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PART IV

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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549



FORM 10-K

(Mark One)

ý   Annual Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934

For the fiscal year ended May 31, 2014
or

o

 

Transition Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934

For the transition period from                to                

Commission file number 1-6263

AAR CORP.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Delaware
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
  36-2334820
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

One AAR Place, 1100 N. Wood Dale Road, Wood Dale, Illinois 60191
(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)

Registrant's telephone number, including area code: (630) 227-2000

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of Each Class
 
Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Common Stock, $1.00 par value   New York Stock Exchange
Chicago Stock Exchange

 

 

 
Common Stock Purchase Rights   New York Stock Exchange
Chicago Stock Exchange

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

         Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ý No o

         Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act. Yes o No ý

         Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ý No o

         Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes ý No o

         Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.    ý

         Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer" and "smaller reporting company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.(Check one):

Large accelerated filer ý   Accelerated filer o   Non-Accelerated filer o
(Do not check if a
smaller reporting company)
  Smaller reporting company o

         Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).
Yes o No ý

         The aggregate market value of the registrant's voting stock held by nonaffiliates was approximately $1,169 million (based upon the closing price of the Common Stock at November 29, 2013 as reported on the New York Stock Exchange).

         On June 30, 2014, there were 39,590,411 shares of Common Stock outstanding.

Documents Incorporated by Reference

         Portions of the Company's proxy statement for the Company's 2014 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, to be held October 8, 2014, are incorporated by reference in Part III of this report.


Table of Contents


TABLE OF CONTENTS

 
   
  Page  

PART I

       

Item 1.

 

Business

   
2
 

Item 1A.

 

Risk Factors

   
6
 

Item 1B.

 

Unresolved Staff Comments

   
13
 

Item 2.

 

Properties

   
13
 

Item 3.

 

Legal Proceedings

   
13
 

Item 4.

 

Mine Safety Disclosures

   
13
 

 

Supplemental Item—Executive Officers of the Registrant

   
14
 

PART II

   
 
 

Item 5.

 

Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

   
16
 

Item 6.

 

Selected Financial Data

   
18
 

Item 7.

 

Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

   
19
 

Item 7A.

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

   
29
 

Item 8.

 

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

   
30
 

Item 9.

 

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

   
74
 

Item 9A.

 

Controls and Procedures

   
74
 

Item 9B.

 

Other Information

   
76
 

PART III

   
 
 

Item 10.

 

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

   
76
 

Item 11.

 

Executive Compensation

   
76
 

Item 12.

 

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

   
77
 

Item 13.

 

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

   
77
 

Item 14.

 

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

   
77
 

PART IV

   
 
 

Item 15.

 

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

   
78
 

SIGNATURES

   
79
 

EXHIBIT INDEX

   
 
 

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PART I

ITEM 1.    BUSINESS
(Dollars in millions)

General

        AAR CORP. and its subsidiaries are referred to herein collectively as "AAR," "Company," "we," "us," and "our" unless the context indicates otherwise. AAR was founded in 1951, organized in 1955 and reincorporated in Delaware in 1966. We are a diversified provider of products and services to the worldwide aviation and government and defense markets.

        We report our activities in two business segments: (i) Aviation Services, comprised primarily of business activities conducted through AAR Parts Trading, Inc.; AAR Aircraft & Engine Sales & Leasing, Inc.; AAR Aircraft Services, Inc.; AAR Allen Services, Inc. (a wholly-owned subsidiary of AAR Parts Trading, Inc.);. AAR Airlift Group, Inc. and AAR International, Inc.; and (ii) Technology Products, comprised primarily of business activities conducted through AAR Manufacturing, Inc., AAR International, Inc., Nordisk Aviation Products AS, and Telair International GmbH.

Business Segments

        We report our activities in two business segments: Aviation Services and Technology Products.

Aviation Services

        The Aviation Services segment provides aftermarket support and services for the commercial aviation and government and defense markets. In this segment, we provide inventory management and distribution services, overhaul, repair and engineering services, and expeditionary airlift services.

        We sell and lease a wide variety of new, overhauled and repaired engine and airframe parts and components to our commercial and defense customers. We are also an authorized distributor for more than 70 leading aviation product manufacturers.

        We provide customized inventory supply and management, warranty claim management, and outsourcing programs for engine and airframe parts and components in support of our airline customers' maintenance activities. The types of services provided under these programs include material planning, sourcing, logistics, information and program management, and parts and component repair and overhaul.

        We also provide customized performance-based logistics programs in support of the U.S. Department of Defense ("DoD") and foreign governments. The types of services provided under these programs include material planning, sourcing, logistics, information and program management, airframe maintenance and maintenance planning, and component repair and overhaul.

        We provide major airframe maintenance inspection and overhaul, painting services, line maintenance, airframe modifications, structural repairs, avionic service and installation, exterior and interior refurbishment, and engineering services and support for many types of commercial and military aircraft. We also repair and overhaul landing gears, wheels, and brakes for commercial and military aircraft.

        We operate six airframe maintenance facilities and one landing gear overhaul facility. Our airframe maintenance facilities are in Indianapolis, Indiana; Oklahoma City, Oklahoma; Duluth, Minnesota; Miami, Florida; and Lake Charles, Louisiana and a regional aircraft maintenance facility in Hot Springs, Arkansas. Our landing gear overhaul facility is in Miami, Florida, where we repair and overhaul landing gear, wheels, brakes, and actuators for different types of commercial and military aircraft.

        We provide expeditionary airlift services to the United States and other government customers. Our expeditionary airlift services provide fixed- and rotary-wing flight operations, transporting personnel and cargo principally in support of the DoD. We operate a fleet of customized fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft,

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principally in Afghanistan, Northern Africa and Western Pacific regions. We hold FAR Part 133 and 135 certificates to operate aircraft and a FAR Part 145 certificate to operate a repair station. We are also Commercial Aircraft Review Board certified with the DoD.

        Activities in our Aviation Services segment also include the sale and lease of used commercial aircraft. Each sale or lease is negotiated as a separate agreement which includes term, price, representations, warranties, and lease return provisions. Since 2008, our strategy has been to gradually reduce our investment in our joint venture and wholly-owned aircraft portfolios available for lease or sale to the commercial airline market. At May 31, 2014, we held four aircraft in joint ventures and two wholly-owned aircraft.

        The majority of our sales are made pursuant to standard commercial purchase orders. Certain inventory supply and management and performance-based logistics program agreements reflect negotiated terms and conditions.

        To support activities within the Aviation Services segment, we acquire aviation parts and components from domestic and foreign airlines, independent aviation service companies, aircraft leasing companies, and Original Equipment Manufacturers ("OEM"s). We have ongoing arrangements with OEMs that provide us access to parts, repair manuals, and service bulletins in support of parts manufactured by them. Although the terms of each arrangement vary, they typically are made on standard OEM terms as to duration, price, and delivery. From time to time, we purchase aircraft and engines for disassembly into individual parts and components. These assets may be leased to airlines on a short-term basis prior to disassembly.

Technology Products

        Activities in our Technology Products segment include the design, manufacture, and repair of transportation pallets, and a wide variety of containers and shelters used in support of military and humanitarian tactical deployment activities. The containers and shelters are used in numerous mission requirements, including armories, supply and parts storage, refrigeration systems, tactical operation centers, briefing rooms, laundry and kitchen facilities, water treatment, and sleeping quarters. Shelters include both stationary and vehicle-mounted applications. We also design and manufacture transportation pallets and a wide variety of containers used in commercial airlines.

        In this segment, we also design, manufacture, and install in-plane cargo loading and handling systems for commercial aircraft, military aircraft, and helicopters. We are a provider of complex machined and fabricated parts, components, and sub-systems for various aerospace and defense programs and other applications. We design and manufacture advanced composite materials for commercial, business, and military aircraft. We provide engineering, design, and system integration services for specialized command and control systems.

        Sales in this segment are made to customers pursuant to standard commercial purchase orders and contracts. We purchase raw materials for this business, including steel, titanium, aluminum, extrusions and castings, and other necessary supplies, from several vendors.

Raw Materials

        We have been able to obtain raw materials and other inventory items from numerous sources for each segment at competitive prices, terms, and conditions; we expect to be able to continue to do so.

Terms of Sale

        We generally sell our products under standard 30-day payment terms. On occasion, certain customers, principally foreign customers, will negotiate extended payment terms of 60-90 days. Except for customary warranty provisions, customers neither have the right to return products nor do they have the right to

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extended financing. Our contracts with the DoD and its contractors, the U.S. Department of State, and other governmental agencies are typically firm agreements to provide products and services at a fixed price or on a time and material basis, and have a term of one year or less, frequently subject to extension for one or more additional periods of one year at the option of the government customer.

Customers

        We primarily market and sell products and services through our own employees. In certain markets outside of the United States, we rely on foreign sales agents to assist in the sale of our products and services.

        The principal customers for our products and services in the Aviation Services segment are domestic and foreign commercial airlines, domestic and foreign freight airlines, regional and commuter airlines, business and general aviation operators, OEMs, aircraft leasing companies, aftermarket aviation support companies, the DoD and its contractors, the U.S. Department of State, and foreign military organizations or governments. In the Technology Products segment, our principal customers include the DoD and its contractors, foreign governmental and defense organizations, domestic and foreign commercial airlines, domestic and foreign freight airlines, OEMs, large system providers, and other industrial entities.

        Sales of aviation products and services to our commercial airline customers are generally affected by such factors as the number, type and average age of aircraft in service, the levels of aircraft utilization (e.g., frequency of schedules), the number of airline operators, the general economy, and the level of sales of new and used aircraft. Sales to the DoD, U.S. Department of State, and other government agencies are subject to a number of factors, including the level of troop deployment worldwide, government funding, competitive bidding, and requirements generated by worldwide geopolitical events.

Licenses

        We have 14 Federal Aviation Administration ("FAA") licensed repair stations in the United States and Europe. Of the 14 licensed FAA repair stations, seven are also European Aviation Safety Agency ("EASA") licensed repair stations. Such licenses, which are ongoing in duration, are required for us to perform authorized maintenance, repair and overhaul services for our customers and are subject to revocation by the government for non-compliance with applicable regulations. Of the 14 FAA licensed repair stations, 13 are in the Aviation Services segment and one is in the Technology Products segment. The seven EASA licensed repair stations are in the Aviation Services segment. We also hold FAR Part 133 and 135 certificates to operate aircraft in our Aviation Services segment. We are also Commercial Aircraft Review Board certified with the DoD. We believe that we possess all licenses and certifications that are material to the conduct of our business.

Competition

        Competition in each of our markets is based on quality, ability to provide a broad range of products and services, speed of delivery, and price. Competitors in our Aviation Services segment include OEMs, the service divisions of large commercial airlines, and other independent suppliers of parts, repair, and overhaul services to the commercial and defense markets. Our expeditionary airlift services unit competes with domestic and foreign contracting companies. Our manufacturing, machining and engineering activities in our Technology Products segment compete with a number of divisions of large corporations and other large and small companies. Although certain of our competitors have substantially greater financial and other resources than we do, we believe that we have maintained a satisfactory competitive position through our responsiveness to customer needs, our attention to quality, and our unique combination of market expertise and technical and financial capabilities.

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Backlog

        At May 31, 2014, backlog believed to be firm was approximately $903.3 million compared to $973.0 million at May 31, 2013. Approximately $557.8 million of our May 31, 2014 backlog is expected to be filled within the next 12 months.

Employees

        At May 31, 2014, we employed approximately 5,800 employees worldwide, of which approximately 130 employees are subject to a collective bargaining agreement. We also retain approximately 600 contract workers, the majority of whom are located at our airframe maintenance facilities.

Sales to Government and Defense Customers

        Sales to global government and defense customers were $827.4 million (40.7% of total sales), $839.2 million (39.3% of total sales) and $930.4 million (45.1% of total sales) in fiscal years 2014, 2013 and 2012, respectively. Sales to branches, agencies, and departments of the U.S. government and their contractors were $694.9 million (34.1% of total sales), $763.2 million (35.7% of total sales), and $888.5 million (43.0% of total sales) in fiscal years 2014, 2013, and 2012, respectively. Sales to government and defense customers are reported in each of our reportable segments (See Note 13 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements). Since such sales are subject to competitive bidding and government funding, no assurance can be given that such sales will continue at levels previously experienced. The majority of our U.S. government contracts are for products and services supporting the DoD logistics and mobility strategy, as well as for supplemental expeditionary airlift services. Thus, our government contracts may change with fluctuations in defense and other governmental agency spending. Our government contracts are also subject to termination by the customer; in the event of such a termination we would be entitled to recover all allowable costs incurred by us through the date of termination.

Available Information

        For additional information concerning our business segments, see Item 7, "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and "Business Segment Information" in Note 13 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements under Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data."

        Our internet address is www.aarcorp.com. We make available free of charge through our web site our annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and all amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish such material to, the Securities and Exchange Commission. Information contained on our web site is not a part of this report.

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ITEM 1A.    RISK FACTORS

        The following is a description of the principal risks inherent in our business.

We are affected by factors that adversely impact the commercial aviation industry.

        As a provider of products and services to the commercial aviation industry, we are greatly affected by overall economic conditions of that industry. The commercial aviation industry is historically cyclical and has been negatively affected in the past by geopolitical events, high oil prices, lack of capital, and weak economic conditions. In addition, as a result of these and other events, from time to time certain of our customers have filed for bankruptcy protection or ceased operation.

        In calendar year 2008 and into 2009, demand for air transportation in the United States and abroad declined due to economic deterioration in the U.S. and other global economies. Although global economic conditions improved in the 2010 to 2014 period, the recovery has generally been sluggish in the U.S. and in many other developed nations. The impact of persistently high fuel costs and the continued sluggish or weak worldwide economic conditions may lead airlines to reduce domestic or international capacity. In addition, certain of our airline customers have in the past been impacted by tight credit markets, which limited their ability to buy parts, services, engines, and aircraft.

        A reduction in the operating fleet of aircraft both in the U.S. and abroad will result in reduced demand for parts support and maintenance activities for the type of aircraft affected. Further, tight credit conditions negatively impact the amount of liquidity available to buy parts, services, engines, and aircraft. A deteriorating airline environment may also result in additional airline bankruptcies, and in such circumstances we may not be able to fully collect outstanding accounts receivable. Reduced demand from customers caused by weak economic conditions, including tight credit conditions and customer bankruptcies, may adversely impact our financial condition or results of operations.

        Our business, financial condition, results of operations, and growth rates may be adversely affected by these and other events that impact the aviation industry, including the following:

    deterioration in the financial condition of our existing and potential customers;

    reductions in the need for, or the deferral of, aircraft maintenance and repair services and spare parts support;

    retirement of older generation aircraft, resulting in lower prices for spare parts and services for those aircraft;

    reductions in demand for used aircraft and engines;

    increased in-house maintenance by airlines;

    high oil prices;

    lack of parts in the marketplace;

    future terrorist attacks and the ongoing war on terrorism;

    future outbreaks of infectious diseases; and

    acts of God.

Our U.S. government contracts may not continue at present sales levels, which may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

        Our sales to branches, agencies and departments of the U.S. government and their contractors were $694.9 million (34.1% of consolidated sales) in fiscal year 2014 (See Note 13 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements). The majority of our U.S. government contracts is for products and services

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supporting DoD logistics and mobility strategy, as well as for supplemental expeditionary airlift services and are, therefore, subject to changes in defense and other governmental agency funding and spending. Our contracts with the U.S. government, including the DoD and its contractors, are typically agreements to provide products and services at a fixed price and have a term of one year or less, frequently subject to extension for one or more additional periods of one year at the option of the government customer. Sales to agencies of the U.S. government and their contractors are subject to a number of factors, including the level of troop deployment worldwide, competitive bidding, U.S. government funding, requirements generated by world events, and budgetary constraints.

        Defense funding is currently facing pressure due to U.S. budget deficit challenges. Congress enacted the Budget Control Act of 2011 ("Budget Act"), which reduced defense spending by a minimum of $487 billion over a ten-year period that began in the government's fiscal year 2012. As a result of the Budget Act and deficit reduction pressures, it appears likely that discretionary spending by the federal government may remain constrained for several years.

        The American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 ("Taxpayer Relief Act") delayed the pending sequestration of appropriations imposed by the Budget Act by two months, from January 2, 2013 to March 1, 2013, and reduced the amount of the government fiscal year 2013 budget cuts. Sequestration went into effect March 1, 2013. On March 26, 2013, the President signed into law the Consolidated Further Continuing Appropriations Act, which included specific appropriations for the DoD.

        In October 2013, Congress passed a continuing resolution to temporarily fund the government and suspended the statutory limit on the amount of permissible federal debt (the debt ceiling) through February 7, 2014. In December 2013, Congress passed the National Defense Authorization Act for the government's fiscal 2014. Congress also passed the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2013 (the "Bipartisan Budget Act"), which set discretionary spending levels for the government's fiscal 2014 and 2015. The Bipartisan Budget Act retained the lower spending limits, including the across-the-board spending reduction methodology as provided for in the Budget Act. On January 16, 2014, Congress passed the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2014, providing for federal spending levels consistent with the Bipartisan Budget Act. The President signed the legislation into law on January 17, 2014.

        Future congressional appropriation and authorization of defense spending and the application of sequestration remain marked by significant debate and an uncertain schedule. The debt ceiling continues to be actively debated as plans for long-term national fiscal policy are discussed. The outcome of these debates could have a significant impact on defense spending broadly and programs we support in particular.

        If the existing debt ceiling is not raised, we may be required to continue to perform for some period of time on certain of our U.S. Government contracts even if the U.S. Government is unable to make timely payments. The challenging budget environment, including the potential impact from any future sequestration or constraints related to the debt ceiling, could have a material adverse effect on our financial position and results of operations.

We face risks of cost overruns and losses on fixed-price contracts.

        We sell certain of our products and services to our commercial, government, and defense customers under firm contracts providing for fixed unit prices, regardless of costs incurred by us. The cost of producing products or providing services may be adversely affected by increases in the cost of labor, materials, fuel, overhead, and other unknown variants, including manufacturing and other operational inefficiencies and differences between assumptions used by us to price a contract and actual results. Increased costs may result in cost overruns and losses on such contracts, which could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

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Significant cost issues may develop in connection with the A400M cargo system.

        Our Cargo Systems unit was selected in June 2005 to provide cargo loading systems for the Airbus A400M Military Transport Aircraft ("A400M"). We have incurred significant engineering and development costs in connection with this program (see Note 12 in Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements), and we expect to incur additional development costs as the design is certified. The certification of our design for full functionality is currently scheduled for the third quarter of calendar 2014. In July 2013, we and Airbus amended the A400M contract to make changes to the Company's role and responsibilities under the program, establish a fixed price per shipset, set applicable weight parameters and make certain other changes.

        We may not be able to recover our engineering and development costs, which could adversely affect our operating results and financial condition, under certain circumstances, including the following: (i) we are not able to obtain certification of the design of the system in the third quarter of calendar 2014; (ii) the A400M program experiences significant additional delivery delays or order cancellations; (iii) we fail to achieve the expected production cost reductions; (iv) we fail to deliver the items that we are now responsible for in accordance with the terms of the amended contract; or (v) the contract is further amended to change our role and responsibilities.

Success at our airframe maintenance facilities is dependent upon continued outsourcing by the airlines.

        We currently perform airframe maintenance, repair and overhaul activities at leased facilities in Indianapolis, Indiana; Oklahoma City, Oklahoma; Miami, Florida; Duluth, Minnesota; Hot Springs, Arkansas; and Lake Charles, Louisiana. Revenues at these facilities fluctuate based on demand for maintenance which, in turn, is driven by the number of aircraft operating and the extent of outsourcing of maintenance activities by airlines. If either the number of aircraft operating or the level of outsourcing of maintenance activities declines, we may not be able to execute our operational and financial plans at our maintenance, repair and overhaul facilities, which could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

We operate in highly competitive markets, and competitive pressures may adversely affect us.

        The markets for our products and services to our commercial, government, and defense customers are highly competitive, and we face competition from a number of sources, both domestic and international. Our competitors include aircraft manufacturers, aircraft component and parts manufacturers, airline and aircraft service companies, other companies providing maintenance, repair and overhaul services, other aircraft spare parts distributors and redistributors, and other expeditionary airlift service providers. Some of our competitors have substantially greater financial and other resources than we have and others may price their products and services below our selling prices.

        Our government customers, including the DoD, may turn to commercial contractors, rather than traditional defense contractors, for certain work, or may utilize small business contractors or determine to source work internally rather than use us. We are also are impacted by bid protests from unsuccessful bidders on new program awards. Bid protests could result in significant expense to the company, contract modifications or the award decision being overturned and loss of the contract award. Even where a bid protest does not result in the loss of an award, the resolution can extend the time until the contract activity can begin, and delay earnings. These competitive pressures, with potential impacts on both our commercial and government business, could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

We are subject to significant government regulation and may need to incur significant expenses to comply with new or more stringent governmental regulation.

        The aviation industry is highly regulated by the FAA in the United States and equivalent regulatory agencies in other countries. Before we sell any of our products that are to be installed in an aircraft, such as

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engines, engine parts and components, and airframe and accessory parts and components, they must meet certain standards of airworthiness established by the FAA or the equivalent regulatory agencies in certain other countries. We operate repair stations that are licensed by the FAA and the equivalent regulatory agencies in certain other countries, and hold certificates to operate aircraft. Specific regulations vary from country to country, although regulatory requirements in other countries are generally satisfied by compliance with FAA requirements. New and more stringent governmental regulations may be adopted in the future that, if enacted, may have an adverse impact on us.

        If any of our material licenses, certificates, authorizations, or approvals were revoked or suspended by the FAA or equivalent regulatory agencies in other countries, our results of operations and financial condition may be adversely affected.

If we fail to comply with complex procurement laws and regulations, we could lose business and be liable for various penalties or sanctions.

        We must comply with laws and regulations relating to the formation, administration, and performance of U.S. government contracts. These laws and regulations include the Federal Acquisition Regulations, Defense Federal Acquisition Regulations, the Truth in Negotiations Act, Cost Accounting Standards, and laws, regulations, and orders restricting the use and dissemination of classified information under the U.S. export control laws and the export of certain products and technical information. Certain government contracts provide audit rights by government agencies, including with respect to performance, costs, internal controls and compliance with applicable laws and regulations. In complying with these laws and regulations, we may incur significant costs, and non-compliance may result in the imposition of fines and penalties, including contractual damages. If we fail to comply with these laws and regulations or if a government audit, review, or investigation uncovers improper or illegal activities, we may be subject to civil penalties, criminal penalties, or administrative sanctions, including debarment from contracting with the U.S. Government. Our reputation could suffer harm if allegations of impropriety were made against us, which could adversely affect our operating performance and may result in additional expenses and possible loss of revenue.

The majority of our expeditionary airlift revenue is derived from providing expeditionary airlift services in Afghanistan.

        Our expeditionary airlift business derives most of its revenue from providing supplemental expeditionary airlift services in Afghanistan for the DoD. The U.S. has announced plans to reduce military activities in Afghanistan in 2014 and expects to end the calendar year with fewer than 10,000 U.S. forces in Afghanistan. Our revenue from our expeditionary airlift business in Afghanistan depends in part on the execution of a status of forces agreement between the U.S. and the Afghan governments that would establish the framework under which U.S. military personnel operate in Afghanistan and how Afghan laws apply toward U.S. personnel, including our employees and contractors. Without a status of forces agreement, our activities and associated revenues in Afghanistan may be substantially reduced or even eliminated. The negotiation of the status of forces agreement has been deferred by the Afghan government pending the outcome of their Presidential election.

        We are also bidding on expeditionary airlift contracts supporting both DoD and non-DoD customers, although there can be no assurance we will be awarded any of these contracts. At the beginning of fiscal year 2014 we had 40 aircraft in revenue service. By the end of fiscal year 2014, 20 of those aircraft were no longer in active service and were available for future mission deployment.

        Although we expect ongoing demand for expeditionary airlift services in Afghanistan from the DoD and other governmental departments, we are exposed to the risk that our expeditionary airlift revenues may decline if contracts are not renewed, renewed only in part, or are terminated, which could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition. If we are unable to successfully redeploy our

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existing aircraft at favorable rates or sell them on favorable terms, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

        U.S. government contractors that provide support services in theaters of conflict such as Afghanistan have come under increasing scrutiny by agency inspectors general, government auditors and congressional committees. Investigations pursued by any or all of these groups may result in adverse publicity for us and reputational harm, regardless of the underlying merit of the allegations being investigated.

We are exposed to risks associated with operating internationally.

        We conduct our business in certain foreign countries, some of which are politically unstable or subject to military or civil conflicts. Consequently, we are subject to a variety of risks that are specific to international operations, including the following:

    military conflicts, civil strife, and political risks;

    export regulations that could erode profit margins or restrict exports;

    compliance with the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and other anti-bribery laws;

    the burden and cost of compliance with foreign laws, treaties, and technical standards and changes in those regulations;

    contract award and funding delays;

    potential restrictions on transfers of funds;

    import and export duties and value added taxes;

    foreign exchange risk;

    transportation delays and interruptions; and

    uncertainties arising from foreign local business practices and cultural considerations.

        While we have and will continue to adopt measures to reduce the potential impact of losses resulting from the risks of doing business internationally, we cannot ensure that such measures will be adequate or that the regions in which we operate will continue to be stable enough to allow us to operate profitably or at all.

Acquisitions expose us to risks, including the risk that we may be unable to effectively integrate acquired businesses.

        We continue to grow through acquisitions. We explore and have discussions with third parties regarding additional acquisitions on a regular basis. Acquisitions involve risks, including difficulties in integrating the operations and personnel, the effects of amortization of any acquired intangible assets and the potential impairment of goodwill, and the potential loss of key employees of the acquired business. In addition, acquisitions often require substantial management resources and have the potential to divert our attention from our existing business. For our recent acquisitions, and for any businesses we may acquire in the future, we may not be able to execute our operational, financial, or integration plans for the acquired businesses, which could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

Market values for our aviation products fluctuate, and we may be unable to re-lease or sell aircraft and engines when their current lease expires.

        We use a number of assumptions when determining the recoverability of inventories, aircraft, and engines, which are on lease or available for lease. These assumptions include historical sales trends, current and expected usage trends, replacement values, current and expected lease rates, residual values, future demand, and future cash flows. Reductions in demand for our inventories or declining market

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values, as well as differences between actual results and the assumptions utilized by us when determining the recoverability of our inventories, aircraft, and engines, could result in impairment charges in future periods, which would adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

        We lease aircraft and engines to our customers on an operating lease basis. Our ability to re-lease or sell these assets on acceptable terms when the lease expires is subject to a number of factors which drive industry capacity, including new aircraft deliveries, availability of used aircraft and engines in the marketplace, competition, financial condition of our customers, overall health of the airline industry, and general economic conditions. Our inability to re-lease or sell aircraft and engines could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

We may need to reduce the carrying value of our assets.

        We own a significant amount of aircraft, aircraft parts and components, and manufacturing facilities and related equipment. The removal of aircraft from service or recurring losses in certain operations could require us to evaluate the recoverability of the carrying value of those assets and record an impairment charge through earnings to reduce the carrying value.

        We have recorded goodwill and other intangible assets related to acquisitions. If we are unable to achieve the projected levels of operating results, it may be necessary to record an impairment charge to reduce the carrying value of goodwill and related intangible assets. Similarly, if we were to lose a key customer or one of our airframe maintenance or landing gear facilities were to lose their authority to operate, it could be necessary to record an impairment charge.

We are dependent upon continued availability of financing to manage our business and to execute our business strategy, and additional financing may not be available on terms acceptable to us.

        Our ability to manage our business and to execute our business strategy is dependent, in part, on the continued availability of debt and equity capital. Access to the debt and equity capital markets may be limited by various factors, including the condition of overall credit markets, general economic factors, state of the aviation industry, our financial performance, and credit ratings. Debt and equity capital may not continue to be available to us on favorable terms, or at all. Our inability to obtain financing on favorable terms could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

Our existing debt includes restrictive and financial covenants.

        Certain loan and debt agreements require us to comply with various restrictive covenants and some contain financial covenants that require us to comply with specified financial ratios and tests. Our failure to meet these covenants could result in default under these loan and debt agreements and may result in a cross-default under other debt agreements. In the event of a default and our inability to obtain a waiver of the default, all amounts outstanding under our debt agreements could be declared immediately due and payable. Our failure to comply with these covenants could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

Our industry is susceptible to product and other liability claims, and claims not adequately covered by insurance may adversely affect our financial condition.

        Our business exposes us to possible claims for property damage and bodily injury or death which may result if an engine, engine part or component, airframe part or accessory, or any other aviation product which we have sold, manufactured, or repaired fails, or if an aircraft we operated, serviced, or in which our products are installed crashes and the cause cannot be determined. We carry substantial liability insurance in amounts that we believe are adequate for our risk exposure and commensurate with industry norms. However, claims may arise in the future, and our insurance coverage may not be adequate to protect us in all circumstances. Additionally, we might not be able to maintain adequate insurance coverage in the

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future at an acceptable cost. Any liability claim not covered by adequate insurance could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

Our business could be negatively affected by cyber or other security threats or other disruptions.

        Our businesses depend heavily on information technology and computerized systems to communicate and operate effectively. The Company's systems and technologies, or those of third parties on which we rely, could fail or become unreliable due to equipment failures, software viruses, cyber threats, terrorist acts, natural disasters, power failures or other causes. These threats arise in some cases as a result of our role as a defense contractor.

        Cyber security threats are evolving and include, but are not limited to, malicious software, attempts to gain unauthorized access to our sensitive information, including our customers, suppliers, subcontractors, and joint venture partners, and other electronic security breaches that could lead to disruptions in mission critical systems, unauthorized release of confidential or otherwise protected information, and corruption of data.

        Although we utilize various procedures and controls to monitor and mitigate these threats, there can be no assurance that these procedures and controls will be sufficient to prevent security threats from materializing. If any of these events were to materialize, the costs related to cyber or other security threats or disruptions may not be fully insured or indemnified and could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, operating results, and financial condition.

We must comply with extensive environmental requirements, and any exposure to environmental liabilities may adversely affect us.

        Federal, state, and local requirements relating to the discharge and emission of substances into the environment, the disposal of hazardous wastes, the remediation and abatement of contaminants, and other activities affecting the environment have had and may continue to have an impact on our operations. Management cannot assess the possible effect of compliance with future environmental requirements or of future environmental claims for which we may not have adequate indemnification or insurance coverage. If we were required to pay the expenses related to any future environmental claims for which neither indemnification nor insurance coverage were available, these expenses could have an adverse impact on our results of operations and financial condition.

        Future environmental regulatory developments in the United States and abroad concerning environmental issues, such as climate change, could adversely affect our operations and increase operating costs and, through their impact on our customers, reduce demand for our products and services. Actions may be taken in the future by the U.S. government, state governments within the United States, foreign governments, the International Civil Aviation Organization, or by signatory countries through a new global climate change treaty to regulate the emission of greenhouse gases by the aviation industry. The precise nature of any such requirements and their applicability to us and our customers are difficult to predict, but the impact to us and the aviation industry would likely be adverse and could be significant, including the potential for increased fuel costs, carbon taxes or fees, or a requirement to purchase carbon credits.

We may need to make significant capital expenditures to keep pace with technological developments in our industry.

        The industries in which we participate are constantly undergoing development and change, and it is likely that new products, equipment, and methods of repair and overhaul services will be introduced in the future. We may need to make significant expenditures to purchase new equipment and to train our employees to keep pace with any new technological developments. These expenditures could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

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Our operations would be adversely affected by a shortage of skilled personnel or work stoppages.

        We are dependent on an educated and highly skilled workforce, because of the complex nature of many of our products and services. Furthermore, we have a collective bargaining agreement covering approximately 130 employees. Our ability to operate successfully and meet our customers' demands could be jeopardized if we are unable to attract and retain a sufficient number of skilled personnel, including qualified licensed mechanics, to conduct our business, or if we experience a significant or prolonged work stoppage. These and similar events may adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

ITEM 1B.    UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

        Not Applicable.

ITEM 2.    PROPERTIES

        In the Aviation Services segment, we conduct inventory management and distribution activities from our headquarters in Wood Dale, Illinois, which we own subject to a mortgage. In addition to warehouse space, this facility includes executive, sales and administrative offices. Our principal maintenance, repair, overhaul, and engineering activities for this segment are conducted at facilities leased by us in Indianapolis, Indiana; Oklahoma City, Oklahoma; Miami, Florida; Hot Springs, Arkansas; Duluth, Minnesota; and Lake Charles, Louisiana.

        We also lease facilities in Garden City, New York; Jacksonville, Florida; Melbourne, Florida; and London, England, and own a building near Schiphol International Airport in the Netherlands to support activities in the Aviation Services segment.

        Our principal activities in the Technology Products segment are conducted at facilities we own in Clearwater, Florida; Cadillac, Michigan; and Goldsboro, North Carolina. We also lease facilities in Huntsville, Alabama; Sacramento, California; Simi Valley, California; Miesbach, Germany; Holmestrand, Norway; Singapore, Republic of Singapore; Lund, Sweden; and Kunshan, China.

        We also operate sales offices which support all our activities and are leased in London, England; Paris, France; Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Shanghai, China; Hong Kong, China; Tokyo, Japan; Singapore, Republic of Singapore; and Abu Dhabi, UAE.

        We believe that our owned and leased facilities are suitable and adequate for our operational requirements.

ITEM 3.    LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

        We are not a party to any material, pending legal proceeding (including any governmental or environmental proceedings) other than routine litigation incidental to our business.

ITEM 4.    MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

        Not Applicable.

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Supplemental Item:

EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF THE REGISTRANT

        Information concerning each of our executive officers is set forth below:

Name
  Age  
Present Position with the Company
David P. Storch   61   Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Director
Timothy J. Romenesko   57   President and Chief Operating Officer, Director
John C. Fortson   47   Vice President, Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer
Robert J. Regan   56   Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary
Michael J. Sharp   52   Vice President, Controller and Chief Accounting Officer
Randy J. Martinez   59   Group Vice President, Aviation Services—Airlift
Dany Kleiman   53   Group Vice President, Aviation Services—Repair and Engineering
John Holmes   37   Group Vice President, Aviation Services—Inventory Management and Distribution

        Mr. Storch is Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer of AAR, having served in that capacity since October 2005. From 1996 to 2005, Mr. Storch served as President and Chief Executive Officer and from 1989 to 1996 he served as Chief Operating Officer. Prior to that, Mr. Storch served as a Vice President of the Company from 1988 to 1989. Mr. Storch joined the Company in 1979 and also served as president of a major subsidiary from 1984 to 1988. Mr. Storch has been a director of the Company since 1989.

        Mr. Romenesko is President and Chief Operating Officer, having served in that capacity since June 2007. Previously, he served as Vice President and Chief Financial Officer from 1994 to 2007. Mr. Romenesko also served as Controller from 1991 to 1995, and in various other positions since joining AAR in 1981. Mr. Romenesko has been a director of the Company since 2007.

        Mr. Fortson joined the Company as Vice President, Finance in May 2013, and became Vice President, Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer on July 26, 2013. Prior to joining the Company, he was a Managing Director of Investment Banking at Bank of America Merrill Lynch since 2007.

        Mr. Regan is Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary, having served in that capacity since June 2009. From 2008 to June 2009, Mr. Regan served as Vice President and General Counsel and, prior to that, Associate General Counsel since joining AAR in February 2008. Prior to joining AAR, he was a partner at the law firm of Schiff Hardin LLP since 1989.

        Mr. Sharp is Vice President, Controller and Chief Accounting Officer, having served in those capacities since July 1996 and April 1999, respectively. Mr. Sharp was Vice President, Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer from October 2012 to July 26, 2013. Prior to joining the Company, he was with Kraft Foods from 1994 to 1996, and with KPMG LLP from 1984 to 1994.

        Mr. Martinez is Group Vice President, Aviation Services—Airlift, having served in that capacity since April 2010. Mr. Martinez joined AAR in March 2009 and has served as Senior Vice President, Government and Defense Programs. Prior to joining AAR, he served as Chief Executive Officer of World Air Holdings, Inc. and prior to that, he had a distinguished 21-year career with the U.S. Air Force (Colonel retired and Command Pilot), most recently serving as Principal Adviser to the Chief of Staff of NATO's Strategic Planning Staff.

        Mr. Kleiman is Group Vice President, Aviation Services—Repair and Engineering, having served in that capacity since June 2010. Mr. Kleiman joined AAR in September 2009 and has served as Vice President, Operations. Prior to joining AAR, he held various leadership positions within the aerospace industry, most recently serving as President of a major airframe maintenance and modification company.

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        Mr. Holmes is Group Vice President, Aviation Services—Inventory Management and Distribution, having served in that capacity since July 2012. Mr. Holmes previously served as General Manager and Division President of our Allen Asset Management business since 2003, and in various other positions since joining the Company in September 2001.

        Each executive officer is elected annually by the Board of Directors at the first meeting of the Board held after the annual meeting of stockholders. Executive officers continue to hold office until their successors are duly elected or until their death, resignation, termination or reassignment.

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PART II

ITEM 5.    MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

        Our Common Stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange and the Chicago Stock Exchange. On July 1, 2014, there were approximately 1,135 holders of Common Stock, including participants in security position listings.

Stockholder Return Performance Graph

        The following graph compares the total return on a cumulative basis of $100 invested, and reinvestment of dividends in our common stock on May 31, 2009 to the Standard and Poor's ("S&P") 500 Index and the Proxy Peer Group.


Comparison of Cumulative Five Year Total Return

GRAPHIC

        The S&P 500 Index is comprised of domestic industry leaders in four major sectors: Industrial, Financial, Utility, and Transportation, and serves as a broad indicator of the performance of the U.S. equity market. The Proxy Peer Group companies are listed as follows:

Alliant Techsystems Inc.1   Kennametal Inc.
Applied Industrial Technologies, Inc.   Kratos Defense & Security1
B/E Aerospace, Inc.   Moog Inc.
Crane Co.   MSC Industrial Direct Co., Inc.
Cubic Corporation   Rockwell Collins, Inc.
Curtiss-Wright Corporation   Spirit AeroSystems Holdings
Esterline Technologies Corporation   Teledyne Technologies Incorporated
Hexcel Corporation   TransDigm Group Inc.
Kaman Corporation   Triumph Group, Inc.

1
These companies are new peer group companies added during fiscal 2014. Interline Brands, Inc., a former member of our peer group, was acquired and is no longer a public company.

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Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

        The following table provides information about purchases we made during the quarter ended May 31, 2014 of equity securities that are registered by us pursuant to Section 12 of the Exchange Act:

Period
  Total Number
of Shares
Purchased1
  Average
Price Paid
per Share1
  Total Number
of Shares
Purchased as
Part of
Publicly
Announced
Plans or
Programs2
  Approximate
Dollar Value of
Shares that
May Yet Be
Purchased
Under the
Plans or
Programs2
 

3/1/2014 - 3/31/2014

    11,466   $ 27.72            

4/1/2014 - 4/30/2014

    14,787     25.42            

5/1/2014 - 5/31/2014

    17,966     21.04            
                   

Total

    44,219   $ 24.24       $ 34,430,495  
                   
                   

1
These amounts represent shares surrendered by employees in payment of the exercise price of stock options and shares repurchased related to a restricted stock grant.

2
Our common stock repurchase plan was approved by our Board of Directors on June 14, 2012. As of May 31, 2014, $34.4 million of the original $50.0 million authorization is still available for repurchase on the open market or in private transactions. This program does not have an expiration date.

        Additional information required by this item is incorporated by reference from Note 14 in Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

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ITEM 6.    SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
(In millions, except per share amounts)

 
  For the Year Ended May 31,  
 
  2014   2013   2012   2011   2010  

RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

                               

Sales

  $ 2,035.0   $ 2,137.3   $ 2,065.0   $ 1,805.1   $ 1,352.2  

Gross profit1

    340.2     314.2     318.6     307.1     243.5  

Operating income1

    145.7     122.6     130.7     133.6     90.3  

(Loss) gain on extinguishment of debt

        (0.3 )   (0.7 )   0.1     0.9  

Interest expense

    42.0     41.6     37.7     30.7     26.8  

Income from continuing operations

    73.2     55.5     68.0     69.8     43.2  

Net income attributable to AAR                   

    72.9     55.0     67.7     69.8     44.6  
                       
                       

Share data:

                               

Earnings per share—basic

  $ 1.85   $ 1.38   $ 1.68   $ 1.76   $ 1.17  

Earnings per share—diluted

  $ 1.83   $ 1.38   $ 1.65   $ 1.73   $ 1.16  

Cash dividends declared per share

  $ 0.30   $ 0.30   $ 0.30   $ 0.08   $  

Weighted average common shares outstanding—basic

    38.6     38.3     38.8     38.4     38.2  
                       
                       

Weighted average common shares outstanding—diluted                        

    39.1     40.6     43.1     43.6     43.1  
                       
                       

 

 
  May 31,  
 
  2014   2013   2012   2011   2010  

FINANCIAL POSITION

                               

Total cash and cash equivalents

  $ 89.2   $ 75.3   $ 67.7   $ 57.4   $ 79.4  

Working capital

    714.8     644.7     590.1     498.0     521.6  

Total assets

    2,199.5     2,136.9     2,195.7     1,703.7     1,500.2  

Short-term recourse debt2

    69.7     86.4     122.8     111.3     98.3  

Short-term non-recourse debt

                0.8     0.8  

Long-term recourse debt2

    564.3     622.2     669.4     314.0     317.6  

Long-term non-recourse debt

                11.0     11.9  

Total recourse debt

    634.0     708.6     792.2     425.3     415.9  

Equity

    1,000.7     919.5     866.0     835.3     746.4  
                       
                       

Number of shares outstanding at end of year

    39.6     39.4     40.3     39.8     39.5  
                       
                       

Book value per share of common stock

  $ 25.27   $ 23.34   $ 21.50   $ 21.00   $ 18.90  
                       
                       

Notes:

1
In fiscal 2013, we recorded a $29.8 million charge due to lower revenue and profit expectations on a contract supporting the KC10 aircraft as a result of lower than expected flight hours of the KC10 aircraft and changes to our anticipated recovery of costs in excess of amounts billed within this contract.

2
In April 2013, we sold $150.0 million principal amount of 7.25% Senior Notes due January 15, 2022. During fiscal 2013, we reduced the outstanding balance of our unsecured revolving credit facility to $120.0 million and repurchased $77.2 million 1.75% convertible notes due February 1, 2026, which was classified short-term at May 31, 2012. In fiscal 2012, we sold $175.0 million principal amount of 7.25% Senior Notes due January 15, 2022. See Note 2 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

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ITEM 7.    MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
(Dollars in millions)

Forward-Looking Statements

        Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations contain certain statements relating to future results, which are forward-looking statements as that term is defined in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These forward-looking statements are based on the beliefs of management, as well as assumptions and estimates based on information available to us as of the dates such assumptions and estimates are made, and are subject to certain risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from historical results or those anticipated, depending on a variety of factors, including those factors discussed under Item 1A, "Risk Factors." Should one or more of those risks or uncertainties materialize adversely, or should underlying assumptions or estimates prove incorrect, actual results may vary materially from those described. Those events and uncertainties are difficult or impossible to predict accurately and many are beyond our control. We assume no obligation to update any forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of such statements or to reflect the occurrence of anticipated or unanticipated events.

General Overview

        We report our activities in two business segments: Aviation Services and Technology Products.

        The Aviation Services segment provides aftermarket support and services and includes the sale and lease of a wide variety of new, overhauled and repaired engine and airframe parts and components to the commercial aviation and government and defense markets. We provide customized inventory supply chain management, performance based logistics programs, aircraft component repair management services, and aircraft modifications. The segment also includes repair, maintenance and overhaul of aircraft and landing gear and expeditionary airlift services. Cost of sales consists principally of the cost of product, direct labor, overhead, and aircraft maintenance costs.

        Sales in the Technology Products segment are derived from the engineering, designing, and manufacturing, of a broad range of products, including in-plane cargo loading and handling systems for commercial and military applications; containers, pallets and shelters used to support the U.S. military's requirements for a mobile and agile force and system integration services for specialized command and control systems. The segment also manufactures heavy-duty pallets and lightweight cargo containers for the commercial market, and steel and composite machined and fabricated parts, components and sub-systems for various aerospace and defense programs. Cost of sales consists principally of the cost of material to manufacture products, direct labor and overhead.

        Our chief operating decision making officer (Chief Executive Officer) evaluates performance based on the reportable segments and utilizes gross profit as a primary profitability measure. The assets and certain expenses related to corporate activities are not allocated to the segments. Our reportable segments are aligned principally around differences in products and services.

Business Trends and Outlook for Fiscal 2015

        Consolidated sales for fiscal 2014 decreased $102.3 million or 4.8% compared to the prior year. Sales to commercial customers decreased $90.5 million or 7.0% compared to the prior year. The decline in sales to commercial customers was driven primarily by softness in maintenance, repair and overhaul activity. The Company also converted a large component contract from an interim arrangement based on time and materials to a permanent power-by-the-hour arrangement which unfavorably impacted sales.

        During fiscal 2014, sales to government and defense customers decreased $11.8 million or 1.4% compared to the prior year. The decline in sales to government and defense customers was driven

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primarily by lower demand by the DoD for expeditionary airlift services in Afghanistan and for mobility products. These decreases were partially offset by increased sales to foreign government and defense customers reflecting the delivery of three aircraft in fiscal 2014 and increased supply chain volumes.

        During the second half of fiscal 2014, we announced a number of contract wins supporting both commercial and government and defense customers. We believe there continues to be a favorable trend by both commercial and government and defense customers for comprehensive supply chain and maintenance programs, as these customers continue to seek ways to reduce their operating cost structure. We expect sales to the DoD will remain under pressure due to budgetary constraints, the withdrawal from Afghanistan and the current geopolitical environment.

        For fiscal 2015, we expect to see growth in our supply chain business and improvement in our repair businesses given its strong position in the growing global aviation supply chain market which should benefit commercial sales in our Aviation Services segment. While defense budgets are expected to remain under pressure which will pressure government and defense sales in both of our segments, we see ongoing demand for our low cost solutions, products and services and will continue to transition our portfolio of airlift aircraft.

Results of Operations

Fiscal 2014 Compared with Fiscal 2013

        Sales and gross profit for our two business segments for the two years ended May 31, 2014 and 2013 were as follows:

 
  For the Year Ended May 31,  
 
  2014   2013   % Change  

Sales:

                   

Aviation Services

                   

Commercial

  $ 926.4   $ 999.8     (7.3 )%

Defense

    633.6     614.6     3.1 %
                 

  $ 1,560.0   $ 1,614.4     (3.4 )%
                 
                 

Technology Products

                   

Commercial

  $ 281.2   $ 298.3     (5.7 )%

Defense

    193.8     224.6     (13.7 )%
                 

  $ 475.0   $ 522.9     (9.2 )%
                 
                 

 

 
  For the Year Ended May 31,  
 
  2014   2013   % Change  

Gross Profit:

                   

Aviation Services

                   

Commercial

  $ 137.9   $ 141.7     (2.7 )%

Defense

    121.0     85.8     41.0 %
                 

  $ 258.9   $ 227.5     13.8 %
                 
                 

Technology Products

                   

Commercial

  $ 59.3   $ 60.3     (1.7 )%

Defense

    22.0     26.4     (16.7 )%
                 

  $ 81.3   $ 86.7     (6.2 )%
                 
                 

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    Aviation Services Segment

        Sales in the Aviation Services segment decreased $54.4 million or 3.4% from the prior year. The decrease in sales was due to softness in maintenance, repair and overhaul activity. The Company also converted a large component contract from an interim arrangement based on time and materials to a permanent power-by-the-hour arrangement which unfavorably impacted sales.

        During fiscal 2014, sales in this segment to government and defense customers increased $19.0 million or 3.1% over the prior year primarily due to the delivery of three aircraft in the first half of fiscal 2014 and higher supply chain volumes, partially offset by lower demand for expeditionary airlift services in Afghanistan due to reduced contracted positions. Our reduced role in Afghanistan will continue to have an impact on our expeditionary fleet operations. The following summarizes the status of contract renewals and contract expirations and new business wins at our expeditionary airlift operation:

    In May 2014, the DoD exercised a renewal option on one contract valued at approximately $50 million for airlift support in Afghanistan through May 31, 2015.

    In early November 2013, the DoD exercised a renewal option on one contract valued at approximately $180 million for airlift support in Afghanistan through October 31, 2014. The DoD has one additional option year remaining after October 31, 2014.

    On December 2, 2013, the Company was awarded a new contract to provide fixed-wing support to the U.S. Africa Command. The contract is valued at $23 million and includes a base seven-month period plus five three-month renewal options with the initial period of performance beginning on June 1, 2014.

    On November 30, 2013, the Company was awarded an Indefinite Delivery Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contract to provide fixed- and rotary-wing support for the Afghan National Security Forces under NATO Training Mission and Combined Security Transition Command. The contract has a maximum value of $134 million. The Company is waiting to receive task orders under the contract.

    On May 16, 2014, the Company was awarded a new contract to provide rotary-wing support to U.S. Africa Command. The contract is valued at $34 million and includes a base five-month period plus two four-month options, three three-month options and a six-month extension period. This contract is currently under protest by the incumbent operator.

    On May 23, 2014, the Company was awarded a new contract to provide rotary-wing support to the U.S. Navy through Vertical Replenishment services in the Mediterranean primarily for the 5th Fleet. The contract is valued at $34 million and includes a base one-year period beginning October 1, 2014 with four one-year options.

        We are also bidding on other expeditionary airlift contracts supporting both DoD and non-DoD customers, although there can be no assurance we will be awarded any of these contracts. At the beginning of fiscal year 2014 we had 40 aircraft in revenue service. By the end of fiscal year 2014, we had 20 of those aircraft no longer in active service and were available for future mission deployment.

        Gross profit in the Aviation Services segment increased $31.4 million or 13.8%. Gross profit on sales to commercial customers decreased $3.8 million or 2.7% from the prior year with the gross profit margin up slightly to 14.9% in fiscal 2014 compared to 14.2% in fiscal 2013. The decrease in gross profit on sales to commercial customers is primarily attributable to reduced volumes at our landing gear and engineering services units, partially offset by improved supply chain gross margins due to the mix of inventories sold.

        Gross profit on sales to government and defense customers increased $35.2 million or 41.0% over the prior year. Gross profit in fiscal 2013 included a $29.8 million pre-tax charge on the KC10 support contract which did not occur in fiscal 2014. The fiscal 2013 charge was necessary to reflect lower than expected flight hours of the KC10 aircraft. Our gross profit margin on sales to government and defense customers

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increased from 14.0% in fiscal 2013 to 19.1% in fiscal 2014. Our fiscal 2014 gross profit on sales to government and defense customers was impacted favorably by improved supply chain margins and higher margins at our expeditionary airlift services business due to the improved availability rate of fully mission capable fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft.

    Technology Products Segment

        Sales in the Technology Products segment decreased $47.9 million or 9.2% from the prior year. The decrease in sales was due to a $17.1 million or 5.7% decline in sales to our commercial customers primarily attributable to lower demand for our commercial cargo containers and precision machined parts.

        During fiscal 2014, sales in this segment to government and defense customers decreased $30.8 million or 13.7% over the prior year. Sales to government and defense customers declined due to lower demand for mobility products from the DoD as they reduced spending for these products, partially offset by increased cargo systems revenue as we began shipping revenue producing units of the A400M system.

        Gross profit in the Technology Products segment decreased $5.4 million or 6.2%. Gross profit on sales to commercial customers decreased $1.0 million or 1.7% from the prior year, however the gross profit margin increased to 21.1% in fiscal 2014 from 20.2% in the prior year. The increased gross profit margin on sales to commercial customers is primarily attributable to favorably managing the cost structure at our precision machined business in spite of lower revenue levels.

        Gross profit in this segment on sales to government and defense customers decreased $4.4 million or 16.7% from the prior year which was generally in line with the sales decrease as the gross profit margin percentage remained relatively flat to the prior year.

    Selling, General and Administrative Expenses and Earnings from Aircraft Joint Ventures

        Selling, general and administrative expenses decreased $0.8 million in 2014. Selling, general and administrative expenses in fiscal 2013 included a $9.0 million benefit due to the final settlement of the Airinmar Holdings Limited ("Airinmar") earn-out payment (See Note 8 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements). Excluding the $9.0 million benefit, our selling, general and administrative expenses decreased $9.8 million reflecting the realization of benefits from the cost control measures implemented by the Company during fiscal 2014, including the elimination of certain positions and favorable procurement actions.

        Earnings from aircraft joint ventures decreased $3.7 million, as the prior fiscal year included earnings from the sale of ten aircraft from our aircraft joint venture portfolio.

    Operating and Net Income

        Operating income increased $23.1 million or 18.8% primarily due to the KC10 contract adjustment in 2013, partially offset by the unfavorable impact from lower sales in our Aviation Services and Technology Products segments.

        Our fiscal 2014 effective income tax rate was 30.5% which included a $2.7 million reduction in income tax expense related to changes in estimates originally used in the tax provision which were adjusted to actual on the federal income tax return. In addition, our higher forecasted taxable income in fiscal 2014 provided a tax benefit of $1.6 million related to the Domestic Production Activities Deduction in accordance with Internal Revenue Code Section 199. In the prior year our effective income tax rate was 32.5%, which included a $1.3 million reduction in income tax expense related to the reduction of our state income tax rate from continued implementation of state tax planning strategies, including a new corporate structure and the relocation of one of our significant business units.

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        Net income was $72.9 million compared to $55.0 million in the prior year due to the factors discussed above.

Fiscal 2013 Compared with Fiscal 2012

        Consolidated sales for fiscal 2013 increased $72.3 million or 3.5% compared to the prior year.

        Sales and gross profit for our two business segments for the two years ended May 31, 2013 and 2012 were as follows:

 
  For the Year Ended May 31,  
 
  2013   2012   % Change  

Sales:

                   

Aviation Services

                   

Commercial

  $ 999.8   $ 961.4     4.0 %

Defense

    614.6     574.6     7.0 %
                 

  $ 1,614.4   $ 1,536.0     5.1 %
                 
                 

Technology Products

                   

Commercial

  $ 298.3   $ 173.2     72.2 %

Defense

    224.6     355.8     (36.9 )%
                 

  $ 522.9   $ 529.0     (1.2 )%
                 
                 

 

 
  For the Year Ended May 31,  
 
  2013   2012   % Change  

Gross Profit:

                   

Aviation Services

                   

Commercial

  $ 141.7   $ 152.3     (7.0 )%

Defense

    85.8     85.0     0.9 %
                 

  $ 227.5   $ 237.3     (4.1 )%
                 
                 

Technology Products

                   

Commercial

  $ 60.3   $ 25.8     133.7 %

Defense

    26.4     55.5     (52.4 )%
                 

  $ 86.7   $ 81.3     6.6 %
                 
                 

    Aviation Services Segment

        Sales in the Aviation Services segment increased $78.4 million or 5.1% over the prior year. The increase in sales was due to a $38.4 million or 4.0% increase in sales to our commercial customers primarily attributable to increased program activity in our commercial parts support unit as a result of a component support contract executed in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2012 and growth at our airframe maintenance centers reflecting new contract wins and expanded relationships with existing customers. These were partially offset by a cyclical decline at our landing gear overhaul unit. In addition, in fiscal 2012 we sold four wholly-owned aircraft which contributed approximately $49 million in aircraft sales. There were no wholly-owned aircraft sales during fiscal year 2013 from our aircraft leasing portfolio.

        During fiscal 2013, sales in this segment to government and defense customers increased $40.0 million or 7.0% over the prior year primarily due to the favorable impact on sales of fleet utilization improvement at our expeditionary airlift services unit. The sales increase was partially offset by $29.8 million charge for the KC10 support contract.

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        Gross profit in the Aviation Services segment decreased $9.8 million or 4.1%. Gross profit on sales to commercial customers decreased $10.6 million or 7.0% over the prior year with the gross profit margin decreasing from 15.8% in fiscal 2012 to 14.2% in fiscal 2013. The decrease in gross profit was primarily attributable to lower margins on the component support program executed in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2012.

        Gross profit on sales to government and defense customers increased $0.8 million or 0.9% over the prior year. Gross profit in 2013 included the $29.8 million charge on the KC10 support contract. Our gross profit margin on sales to government and defense customers decreased from 14.8% in fiscal 2012 to 14.0% in fiscal 2013. Our fiscal 2013 gross profit on sales to government and defense customers was impacted favorably by the improved rate of availability of our fully mission critical fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft and increased flight hours.

    Technology Products Segment

        Overall sales in the Technology Products segment decreased $6.1 million or 1.2% from the prior year. Sales to commercial customers increased $125.1 million or 72.2% primarily attributable to the impact of the full year inclusion of revenue at Telair and Nordisk which were acquired in the third quarter of fiscal 2012.

        During fiscal 2013, sales in this segment to government and defense customers decreased $131.2 million or 36.9% from the prior year. Sales to government and defense customers declined due to lower demand for mobility products from the DoD due to the drawdown of the war effort in Afghanistan and lower demand on certain other programs as the DoD reduced its spending for the types of products we produce.

        Gross profit in the Technology Products segment increased $5.4 million or 6.6%. Gross profit on sales to commercial customers increased $34.5 million or 133.7% over the prior year with the gross profit margin increasing to 20.2% in fiscal 2013 from 14.9% in the prior year. The increase in gross profit margin was primarily due to improved product mix resulting from the acquisitions of Telair and Nordisk.

        Gross profit in this segment on sales to government and defense customers decreased $29.1 million or 52.4% over the prior year with the gross profit margin also decreasing to 11.8% in fiscal 2013 from 15.6% in the prior year. The decrease in gross margin was attributable to lower sales volumes at our mobility products business.

    Selling, General and Administrative Expenses and Earnings from Aircraft Joint Ventures

        Selling, general and administrative expenses increased $9.0 million or 4.8% due to the full year inclusion of the fiscal year 2012 acquired companies, partially offset by the final settlement on the Airinmar earn-out payment (See Note 8 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements).

        Earnings from aircraft joint ventures increased $5.3 million primarily due to the sale of ten aircraft from our aircraft joint venture portfolio and higher lease revenue in fiscal 2013.

    Operating and Net Income

        Operating income decreased $8.1 million or 6.2% primarily due to the KC10 contract adjustment, partially offset by the increase in sales. Net interest expense increased $3.6 million or 9.9% compared to the prior year primarily due to the increase in borrowings incurred in the second half of fiscal 2012 to fund the fiscal 2012 acquisitions.

        Our effective income tax rate for fiscal 2013 was 32.5%, which included a $1.3 million reduction in income tax expense related to the reduction of our state income tax rate from continued implementation of state tax planning strategies. In the prior year our effective income tax rate was 27.2%, which included a

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$3.3 million reduction in income tax expense primarily relating to revisions in book versus tax differences, and a $4.0 million reduction in income tax expense, primarily related to the reduction in our state income tax rate from the implementation of state tax planning strategies. Our state tax planning strategies included a new corporate structure and the relocation of one of our significant business units.

        Net income was $55.0 million compared to $67.7 million in the prior year due to the factors discussed above.

Liquidity, Capital Resources and Financial Position

        Our operating activities are funded and commitments met through the generation of cash from operations. Periodically, we may raise capital through the issuance of common stock and debt financing in the public and private markets. In addition to these cash sources, our current capital resources include an unsecured credit facility, as well as a separate secured credit facility. We continually evaluate various financing arrangements, including the issuance of common stock or debt, which would allow us to improve our liquidity position and finance future growth on commercially reasonable terms. Our continuing ability to borrow from our lenders and issue debt and equity securities to the public and private markets in the future may be negatively affected by a number of factors, including the overall health of the credit markets, general economic conditions, airline industry conditions, geo-political events, and our operating performance. Our ability to generate cash from operations is influenced primarily by our operating performance and changes in working capital. Under our universal shelf registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission that became effective May 4, 2012, we registered an indeterminate number of principal amount or shares of common stock, shares of preferred stock, debt securities, warrants, stock purchase contracts and stock purchase units which may be sold from time to time, subject to market conditions.

        At May 31, 2014, our liquidity and capital resources included cash of $89.2 million and working capital of $714.8 million. We have an agreement with various financial institutions, as lenders and Bank of America, N.A., as administrative agent for the lenders (as amended, the "Credit Agreement") providing for an unsecured revolving credit facility of $475.0 million that we can draw upon for general corporate purposes. The Credit Agreement expires on April 24, 2018. Borrowings under the Credit Agreement bear interest at the offered Eurodollar Rate (defined as the British Bankers Association LIBOR Rate) plus 125 to 225 basis points based on certain financial measurements if a Eurodollar Rate loan, or at the offered fluctuating Base Rate plus 25 to 125 basis points based on certain financial measurements if a Base Rate loan. Borrowings outstanding under this facility at May 31, 2014 were $130.0 million and there were approximately $14.8 million of outstanding letters of credit, which reduced the availability of this facility to $330.2 million. There are no other terms or covenants limiting the availability of this facility. We also have $5.4 million available under a foreign line of credit.

        In addition to our unsecured Credit Agreement, we have a $40.0 million secured credit facility with The Huntington National Bank (the "Huntington Loan Agreement"). Borrowings under the Huntington Loan Agreement are secured by aircraft and related engines and components owned by us. The Huntington Loan Agreement expires on April 23, 2015. Borrowings bear interest at LIBOR plus 175 basis points. As of May 31, 2014, $29.9 million were outstanding under this agreement.

        We intend to retire maturities due in fiscal 2015 through a combination of cash on hand and borrowings under our Credit Agreement.

        We are in compliance with all financial and other covenants under each of our financing arrangements.

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Cash Flows from Operating Activities

        During fiscal 2014, our cash flow from operations was $139.8 million primarily as a result of net income attributable to AAR and non-controlling interest and aggregate depreciation and amortization. These positive impacts were partially offset by increased inventories related to the A400M cargo system program which began shipping revenue-producing units in fiscal 2014 and our acquisition of inventory and related equipment to support new supply chain programs in the Aviation Services segment.

        Cash flow from operations decreased $23.1 million from the prior year due to the increased investments in inventory and equipment on long-term lease mentioned above, partially offset by an increase in accounts payable in fiscal 2014.

Cash Flows from Investing Activities

        During fiscal 2014, our investing activities used $40.9 million of cash primarily related to capital expenditures of $26.5 million and $15.3 million for the acquisition of the cargo systems business of Spyer, Germany based PFW Aerospace GmbH in December 2013.

        Cash flows used in investing activities increased $8.1 million from the prior year as the prior year included higher proceeds from aircraft joint ventures representing a return of capital and proceeds from sales of equipment, partially offset by higher spend on both capital expenditures and acquisitions.

Cash Flows from Financing Activities

        During fiscal 2014, our financing activities used $85.9 million of cash primarily related to the net reduction in borrowings of $78.9 million and payment of dividends of $11.8 million.

        Cash flows used in financing activities decreased $37.8 million from the prior year as the fiscal 2013 financing activities included higher net reductions in borrowings and higher treasury stock repurchases.

Contractual Obligations and Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

        A summary of contractual cash obligations and off-balance sheet arrangements as of May 31, 2014 is as follows:

 
  Payments Due by Period  
 
  Total   Due in
Fiscal
2015
  Due in
Fiscal
2016
  Due in
Fiscal
2017
  Due in
Fiscal
2018
  Due in
Fiscal
2019
  After
Fiscal
2019
 

On Balance Sheet:

                                           

Debt

  $ 440.8   $ 30.0   $ 60.8   $   $   $ 25.0   $ 325.0  

Bank borrowings

    189.9     39.9     10.0     10.0     130.0          

Interest1

    200.6     30.9     29.0     27.8     27.3     23.7     61.9  

Off Balance Sheet:

   
 
   
 
   
 
   
 
   
 
   
 
   
 
 

Facilities and equipment operating leases

    109.2     27.1     19.3     13.3     10.9     9.3     29.3  

Purchase obligations2

    259.0     236.4     21.6     0.6             0.4  

Pension contribution

    7.9     7.9                      

Notes:

1
Interest associated with variable rate debt was determined using the interest rate in effect on May 31, 2014.

2
Purchase obligations arise in the ordinary course of business and represent a binding commitment to acquire inventory, including raw materials, parts, and components, as well as equipment to support the operations of our business.

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        We routinely issue letters of credit and performance bonds in the ordinary course of business. These instruments are typically issued in conjunction with insurance contracts or other business requirements. The total of these instruments outstanding at May 31, 2014 was $14.8 million.

Critical Accounting Policies and Significant Estimates

        Our Consolidated Financial Statements are prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States. Management has made estimates and assumptions relating to the reporting of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent liabilities to prepare the Consolidated Financial Statements. The most significant estimates made by management include those related to the allowance for doubtful accounts, assumptions used in assessing goodwill impairment, adjustments to reduce the value of inventories and aviation equipment on or available for lease, revenue recognition, loss accruals for aviation equipment operating leases, program development costs and assumptions used in determining pension plan obligations. Accordingly, actual results could differ materially from those estimates. The following is a summary of the accounting policies considered critical by management.

Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets

        Under accounting standards for goodwill and other intangible assets, goodwill and other intangible assets deemed to have indefinite lives are not amortized, but are subject to annual impairment tests. We review and evaluate our goodwill and indefinite life intangible assets for potential impairment at a minimum annually, on May 31, or more frequently if circumstances indicate that impairment is possible. We use a two-step process to evaluate goodwill for impairment. In the first step, we compare the fair value of each reporting unit with the carrying value of the reporting unit, including goodwill. If the estimated fair value of the reporting unit is less than the carrying value of the reporting unit, we would be required to complete a second step to determine the amount of goodwill impairment. The second step of the test requires the allocation of the reporting unit's fair value to its assets and liabilities, including any unrecognized intangible assets, in a hypothetical analysis that calculates the implied fair value of goodwill as if the reporting unit was being acquired in a business combination. If the implied fair value of goodwill is less than the carrying value, the difference is recorded as an impairment loss.

        We estimate the fair value of each reporting unit using both an income approach based on discounted cash flows and a market approach based on a multiple of earnings. The assumptions we used to estimate the fair value of our reporting units are based on historical performance as well as forecasts derived from our current business plan. We use a discount rate based on our consolidated weighted average cost of capital which is adjusted for each of our reporting units based on their individual specific risk and size characteristics.

Inventories

        Inventories are valued at the lower of cost or market. Cost is determined by the specific identification, average cost or first-in, first-out methods. Write-downs are made for excess and obsolete inventories and inventories that have been impaired as a result of industry conditions. We have utilized certain assumptions when determining the market value of inventories, such as inventory quantities and aging, historical sales of inventory, current and expected future aviation usage trends, replacement values and expected future demand. Reductions in demand for certain of our inventories or declining market values, as well as differences between actual results and the assumptions utilized by us when determining the market value of our inventories, could result in the recognition of impairment charges in future periods.

Revenue Recognition

        Certain supply chain management programs that we provide to our customers contain multiple elements or deliverables, such as program and warehouse management, parts distribution and

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maintenance and repair services. We recognize revenue for each element or deliverable that can be identified as a separate unit of accounting at the time of delivery based upon the relative fair value of the products and services.

        Sales and related cost of sales for certain long-term manufacturing contracts and certain large airframe maintenance contracts and performance-based logistics programs are recognized using contract accounting under the percentage of completion method in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification 605-35, Construction—Type and Production—Type Contracts. In applying the percentage of completion method, we use both the cost-to-cost and the units of delivery methods depending on the nature of the arrangement. Under the cost-to-cost method, the revenues related to the long-term contracts are recognized based on the ratio of actual costs incurred to total estimated costs to be incurred. Under the units of delivery method, revenues are recognized based on the contract price of units delivered.

        In connection with these contracts and programs, we are required to make certain judgments and estimates, including estimated revenues and costs, as well as inflation and the overall profitability of the program and the relative fair value of each element of the arrangement. Key assumptions involved in our contract accounting include future labor costs and efficiencies, overhead costs, and ultimate timing of product delivery. Differences may occur between the judgments and estimates made by management and actual program results.

Impairment of Long-Lived Assets

        We are required to test for impairment of long-lived assets whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value of an asset may not be recoverable from its undiscounted cash flows. When applying accounting standards addressing impairment to long-lived assets, we have utilized certain assumptions to estimate future undiscounted cash flows, including current and future sales volumes or lease rates, expected changes to cost structures, lease terms, residual values, market conditions, and trends impacting future demand. Differences between actual results and the assumptions utilized by us when determining undiscounted cash flows could result in future impairments of long-lived assets.

Program Development Costs

        Our Cargo Systems unit was selected in June 2005 to provide cargo loading systems for the Airbus A400M Military Transport Aircraft ("A400M"). During fiscal 2013, we delivered initial production units to Airbus and began delivering revenue-producing units in fiscal 2014. We expect our portion of the revenue from this program to be approximately $300 million through fiscal 2021, based on current sales projections of the A400M and the agreed-upon fixed pricing for the items that we are now responsible for under the amended contract.

        As of May 31, 2014 and 2013, we have capitalized, net of reimbursements, $139.8 million and $130.9 million, respectively, of costs associated with the engineering and development of the cargo system. Sales and related cost of sales are recognized on the units of delivery method. In determining the recoverability of the capitalized program development costs, we have made certain judgments and estimates concerning expected revenues and the cost to manufacture the A400M cargo system. Differences between actual results and our assumptions may result in our not fully recovering program development costs, which could adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.

Pension Plans

        The liabilities and net periodic cost of our pension plans are determined utilizing several actuarial assumptions, the most significant of which are the discount rate and the expected long-term rate of return on plan assets.

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        AAR uses a discount rate to measure our benefit obligation for our pension plans. This discount rate will be used in calculating the net periodic benefit cost for these plans for fiscal 2015. We used a broad population of Aa-rated corporate bonds as of May 31, 2014 to determine the discount rate assumption. All bonds were denominated in U.S. Dollars, with a minimum outstanding of $50.0 million. This population of bonds was narrowed from a broader universe of over 500 Moody's Aa-rated, non-callable (or callable with make-whole provisions) bonds by eliminating the top 10th percentile and the bottom 40th percentile to adjust for any pricing anomalies and to represent the bonds we would most likely select if we were to actually annuitize our pension plan liabilities. This portfolio of bonds was used to generate a yield curve and associated spot rate curve to discount the projected benefit payments for the domestic plans. The discount rate is the single level rate that produces the same result as the spot rate curve.

        We establish the long-term asset return assumption based on a review of historical compound average asset returns, both company-specific and relating to the broad market, as well as analysis of current market and economic information and future expectations. The current asset return assumption is supported by historical market experience for both our actual and target asset allocation. In calculating the net pension cost, the expected return on assets is applied to a calculated value on plan assets, which recognizes changes in the fair value of plan assets in a systematic manner over five years. The difference between this expected return and the actual return on plan assets is a component of the total net unrecognized gain or loss and is subject to amortization in the future.

New Accounting Pronouncements

        In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board issued Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, which provides guidance for revenue recognition. This ASU affects any entity that either enters into contracts with customers to transfer goods or services or enters into contracts for the transfer of non-financial assets. This ASU will supersede the revenue recognition requirements in ASC 605, Revenue Recognition, and most industry-specific guidance. This ASU also supersedes certain cost guidance included in Subtopic 605-35, Revenue Recognition-Construction-Type and Production-Type Contracts. This new standard will be effective for us beginning June 1, 2017. We are currently evaluating the impact of the adoption of this new standard on our consolidated financial statements.

ITEM 7A.    QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
(Dollars in millions)

        Our exposure to market risk includes fluctuating interest rates under our credit agreements, changes in foreign exchange rates, and credit losses on accounts receivable. See Note 1 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for a discussion on accounts receivable exposure.

        We are exposed to the risk that our earnings and cash flows could be adversely impacted by fluctuations in interest rates. We manage interest costs by using a mix of fixed- and floating-rate debt. We utilize two derivative financial instruments to manage our variable interest rate exposure over a medium- to long-term period. We have a floating-to-fixed interest rate swap and an interest rate cap agreement.

        A 10 percent increase to the average interest rate affecting our financial instruments, including the average outstanding balance of our debt obligations and related derivatives, would have reduced our pre-tax income by approximately $0.5 million during fiscal 2014.

        Revenues and expenses of our foreign operations are translated at average exchange rates during the year, and balance sheet accounts are translated at year-end exchange rates. Balance sheet translation adjustments are excluded from the results of operations and are recorded in stockholders' equity as a component of accumulated other comprehensive loss. A hypothetical 10 percent devaluation of the U.S. dollar against foreign currencies would have decreased pre-tax income by approximately $10.3 million in 2014.

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ITEM 8.    FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

The Board of Directors and Stockholders
AAR CORP.:

        We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of AAR CORP. and subsidiaries as of May 31, 2014 and 2013, and the related consolidated statements of income, comprehensive income, changes in equity and cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended May 31, 2014. These consolidated financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these consolidated financial statements based on our audits.

        We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement. An audit includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. An audit also includes assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

        In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of AAR CORP. and subsidiaries as of May 31, 2014 and 2013, and the results of their operations, and their cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended May 31, 2014, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.

        We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), AAR CORP.'s internal control over financial reporting as of May 31, 2014, based on criteria established in Internal Control—Integrated Framework (1992) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO), and our report dated July 17, 2014 expressed an unqualified opinion on the effectiveness of the Company's internal control over financial reporting.

    /s/ KPMG LLP

Chicago, Illinois
July 17, 2014

 

 

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AAR CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF INCOME

 
  For the Year Ended May 31,  
 
  2014   2013   2012  
 
  (In millions, except per share data)
 

Sales:

                   

Sales from products

  $ 1,226.3   $ 1,228.5   $ 1,384.2  

Sales from services

    808.7     908.8     680.8  
               

    2,035.0     2,137.3     2,065.0  
               

Costs and operating expenses:

                   

Cost of products

    1,068.4     1,115.5     1,208.6  

Cost of services

    626.4     707.6     534.1  

Cost of sales—restructuring and impairment

            3.7  

Selling, general and administrative

    197.6     198.4     189.4  
               

    1,892.4     2,021.5     1,935.8  
               

Earnings from joint ventures

    3.1     6.8     1.5  
               

Operating income

    145.7     122.6     130.7  

Loss on extinguishment of debt

        (0.3 )   (0.7 )

Interest expense

    (42.0 )   (41.6 )   (37.7 )

Interest income

    1.6     1.5     1.2  
               

Income before provision for income taxes

    105.3     82.2     93.5  

Provision for income taxes

    32.1     26.7     25.5  
               

Net income attributable to AAR and noncontrolling interest

    73.2     55.5     68.0  

Income attributable to noncontrolling interest

    (0.3 )   (0.5 )   (0.3 )
               

Net income attributable to AAR

  $ 72.9   $ 55.0   $ 67.7  
               
               

Earnings per share—basic

  $ 1.85   $ 1.38   $ 1.68  

Earnings per share—diluted

  $ 1.83   $ 1.38   $ 1.65  

   

The accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements
are an integral part of these statements.

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AAR CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME

 
  For the Year Ended May 31,  
 
  2014   2013   2012  
 
  (In millions)
 

Net income attributable to AAR and noncontrolling interest

  $ 73.2   $ 55.5   $ 68.0  

Other comprehensive income, net of tax:

                   

Currency translation adjustments, net of tax

    14.0     8.7     (18.5 )

Derivative instruments unrealized gain (loss), net of tax expense (benefit) of $0.4 in 2014, $0.3 in 2013, and ($2.1) in 2012

    0.7     0.6     (3.9 )

Unrecognized pension and post retirement costs, net of tax expense (benefit) of ($0.8) in 2014, $1.8 in 2013, and ($7.6) in 2012

    (1.5 )   3.4     (14.2 )
               

Total other comprehensive income, net of tax

    13.2     12.7     (36.6 )
               

Comprehensive income

    86.4     68.2     31.4  

Less: Comprehensive income attributable to noncontrolling interests

    (0.3 )   (0.5 )   (0.3 )
               

Comprehensive income attributable to AAR

  $ 86.1   $ 67.7   $ 31.1  
               
               

   

The accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements
are an integral part of these statements.

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AAR CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS

ASSETS

 
  May 31,  
 
  2014   2013  
 
  (In millions)
 

Current assets:

             

Cash and cash equivalents

  $ 89.2   $ 75.3  

Accounts receivable

    283.1     297.4  

Inventories

    495.3     453.7  

Rotable spares and equipment on or available for short-term lease

    137.6     129.2  

Deposits, prepaids and other

    81.6     60.1  

Deferred tax assets

    30.1     18.0  
           

Total current assets

    1,116.9     1,033.7  
           

Property, plant and equipment, at cost:

             

Land

    9.4     9.2  

Buildings and improvements

    102.4     99.5  

Aircraft, equipment, furniture and fixtures

    627.4     607.5  
           

    739.2     716.2  

Accumulated depreciation

    (424.3 )   (354.5 )
           

    314.9     361.7  
           

Other assets:

             

Goodwill

    261.7     255.6  

Intangible assets, net

    165.4     157.8  

Equipment on or available for long-term lease

    98.4     64.7  

Capitalized program development costs

    112.2     124.9  

Investment in joint ventures

    29.9     31.8  

Other

    100.1     106.7  
           

    767.7     741.5  
           

  $ 2,199.5   $ 2,136.9  
           
           

   

The accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements
are an integral part of these statements.

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AAR CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS

LIABILITIES AND EQUITY

 
  May 31,  
 
  2014   2013  
 
  (In millions)
 

Current liabilities:

             

Current maturities of long-term debt

  $ 69.7   $ 86.4  

Accounts and trade notes payable

    171.1     149.3  

Accrued liabilities

    161.3     153.3  
           

Total current liabilities

    402.1     389.0  
           

Long-term debt, less current maturities

    564.3     622.2  

Deferred tax liabilities

    162.2     138.2  

Other liabilities and deferred income

    70.2     68.0  
           

    796.7     828.4  
           

Equity:

             

Preferred stock, $1.00 par value, authorized 250,000 shares; none issued

         

Common stock, $1.00 par value, authorized 100,000,000 shares; issued 44,674,186 and 44,691,437 shares at cost, respectively

    44.7     44.7  

Capital surplus

    436.4     431.6  

Retained earnings

    646.0     584.9  

Treasury stock, 5,113,939 and 5,309,252 shares at cost, respectively

    (98.3 )   (100.1 )

Accumulated other comprehensive loss

    (29.3 )   (42.5 )
           

Total AAR stockholders' equity

    999.5     918.6  

Noncontrolling interest

    1.2     0.9  
           

Total equity

    1,000.7     919.5  
           

  $ 2,199.5   $ 2,136.9  
           
           

   

The accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements
are an integral part of these statements.

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AAR CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN EQUITY

FOR THE THREE YEARS ENDED MAY 31, 2014

(In millions)

 
  Common
Stock
  Capital
Surplus
  Retained
Earnings
  Treasury
Stock
  Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Income (Loss)
  Total AAR
Stockholders'
Equity
  Noncontrolling
Interest
  Total
Equity
 

Balance, May 31, 2011

  $ 45.0   $ 423.8   $ 486.1   $ (100.4 ) $ (18.6 ) $ 835.9   $ (0.6 ) $ 835.3  

Net income

            67.7             67.7     0.3     68.0  

Cash dividends

            (12.0 )           (12.0 )       (12.0 )

Stock option activity

        4.8         (0.1 )       4.7         4.7  

Restricted stock activity

    (0.2 )   (4.8 )       13.8         8.8         8.8  

Repurchase of shares

                (3.7 )       (3.7 )       (3.7 )

Equity portion of bond repurchase

        (0.2 )               (0.2 )       (0.2 )

Other comprehensive income, net of tax

                    (36.6 )   (36.6 )       (36.6 )

Assumption of noncontrolling interest

                            1.7     1.7  
                                   

Balance, May 31, 2012

  $ 44.8   $ 423.6   $ 541.8   $ (90.4 ) $ (55.2 ) $ 864.6   $ 1.4   $ 866.0  

Net income

            55.0             55.0     0.5     55.5  

Cash dividends

            (11.9 )           (11.9 )   (1.0 )   (12.9 )

Stock option activity

        2.8         1.7         4.5         4.5  

Restricted stock activity

    (0.1 )   4.7         3.2         7.8         7.8  

Repurchase of shares

                (14.6 )       (14.6 )       (14.6 )

Equity portion of bond repurchase

        0.5                 0.5         0.5  

Other comprehensive income, net of tax

                    12.7     12.7         12.7  
                                   

Balance, May 31, 2013

  $ 44.7   $ 431.6   $ 584.9   $ (100.1 ) $ (42.5 ) $ 918.6   $ 0.9   $ 919.5  

Net income

            72.9             72.9     0.3     73.2  

Cash dividends

            (11.8 )           (11.8 )       (11.8 )

Stock option activity

        2.8         5.0         7.8         7.8  

Restricted stock activity

        2.0         (2.2 )       (0.2 )       (0.2 )

Repurchase of shares

                (1.0 )       (1.0 )       (1.0 )

Other comprehensive income, net of tax

                    13.2     13.2         13.2  
                                   

Balance, May 31, 2014

  $ 44.7   $ 436.4   $ 646.0   $ (98.3 ) $ (29.3 ) $ 999.5   $ 1.2   $ 1,000.7  
                                   
                                   

   

The accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements
are an integral part of these statements.

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AAR CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS

 
  For the Year Ended May 31,  
 
  2014   2013   2012  
 
  (in millions)
 

Cash flows provided from operating activities:

                   

Net income attributable to AAR and noncontrolling interest

  $ 73.2   $ 55.5   $ 68.0  

Adjustments to reconcile net income attributable to AAR and noncontrolling interest to net cash provided from operating activities:

                   

Depreciation and amortization

    80.4     79.7     72.0  

Amortization of stock-based compensation

    8.7     11.1     12.5  

Amortization of debt discount

    5.3     9.6     13.2  

Amortization of overhaul costs

    33.0     28.9     8.3  

Deferred tax provision

    9.6     29.5     32.8  

Restructuring and impairment charges

            3.7  

Loss on extinguishment of debt

        0.3     0.7  

Earnings from joint ventures

    (3.1 )   (6.8 )   (1.5 )

Changes in certain assets and liabilities, net of acquisitions:

                   

Accounts receivable

    16.7     6.0     36.3  

Inventories

    (47.9 )   16.1     (47.6 )

Rotable spares and equipment on or available for short-term lease

    11.3     10.4     5.6  

Equipment on or available for long-term lease

    (41.7 )   0.8     16.5  

Accounts and trade notes payable

    20.1     (50.7 )   18.3  

Accrued and other liabilities

    4.3     11.8     (20.9 )

Other, primarily program and overhaul costs

    (30.1 )   (39.3 )   (123.7 )
               

Net cash provided from operating activities

    139.8     162.9     94.2  
               

Cash flows used in investing activities:

                   

Property, plant and equipment expenditures

    (26.5 )   (37.6 )   (91.2 )

Proceeds from disposal of assets

    2.0     11.8     4.1  

Payments for acquisitions

    (15.3 )   (21.3 )   (298.1 )

Proceeds from aircraft joint ventures

    (0.2 )   15.4     1.6  

Other

    (0.9 )   (1.1 )   (6.6 )
               

Net cash used in investing activities

    (40.9 )   (32.8 )   (390.2 )
               

Cash flows (used in) provided from financing activities:

                   

Short-term borrowings (repayments), net

    10.0     (160.0 )   180.0  

Proceeds from borrowings

        181.8     236.8  

Reduction in borrowing

    (88.9 )   (114.3 )   (83.5 )

Reduction in equity due to convertible bond repurchase

        (0.5 )   (1.2 )

Cash dividends

    (11.8 )   (12.8 )   (12.1 )

Purchase of treasury stock

    (1.0 )   (14.6 )   (3.7 )

Stock option exercises

    5.1     1.1     3.0  

Other

    0.7     (4.4 )   (12.5 )
               

Net cash (used in) provided from financing activities

    (85.9 )   (123.7 )   306.8  
               

Effect of exchange rate changes on cash

    0.9     1.2     (0.5 )
               

Increase in cash and cash equivalents

    13.9     7.6     10.3  

Cash and cash equivalents, beginning of year

    75.3     67.7     57.4  
               

Cash and cash equivalents, end of year

  $ 89.2   $ 75.3   $ 67.7  
               
               

   

The accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements
are an integral part of these statements.

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AAR CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

(Dollars in millions, except per share amounts)

1. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Description of Business

        AAR CORP. is a diversified provider of products and services to the worldwide commercial aviation and government and defense markets. Products and services include: aviation supply chain and parts support programs; maintenance, repair and overhaul of aircraft and landing gear; design and manufacture of specialized mobility and cargo systems and composite and other high-end precision machined structures; expeditionary airlift services; aircraft modifications and aircraft and engine sales and leasing. We serve commercial, defense and governmental aircraft fleet operators, original equipment manufacturers, and independent service providers around the world, and various other domestic and foreign military customers.

Principles of Consolidation

        The accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements include the accounts of the Company and its majority-owned subsidiaries after elimination of intercompany accounts and transactions. The equity method of accounting is used for investments in other companies in which we have significant influence; generally this represents common stock ownership of at least 20% and not more than 50% (see Note 9 for a discussion of aircraft joint ventures).

Revenue Recognition

        Sales and related cost of sales for product sales are recognized upon shipment of the product to the customer. Our standard terms and conditions provide that title passes to the customer when the product is shipped to the customer. Sales of certain defense products are recognized upon customer acceptance, which includes transfer of title. Under the majority of our expeditionary airlift services contracts, we are paid and record as revenue a fixed daily amount per aircraft for each day an aircraft is available to perform airlift services. In addition, we are paid and record as revenue an amount which is based on number of hours flown. Sales from services and the related cost of services are generally recognized when customer-owned material is shipped back to the customer. We have adopted this accounting policy because at the time the customer-owned material is shipped back to the customer, all services related to that material are complete as our service agreements generally do not require us to provide services at customer sites. Furthermore, serviced units are typically shipped to the customer immediately upon completion of the related services. Sales and related cost of sales for certain long-term manufacturing contracts, certain large airframe maintenance contracts, and performance-based logistics programs are recognized by the percentage of completion method, either based on the relationship of costs incurred to date to the estimated total costs or the units of delivery method. Lease revenues are recognized as earned. Income from monthly or quarterly rental payments is recorded in the pertinent period according to the lease agreement. However, for leases that provide variable rents, we recognize lease income on a straight-line basis. In addition to a monthly lease rate, some engine leases require an additional rental amount based on the number of hours the engine is used in a particular month. Lease income associated with these contingent rentals is recorded in the period in which actual usage is reported to us by the lessee, which is normally the month following the actual usage.

        Certain supply chain management programs we provide to our customers contain multiple elements or deliverables, such as program and warehouse management, parts distribution, and maintenance and

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AAR CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (Continued)

(Dollars in millions, except per share amounts)

1. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Continued)

repair services. We recognize revenue for each element or deliverable that can be identified as a separate unit of accounting at the time of delivery based upon the relative fair value of the products and services.

        Included in accounts receivable as of May 31, 2014 and 2013, are $19.7 million and $28.4 million, respectively, of unbilled accounts receivable related to our KC10 supply agreement. These unbilled accounts receivable relate to costs we have incurred on parts that were requested and accepted by our customer to support the program. These costs have not been billed by us because the customer has not issued the final paperwork necessary to allow for billing.

        In addition to the unbilled accounts receivable, included in Other non-current assets on the consolidated balance sheet as of May 31, 2014 and 2013, are $9.9 million and $9.9 million, respectively, of costs in excess of amounts billed for the flight-hour portion of the same KC10 supply agreement. These amounts represent the difference between the amount of revenue recognized by us driven by costs incurred under the flight hour portion of the program, compared to what was billed. These amounts are after adjustments recorded during fiscal 2013 and 2012, as more fully described below.

        Pursuant to U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, we have to assess the recoverability of the costs in excess of amounts billed by projecting future performance of the flight hour portion of the contract, including an estimate of future flight hours and costs over the life of the program. In fiscal 2012, we reduced the profit margin on the flight-hour portion of the contract from 8% to 2% due to higher than expected costs incurred by us to support the fleet, resulting in a $9.5 million pre-tax charge.

        To support the 2% margin, we established cost savings targets as we entered fiscal 2013 to reduce program spend over the life of the program and we had been successful in achieving these targets. However, beginning in the second half of fiscal 2013 we experienced a decrease in flight hour revenue. This decrease was caused by a 28% decline in flight hours flown primarily due to lower operations tempo. As a result of this unexpected and significant decline in flight hour revenue and a revised forecast indicating lower usage in the future for the fleet, we further lowered the revenue and profitability forecast for the flight hour portion of the contract during the fourth quarter of fiscal 2013 resulting in a $29.8 million pre-tax charge. This revised forecast results in a 0% margin over the remaining life of the flight-hour program.

        No additional adjustments have been recorded in fiscal 2014 based on the flight hours and costs incurred to date as well as future expectations for the program. We recorded 0% margin in fiscal 2014 on the flight-hour portion of the contract, which resulted in revenue of $42.4 million in fiscal 2014. We expect to recover the May 31, 2014 balance of the costs in excess of amounts billed of $9.9 million through projected future billings in excess of forecasted costs over the life of the program.

        Notwithstanding the foregoing, we reserve all our rights under the KC10 supply agreement, at law and in equity, including our rights to recover past and future revenues and expenses associated with the program.

Allowance for Doubtful Accounts

        We maintain an allowance for doubtful accounts to reflect the expected uncollectibility of accounts receivable based on past collection history and specific risks identified among uncollected accounts. In

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AAR CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (Continued)

(Dollars in millions, except per share amounts)

1. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Continued)

determining the required allowance, we consider factors such as general and industry-specific economic conditions, customer credit history, and our customers' current and expected future financial performance.

Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets

        In accordance with Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") 350, Intangibles—Goodwill and Other, goodwill and other intangible assets deemed to have indefinite lives are not amortized, but are subject to annual impairment tests. We review and evaluate our goodwill and indefinite life intangible assets for potential impairment at a minimum annually, on May 31, or more frequently if circumstances indicate that impairment is possible. We use a two-step process to evaluate goodwill for impairment. In the first step, we compare the fair value of each reporting unit with the carrying value of the reporting unit, including goodwill. If the estimated fair value of the reporting unit is less than the carrying value of the reporting unit, we would be required to complete a second step to determine the amount of goodwill impairment. The second step of the test requires the allocation of the reporting unit's fair value to its assets and liabilities, including any unrecognized intangible assets, in a hypothetical analysis that calculates the implied fair value of goodwill as if the reporting unit was being acquired in a business combination. If the implied fair value of goodwill is less than the carrying value, the difference is recorded as an impairment loss.

        We estimate the fair value of each reporting unit using both an income approach based on discounted cash flows and a market approach based on a multiple of earnings. The assumptions we used to estimate the fair value of our reporting units are based on historical performance, as well as forecasts used in our current business plan and require considerable management judgment. We use a discount rate based on our consolidated weighted average cost of capital which is adjusted for each of our reporting units based on their specific risk and size characteristics. The fair value measurements used for our goodwill impairment testing use significant unobservable inputs, which reflect our own assumptions about the inputs that market participants would use in measuring fair value. The fair value of our reporting units is also impacted by our overall market capitalization and may be impacted by volatility in our stock price and assumed control premium, among other items.

        As of May 31, 2014, we have five reporting units as defined by ASC 350. Step one of the impairment test concluded for all of our reporting units the estimated fair value exceeded its net asset carrying value. Accordingly, there was no indication of impairment and the second step was not performed.

        Goodwill by segment is as follows:

 
  May 31,  
 
  2014   2013  

Aviation Services

  $ 107.4   $ 105.4  

Technology Products

    154.3     150.2  
           

  $ 261.7   $ 255.6  
           
           

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AAR CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (Continued)

(Dollars in millions, except per share amounts)

1. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Continued)

        Intangible assets with finite useful lives are amortized on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives. Intangible assets, other than goodwill, are comprised of the following:

 
  May 31,  
 
  2014   2013  

Amortizable intangible assets:

             

Customer relationships

  $ 124.0   $ 108.0  

Developed technology

    32.8     31.0  

Lease agreements

    21.5     21.5  

FAA certificates

    5.0     5.0  
           

    183.3     165.5  

Accumulated amortization

    (36.2 )   (25.1 )
           

    147.1     140.4  

Unamortized intangible assets:

             

Trademarks

    18.3     17.4  
           

  $ 165.4   $ 157.8  
           
           

        Customer relationships are being amortized over 5-20 years, developed technology is being amortized over 7-30 years, the lease agreements are being amortized over 18 years, and the FAA certificates are being amortized over 20 years. Amortization expense recorded during fiscal 2014, 2013 and 2012 was $10.4 million, $13.7 million, and $13.0 million, respectively. The estimated aggregate amount of amortization expense for intangible assets in each of the next five fiscal years is $10.5 million in 2015, $10.3 million in 2016, $10.3 million in 2017, $10.3 million in 2018 and $9.8 million in 2019.

Foreign Currency

        Our foreign subsidiaries utilize the local currency as their functional currency. All balance sheet accounts of foreign subsidiaries transacting business in currencies other than the U.S. dollar are translated at year-end exchange rates. Revenues and expenses are translated at average exchange rates during the year. Translation adjustments are excluded from the results of operations and are recorded in stockholders' equity as a component of accumulated other comprehensive loss.

Cash and Cash Equivalents

        Cash and cash equivalents consist of highly liquid instruments which have original maturities of three months or less when purchased.

Financial Instruments and Concentrations of Market or Credit Risk

        Financial instruments that potentially subject us to concentrations of market or credit risk consist principally of trade receivables. While our trade receivables are diverse and represent a number of entities and geographic regions, the majority are with the U.S. Department of Defense and its contractors and entities in the aviation industry. Accounts receivable due from the U.S. Department of Defense were $50.5 million and $49.3 million at May 31, 2014 and 2013, respectively. Additionally, included in accounts receivable as of May 31, 2014 and 2013, are $48.7 million and $56.0 million, respectively, of accounts

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AAR CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (Continued)

(Dollars in millions, except per share amounts)

1. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Continued)

receivable from a large defense contractor. We perform regular evaluations of customer payment experience, current financial condition, and risk analysis. We may require collateral in the form of security interests in assets, letters of credit, and/or obligation guarantees from financial institutions for transactions executed on other than normal trade terms.

        The carrying amounts of cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, short-term borrowings, and accounts and trade notes payable approximate fair value because of the short-term maturity of these instruments. The carrying value of long-term debt bearing a variable interest rate approximates fair value.

        Fair value estimates are made at a specific point in time based on relevant market information about the financial instrument. These estimates are subjective in nature and involve uncertainties and matters of significant judgment and therefore cannot be determined with precision. Changes in assumptions could significantly affect the estimates.

Inventories

        Inventories are valued at the lower of cost or market (estimated net realizable value). Cost is determined by the specific identification, average cost, or first-in, first-out methods. From time-to-time, we purchase aircraft and engines for disassembly to individual parts and components. Costs are assigned to these individual parts and components utilizing list prices from original equipment manufacturers and recent sales history.

        The following is a summary of inventories:

 
  May 31,  
 
  2014   2013  

Raw materials and parts

  $ 114.1   $ 83.9  

Work-in-process

    57.5     84.0  

Aircraft and engine parts, components and finished goods

    323.7     285.8  
           

  $ 495.3   $ 453.7  
           
           

Equipment under Leases

        Lease revenue is recognized as earned. The cost of the asset under lease is the original purchase price plus overhaul costs. Depreciation for aircraft is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated service life of the equipment. The balance sheet classification of equipment under lease is generally based on lease term, with fixed-term leases less than twelve months generally classified as short-term and all others generally classified as long-term.

        Equipment on short-term lease includes aircraft engines and parts on or available for lease to satisfy customers' immediate short-term requirements. The leases are renewable with fixed terms, which generally vary from one to twelve months. Equipment on long-term lease consists of aircraft and engines on lease with commercial airlines generally for more than twelve months and rotable parts used to support long-term supply chain programs. The rotable parts included in equipment on long-term lease are being depreciated on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives.

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AAR CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (Continued)

(Dollars in millions, except per share amounts)

1. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Continued)

        The following is a summary of equipment on or available for long-term lease:

 
  May 31,  
 
  2014   2013  

Rotable parts

  $ 73.1   $ 41.7  

Aircraft

    25.3     23.0  
           

  $ 98.4   $ 64.7  
           
           

        In accordance with ASC 360, Property, Plant and Equipment, we are required to test for impairment of long-lived assets whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value of an asset may not be recoverable from its undiscounted cash flows. When applying ASC 360 to our aircraft and engine portfolio, we utilize certain assumptions to estimate future undiscounted cash flows, including current and future lease rates, lease terms, residual values and market conditions and trends impacting future demand.

        Future rent due to us under non-cancelable leases during each of the next five fiscal years is $19.9 million in 2015, $20.4 million in 2016, $19.9 million in 2017, $19.3 million in 2018, and $18.6 million in 2019.

Property, Plant and Equipment

        We record property, plant and equipment at cost. Depreciation is computed on the straight-line method over useful lives of 10-40 years for buildings and improvements and 3-10 years for equipment, furniture and fixtures, and capitalized software. Aircraft, major components in service, and associated rotable assets to support our expeditionary airlift services are depreciated over their estimated useful lives, which is generally 7-30 years. Leasehold improvements are amortized over the shorter of the estimated useful life or the term of the applicable lease.

        Repair and maintenance expenditures are expensed as incurred. Upon sale or disposal, cost and accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts, and related gains and losses are included in results of operations.

Income Taxes

        We are subject to income taxes in the U.S., state, and several foreign jurisdictions. In the ordinary course of business, there can be transactions and calculations where the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. We recognize deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been included in the financial statements or tax returns in accordance with applicable accounting guidance for accounting for income taxes, using currently enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. We record a valuation allowance when necessary to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount expected to be realized.

        The accounting for uncertainty in income taxes requires a more-likely-than-not threshold for financial statement recognition of tax positions taken or expected to be taken in a tax return. Where necessary, we record a liability for the difference between the benefit recognized for financial statement purposes and the tax position taken or expected to be taken on our tax return. To the extent that our assessment of such tax positions changes, the change in estimate is recorded in the period in which the determination is made.

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AAR CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (Continued)

(Dollars in millions, except per share amounts)

1. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Continued)

Supplemental Information on Cash Flows

        Supplemental information on cash flows is as follows:

 
  For the Year Ended
May 31,
 
 
  2014   2013   2012  

Interest paid

  $ 33.8   $ 28.3   $ 16.6  

Income taxes paid

    17.3     24.1     11.4  

Income tax refunds and interest received

    7.5     23.2     7.2  

        During fiscal 2014, treasury stock decreased $1.8 million reflecting the re-issuance of shares upon exercise of stock options, net of shares withheld to satisfy statutory tax obligations, and restricted stock award grants of $2.8 million, partially offset by the purchase of treasury shares of $1.0 million. During fiscal 2013, treasury stock increased $9.7 million reflecting the purchase of treasury shares of $14.6 million, partially offset by the re-issuance of shares upon exercise of stock options, net of shares withheld to satisfy statutory tax obligations, and restricted stock award grants of $4.9 million. During fiscal 2012, treasury stock decreased $10.0 million reflecting the re-issuance of shares upon exercise of stock options, net of shares withheld to satisfy statutory tax obligations, and restricted stock award grants of $13.7 million, partially offset by the purchase of treasury shares of $3.7 million.

Use of Estimates

        We have made estimates and utilized certain assumptions relating to the reporting of assets and liabilities and the disclosures of contingent liabilities to prepare these Consolidated Financial Statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States. Actual results could differ from those estimates.

New Accounting Pronouncements

        In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board issued Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, which provides guidance for revenue recognition. This ASU affects any entity that either enters into contracts with customers to transfer goods or services or enters into contracts for the transfer of non-financial assets. This ASU will supersede the revenue recognition requirements in ASC 605, Revenue Recognition, and most industry-specific guidance. This ASU also supersedes certain cost guidance included in Subtopic 605-35, Revenue Recognition-Construction-Type and Production-Type Contracts. This new standard will be effective for us beginning June 1, 2017. We are currently evaluating the impact of the adoption of this new standard on our consolidated financial statements.

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AAR CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (Continued)

(Dollars in millions, except per share amounts)

2. Financing Arrangements

Debt Outstanding

        A summary of the carrying amount of our debt is as follows:

 
  May 31,  
 
  2014   2013  

Revolving credit facility expiring April 24, 2018 with interest payable monthly

  $ 130.0   $ 120.0  

Secured credit facility (secured by aircraft and related engines and components) due April 23, 2015 with floating interest rate, payable monthly

    29.9     39.2  

Note payable due March 9, 2017 with floating interest rate, payable semi-annually on June 1 and December 1

    30.0     40.0  

Notes payable due January 15, 2022 with interest at 7.25% payable semi-annually on January 15 and July 15

    332.6     333.4  

Convertible notes payable due March 1, 2014 with interest at 1.625% payable semi-annually on March 1 and September 1

        65.9  

Convertible notes payable due March 1, 2016 with interest at 2.25% payable semi-annually on March 1 and September 1

    45.7     43.5  

Other1

    65.8     66.6  
           

Total debt

    634.0     708.6  

Current maturities of debt

    (69.7 )   (86.4 )
           

Long-term debt

  $ 564.3   $ 622.2  
           
           

1
Included in Other is a mortgage loan (secured by Wood Dale, Illinois facility) due August 1, 2015 of $11.0 million and $11.0 million, 1.75% convertible notes due February 1, 2015 of $29.8 million and $29.4 million, and an industrial revenue bond (secured by property, plant and equipment) due August 1, 2018 of $25.0 million and $25.0 million at May 31, 2014 and 2013, respectively.

        The aggregate principal amount of debt maturing during each of the next five fiscal years is $69.9 million in 2015, $70.8 million in 2016, $10.0 million in 2017, $130.0 million in 2018, and $25.0 million in 2019.

        At May 31, 2014, the carrying value of our 7.25% bonds, 1.75% convertible notes and 2.25% convertible notes was $408.1 million and the estimated fair value was approximately $434.8 million. These debt issuances are classified as Level 2 in the fair value hierarchy. This classification is defined as a fair value determined using market-based inputs other than quoted prices that are observable for the liability, either directly or indirectly.

        At May 31, 2014, the remaining variable rate and fixed rate debt had a fair value that approximates the carrying value of $225.9 million. These debt instruments are classified as Level 3 in the fair value hierarchy which is defined as a fair value determined based upon one or more significant unobservable inputs.

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AAR CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (Continued)

(Dollars in millions, except per share amounts)

2. Financing Arrangements (Continued)

Credit Facilities

        On April 24, 2013, we amended our agreement with various financial institutions, as lenders, and Bank of America, N.A., as administrative agent for the lenders (as amended, the "Credit Agreement"), reducing the aggregate revolving credit commitment under the Credit Agreement from $580.0 million to $475.0 million, and extending the maturity by approximately two years to April 24, 2018. Borrowings under the Credit Agreement bear interest at the offered Eurodollar Rate (defined as the British Bankers Association LIBOR Rate) plus 125 to 225 basis points based on certain financial measurements if a Eurodollar Rate loan, or at the offered fluctuating Base Rate plus 25 to 125 basis points based on certain financial measurements if a Base Rate loan. Borrowings outstanding under this facility at May 31, 2014 were $130.0 million and there were approximately $14.8 million of outstanding letters of credit, which reduced the availability of this facility to $330.2 million. There are no other terms or covenants limiting the availability of this facility. We also have $5.4 million available under a foreign line of credit.

        Borrowing activity under the Credit Agreement during fiscal 2014, 2013 and 2012 is as follows:

 
  For the Year Ended May 31,  
 
  2014   2013   2012  

Maximum amount borrowed

  $ 190.0   $ 395.0   $ 525.0  

Average daily borrowings

    135.8     312.3     288.3  

Average interest rate during the year

    1.77 %   2.03 %   1.90 %

        On March 28, 2013, we amended our secured credit facility with The Huntington National Bank (the "Huntington Loan Agreement"). The amendment to the Huntington Loan Agreement reduced our secured facility from $65.0 million to $40.0 million while also reducing the interest rate from 325 basis points to 175 basis points over LIBOR. Borrowings under the Huntington Loan Agreement are secured by aircraft and related engines and components owned by us. The Huntington Loan Agreement expires on April 23, 2015. As of May 31, 2014 and 2013, $29.9 million and $39.2 million, respectively, were outstanding under this agreement.

        The Credit Agreement requires us to comply with certain financial covenants, including a fixed charge coverage ratio and a leverage ratio. The Credit Agreement contains certain affirmative and negative covenants, including those relating to financial reporting and notification, payment of indebtedness, taxes and other obligations, compliance with applicable laws, and limitations on additional liens, indebtedness, acquisitions, investments and disposition of assets. The Credit Agreement also requires our significant domestic subsidiaries, and any subsidiaries that guarantee our other indebtedness, to provide a guarantee of payment under the Credit Agreement.

        The Huntington Loan Agreement requires us to comply with certain financial covenants which are consistent with our Credit Agreement and it is not guaranteed by our subsidiaries. The Huntington Loan Agreement also contains certain affirmative and negative covenants, including those relating to financial reporting and notification, payment of indebtedness, taxes and other obligations, compliance with applicable laws, and limitations on additional liens, indebtedness, acquisitions, investments and disposition of assets.

        At May 31, 2014, we were in compliance with the financial and other covenants in these agreements.

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AAR CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (Continued)

(Dollars in millions, except per share amounts)

2. Financing Arrangements (Continued)

Debt Issuances

        On April 15, 2013, we completed an add-on offering of $150.0 million aggregate principal amount of our 7.25% Senior Notes due 2022 (the "Notes"). The Notes were sold at a price equal to 107.5% of the principal amount thereof, for a yield to maturity of 6.128%. The net proceeds of the offering of the Notes after expenses were $157.6 million, and were used to repay a portion of the borrowings under our unsecured revolving credit agreement.

        The Notes were issued under the indenture dated January 23, 2012, as supplemented as of November 30, 2012 (the "Indenture"), pursuant to which we issued $175.0 million aggregate principal amount of our 7.25% Senior Notes due 2022 (the "Original Notes" and collectively with the Notes, the "Senior Notes"). The Senior Notes were originally sold in private placements to qualified institutional buyers in accordance with Rule 144A under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the "Securities Act") and were subsequently exchanged for substantially identical notes that were registered under the Securities Act. The Senior Notes are fully and unconditionally guaranteed, jointly and severally, on a senior unsecured basis by substantially all of our existing domestic and foreign subsidiaries. The Senior Notes are treated as a single series and will vote as one class under the Indenture.

        On February 14, 2013, we completed an exchange agreement with an institutional holder to exchange $22.7 million aggregate principal amount of our 1.75% Convertible Senior Notes, plus cash in the amount of $7.3 million for a new $30.0 million convertible note (the "New Note"). The New Note was issued in a private placement, is subject to customary resale restrictions, and has no registration rights. The New Note matures on February 1, 2015 unless redeemed earlier by us with 30 days' notice to the holder at a call price reflecting a yield to maturity of 3.75% from inception. We may redeem the New Note at any time with a call price at maturity of 104.038%. Upon conversion, the holder of the New Note shall be entitled to receive only cash and not shares of common stock. The New Note bears interest at a coupon rate of 1.75% per year, payable semi-annually on February 1 and August 1.

Debt Retirements

        We did not retire any convertible notes during fiscal 2014 except for the remaining 1.625% convertible notes which reached maturity on March 1, 2014. During fiscal 2013 and 2012, we retired a portion of the following convertible notes before their maturity date:

 
  Principal
Amount
  Cash Paid   Loss on
Repurchase
 
 
  2013   2012   2013   2012   2013   2012  

1.625% convertible notes due March 1, 2014

  $ 6.4   $ 9.4   $ 6.1   $ 8.9   $ 0.1   $ 0.2  

2.25% convertible notes due March 1, 2016

    5.5     9.1     4.9     8.1     0.2     0.3  

1.75% convertible notes due February 1, 2026

    11.0     20.6     11.0     20.3         0.2  
                           

  $ 22.9   $ 39.1   $ 22.0   $ 37.3   $ 0.3   $ 0.7  
                           
                           

        The loss on repurchase, after consideration for unamortized discount and debt issuance costs, is recorded in Loss on extinguishment of debt on the Consolidated Statements of Income.

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AAR CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (Continued)

(Dollars in millions, except per share amounts)

2. Financing Arrangements (Continued)

        In addition to the aforementioned debt retirements, during fiscal 2013, pursuant to the terms of the applicable indenture, certain holders of our 1.75% Convertible Senior Notes due 2026 (the "Securities") exercised the right to surrender their Securities for purchase by us (the "Put Option"). The Put Option entitled each holder of the Securities to surrender to us for purchase all or any part of such holder's Securities at a purchase price equal to 100% of the principal amount, plus accrued interest. The aggregate purchase price including principal, accrued and unpaid interest for the Securities surrendered for purchase pursuant to the Put Option was $66.2 million. The purchases were funded primarily by cash on hand and free cash flow during the third quarter of fiscal 2013. There was no gain or loss on the repurchase of these notes.

Convertible Notes

        As of May 31, 2014 and 2013, the short-term and long-term debt and equity component (recorded in capital surplus, net of income tax benefit) consisted of the following:

 
  May 31,  
 
  2014   2013  

Long-term debt:

             

Principal amount

  $ 79.8   $ 148.3  

Unamortized discount

    (4.4 )   (9.5 )
           

Net carrying amount

  $ 75.4   $ 138.8  
           
           

Equity component, net of tax

  $ 75.3   $ 75.3  
           
           

        The discount on the liability component of long-term debt is being amortized using the effective interest method based on an effective rate. For fiscal years 2014 and 2013, the effective interest rate for our convertible debt was as follows:

 
  May 31,  
 
  2014   2013  

1.75% convertible notes due February 1, 2015

    5.00 %   5.00 %

2.25% convertible notes due March 1, 2016

    7.41 %   7.41 %

        As of May 31, 2014 and 2013, for each of our convertible note issuances, the "if converted" value does not exceed its principal amount.

        The interest expense associated with the convertible notes was as follows:

 
  For the Year
Ended May 31,
 
 
  2014   2013   2012  

Coupon interest

  $ 3.1   $ 3.7   $ 4.9  

Amortization of deferred financing fees

    0.3     0.5     0.7  

Amortization of discount

    5.1     9.3     13.1  
               

Interest expense related to convertible notes

  $ 8.5   $ 13.5   $ 18.7  
               
               

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AAR CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (Continued)

(Dollars in millions, except per share amounts)

2. Financing Arrangements (Continued)

        We are subject to a number of covenants under our financing arrangements, including restrictions that relate to the payment of cash dividends, maintenance of minimum net working capital and tangible net worth levels, fixed charge coverage ratio, sales of assets, additional financing, purchase of our shares and other matters. We are in compliance with all financial and other covenants under our financing arrangements.

3. Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities

        We are exposed to interest rate risk associated with fluctuations in interest rates on our variable rate debt. We utilize two derivative financial instruments to manage our variable interest rate exposure over a medium- to long-term period. We have a floating-to-fixed interest rate swap and an interest rate cap agreement, each hedging $50.0 million of notional principal interest under our revolving Credit Agreement.

        We do not hold or issue derivative instruments for trading purposes and are not a party to any instruments with leverage or prepayment features. In connection with derivative financial instruments, there exists the risk of the possible inability of counterparties to meet the terms of their contracts. We mitigate this risk by performing financial reviews before the contract is entered into, as well as on-going periodic evaluations. We do not expect any significant losses from counterparty defaults.

        We classify the derivatives as assets or liabilities on the balance sheet. Accounting for the change in fair value of the derivatives is a function of whether the instrument qualifies for, and has been designated as, a hedging relationship, and the type of hedging relationship. As of May 31, 2014, all of our derivative instruments were classified as cash flow hedges. The fair value of the interest rate swap and interest rate cap agreements represents the difference in the present values of cash flows calculated at the contracted interest rates and at current market interest rates at the end of the reporting period. We record the fair value of assets and liabilities in accordance with the hierarchy established by the ASC 820, Fair Value Measurement. The fair value of our interest rate derivatives are classified as Level 2, which refers to fair values estimated using significant other observable inputs including quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets and quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in markets that are not active. The following tables summarize the classification and fair values of our interest rate derivative instruments reported in the Consolidated Balance Sheet at May 31, 2014 and 2013.

 
   
 
Derivative
Assets
  Derivative
Liabilities
 
 
  Balance Sheet Classification  
Derivatives designated as hedging instruments:
  May 31, 2014   May 31, 2014  

Interest rate cap

 

Long-term assets

 
$

0.1
 
$

 

Interest rate swap

  Long-term liabilities         (2.8 )

 

 
   
 
Derivative
Assets
  Derivative
Liabilities
 
 
  Balance Sheet Classification  
Derivatives designated as hedging instruments:
  May 31, 2013   May 31, 2013  

Interest rate cap

 

Long-term assets

 
$

0.1
 
$

 

Interest rate swap

  Long-term liabilities         (3.6 )

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AAR CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (Continued)

(Dollars in millions, except per share amounts)

3. Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities (Continued)

        We include gains and losses on the derivative instruments in other comprehensive income. We recognize the gains and losses on our derivative instruments as an adjustment to interest expense in the period the hedged interest payment affects earnings. The impact of the interest rate swap and interest cap agreement on the Consolidated Statement of Comprehensive Income for the years ended May 31, 2014, 2013 and 2012 was an unrealized gain of $0.7 million, an unrealized gain of $0.6 million and an unrealized loss of $3.9 million, respectively. We expect minimal gain or loss to be reclassified into earnings within the next 12 months.

4. Stock-Based Compensation

        We provide stock-based awards under the AAR CORP. Stock Benefit Plan ("Stock Benefit Plan") and the AAR CORP. 2013 Stock Plan (the "2013 Stock Plan"), each of which has been approved by our stockholders. Under the Stock Benefit Plan and the 2013 Stock Plan, we are authorized to issue stock options to employees and non-employee directors that allow the grant recipients to purchase shares of common stock at a price not less than the fair market value of the common stock on the date of grant. Generally, stock options awarded expire ten years from the date of grant and are exercisable in three, four or five equal annual increments commencing one year after the date of grant. In addition to stock options, the Stock Benefit Plan and the 2013 Stock Plan also provide for the grant of restricted stock awards and performance-based restricted stock awards. The number of performance-based awards earned, subject to vesting, is based on achievement of certain Company-wide financial goals or stock price targets. The Stock Benefit Plan and the 2013 Stock Plan also provide for the grant of stock appreciation units and restricted stock units; however, to date, no such awards have been granted.

        Restricted stock grants are designed, among other things, to align employee interests with the interests of stockholders and to encourage the recipient to build a career with us. Restricted stock typically vests over periods of one to five years from date of grant. Restricted stock grants may be performance-based with vesting to occur over periods of three to six years. All restricted stock that has been granted and earned according to performance criteria carries full dividend and voting rights, regardless of whether it has vested.

        Substantially all stock options and restricted stock are subject to forfeiture prior to vesting if the employee's employment terminates for any reason other than death, disability or retirement. A total of 11,149,000 shares have been granted under the Stock Benefit Plan since its inception. With the stockholder approval of the 2013 Stock Plan, we will make all future stock awards under the 2013 Stock Plan rather than the Stock Benefit Plan. There are 2,500,000 shares available for grant under the 2013 Stock Plan.

Stock Options

        During fiscal 2014, 2013 and 2012, we granted stock options representing 1,033,015 shares, 972,180 shares, and 169,281 shares, respectively.

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NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (Continued)

(Dollars in millions, except per share amounts)

4. Stock-Based Compensation (Continued)

        The weighted average fair value per share of stock options granted during fiscal 2014, 2013 and 2012 was $10.24, $4.85 and $11.42, respectively. The fair value of each stock option grant was estimated on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option pricing model with the following assumptions:

 
  Stock Options Granted
In Fiscal Year
 
 
  2014   2013   2012  

Risk-free interest rate

    1.4 %   0.6 %   1.5 %

Expected volatility of common stock

    49.1 %   51.4 %   46.1 %

Dividend yield

    1.2 %   2.3 %   1.1 %

Expected option term in years

    5.2     5.4     5.7  

        The risk-free interest rate is based on the U.S. Treasury yield curve in effect at the time of grant. The expected volatility is based on historical volatility of our common stock, and the expected option term represents the period of time that the stock options granted are expected to be outstanding based on historical exercise trends. The dividend yield represents our anticipated cash dividends at the grant date over the expected option term.

        A summary of stock option activity for the three years ended May 31, 2014 consisted of the following (shares in thousands):

 
  2014   2013   2012  
 
  Shares   Weighted
Average
Exercise Price
  Shares   Weighted
Average
Exercise Price
  Shares   Weighted
Average
Exercise Price
 

Outstanding at beginning of year

    2,300   $ 16.22     1,703   $ 17.96     1,994   $ 18.56  

Granted

    1,033   $ 25.43     972   $ 12.95     169   $ 28.45  

Exercised

    (473 ) $ 16.20     (124 ) $ 13.72     (339 ) $ 19.95  

Cancelled

    (107 ) $ 18.48     (251 ) $ 15.82     (121 ) $ 19.73  
                                 

Outstanding at end of year

    2,753   $ 19.59     2,300   $ 16.22     1,703   $ 17.96  
                                 
                                 

Options exercisable at end of year

    1,019   $ 17.88     1,089   $ 17.73     880   $ 17.10  
                                 
                                 

        The total fair value of stock options that vested during fiscal 2014, 2013 and 2012 was $2.0 million, $3.6 million and $4.0 million, respectively. The total intrinsic value of stock options exercised during fiscal 2014, 2013 and 2012 was $4.3 million, $0.5 million and $3.3 million, respectively. The aggregate intrinsic value of options outstanding was $15.2 million and $10.9 million as of May 31, 2014 and 2013, respectively. The tax benefit realized from stock options exercised during fiscal 2014, 2013 and 2012 was $1.0 million, zero, and $0.5 million, respectively. Expense charged to operations for stock options during fiscal 2014, 2013 and 2012 was $3.8 million, $3.5 million and $4.2 million, respectively, recorded in selling, general and administrative expenses. As of May 31, 2014, we had $10.4 million of unrecognized compensation expense related to stock options that will be amortized over an average period of 2.5 years.

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NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (Continued)

(Dollars in millions, except per share amounts)

4. Stock-Based Compensation (Continued)

        The following table provides additional information regarding stock options outstanding as of May 31, 2014 (shares in thousands):

 
  Options Outstanding   Options Exercisable  
Option
Exercise
Price Range
  Number
Outstanding as
of 5/31/14
  Weighted-Average
Remaining Contractual
Life in Years
  Weighted-
Average Exercise
Price
  Number
Exercisable as
of 5/31/14
  Weighted-
Average Exercise
Price
 

$  9.00 - $15.00

    800     8.0   $ 12.86     125   $ 12.63  

$15.01 - $20.00

    748     5.6   $ 16.17     730   $ 16.16  

$20.01 - $34.50

    1,205     8.5   $ 26.17     164   $ 29.49  
                             

    2,753     7.6   $ 19.59     1,019   $ 17.88  
                             
                             

Restricted Stock

        We provide executives and other key employees an opportunity to be awarded performance-based and time-based restricted stock. The performance-based awards are contingent upon the achievement of certain performance objectives, including net income, return on capital, and leverage ratios, or our stock price achieving a certain level over a period of time. During fiscal 2014, 2013 and 2012, we granted 60,808, 53,280, and 362,500 of performance-based restricted shares, respectively. Time-based restricted shares of 60,808, 65,780, and 299,491 were granted to executives and key employees during fiscal 2014, 2013, and 2012, respectively. We also award time-based restricted stock to our non-employee directors as part of their annual compensation. Time-based restricted shares of 45,000, 48,333, and 45,000 were granted to members of the Board of Directors during fiscal 2014, 2013, and 2012, respectively.

        The fair value of restricted shares is the market value of our common stock on the date of grant. Expense related to all restricted share programs during fiscal 2014, 2013 and 2012 was $4.9 million, $7.6 million and $8.4 million, respectively, and recorded in selling, general and administrative expenses.

        Restricted share activity during the fiscal year ended May 31, 2014 was as follows (shares in thousands):

 
  Number of
Shares
  Weighted Average
Fair Value
on Grant Date
 

Nonvested at May 31, 2013

    1,253   $ 22.91  

Granted

    167   $ 24.15  

Vested

    (400 ) $ 24.36  

Forfeited

    (30 ) $ 27.65  
             

Nonvested at May 31, 2014

    990   $ 22.49  
             
             

        As of May 31, 2014, we had $6.5 million of unearned compensation related to restricted shares that will be amortized to expense over a weighted average period of 1.4 years.

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AAR CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (Continued)

(Dollars in millions, except per share amounts)

4. Stock-Based Compensation (Continued)

Shareholders' Rights Plan

        Pursuant to a shareholder rights plan adopted in 2007, each outstanding share of our common stock carries with it a Right to purchase one share at a price of $140 per share. The Rights become exercisable (and separate from the shares) when certain specified events occur, including the acquisition of 15% or more of the common stock by a person or group (an "Acquiring Person") or the commencement of a tender or exchange offer for 15% or more of the common stock.

        In the event that an Acquiring Person acquires 15% or more of the common stock, or if we are the surviving corporation in a merger involving an Acquiring Person or if the Acquiring Person engages in certain types of self-dealing transactions, each Right entitles the holder to purchase for $140 per share (or the then-current exercise price), shares of our common stock having a market value of $280 (or two times the exercise price), subject to certain exceptions. Similarly, if we are acquired in a merger or other business combination or 50% or more of our assets or earning power is sold, each Right entitles the holder to purchase at the then-current exercise price that number of shares of common stock of the surviving corporation having a market value of two times the exercise price. The Rights do not entitle the holder thereof to vote or to receive dividends. The Rights will expire on August 6, 2017, and may be redeemed by us for $.01 per Right under certain circumstances.

5. Income Taxes

        The provision for income taxes on pre-tax income includes the following components:

 
  For the Year Ended
May 31,
 
 
  2014   2013   2012  

Current:

                   

Federal

  $ (0.5 ) $ (13.1 ) $ (9.8 )

State

    0.2     (1.8 )   (0.5 )

Foreign

    22.8     12.1     3.0  
               

    22.5     (2.8 )   (7.3 )

Deferred

    9.6     29.5     32.8  
               

  $ 32.1   $ 26.7   $ 25.5  
               
               

        Income tax receivable at May 31, 2014 and 2013 was $14.8 million and $18.0 million, respectively, and is included in deposits, prepaids and other on the Consolidated Balance Sheet.

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AAR CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (Continued)

(Dollars in millions, except per share amounts)

5. Income Taxes (Continued)

        The provision for income taxes on pre-tax income differs from the amount computed by applying the U.S. federal statutory income tax rate of 35% for fiscal 2014, 2013 and 2012 to income before taxes, due to the following:

 
  For the Year Ended
May 31,
 
 
  2014   2013   2012  

Provision for income taxes at the federal statutory rate

  $ 36.9   $ 28.8   $ 32.7  

State income taxes, net of federal benefit and refunds

    0.2     (1.0 )   (3.5 )

Federal adjustments

    (2.2 )       (3.3 )

Domestic Production Activities Deduction

    (1.6 )        

Research and development credit

    (1.0 )   (1.1 )   (0.8 )

Noncontrolling interest

    (0.1 )   (0.2 )   (0.1 )

Other

    (0.1 )   0.2     0.5  
               

Provision for income taxes

  $ 32.1   $ 26.7   $ 25.5