $2.31 per share, and (iii) the sale and issuance by us of shares of our common stock in this offering, based upon the assumed initial public offering price of $11.00 per share, the midpoint of the price
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range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions, estimated offering expenses payable and repayment of debts of $3.8 million.
As of June 30, 2020
Actual
Pro
Forma(1)
Pro Forma
As
Adjusted(2)
(unaudited)
Balance Sheet Data:
Cash(3)
$ 7,785 $ 7,785 $ 21,207,782
Working capital(4)
(4,540,083) (4,180,949) 17,019,048
Total assets
366,639 366,639 21,230,346
Total liabilities
5,197,268 4,838,134 3,938,134
Accumulated deficit
(13,153,039) (13,178,039) (13,178,039)
Total stockholders’ equity (deficit)
(4,830,629) (4,471,495) 17,292,212
(1)
The pro forma balance sheet data in the table above reflects (i) the conversion of certain of our outstanding convertible notes into an aggregate of 34,909 shares of common stock upon the closing of this offering and (ii) the issuance of 13,301 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of certain warrants at a weighted-average exercise price of $2.31 per share.
(2)
The pro forma as adjusted balance sheet data in the table above reflects the pro forma adjustments described in footnote (1) above plus the sale and issuance by us of shares of our common stock in this offering, based upon the assumed initial public offering price of $11.00 per share, the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions, estimated offering expenses payable and repayment of debts of $3.8 million.
(3)
As of September 30, 2019, the Company had active grants in the amount of $2,540,068, of which $245,384 remains available in accounts held by the U.S. Treasury as of June 30, 2020. An additional $1,546,730 was made available in connection with existing active government grants beginning September 1, 2020.
(4)
We define working capital as current assets less current liabilities. See our condensed financial statements for further details regarding our current assets and current liabilities.
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RISK FACTORS
Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks described below, as well as the other information in this prospectus, including our financial statements and the related notes and the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in this prospectus, before deciding whether to invest in our common stock. Many of the following risks and uncertainties are, and will be, exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic and any worsening of the global business and economic environment as a result. The occurrence of any of the events or developments described below could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects. In such an event, the market price of our common stock could decline and you may lose all or part of your investment. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial also may impair our business operations.
Risks Related to Our Business, Financial Condition and Capital Requirements
We are a clinical stage drug development company with limited resources, a limited operating history and have no products approved for commercial sale, which may make it difficult to evaluate our current business and predict our future success and viability.
We are a clinical stage drug development company that commenced operations in September 2008. We have limited facilities to conduct fundamental research and we have performed our research and development activities by collaboration with contract service providers, and contract manufacturers and by designing and developing research programs in collaboration with university-based experts who work with us to evaluate mechanism(s) of disease for which we have designed and developed product candidates. Our direct research capabilities are very limited. As of the date of this offering, we have not maintained a principal laboratory or primary research facility for the development of our product candidates. In addition, we have no products approved for commercial sale and therefore all of our revenue has been obtained solely through grants and contracts from private foundations and from state and federal grants from institutions such as the National Institutes of Health and the Department of Defense.
Drug development is a highly uncertain undertaking and involves a substantial degree of risk. Prior to and at the time of this offering, we have not initiated or completed clinical trials for any of our product candidates, obtained marketing approval for any product candidates, manufactured a commercial scale product, or arranged for a third party to do so on our behalf, or conducted sales and marketing activities necessary for successful product commercialization. Given the highly uncertain nature of drug development, we may never initiate or complete clinical trials for any of our product candidates, obtain marketing approval for any product candidates, manufacture a commercial scale product or arrange for a third party to do so on our behalf, or conduct sales and marketing activities necessary for successful product commercialization.
Our limited operating history as a company makes any assessment of our future success and viability subject to significant uncertainty. We will encounter risks and difficulties frequently experienced by early-stage pharmaceutical companies in rapidly evolving fields, and we have not yet demonstrated an ability to successfully overcome such risks and difficulties. If we do not address these risks and difficulties successfully, our business, operating results and financial condition will suffer.
The recent and ongoing COVID-19 pandemic could materially affect our operations, as well as the business or operations of third parties with whom we conduct business. Our business could be adversely affected by the effects of other future health epidemics or pandemics in regions where we or third parties on which we rely have significant business operations.
Our business and its operations, including but not limited to clinical development, sales and marketing efforts, supply chain operations, research and development activities, and fundraising activities, could be adversely affected by health epidemics in regions where we have business operations, and such health epidemics could cause significant disruption in the operations of third parties upon whom we rely. For example, in December 2019, a novel strain of coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, causing a disease referred to as COVID-19, was reported to have surfaced in Wuhan, China. Since then, COVID-19 has spread to other countries and throughout the United States. In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared the
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COVID-19 outbreak a pandemic, and the U.S. government-imposed restrictions on travel between the United States, Europe, and certain other countries. Further, the President of the United States declared the COVID-19 pandemic a national emergency. Since March 2020, numerous state and local jurisdictions, including the jurisdictions where our headquarters and laboratories are located, have imposed, and others in the future may impose, quarantines, shelter-in-place orders, executive, and similar government orders for their residents to control the spread of COVID-19. As of the date of this prospectus, the COVID-19 pandemic has had an impact upon our operations, although we believe that the impact is not material.
The effects of the executive orders, the shelter-in-place orders, and our work-from-home policies may negatively impact productivity, disrupt our business, and delay our preclinical and clinical programs and timelines, the magnitude of which will depend, in part, on the length and severity of the restrictions and other limitations on our ability to conduct our business in the ordinary course. These and similar, and perhaps more severe, disruptions in our operations could negatively impact our business, operating results and financial condition. We continue to monitor state and local quarantine, shelter-in-place, executive, and similar government orders and have begun reopening our offices to allow employees to return to the office, as needed, in accordance with our reopening plan, which is based on a phased approach that is appropriately tailored for each of our offices, with a focus on employee safety and optimal work environment.
Quarantines, shelter-in-place, executive, and similar government orders, or the perception that such orders, shutdowns or other restrictions on the conduct of business operations could occur, related to COVID-19 or other infectious diseases, could impact personnel at third-party manufacturing facilities in the United States and other countries, or the availability or cost of materials we use or require to conduct our business, including product development, which would disrupt our supply chain. In particular, some of our suppliers of certain materials used in our laboratory operations and research and development activities are located in areas that are subject to executive orders and shelter-in-place orders. While many of these materials may be obtained from more than one supplier, port closures and other restrictions resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic or future pandemics may disrupt our supply chain or limit our ability to obtain sufficient materials to operate our business. To date, we are aware of certain suppliers for our research and development activities who have experienced operational delays directly related to the COVID-19 pandemic.
In addition, we expect our preclinical and clinical trials may be affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. If COVID-19 continues to spread in the United States and elsewhere, we may experience additional disruptions that could severely impact our business, preclinical studies and clinical trials, including:

delays or difficulties in enrolling patients in our clinical trials;

delays or difficulties in clinical site initiation, including difficulties in recruiting clinical site investigators and clinical site staff;

delays in clinical sites receiving the supplies and materials needed to conduct our clinical trials, including interruption in global shipping that may affect the transport of clinical trial materials;

changes in local regulations as part of a response to the COVID-19 pandemic which may require us to change the ways in which our clinical trials are conducted, which may result in unexpected costs, or to discontinue the clinical trials altogether;

diversion of healthcare resources away from the conduct of clinical trials, including the diversion of hospitals serving as our clinical trial sites and hospital staff supporting the conduct of our clinical trials;

interruption of key clinical trial activities, such as clinical trial site monitoring, due to limitations on travel imposed or recommended by federal or state governments, employers and others, or interruption of clinical trial subject visits and study procedures, the occurrence of which could affect the integrity of clinical trial data;

risk that participants enrolled in our clinical trials will contract COVID-19 while the clinical trial is ongoing, which could result in participants dropping out of the trial, missing scheduled doses or follow-up visits or failing to follow protocol or otherwise impact the results of the clinical trial, including by increasing the number of observed adverse events;
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interruptions or delays in preclinical studies due to restricted or limited operations at our research and development laboratory facilities;

delays in necessary interactions with local regulators, ethics committees, and other important agencies and contractors due to limitations in employee resources or forced furlough of government employees;

limitations in employee resources that would otherwise be focused on the conduct of our clinical trials, including because of sickness of employees or their families or the desire of employees to avoid contact with large groups of people;

refusal of the FDA to accept data from clinical trials in affected geographies; and

interruption or delays to our sourced discovery and clinical activities.
The spread of COVID-19, which has caused a broad impact globally, may materially affect us economically. While the potential economic impact brought by COVID-19, and the duration of such impact, may be difficult to assess or predict, the widespread pandemic has resulted in significant disruption of global financial markets, which could reduce our ability to access capital and negatively affect our future liquidity. In addition, a recession or market correction resulting from the spread of COVID-19 and related government orders and restrictions could materially affect our business and the value of our common stock. The COVID-19 pandemic continues to evolve rapidly. The ultimate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic or a similar health epidemic is highly uncertain and subject to change. We do not yet know the full extent of potential delays or impacts on our business, our clinical trials, healthcare systems, or the global economy as a whole.
If we are unable to successfully raise additional capital, our future clinical trials and product development could be limited and our long-term viability may be threatened.
We have experienced negative operating cash flows since our inception and have funded our operations primarily through private, state and federal contracts and grants. We will need to seek additional funds in the future through equity or debt financings, or strategic alliances with third parties, either alone or in combination with equity financings to complete our product development initiatives. These financings could result in substantial dilution to the holders of our common stock, or require contractual or other restrictions on our operations or on alternatives that may be available to us. If we raise additional funds by issuing debt securities, these debt securities could impose significant restrictions on our operations. Any such required financing may not be available in amounts or on terms acceptable to us, and the failure to procure such required financing could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations, or threaten our ability to continue as a going concern.

Our present and future capital requirements will be significant and will depend on many factors, including:

the progress and results of our development efforts for our product candidates;

the costs, timing and outcome of regulatory review of our product candidates;

the costs and timing of preparing, filing and prosecuting patent applications, maintaining and enforcing our intellectual property rights and defending any intellectual property-related claims;

the effect of competing technological and market developments;

market acceptance of our product candidates;

the rate of progress in establishing coverage and reimbursement arrangements with domestic and international commercial third-party payors and government payors;

the extent to which we acquire or in-license other products and technologies; and

legal, accounting, insurance and other professional and business-related costs.
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We may not be able to acquire additional funds on acceptable terms, or at all. If we are unable to raise adequate funds, we may have to liquidate some or all of our assets or delay, reduce the scope of or eliminate some or all of our development programs.

If we do not have, or are not able to obtain, sufficient funds, we may be required to delay development or commercialization of our product candidates. We also may have to reduce the resources devoted to our product candidates or cease operations. Any of these factors could harm our operating results.
Our independent registered public accounting firm has included an explanatory paragraph relating to our ability to continue as a going concern in its report on our audited financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2019 included in this prospectus.
The report from our independent registered public accounting firm for the year ended December 31, 2019 includes an explanatory paragraph stating that our recurring losses from operations, working capital deficit and accumulated deficit raise substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern. We will continue to seek to raise additional working capital through public equity, private equity or debt financings. If we fail to raise additional working capital, or do so on commercially unfavorable terms, it would materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations, and we may be unable to continue as a going concern. Future reports from our independent registered public accounting firm may also contain statements expressing substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern. If we seek additional financing to fund our business activities in the future and there remains substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern, investors or other financing sources may be unwilling to provide additional funding to us on commercially reasonable terms, if at all.
Drug development is a highly uncertain undertaking and involves a substantial degree of risk. We have never generated any revenue from product sales, we may never generate any revenue from product sales, and we may fail to generate further revenue from grants or contracts or to be profitable.
We have no products approved for commercial sale and have not generated any revenue from product sales. We anticipate generating additional revenue from private foundations and state and federal grants and contracts prior to generating revenue from product sales, but such grants and contracts are not guaranteed and will not make us profitable. Our ability to successfully commercialize our existing product candidates depends on our ability to successfully obtain regulatory approvals, among other factors. Thus, we may not generate meaningful revenue until after we have successfully begun and completed clinical development and received regulatory approval for the commercial sale of a product candidate. We may never begin clinical development or receive regulatory approval for the commercial sale of a product candidate and thus may never generate revenue from product sales.
Our ability to generate revenue and achieve profitability depends significantly on many factors, including:

successfully completing research and preclinical and clinical development of our product candidates;

obtaining regulatory approvals and marketing authorizations for product candidates once we have successfully begun and completed clinical development and clinical trials;

identifying, assessing, acquiring and/or developing new product candidates;

successfully competing for grant revenue from private foundations and state and federal agencies;

negotiating favorable terms in any collaboration, licensing or other arrangements into which we may enter;

launching and successfully commercializing product candidates for which we obtain regulatory and marketing approval, either by collaborating with a partner or, if launched independently, by establishing a sales, marketing and distribution infrastructure;
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obtaining and maintaining an adequate price for our product candidates, both in the United States and in foreign countries where our products are commercialized;

obtaining adequate reimbursement for our product candidates from payors;

obtaining market acceptance of our product candidates as viable treatment options;

addressing any competing technological and market developments;

maintaining, protecting, expanding and enforcing our portfolio of intellectual property rights, including patents, trade secrets and know-how; and

attracting, hiring and retaining qualified personnel.
Because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with drug development, we are unable to predict the timing or amount of our expenses, or when, if ever, we will be able to generate any meaningful revenue or achieve or maintain profitability. In addition, our expenses could increase beyond our current expectations if we are required by the FDA or foreign regulatory agencies to perform studies in addition to those that we currently anticipate, or if there are any delays in any of our or our future collaborators’ preclinical or clinical trials or the development of any of our product candidates. Even if one or more of our product candidates is approved for commercial sale, we anticipate incurring significant costs associated with commercializing any approved product candidate and ongoing compliance efforts.
Even if we are able to generate revenue from the sale of any approved products, we may not become profitable and may need to obtain additional funding to continue operations. Revenue from the sale of any product candidate for which regulatory approval is obtained will be dependent, in part, upon the size of the markets in the territories for which we gain regulatory approval, the accepted price for the product, the ability to get reimbursement at any price and whether we own the commercial rights for that territory. If the number of addressable patients is not as significant as we anticipate, the indication approved by regulatory authorities is narrower than we expect, or the reasonably accepted population for treatment is narrowed by competition, physician choice or treatment guidelines, we may not generate significant revenue from sales of such products, even if approved. Even if we do achieve profitability, we may not be able to sustain or increase profitability on a quarterly or annual basis.
Our failure to become and remain profitable would decrease the value of our company and could impair our ability to raise capital, expand our business, maintain our research and development efforts, diversify our pipeline of product candidates or continue our operations, and cause a decline in the value of our common stock, all or any of which may adversely affect our viability.
We have incurred significant net losses since our inception and anticipate that we will continue to incur net losses for the foreseeable future.
We have incurred net losses since our inception, including net losses of $5,722,983 and $2,152,453 for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively, and $969,309 for the six months ended June 30, 2020. As of June 30, 2020, we had an accumulated deficit of $13,153,039.
We have invested significant financial resources in research and development activities, including for our product candidates and our RAMPTM drug discovery program and prodrug technologies. We do not expect to generate revenue from product sales for several years, if at all. The amount of our future net losses will depend, in part, on the level of our future expenditures and our ability to generate revenue. Moreover, our net losses may fluctuate significantly from quarter to quarter and year to year, such that a period-to-period comparison of our results of operations may not be a good indication of our future performance.
We expect to continue to incur significant expenses and increasingly higher operating losses for the foreseeable future. We anticipate that our expenses will increase substantially if and as we:

continue our research and discovery activities;

continue the development of our RAMPTM drug discovery platform and prodrug technologies;
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advance our current and any future product candidates through preclinical and clinical development;

initiate and conduct additional preclinical, clinical or other studies for our product candidates;

work with our contract manufacturers to scale up the manufacturing processes for our product candidates or, in the future, establish and operate a manufacturing facility;

change or add additional contract manufacturers or suppliers;

seek regulatory approvals and marketing authorizations for our product candidates;

establish sales, marketing and distribution infrastructure to commercialize any products for which we obtain approval;

acquire or in-license product candidates, intellectual property and technologies;

make milestone, royalty or other payments due under any license or collaboration agreements;

obtain, maintain, protect and enforce our intellectual property portfolio, including intellectual property obtained through license agreements;

attract, hire and retain qualified personnel;

provide additional internal infrastructure to support our continued research and development operations and any planned commercialization efforts in the future;

experience any delays or encounter other issues related to our operations;

experience negative general market conditions or extraordinary external events, such as recessions or the COVID-19 pandemic;

meet the requirements and demands of being a public company; and

defend against any product liability claims or other lawsuits related to our products.
Our prior losses and expected future losses have had and will continue to have an adverse effect on our stockholders’ deficit and working capital. In any particular quarter or quarters, our operating results could be below the expectations of securities analysts or investors, which could cause our stock price to decline.
If we fail to obtain additional financing, we may be unable to complete the development of and, if approved, commercialization of our product candidates.
Our operations have required substantial amounts of cash since inception. To date, we have financed our operations primarily through revenue generated by private, state and federal grants and contracts. Developing our product candidates is expensive, and we expect to continue to spend substantial amounts as we fund our early-stage research projects, continue preclinical development of our early-stage programs and, in particular, advance our lead program candidates through preclinical development and clinical trials. The successful development of our product candidates, obtaining regulatory approvals and launching and commercializing any product candidate will require substantial additional funding beyond the net proceeds of this offering.
The Company had active grants in the amount of $2,540,068, of which $245,384 remained available in accounts held by the U.S. Treasury as of June 30, 2020. An additional $1,546,730 was made available in connection with existing active government grants beginning September 1, 2020. We estimate that our net proceeds from this offering will be approximately $21.2 million, assuming an initial public offering price of $11.00 per share, which is the midpoint of the estimated initial public offering price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. Our estimate as to how long we expect our existing cash to be adequate to fund our operations is based on assumptions that may prove inaccurate, and we could use our available capital resources sooner than we currently expect. In addition, changing circumstances may cause us to increase our spending significantly faster than we currently anticipate, and we may need to spend more money than currently expected because of circumstances beyond our control or if we choose to expand more rapidly than we presently anticipate.
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We will require additional capital for the further development and, if approved, commercialization of our product candidates. Additional capital may not be available when we need it, on terms acceptable to us, or at all. We have no committed source of additional capital. If adequate capital is not available to us on a timely basis, we may be required to significantly delay, scale back or discontinue our research and development programs or the commercialization of any product candidates, if approved, or be unable to continue or expand our operations or otherwise capitalize on our business opportunities, as desired, which could materially affect our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations and cause the price of our common stock to decline. Market volatility resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic or other factors could also adversely impact our ability to access capital as and when needed.
Furthermore, debt financing, if available, may require payment of interest and potentially involve restrictive covenants that could impose limitations on our flexibility to operate. Any difficulty or failure to successfully obtain additional funding may jeopardize our ability to continue the business and our operations.
Due to the significant resources required for the development of our programs, and depending on our ability to access capital, we must prioritize development of certain product candidates. We may expend our limited resources on programs that do not yield a successful product candidate and fail to capitalize on product candidates or indications that may be more profitable or for which there is a greater likelihood of success.
We have a portfolio that applies our RAMPTM drug discovery platform and prodrug technology across three therapeutic areas: neurodegeneration in the brain and GI complications of PD patients, oncology and bacterial and viral disease in the brain. We seek to maintain a process of prioritization and resource allocation to maintain an optimal balance between aggressively advancing lead programs and ensuring replenishment of our portfolio.
Due to the significant resources required for the development of our programs, we must focus our programs on specific diseases and disease pathways and decide which product candidates to pursue and advance and the amount of resources to allocate to each. Our decisions concerning the allocation of research, development, collaboration, management and financial resources toward particular product candidates or therapeutic areas may not lead to the development of any viable commercial product and may divert resources away from better opportunities. Similarly, our potential decisions to delay, terminate or collaborate with third parties in respect of certain programs may subsequently also prove to be suboptimal and could cause us to miss valuable opportunities. We may fail to capitalize on viable commercial products or profitable market opportunities, be required to forego or delay pursuit of opportunities with other product candidates or other diseases and disease pathways that may later prove to have greater commercial potential than those we choose to pursue, or relinquish valuable rights to such product candidates through collaboration, licensing or other royalty arrangements in cases in which it would have been advantageous for us to invest additional resources to retain sole development and commercialization rights. If we make incorrect determinations regarding the viability or market potential of any or all of our programs or product candidates or misread trends in the pharmaceutical industry, in particular, for neurodegenerative diseases, our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
Our business is highly dependent on the success of our initial product candidates targeting neurodegenerative diseases. All of our product candidates will require significant nonclinical and clinical development before we can seek regulatory approval for and launch a product commercially.
Our business and future success depends on our ability to obtain regulatory approval of, and then successfully launch and commercialize our initial product candidates targeting neurodegenerative diseases, including IkT-148009 and IkT-001Pro. Our product candidates, including IkT-148009, may experience preliminary complications surrounding trial execution, such as complexities surrounding the submission and regulatory acceptance of INDs, trial protocols and design, patient recruitment and enrollment, quality and supply of clinical doses and safety issues.
All of our product candidates are in the early stages of preclinical and/or clinical development and will require additional nonclinical and clinical development, regulatory review and approval in multiple jurisdictions, substantial investment, access to sufficient commercial manufacturing capacity and significant
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marketing efforts before we can generate any revenue from product sales. In addition, if IkT-148009 encounters safety, efficacy, supply or manufacturing problems, developmental delays, regulatory or commercialization issues or other problems, our development plans and business would be significantly harmed.
Risks Related to the Discovery, Development and Commercialization of Our Product Candidates
We currently contract with various research institutions to perform the research and development activities needed to develop our products, and if we ever choose to or need to find alternative research institutions, we may not be able to do so at all or, if we are able to do so, it may be costly and may cause significant delays in the development and commercialization of our products.
We do not currently own, lease or operate a principal laboratory, research and development or manufacturing facility of our own. Currently, we contract with various research institutions to perform research and development for our products, including: Johns Hopkins University, University of Massachusetts Medical School — Worcester Campus and Louisiana State University at Shreveport. Establishing our own facilities would result in significant additional expense and may result in potential delays in testing and production. Building and operating our own production facilities would require substantial additional funds and other resources, of which there can be no assurance that we will be able to obtain. In addition, there can be no assurances that we would be able to enter into any arrangement with third parties to manufacture our product, if any, on acceptable terms or at all. The commercial success of products outside the United States will also be dependent on the successful completion of arrangements with future partners, licensees or distributors in each territory. There can be no assurance that we will be successful in continuing to contract with research institutions to perform research and development for our products, that we would be able to establish our own facilities should we choose to or find it necessary to do so, that we would be successful in establishing additional collaborative arrangements or that, if established, such future partners will be successful in commercializing our products.
Research, development, and commercialization of pharmaceutical products are inherently risky. We are heavily dependent on the successful use of our RAMPTM drug discovery program and the product candidates that emerge from it and which are undergoing preclinical development. We cannot give any assurance that any of our product candidates will receive regulatory approval, which is necessary before they can be commercialized.
We are at an early stage of development of the product candidates currently in our programs and are further developing our RAMPTM drug discovery program and prodrug technologies to provide future additional product candidates. To date, we have invested substantially all of our efforts and financial resources to identify, develop intellectual property for, and advance our programs, including conducting preclinical studies for our lead programs, and providing general and administrative support for these operations. Our future success is dependent on our ability to successfully develop, obtain regulatory approval for, and then successfully commercialize our product candidates, and we may fail to do so for many reasons, including the following:

our product candidates may not successfully complete preclinical studies or begin or complete clinical trials;

our product candidates may fail to be delivered across the blood brain barrier, or BBB, and therefore may not be clinically viable for CNS diseases such as PD;

a product candidate may, on further study, be shown to have harmful side effects or other characteristics that indicate it is unlikely to be effective or otherwise does not meet applicable regulatory criteria;

our competitors may develop therapeutics that render our product candidates obsolete or less attractive;

our competitors may develop alternative technologies to deliver therapeutics across the BBB that outperform our product candidates;

the product candidates that we develop may not be sufficiently covered by intellectual property for which we hold exclusive rights;
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the product candidates that we develop may be covered by third parties’ patents or other intellectual property or exclusive rights;

the market for a product candidate may change so that the continued development of that product candidate is no longer reasonable or commercially attractive;

a product candidate may not be capable of being produced in commercial quantities at an acceptable cost, or at all;

if a product candidate obtains regulatory approval, we may be unable to establish sales and marketing capabilities, or successfully market such approved product candidate, to gain market acceptance; and

a product candidate may not be accepted as safe and effective by patients, the medical community or governmental third party payors.
We may not be successful in our efforts to further develop current or future product candidates. We are not permitted to market or promote any of our product candidates before we receive regulatory approval from the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities, and we may never receive such regulatory approval for any of our product candidates. Each of our product candidates is in the early stages of development, has not undergone clinical trials, and will require significant clinical development, management of preclinical, clinical, and manufacturing activities, regulatory approval, adequate manufacturing supply, a commercial organization, and significant marketing efforts before we generate any revenue from product sales, if at all.
If any of these events occur, we may be forced to abandon our development efforts for a program or programs, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and could potentially cause us to cease operations.
Positive results from early preclinical studies of our product candidates are not necessarily predictive of the results of later preclinical studies and any future clinical trials of our product candidates. If we cannot show positive results or replicate any positive results from our earlier preclinical studies of our product candidates in our later preclinical studies and future clinical trials, we may be unable to successfully develop, obtain regulatory approval for and commercialize our product candidates.
Any positive results from preclinical studies of our product candidates may not necessarily be predictive of the results from later preclinical studies and clinical trials. Similarly, even if we are able to complete our planned preclinical studies or any future clinical trials of our product candidates according to our current development timeline, the positive results from such preclinical studies and clinical trials of our product candidates may not be replicated in subsequent preclinical studies or clinical trial results.
Many companies in the pharmaceutical industry have suffered significant setbacks in late-stage clinical trials after achieving positive results in early-stage development and we cannot be certain that we will not face similar setbacks. These setbacks have been caused by, among other things, preclinical findings made while clinical trials were underway, or safety or efficacy observations made in preclinical studies and clinical trials, including previously unreported adverse events. Moreover, preclinical and clinical data are often susceptible to varying interpretations and analyses and many companies that believed their product candidates performed satisfactorily in preclinical studies and clinical trials nonetheless failed to obtain regulatory approval.
We have no history of completing clinical trials for novel drug substances or commercializing pharmaceutical products, which may make it difficult to evaluate the prospects for our future viability.
Our operations to date have been limited to research, financing and staffing our company, developing our technology and developing our lead product candidate, IkT-148009, and other product candidates. Our company has completed observational trials measuring biological parameters for specific indications in human patients from human fluids, but we have never completed a clinical development program for a new interventional drug, and we have not commercialized product candidates. Our product development strategy has included attempts to create molecules through RAMPTM that have predictable human safety margins for the target patient population, but we have never proved that our product candidates have this
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safety margin in clinical studies. None of our product candidates have advanced into clinical development, late-stage development or a pivotal clinical trial and it may be years before any such trial is initiated, if at all. We cannot be certain that planned clinical trials will begin or be completed on time, if at all, that our planned development programs would be acceptable to the FDA or other regulatory authorities, or that, if approval is obtained, such product candidates can be successfully commercialized. Clinical trials and commercializing our product candidates will require significant additional financial and management resources, and reliance on third party clinical investigators, contract research organizations or CROs, consultants or collaborators. Relying on third party clinical investigators, CROs or collaborators may result in delays that are outside of our control. If our clinical development program, clinical trials or commercialization of our product candidates were to fail, it would have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
Our clinical trials may reveal significant adverse events, toxicities or other side effects not seen in our preclinical studies and may result in a safety profile that could inhibit regulatory approval or market acceptance of any of our product candidates.
In order to obtain marketing approval for any of our product candidates, we must demonstrate the safety and efficacy of the product candidate for the relevant clinical indication or indications through clinical trials as well as additional supporting data. If our product candidates are associated with undesirable side effects in clinical trials or have characteristics that are unexpected, we may need to interrupt, delay or abandon their development or limit development to more narrow uses or subpopulations in which the undesirable side effects or other characteristics are less prevalent, less severe or more acceptable from a risk-benefit perspective.
We cannot guarantee that any positive results in preclinical studies will successfully translate to human patients. Additionally, we cannot guarantee that additional preclinical studies will show positive results. It is not uncommon to observe results in human clinical trials that are unexpected based on preclinical testing, and many product candidates fail in clinical trials despite promising preclinical results. Moreover, preclinical and clinical data are often susceptible to varying interpretations and analyses, and many companies that believed their product candidates performed satisfactorily in preclinical studies and clinical trials have nonetheless failed to obtain marketing approval for their products. Subjects in our planned clinical trials may suffer significant adverse events or other side effects not observed in our preclinical studies. The observed potency and kinetics of our product candidates in preclinical studies may not be observed in human clinical trials. We have tested the dosing frequency and route of administration of our product candidates in preclinical studies, which will inform our dosing strategy for future clinical trials. However, such dose and route of administration may not result in sufficient exposure or pharmacological effect in humans, and may lead to unforeseen toxicity not previously observed in preclinical testing. Further, if our planned clinical trials of our product candidates fail to demonstrate efficacy to the satisfaction of regulatory authorities or do not otherwise produce positive results, we may incur additional costs or experience delays in completing, or ultimately be unable to complete, the development and commercialization of our product candidates.
If significant adverse events or other side effects are observed in any of our future clinical trials, we may have difficulty recruiting patients to the related clinical trial, patients may drop out of the trial, or we may be required to abandon the trial or our development efforts of that product candidate altogether. We, the FDA or other applicable regulatory authorities, or an institutional review board may suspend clinical trials of a product candidate at any time for various reasons, including a belief that subjects in such trials are being exposed to unacceptable health risks or adverse side effects. Some potential therapeutics developed in the pharmaceutical industry that initially showed therapeutic promise in early-stage studies have later been found to cause side effects that prevented their further development. Even if the side effects do not preclude the drug from obtaining or maintaining marketing approval, undesirable side effects may inhibit market acceptance of the approved product due to its tolerability versus other therapies. Any of these developments could materially harm our business, financial condition and prospects.
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Further, if any of our product candidates obtains marketing approval, toxicities associated with our product candidates may also develop after such approval and lead to a requirement to conduct additional clinical safety trials, additional warnings being added to the labeling, significant restrictions on the use of the product or the withdrawal of the product from the market. We cannot predict whether our product candidates will cause toxicities in humans that would preclude or lead to the revocation of regulatory approval.
We may not be successful in our efforts to continue to create a pipeline of product candidates or to develop commercially successful products. If we fail to successfully identify and develop additional product candidates, our commercial opportunity may be limited.
One of our strategies is to identify and pursue clinical development of additional product candidates. We currently have eight programs, all of which are in the research, discovery, preclinical or clinical stages of development. Identifying, developing, obtaining regulatory approval and commercializing additional product candidates will require substantial additional funding beyond the net proceeds of this offering and is prone to the risks of failure inherent in drug development. We may not be able to successfully identify or acquire additional product candidates, advance any of these additional product candidates through the development process, successfully commercialize any such additional product candidates, if approved. If we are unable to successfully identify, acquire, develop and commercialize additional product candidates, our commercial opportunity may be limited.
If any of our product candidates successfully completes its planned clinical trials, we plan to seek regulatory approval to market such product candidates in the United States, the European Union, or EU, and in additional foreign countries where we believe there is a viable commercial opportunity. We have never commenced, compiled or submitted an application seeking regulatory approval to market any product candidate. We may never receive regulatory approval to market any product candidates even if such product candidates successfully complete clinical trials, which would adversely affect our viability. To obtain regulatory approval in countries outside the United States, we must comply with numerous and varying regulatory requirements of such other countries regarding safety, efficacy, chemistry, manufacturing and controls, clinical trials, commercial sales, pricing, and distribution of our product candidates. We may also rely on collaborators or partners to conduct the required activities to support an application for regulatory approval, and to seek approval, for one or more of our product candidates. We cannot be sure that collaborators or partners will conduct these activities or do so within the timeframe we desire. Even if we (or our collaborators or partners) are successful in obtaining approval in one jurisdiction, we cannot ensure that we will obtain approval in any other jurisdictions. If we are unable to obtain approval for our product candidates in multiple jurisdictions, our revenue and results of operations could be negatively affected.
Even if we receive regulatory approval to market any of our product candidates, whether for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases or other diseases, we cannot assure you that any such product candidate will be successfully commercialized, widely accepted in the marketplace or more effective than other commercially available alternatives.
Investment in pharmaceutical product development involves significant risk that any product candidate will fail to demonstrate adequate efficacy or an acceptable safety profile, gain regulatory approval, and become commercially viable. We cannot provide any assurance that we will be able to successfully advance any of our product candidates through the development process or, if approved, successfully commercialize any of our product candidates.
We have concentrated much of our research and development efforts on the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, a field that has seen limited success in drug development.
We have focused much of our research and development efforts on addressing neurodegenerative diseases. Collectively, efforts by pharmaceutical companies in the field of neurodegenerative diseases have seen limited success in drug development. There are currently no marketed disease-modifying therapeutic options available for patients with PD and other neurodegenerative diseases. Disease-modifying therapies are therapies that would slow, stop or reverse neurodegenerative disease. While we believe our approach to therapy is disease-modifying, no markers to quantify disease progression have been identified. Our future success may be dependent on demonstrating disease-modification for neurodegenerative diseases using our
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product candidates. Developing and, if approved, commercializing our product candidates for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases subjects us to a number of challenges, including engineering product candidates to cross the BBB to enable optimal concentration of the therapeutic in the brain and obtaining regulatory approval from the FDA and other regulatory authorities who have only a limited set of precedents to rely on.
Our approach to the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases aims to identify and select targets with a biochemical link to neurodegenerative diseases, identify and develop biomarkers for the intended targets, which are biological molecules found in blood, other bodily fluids or tissues that are signs of a normal or abnormal process or of a condition or disease, to select the right patient population and demonstrate target engagement, pathway engagement and impact on disease progression of our molecules, identify and develop molecules that engage the intended target, and engineer our molecules to cross the BBB and act directly in the brain. This strategy may not prove to be successful. We cannot be sure that our approach will yield satisfactory therapeutic products that are safe and effective, scalable, profitable or able to obtain regulatory approval.
Moreover, public perception of drug safety issues, including adoption of new therapeutics or novel approaches to treatment, may adversely influence the willingness of subjects to participate in clinical trials, or if approved, of physicians to subscribe to novel treatments.
We may encounter substantial delays in our planned clinical trials, or may not be able to conduct or complete our clinical trials on the timelines we expect, if at all.
Our planned clinical trials are expensive, time consuming, and subject to uncertainty. We cannot guarantee that any clinical trials will be conducted as planned or completed on schedule, if at all. We cannot be sure that submission of an IND, or, in the case of the EMA, a clinical trial application, or CTA, will result in the FDA or EMA allowing clinical trials to begin in a timely manner, if at all. Moreover, even if these trials begin, issues may arise that could suspend or terminate such clinical trials. A failure of one or more clinical trials can occur at any stage of testing, and our future clinical trials may not be successful. Events that may prevent successful or timely initiation or completion of clinical trials include:

inability to generate sufficient preclinical, toxicology, or other in vivo or in vitro data to support the initiation or continuation of clinical trials;

delays in confirming target engagement, patient selection or other relevant biomarkers to be utilized in preclinical and clinical product candidate development;

delays in reaching a consensus with regulatory agencies on study design;

delays in reaching agreement on acceptable terms with prospective contract research organizations, or CROs, and clinical trial sites, the terms of which can be subject to extensive negotiation and may vary significantly among different CROs and clinical trial sites;

delays in identifying, recruiting and training suitable clinical investigators;

delays in obtaining required IRB approval at each clinical trial site;

imposition of a temporary or permanent clinical hold by regulatory agencies for a number of reasons, including, but not limited to, after review of an IND or amendment, CTA or amendment, or equivalent application or amendment; as a result of a new safety finding that presents unreasonable risk to clinical trial participants; a negative finding from an inspection of our clinical trial operations or study sites; developments in trials conducted by competitors that raise FDA or EMA concerns about risk to patients broadly; or if the FDA or EMA finds that the investigational protocol or plan is clearly deficient to meet its stated objectives;

delays or difficulties resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic;

delays in identifying, recruiting and enrolling suitable patients to participate in our clinical trials, and delays caused by patients withdrawing from clinical trials or failing to return for post-treatment follow-up;

difficulty collaborating with patient groups and investigators;
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failure by our CROs, other third parties, or us to adhere to clinical trial requirements;

failure to perform in accordance with the FDA’s or any other regulatory authority’s current good clinical practices, or cGCPs, requirements, or applicable EMA or other regulatory guidelines in other countries;

occurrence of adverse events associated with a product candidate that are viewed to outweigh its potential benefits;

changes in regulatory requirements and guidance that require amending or submitting new clinical protocols;

changes in the standard of care on which a clinical development plan was based, which may require new or additional trials;

the cost of clinical trials of our product candidates being greater than we anticipate;

clinical trials of our product candidates producing negative or inconclusive results, which may result in our deciding, or regulators requiring us, to conduct additional clinical trials or abandon product development programs; and

delays in manufacturing, testing, releasing, validating, or importing/exporting sufficient stable quantities of our product candidates for use in clinical trials or the inability to do any of the foregoing.
Any inability to successfully initiate or complete future clinical trials could result in additional costs to us or impair our ability to generate revenue. In addition, if we make manufacturing or formulation changes to our product candidates, we may be required to or we may elect to conduct additional studies to bridge our modified product candidates to earlier versions. Clinical trial delays could also shorten any periods during which our products have patent protection and may allow our competitors to bring products to market before we do, which could impair our ability to successfully commercialize our product candidates and may harm our business and results of operations.
We could also encounter delays if a clinical trial is suspended or terminated by us, by the data safety monitoring board for such trial or by the FDA, EMA or any other regulatory authority, or if the IRBs of the institutions in which such trials are being conducted suspend or terminate the participation of their clinical investigators and sites subject to their review. Such authorities may suspend or terminate a clinical trial due to a number of factors, including failure to conduct the clinical trial in accordance with regulatory requirements or our clinical protocols, inspection of the clinical trial operations or trial site by the FDA, EMA or other regulatory authorities resulting in the imposition of a clinical hold, unforeseen safety issues or adverse side effects, failure to demonstrate a benefit from using a product candidate, changes in governmental regulations or administrative actions or lack of adequate funding to continue the clinical trial.
We may encounter difficulties enrolling patients in our planned clinical trials, and our clinical development activities could thereby be delayed or otherwise adversely affected.
The timely completion of our planned clinical trials in accordance with their protocols depends, among other things, on our ability to enroll a sufficient number of patients who remain in such trials until their conclusion. We may experience difficulties in patient enrollment in our planned clinical trials for a variety of reasons, including:

the size and nature of the patient population;

the patient eligibility criteria defined in the protocol, and/or certain criteria related to stage of disease progression, which may limit the patient populations eligible for our clinical trials;

the size of the study population required for analysis of a trial’s primary endpoints;

the proximity of patients to a trial site;

the COVID-19 pandemic;
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the design of a trial;

our ability to recruit clinical trial investigators with the appropriate competencies and experience;

competing clinical trials for similar therapies or targeting patient populations meeting our patient eligibility criteria;

clinicians’ and patients’ perceptions as to the potential advantages and side effects of the product candidate being studied in relation to other available therapies and product candidates;

our ability to obtain and maintain patient consents; and

the risk that patients enrolled in clinical trials will not complete such trials, for any reason.
Our planned clinical trials may fail to demonstrate substantial evidence of the safety and efficacy of our product candidates, which would prevent, delay or limit the scope of regulatory approval and commercialization.
Before obtaining regulatory approvals for the commercial sale of any of our product candidates, we must demonstrate through lengthy, complex and expensive preclinical studies and clinical trials that our product candidates are both safe and effective for use in each target indication. Each product candidate must demonstrate an adequate risk versus benefit profile in its intended patient population and for its intended use.
Clinical testing is expensive and can take many years to complete, and its outcome is inherently uncertain. Failure can occur at any time during the clinical trial process. The results of preclinical studies of our product candidates may not be predictive of the results of early-stage or later-stage clinical trials, and results of early clinical trials of our product candidates may not be predictive of the results of later-stage clinical trials. The results of our planned clinical trials in one set of patients or disease indications may not be predictive of those obtained in another. In some instances, there can be significant variability in safety or efficacy results between different clinical trials of the same product candidate due to numerous factors, including changes in trial procedures set forth in protocols, differences in the size and type of the patient populations, changes in and adherence to the dosing regimen and other clinical trial protocols and the rate of dropout among clinical trial participants. Product candidates in later stages of clinical trials may fail to show the desired safety and efficacy profile despite having progressed through preclinical studies and initial clinical trials. A number of companies in the pharmaceutical industry have suffered significant setbacks in advanced clinical trials due to lack of efficacy or unacceptable safety issues, notwithstanding promising results in earlier trials. This is particularly true in neurodegenerative diseases, where failure rates historically have been higher than in many other disease areas. Most product candidates that begin clinical trials are never approved by regulatory authorities for commercialization.
We cannot be certain that our planned future clinical trials will be successful. Additionally, any safety concerns observed in any one of our planned clinical trials in our targeted indications could limit the prospects for regulatory approval of our product candidates in those and other indications, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
Even if our planned clinical trials were to be successfully completed, we cannot guarantee that the FDA or foreign regulatory authorities will interpret the results as we do, and more trials could be required before we submit our product candidates for approval. To the extent that the results of the trials are not satisfactory to the FDA or foreign regulatory authorities for support of a marketing application, we may be required to expend significant resources, which may not be available to us, to conduct additional trials in support of potential approval of our product candidates. Even if regulatory approval is secured for any of our product candidates, the terms of such approval may limit the scope and use of our product candidate, which may also limit its commercial potential.
Clinical development is a lengthy and expensive process with an uncertain outcome, and failure can occur at any stage of clinical development. If we are unable to design, conduct and complete our planned clinical trials successfully, our product candidates will not be able to receive regulatory approval.
In order to obtain FDA approval for any of our product candidates, we must submit to the FDA an NDA with substantial evidence that demonstrates that the product candidate is both safe and effective in humans for its intended use. This demonstration will require significant research, preclinical studies and clinical trials.
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Clinical trials are time-consuming, expensive and difficult to design and implement, in part because they are subject to rigorous requirements and the outcomes are inherently uncertain. Clinical testing may take many years to complete, and failure can occur at any time during the clinical trial process, even with active ingredients that have previously been approved by the FDA as safe and effective. If we receive authorization to conduct our planned clinical trials, we could encounter problems that could halt our planned clinical trials or require us to repeat such clinical trials. If patients participating in our planned clinical trials suffer drug-related adverse reactions during the course of such clinical trials, or if we or the FDA believe that patients are being exposed to unacceptable health risks, such clinical trials may have to be suspended or terminated. Suspension, termination or the need to repeat a clinical trial can occur at any stage.
The clinical trial success of each of our product candidates depends on reaching statistically significant changes in patients’ symptoms based on clinician-rated scales. There is a lack of consensus regarding standardized processes for assessing clinical outcomes based on clinician-rated scales. Accordingly, the scores from our clinical trials may not be reliable, useful or acceptable to the FDA or other regulatory agencies.
Changes in standards related to clinical trial design could have a material adverse effect on our ability to design and conduct clinical trials as planned. For example, we expect to conduct clinical trials comparing our product candidates to both placebo and other approved drugs, but regulatory authorities may not allow us to compare our product candidates to a placebo in a particular clinical indication where approved products are available. In that case, both the cost and the amount of time required to conduct such a planned clinical trial could increase. The FDA may disagree with our trial design and our interpretation of data from our planned clinical trials, or may change the requirements for approval even after it has reviewed and commented on the design for our planned clinical trials. The FDA may also approve a product candidate for fewer or more limited indications than we request, or may grant approval contingent on the performance of costly post-approval clinical trials. In addition, the FDA may not approve the labeling claims or removal of certain warnings that we believe are necessary or desirable for the successful commercialization of our product candidates. Approval may be contingent on a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy, or REMS, which could have a material adverse effect on the labeling, distribution or promotion of a drug product.
Any of these delays or additional requirements could cause our product candidates to not be approved, or if approved, significantly impact the timing and commercialization of our product candidates and significantly increase our overall costs of drug development.
We face significant competition in an environment of rapid technological and scientific change, and there is a possibility that our competitors may achieve regulatory approval before us or develop therapies that are safer, more advanced or more effective than ours, which may negatively impact our ability to successfully market or commercialize any product candidates we may develop and ultimately harm our financial condition.
The development and commercialization of new drug products is highly competitive. Moreover, the neurodegenerative field is characterized by strong and increasing competition, and a strong emphasis on intellectual property. Our competitors may be able to develop other compounds, drugs, cellular or gene therapies that are able to achieve similar or better results. We may face competition with respect to any product candidates that we seek to develop or commercialize in the future from major pharmaceutical companies and specialty pharmaceutical companies worldwide. Potential competitors also include academic institutions, government agencies, and other public and private research organizations that conduct research, seek patent protection, and establish collaborative arrangements for research, development, manufacturing, and commercialization.
There are a number of pharmaceutical and biotech companies that are currently pursuing the development of products for the treatment of the neurodegenerative disease indications for which we have research programs, including PD. Companies developing therapeutics in the neurodegenerative disease area include large companies with significant financial resources, such as Biogen, Inc., Neuropore Therapies, Inc., Bristol Meyers Squib, Roche Holdings AG, Prothena Corporation plc, Sanofi S.A., Takeda Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., UCB, S.A., Denali Therapeutics, Prevail Therapeutics, Sun SPARC, FirstBio and AbbVie. In addition to competition from other companies targeting neurodegenerative indications, any products we may develop may also face competition from other types of therapies using distinct treatment modalities.
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Many of our current or potential competitors, either alone or with their strategic partners, have significantly greater financial resources and expertise in research and clinical development, manufacturing, preclinical testing, conducting clinical trials, obtaining regulatory approvals, and marketing approved products than we do. Mergers and acquisitions in the pharmaceutical industries may result in even more resources being concentrated among a smaller number of our competitors. Smaller or early-stage companies may also prove to be significant competitors, particularly through collaborative arrangements with large and established companies. These competitors also compete with us in recruiting and retaining qualified scientific and management personnel and establishing clinical trial sites and patient registration for clinical trials, as well as in acquiring technologies complementary to, or necessary for, our programs. Our commercial opportunities could be reduced or eliminated if our competitors develop and commercialize products that are safer, more effective, have fewer or less severe side effects, are more convenient, or are less expensive than any products that we may develop. Furthermore, currently approved products could be discovered to have application for treatment of the same disease indications as our product candidates, which could give such products significant regulatory and market timing advantages over any of our product candidates. Our competitors also may obtain FDA, EMA or other regulatory approval for their products more rapidly than we may obtain approval for ours and may obtain orphan product exclusivity from the FDA for indications our product candidates are targeting, which could result in our competitors establishing a strong market position before we are able to enter the market. Additionally, products or technologies developed by our competitors may render our potential product candidates uneconomical or obsolete, and we may not be successful in marketing any product candidates we may develop against competitors.
In addition, we could face litigation or other proceedings with respect to the scope, ownership, validity and/or enforceability of our patents relating to our competitors’ products and our competitors may allege that our products infringe, misappropriate or otherwise violate their intellectual property. See “—  Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property.” The availability of our competitors’ products could limit the demand, and the price we are able to charge, for any products that we may develop and commercialize.
The manufacture of our product candidates is complex and difficulties may be encountered in production. If such difficulties are encountered or failure to meet regulatory standards occurs, our ability to provide supply of our product candidates for clinical trials or our products for patients, if approved, could be delayed or stopped, or we may be unable to maintain a commercially viable cost structure.
The processes involved in manufacturing our drug product candidates are complex, expensive, highly-regulated and subject to multiple risks. Even minor deviations from normal manufacturing processes could result in reduced production yields, product defects and other supply disruptions. Further, as product candidates are developed through preclinical studies to potential future clinical trials towards approval and commercialization, it is common that various aspects of the development program, such as manufacturing methods, are altered along the way in an effort to optimize processes and results. Such changes carry the risk that they will not achieve these intended objectives, and any of these changes could cause our product candidates to perform differently and affect the results of planned clinical trials or other future clinical trials. We expect to rely on third-party manufacturers for the manufacturing of our products.
In order to conduct planned or future clinical trials of our product candidates, or supply commercial products, if approved, we will need to have them manufactured in small and large quantities. Our manufacturing partners may be unable to successfully increase the manufacturing capacity for any of our product candidates in a timely or cost-effective manner, or at all. In addition, quality issues may arise during scale-up activities. If our manufacturing partners are unable to successfully scale up the manufacture of our product candidates in sufficient quality and quantity, the development, testing and potential clinical trials of that product candidate may be delayed or become infeasible, and regulatory approval or commercial launch of any resulting product may be delayed or not obtained, which could significantly harm our business. The same risks would apply to our internal manufacturing facilities, should we in the future decide to build internal manufacturing capacity. In addition, building internal manufacturing capacity would carry significant risks in terms of being able to plan, design and execute on a complex project to build manufacturing facilities in a timely and cost-efficient manner.
In addition, the manufacturing process for any products that we may develop is subject to the FDA, EMA and foreign regulatory authority approval processes and continuous oversight, and we will need to
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contract with manufacturers who can meet all applicable FDA, EMA and foreign regulatory authority requirements, including complying with current good manufacturing processes, or on an ongoing basis. If we or our third-party manufacturers are unable to reliably produce products to specifications acceptable to the FDA, EMA or other regulatory authorities, we may not obtain or maintain the approvals we need to commercialize such products. Even if we obtain regulatory approval for any of our product candidates, there is no assurance that either we or our CMOs will be able to manufacture the approved product to specifications acceptable to the FDA, EMA or other regulatory authorities, to produce it in sufficient quantities to meet the requirements for the potential launch of the product, or to meet potential future demand. Any of these challenges could delay completion of clinical trials, require bridging clinical trials or the repetition of one or more clinical trials, increase clinical trial costs, delay approval of our product candidate, impair commercialization efforts, increase our cost of goods, and have an adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
If, in the future, we are unable to establish sales and marketing capabilities or enter into agreements with third parties to sell and market any product candidates we may develop, we may not be successful in commercializing those product candidates if and when they are approved.
We do not have a sales or marketing infrastructure, nor have we sold, marketed, or distributed pharmaceutical products. To achieve commercial success for any approved product for which we retain sales and marketing responsibilities, we must either develop a sales and marketing organization or outsource these functions to third parties. In the future, we may choose to build a sales, marketing, and commercial support infrastructure to sell, or participate in sales activities with our collaborators for, some of our product candidates if and when they are approved.
There are risks involved with both establishing our own commercial capabilities and entering into arrangements with third parties to perform these services. For example, recruiting and training a sales force or reimbursement specialists is expensive and time consuming and could delay any product launch. If the commercial launch of a product candidate for which we recruit a sales force and establish marketing and other commercialization capabilities is delayed or does not occur for any reason, we would have prematurely or unnecessarily incurred these commercialization expenses. This may be costly, and our investment would be lost if we cannot retain or reposition our commercialization personnel.
Factors that may inhibit our efforts to commercialize any approved product on our own include:

our inability to recruit and retain adequate numbers of effective sales, marketing, reimbursement, customer service, medical affairs, and other support personnel;

the inability of sales personnel to obtain access to physicians or persuade adequate numbers of physicians to prescribe any future approved products;

the inability of reimbursement professionals to negotiate arrangements for formulary access, reimbursement, and other acceptance by payors;

the inability to price our products at a sufficient price point to ensure an adequate and attractive level of profitability;

restricted or closed distribution channels that make it difficult to distribute our products to segments of the patient population;

the lack of complementary products to be offered by sales personnel, which may put us at a competitive disadvantage relative to companies with more extensive product lines; and

unforeseen costs and expenses associated with creating an independent commercialization organization.
If we enter into arrangements with third parties to perform sales, marketing, commercial support, and distribution services, our product revenue or the profitability of product revenue may be lower than if we were to market and sell any products we may develop ourselves. In addition, we may not be successful in entering into arrangements with third parties to commercialize our product candidates or may be unable to do so on terms that are favorable to us. We may have little control over such third parties, and any of them
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may fail to devote the necessary resources and attention to sell and market our products effectively. If we do not establish commercialization capabilities successfully, either on our own or in collaboration with third parties, we will not be successful in commercializing our product candidates if approved.
Even if any product candidates we develop receive marketing approval, they may fail to achieve the degree of market acceptance by physicians, patients, healthcare payors, and others in the medical community necessary for commercial success.
The commercial success of any of our product candidates will depend upon its degree of market acceptance by physicians, patients, third party payors, and others in the medical community. Even if any product candidates we may develop receive marketing approval, they may nonetheless fail to gain sufficient market acceptance by physicians, patients, healthcare payors, and others in the medical community. The degree of market acceptance of any product candidates we may develop, if approved for commercial sale, will depend on a number of factors, including:

the efficacy and safety of such product candidates as demonstrated in pivotal clinical trials and published in peer-reviewed journals;

the potential and perceived advantages compared to alternative treatments;

the ability to offer our products for sale at competitive prices;

the ability to offer appropriate patient access programs, such as co-pay assistance;

the extent to which physicians recommend our products to their patients;

convenience and ease of dosing and administration compared to alternative treatments;

the clinical indications for which the product candidate is approved by the FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory agencies;

product labeling or product insert requirements of the FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities, including any limitations, contraindications or warnings contained in a product’s approved labeling;

restrictions on how the product is distributed;

the timing of market introduction of competitive products;

publicity concerning our products or competing products and treatments;

the effectiveness of marketing and distribution efforts by us and other licenses and distributors;

sufficient governmental third party coverage or reimbursement; and

the prevalence and severity of any side effects.
If any product candidates we develop do not achieve an adequate level of acceptance by physicians, healthcare payors, patients and the medical community, we will not be able to generate significant revenue, and we may not become or remain profitable. The failure of any of our product candidates to find market acceptance would harm our business prospects.
Even if we are able to commercialize any product candidates, such products may become subject to unfavorable pricing regulations, third party reimbursement practices, or healthcare reform initiatives, which would harm our business.
The regulations that govern marketing approvals, pricing, and reimbursement for new drugs vary widely from country to country. In the United States, continual legislative changes may significantly change the approval requirements in ways that could involve additional costs and cause delays in obtaining approvals. Some countries require approval of the sale price of a drug before it can be marketed. In many countries, the pricing review period begins after marketing or product licensing approval is granted. In some foreign markets, prescription pharmaceutical pricing remains subject to continuing governmental control even after initial approval is granted. As a result, we might obtain marketing approval for a product in a particular country, but then be subject to price regulations that delay our commercial launch of the
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product, possibly for lengthy time periods, and negatively impact the revenue we are able to generate from the sale of the product in that country. Adverse pricing limitations may hinder our ability to recoup our investment in one or more product candidates, even if any product candidates we may develop obtain marketing approval.
Our ability to successfully commercialize any products that we may develop also will depend in part on the extent to which reimbursement for these products and related treatments will be available from government health administration authorities, private health insurers, and other organizations. Government authorities and third party payors, such as private health insurers and health maintenance organizations, decide which medications they will pay for and establish reimbursement levels. A primary trend in the U.S. healthcare industry and elsewhere is cost containment. Government authorities and third-party payors have attempted to control costs by limiting coverage and the amount of reimbursement for particular medications. Government authorities currently impose mandatory discounts for certain patient groups, such as Medicare, Medicaid and Veterans Affairs, or VA, hospitals, and may seek to increase such discounts at any time. Future regulation may negatively impact the price of our products, if they are approved for commercial sale. Increasingly, third party payors are requiring that drug companies provide them with predetermined discounts from list prices and are challenging the prices charged for medical products. We cannot be sure that reimbursement will be available for any product candidate that we commercialize and, if reimbursement is available, of the level of reimbursement. Reimbursement may impact the demand for, or the price of, any product candidate for which we obtain marketing approval. In order to get reimbursement, physicians may need to show that patients have superior treatment outcomes with our products compared to standard of care drugs, including lower-priced generic versions of standard of care drugs. If reimbursement is not available or is available only to limited levels, we may not be able to successfully commercialize any product candidate for which we obtain marketing approval. In the United States, no uniform policy of coverage and reimbursement for products exists among third party payors and coverage and reimbursement levels for products can differ significantly from payor to payor. As a result, the coverage determination process is often a time consuming and costly process that may require us to provide scientific and clinical support for the use of our products to each payor separately, with no assurance that coverage and adequate reimbursement will be applied consistently or obtained in the first instance.
There may be significant delays in obtaining reimbursement for newly approved drugs, and coverage may be more limited than the purposes for which the medicine is approved by the FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities. Moreover, eligibility for reimbursement does not imply that any drug will be paid for in all cases or at a rate that covers our costs, including research, development, manufacture, sale, and distribution. Interim reimbursement levels for new drugs, if applicable, may also not be sufficient to cover our costs and may not be made permanent. Reimbursement rates may vary according to the use of the drug and the clinical setting in which it is used, may be based on reimbursement levels already set for lower cost drugs and may be incorporated into existing payments for other services. Net prices for drugs may be reduced by mandatory discounts or rebates required by government healthcare programs or private payors and by any future relaxation of laws that presently restrict imports of drugs from countries where they may be sold at lower prices than in the United States. Third party payors often rely upon Medicare coverage policy and payment limitations in setting their own reimbursement policies. Our inability to promptly obtain coverage and profitable payment rates from both government-funded and private payors for any approved products we may develop could have a material adverse effect on our operating results, our ability to raise capital needed to commercialize product candidates, and our overall financial condition.
If any of our product candidates obtain regulatory approval, additional competitors could enter the market with generic versions of such drugs, which may result in a material decline in sales of affected products.
Under the Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984, or the Hatch-Waxman Act, a pharmaceutical manufacturer may file an abbreviated new drug application, or ANDA, seeking approval of a generic copy of an approved, small molecule innovator product. Under the Hatch-Waxman Act, a manufacturer may also submit an NDA under section 505(b)(2) that references the FDA’s prior approval of the small molecule innovator product. A 505(b)(2) NDA product may be for a new or improved version of the original innovator product. The Hatch-Waxman Act also provides for certain periods of regulatory exclusivity, which preclude FDA approval (or in some circumstances, FDA filing and reviewing)
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of an ANDA or 505(b)(2) NDA. These include, subject to certain exceptions, the period during which an FDA-approved drug is subject to orphan drug exclusivity. In addition to the benefits of regulatory exclusivity, an innovator NDA holder may have patents claiming the active ingredient, product formulation or an approved use of the drug, which would be listed with the product in the FDA publication, “Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations,” known as the “Orange Book.” If there are patents listed in the Orange Book, a generic or 505(b)(2) applicant that seeks to market its product before expiration of the patents must include in the ANDA a “Paragraph IV certification,” challenging the validity or enforceability of, or claiming non-infringement of, the listed patent or patents. Notice of the certification must be given to the innovator, too, and if within 45 days of receiving notice the innovator sues to protect its patents, approval of the ANDA is stayed for 30 months, or as lengthened or shortened by the court.
Accordingly, if any of our product candidates are approved, competitors could file ANDAs for generic versions of our drug products or 505(b)(2) NDAs that reference our drug products, respectively. If there are patents listed for our drug products in the Orange Book, those ANDAs and 505(b)(2) NDAs would be required to include a certification as to each listed patent indicating whether the ANDA applicant does or does not intend to challenge the patent. We cannot predict which, if any, patents in our current portfolio or patents we may obtain in the future will be eligible for listing in the Orange Book, how any generic competitor would address such patents, whether we would sue on any such patents, or the outcome of any such suit.
We may not be successful in securing or maintaining proprietary patent protection for products and technologies we develop or license. Moreover, if any of our owned or in-licensed patents that are listed in the Orange Book are successfully challenged by way of a Paragraph IV certification and subsequent litigation, the affected product could immediately face generic competition and its sales would likely decline rapidly and materially. Should sales decline, we may have to write off a portion or all of the intangible assets associated with the affected product and our results of operations and cash flows could be materially and adversely affected. See “— Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property.”
Conducting any future clinical trials of our product candidates and any future commercial sales of a product candidate may expose us to expensive product liability claims, and we may not be able to maintain product liability insurance on reasonable terms or at all and may be required to limit commercialization of our product candidates.
We face an inherent risk of product liability as a result of the preclinical and future clinical testing of our product candidates and will face an even greater risk when and if we commercialize any products. For example, we may be sued if our product candidates cause or are perceived to cause injury or are found to be otherwise unsuitable during preclinical or clinical testing, manufacturing, marketing or sale. Any such product liability claims may include allegations of defects in manufacturing, defects in design, a failure to warn of dangers inherent in the product, negligence, strict liability or a breach of warranties. Claims could also be asserted under state consumer protection acts. If we cannot successfully defend ourselves against product liability claims, we may incur substantial liabilities or be required to limit testing and commercialization of our product candidates. Even successful defense would require significant financial and management resources. Regardless of the merits or eventual outcome, liability claims may result in:

decreased or interrupted demand for our products;

injury to our reputation;

withdrawal of clinical trial participants and inability to continue our clinical trials;

initiation of investigations by regulators;

costs to defend the related litigation;

a diversion of management’s time and our resources;

substantial monetary awards to trial participants or patients;

product recalls, withdrawals or labeling, marketing or promotional restrictions;

loss of revenue;
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exhaustion of any available insurance and our capital resources;

the inability to commercialize any product candidate; and

a decline in our share price.
Our inability to obtain sufficient product liability insurance at an acceptable cost to protect against potential product liability claims could prevent or inhibit the commercialization of products we develop, alone or with collaborators. Our insurance policies may have various exclusions, and we may be subject to a product liability claim for which we have no coverage. We may have to pay any amounts awarded by a court or negotiated in a settlement that exceed our coverage limitations or that are not covered by our insurance, and we may not have, or be able to obtain, sufficient capital to pay such amounts. Even if our agreements with any future corporate collaborators entitle us to indemnification against losses, such indemnification may not be available or adequate should any claim arise.
Risks Related to Regulatory Approval and Other Legal Compliance Matters
The regulatory approval processes of the FDA, EMA and comparable foreign regulatory authorities are lengthy, time consuming, and inherently unpredictable. If we are ultimately unable to obtain regulatory approval for our product candidates, we will be unable to generate product revenue and our business will be substantially harmed.
The time required to obtain approval by the FDA, EMA and comparable foreign regulatory authorities is unpredictable, typically takes many years following the commencement of clinical trials, and depends upon numerous factors, including the type, complexity and novelty of the product candidates involved. In addition, approval policies, regulations, or the type and amount of clinical data necessary to gain approval may change during the course of a product candidate’s clinical development and may vary among jurisdictions, which may cause delays in the approval or the decision not to approve an application. Regulatory authorities have substantial discretion in the approval process and may refuse to accept any application, may disagree with our regulatory strategy or proposed pathway for approval or may decide that our data are insufficient for approval and require additional preclinical, clinical or other studies. We have not submitted for, or obtained regulatory approval for any product candidate, and it is possible that none of our existing product candidates or any product candidates we may seek to develop in the future will ever obtain regulatory approval.
Applications for our product candidates could fail to receive regulatory approval for many reasons, including, but not limited to the following:

the FDA, EMA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may disagree with the design, implementation or results of our preclinical or clinical trials;

the FDA, EMA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may determine that our product candidates are not safe and effective, only moderately effective or have undesirable or unintended side effects, toxicities or other characteristics that preclude our obtaining marketing approval or prevent or limit commercial use;

the population studied in the clinical program may not be sufficiently broad or representative to assure efficacy and safety in the full population for which we seek approval;

we may be unable to demonstrate to the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities that a product candidate’s risk-benefit ratio when compared to the standard of care is acceptable;

the data collected from preclinical or clinical trials of our product candidates may not be sufficient to support the submission of an NDA, or other submission or to obtain regulatory approval in the United States or elsewhere;

we may be unable to demonstrate to the FDA, EMA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities that a product candidate’s risk-benefit ratio for its proposed indication is acceptable;
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the FDA, EMA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may fail to approve the manufacturing processes, test procedures and specifications, or facilities of third party manufacturers with which we contract for preclinical, clinical and commercial supplies; and

the approval policies or regulations of the FDA, EMA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may significantly change in a manner rendering our preclinical or clinical data insufficient for approval.
This lengthy approval process, as well as the unpredictability of the results of clinical trials, may result in our failing to obtain regulatory approval to market any of our product candidates, which would significantly harm our business, results of operations, and prospects.
If the FDA does not conclude that certain of our product candidates satisfy the requirements for the Section 505(b)(2) regulatory approval pathway, or if the requirements for such product candidates under Section 505(b)(2) are not as we expect, the approval pathway for those product candidates will likely take significantly longer, cost significantly more and entail significantly greater complications and risks than anticipated, and in either case may not be successful.
We plan to seek FDA approval through the Section 505(b)(2) regulatory pathway for at least one of our product candidates. The Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984, also known as the Hatch-Waxman Act, added Section 505(b)(2) to the FDCA. Section 505(b)(2) permits the filing of an NDA where at least some of the information required for approval comes from studies that were not conducted by or for the applicant and for which the applicant has not obtained a right of reference. Section 505(b)(2), if applicable to us under the FDCA, would allow an NDA we submit to the FDA to rely in part on data in the public domain or the FDA’s prior conclusions regarding the safety and effectiveness of approved compounds, which could expedite the development program for our product candidates by potentially decreasing the amount of clinical data that we would need to generate in order to obtain FDA approval. If the FDA does not allow us to pursue the Section 505(b)(2) regulatory pathway as anticipated, we may need to conduct additional clinical trials, provide additional data and information, and meet additional standards for regulatory approval. If this were to occur, the time and financial resources required to obtain FDA approval for these product candidates, and complications and risks associated with these product candidates, would likely substantially increase. We could need to obtain more additional funding, which could result in significant dilution to the ownership interests of our then existing stockholders to the extent we issue equity securities or convertible debt. We cannot assure you that we would be able to obtain such additional financing on terms acceptable to us, if at all. Moreover, inability to pursue the Section 505(b)(2) regulatory pathway would likely result in new competitive products reaching the market more quickly than our product candidates, which would likely materially adversely impact our competitive position and prospects. Even if we are allowed to pursue the Section 505(b)(2) regulatory pathway, we cannot assure you that our product candidates will receive the requisite approvals for commercialization.
In addition, notwithstanding the approval of a number of products by the FDA under Section 505(b)(2) over the last few years, certain brand-name pharmaceutical companies and others have objected to the FDA’s interpretation of Section 505(b)(2). If the FDA’s interpretation of Section 505(b)(2) is successfully challenged, the FDA may change its Section 505(b)(2) policies and practices, which could delay or even prevent the FDA from approving any NDA that we submit under Section 505(b)(2). The pharmaceutical industry is highly competitive, and Section 505(b)(2) NDAs are subject to special requirements designed to protect the patent rights of sponsors of previously approved drugs that are referenced in a Section 505(b)(2) NDA. These requirements may give rise to patent litigation and mandatory delays in approval of our NDAs for up to 30 months or longer depending on the outcome of any litigation. It is not uncommon for a manufacturer of an approved product to file a citizen petition with the FDA seeking to delay approval of, or impose additional approval requirements for, pending competing products. If successful, such petitions can significantly delay, or even prevent, the approval of the new product. However, even if the FDA ultimately denies such a petition, the FDA may substantially delay approval while it considers and responds to the petition. In addition, even if we are able to utilize the Section 505(b)(2) regulatory pathway, there is no guarantee this would ultimately lead to faster product development or earlier approval.
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Moreover, even if our product candidates are approved under Section 505(b)(2), the approval may be subject to limitations on the indicated uses for which the products may be marketed or to other conditions of approval, or may contain requirements for costly post-marketing testing and surveillance to monitor the safety or efficacy of the products.
If we file a Section 505(b)(2) application that references a product marketed by another manufacturer, we may be subject to a patent infringement suit and the approval of our product may be delayed.
If we file a Section 505(b)(2) application that relies in whole or in part on studies conducted by a third party, we will be required to certify to the FDA that either: (1) there is no patent information listed in the FDA’s publication Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations, which we refer to as the Orange Book, with respect to the third party NDA for the applicable approved drug candidate; (2) the patents listed in the Orange Book have expired; (3) the listed patents have not expired, but will expire on a particular date and approval is sought after patent expiration; or (4) the listed patents are invalid or will not be infringed by the manufacture, use or sale of our drug. A certification that our new drug will not infringe the Orange Book-listed patents for the applicable approved drug candidate, or that such patents are invalid, is called a paragraph IV certification. If we submit a paragraph IV certification to the FDA, a notice of the paragraph IV certification must also be sent to the NDA holder once our Section 505(b)(2) application is accepted for filing by the FDA. The third party may then initiate a lawsuit to defend the patents identified in the notice. The filing of a patent infringement lawsuit within 45 days of receipt of the notice automatically prevents the FDA from approving the Section 505(b)(2) application until the earliest of 30 months or the date on which the patent expires, the lawsuit is settled, or the court reaches a decision in the infringement lawsuit in favor of us.
The third party may file a patent infringement lawsuit outside the 45-day period, in which case, our Section 505(b)(2) application will not be subject to the 30-month stay of FDA approval.
Our product candidates may cause undesirable side effects or have other properties that could halt their clinical development, prevent their regulatory approval, limit their commercial potential, or result in significant negative consequences.
Adverse events or other undesirable side effects caused by our product candidates could cause us or regulatory authorities to interrupt, delay, or halt clinical trials and could result in a more restrictive label or the delay or denial of regulatory approval by the FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities. Drug-related side effects could affect patient recruitment, the ability of enrolled patients to complete the study, and/or result in potential product liability claims. We are required to maintain product liability insurance pursuant to our business practice. We may not be able to maintain insurance coverage at a reasonable cost or in sufficient amounts to protect us against losses due to liability. A successful product liability claim or series of claims brought against us could cause our stock price to decline and, if judgments exceed our insurance coverage, could adversely affect our results of operations, prospects, and business. In addition, regardless of merit or eventual outcome, product liability claims may result in impairment of our business reputation, withdrawal of clinical trial participants, costs due to related litigation, distraction of management’s attention from our primary business, initiation of investigations by regulators, substantial monetary awards to patients or other claimants, the inability to commercialize our product candidates, and decreased demand for our product candidates, if approved for commercial sale.
Additionally, if one or more of our product candidates receives marketing approval, and we or others later identify undesirable side effects or adverse events caused by such products, a number of potentially significant negative consequences could result, including, but not limited to:

regulatory authorities may withdraw approvals of such product or impose restrictions on distribution;

regulatory authorities may require additional warnings or contraindications on the label that could diminish the usage or otherwise limit the commercial success of the product;

we may be required to change the way the product is administered or conduct additional clinical trials or post-approval studies;
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we may be forced to suspend marketing of the product;

we may be required to create a REMS plan, which could include a medication guide outlining the risks of such side effects for distribution to patients, a communication plan for healthcare providers, and/or other elements to assure safe use;

we could be sued and held liable for harm caused to patients; and

our reputation may suffer.
Any of these events could prevent us from achieving or maintaining market acceptance of the particular product candidate, if approved, and could significantly harm our business, results of operations, and prospects.
We may conduct future clinical trials for our product candidates outside the United States, and the FDA, EMA and applicable foreign regulatory authorities may not accept data from such trials.
We may in the future choose to conduct one or more clinical trials outside the United States, including in Europe. The acceptance of study data from clinical trials conducted outside the United States or another jurisdiction by the FDA, EMA or applicable foreign regulatory authority may be subject to certain conditions. In cases where data from foreign clinical trials are intended to serve as the basis for marketing approval in the United States, the FDA will generally not approve the application on the basis of foreign data alone unless (i) the data are applicable to the United States population and United States medical practice; and (ii) the trials were performed by clinical investigators of recognized competence and pursuant to cGCP regulations. Additionally, the FDA’s clinical trial requirements, including sufficient size of patient populations and statistical significance, must be met. Many foreign regulatory bodies have similar approval requirements. In addition, such foreign trials would be subject to the applicable local laws of the foreign jurisdictions where the trials are conducted. There can be no assurance that the FDA, EMA or any applicable foreign regulatory authority will accept data from trials conducted outside of the United States or the applicable jurisdiction. If the FDA, EMA or any applicable foreign regulatory authority does not accept such data, it would result in the need for additional trials, which would be costly and time-consuming and delay aspects of our business plan, and which may result in our product candidates not receiving approval or clearance for commercialization in the applicable jurisdiction, and could significantly harm our business, prospects, financial condition, and results of operations.
Obtaining and maintaining regulatory approval of our product candidates in one jurisdiction does not mean that we will be successful in obtaining regulatory approval of our product candidates in other jurisdictions.
Obtaining and maintaining regulatory approval of our product candidates in one jurisdiction does not guarantee that we will be able to obtain or maintain regulatory approval in any other jurisdiction, but a failure or delay in obtaining regulatory approval in one jurisdiction may have a negative effect on the regulatory approval process in others. For example, even if the FDA or EMA grants marketing approval of a product candidate, comparable regulatory authorities in foreign jurisdictions must also approve the manufacturing, marketing and promotion of the product candidate for those countries. Approval procedures vary among jurisdictions and can involve requirements and administrative review periods different from those in the United States, including additional preclinical studies or clinical trials as clinical trials conducted in one jurisdiction may not be accepted by regulatory authorities in other jurisdictions. In many jurisdictions outside the United States, a product candidate must be approved for reimbursement before it can be approved for sale in that jurisdiction. In some cases, the price that we intend to charge for our products is also subject to approval.
Obtaining foreign regulatory approvals and compliance with foreign regulatory requirements could result in significant delays, difficulties and costs for us and could delay or prevent the introduction of our products in certain countries. If we or any partner we work with fail to comply with the regulatory requirements in international markets or fail to receive applicable marketing approvals, our target market will be reduced and our ability to realize the full market potential of our product candidates will be harmed.
Even if we obtain regulatory approval for a product candidate, our products will remain subject to extensive regulatory scrutiny.
If any of our product candidates are approved, they will be subject to ongoing regulatory requirements for manufacturing, labeling, packaging, storage, advertising, promotion, sampling, record-keeping, conduct
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of post-marketing studies, and submission of safety, efficacy, and other post-market information, including both federal and state requirements in the United States and requirements of comparable foreign regulatory authorities.
Manufacturers and manufacturers’ facilities are required to comply with extensive requirements imposed by the FDA, EMA and comparable foreign regulatory authorities, including ensuring that quality control and manufacturing procedures conform to cGMP regulations. As such, we and our contract manufacturers will be subject to continual review and inspections to assess compliance with cGMP and adherence to commitments made in any NDA, biologics license application to the FDA, or BLA or marketing authorization application, or MAA. Accordingly, we and others with whom we work must continue to expend time, money, and effort in all areas of regulatory compliance, including manufacturing, production and quality control.
Any regulatory approvals that we receive for our product candidates will be subject to limitations on the approved indicated uses for which the product may be marketed and promoted or to the conditions of approval (including the requirement to implement a REMS), or contain requirements for potentially costly post-marketing testing. We will be required to report certain adverse reactions and production problems, if any, to the FDA, EMA and comparable foreign regulatory authorities. Any new legislation addressing drug safety issues could result in delays in product development or commercialization, or increased costs to assure compliance. The FDA and other agencies, including the Department of Justice, closely regulate and monitor the post-approval marketing and promotion of products to ensure that they are manufactured, marketed and distributed only for the approved indications and in accordance with the provisions of the approved labeling. We will have to comply with requirements concerning advertising and promotion for our products. Promotional communications with respect to prescription drugs are subject to a variety of legal and regulatory restrictions and must be consistent with the information in the product’s approved label. As such, we may not promote our products for indications or uses for which they do not have approval. The holder of an approved NDA, BLA, or MAA must submit new or supplemental applications and obtain approval for certain changes to the approved product, product labeling, or manufacturing process. We could also be asked to conduct post-marketing clinical trials to verify the safety and efficacy of our products in general or in specific patient subsets. If original marketing approval was obtained via the accelerated approval pathway, we could be required to conduct a successful post-marketing clinical trial to confirm clinical benefit for our products. An unsuccessful post-marketing study or failure to complete such a study could result in the withdrawal of marketing approval.
If a regulatory agency discovers previously unknown problems with a product, such as adverse events of unanticipated severity or frequency, or problems with the facility where the product is manufactured, or disagrees with the promotion, marketing or labeling of a product, such regulatory agency may impose restrictions on that product or us, including requiring withdrawal of the product from the market. If we, our product candidates or the manufacturing facilities for our product candidates fail to comply with applicable regulatory requirements, a regulatory agency or enforcement authority may, among other things:

issue warning letters that would result in adverse publicity;

impose civil or criminal penalties;

suspend or withdraw regulatory approvals;

suspend any of our ongoing clinical trials;

refuse to approve pending applications or supplements to approved applications submitted by us;

impose restrictions on our operations, including closing our contract manufacturers’ facilities;

mandate modifications to promotional materials or require us to provide corrective information to healthcare practitioners;

refuse to allow us to enter into government contracts;

seize or detain products, refuse to permit the import or export of products; or

require a product recall.
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Any government investigation of alleged violations of law could require us to expend significant time and resources in response, and could generate negative publicity. Any failure to comply with ongoing regulatory requirements may significantly and adversely affect our ability to commercialize and generate revenue from our products. If regulatory sanctions are applied or if regulatory approval is withdrawn, the value of our company and our operating results will be adversely affected.
In addition, the FDA’s regulations, policies or guidance may change and new or additional statutes or government regulations in the United States and other jurisdictions may be enacted that could further restrict or regulate post-approval activities. We cannot predict the likelihood, nature or extent of adverse government regulation that may arise from pending or future legislation or administrative action, either in the United States or abroad. If we are not able to achieve and maintain regulatory compliance, we may not be permitted to market our products and/or product candidates, which would adversely affect our ability to generate revenue and achieve or maintain profitability.
Although we have received orphan drug designation for IkT-001Pro and may seek orphan drug designation for other product candidates, we may be unable to maintain the benefits associated with orphan drug designation, including market exclusivity, for IkT-001Pro, and may be unable to obtain such a designation for other product candidates. This may cause our revenue, if any, to be reduced.
Under the Orphan Drug Act, the FDA may grant orphan designation to a drug or biologic intended to treat a rare disease or condition, defined as a disease or condition with a patient population of fewer than 200,000 in the United States, or a patient population greater than 200,000 in the United States when there is no reasonable expectation that the cost of developing and making available the drug or biologic in the United States will be recovered from sales in the United States for that drug or biologic. Orphan drug designation must be requested before submitting an NDA or BLA. In the United States, orphan drug designation entitles a party to financial incentives such as opportunities for grant funding towards clinical trial costs, tax advantages, and user-fee waivers. After the FDA grants orphan drug designation, the generic identity of the drug and its potential orphan use are disclosed publicly by the FDA. Orphan drug designation does not convey any advantage in, or shorten the duration of, the regulatory review and approval process.
If a product that has orphan drug designation subsequently receives the first FDA approval for a particular active ingredient for the disease for which it has such designation, the product is entitled to orphan product exclusivity, which means that the FDA may not approve any other NDA or BLA applications to market the same drug or biologic for the same indication for seven years, except in limited circumstances such as a showing of clinical superiority to the product with orphan exclusivity or if the FDA finds that the holder of the orphan exclusivity has not shown that it can assure the availability of sufficient quantities of the orphan product to meet the needs of patients with the disease or condition for which the drug was designated. As a result, even if one of our product candidates receives orphan exclusivity, the FDA can still approve other drugs that have a different active ingredient for use in treating the same indication or disease. Furthermore, the FDA can waive orphan exclusivity if we are unable to manufacture sufficient supply of our product.
Although we intend to seek a breakthrough therapy designation for IkT-148009 and may seek a breakthrough therapy designation for other product candidates in the future, we might not receive such designation, and even if we do, such designation may not lead to a faster development of any product candidate or approval process for any product candidate.
We intend to seek a breakthrough therapy designation for IkT-148009 in one or more indications or for other product candidates. A breakthrough therapy is defined as a drug that is intended, alone or in combination with one or more other drugs, to treat a serious condition, and preliminary clinical evidence indicates that the drug may demonstrate substantial improvement over existing therapies on one or more clinically significant endpoints, such as substantial treatment effects observed early in clinical development. For drugs and biologics that have been designated as breakthrough therapies, interaction and communication between the FDA and the sponsor of the trial can help to identify the most efficient path for clinical development while minimizing the number of patients placed in ineffective control regimens. Drugs designated as breakthrough therapies by the FDA may also be eligible for priority review if supported by clinical data at the time the NDA is submitted to the FDA.
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Designation as a breakthrough therapy is within the discretion of the FDA. Accordingly, even if we believe that one of our product candidates meets the criteria for designation as a breakthrough therapy, the FDA may disagree and instead determine not to make such designation. Even if we receive breakthrough therapy designation, the receipt of such designation for a product candidate may not result in a faster development of any product candidate or approval process for product candidate. In addition, even if one or more of our product candidates qualify as breakthrough therapies, the FDA may later decide that the product candidates no longer meet the conditions for qualification or decide that the time period for FDA review or approval will not be shortened.
Healthcare legislative measures aimed at reducing healthcare costs may have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
Third party payors, whether domestic or foreign, or governmental or commercial, are developing increasingly sophisticated methods of controlling healthcare costs. In both the United States and certain foreign jurisdictions, there have been a number of legislative and regulatory changes to the health care system that could impact our ability to sell our products profitably. In particular, in 2010, the Affordable Care Act, or ACA, was enacted, which, among other things addressed a new methodology by which rebates owed by manufacturers under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program are calculated for drugs that are inhaled, infused, instilled, implanted or injected, increased the minimum Medicaid rebates owed by most manufacturers under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program, extended the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program to utilization of prescriptions of individuals enrolled in Medicaid managed care organizations, subjected manufacturers to new annual fees and taxes for certain branded prescription drugs, and provided incentives to programs that increase the federal government’s comparative effectiveness research. There have been significant ongoing efforts to modify or eliminate the Affordable Care Act. For example, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act enacted on December 22, 2017 repealed the shared responsibility payment for individuals who fail to maintain minimum essential coverage under section 5000A of the Internal Revenue Code, commonly referred to as the individual mandate, beginning in 2019. The Joint Committee on Taxation estimates that the repeal will result in over 13 million fewer Americans maintaining their health insurance coverage over the next 10 years and is likely to lead to increases in insurance premiums. The repeal of or changes in some or all of the ACA, and complying with any new legislation or reversing changes implemented under the ACA could be time-intensive and expensive, resulting in a material adverse effect on our business. Until the ACA is fully implemented or there is more certainty concerning the future of the ACA, it will be difficult to predict its full impact and influence on our business.
In addition, other legislative changes have been proposed and adopted in the United States since the ACA was enacted. In August 2011, the Budget Control Act of 2011, among other things, created measures for spending reductions by Congress. A Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction, tasked with recommending a targeted deficit reduction of at least $1.2 trillion for the years 2013 through 2021, was unable to reach required goals, thereby triggering the legislation’s automatic reduction to several government programs. This includes aggregate reductions of Medicare payments to providers of 2% per fiscal year, which went into effect in 2013, and will remain in effect through 2025 unless additional Congressional action is taken. The American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 further reduced Medicare payments to several providers, including hospitals and cancer treatment centers, and increased the statute of limitations period for the government to recover overpayments to providers from three to five years.
On January 20, 2017, the President signed an executive order directing federal agencies to exercise existing authorities to reduce burdens associated with the Affordable Care Act pending further action by Congress. In April 2018, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, or CMS, issued a final rule and guidance documents which changed requirements for health plans sold through the Affordable Care Act marketplaces for 2019. These changes include, for example, (i) turning over responsibility for ensuring that marketplace plans have enough health care providers in their networks to the states that rely on the federal HealthCare.gov exchange; (ii) allowing states to alter aspects of the essential health benefits required of health plans sold through the federal and state insurance marketplaces; (iii) eliminating certain Small Business Health Options Program, or SHOP, regulatory requirements; and (iv) outlining criteria by which insurers may reduce the percentage of income allocated to patient care. The U.S. Department of Labor issued a final rule in June 2018 to expand the availability of association health plans available to small
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business owners and self-employed individuals, beginning on September 1, 2018. These association health plans will not be required to provide the essential health benefits mandated by the Affordable Care Act. These and other regulations may impact coverage of certain health care services.
There have been, and likely will continue to be, legislative and regulatory proposals at the foreign, federal and state levels directed at containing or lowering the cost of healthcare. We cannot predict the initiatives that may be adopted in the future. The continuing efforts of the government, insurance companies, managed care organizations and other payors of healthcare services to contain or reduce costs of healthcare and/or impose price controls may adversely affect:

the demand for our product candidates, if we obtain regulatory approval;

our ability to receive or set a price that we believe is fair for our products;

our ability to generate revenue and achieve or maintain profitability;

the level of taxes that we are required to pay; and

the availability of capital.
We expect that the ACA, as well as other healthcare reform measures that may be adopted in the future, may result in additional reductions in Medicare and other healthcare funding, more rigorous coverage criteria, lower reimbursement, and new payment methodologies. This could lower the price that we receive for any approved product. Any denial in coverage or reduction in reimbursement from Medicare or other government-funded programs may result in a similar denial or reduction in payments from private payors, which may prevent us from being able to generate sufficient revenue, attain profitability or commercialize our product candidates, if approved.
Our employees, independent contractors, consultants, commercial partners and vendors may engage in misconduct or other improper activities, including non-compliance with regulatory standards and requirements.
We are exposed to the risk of fraud, misconduct or other illegal activity by our employees, independent contractors, consultants, commercial partners and vendors. Misconduct by these parties could include intentional, reckless and negligent conduct that fails to:

comply with the laws of the FDA, EMA and other comparable foreign regulatory authorities;

provide true, complete and accurate information to the FDA, EMA and other comparable foreign regulatory authorities;

comply with manufacturing standards we have established;

comply with healthcare fraud and abuse laws in the United States and similar foreign fraudulent misconduct laws; or

report financial information or data accurately or to disclose unauthorized activities to us.
If we obtain FDA approval of any of our product candidates and begin commercializing those products in the United States, our potential exposure under such laws will increase significantly, and our costs associated with compliance with such laws are also likely to increase. In particular, research, sales, marketing, education and other business arrangements in the healthcare industry are subject to extensive laws designed to prevent fraud, kickbacks, self-dealing and other abusive practices. These laws and regulations may restrict or prohibit a wide range of pricing, discounting, educating, marketing and promotion, sales and commission, certain customer incentive programs and other business arrangements generally. Activities subject to these laws also involve the improper use of information obtained in the course of patient recruitment for clinical trials, which could result in regulatory sanctions and cause serious harm to our reputation. We have adopted a code of business conduct and ethics, but it is not always possible to identify and deter misconduct by employees and third parties, and the precautions we take to detect and prevent this activity may not be effective in controlling unknown or unmanaged risks or losses or in protecting us from governmental investigations or other actions or lawsuits stemming from a failure to be
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in compliance with such laws. If any such actions are instituted against us, and we are not successful in defending ourselves or asserting our rights, those actions could have a significant impact on our business, including the imposition of significant fines or other sanctions.
If we fail to comply with healthcare laws, we could face substantial penalties and our business, operations and financial conditions could be adversely affected.
Healthcare providers, physicians and payors play a primary role in the recommendation and prescription of any product candidates for which we may obtain marketing approval. Our future arrangements with payors and customers may expose us to broadly applicable fraud and abuse and other healthcare laws and regulations that may constrain the business or financial arrangements and relationships through which we market, sell and distribute any product candidates for which we may obtain marketing approval. Even though we do not and will not control referrals of healthcare services or bill directly to Medicare, Medicaid or other third party payors, federal and state healthcare laws and regulations pertaining to fraud and abuse and patients’ rights are and will be applicable to our business. Restrictions under applicable federal, state and foreign healthcare laws and regulations may affect our ability to operate and expose us to areas of risk, including:

federal civil and criminal false claims laws and civil monetary penalty laws, including the False Claims Act, which impose criminal and civil penalties, including through civil “qui tam” or “whistleblower” actions, against individuals or entities from knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, claims for payment or approval from Medicare, Medicaid, or other third party payors that are false or fraudulent or knowingly making a false statement to improperly avoid, decrease or conceal an obligation to pay money to the federal government. A person or entity does not need to have actual knowledge of these statutes or specific intent to violate them in order to have committed a violation;

the federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, or HIPAA, which created federal criminal statutes that prohibit knowingly and willfully executing, or attempting to execute, a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program or obtain, by means of false or fraudulent pretenses, representations, or promises, any of the money or property owned by, or under the custody or control of, any healthcare benefit program, regardless of the payor (e.g., public or private) and knowingly and willfully falsifying, concealing or covering up by any trick or device a material fact or making any materially false statements in connection with the delivery of, or payment for, healthcare benefits, items or services relating to healthcare matters;

HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act of 2009, or HITECH, and their respective implementing regulations, which impose requirements on certain covered healthcare providers, health plans, and healthcare clearinghouses as well as their respective business associates that perform services for them that involve the use, or disclosure of, individually identifiable health information, relating to the privacy, security and transmission of individually identifiable health information without appropriate authorization;

the federal Physician Payments Sunshine Act, created under the ACA, and its implementing regulations, which require manufacturers of drugs, devices, biologicals and medical supplies for which payment is available under Medicare, Medicaid or the Children’s Health Insurance Program to report annually to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services under the Open Payments Program, information related to payments or other transfers of value made to physicians and teaching hospitals, as well as ownership and investment interests held by physicians and their immediate family members, as well as other state and foreign laws regulating marketing activities;

federal consumer protection and unfair competition laws, which broadly regulate marketplace activities and activities that potentially harm consumers; and

analogous state and foreign laws and regulations, such as state and foreign anti-kickback, false claims, consumer protection and unfair competition laws which may apply to pharmaceutical business practices, including, but not limited to, research, distribution, sales and marketing arrangements as well as submitting claims involving healthcare items or services reimbursed by
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any third party payer, including commercial insurers; state laws that require pharmaceutical companies to comply with the pharmaceutical industry’s voluntary compliance guidelines and the relevant compliance guidance promulgated by the federal government that otherwise restricts payments that may be made to healthcare providers and other potential referral sources; state laws that require drug manufacturers to file reports with states regarding pricing and marketing information, such as the tracking and reporting of gifts, compensations and other remuneration and items of value provided to healthcare professionals and entities; and state and foreign laws governing the privacy and security of health information in certain circumstances, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and may not have the same effect, thus complicating compliance efforts.
Because of the breadth of these laws and the narrowness of the statutory exceptions and safe harbors available, it is possible that some of our business activities could, despite our efforts to comply, be subject to challenge under one or more of such laws. Efforts to ensure that our business arrangements will comply with applicable healthcare laws may involve substantial costs. It is possible that governmental and enforcement authorities will conclude that our business practices may not comply with current or future statutes, regulations or case law interpreting applicable fraud and abuse or other healthcare laws and regulations. If any such actions are instituted against us, and we are not successful in defending ourselves or asserting our rights, those actions could have a significant impact on our business, including the imposition of civil, criminal and administrative penalties, damages, disgorgement, monetary fines, possible exclusion from participation in Medicare, Medicaid and other federal healthcare programs, contractual damages, reputational harm, diminished profits and future earnings, and curtailment of our operations, any of which could adversely affect our ability to operate our business and our results of operations. In addition, the approval and commercialization of any of our product candidates outside the United States will also likely subject us to foreign equivalents of the healthcare laws mentioned above, among other foreign laws.
If we or any contract manufacturers and suppliers we engage fail to comply with environmental, health, and safety laws and regulations, we could become subject to fines or penalties or incur costs that could have a material adverse effect on the success of our business.
We and any contract manufacturers and suppliers we currently or may in the future engage are subject to numerous federal, state, and local environmental, health, and safety laws, regulations, and permitting requirements, including those governing laboratory procedures; the generation, handling, use, storage, treatment, and disposal of hazardous and regulated materials and wastes; the emission and discharge of hazardous materials into the ground, air, and water; and employee health and safety. Our operations involve the use of hazardous and flammable materials, including chemicals and biological and radioactive materials. We cannot eliminate the risk of contamination or injury from these materials. In the event of contamination or injury resulting from our use of hazardous materials, we could be held liable for any resulting damages, and any liability could exceed our resources. Under certain environmental laws, we could be held responsible for costs relating to any contamination at our current or past facilities and at third party facilities. We also could incur significant costs associated with civil or criminal fines and penalties.
Compliance with applicable environmental laws and regulations may be expensive, and current or future environmental laws and regulations may impair our research, product development and manufacturing efforts. In addition, we cannot entirely eliminate the risk of accidental injury or contamination from these materials or wastes. Although we maintain workers’ compensation insurance to cover us for costs and expenses we may incur due to injuries to our employees resulting from the use of hazardous materials, this insurance may not provide adequate coverage against potential liabilities. We do not carry specific biological or hazardous waste insurance coverage, and our property, casualty, and general liability insurance policies specifically exclude coverage for damages and fines arising from biological or hazardous waste exposure or contamination. Accordingly, in the event of contamination or injury, we could be held liable for damages or be penalized with fines in an amount exceeding our resources, and our preclinical trials, future clinical trials or regulatory approvals could be suspended, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.
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Our business activities may be subject to the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, or FCPA, and similar anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws.
Our business activities may be subject to the FCPA and similar anti-bribery or anti-corruption laws, regulations or rules of other countries in which we operate, including the U.K. Bribery Act. The FCPA generally prohibits offering, promising, giving, or authorizing others to give anything of value, either directly or indirectly, to a non-U.S. government official in order to influence official action, or otherwise obtain or retain business. The FCPA also requires public companies to make and keep books and records that accurately and fairly reflect the transactions of the corporation and to devise and maintain an adequate system of internal accounting controls. Our business is heavily regulated and therefore involves significant interaction with public officials, including officials of non-U.S. governments. Additionally, in many other countries, the health care providers who prescribe pharmaceuticals are employed by their government, and the purchasers of pharmaceuticals are government entities; therefore, our dealings with these prescribers and purchasers are subject to regulation under the FCPA. Recently, the SEC and Department of Justice have increased their FCPA enforcement activities with respect to pharmaceutical companies. There is no certainty that all of our employees, agents, contractors, or collaborators, or those of our affiliates, will comply with all applicable laws and regulations, particularly given the high level of complexity of these laws. Violations of these laws and regulations could result in fines, criminal sanctions against us, our officers, or our employees, the closing down of our facilities, requirements to obtain export licenses, cessation of business activities in sanctioned countries, implementation of compliance programs, and prohibitions on the conduct of our business. Any such violations could include prohibitions on our ability to offer our products in one or more countries and could materially damage our reputation, our brand, our international expansion efforts, our ability to attract and retain employees, and our business, prospects, operating results, and financial condition.
Risks Related to Our Reliance on Third Parties
We currently rely on and expect to continue to rely on third parties to conduct our clinical trials and preclinical testing, as well as future research and clinical trials, and those third parties may not perform satisfactorily, including failing to meet deadlines for the completion of such trials, research, or testing.
We currently rely and expect to continue to rely on third parties, such as CROs, clinical data management organizations, medical institutions, and clinical investigators, to conduct our research, preclinical testing and clinical research and will rely on such third parties to conduct any future clinical trials. Any of these third parties may terminate their engagements with us or be unable to fulfill their contractual obligations. If we need to enter into alternative arrangements, it would delay our product development activities.
Our reliance on these third parties for research and development activities reduces our control over these activities but does not relieve us of our responsibilities. For example, we remain responsible for ensuring that any future clinical trials would be conducted in accordance with the general investigational plan and protocols for the trial. Moreover, the FDA requires us to comply with cGCPs for conducting, recording, and reporting the results of any future clinical trials to assure that data and reported results are credible, reproducible and accurate and that the rights, integrity, and confidentiality of trial participants are protected. We also are required to register any future clinical trials and post the results of completed clinical trials on a government-sponsored database within certain timeframes. Failure to do so can result in fines, adverse publicity, and civil and criminal sanctions.
Our CROs are not our employees, and except for remedies available to us under our agreements with such CROs, we cannot control whether or not they devote sufficient time and resources to our ongoing preclinical programs and any future clinical trials. If CROs do not successfully carry out their contractual duties or obligations or meet expected deadlines, if they need to be replaced or if the quality or accuracy of the preclinical or clinical data they obtain is compromised due to the failure to adhere to our preclinical or future clinical protocols, regulatory requirements or for other reasons, our preclinical and any future clinical trials may be extended, delayed or terminated and we may not be able to obtain regulatory approval for or successfully commercialize our product candidates. As a result, the commercial prospects for our product candidates would be harmed, our costs could increase substantially and our ability to generate revenue could be delayed.
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Switching or adding additional CROs involves additional cost and requires management time and focus. Identifying, qualifying and managing performance of third party service providers can be difficult, time-consuming and cause delays in our development programs. In addition, there is a natural transition period when a new CRO commences work and the new CRO may not provide the same type or level of services as the original provider. If any of our relationships with our CROs terminate, we may not be able to enter into arrangements with alternative CROs or to do so on commercially reasonable terms. As a result, delays may occur, which can materially impact our ability to meet our desired clinical development timelines.
Additionally, if these third parties do not successfully carry out their contractual duties, meet expected deadlines, or conduct our preclinical or any future clinical trials in accordance with regulatory requirements or our stated protocols, we will not be able to obtain, or may be delayed in obtaining, marketing approvals for any product candidates we may develop and will not be able to, or may be delayed in our efforts to, successfully commercialize our medicines.
We also expect to rely on other third parties to store and distribute drug supplies for any future clinical trials. Any performance failure on the part of our distributors could delay future clinical development or marketing approval of any product candidates we may develop or commercialization of our medicines, producing additional losses and depriving us of potential product revenue.
We expect to depend in whole or in part on collaborations with third parties for the research, development and commercialization of any product candidates we may develop. If any such collaborations are not successful, we may not be able to realize the market potential of those product candidates.
We expect to work with third party collaborators in whole or in part for the development and commercialization of any product candidates we may develop. Our collaborators may include large and mid-size pharmaceutical companies, regional and national pharmaceutical companies and academic institutions and commercial research organizations. If we enter into any such arrangements with any third parties, we will likely have shared or limited control over the amount and timing of resources that our collaborators dedicate to the development or potential commercialization of any product candidates we may seek to develop with them. Our ability to generate revenue from these arrangements with commercial entities will depend on our collaborators’ abilities to successfully perform the functions assigned to them in these arrangements. We cannot predict the success of any collaboration that we enter into.
Such collaborations pose the following risks to us:

collaborators generally have significant discretion in determining the efforts and resources that they will apply to these collaborations;

collaborators may not properly obtain, maintain, enforce, or defend intellectual property or proprietary rights relating to our product candidates or research programs or may use our proprietary information in such a way as to expose us to potential litigation or other intellectual property related proceedings, including proceedings challenging the scope, ownership, validity and enforceability of our intellectual property;

we may need the cooperation of our collaborators to enforce or defend any intellectual property we contribute to or that arises out of our collaborations, which may not be provided to us;

disputes may arise between the collaborators and us that result in the delay or termination of the research, development, or commercialization of our product candidates or research programs or that result in costly litigation or arbitration that diverts management attention and resources;

collaborators may decide to not pursue development and commercialization of any product candidates we develop or may elect not to continue or renew development or commercialization programs based on clinical trial results, changes in the collaborator’s strategic focus or available funding or external factors such as an acquisition that diverts resources or creates competing priorities;

collaborators may delay clinical trials, provide insufficient funding for a clinical trial program, stop a clinical trial or abandon a product candidate, repeat or conduct new clinical trials, or require a new formulation of a product candidate for clinical testing;
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collaborators could independently develop, or develop with third parties, products that compete directly or indirectly with our product candidates or research programs if the collaborators believe that competitive products are more likely to be successfully developed or can be commercialized under terms that are more economically attractive than ours;

collaborators with marketing and distribution rights to one or more product candidates may not commit sufficient resources to the marketing and distribution of such product candidates;

we may lose certain valuable rights under circumstances identified in our collaborations;

collaborators may undergo a change of control and the new owners may decide to take the collaboration in a direction which is not in our best interest;

collaborators may become bankrupt, which may significantly delay our research or development programs, or may cause us to lose access to valuable technology, know-how or intellectual property of the collaborator relating to our products, product candidates or research programs;

key personnel at our collaborators may leave, which could negatively impact our ability to productively work with our collaborators;

collaborations may require us to incur short- and long-term expenditures or issue securities that dilute our stockholders or disrupt our management and business;

collaborations may be terminated and, if terminated, may result in a need for additional capital to pursue further development or commercialization of the applicable product candidates; and

collaboration agreements may not lead to development or commercialization of product candidates in the most efficient manner or at all. If a present or future collaborator of ours were to be involved in a business combination, the continued pursuit and emphasis on our development or commercialization program under such collaboration could be delayed, diminished, or terminated.
We may face significant competition in seeking appropriate collaborations. Recent business combinations among biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies have resulted in a reduction of potential collaborators. In addition, the negotiation process is time-consuming and complex, and we may not be able to negotiate collaborations on a timely basis, on acceptable terms, or at all. If we are unable to do so, we may have to curtail the development of the product candidate for which we are seeking to collaborate, reduce or delay its development program or one or more of our other development programs, delay its potential commercialization or reduce the scope of any sales or marketing activities, or increase our expenditures and undertake development or commercialization activities at our own expense. If we elect to increase our expenditures to fund development or commercialization activities on our own, we may need to obtain additional capital, which may not be available to us on acceptable terms or at all. If we do not have sufficient funds, we may not be able to further develop product candidates or bring them to market and generate product revenue.
If we enter into collaborations to develop and potentially commercialize any product candidates, we may not be able to realize the benefit of such transactions if we or our collaborator elect not to exercise the rights granted under the agreement or if we or our collaborator are unable to successfully integrate a product candidate into existing operations. In addition, if our agreement with any of our collaborators terminates, our access to technology and intellectual property licensed to us by that collaborator may be restricted or terminate entirely, which may delay our continued development of our product candidates utilizing the collaborator’s technology or intellectual property or require us to stop development of those product candidates completely. We may also find it more difficult to find a suitable replacement collaborator or attract new collaborators, and our development programs may be delayed or the perception of us in the business and financial communities could be adversely affected. Many of the risks relating to product development, regulatory approval, and commercialization described in this “Risk Factors” section also apply to the activities of our collaborators and any negative impact on our collaborators may adversely affect us.
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We contract with third parties for the manufacture of materials for our research programs and preclinical studies and expect to continue to do so for any future clinical trials and for commercialization of any product candidates that we may develop. This reliance on third parties carries and may increase the risk that we will not have sufficient quantities of such materials or product candidates that we may develop and commercialize, or that such supply will not be available to us at an acceptable cost, which could delay, prevent, or impair our development or commercialization efforts.
We do not currently have any manufacturing facilities. We currently rely on third party manufacturers for the manufacture of our materials for preclinical studies and expect to continue to do so, including for any future clinical trials, unless we choose to establish our own manufacturing facilities for preclinical studies, any future clinical trials and for commercial supply of any product candidates that we may develop.
We may be unable to establish any further agreements with third party manufacturers or to do so on acceptable terms. Even if we are able to establish agreements with third party manufacturers, reliance on third party manufacturers entails additional risks, including:

the possible breach of the manufacturing agreement by the third party;

the possible termination or nonrenewal of the agreement by the third party at a time that is costly or inconvenient for us;

reliance on the third party for regulatory compliance, quality assurance, safety, and pharmacovigilance and related reporting; and

the inability to produce required volume in a timely manner and to quality standards.
Third party manufacturers may not be able to comply with cGMP regulations or similar regulatory requirements outside the United States. Our third party manufacturers may have little or no experience manufacturing materials that we require for our preclinical studies and future clinical trials. Our failure, or the failure of our third party manufacturers, to comply with applicable regulations could result in clinical holds on our trials, sanctions being imposed on us, including fines, injunctions, civil penalties, delays, suspension or withdrawal of approvals, license revocations, seizures or recalls of product candidates, operating restrictions, and criminal prosecutions, any of which could significantly and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.
Any product candidates that we may develop may compete with other product candidates and products for access to manufacturing facilities. There are a limited number of manufacturers that operate under cGMP regulations and that might be capable of manufacturing for us.
Any performance failure on the part of our existing or future manufacturers could delay any future clinical development or marketing approval. We do not currently have arrangements in place for redundant supply for any of our product candidates. If any one of our current contract manufacturers cannot perform as agreed, we may be required to replace that manufacturer and may incur added costs and delays in identifying and qualifying any such replacement. Furthermore, securing and reserving production capacity with contract manufacturers may result in significant costs.
Our current and anticipated future dependence upon others for the manufacture of any product candidates we may develop may adversely affect our future profit margins and our ability to commercialize any product candidates that receive marketing approval on a timely and competitive basis.
Manufacturing issues may arise that could increase product and regulatory approval costs or delay commercialization.
As we scale up manufacturing of our product candidates and conduct required stability testing, we may encounter product, packaging, equipment and process-related issues that may require refinement or resolution in order to proceed with any future clinical trials and obtain regulatory approval for commercial marketing. In the future, we may identify impurities, which could result in increased scrutiny by regulatory authorities, delays in our clinical programs and regulatory approval, increases in our operating expenses, or failure to obtain or maintain approval for our product candidates.
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We depend on third party suppliers for key raw materials used in the manufacturing processes for our product candidates, and the loss of these third party suppliers or their inability to supply us with adequate raw materials could harm our business.
We rely on third party suppliers for the raw materials required for the production of our product candidates. Our dependence on these third party suppliers and the challenges we may face in obtaining adequate supplies of raw materials involve several risks, including limited control over pricing, availability, quality and delivery schedules. As a small company, our negotiation leverage is limited and we are likely to get lower priority than our competitors who are larger than we are. We cannot be certain that our suppliers will continue to provide us with the quantities of these raw materials that we require or satisfy our anticipated specifications and quality requirements. Any supply interruption in limited or sole sourced raw materials could materially harm the ability to manufacture our product candidates until a new source of supply, if any, could be identified and qualified. We may be unable to find a sufficient alternative supply channel in a reasonable time or on commercially reasonable terms. Any performance failure on the part of our suppliers could delay the development and potential commercialization of our product candidates, including limiting supplies necessary for future clinical trials and regulatory approvals, which would have a material adverse effect on our business.
We currently rely on a small number of suppliers for manufacturing our drug products.
We currently rely on a small number of chemical manufacturers for our drug products. If our suppliers were to have their businesses disrupted either inside or outside of the United States, we might be unable to find a replacement for such source in a timely manner, if at all. If a manufacturer were to be acquired by a competitor, the competitor may elect not to continue to manufacture for us at all. The loss of a supplier could cause manufacturing delays given the strict licensing requirements in this industry. If for any reason we were to change any one of our third-party contract manufacturers, we could face difficulties that might adversely affect our ability to maintain an adequate supply of our products, and we would incur costs and expend resources in the course of making the change. Moreover, we might not be able to obtain terms as favorable as those received from our current third-party contract manufacturers, which in turn would increase our costs.
We are dependent on third-party manufacturers which are located in China, and any inability to obtain products from any such manufacturers could harm our business.

Many of our current and future product candidates are expected to be manufactured in whole or in part by companies that are located in China. This concentration exposes us to risks associated with doing business globally. The political, legal and cultural environment in China is rapidly evolving, and any change that impairs our ability to obtain products from manufacturers in that region could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition.

Political uncertainty in the United States may result in significant changes to U.S. trade policies, treaties and tariffs, potentially involving trade policies and tariffs regarding China, including the potential disallowance of tax deductions for imported merchandise or the imposition of unilateral tariffs on imported products.

These developments, or the perception that any of them could occur, may have a material adverse effect on global economic conditions and the stability of global financial markets, and may significantly reduce global trade and, in particular, trade between China and the United States. Any of these factors could depress economic activity, restrict our sourcing from suppliers and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations and affect our strategy. We cannot predict whether any of the countries in which our product candidates or raw materials are currently manufactured or may be manufactured in the future will be subject to additional trade restrictions imposed by the United States and foreign governments, nor can we predict the likelihood, type or effect of any such restrictions.

Moreover, the potential for recurrence of the COVID-19 pandemic in China could impair our ability to obtain product candidates and raw materials from manufacturers in that region or to
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obtain products at marketable rates. Such events may result in the need for us to consider and establish relationships with manufacturers in different countries from which to source our product candidates and raw materials and could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition.
Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property
If we are unable to obtain and maintain patent protection for any product candidates we develop, our competitors could develop and commercialize products or technology similar or identical to ours, and our ability to successfully commercialize any product candidates we may develop, and our technology may be adversely affected.
Our success depends in large part on our ability to obtain and maintain patent protection in the United States and other countries for compositions of matter for each of our product candidates and any other technologies we may develop. We seek to protect our proprietary position by prosecuting intellectual property and filing patent applications in the United States and abroad relating to our product candidates, as well as other technologies that are important to our business. Given that the development of our technology and product candidates is at an early stage, our intellectual property portfolio with respect to certain aspects of our technology and product candidates is also at an early stage. We have filed patent applications on these aspects of our technology and core product candidates; however, there can be no assurance that any such patent applications will issue as granted patents. Furthermore, in some cases, we have only filed provisional patent applications on certain aspects of our technology and product candidates and each of these provisional patent applications is not eligible to become an issued patent until, among other things, we file a non-provisional patent application within 12 months of the filing date of the applicable provisional patent application. Any failure to file a non-provisional patent application within this timeline could cause us to lose the ability to obtain patent protection for the inventions disclosed in the associated provisional patent applications. Furthermore, in some cases, we may not be able to obtain issued claims covering compositions relating to our product candidates, as well as other technologies that are important to our business, and instead may need to rely on filing patent applications with claims covering a method of use and/or method of manufacture for protection of such product candidates and other technologies. There can be no assurance that any such patent applications will issue as granted patents, and even if they do issue, such patent claims may be insufficient to prevent third parties, such as our competitors, from utilizing our technology. Any failure to obtain or maintain patent protection with respect to our product candidates could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.
If any of our owned or in-licensed patent applications do not issue as patents in any jurisdiction, we may not be able to compete effectively.
Changes in either the patent laws or their interpretation in the United States and other countries may diminish our ability to protect our inventions, obtain, maintain, and enforce our intellectual property rights and, more generally, could affect the value of our intellectual property or narrow the scope of our owned and licensed patents. With respect to both in-licensed and owned intellectual property, we cannot predict whether the patent applications we and our licensors are currently pursuing will issue as patents in any particular jurisdiction or whether the claims of any issued patents will provide sufficient protection from competitors or other third parties.
The patent prosecution process is expensive, time-consuming, and complex, and we may not be able to file, prosecute, maintain, enforce, or license all necessary or desirable patent applications at a reasonable cost or in a timely manner. It is also possible that we will fail to identify patentable aspects of our research and development output in time to obtain patent protection. Although we enter into non-disclosure and confidentiality agreements with parties who have access to confidential or patentable aspects of our research and development output, such as our employees, corporate collaborators, outside scientific collaborators, CROs, contract manufacturers, consultants, advisors, and other third parties, any of these parties may breach the agreements and disclose such output before a patent application is filed, thereby jeopardizing our ability to seek patent protection. In addition, our ability to obtain and maintain valid and enforceable patents depends on whether the differences between our inventions and the prior art allow our
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inventions to be patentable over the prior art. Furthermore, publications of discoveries in the scientific literature often lag behind the actual discoveries, and patent applications in the United States and other jurisdictions are typically not published until 18 months after filing, or in some cases not at all. Therefore, we cannot be certain that we or our licensors were the first to make the inventions claimed in any of our owned or licensed patents or pending patent applications, or that we or our licensors were the first to file for patent protection of such inventions.
If the scope of any patent protection we obtain is not sufficiently broad, or if we lose any of our patent protection, our ability to prevent our competitors from commercializing similar or identical technology and product candidates would be adversely affected.
The patent position of pharmaceutical companies generally is highly uncertain, involves complex legal and factual questions, and has been the subject of much litigation in recent years. As a result, the issuance, scope, validity, enforceability, and commercial value of our patent rights are highly uncertain. Our owned or in-licensed pending and future patent applications may not result in patents being issued which protect our product candidates or other technologies or which effectively prevent others from commercializing competitive technologies and product candidates.
Moreover, the coverage claimed in a patent application can be significantly reduced before the patent is issued, and its scope can be reinterpreted after issuance. Even if patent applications we license or own currently or in the future issue as patents, they may not issue in a form that will provide us with any meaningful protection, prevent competitors or other third parties from competing with us, or otherwise provide us with any competitive advantage. Any patents that we own or in-license may be challenged, narrowed, circumvented, or invalidated by third parties. Consequently, we do not know whether our product candidates or other technologies will be protectable or remain protected by valid and enforceable patents. Our competitors or other third parties may be able to circumvent our patents by developing similar or alternative technologies or products in a non-infringing manner which could materially adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
The issuance of a patent is not conclusive as to its inventorship, scope, validity, or enforceability, and our patents may be challenged in the courts or patent offices in the United States and abroad. We or our licensors may be subject to a third party pre-issuance submission of prior art to the United States Patent and Trademark Office, or USPTO, or become involved in opposition, derivation, revocation, reexamination, post-grant and inter partes review, or interference proceedings or other similar proceedings challenging our owned or licensed patent rights. An adverse determination in any such submission, proceeding or litigation could reduce the scope of, or invalidate or render unenforceable, our owned or in-licensed patent rights, allow third parties to commercialize our product candidates or other technologies and compete directly with us, without payment to us, or result in our inability to manufacture or commercialize products without infringing third party patent rights. Moreover, we, or one of our licensors, may have to participate in interference proceedings declared by the USPTO to determine priority of invention or in post-grant challenge proceedings, such as oppositions in a foreign patent office, that challenge our or our licensor’s priority of invention or other features of patentability with respect to our owned or in-licensed patents and patent applications. Such challenges may result in loss of patent rights, loss of exclusivity, or in patent claims being narrowed, invalidated, or held unenforceable, which could limit our ability to stop others from using or commercializing similar or identical technology and products, or limit the duration of the patent protection of our product candidates and other technologies. Such proceedings also may result in substantial cost and require significant time from our scientists and management, even if the eventual outcome is favorable to us.
In addition, given the amount of time required for the development, testing, and regulatory review of new product candidates, patents protecting such product candidates might expire before or shortly after such product candidates are commercialized. As a result, our intellectual property may not provide us with sufficient rights to exclude others from commercializing products similar or identical to ours.
Some of our owned and in-licensed patents and patent applications are, and may in the future be, co-owned with third parties. For example, we co-own certain patents and patent applications relating to our prodrug technology to be applied to protein kinase inhibitors for oncology and non-oncology indications that was jointly developed with Sphaera Pharma Pte. Ltd., or Sphaera. Our exclusive rights to certain of
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these patents and patent applications are dependent, in part, on operating agreements between the joint owners of such patents and patent applications. If our licensors or co-owners fail to sustain the grant of exclusive licenses to us or we are otherwise unable to maintain such exclusive rights, our licensors or co-owners may be able to license these rights to other third parties, including our competitors, and our competitors could market competing products and technology. In addition, we may need the cooperation of our licensors and co-owners in order to enforce such patents against third parties, and such cooperation may not be provided to us. Any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, business, financial conditions, results of operations, and prospects.
If we fail to comply with our obligations in the agreements under which we license intellectual property rights from third parties or otherwise experience disruptions to our business relationships with our licensors, we could lose license rights that are important to our business.
We have entered into license agreements with third parties and may need to obtain additional licenses from others to advance our research or allow commercialization of product candidates. It is possible that we may be unable to obtain additional licenses at a reasonable cost or on reasonable terms, if at all. In that event, we may be required to expend significant time and resources to redesign our technology, product candidates, or the methods for manufacturing them or to develop or license replacement technology, all of which may not be feasible on a technical or commercial basis. If we are unable to do so, we may be unable to develop or commercialize the affected product candidates, which could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects significantly. We cannot provide any assurances that third party patents do not exist which might be enforced against our current technology, manufacturing methods, product candidates, or future methods or products resulting in either an injunction prohibiting our manufacture or future sales, or, with respect to our future sales, an obligation on our part to pay royalties and/or other forms of compensation to third parties, which could be significant.
In addition, each of our license agreements, and we expect our future agreements, will impose various development, diligence, commercialization, and other obligations on us. Certain of our license agreements also require us to meet development timelines, or to exercise commercially reasonable efforts to develop and commercialize licensed products, in order to maintain the licenses. In spite of our efforts, our licensors might conclude that we have materially breached our obligations under such license agreements and might therefore terminate the license agreements, thereby removing or limiting our ability to develop and commercialize products and technology covered by these license agreements. If these in-licenses are terminated, or if the underlying patents fail to provide the intended exclusivity, competitors or other third parties would have the freedom to seek regulatory approval of, and to market, products identical to ours and we may be required to cease our development and commercialization of certain of our product candidates. Any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, business, prospects, financial conditions, results of operations, and prospects.
Moreover, disputes may arise regarding intellectual property subject to a licensing agreement, including:

the scope of rights granted under the license agreement and other interpretation-related issues;

the extent to which our technology and processes infringe on intellectual property of the licensor that is not subject to the licensing agreement;

the sublicensing of patent and other rights under our collaborative development relationships;

our diligence obligations under the license agreement and what activities satisfy those diligence obligations;

the inventorship and ownership of inventions and know-how resulting from the joint creation or use of intellectual property by our licensors and us and our partners; and

the priority of invention of patented technology.
In addition, the agreements under which we currently license intellectual property or technology from third parties are complex, and certain provisions in such agreements may be susceptible to multiple interpretations. The resolution of any contract interpretation disagreement that may arise could narrow
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what we believe to be the scope of our rights to the relevant intellectual property or technology, or increase what we believe to be our financial or other obligations under the relevant agreement, either of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations. Moreover, if disputes over intellectual property that we have licensed prevent or impair our ability to maintain our current licensing arrangements on commercially acceptable terms, we may be unable to successfully develop and commercialize the affected product candidates, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial conditions and results of operations.
We may not be able to protect our intellectual property and proprietary rights throughout the world.
Filing, prosecuting, and defending patents on our product candidates and other technologies in all countries throughout the world would be prohibitively expensive, and the laws of foreign countries may not protect our rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States. Consequently, we may not be able to prevent third parties from practicing our inventions in all countries outside the United States, or from selling or importing products made using our inventions in and into the United States or other jurisdictions. Competitors may use our technologies in jurisdictions where we have not obtained patent protection to develop their own products and, further, may export otherwise infringing products to territories where we have patent protection but enforcement is not as strong as that in the United States. These products may compete with our products, and our patents or other intellectual property rights may not be effective or sufficient to prevent them from competing.
Many companies have encountered significant problems in protecting and defending intellectual property rights in foreign jurisdictions. The legal systems of certain countries, particularly certain developing countries, do not favor the enforcement of patents, trade secrets, and other intellectual property protection, particularly those relating to pharmaceutical products, which could make it difficult for us to stop the infringement of our patents or marketing of competing products in violation of our intellectual property and proprietary rights generally. Proceedings to enforce our intellectual property and proprietary rights in foreign jurisdictions could result in substantial costs and divert our efforts and attention from other aspects of our business, could put our patents at risk of being invalidated or interpreted narrowly, could put our patent applications at risk of not issuing, and could provoke third parties to assert claims against us. We may not prevail in any lawsuits that we initiate, and the damages or other remedies awarded, if any, may not be commercially meaningful. Accordingly, our efforts to enforce our intellectual property and proprietary rights around the world may be inadequate to obtain a significant commercial advantage from the intellectual property that we develop or license.
Many countries have compulsory licensing laws under which a patent owner may be compelled to grant licenses to third parties. In addition, many countries limit the enforceability of patents against government agencies or government contractors. In these countries, the patent owner may have limited remedies, which could materially diminish the value of such patent. If we or any of our licensors are forced to grant a license to third parties with respect to any patents relevant to our business, our competitive position may be impaired, and this may have material adverse effects on our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
Obtaining and maintaining our patent protection depends on compliance with various procedural, document submission, fee payment, and other requirements imposed by government patent agencies, and our patent protection could be reduced or eliminated for non-compliance with these requirements.
Periodic maintenance fees, renewal fees, annuity fees, and various other government fees on patents and applications will be due to be paid to the USPTO and various government patent agencies outside of the United States over the lifetime of our owned or licensed patents and applications. In certain circumstances, we rely on our licensing partners to pay these fees due to U.S. and non-U.S. patent agencies. The USPTO and various non-U.S. government agencies require compliance with several procedural, documentary, fee payment, and other similar provisions during the patent application process. We are also dependent on our licensors to take the necessary action to comply with these requirements with respect to our licensed intellectual property. In some cases, an inadvertent lapse can be cured by payment of a late fee or by other means in accordance with the applicable rules. There are situations, however, in which non-compliance can result in abandonment or lapse of the patent or patent application, resulting in a
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partial or complete loss of patent rights in the relevant jurisdiction. In such an event, potential competitors might be able to enter the market with similar or identical products or technology, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
Changes in U.S. patent law could diminish the value of patents in general, thereby impairing our ability to protect our products.
Changes in either the patent laws or interpretation of the patent laws in the United States could increase the uncertainties and costs surrounding the prosecution of patent applications and the enforcement or defense of issued patents. Assuming that other requirements for patentability are met, prior to March 2013, in the United States, the first to invent the claimed invention was entitled to the patent, while outside the United States, the first to file a patent application was entitled to the patent. After March 2013, under the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act, or the America Invents Act, enacted in September 2011, the United States transitioned to a first inventor to file system in which, assuming that other requirements for patentability are met, the first inventor to file a patent application will be entitled to the patent on an invention regardless of whether a third party was the first to invent the claimed invention. A third party that files a patent application in the USPTO after March 2013, but before us, could therefore be awarded a patent covering an invention of ours even if we had made the invention before it was made by such third party. This will require us to be cognizant going forward of the time from invention to filing of a patent application. Since patent applications in the United States and most other countries are confidential for a period of time after filing or until issuance, we cannot be certain that we or our licensors were the first to either (i) file any patent application related to our product candidates or other technologies or (ii) invent any of the inventions claimed in our or our licensor’s patents or patent applications.
The America Invents Act also includes a number of significant changes that affect the way patent applications will be prosecuted and also may affect patent litigation. These include allowing third party submission of prior art to the USPTO during patent prosecution and additional procedures to attack the validity of a patent by USPTO administered post-grant proceedings, including post-grant review, inter partes review, and derivation proceedings. Because of a lower evidentiary standard in USPTO proceedings compared to the evidentiary standard in United States federal courts necessary to invalidate a patent claim, a third party could potentially provide evidence in a USPTO proceeding sufficient for the USPTO to hold a claim invalid even though the same evidence would be insufficient to invalidate the claim if first presented in a district court action. Accordingly, a third party may attempt to use the USPTO procedures to invalidate our patent claims that would not have been invalidated if first challenged by the third party as a defendant in a district court action. Therefore, the America Invents Act and its implementation could increase the uncertainties and costs surrounding the prosecution of our owned or in-licensed patent applications and the enforcement or defense of our owned or in-licensed issued patents, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition, the patent positions of companies in the development and commercialization of pharmaceuticals are particularly uncertain. Recent U.S. Supreme Court rulings have narrowed the scope of patent protection available in certain circumstances and weakened the rights of patent owners in certain situations. This combination of events has created uncertainty with respect to the validity and enforceability of patents, once obtained. Depending on future actions by the U.S. Congress, the federal courts, and the USPTO, the laws and regulations governing patents could change in unpredictable ways that could have a material adverse effect on our existing patent portfolio and our ability to protect and enforce our intellectual property in the future.
Issued patents covering our product candidates and other technologies could be found invalid or unenforceable if challenged in court or before administrative bodies in the United States or abroad.
If we or one of our licensors initiated legal proceedings against a third party to enforce a patent covering our product candidates or other technologies, the defendant could counterclaim that such patent is invalid or unenforceable. In patent litigation in the United States, defendant counterclaims alleging invalidity or unenforceability are commonplace. Grounds for a validity challenge could be an alleged failure to meet any of several statutory requirements, including lack of novelty, obviousness, or non-enablement. Grounds for an unenforceability assertion could be an allegation that someone connected with prosecution
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of the patent withheld relevant information from the USPTO, or made a misleading statement, during prosecution. Third parties may raise claims challenging the validity or enforceability of our owned or in-licensed patents before administrative bodies in the United States or abroad, even outside the context of litigation. Such mechanisms include re-examination, post-grant review, inter partes review, interference proceedings, derivation proceedings, and equivalent proceedings in foreign jurisdictions (e.g., opposition proceedings). Such proceedings could result in the revocation of, cancellation of, or amendment to our patents in such a way that they no longer cover product candidates or other technologies. The outcome following legal assertions of invalidity and unenforceability is unpredictable. With respect to the validity question, for example, we cannot be certain that there is no invalidating prior art, of which we or our licensing partners and the patent examiner were unaware during prosecution. If a third party were to prevail on a legal assertion of invalidity or unenforceability, we would lose at least part, and perhaps all, of the patent protection on our product candidates or other technologies. Such a loss of patent protection would have a material adverse impact on our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
If we do not obtain patent term extension and data exclusivity for any product candidates we may develop, our business may be materially harmed.
Depending upon the timing, duration and specifics of any FDA marketing approval of any product candidates we may develop, one or more of our owned or in-licensed U.S. patents may be eligible for limited patent term extension under the Hatch-Waxman Act. The Hatch-Waxman Act permits a patent term extension of up to five years as compensation for patent term lost during the FDA regulatory review process. A patent term extension cannot extend the remaining term of a patent beyond a total of 14 years from the date of product approval, only one patent may be extended and only those claims covering the approved drug, a method for using it, or a method for manufacturing it may be extended. Similar extensions as compensation for patent term lost during regulatory review processes are also available in certain foreign countries and territories, such as in Europe under a Supplementary Patent Certificate. However, we may not be granted an extension in the United States and/or foreign countries and territories because of, for example, failing to exercise due diligence during the testing phase or regulatory review process, failing to apply within applicable deadlines, failing to apply prior to expiration of relevant patents, or otherwise failing to satisfy applicable requirements. Moreover, the applicable time period or the scope of patent protection afforded could be less than we request. If we are unable to obtain patent term extension or the term of any such extension is shorter than what we request, our competitors may obtain approval of competing products following our patent expiration, and could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
We may be subject to claims challenging the inventorship of our patents and other intellectual property.
We or our licensors may be subject to claims that former employees, collaborators or other third parties have an interest in our owned or in-licensed patents, trade secrets, or other intellectual property as an inventor or co-inventor. For example, we or our licensors may have inventorship disputes arise from conflicting obligations of employees, consultants or others who are involved in developing our product candidates or other technologies. Litigation may be necessary to defend against these and other claims challenging inventorship or our licensors’ ownership of our owned or in-licensed patents, trade secrets or other intellectual property. If we or our licensors fail in defending any such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable intellectual property rights, such as exclusive ownership of, or right to use, intellectual property that is important to our product candidates and other technologies. Even if we are successful in defending against such claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and be a distraction to management and other employees. Any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
Some intellectual property may have been discovered through government funded programs and thus may be subject to federal regulations such as “march-in” rights, certain reporting requirements and a preference for U.S.-based companies. Compliance with such regulations may limit our exclusive rights, and limit our ability to contract with non-U.S. manufacturers.
All of our novel and in-licensed compounds were funded in whole or in part by the U.S. government, and are therefore subject to certain federal regulations. When new technologies are developed with U.S.
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government funding, the U.S. government generally obtains certain rights in any resulting patents, including a non-exclusive license authorizing the U.S. government to use the invention or to have others use the invention on its behalf, commonly referred to as march-in rights. The U.S. government’s rights may also permit it to disclose the funded inventions and technology to third parties and to exercise march-in rights to use or allow third parties to use the technology we have licensed that was developed using U.S. government funding. The U.S. government may exercise its march-in rights if it determines that action is necessary because we fail to achieve practical application of the government-funded technology, or because action is necessary to alleviate health or safety needs, to meet requirements of federal regulations, or to give preference to U.S. industry. In addition, our rights in such inventions may be subject to certain requirements to manufacture products embodying such inventions in the United States in certain circumstances and if this requirement is not waived. Any exercise by the U.S. government of such rights or by any third party of its reserved rights could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition, and results of operations.
If we are unable to protect the confidentiality of our trade secrets, our business and competitive position would be harmed.
In addition to seeking patents for our product candidates and other technologies, we also rely on trade secrets and confidentiality agreements to protect our unpatented know-how, technology, and other proprietary information and to maintain our competitive position. Trade secrets and know-how can be difficult to protect. We expect our trade secrets and know-how to over time be disseminated within the industry through independent development, the publication of journal articles describing the methodology, and the movement of personnel from academic to industry scientific positions. In addition, because we may collaborate with various collaborators on the development and commercialization of one or more of our product candidates and because we may rely on third parties to manufacture our product candidates, we may be required, at times, to share trade secrets with them prior to disclosing proprietary information. We seek to protect these trade secrets and other proprietary technology, in part, by entering into confidentiality agreements and, if applicable, material transfer agreements, consulting agreements or other similar agreements with parties who have access to them, such as our employees, corporate collaborators, outside scientific collaborators, CROs, contract manufacturers, consultants, advisors, and other third parties. We also enter into confidentiality and invention or patent assignment agreements with our employees and consultants as well as train our employees not to bring or use proprietary information or technology from former employers to us or in their work, and remind former employees when they leave their employment of their confidentiality obligations. These agreements typically limit the rights of the third parties to use or disclose our confidential information, including our trade secrets. Despite the contractual provisions employed when working with third parties, the need to share trade secrets and other confidential information increases the risk that such trade secrets become known by our competitors, are inadvertently incorporated into the technology of others, or are disclosed or used in violation of these agreements. We cannot guarantee that we have entered into such agreements with each party that may have or have had access to our trade secrets or proprietary technology and processes. Despite our efforts, any of these parties may breach the agreements and disclose our proprietary information, including our trade secrets, and we may not be able to obtain adequate remedies for such breaches. Enforcing a claim that a party illegally disclosed or misappropriated a trade secret is difficult, expensive, and time-consuming, and the outcome is unpredictable. In addition, some courts inside and outside the United States are less willing or unwilling to protect trade secrets. If any of our trade secrets were to be lawfully obtained or independently developed by a competitor or other third party, we would have no right to prevent them from using that technology or information to compete with us. Given that our proprietary position is based, in part, on our know-how and trade secrets, if any of our trade secrets were to be disclosed to or independently developed by a competitor or other third party, our competitive position would be materially and adversely harmed, and may have an adverse effect on our business.
In addition, these agreements typically restrict the ability of our advisors, employees, third party contractors and consultants to publish data potentially relating to our trade secrets, although our agreements may contain certain limited publication rights. For example, any academic institution that we may collaborate with may be granted rights to publish data arising out of such collaboration, provided that we are notified in advance and given the opportunity to delay publication for a limited time period in order
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for us to secure patent protection of intellectual property rights arising from the collaboration, in addition to the opportunity to remove confidential or trade secret information from any such publication. Our existing collaborative research and development programs may require us to share trade secrets under the terms of our research and development collaborations or similar agreements. Despite our efforts to protect our trade secrets, our competitors may discover our trade secrets, either through breach of our agreements with third parties, independent development or publication of information by any of our third party collaborators. A competitor’s discovery of our trade secrets would impair our competitive position and have an adverse impact on our business.
We may be subject to claims that our employees, consultants, or advisors have wrongfully used or disclosed alleged trade secrets of their current or former employers or claims asserting ownership of what we regard as our own intellectual property.
Many of our employees, consultants, and advisors are currently or were previously employed at universities or other pharmaceutical companies, which may include competitors and potential competitors. Although we try to ensure that our employees, consultants, and advisors do not use the proprietary information or know-how of others in their work for us, we may be subject to claims that we or these individuals have used or disclosed intellectual property, including trade secrets or other proprietary information, of any such individual’s current or former employer. Litigation may be necessary to defend against these claims. If we fail in defending any such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable intellectual property rights or personnel. Even if we are successful in defending against such claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and be a distraction to management.
In addition, while it is our policy to require our employees and contractors who may be involved in the conception or development of intellectual property to execute agreements assigning such intellectual property to us, we may be unsuccessful in executing such an agreement with each party who, in fact, conceives or develops intellectual property that we regard as our own. The assignment of intellectual property rights may not be self-executing, or the assignment agreements may be breached, and we may be forced to bring claims against third parties, or defend claims that they may bring against us, to determine the ownership of what we regard as our intellectual property. Such claims could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
Third party claims of intellectual property infringement, misappropriation or other violation against us, our licensors or our collaborators may prevent or delay the development and commercialization of our product candidates and other technologies.
The field of discovering treatments for our target indications is highly competitive and dynamic. Due to the research and development that is taking place in this field, the intellectual property landscape is in flux, and it may remain uncertain in the future. As such, there may be significant intellectual property related litigation and proceedings relating to our owned and in-licensed, and other third party, intellectual property and proprietary rights in the future.
Our commercial success depends in part on our, our licensors’ and our collaborators’ ability to avoid infringing, misappropriating and otherwise violating the patents and other intellectual property rights of third parties. There is a substantial amount of complex litigation involving patents and other intellectual property rights in the pharmaceutical industry, as well as administrative proceedings for challenging patents, including interference, derivation and reexamination proceedings before the USPTO or oppositions and other comparable proceedings in foreign jurisdictions. As discussed above, recently, due to changes in U.S. law referred to as patent reform, new procedures including inter partes review and post-grant review have been implemented. As stated above, this reform adds uncertainty to the possibility of challenge to our patents in the future.
Numerous U.S. and foreign issued patents and pending patent applications owned by third parties exist relating to the fields in which we are developing our product candidates. As the pharmaceutical industry expands and more patents are issued, the risk increases that our product candidates and other technologies may give rise to claims of infringement of the patent rights of others. We cannot assure you that our product candidates and other technologies that we have developed, are developing or may develop in the future will not infringe existing or future patents owned by third parties. We may not be aware of patents
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that have already been issued and that a third party, for example, a competitor in the fields in which we are developing our product candidates, and other technologies might assert are infringed by our current or future product candidates or other technologies, including claims to compositions, formulations, methods of manufacture or methods of use or treatment that cover product candidates or other technologies. It is also possible that patents owned by third parties of which we are aware, but which we do not believe are relevant to our product candidates or other technologies, could be found to be infringed by our product candidates or other technologies. In addition, because patent applications can take many years to issue, there may be currently pending patent applications that may later result in issued patents that our product candidates or other technologies may infringe.
Third parties may have patents or obtain patents in the future and claim that the manufacture, use or sale of our product candidates or other technologies infringes upon these patents. In the event that any third party claims that we infringe their patents or that we are otherwise employing their proprietary technology without authorization and initiates litigation against us, even if we believe such claims are without merit, a court of competent jurisdiction could hold that such patents are valid, enforceable and infringed by our product candidates or other technologies. In this case, the holders of such patents may be able to block our ability to commercialize the applicable product candidate or technology unless we obtain a license under the applicable patents, or until such patents expire or are finally determined to be held invalid or unenforceable. Such a license may not be available on commercially reasonable terms or at all. Even if we are able to obtain a license, the license would likely obligate us to pay license fees or royalties or both, and the rights granted to us might be nonexclusive, which could result in our competitors gaining access to the same intellectual property. If we are unable to obtain a necessary license to a third party patent on commercially reasonable terms, we may be unable to commercialize our product candidates or other technologies, or such commercialization efforts may be significantly delayed, which could in turn significantly harm our business.
Defense of infringement claims, regardless of their merit, would involve substantial litigation expense and would be a substantial diversion of management and other employee resources from our business, and may impact our reputation. In the event of a successful claim of infringement against us, we may be enjoined from further developing or commercializing our infringing product candidates or other technologies. In addition, we may have to pay substantial damages, including treble damages and attorneys’ fees for willful infringement, obtain one or more licenses from third parties, pay royalties and/or redesign our infringing product candidates or technologies, which may be impossible or require substantial time and monetary expenditure. In that event, we would be unable to further develop and commercialize our product candidates or other technologies, which could harm our business significantly.
Engaging in litigation to defend against third parties alleging that we have infringed, misappropriated or otherwise violated their patents or other intellectual property rights is very expensive, particularly for a company of our size, and time-consuming. Some of our competitors may be able to sustain the costs of litigation or administrative proceedings more effectively than we can because of greater financial resources. Patent litigation and other proceedings may also absorb significant management time. Uncertainties resulting from the initiation and continuation of patent litigation or other proceedings against us could impair our ability to compete in the marketplace. The occurrence of any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition or results of operations.
We may become involved in lawsuits to protect or enforce our patents and other intellectual property rights, which could be expensive, time consuming, and unsuccessful.
Competitors may infringe our patents or the patents of our licensing partners, or we may be required to defend against claims of infringement. In addition, our patents or the patents of our licensing partners also may become involved in inventorship, priority or validity disputes. To counter or defend against such claims can be expensive and time consuming. In an infringement proceeding, a court may decide that a patent owned or in-licensed by us is invalid or unenforceable, the other party’s use of our patented technology falls under the safe harbor to patent infringement under 35 U.S.C. §271(e)(1), or may refuse to stop the other party from using the technology at issue on the grounds that our owned and in-licensed patents do not cover the technology in question. An adverse result in any litigation proceeding could put one or more of our owned or in-licensed patents at risk of being invalidated or interpreted narrowly. Furthermore, because of the substantial amount of discovery required in connection with intellectual
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property litigation, there is a risk that some of our confidential information could be compromised by disclosure during this type of litigation.
Even if resolved in our favor, litigation or other legal proceedings relating to intellectual property claims may cause us to incur significant expenses and could distract our personnel from their normal responsibilities. In addition, there could be public announcements of the results of hearings, motions, or other interim proceedings or developments, and if securities analysts or investors perceive these results to be negative, it could have a substantial adverse effect on the price of our common stock. Such litigation or proceedings could substantially increase our operating losses and reduce the resources available for development activities or any future sales, marketing, or distribution activities. We may not have sufficient financial or other resources to conduct such litigation or proceedings adequately. Some of our competitors may be able to sustain the costs of such litigation or proceedings more effectively than we can because of their greater financial resources and more mature and developed intellectual property portfolios. Uncertainties resulting from the initiation and continuation of patent litigation or other proceedings could have a material adverse effect on our ability to compete in the marketplace.
If our trademarks and trade names are not adequately protected, then we may not be able to build name recognition in our markets of interest and our business may be adversely affected.
We have applied to register our primary trademarks in our primary market, the United States. Although the applications have been approved by the Trademark Office, and were unopposed when they were published for opposition, they have not issued to registration, and will not be registered until we use them on products in at least clinical trials, and file the required statements of use with the Trademark Office. We have not applied to register our trademarks in any foreign country and do not know if they are available for use or registration outside of the United States. In sum, we have not registered any of our trademarks or trade names in any of our geographic markets, and failure to secure those registrations could adversely affect our business. Our unregistered trademarks and trade names may be challenged, infringed, circumvented or declared generic or determined to be infringing on other marks. Indeed, since we have made no use of our trademarks or trade names in any clinical trials or commercially, it is unclear what enforceable rights, if any, we presently own in these marks or names, even in the United States. We may not be able to protect our rights to these trademarks and trade names, which we need to build name recognition among potential partners or customers in our markets of interest. At times, competitors or other third parties may adopt trade names or trademarks similar to ours, thereby impeding our ability to build brand identity and possibly leading to market confusion. In addition, there could be potential trade name or trademark infringement claims brought by owners of other trademarks which are prior to our trademarks or trade names, and which are confusingly similar to our marks or names. Over the long term, if we are unable to establish name recognition based on our trademarks and trade names, then we may not be able to compete effectively and our business may be adversely affected. Our efforts to enforce or protect our proprietary rights related to trademarks, trade secrets, domain names, copyrights or other intellectual property may be ineffective and could result in substantial costs and diversion of resources and could adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
Intellectual property rights do not necessarily address all potential threats.
The degree of future protection afforded by our intellectual property rights is uncertain because intellectual property rights have limitations and may not adequately protect our business or permit us to maintain our competitive advantage. For example:

others may be able to make products that are similar to our product candidates or utilize similar technology but that are not covered by the claims of the patents that we license or may own;

we, or our current or future licensors or collaborators, might not have been the first to file patent applications covering certain of our or their inventions;

others may independently develop similar or alternative technologies or duplicate any of our technologies without infringing our owned or licensed trade secret rights;

it is possible that our current or future pending owned or licensed patent applications will not lead to issued patents;
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issued patents that we hold rights to may be held invalid or unenforceable, including as a result of legal challenges by our competitors or other third parties;

our competitors or other third parties might conduct research and development activities in countries where we do not have patent rights and then use the information learned from such activities to develop competitive products for sale in our major commercial markets, provided those products do not infringe any patents we own or license in these markets;

we may not develop additional proprietary technologies that are patentable;

we might not be able to protect our trademarks and/or trade names;

the patents of others may harm our business; and

we may choose not to file a patent in order to maintain certain trade secrets or know-how, and a third party may subsequently file a patent covering such intellectual property.
Should any of these events occur, they could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Related to Our Operations
We will need to grow the size and capabilities of our organization, and we may experience difficulties in managing this growth.
As of June 30, 2020, we had two full-time employees, and five contractors to oversee critical activities and perform services on our behalf. Due to our limited employee headcount and dependence on contractors, we have operated with our employees and contractors conducting most of their activities outside of our offices. In addition, historically we have limited our cash compensation expenses. After our initial public offering, the cash compensation of our chief executive officer and our chief financial officer will increase as described in the Section titled “Executive Compensation,” and our cash compensation expense for employees and consultants will also increase.
As our development plans and strategies develop, and as we transition into operating as a public company, we must add a significant number of additional managerial, operational, financial, and other personnel, as well as expand our facilities. Future growth will impose significant added responsibilities on members of management, including:

identifying, recruiting, integrating, retaining, and motivating additional employees and consultants;

identifying and leasing suitable corporate, development and/or research facilities;

managing our internal development efforts effectively, including the clinical and FDA review process for our current and future product candidates, while complying with our contractual obligations to contractors and other third parties;

expanding our operational, financial and management controls, reporting systems, and procedures; and

managing increasing operational and managerial complexity.
Our future financial performance and our ability to continue to develop and, if approved, commercialize our product candidates will depend, in part, on our ability to effectively manage any future growth. Our management may also have to divert a disproportionate amount of its attention away from day-to-day activities in order to manage these growth activities. Our ability to successfully manage our expected growth is uncertain given the fact that only one of our executive officers has been a full-time employee since our incorporation in June 2010. This lack of full-time experience working together as a company may adversely impact our senior management team’s ability to effectively manage our business and growth.
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We currently rely, and for the foreseeable future will continue to rely, in substantial part on certain independent organizations, advisors and consultants to provide certain services. These independent organizations, advisors and consultants may be employed by entities other than us, and may have commitments that limit their time, resources and availability to perform services for us. There can be no assurance that the services of these independent organizations, advisors and consultants will continue to be available to us on a timely basis when needed, or that we can find qualified replacements if necessary. In addition, if we are unable to effectively manage our outsourced activities or if the quality or accuracy of the services provided by consultants is compromised for any reason, our clinical trials may be extended, delayed, or terminated, and we may not be able to obtain regulatory approval of our product candidates or otherwise advance our business. There can be no assurance that we will be able to manage our existing consultants or find other competent outside contractors and consultants on economically reasonable terms, if at all.
If we are not able to effectively expand our organization by hiring new employees and expanding our set of service providers, we may not be able to successfully implement the tasks necessary to further develop our product candidates and, accordingly, may not achieve our research, development, and commercialization goals.
Management has determined that we lack sufficient staff for adequate segregation of accounting functions and proper review of internally prepared financial statements and this may result in undetected errors within the financial statements.
During the preparation of our consolidated financial statements for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, we and our independent registered public accounting firm identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting related to the level of review of our internally prepared financial statements and lack of adequate segregation of accounting functions. As a result of the material weaknesses, we failed to timely detect and correct a misclassification of certain items within the statement of cash flows.
If we fail to achieve and maintain adequate internal controls, we may not be able to ensure that we can conclude in the future that we have effective internal controls over financial reporting. Moreover, effective internal controls, particularly those related to the accuracy of financial reporting and segregation, are necessary for us to produce reliable financial reports and are important to help prevent financial fraud. If we cannot provide reliable financial reports or prevent fraud, our business and operating results could be harmed, investors could lose confidence in our reported financial information, and the trading price of our stock could decline significantly. In addition, we cannot be certain that additional material weaknesses or other significant deficiencies in our internal controls will not be discovered in the future.
We are highly dependent on our key personnel, and if we are not successful in attracting, motivating and retaining highly qualified personnel, we may not be able to successfully implement our business strategy.
Our ability to compete in the highly competitive pharmaceutical industries depends upon our ability to attract, motivate and retain highly qualified managerial, scientific and medical personnel. We are highly dependent on our management, particularly on our Chief Executive Officer, Dr. Werner, and our scientific and medical contract employees and future personnel, including our board of directors and scientific advisory board, many of whom have significant experience in drug development and marketing, and who could prove hard to replace. The loss of the services provided by any of our executive officers, key employees and consultants, or other scientific and medical advisors, and our inability to find suitable replacements, could result in delays in the development of our product candidates and harm our business.
We conduct our operations in Atlanta, Georgia and Boston, Massachusetts, both regions that are headquarters to many other pharmaceutical companies and many academic and research institutions. Competition for skilled personnel is intense and the turnover rate can be high, which may limit our ability to hire and retain highly qualified personnel on acceptable terms or at all. Our consultants and advisors may be engaged or employed by entities other than us and may have commitments under consulting or advisory contracts with other entities that may limit their availability to us. We expect that we may need to recruit talent from outside of our regions, and doing so may be costly and difficult.
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To induce valuable employees to remain at our company, in addition to salary and cash incentives, we have provided and will continue to provide restricted stock and/or stock option grants that vest over time. The value to employees of these equity grants that vest over time may be significantly affected by movements in our stock price that are beyond our control, and may at any time be insufficient to counteract more lucrative offers from other companies. Although we have employment agreements with our key employees, these employment agreements, other than for Dr. Werner, provide for at-will employment, which means that any of our employees could leave our employment at any time, with or without notice. We do not maintain “key man” insurance policies on the lives of all of these individuals or the lives of any of our other employees. If we are unable to attract and incentivize quality personnel on acceptable terms, or at all, it may cause our business and operating results to suffer.
If we engage in acquisitions or strategic partnerships, this may increase our capital requirements, dilute our stockholders, cause us to incur debt or assume contingent liabilities, and subject us to other risks.
We may engage in various acquisitions and strategic partnerships in the future, including licensing or acquiring complementary products, intellectual property rights, technologies, or businesses. Any acquisition or strategic partnership may entail numerous risks, including:

increased operating expenses and cash requirements;

the potential issuance of our equity securities which would result in dilution to our stockholders;

assimilation of operations, intellectual property, products and product candidates of an acquired company, including difficulties associated with integrating new personnel;

the diversion of our management’s attention from our existing product programs and initiatives in pursuing such an acquisition or strategic partnership;

retention of key employees, the loss of key personnel, and uncertainties in our ability to maintain key business relationships;

risks and uncertainties associated with the other party to such a transaction, including the prospects of that party and their existing products or product candidates and regulatory approvals; and

our inability to generate revenue from acquired intellectual property, technology and/or products sufficient to meet our objectives or even to offset the associated transaction and maintenance costs.
In addition, if we undertake such a transaction, we may issue dilutive securities, assume or incur debt obligations, incur large one-time expenses and acquire intangible assets that could result in significant future amortization expense.
Our computer systems, or those used by our third-party research institution collaborators, CROs or other contractors or consultants, may fail or suffer security breaches.
Despite the implementation of security measures, our internal computer systems and those of our future CROs and other contractors and consultants may be vulnerable to damage from computer viruses and unauthorized access. Although to our knowledge we have not experienced any such material system failure or security breach to date, if such an event were to occur and cause interruptions in our operations, it could result in a material disruption of our development programs and our business operations. For example, the loss of clinical trial data from completed, ongoing or future clinical trials could result in delays in our regulatory approval efforts and significantly increase our costs to recover or reproduce the data. Likewise, we rely on our third party research institution collaborators for research and development of our product candidates and other third parties for the manufacture of our product candidates and to conduct clinical trials, and similar events relating to their computer systems could also have a material adverse effect on our business. To the extent that any disruption or security breach were to result in a loss of, or damage to, our data or systems, or inappropriate disclosure of confidential or proprietary information, we could incur liability and the further development and commercialization of our product candidates could be delayed.
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Business disruptions could seriously harm our future revenue and financial condition and increase our costs and expenses.
Our operations, and those of our third-party research institution collaborators, CROs, CMOs, suppliers, and other contractors and consultants, could be subject to earthquakes, power shortages, telecommunications failures, water shortages, floods, hurricanes, typhoons, fires, extreme weather conditions, medical epidemics such as COVID-19, and other natural or man-made disasters or business interruptions, for which we may not be insured. In addition, we rely on our third-party research institution collaborators for conducting research and development of our product candidates, and they may be affected by government shutdowns or withdrawn funding. The occurrence of any of these business disruptions could seriously harm our operations and financial condition and increase our costs and expenses. We rely on third party manufacturers to produce and process our product candidates. Our ability to obtain clinical supplies of our product candidates could be disrupted if the operations of these suppliers are affected by a man-made or natural disaster or other business interruption. Damage or extended periods of interruption to our facilities due to fire, natural disaster, power loss, communications failure, unauthorized entry or other events could cause us to cease or delay development of some or all of our product candidates.
Our business is subject to economic, political, regulatory and other risks associated with conducting business internationally.
Our business is subject to risks associated with conducting business internationally because some of our suppliers and collaborative relationships are located outside the United States. Accordingly, our future results could be harmed by a variety of factors, including:

economic weakness, including inflation, or political instability in particular non-U.S. economies and markets;

differing and changing regulatory requirements in non-U.S. countries;

challenges enforcing our contractual and intellectual property rights, especially in those foreign countries that do not respect and protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as the United States;

difficulties in compliance with non-U.S. laws and regulations;

changes in non-U.S. regulations and customs, tariffs and trade barriers;

changes in non-U.S. currency exchange rates and currency controls;

changes in a specific country’s or region’s political or economic environment;

trade protection measures, import or export licensing requirements or other restrictive actions by U.S. or non-U.S. governments;

negative consequences from changes in tax laws;

compliance with tax, employment, immigration and labor laws for employees living or traveling abroad;

workforce uncertainty in countries where labor unrest is more common than in the United States;

difficulties associated with staffing and managing international operations, including differing labor relations;

potential liability under the FCPA or comparable foreign laws; and

business interruptions resulting from geo-political actions, including war and terrorism, or natural disasters including earthquakes, typhoons, floods, fire and pandemics such as the ongoing global COVID-19 pandemic.
These and other risks associated with conducting business internationally may materially adversely affect our ability to attain profitable operations.
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Our ability to use our net operating loss carryforwards and certain other tax attributes may be limited.
As of December 31, 2019, we had federal net operating loss carryforwards of approximately $6.2 million, which will begin to expire in varying amounts beginning in 2030. Under Sections 382 and 383 of the United States Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, and corresponding provisions of state law, if a corporation undergoes an “ownership change” (generally defined as a greater than 50-percentage-point cumulative change (by value) in the equity ownership of certain stockholders over a rolling three-year period), the corporation’s ability to use its pre-change net operating loss carryforwards and other pre-change tax attributes to offset its post-change taxable income or taxes may be limited. We may experience ownership changes in connection with this offering and in the future as a result of subsequent shifts in our stock ownership, some of which are outside our control. Our net operating loss carryforwards may also be subject to limitation under state laws. Further, our ability to utilize net operating loss carryforwards of companies that we may acquire in the future may also be subject to limitations. There is also a risk that due to tax law changes, such as suspensions on the use of net operating loss carryforwards, or other unforeseen reasons, our ability to use our pre-change net operating loss carryforwards and other pre-change tax attributes to offset post-change taxable income or taxes may be subject to limitation or expire.
Changes in U.S. tax law could adversely affect our business and financial condition.
The laws, rules and regulations dealing with U.S. federal, state, and local income taxation are constantly under review by persons involved in the legislative process and by the Internal Revenue Service and the U.S. Treasury Department. Changes to tax laws (which changes may have retroactive application) could adversely affect us or holders of our common stock. In recent years, many changes have been made to applicable tax laws and changes are likely to continue to occur in the future.
For example, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, or the TCJA, was enacted in 2017 and made significant changes to corporate taxation, including the reduction of the corporate tax rate from a top marginal rate of 35% to a flat rate of 21%, the limitation of the tax deduction for net interest expense to 30% of adjusted taxable income (except for certain small businesses), the limitation of the deduction for net operating losses from taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 to 80% of current year taxable income and the elimination of net operating loss carrybacks generated in taxable years ending after December 31, 2017 (though any such net operating losses may be carried forward indefinitely), and the modification or repeal of many business deductions and credits. In addition, on March 27, 2020, President Trump signed into law the “Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act” or the CARES Act, which, among other things, suspends the 80% limitation on the deduction for net operating losses arising in taxable years beginning before January 1, 2021, permits a five-year carryback of net operating losses arising in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2021, and generally modifies the limitation on the deduction for net interest expense to 50% of adjusted taxable income for taxable years beginning in 2019 and 2020.
It cannot be predicted whether, when, in what form, or with what effective dates, new tax laws may be enacted, or regulations and rulings may be enacted, promulgated or issued under existing or new tax laws, which could result in an increase in our or our shareholders’ tax liability or require changes in the manner in which we operate in order to minimize or mitigate any adverse effects of changes in tax law or in the interpretation thereof.
Risks Related to This Offering and Ownership of Our Common Stock
We do not know whether an active, liquid and orderly market will develop for our common stock or what the market price of our common stock will be, and, as a result, it may be difficult for you to sell your shares of our common stock.
Before this offering, there was no public trading market for our common stock. If a market for our common stock does not develop or is not sustained, it may be difficult for you to sell your shares of common stock at an attractive price or at all. We cannot predict the prices at which our common stock will trade. It is possible that in one or more future periods our results of operations and progression of our product candidates may not meet the expectations of public market analysts and investors, and, as a result of these and other factors, the price of our common stock may fall.
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The market price of our common stock may be volatile, which could result in substantial losses for investors purchasing shares in this offering.
The initial public offering price for our common stock will be determined through negotiations with the underwriters. This initial public offering price may differ from the market price of our common stock after the offering. As a result, you may not be able to sell your common stock at or above the initial public offering price. Some of the factors that may cause the market price of our common stock to fluctuate include:

results of preclinical studies, clinical trials, or regulatory approvals of product candidates of our competitors, or announcements about new research programs or product candidates of our competitors;

delays in filing our INDs, commencing trials, or objections by the FDA as to the content of our INDs;

failure or discontinuation of any of our product development and research programs;

any delay of the FDA in approving, or failure to approve, the design of our planned clinical trials for our current product candidates or for any future product candidates that we may develop;

the results of our efforts to develop additional product candidates or products;

commencement or termination of collaborations for our product development and research programs;

the success of existing or new competitive products or technologies;

the level of expenses related to any of our research programs, clinical development programs, or product candidates that we may develop;

regulatory or legal developments in the United States and other countries;

developments or disputes concerning patent applications, issued patents, or other proprietary rights;

actual or anticipated changes in estimates as to financial results, development timelines, or recommendations by securities analysts;

announcement or expectation of additional financing efforts;

sales of our common stock by us, our insiders, or other stockholders;

expiration of lock-up agreements;

variations in our financial results or those of companies that are perceived to be similar to us;

changes in estimates or recommendations by securities analysts, if any, that cover our stock;

changes in the structure of healthcare payment systems;

market conditions in the pharmaceutical sector;

general economic, industry, and market conditions; and

the other factors described in this “Risk Factors” section.
In recent years, the stock market in general, and the market for pharmaceutical companies in particular, has experienced significant price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to changes in the operating performance of the companies whose stock is experiencing those price and volume fluctuations. Broad market and industry factors may seriously affect the market price of our common stock, regardless of our actual operating performance. These fluctuations may be even more pronounced in the trading market for our stock shortly following this offering. Following periods of such volatility in the market price of a company’s securities, securities class action litigation has often
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been brought against that company. Because of the potential volatility of our stock price, we may become the target of securities litigation in the future. Securities litigation could result in substantial costs and divert management’s attention and resources from our business.
If securities analysts do not publish research or reports about our business or if they publish negative evaluations of our stock, the price of our stock could decline.
The trading market for our common stock will rely in part on the research and reports that industry or financial analysts publish about us or our business. We do not currently have and may never obtain research coverage by industry or financial analysts. If no or few analysts commence coverage of us, the trading price of our stock could decrease. Even if we do obtain analyst coverage, if one or more of the analysts covering our business downgrade their evaluations of our stock, the price of our stock could decline. If one or more of these analysts cease to cover our stock, we could lose visibility in the market for our stock, which in turn could cause our stock price to decline.
A majority of our total outstanding shares are restricted from immediate resale pursuant to certain lock-up agreements entered into between the underwriters and all of our existing stockholders, but may be sold into the market after the expiration or termination of such lock-up agreements, which could cause the market price of our common stock to decline significantly, even if our business is doing well.
Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market could occur at any time. These sales, which could occur upon the expiration of certain lock-up agreements entered into with many of our existing stockholders (including our officers and directors), the early release of such agreements, or the perception in the market that the holders of a large number of shares of common stock intend to sell shares for any reason, could reduce the market price of our common stock. After this offering, we will have 10,514,342 shares of common stock outstanding based on 8,193,405 shares of our common stock outstanding as of June 30, 2020 and (i) the conversion of certain of our outstanding convertible notes into an aggregate of 34,909 shares of common stock upon the closing of this offering and (ii) the issuance of 13,301 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of certain warrants. Of these shares, the 2,272,727 shares we are selling in this offering may be resold in the public market immediately. All of the remaining 8,241,615 shares after this offering are currently prohibited or otherwise restricted under securities laws or lock-up agreements entered into by our existing stockholders with the underwriters. However, subject to applicable securities law restrictions and excluding shares of restricted stock that will remain unvested, the shares that are subject to lock-up agreements will be able to be sold in the public market beginning 240 days after the date of this prospectus. The representatives of the underwriters may, in their sole discretion, release all or some portion of the shares subject to lock-up agreements at any time and for any reason. Shares held by our directors, executive officers and other affiliates will continue to be subject to certain limitations of Rule 144 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. Shares issued upon the exercise of stock options outstanding under our equity incentive plans or pursuant to future awards granted under those plans will become available for sale in the public market to the extent permitted by the provisions of applicable vesting schedules, any applicable lock-up agreements, and Rule 144 under the Securities Act. See the section titled “Shares Eligible for Future Sale” for additional information.
After the completion of this offering, we also plan to register all shares of common stock that we may issue under our equity compensation plans. Once we register these shares, they can be freely sold in the public market upon issuance and once vested, subject to volume limitations applicable to affiliates and the lock-up agreements described in the section titled “Underwriting” in this prospectus. If any of these additional shares are sold, or if it is perceived that they will be sold, in the public market, the market price of our common stock could decline.
You will incur immediate and substantial dilution as a result of this offering.
If you purchase common stock in this offering, you will incur immediate and substantial dilution of $9.36 per share, representing the difference between the assumed initial public offering price of $11.00 per share, which is the midpoint of the estimated offering price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, and our pro forma net tangible book value per share after giving effect to this offering. As of
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June 30, 2020, there were 3,369,144 shares subject to outstanding options with a weighted-average exercise price of $1.78 per share. To the extent that these outstanding options are ultimately exercised or the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares, you will incur further dilution. See the section titled “Dilution” for a further description of the dilution you will experience immediately after this offering.
We will require additional capital in the future and raising additional capital may cause dilution to our existing stockholders, restrict our operations or require us to relinquish rights to our technologies or product candidates.
We will require additional capital in the future and we may seek additional capital through a combination of public and private equity offerings, debt financings, strategic partnerships and alliances and licensing arrangements. We, and indirectly, our stockholders, will bear the cost of issuing and servicing such securities. Because our decision to issue debt or equity securities in any future offering will depend on market conditions and other factors beyond our control, we cannot predict or estimate the amount, timing or nature of any future offerings. To the extent that we raise additional capital through the sale of equity or debt securities, your ownership interest will be diluted, and the terms may include liquidation or other preferences that adversely affect your rights as a stockholder. The incurrence of indebtedness would result in increased fixed payment obligations and could involve restrictive covenants, such as limitations on our ability to incur additional debt, limitations on our ability to acquire, sell or license intellectual property rights and other operating restrictions that could adversely impact our ability to conduct our business. Additionally, any future collaborations we enter into with third parties may provide capital in the near term but limit our potential cash flow and revenue in the future. If we raise additional funds through strategic partnerships and alliances and licensing arrangements with third parties, we may have to relinquish valuable rights to our technologies or product candidates, or grant licenses on terms unfavorable to us.
Insiders will continue to have substantial influence over us after this offering, which could limit your ability to affect the outcome of key transactions, including a change of control.
After this offering, our directors, executive officers, holders of more than 5% of our outstanding stock and their respective affiliates will beneficially own shares representing approximately 70.7% of our outstanding common stock. As a result, these stockholders, if they act together, will be able to influence our management and affairs and all matters requiring stockholder approval, including the election of directors and approval of significant corporate transactions. Dr. Werner alone will continue to beneficially own shares representing approximately 50.8% of our outstanding common stock. This concentration of ownership may have the effect of delaying or preventing a change in control of our company and might affect the market price of our common stock.
We are an “emerging growth company” and a “smaller reporting company” and the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies may make our common stock less attractive to investors.
We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the JOBS Act. For so long as we remain an emerging growth company, we are permitted and plan to rely on exemptions from certain disclosure requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies. These exemptions include, but are not limited to: (i) exemption from compliance with the auditor attestation requirements pursuant to SOX; (ii) exemption from compliance with any requirement that may be adopted by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board regarding mandatory audit firm rotation or a supplement to the auditor’s report providing additional information about the audit and the financial statements; (iii) reduced disclosure about our executive compensation arrangements; and (iv) exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved.
We will continue to remain an emerging growth company until the earliest of the following: (i) the last day of the fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the date of the completion of this offering; (ii) the last day of the fiscal year in which our total annual gross revenue is equal to or more than $1.07 billion; (iii) the date on which we have issued more than $1 billion in nonconvertible debt during the previous three years; or (iv) the date on which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer under the rules of the SEC.
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In addition, we are currently a “smaller reporting company,” as defined in the Exchange Act and have elected to take advantage of certain of the scaled disclosures available to smaller reporting companies. To the extent that we continue to qualify as a “smaller reporting company” as such term is defined in Rule 12b-2 under the Exchange Act, after we cease to qualify as an emerging growth company, certain of the exemptions available to us as an “emerging growth company” may continue to be available to us as a “smaller reporting company,” including exemption from compliance with the auditor attestation requirements pursuant to SOX and reduced disclosure about our executive compensation arrangements. We will continue to be a “smaller reporting company” until we have more than $250 million in public float (based on our common stock) measured as of the last business day of our most recently completed second fiscal quarter or, in the event we have no public float (based on our common stock), annual revenues of more than $100 million during the most recently completed fiscal year.
As a result, the information we provide stockholders will be different than the information that is available with respect to other public companies. In this prospectus, we have not included all of the executive compensation related information that would be required if we were not an emerging growth company, nor have we included all of the quantitative and qualitative disclosures about market risk that would be required if we were not a smaller reporting company. We cannot predict whether investors will find our common stock less attractive if we rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our common stock less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our common stock, and our stock price may be more volatile.
In addition, the JOBS Act provides that an emerging growth company can take advantage of an extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards. This allows an emerging growth company to delay the adoption of certain accounting standards until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies. We have opted to take advantage of this extended transition period for the adoption of certain accounting standards.
We will incur increased costs as a result of operating as a public company, and our management will be required to devote substantial time to new compliance initiatives and corporate governance practices.
As a public company, and particularly after we are no longer an emerging growth company, we will incur significant legal, accounting, and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company. SOX, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, the listing requirements of Nasdaq, and other applicable securities rules and regulations impose various requirements on public companies, including establishment and maintenance of effective disclosure and financial controls and corporate governance practices. We expect that we will need to hire additional accounting, finance, and other personnel in connection with our becoming, and our efforts to comply with the requirements of being, a public company, and our management and other personnel will need to devote a substantial amount of time towards maintaining compliance with these requirements. These requirements will increase our legal and financial compliance costs and will make some activities more time-consuming and costly. For example, we expect that the rules and regulations applicable to us as a public company may make it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance, which could make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified members of our board of directors. We are currently evaluating these rules and regulations and cannot predict or estimate the amount of additional costs we may incur or the timing of such costs. These rules and regulations are often subject to varying interpretations, in many cases due to their lack of specificity, and, as a result, their application in practice may evolve over time as new guidance is provided by regulatory and governing bodies. This could result in continuing uncertainty regarding compliance matters and higher costs necessitated by ongoing revisions to disclosure and governance practices.
Pursuant to Section 404 of SOX, we will be required to furnish a report by our management on our internal control over financial reporting beginning with our second filing of an Annual Report on Form 10-K with the SEC after we become a public company. However, while we remain an emerging growth company or smaller reporting company, we will not be required to include an attestation report on internal control over financial reporting issued by our independent registered public accounting firm. To achieve compliance with Section 404 of SOX within the prescribed period, we will be engaged in a process to document and evaluate our internal control over financial reporting, which is both costly and challenging.
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In this regard, we will need to continue to dedicate internal resources, potentially engage outside consultants, adopt a detailed work plan to assess and document the adequacy of internal control over financial reporting, continue steps to improve control processes as appropriate, validate through testing that controls are functioning as documented, and implement a continuous reporting and improvement process for internal control over financial reporting. Despite our efforts, there is a risk that we will not be able to conclude, within the prescribed timeframe or at all, that our internal control over financial reporting is effective as required by Section 404 of SOX. If we identify one or more material weaknesses, it could result in an adverse reaction in the financial markets due to a loss of confidence in the reliability of our financial statements.
We have broad discretion in the use of the net proceeds from this offering and may not use them effectively.
We cannot specify with certainty the particular uses of the net proceeds we will receive from this offering. Our management will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds, including for any of the purposes described in the section titled “Use of Proceeds” in this prospectus. Our management may spend a portion or all of the net proceeds from this offering in ways that our stockholders may not desire or that may not yield a favorable return. The failure by our management to apply these funds effectively could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations. Pending their use, we may invest the net proceeds from this offering in a manner that does not produce income or that loses value.
We do not expect to pay any dividends for the foreseeable future. Investors in this offering may never obtain a return on their investment.
You should not rely on an investment in our common stock to provide dividend income. We do not anticipate that we will pay any dividends to holders of our common stock in the foreseeable future. Instead, we plan to retain any earnings to maintain and expand our existing operations. In addition, any future credit facility we enter into, or debt instrument that we issue, may contain terms prohibiting or limiting the amount of dividends that may be declared or paid on our common stock. Accordingly, investors must rely on sales of their common stock after price appreciation, which may never occur, as the only way to realize any return on their investment. As a result, investors seeking cash dividends should not purchase our common stock.
Delaware law and provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and bylaws that will become effective upon the closing of this offering might discourage, delay, or prevent a change in control of our company or changes in our management and, therefore, depress the trading price of our common stock.
Provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws that will become effective upon the closing of this offering may discourage, delay, or prevent a merger, acquisition, or other change in control that stockholders may consider favorable, including transactions in which you might otherwise receive a premium for your shares of our common stock. These provisions may also prevent or frustrate attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our management. Therefore, these provisions could adversely affect the price of our common stock. Among other things, our charter documents will:

establish that our board of directors is divided into three classes, Class I, Class II and Class III, with each class serving staggered three year terms;

provide that vacancies on our board of directors may be filled only by a majority of directors then in office, even though less than a quorum;

provide that our directors may only be removed for cause;

eliminate cumulative voting;

authorize our board of directors to issues shares of preferred stock and determine the price and other terms of those shares, including preferences and voting rights, without stockholder approval;
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provide our board of directors with the exclusive right to elect a director to fill a vacancy or newly created directorship;

permit stockholders to only take actions at a duly called annual or special meeting and not by written consent;

prohibit stockholders from calling a special meeting of stockholders;

require that stockholders give advance notice to nominate directors or submit proposals for consideration at stockholder meetings;

authorize our board of directors, by a majority vote, to amend the bylaws; and

require the affirmative vote of at least 66 2/3% or more of the outstanding shares of common stock to amend many of the provisions described above.
In addition, Section 203 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, or DGCL, prohibits a publicly-held Delaware corporation from engaging in a business combination with an interested stockholder, generally a person which together with its affiliates owns, or within the last three years has owned, 15% of our voting stock, for a period of three years after the date of the transaction in which the person became an interested stockholder, unless the business combination is approved in a prescribed manner.
Any provision of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, amended and restated bylaws, or Delaware law that has the effect of delaying or preventing a change in control could limit the opportunity for our stockholders to receive a premium for their shares of our capital stock and could also affect the price that some investors are willing to pay for our common stock.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation that will become effective upon the completion of this offering provides that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware and the federal district courts of the United States of America will be the exclusive forums for substantially all disputes between us and our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers, or employees.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation that will become effective upon the completion of this offering provides that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware is the exclusive forum for:

any action asserting a claim of breach of fiduciary duty;

any action asserting a claim against us arising under the DGCL, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, or our amended and restated bylaws; and

any action asserting a claim against us that is governed by the internal-affairs doctrine.
The choice of the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware as the sole and exclusive forum for any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of the Corporation shall not apply to suits seeking to enforce a duty or liability created by the Securities Act or the Exchange Act.
In addition, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that the federal district courts of the United States of America shall be the exclusive forum for the resolution of any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act. There is uncertainty as to whether a court would enforce such provisions. Some companies that adopted a similar federal district court forum selection provision are currently subject to a suit in the Chancery Court of Delaware by stockholders who assert that this provision is not enforceable. If a court were to find either choice of forum provision contained in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions, which could adversely affect our business and financial condition.
Our disclosure controls and procedures may not prevent or detect all errors or acts of fraud.
Upon completion of this offering, we will become subject to the periodic reporting requirements of the Exchange Act. Our disclosure controls and procedures are designed to reasonably assure that information required to be disclosed by us in reports we file or submit under the Exchange Act are accumulated and
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communicated to management, and recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the rules and forms of the SEC. We believe that any disclosure controls and procedures or internal controls and procedures, no matter how well-conceived and operated, can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurance that the objectives of the control system are met.
These inherent limitations include the realities that judgments in decision-making can be faulty, and that breakdowns can occur because of simple error or mistake. Additionally, controls can be circumvented by the individual acts of some persons, by collusion of two or more people or by an unauthorized override of the controls. Accordingly, because of the inherent limitations in our control system, misstatements or insufficient disclosures due to error or fraud may occur and not be detected.
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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus contains forward-looking statements. The forward-looking statements are contained principally in the sections entitled “Prospectus Summary,” “Risk Factors,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and “Business.” These forward-looking statements involve a number of risks and uncertainties. Many of the following risks are, and will be, exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic and any worsening of the global business and economic environment as a result. We caution readers that any forward-looking statement is not a guarantee of future performance and that actual results could differ materially from those contained in the forward-looking statement. These statements are based on current expectations of future events. Such statements include, but are not limited to, statements about future financial and operating results, plans, objectives, expectations and intentions, costs and expenses, interest rates, outcome of contingencies, financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, cost savings, objectives of management, business strategies, success of competing drugs, financing, potential growth and market opportunities, product candidates, clinical trial timing and plans, clinical and regulatory pathways for our development programs, the achievement of clinical and commercial milestones, the advancement of our technologies and our proprietary, co-developed and partnered products and product candidates, and other statements that are not historical facts.
In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terms such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “would,” “expect,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “could,” “intend,” “target,” “project,” “contemplate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “predict,” “potential” or “continue” or the negative of these terms or other similar expressions. Forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus include, but are not limited to, statements about:

the success, cost and timing of our development activities, preclinical studies and potential clinical trials;

the outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease, COVID-19, pandemic which may have a material adverse impact on our business, including our preclinical studies and clinical trials and which could materially affect our operations as well as the business or operations of third parties with whom we conduct business;

the extent to which any limitations that we are subject to may affect the success of our product candidates;

the timing or likelihood of regulatory filings and approvals;

our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approval of our product candidates, and any related restrictions, limitations and/or warnings in the label of any approved product candidate;

the scope of protection we are able to establish and maintain for intellectual property rights covering our product candidates and technology;

the terms and conditions of licenses granted to us and our ability to license additional intellectual property relating to our product candidates and other technologies;

our need and ability to raise additional capital and obtain funding for our operations, including funding necessary to develop and commercialize our product candidates;

our ability to successfully commercialize our product candidates;

our plans and ability to establish sales, marketing and distribution infrastructure to commercialize any product candidates for which we obtain approval;

future agreements with third parties in connection with the commercialization of our product candidates;

the size and growth potential of the markets for our product candidates, if approved for commercial use, and our ability to serve those markets;

the rate and degree of market acceptance of our product candidates;

potential claims relating to our intellectual property and third party intellectual property;
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our ability to contract with third party suppliers and manufacturers and their ability to perform adequately;

our dependence on a small number of suppliers for manufacturing our products, in particular third party manufacturers from China;

the pricing and reimbursement of our product candidates, if approved;

the success of competing products or prodrug technologies that are or may become available;

our ability to attract and retain key managerial, scientific and medical personnel;

the accuracy of our estimates regarding expenses, future revenue, capital requirements and needs for additional financing;

potential insufficiency of our disclosure controls and procedures to detect errors or acts of fraud;

our financial performance;

our expectations regarding the period during which we qualify as an emerging growth company under the JOBS Act; and

our anticipated use of the proceeds from this offering.
We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about our business, the industry in which we operate, and financial trends that we believe may affect our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations, and these forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance or development. These forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this prospectus and are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties and assumptions described in the section titled “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this prospectus. Because forward-looking statements are inherently subject to risks and uncertainties, some of which cannot be predicted or quantified, you should not rely on these forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. The events and circumstances reflected in our forward-looking statements may not be achieved or occur and actual results could differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements. The forward-looking statements in this prospectus represent our views as of the date of this prospectus. We anticipate that subsequent events and developments will cause our views to change. However, while we may elect to update these forward-looking statements at some point in the future, we have no current intention of doing so except to the extent required by applicable law. You should, therefore, not rely on these forward-looking statements as representing our views as of any date subsequent to the date of this prospectus.
In addition, statements that “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based upon information available to us as of the date of this prospectus, and while we believe such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain and you are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements.
All subsequent written or oral forward-looking statements attributable to us or any person acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements contained or referred to in this section. We do not undertake any obligation to release publicly any revisions to these forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this prospectus or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events, except as may be required under applicable law. If we do update one or more forward-looking statements, no inference should be drawn that we will make additional updates with respect to those or other forward-looking statements.
You should read this prospectus and the documents that we reference in this prospectus and have filed as exhibits to the registration statement, of which this prospectus is a part, completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. We qualify all of the forward-looking statements in this prospectus by these cautionary statements.
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MARKET, INDUSTRY AND OTHER DATA
This prospectus contains estimates, projections and other information concerning our industry, our business and the markets for our product candidates. We obtained the industry, market and similar data set forth in this prospectus from our own internal estimates and research and from academic and industry research, publications, surveys and studies conducted by third parties, including governmental agencies. Information that is based on estimates, forecasts, projections, market research or similar methodologies is inherently subject to uncertainties and actual events or circumstances may differ materially from events and circumstances that are assumed in this information. While we believe that the data we use from third parties is reliable, we have not separately verified these data. Although we are responsible for all of the disclosure contained in this prospectus and we believe the information from third party sources included in this prospectus is reliable, such information is inherently imprecise. The industry in which we operate is subject to a high degree of uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors, including those described in the section titled “Risk Factors.” These and other factors could cause results to differ materially from those expressed in the estimates made by the independent parties and by us. Further, while we believe our internal research is reliable, such research has not been verified by any third party. You are cautioned not to give undue weight to any such information, projections and estimates.
In some cases, we do not expressly refer to the sources from which data is derived. In that regard, when we refer to one or more sources of this type of data in any paragraph, you should assume that other data of this type appearing in the same paragraph is derived from the same sources, unless otherwise expressly stated or the context otherwise requires.
The sources of industry and market data contained in this prospectus primarily include those listed below:
1.
S. Brahmachari, et al., “Activation of tyrosine kinase c-Abl contributes to α-synuclein-induced neurodegeneration.” J. Clin. Invest, 126: 2970-88 (2016).
2.
X. Mao, et al., “Pathological α-synuclein transmission initiated by binding lymphocyte-activation gene 3.” Science, 353 (2016).
3.
The Michael J. Fox Foundation website (www.michaeljfox.org).
4.
The Cure Parkinson’s Trust website (www.cureparkinsons.org.uk).
5.
Parkinson’s Disease Foundation (www.pdf.org), Decisions Resources 2016 Parkinson’s Report.
6.
Jones J.D., et al., “Health comorbidities and cognition in 1948 patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s Disease.” Parkinsonism and Related Disorders, 18:1073-1078 (2012).
7.
Wright Willis, et al., “Geographic and ethnic variation in Parkinson Disease: a population-based study of US Medicare beneficiaries.” Neuroepidemiology, 34:143-151 (2012).
8.
de Rijk, et al., “Prevalence of parkinsonism and Parkinson’s Disease in Europe: the EUROPARKINSON Collaborative Study. European Community Concerted Action on the Epidemiology of Parkinson’s Disease.” J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 62:10-5 (1997).
9.
Ying Zhao, et al., “Progression of Parkinson’s Disease as Evaluated by Hoehn and Yahr Stage Transition Times.” Movement Disorders 25:710-716 (2010).
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USE OF PROCEEDS
We estimate that the net proceeds from our issuance and sale of 2,272,727 shares of our common stock in this offering will be approximately $21.2 million, assuming an initial public offering price of $11.00 per share, which is the midpoint of the estimated offering price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, and after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. If the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full to cover overallotments, if any, we estimate that our net proceeds will be approximately $24.7 million.
A $1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed initial public offering price of $11.00 per share would increase (decrease) the aggregate net proceeds to us from this offering by approximately $2.1 million, assuming the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same and after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. Similarly, each increase (decrease) of 1.0 million shares in the number of shares offered by us would increase (decrease) the net proceeds to us from this offering by approximately $10.1 million, assuming that the assumed initial public offering price remains the same, and after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.
The principal purposes of this offering are to obtain additional capital to support our operations, establish a public market for our common stock and facilitate our future access to the public capital markets. We currently anticipate that we will use the net proceeds from this offering, together with our existing resources, as follows:

approximately $4.5 million to fund the costs of our Phase 1 clinical trial for IkT-148009 in elderly healthy volunteers and to validate target engagement markers in the central and peripheral nervous system;

up to $5.0 million for a Phase 1b study in treatment naïve and early stage PD patients with GI complications, subject to FDA approval;

approximately $4.0 million to fund comparative pivotal chronic toxicology studies of IkT-148009 v. Imatinib in rats for 3 and 6 months and monkeys for 3 and 9 months to meet regulatory requirements for Phase 2 studies;

up to $3.0 million for IkT-148009 Phase 2 proof-of-concept site evaluation, enrollment and preparation;

approximately $3.6 million to complete cGMP manufacturing of IkT-001Pro, prepare and complete the IND for IkT-001Pro and to conduct clinical dose-calibration studies for IkT-001Pro relative to Imatinib and evaluate safety and tolerability benefits in patients with Stable-phase CML;

approximately $42,534 to repay a loan with a maturity date of January 1, 2021 and bearing an interest rate of 5.25 % from our former outside counsel which matures coincident with this offering; and

the remainder, to fund general research and development activities, medicinal chemistry for additional molecules and IND-enabling, team building, working capital and other general corporate activities including open accounts payable to include costs for intellectual property prosecution and legal expenses accrued in preparation for this public offering.
We believe opportunities may exist from time to time to expand our current business through license or acquisitions of, or investments in, complementary businesses, products or technologies. While we currently have no agreements or commitments to complete any such transaction at this time, we may use a portion of the net proceeds for these purposes.
The net proceeds from this offering, together with our cash, will not be sufficient for us to fund any of our product candidates through regulatory approval, and we will need to raise additional capital to complete the development and commercialization of our product candidates. We expect to finance our incremental cash needs through a combination of equity offerings, debt financings, working capital lines of credit, grant funding and potential licenses and collaboration agreements. The expected use of net proceeds
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from this offering represents our intentions based upon our current plans and business conditions, which could change in the future as our plans and business conditions evolve. The amounts and timing of our actual expenditures may vary significantly depending on numerous factors, including the progress of our development, the status of and results from clinical trials, as well as any collaborations that we may enter into with third parties for our programs, and any unforeseen cash needs. As a result, our management will retain broad discretion over the allocation of the net proceeds. We cannot specify with certainty all of the particular uses for the net proceeds to be received upon the closing of this offering.
Based on our current operational plans and assumptions, we expect that the net proceeds from this offering together with our existing cash will be sufficient to fund our operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements for at least 15 months from the closing of this offering. We have based this estimate on assumptions that may prove to be incorrect, and we could use our available capital resources sooner that we currently expect. Pending use of the proceeds as described above, we intend to invest the proceeds in a variety of capital preservation investments, including interest-bearing, investment-grade instruments and U.S. government securities.
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DIVIDEND POLICY
We have not declared or paid any cash dividends on our capital stock since our inception. We intend to retain future earnings, if any, to finance the operation and expansion of our business and do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Payment of future cash dividends, if any, will be at the discretion of our board of directors after taking into account various factors, including our financial condition, operating results, current and anticipated cash needs, the requirements and contractual restrictions of then-existing debt instruments and other factors that our board of directors deems relevant.
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CAPITALIZATION
The following table sets forth our cash and capitalization as of June 30, 2020, as follows:

on an actual basis;

on a pro forma basis to reflect the (i) conversion of certain of our outstanding convertible notes into an aggregate of 34,909 shares of common stock upon the closing of this offering, and (ii) the issuance of 13,301 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of certain warrants outstanding at a weighted-average exercise price of $2.31 per share; and

on a pro forma as adjusted basis to give further effect to our issuance and sale of 2,272,727 shares of our common stock in this offering at an assumed initial public offering price of $11.00 per share, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions, estimated offering expenses payable and repayment of debts of $3.8 million.
The pro forma as adjusted information below is illustrative only, and our capitalization following the closing of this offering will change based on the actual initial public offering price and other terms of this offering determined at pricing. You should read the information in this table, together with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes appearing elsewhere in this prospectus and the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” that are included elsewhere in this prospectus by us.
June 30, 2020
Actual
Pro Forma(1)
Pro Forma
As Adjusted
(in thousands, except share and per share
amounts)
Cash
$ 7,785 $ 7,785 $ 21,207,782
Notes payable
$ 669,370 $ 310,236 $ 310,236
Stockholder’s equity (deficit):
(4,830,629) (4,471,495) 17,292,212
Common stock, par value $0.001 per share; 30,000,000
shares authorized; 8,193,405 shares issued and
outstanding, actual; 30,000,000 shares authorized,
8,241,615 shares issued and outstanding, pro forma;
100,000,000 shares authorized, 10,514,342 shares issued
and outstanding, pro forma as adjusted
8,193 8,241 10,514
Additional paid-in capital
8,314,217 8,698,303 30,459,737
Accumulated other comprehensive loss
Accumulated deficit
(13,153,039) (13,178,039) (13,178,039)
Total stockholders’ equity (deficit)
(4,830,629) (4,471,495) 17,292,212
Total capitalization
$ (4,161,259) $ (4,161,259) $ 17,602,448
(1)
The pro forma as adjusted balance sheet data in the table above reflects (i) the conversion of certain of our outstanding convertible notes into an aggregate of 34,909 shares of common stock upon the closing of this offering, (ii) the issuance of 13,301 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of certain warrants at a weighted-average exercise price of $2.31 per share, and (iii) the sale and issuance by us of shares of our common stock in this offering, based upon the assumed initial public offering price of $11.00 per share, the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions, estimated offering expenses payable and repayment of debts of $3.8 million.
Each $1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed initial public offering price of  $11.00 per share, which is the midpoint of the estimated offering price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, would increase (decrease) our pro forma as adjusted cash, additional paid-in capital, total stockholders’ equity
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(deficit) and total capitalization by approximately $2.1 million, assuming the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same, and after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. Each increase (decrease) of 1.0 million shares in the number of shares of common stock offered by us would increase (decrease) our pro forma as adjusted cash, additional paid-in capital, total stockholders’ equity (deficit) and total capitalization by approximately $10.1 million, assuming the assumed initial public offering price of $11.00 per share, which is the midpoint of the estimated offering price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same, and after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. The pro forma as adjusted information discussed above is illustrative only and will be adjusted based on the actual public offering price and other terms of this offering determined at pricing.
The number of shares of common stock that will be outstanding after this offering is based on 8,206,706 shares of common stock outstanding as of August 31, 2020, and excludes the following:

3,369,144 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of options to purchase shares of common stock outstanding as of August 31, 2020, with a weighted-average exercise price of $1.78 per share;

650,948 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of warrants to purchase shares of common stock outstanding as of August 31, 2020, with a weighted average exercise price of an exercise price of  $5.16 per share;

1,001,638 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance as of August 31, 2020, under our 2011 Equity Incentive Plan; and

8,650,000 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2020 Equity Incentive Plan, or 2020 Plan, which will be effective upon the closing of the Company’s initial public offering.
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DILUTION
If you invest in our common stock in this offering, your ownership interest will be diluted immediately to the extent of the difference between the initial public offering price per share of our common stock and the pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately after this offering.
Our historical net tangible book value (deficit) as of June 30, 2020 was ($5,166,920), or ($0.63) per share of our common stock. Our historical net tangible book value (deficit) is the amount of our total tangible assets less our total liabilities. Historical net tangible book value per share represents historical net tangible book value (deficit) divided by the number of shares of our common stock outstanding as of June 30, 2020.
Our pro forma net tangible book value as of June 30, 2020 was ($4,807,786), or ($0.58) per share of our common stock. Pro forma net tangible book value represents the amount of our total tangible assets less our total liabilities, after giving effect to (i) the conversion of certain of our outstanding convertible notes into an aggregate of 34,909 shares of common stock upon the closing of this offering and (ii) the issuance of 13,301 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of certain warrants outstanding at a weighted-average exercise price of $2.31 per share. Pro forma net tangible book value per share represents pro forma net tangible book value divided by the total number of shares outstanding as of June 30, 2020, after giving effect to (i) the conversion of certain of our outstanding convertible notes into an aggregate of 34,909 shares of common stock upon the closing of this offering, (ii) the issuance of 13,301 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of certain warrants, at a weighted-average exercise price of $2.31 per share.
After giving further effect to our issuance and sale of 2,272,727 shares of common stock in this offering at an assumed initial public offering price of $11.00 per share, which is the midpoint of the estimated offering price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, and after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions, estimated offering expenses payable by us and repayment of debts of $3.8 million, our pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value as of June 30, 2020 would have been approximately $17.3 million, or approximately $1.64 per share. This represents an immediate increase in pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share of  $2.27 to our existing stockholders and an immediate dilution in pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share of approximately $9.36 to new investors purchasing common stock in this offering. Dilution per share to new investors purchasing common stock in this offering is determined by subtracting pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering from the assumed initial public offering price per share paid by new investors.
The following table illustrates this dilution on a per share basis:
Assumed initial public offering price per share
$ 11.00
Historical net tangible book value (deficit) per share as of June 30, 2020
$ (0.63)
Pro forma increase in net tangible book value (deficit) per share as of June 30, 2020
0.05
Pro forma net tangible book value per share as of June 30, 2020
(0.58)
Increase in pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share attributable to new
investors purchasing shares in this offering
2.22
Pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering
1.64
Dilution per share to new investors purchasing shares in this offering
$ 9.36
Each $1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed initial public offering price of $11.00 per share, which is the midpoint of the estimated offering price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, would increase (decrease) the pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering by $0.20 per share and the dilution to new investors purchasing common stock in this offering by $0.80 per share, assuming the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same, and after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. An increase of 1.0 million shares in the number of shares offered by us would increase the pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering by $0.74 and decrease the dilution per share to new investors participating in this offering by $0.74, assuming no change in the assumed initial public offering price and after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses
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payable by us. A decrease of 1.0 million shares in the number of shares offered by us would decrease the pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering by $0.89 and increase the dilution per share to new investors participating in this offering by $0.89, assuming no change in the assumed initial public offering price and after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.
If the underwriters exercise their option to purchase 340,909 additional shares of common stock in this offering in full at the assumed initial public offering price of $11.00 per share, which is the midpoint of the estimated offering price range set forth on the cover of this prospectus, and assuming the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same, and after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, the pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering would be $1.91 per share, and the dilution in pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share to new investors purchasing common stock in this offering would be $9.09 per share.
The number of shares of common stock that will be outstanding after this offering is based on 8,206,706 shares of common stock outstanding as of August 31, 2020, and excludes the following:

3,369,144 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of options to purchase shares of common stock outstanding as of August 31, 2020, with a weighted-average exercise price of $1.78 per share;

650,948 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of warrants to purchase shares of common stock outstanding as of August 31, 2020, with an average exercise price of  $5.16 per share;

1,001,638 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance as of August 31, 2020, under our 2011 Equity Incentive Plan, or 2011 Plan; and

8,650,000 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2020 Equity Incentive Plan, or 2020 Plan, which will be effective upon the closing of the Company’s initial public offering.
To the extent that any outstanding options are exercised or new options are issued under the equity benefit plans, or we issue additional shares of common stock or convertible securities in the future, there will be further dilution to investors participating in this offering.
The following table summarizes, on a pro forma as adjusted basis as of June 30, 2020, after giving effect to the aggregate of 10,514,342 shares of our common stock upon the closing of this offering, the total consideration paid or to be paid and the average price per share paid or to be paid by existing stockholders and by new investors in this offering at an assumed initial public offering price of $11.00 per share, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, before deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. As the table shows, new investors purchasing common stock in this offering will pay an average price per share substantially higher than our existing stockholders paid.
Shares Purchased
Total Consideration
Weighted
Average Price
Per Share
Number
Percent
Amount
Percent
Existing stockholders before this offering
8,241,615 78.4% $ 3,043,143 10.9% $ 0.37
Investors participating in this offering
2,272,727 21.6% $ 25,000,000 89.1% $ 11.00
Total
10,514,342 100% $ 28,043,143 100%
The table above assumes no exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase 340,909 additional shares in this offering. If the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares is exercised in full, the number of shares of our common stock held by existing stockholders would be reduced to 75.9% of the total number of shares of our common stock outstanding after this offering, and the number of shares of common stock held by new investors participating in the offering would be increased to 24.1% of the total number of shares outstanding after this offering.
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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL
CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations together with our financial statements and the related notes to those statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. This discussion and analysis and other parts of this prospectus contain forward-looking statements based upon current beliefs, plans and expectations related to future events and our future financial performance that involve risks, uncertainties and assumptions, such as statements regarding our intentions, plans, objectives, expectations, forecasts and projections. Our actual results and the timing of selected events could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of several factors, including those set forth under the section titled “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this prospectus. You should carefully read the “Risk Factors” to gain an understanding of the important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from our forward-looking statements. Please also see the section titled “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”
Overview
We are a clinical stage pharmaceutical company developing therapeutics for Parkinson’s Disease, or PD, and related disorders that arise inside and outside of the brain. We filed two Investigational New Drug, or IND, applications with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, in the first quarter of 2019 for our lead asset candidate, IkT-148009. One IND is for the treatment of Parkinson’s Disease, while the second is for treatment of gastrointestinal, or GI, complications that arise as early symptoms of PD in patients. We initiated clinical development of IkT-148009 for the treatment of PD in 2019. First dosing of patients for treatment of PD is expected to commence shortly after the conclusion of this offering. Clinical development of IkT-148009 for the GI complications in PD patients will cross-reference the first human study of IkT-148009 for the treatment of PD.
Our programs utilize small molecule, oral protein kinase inhibitors to treat PD and its GI complications. We have shown in animal models of progressive PD that our lead clinical candidate, IkT-148009, is a brain penetrant Abelson tyrosine kinase, or c-Abl inhibitor that halts disease progression and reverses functional loss in the brain and reverses neurological dysfunction in the GI tract. The ability to halt progression and restore function was shown in animal models of progressive disease that mimic the rate of disease progression and the extent of functional loss in the brain and/or the GI tract as found in patients with PD. We believe our therapeutic approach is disease-modifying. Our understanding of how and why PD progresses has led us to believe that functional loss in Parkinson’s patients may be at least partially reversed. Based on the measurements in animal models, we believe patients treated with IkT-148009 may have their disease progression slowed or halted, we may see a progressive reduction in the need for symptomatic or supportive therapy and/or we may ultimately eliminate the need for symptomatic therapy. However, it is unknown whether the disease modification seen in the animal models will occur in the human disease following treatment with IkT-148009.
In our opinion, the multi-decade failures in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as PD result from a lack of understanding of the biochemistry of the disease processes involved. Neurodegeneration is marked by a progressive degeneration and loss of function of neurons which send and receive signals from the brain. Historically, the cause of a neurodegenerative disease was thought to be a “plaque” made up of a misfolded and/or aggregated protein(s). Therapeutic approaches, therefore, sought to remove “plaque” from the brain. To our knowledge, a “plaque”-focused treatment strategy has not resulted in approval of any medication that can alter the course of a neurodegenerative disease, and has not resulted in a therapeutic benefit in PD. We believe we are different. We identified the proteins that become dysfunctional in a disease pathway and sought to understand how a dysfunctional protein causes disease. We believe our approach to PD and other neurological diseases has identified the underlying cause of disease and led to an understanding of how individual proteins are linked together to define the disease process. Using this strategy, we believe we have discovered at least one enzyme that plays a pivotal role in the disease process for PD, c-Abl. We have developed novel protein kinase inhibitors against c-Abl, which we believe can alter the disease course for PD. c-Abl chemically modifies one of the “plaque” proteins in PD, known as alpha-synuclein. Chemical modification creates what we believe to be the true toxic entity of the disease. Treatment with IkT-148009 may prevent chemical modification and, at least in animal models of progressive disease, leads to clearance of the toxic form of alpha-synuclein.
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In addition to programs in PD, our platform drug discovery and delivery technologies have identified additional opportunities, including a potential treatment for bacterial or viral infections in the brain using a single agent at fixed dose, and an oncology opportunity in stable-phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, or CML. Our product for CML, IkT-001Pro, is a prodrug of the anticancer agent Imatinib. A prodrug is a compound that, after administration, is metabolized by the body into a pharmacologically active drug. Imatinib is an FDA designated Orphan Drug and is the standard-of-care treatment for stable-phase CML. In the United States, orphan drug designation entitles a party to incentives such as opportunities for grant funding towards clinical trial costs, tax advantages, and user-fee waivers. We plan to submit an IND to initiate clinical development for IkT-001Pro in the first quarter of 2021. Subject to future FDA agreements related to the clinical protocol design and execution of the clinical development program, we believe that clinical development of IkT-001Pro could possibly be completed in the first half of 2022. We intend to submit a new drug application, or NDA, for IkT-001Pro pursuant to Section 505(b)(2) of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, which specifies the requirements for approval. This pathway would allow us to rely, in part, on data in the public domain or the FDA’s prior conclusions regarding the safety and effectiveness of an approved compound. Consistent with FDA guidance on the 505(b)(2) pathway, we will seek input from the FDA as to what should be included in the application prior to submission of the 505(b)(2) application. Pursuit of this oncology opportunity will seek to validate the pharmacology advantage of our prodrug technology in a well understood patient population with an approved drug substance. If we are able to validate IkT-001Pro in oncology, we will evaluate whether the pharmacology advantages we discover about IkT-001Pro could be applied to novel drug substances, such as IkT-148009.
We believe we are one of the pioneers of the application of protein kinase inhibitors to non-oncology indications, including neurodegeneration and infectious diseases, as well as their more traditional role in the treatment of cancer. As of the date of this prospectus, more than 90% of the Company’s total revenue has been received from Private, State and Federal granting agencies, including the National Institutes of Health, the Department of Defense and the Michael J. Fox Foundation. These agencies use extensive scientific peer review in deciding which projects to fund that could impact human disease. Our ability to advance the Company on the basis of scientific peer review reflects the potential our scientific peers see for the possible success of our therapeutic programs.
The development of our product candidates could be disrupted and materially adversely affected in the future by a pandemic, epidemic or outbreak of an infectious disease like the recent outbreak of COVID-19. For example, as a result of measures imposed by the governments in regions affected by COVID-19, businesses and schools have been suspended due to quarantines or “stay at home” orders intended to contain this outbreak. COVID-19 continues to spread globally and, as of April 2020, has spread to over 150 countries, including the United States. While the COVID-19 outbreak is still in its early stages, international stock markets continue to reflect the uncertainty associated with the slow-down in the world economies and the reduced levels of international travel experienced since the beginning of January 2020. As of the date of this prospectus, the COVID-19 pandemic has had an impact upon our operations, although we believe that impact is not material. We are still assessing our business plans and the impact COVID-19 may have on our ability to advance the development of our product candidates or to raise financing to support the development of our product candidates, but no assurances can be given that this analysis will enable us to avoid part or all of any impact from the spread of COVID-019 or its consequences, including downturns in business sentiment generally or in our sector in particular. The spread of an infectious disease, including COVID-19, may also result in the inability of our suppliers to deliver components or raw materials on a timely basis or materially and adversely affect our collaborators’ and potential strategic partners’ ability to perform preclinical studies and clinical trials. See “Risk Factors — The recent and ongoing COVID-19 pandemic could materially affect our operations, as well as the business or operations of third parties with whom we conduct business. Our business could be adversely affected by the effects of other future health epidemics or pandemics in regions where we or third parties on which we rely have significant business operations.” for a more detailed presentation of risks associated with the COVID-19 pandemic.
On May 4, 2020, the Company issued a promissory note (the “PPP Note”) in the principal amount of $27,550 to Bank of America in connection with a loan in such amount made by Bank of America under the Payroll Protection Program (the “PPP Act”) administrated by the United States Small Business Administration (the “SBA”) under provisions of the Coronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security Act
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(the “CARES Act”). The PPP Note bears interest at a rate of 1% per annum. The PPP Note is payable over a five-year term commencing six months from the date of the PPP Note. The CARES Act provides that all or a portion of the PPP Note may be forgiven if the Company complies with the requirements of the PPP, including utilizing the proceeds of the PPP Note only for permitted purposes, such as payroll costs. Some or all of this loan may be forgiven if the Company expends not less than 60% of the loan proceeds on qualified payroll costs. The Company is not yet able to determine if some, or any of the loan will be forgiven. Any portion of the note not forgiven under the PPP Act will become payable over up to a five-year term beginning in the fourth quarter of 2020.
Our Programs
Our portfolio is focused on developing protein kinase inhibitors to treat PD in the brain and GI tract that arise from dysfunctional alpha-synuclein in PD patients. Using IkT-148009, our lead c-Abl protein kinase inhibitor, we intend to clinically evaluate the impact of c-Abl inhibition on newly diagnosed PD patients, patients early in the course of their disease, and PD patients with GI complications. We are pursuing clinical development using a sequential Phase 1/ Phase 2 development approach, with the details of the Phase 2 studies subject to agreements with the FDA regarding trial design and the outcome of the Phase 1 clinical trial. The Phase 1/Phase 2 development program, subject to FDA approval, would be followed with one or more Phase 3 clinical trials that we believe could lead to completion of the clinical development program in 2024. IkT-148009 is intended to treat PD in treatment-naïve and early-stage PD patients, along with GI complications such as difficulty in swallowing, or dysphagia, and for treatment of neurogenic constipation.
We have also developed an alternate delivery approach for oral kinase inhibitors by converting them into prodrugs. We developed IkT-001Pro of the anticancer drug Imatinib, to alter the way a protein kinase inhibitor is absorbed in the GI tract and believe it may result in a safer, better tolerated treatment for Imatinib-sensitive cancers. We believe demonstrating the benefits of this technology in a well-known patient population will validate the utility of our prodrug technology. We plan to submit an IND for IkT-001Pro in the first quarter of 2021. Subject to future FDA agreements, we will complete the requirements for submission related to the clinical protocol design and execution of the clinical development program. If positive clinical results are obtained, we believe that clinical development could possibly be completed in first half of 2022. Approval of IkT-001Pro would be sought pursuant to FDA rule 505(b)(2). If approved by the FDA, we would seek to partner this program with a pharmaceutical company to produce and market IkT-001Pro to the CML treatment community. Depending on the terms of the partnership, we may realize revenue from this partnership that could financially contribute to our primary efforts in neurodegenerative disease. Successful validation of our prodrug approach in IkT-001Pro would enable extension of this technology to other development programs, including IkT-148009.
In addition to the programs in PD and CML, we are evaluating development opportunities with other molecules that emerged from the RAMPTM discovery program. These opportunities include research programs in a Parkinson’s-related disease, Dementia with Lewy Body or DLB, that shares with Parkinson’s Disease the activation of c-Abl and the formation of alpha-synuclein aggregates that are chemically modified. DLB is related to Parkinson’s Disease but lacks an early manifestation of motor neuron dysfunction. It is characterized by progressive loss of cognitive function.
We have also begun animal studies related to two orphan diseases, Multiple System Atrophy (MSA) and Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML). An orphan disease is defined by the FDA as a disease or condition with a patient population of fewer than 200,000 in the United States. MSA is a rare disease characterized by alpha-synuclein chemical modification, but unlike Parkinson’s Disease itself, the chemically modified alpha-synuclein does not arise in neurons, rather, aggregates of chemically modified alpha-synuclein arise in oligodendroglial cells. There are approximately 15,000 to 50,000 cases of MSA in the United States. MSA is characterized by simultaneous central and autonomic nervous system failures across multiple organ systems. As MSA shares the hallmarks of c-Abl activation and alpha-synuclein chemical modification with Parkinson’s Disease, we believe that c-Abl inhibitor therapy holds promise as a treatment. We are working in collaboration with experts at Rush University on this research program.
PML is a rare neurological infection that arises from the John Cunningham virus, or JCV, a human polyomavirus. JCV resides in most adult humans in both the kidney and bone marrow, but, when a patient
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undergoes treatment for certain autoimmune disorders, like MS or Crohn’s Disease, such treatments can stimulate JCV migration into the brain and result in a progressive, fatal disorder. PML is exceedingly rare and generally only arises in patients who have an underlying suppression of viral immune responses or take a primary treatment whose mode of action is to suppress cellular immunity. We are working in collaboration with experts at Louisiana State University to explore this development opportunity.
Components of Operating Results
Operating Expenses
Research and Development
Research and development activities account for a significant portion of our operating expenses. We record research and development expenses as incurred. Research and development expenses incurred by us for the discovery and development of our product candidates and prodrug technologies include:

external research and development expenses, including: expenses incurred under arrangements with third parties, such as CROs, preclinical testing organizations, clinical testing organizations, CMOs, academic and non-profit institutions and consultants;

fees related to our license and collaboration agreements;

personnel related expenses, including salaries, benefits and non-cash stock-based compensation expense; and

other expenses, which include direct and allocated expenses for laboratory, facilities and other costs.
A portion of our research and development expenses are direct external expenses, which we track on a program-specific basis from inception of the program.
Program expenses include expenses associated with our most advanced product candidates and the discovery and development of compounds that are potential future candidates. We also track external expenses associated with our third-party research and development efforts. All external costs are tracked by therapeutic indication. We do not track personnel or other operating expenses incurred for our research and development programs on a program-specific basis. These expenses primarily relate to salaries and benefits and stock-based compensation and office consumables.
At this time, we can only estimate the nature, timing and costs of the efforts that will be necessary to complete the development of, and obtain regulatory approval for, any of our product candidates. We are also unable to predict when, if ever, material net cash inflows will commence from sales or licensing of our product candidates. This is due to the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with drug development, including the uncertainty of:

our ability to add and retain key research and development personnel and other key employees;

our ability to successfully file IND and NDA applications with the FDA;

our ability to commence trials;

our ability to establish an appropriate safety profile with IND-enabling toxicology studies;

our ability to successfully develop, obtain regulatory approval for, and then successfully commercialize, our product candidates;

our successful enrollment in and completion of clinical trials;

the costs associated with the development of any additional product candidates we identify in-house or acquire through collaborations;

our ability to discover, develop and utilize biomarkers to demonstrate target engagement, pathway engagement and the impact on disease progression of our molecules;
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our ability to establish agreements with third party manufacturers for clinical supply for any future clinical trials and commercial manufacturing, if our product candidates are approved;

the terms and timing of any collaboration, license or other arrangement, including the terms and timing of any milestone payments thereunder;

our ability to obtain and maintain patent, trade secret and other intellectual property protection and regulatory exclusivity for our product candidates if and when approved;

our receipt of marketing approvals from applicable regulatory authorities;

the impact of the outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease, COVID-19, pandemic which has had an adverse impact on our business, including our preclinical studies and clinical trials;

our ability to commercialize products, if and when approved, whether alone or in collaboration with others; and

the continued acceptable safety profiles of the product candidates following approval.
A change in any of these variables with respect to the development of any of our product candidates would significantly change the costs, timing and viability associated with the development of that product candidate. We expect our research and development expenses to increase for the next several years as we continue to implement our business strategy, advance our current programs, expand our research and development efforts, seek regulatory approvals for any product candidates that successfully complete clinical trials, access and develop additional product candidates and incur expenses associated with hiring additional personnel to support our research and development efforts. In addition, product candidates in later stages of clinical development generally incur higher development costs than those in earlier stages of clinical development, primarily due to the increased size and duration of later-stage clinical trials.
Selling, General and Administrative
Selling, general and administrative expenses include personnel related expenses, such as salaries, benefits, travel and non-cash stock-based compensation expense, expenses for outside professional services and allocated expenses. Outside professional services consist of legal, accounting and audit services and other consulting fees. Allocated expenses consist of rent expenses related to our offices in Cambridge, Massachusetts and Atlanta, Georgia not otherwise included in research and development expenses.
We expect to incur additional expenses as a result of operating as a public company, including expenses related to compliance with the rules and regulations of the SEC and those of any national securities exchange on which our securities are traded, additional insurance expenses, investor relations activities and other administrative and professional services. We also expect to increase our administrative headcount when operating as a public company and as we advance our product candidates through clinical development, which will also likely require us to increase our selling, general and administrative expenses.
Interest Expense, Net
Interest expense, net, consists primarily of interest income and investment income earned on our cash and our interest expenses related to outstanding debt instruments issued to McDaniel & Associates, PC, Flagship Consulting, Inc., and Dr. Werner. The debt instrument issued to Flagship Consulting, Inc. is subject to automatic conversion of the unpaid principal and accrued interest into shares of our common stock upon the closing of an initial public offering by us occurring on or before October 31, 2020, and an optional right for conversion of the unpaid principal and accrued interest into shares of our common stock at the sole option of the holder at the then current fair market value of the shares. The debt instrument issued to McDaniel & Associates, PC matures on January 1, 2021 and upon the occurrence of certain conditions including the closing of this offering, such debt instrument will become due and payable. The principal balances on the notes at June 30, 2020 to McDaniel & Associates and Flagship Consulting, Inc. were $42,534 and $358,313, respectively. The balance on the note to Dr. Werner was $248,911 at June 30, 2020.
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Results of Operations
Comparison of the Six Months Ended June 30, 2020 and 2019
The following table sets forth the significant components of our results of operations:
Six Months Ended
June 30,
Change
2020
2019
($)
(%)
(unaudited)
Grant revenue
$ 490,372 $ 758,033 $ (267,661) (35.3)
Research and development
(546,289) (2,029,828) (1,483,539) (73.1)
Selling, general and administrative
(898,019) (2,799,484) (1,901,465) (67.9)
Loss from operations
(953,936) (4,071,279) (3,117,343) (76.6)
Interest expense, net
(15,373) (9,276) 6,097 65.7
Net loss
$ (969,309) $ (4,080,555) $ (3,111,246) (76.2)
Grant Revenue
Grant revenue for the six months ended June 30, 2020 decreased by $267,661 or 35.3% to $490,372 from $758,033 in the comparable period in 2019. The decrease was driven primarily by less grant related research and development activities as the Company prepares to launch into its Phase I PD clinical trial which is not currently a revenue producing activity.
Research and Development
Research and development expenses for the six months ended June 30, 2020 decreased by $1,483,539 or 73.1% to $546,289 from $2,029,828 for the comparable period of 2019. The decrease was primarily driven by deceases in non-grant related research activities in the amount of $1.17 million, decreases in grant-related research activities in the amount of $0.12 million and a decrease in stock compensation in the amount of $0.19 million.
Selling, General and Administrative
Selling, general and administrative expenses for the six months ended June 30, 2020 decreased by $1,901,465 or 67.9% to $898,019 from $2,799,484 in the comparable period in 2019. The decrease was driven by the write-off of $1.59 million of deferred IPO expenses during the six months ended June 30, 2019 in connection with prior IPO efforts, a decrease in stock compensation of $0.14 million and a general decrease in all other administrative expenses of $0.17 million.
Interest Expense, Net
Interest expense, net for the six months ended June 30, 2020 increased by $6,097 or 165.7% to $15,373 from $9,276 during the comparable period in 2019. The increase was due to increases in outstanding note payable balances on existing notes plus increased average credit card balances in the current six-month period.
Comparison of the Years Ended December 31, 2019 and 2018
The following table sets forth the significant components of our results of operations:
Year Ended
December 31,
Change
2019
2018
($)
(%)
(unaudited)
Grant revenue
$ 1,122,740 $ 4,040,955 $ (2,918,215) (72.2)
Research and development
(2,552,711) (3,647,108) (1,094,397) (30.0)
Selling, general and administrative
(4,268,177) (2,515,968) (1,752,209) 69.6
Loss from operations
(5,698,148) (2,122,121) 3,576,027 168.5
Interest expense, net
(24,835) (30,332) (5,497) (18.1)
Net loss
$ (5,722,983) $ (2,152,453) $ 3,570,530 165.9
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Grant Revenue
Grant revenue for the year ended December 31, 2019 decreased by $2,918,215 or 72.2% to $1,122,740 from $4,040,955 in the prior year. The decrease was driven by decreased grant research activity during 2019 compared to 2018. During 2019 the Company’s focus was shifted toward advancing its Phase I clinical trials which did not result in revenue.
Research and Development
Research and development expenses decreased by $1,094,397 or 30.0% to $2,552,711 from $3,647,108 in the prior year. The decrease was driven by a $2.49 million decline in grant related research expenditures which was partially offset by an increase in non-grant related research and development activities of $1.29 million which was expended in connection with preparation for the Company’s phase I PD clinical trials and an increase of $0.10 million in stock compensation.
Selling, General and Administrative
Selling, general and administrative expenses increased by $1,752,209 or 69.6% to $4,268,177 from $2,515,968 in the prior year. The increase was the result of 2019 expensing of deferred IPO costs in the amount of $1.59 million, increased stock compensation in the amount of $0.67 million other increases of $0.08 million partially offset by decreases in current year legal, accounting and consulting expenses of $0.44 million and general and administrative wages of $0.15 million.
Interest Expense, Net
Interest expense, net decreased by $5,497 or 18.1% to $24,835 from $30,332 in the prior year. The decrease was due to a decrease in average outstanding notes payable balances in the current year compare to the prior year. The decrease in outstanding notes payable balances was primarily related to repayment of notes and conversion of several notes into common stock during 2018.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Sources of Liquidity
From our inception through June 30, 2020, we have funded our operations primarily through private, state and federal contracts and grants. From our inception through June 30, 2020, we generated aggregate cash proceeds of approximately $20.4 million from private, state and federal contracts and grants, and $1.4 million in equity sales of common stock. As of June 30, 2020, we had cash in the amount of $7,785 in addition to the amount available in accounts held by the U.S. Treasury. The Company had active grants in the amount of $2,540,068, of which $245,384 remained available in accounts held by the U.S. Treasury as of June 30, 2020. An additional $1,546,730 was made available in connection with existing active government grants beginning September 1, 2020.
Future Funding Requirements
To date, we have not generated any revenue from the sale of commercial products. We do not expect to generate any significant revenue from product sales unless and until we obtain regulatory approval of and successfully commercialize any of our product candidates and we do not know when, or if, this will occur. We expect to continue to incur significant losses for the foreseeable future, and we expect the losses to increase as we continue the development of, and seek regulatory approvals for, our product candidates, and begin to commercialize any future approved products. We are subject to all of the risks typically related to the development of new product candidates, and we may encounter unforeseen expenses, difficulties, complications, delays and other unknown factors that may adversely affect our business. Moreover, following the completion of this offering, we expect to incur additional costs associated with operating as a public company. We anticipate that we will need substantial additional funding in connection with our continuing operations.
Until we can generate a sufficient amount of revenue from the commercialization of our product candidates, if ever, we expect to finance our incremental cash needs through a combination of equity offerings, debt financings, working capital lines of credit, grant funding and potential licenses and
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collaboration agreements. Additional working capital may not be available on commercially reasonable terms, if at all. If we are unable to raise additional capital in sufficient amounts or on terms acceptable to us, we may have to significantly delay, reduce or discontinue the development or commercialization of one or more of our product candidates. If we raise additional funds through the issuance of additional debt or equity securities, it could result in dilution to our existing stockholders, increased fixed payment obligations and the existence of securities with rights that may be senior to those of our common stock. If we incur indebtedness, we could become subject to covenants that would restrict our operations and potentially impair our competitiveness, such as limitations on our ability to incur additional debt, limitations on our ability to acquire, sell or license intellectual property rights and other operating restrictions that could adversely impact our ability to conduct our business. Additionally, any future collaborations we enter into with third parties may provide capital in the near term but limit our potential cash flow and revenue in the future. Any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Since our inception, we have incurred significant losses and negative cash flows from operations. We have an accumulated deficit of $13,153,039 through June 30, 2020. We expect to incur substantial additional losses in the future as we conduct and expand our research and development activities.
We may seek to fund our operations through public equity or private equity or debt financings, as well as other sources. However, we may be unable to raise additional working capital, or if we are able to raise additional working capital we may be unable to do so on commercially favorable terms. Our failure to raise capital or enter into such other arrangements if and when needed would have a negative impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition and our ability to continue to develop our product candidates.
The Company had active grants in the amount of $2,540,068, of which $245,384 remained available in accounts held by the U.S. Treasury as of June 30, 2020. An additional $1,546,730 was made available in connection with existing active government grants beginning September 1, 2020. However, as certain elements of the Company’s operating plan are outside of the Company’s control, including the receipt of anticipated future grants and funding from a future capital raise, they cannot be considered probable. If the Company does not receive additional working capital from future anticipated grants and future anticipated capital raises, its operating plan will be limited in scope to operating at current levels which includes basic research and development but excludes planned future clinical trials.
These conditions raise substantial doubt regarding our ability to continue as a going concern for a period of one year after the date the financial statements included in this prospectus are issued. Our management’s plans to alleviate the conditions that raise substantial doubt include delaying certain research projects and capital expenditures and eliminating certain future operating expenses in order to fund operations at reduced levels for us to continue as a going concern for a period of 12 months from the date the financial statements are issued.
The accompanying financial statements have been prepared on a going concern basis, which contemplates the realization of assets and satisfaction of liabilities in the ordinary course of business. The financial statements do not include any adjustments relating to the recoverability and classification of recorded asset amounts or the amounts and classification of liabilities that might result from the outcome of the uncertainties described above.
The expected use of the net proceeds from this offering represents our intentions based upon our current plans and business conditions. However, we have based these estimates on assumptions that may prove to be wrong, and we could deplete our working capital sooner than planned.
The timing and amount of our operating expenditures will depend largely on:

the timing and progress of preclinical and clinical development activities;

the number and scope of preclinical and clinical programs we decide to pursue;

possible delays or interruptions to preclinical studies, clinical trials, our receipt of services from our third-party service providers on whom we rely, or our supply chain due to the COVID-19 pandemic;
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the progress of the development efforts of third parties with whom we have entered into license and collaboration agreements;

our ability to maintain our current research and development programs and to establish new research and development, license or collaboration arrangements;

our ability and success in securing manufacturing relationships with third parties or, in the future, in establishing and operating a manufacturing facility;

the costs involved in prosecuting, defending and enforcing patent claims and other intellectual property claims;

the cost and timing of regulatory approvals;

our efforts to enhance operational, financial and information management systems and hire additional personnel, including personnel to support development of our product candidates; and

the costs and ongoing investments to in-license and/or acquire additional technologies.
A change in the outcome of any of these or other variables with respect to the development of any of our product candidates could significantly change the costs and timing associated with the development of that product candidate. Furthermore, our operating plans may change in the future, and we may need additional funds to meet operational needs and capital requirements associated with such operating plans.
Cash Flows
The following table sets forth a summary of the primary sources and uses of cash for each of the periods presented below:
Year Ended
December 31,
Six Months Ended
June 30,
2019
2018
2020
2019
Cash provided by (used in) in operating activities
$ (338,290) $ 714,987 $ (258,342) $ (337,862)
Net cash provided by investing activities
87,097
Cash provided by (used in) financing activities
(22,810) (439,192) 247,670 (22,811)
Net increase (decrease) in cash
$ (361,100) $ 362,892 $ (10,672) $ (360,673)
Net Cash Flows Used in or Provided by Operating Activities
Net cash flows used in operating activities for the year ended December 31, 2019 totaled $(338,290), and consisted primarily of a net loss of $(5,722,983) adjusted for non-cash stock compensation of  $1,436,608, non-cash warrant expense of $574,324, decrease in deferred initial public offering costs expensed during 2019 of $1,591,989, non-cash consulting fees of $150,000, decrease in prepaid expenses of $382,162, decrease in accrued expenses of $437,060, increase in deferred revenue of $1,166,268, decrease in accounts receivable of $472,941 and a net change in other operating assets and liabilities of $47,461.
Net cash flows provided by operating activities for the year ended December 31, 2018 totaled $714,987, and consisted primarily of a net loss of $(2,152,453) adjusted for non-cash stock compensation of  $642,231, non-cash warrant expense of $596,772, increase in accrued expenses of $1,349,115, increase in deferred revenue of $256,727, increase in prepaid expenses and other current assets of $398,461, increase in accounts receivable of $292,161, non-cash consulting fees of $112,500, and an increase in accounts payable of $600,717.
Net cash flows used in operating activities for the six months ended June 30, 2020 totaled $(258,342), and consisted primarily of a net loss of $(969,309) adjusted for non-cash stock compensation of $279,517, non-cash warrant expense of $280,509, non-cash consulting fees of $75,000, increase in prepaid expenses of $5,640, decrease in accounts payable of $211,076, increase in accrued expenses of $209,149 and an increase in deferred revenue of $83,508.
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Net cash flows used in operating activities for the six months ended June 30, 2019 totaled $(337,862) and consisted primarily of a net loss of $(4,080,555) adjusted for non-cash stock compensation of $424,223, non-cash warrant expense of $395,293, non-cash consulting fees of $75,000, non-cash write-off of deferred initial public offering costs from the aborted 2018 IPO effort of $1,594,862, decrease in pre-paid expenses and other expenses of $387,183, decrease in accounts receivable of $193,443, increase in accounts payable of $1,325,378, decrease in accrued expenses of $460,160 and a decrease in deferred revenue of $192,529.
Cash Provided by Investing Activities
Net cash provided by investing activities for the year ended December 31, 2019 consists of proceeds from repayment of amount due from shareholder.
Cash Used in or Provided by Financing Activities
Net cash flows used by financing activities for the year ended December 31, 2019 totaled $(22,810), which represented repayments of notes payable.
Net cash flows used in financing activities for the year ended December 31, 2018 totaled $(439,192), which consisted of increases from proceeds from issuances of common stock of $1,181,980, reduced by repayments of notes payable of $26,310 and reduced by an increase in deferred initial public offering costs of $1,594,862.
Net cash flows provided by financing activities for the six months ended June 30, 2020 totaled $247,670, which included proceeds from issuances of common stock of $4,870 and proceeds from issuance of a two notes payable totaling $272,800 and an increase in deferred public offering costs of $30,000.
Net cash flows used by financing activities for the six months ended June 30, 2019 totaled $22,811, which represented repayments of notes payable.
Since our inception through June 30, 2020, we have raised an aggregate of approximately $21.8 million in net proceeds through awarded grants or contracts and equity sales. Approximately 90% of the aggregate proceeds raised came through awarded grants and contracts.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
We have not entered into any off-balance sheet arrangements.
Contractual Obligations and Commitments
In June 2018, the Company entered into a one-year, non-cancelable operating lease for space in Boston, Massachusetts. The total lease obligation was $54,000, payable in 12 equal monthly installments commencing August 1, 2018. Since the end of the one-year initial term on July 31, 2019, the lease continues on a month-to-month basis.
Critical Accounting Policies and Significant Judgments and Estimates
This discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations is based on our financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States, or GAAP. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, as well as the reported expenses incurred during the reporting periods. Our estimates are based on our historical experience and on various other factors that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying value of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions. While our significant accounting policies are described in more detail in the notes to our financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus, we believe that the following accounting policies are critical to understanding our historical and future performance, as these policies relate to the more significant areas involving management’s judgments and estimates.
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Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
Internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Under standards established by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, or PCAOB, a deficiency in internal control over financial reporting exists when the design or operation of a control does not allow management or personnel, in the normal course of performing their assigned functions, to prevent or detect misstatements on a timely basis. The PCAOB defines a material weakness as a deficiency, or combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented, or detected and corrected, on a timely basis.
During the preparation of our consolidated financial statements for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, we and our independent registered public accounting firm identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting related to the level of review of our internally prepared financial statements and lack of adequate segregation of accounting functions. As a result of the material weaknesses, we failed to timely detect and correct a misclassification of certain items within the statement of cash flows. The accompanying financial statements were corrected to reflect the impact of the adjustment.
We are in the process of implementing measures designed to improve our internal control over financial reporting to remediate these material weaknesses. The Company's plan to remediate the material weaknesses in its internal control over financial reporting includes utilizing a portion of the working capital from its initial public offering to increase staffing within its finance department sufficient to facilitate proper segregation of accounting functions and to enable appropriate review of its internally prepared financial statements. In addition, the Company plans to retain outside consultants, expert in, and specializing in SEC reporting for public company registrants.
Research and Development Expenses
We record research and development expenses to operations as incurred. Research and development expenses represent costs incurred by us for the discovery and development of our product candidates and the development of our RAMP™ drug discovery program and prodrug technologies and include: employee-related expenses, such as salaries, benefits, travel and non-cash stock-based compensation expense; external research and development expenses incurred under arrangements with third parties, such as CROs, preclinical testing organizations, clinical testing organizations, CMOs, academic and non-profit institutions and consultants; costs to acquire technologies to be used in research and development that have not reached technological feasibility and have no alternative future use; license fees; and other expenses, which include direct and allocated expenses for laboratory, facilities and other costs.
As part of the process of preparing financial statements, we are required to estimate and accrue expenses. A portion of our research and development expenses are external costs, which we track on a program-specific basis. We record the estimated expenses of research and development activities conducted by third party service providers as they are incurred and provided within research and development expense in the statements of operations. These services include the conduct of preclinical studies and consulting services. These costs are a significant component of our research and development expenses.
Costs for research and development activities are recognized based on costs incurred. We make significant judgments and estimates in determining the accrued balance in each reporting period. As actual costs become known, we adjust our accrued estimates. Although we do not expect our estimates to be materially different from amounts actually incurred, our understanding of the status and timing of services performed may vary from our estimates and could result in us reporting amounts that are too high or too low in any particular period. Our accrued expenses are dependent, in part, upon the receipt of timely and accurate reporting from external clinical research organizations and other third-party service providers. Due to the nature of estimates, we cannot assure you that we will not make changes to our estimates in the future as we become aware of additional information about the status or conduct of our clinical trials and other research activities.
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Stock-Based Compensation
We have granted stock-based awards, consisting of non-qualified stock options, to our employees, certain non-employee consultants and members of our board of directors, both past and present. We measure stock-based compensation expense for stock options granted to our employees and directors on the date of grant and recognize the corresponding compensation expense of those awards over the requisite service period, which is generally the vesting period of the respective award. We account for stock-based compensation arrangements with non-employee consultants using a fair value approach. The estimated fair value of unvested options granted to non-employee consultants is remeasured at each reporting date through the date of final vesting. As a result, the noncash charge to operations for non-employee options with vesting conditions is affected in each reporting period by changes in the estimated fair value of our common stock. We adjust for actual forfeitures as they occur.
We estimate the fair value of stock options granted to our employees and directors on the grant date, and the resulting stock-based compensation expense, using the Black-Scholes-