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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Commission file number: 001-38850
baly-20221231_g1.jpg
BALLY’S CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware20-0904604
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
100 Westminster Street, Providence, RI 02903
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
(401) 475-8474
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading SymbolName of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value of $0.01 per shareBALYNew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes       No   
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes       No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes    No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes       No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes       No  
The aggregate market value of the voting common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2022 based on the closing price on the New York Stock Exchange for such date, was approximately $789.9 million.
Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the issuer’s classes of common stock, as of the latest practicable date.
Class Outstanding as of February 14, 2023
Common stock, $0.01 par value 46,682,544
For additional information regarding the Company’s shares outstanding, refer to Note 17 “Stockholders’ Equity.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant’s definitive Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held on May 17, 2023 are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.



BALLY’S CORPORATION
ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
TABLE OF CONTENTS
  Page No.
  
   
  
 
  
   
  
   
   
  
   
 
2


Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

This Annual Report on Form 10-K includes forward-looking statements within the meaning of the federal securities laws. Forward-looking statements are statements as to matters that are not historical facts, and include statements about our plans, objectives, expectations and intentions.

Forward-looking statements are not guarantees and are subject to risks and uncertainties. Forward-looking statements are based on our current expectations and assumptions. Although we believe that our expectations and assumptions are reasonable at this time, they should not be regarded as representations that our expectations will be achieved. Actual results may vary materially. Forward-looking statements speak only as of the time of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and we do not undertake to update or revise them as more information becomes available, except as required by law.

Important factors beyond those that apply to most businesses, some of which are beyond our control, that could cause actual results to differ materially from our expectations and assumptions include, without limitation:
unexpected costs, difficulties integrating and other events impacting our completed acquisitions and our ability to realize anticipated benefits;
unexpected costs and other events impacting our planned construction projects, including Bally’s Chicago;
risks associated with our rapid growth, including those affecting customer and employee retention, integration and controls;
risks associated with the impact of the digitalization of gaming on our casino operations, our expansion into online gaming (“iGaming”) and sports betting and the highly competitive and rapidly changing aspects of our interactive businesses generally;
the very substantial regulatory restrictions applicable to us, including costs of compliance;
uncertainties surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic, any variant of COVID-19 or similar health emergencies, including limitations on our operations, increased costs, changes in customer attitudes, impact on our employees and the impact on general economic conditions;
global economic challenges, including the impact of the war in Ukraine, rising inflation, rising interest rates and supply-chain disruptions could cause economic uncertainty and volatility;
restrictions and limitations in agreements to which we are subject, including our debt, could significantly affect our ability to operate our business and our liquidity; and
other risks identified in Part I. Item 1A. “Risk Factors” of this Annual Report on Form 10‑K.

The foregoing list of important factors is not exclusive and does not include matters like changes in general economic conditions that affect substantially all gaming businesses.

You should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements.
3


PART I

ITEM 1.    BUSINESS

Bally’s Corporation, a Delaware corporation, with global headquarters in Providence, Rhode Island, is referred to as the “Company,” “Bally’s,” “we,” “our” or “us.” Our common stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange (the “NYSE”) under the symbol “BALY.”

Our Company

We are a global gaming, hospitality and entertainment company with a portfolio of casinos and resorts and online gaming businesses. We provide our customers with physical and interactive entertainment and gaming experiences, including traditional casino offerings, iCasino, online bingo, sportsbook and free-to-play (“F2P”) games.

As of December 31, 2022, we own and manage 15 land-based casinos and one horse racetrack in ten states across the United States (“US”) operating under the Bally’s brand. Our land-based casino operations include approximately 14,800 slot machines, 500 table games and 5,300 hotel rooms, along with various restaurants, entertainment venues and other amenities. In 2021, we acquired London-based Gamesys Group Ltd. (“Gamesys”) to expand our geographical and product footprints to include an iGaming business with well-known brands providing iCasino and online bingo experiences to our global online customer base with concentrations in Europe and Asia and a growing presence in North America. Our revenues are primarily generated by these gaming and entertainment offerings. We own and operate our proprietary software and technology stack, which is designed to allow us to provide consumers differentiated offerings and exclusive content.

Our Strategy and Business Developments

We seek to continue to grow our business by actively pursuing the acquisition and development of new gaming opportunities and reinvesting in our existing operations. We believe that interactive gaming represents a significant strategic opportunity for the future growth of Bally’s and we will continue to actively focus resources in markets that we believe will regulate iGaming. We seek to increase revenues at our casinos and resorts through enhancing the guest experience by providing popular games, restaurants, hotel accommodations, entertainment and other amenities in attractive surroundings with high-quality guest service. We believe that our recent acquisitions have expanded and diversified us from financial and market exposure perspectives, while continuing to mitigate our susceptibility to regional economic downturns, idiosyncratic regulatory changes and increases in regional competition.

We continue to make progress on the integration of our acquired assets and deploying capital on our strategic growth projects. Notable efforts in the current year include:
In January 2022, we launched Bally Casino, an iCasino app, in New Jersey and in November 2022, we launched our first combined casino and sports book app, Bally Bet Sportsbook & Casino, in Ontario, Canada. We will continue to focus on jurisdictions where there are iCasino opportunities.
In June 2022, we signed a host community agreement with the City of Chicago to develop Bally’s Chicago, a flagship, destination casino resort in downtown Chicago, Illinois. This agreement provides us with the exclusive right to operate a temporary casino, which is expected to open in the second half of 2023, while the permanent casino resort is constructed.
On September 26, 2022, we completed our acquisition of Tropicana Las Vegas from Penn Entertainment, Inc. and Gaming and Leisure Properties, Inc. (“GLPI”), providing us with a presence on the Las Vegas Strip.
During 2022, we made significant progress on our capital improvement and expansion projects focused on gaming and non-gaming amenities at our Bally’s Atlantic City, Bally’s Lincoln and Bally’s Kansas City properties renovating hotel rooms, expanding our gaming floors and product offerings and introducing new restaurant concepts, spas and other customer experience venues.
On January 3, 2023, we completed the sale-leaseback transaction for the land and real estate assets of Bally’s Tiverton and Hard Rock Biloxi for an aggregate consideration of $635 million.

These steps have positioned us as a prominent, full-service, vertically integrated iGaming company, with physical casinos and online gaming solutions united under a single, leading brand.

For further information on our recent acquisitions, refer to Note 6 “Business Combinations” to our consolidated financial statements presented in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

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Our Operating Structure

Our business is organized into three reportable segments: (i) Casinos & Resorts, (ii) North America Interactive, and (iii) International Interactive.

Casinos & Resorts - includes our 15 land-based casino properties and one horse racetrack:

Property NameLocation
Bally’s Atlantic City Casino Resort (“Bally’s Atlantic City”)Atlantic City, New Jersey
Bally’s Black Hawk(1)
Black Hawk, Colorado
Bally’s Dover Casino Resort (“Bally’s Dover”)Dover, Delaware
Bally’s Evansville Casino & Hotel (“Bally’s Evansville”)Evansville, Indiana
Bally’s Kansas City Casino (“Bally’s Kansas City”)Kansas City, Missouri
Bally’s Lake Tahoe Casino Resort (“Bally’s Lake Tahoe”)Lake Tahoe, Nevada
Bally’s Quad Cities Casino & Hotel (“Bally’s Quad Cities”)Rock Island, Illinois
Bally’s Shreveport Casino & Hotel (“Bally’s Shreveport”)Shreveport, Louisiana
Bally’s Tiverton Casino & Hotel (“Bally’s Tiverton”)Tiverton, Rhode Island
Bally’s Twin River Lincoln Casino Resort (“Bally’s Twin River”)Lincoln, Rhode Island
Bally’s Vicksburg Casino (“Bally’s Vicksburg”)Vicksburg, Mississippi
Hard Rock Hotel & Casino Biloxi (“Hard Rock Biloxi”)Biloxi, Mississippi
Tropicana Las Vegas Casino and Resort (“Tropicana Las Vegas”)Las Vegas, Nevada
Bally’s Arapahoe ParkAurora, Colorado
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(1)    Consists of three casino properties: Bally’s Black Hawk North Casino, Bally’s Black Hawk West Casino and Bally’s Black Hawk East Casino.

North America Interactive - includes the following North America businesses:
Bally’s Interactive, primarily a business to consumer online iCasino operator; and
Consumer facing service and marketing engines, including SportCaller, a B2B and F2P game provider for sports betting companies; Live at the Bike, an online subscription streaming service featuring livestream and on-demand poker videos and podcasts; and the Association of Volleyball Professionals (“AVP”), a professional beach volleyball organization and host of the longest-running domestic beach volleyball tour.

The North America Interactive reportable segment also includes the North American operations of Gamesys, a B2C iCasino operator.

International Interactive - includes Gamesys.

Refer to Note 21 “Segment Reporting” to our consolidated financial statements presented in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information on our segment reporting structure.

Our Brands

Bally’s Brand

Bally’s is an iconic brand. We performed extensive market research in which active gamers indicated an acute awareness of the brand, but not necessarily a high usage of brand products and gaming offerings. We have rebranded every casino and resort in our portfolio, except Hard Rock Biloxi, to build upon the deep legacy of the Bally’s brand.

Additionally, our research told us that gamers across the demographic age spectrum knew of Bally’s brand and identified with the gaming entertainment aspect of slot machines, pinball machines, video machines and casinos. We believe in the industrial logic and vision of Bally’s becoming a premier, truly integrated, omni-channel gaming company for both retail and online gamers. These insights form the key tenets of our integrated Bally Rewards program specifically to enable customers to utilize compelling rewards universally in our interactive and casino and resort environments.

Our Sinclair Broadcast Group (“Sinclair”) media affiliation adds to our comprehensive touchpoint strategy, which strengthens our ability to attract new customers to our integrated brand by showcasing Bally’s with millions of daily impressions.

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We believe that our phased approach to the transformation of Bally’s brand was thoughtful and deliberate. There are exceptions to our rebranding initiative. For example, in the case of Hard Rock Biloxi, we decided to maintain the current “Hard Rock” naming rights arrangement. Nonetheless, Bally’s remains at the center of our strategy.

In summary, we remain focused in our continuing effort to rebirth Bally’s brand as a legendary, integrated brand, leveraging our casino and resort, interactive and media environments with a compelling rewards program to rival our competition.

Interactive Brands

We operate a suite of award-winning brands and are focused on building a diverse portfolio of distinctive and recognizable brands that deliver best-in-class platforms, player experiences and gaming content globally. Our brands are:

iCasino brands include Bally Casino, Rainbow Riches Casino, Virgin Casino, Virgin Games, Megaways Casino, VIP Casino, Vera & John, InterCasino, Monopoly Casino, Yuugado, Casino Secret;
Sportsbook brand is Bally Bet;
F2P brand is Bally Play;
Online bingo brands include Jackpotjoy, Double Bubble Bingo and Botemania;
SportCaller, a F2P games content provider;
Gamesys, an iCasino and online bingo platform provider and operator; and
Telescope, a provider of real-time audience engagement solutions for live events, gamified second screen experiences and interactive livestreams.

Bally Sports Brand

Inherent in our naming rights arrangement with Sinclair, our Bally Sports brand encompasses a lineup of 19 regional sports networks to position the Bally Sports brand to be a well-known participant in the sports media industry, producing award-winning live game coverage, while creating and innovating multiplatform content that engages millions of sports fans across the US. We are home to America’s most comprehensive regional sports media rights portfolio that includes more than half of the US-based Major League Baseball, National Basketball Association and National Hockey League teams.

We believe Bally Sports represents the future of sports fandom. We are seeking to cultivate and engage the next generation of fans by pursuing opportunities to create an omni-channel entertainment experience with sports at its core. By leveraging the collective scale of our regional sports media rights portfolio, we will seek to develop engaging content across an ever-expanding ecosystem of platforms and devices, meeting fans at the intersection of technology and sports culture. We believe that Bally Sports’ investment in the gamification of sports will usher in a new era of live, interactive sports that will provide fans the opportunity to interact with games in real time, on a personalized level, creating a national lean-in experience.

Our Technology and Product Development

The heart of Bally’s real-money gaming solutions is the union of the Gamesys platform with Bally’s casinos and resorts and iGaming products. The combined casino, sports and additional online marketing assets provide social gaming, game development and marketing partnerships that integrate with the casinos and resorts creating an exciting and diverse gaming, hospitality and entertainment environment. Our investment in gaming platforms along with our talented technical and product development teams allowed Bally’s to launch Bally Casino New Jersey within two months of the Gamesys acquisition. In 2022, we rolled-out our new BallyBet 2.0 Product to Arizona, New York, Ontario and Indiana, all with expanded omni-channel marketing features.

Our investment in core disciplines across technology, analytics and marketing have allowed us to rapidly bring innovative new experiences to market and provide unique insights into our customer habits and their interactions with both offline and online experiences. The result has been a highly efficient marketing conversion and retention platform that combines online and offline opportunities.

Our product offerings comprise varying levels of proprietary and third-party software. Our proprietary platform binds together our product offerings, providing account management, responsible gaming, regulatory compliance and electronic wallet capabilities. Across our product offerings, we have endeavored to own the technology in-house for all critical components and to utilize a combination of new technologies, including data science and machine learning, to optimize conversion, efficiency and efficacy.

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Our experience from the highly competitive European markets, especially in the UK, allows us to leverage advanced artificial intelligence (“AI”), machine learning and retention capabilities across the online sports, casino and bingo product lines and to bring that expertise to our offline casinos and resorts. We have integrated the previous Bet.Works sports engine with the Gamesys casino platform, known as the Evolve platform, to create a seamless, high performance, efficient and effective online gaming product, BallyBet 2.0, that links our casinos and resorts activity with our iGaming products. Our continued investments into kiosk and player rewards recognize both online and offline activity and are at the forefront of our omni-channel strategy.

Bally’s core product offerings are built on integrated, proprietary account management technology. This technology provides users with access to their account history and a uniform identity verification system, which is critical in enabling navigation from our national audience to our iGaming and sportsbook products. Our internally developed machine learning and AI tools recommend games, rewards and payment options and payment amounts to best suit our player’s preferences. We use our AI and machine learning skills to also protect our players by working at the forefront of the industry in developing advanced systems to identify and manage problem gambling behaviors.

We are further investing in the Bally technology and product platform to achieve our vision of a seamless player journey between offline and online gaming and entertainment worlds that recognize and reward players through their entire lifetime whether in our casinos and resorts or online in any of our gaming and entertainment offerings. By leveraging our casinos and resorts, Sinclair partnership and iGaming products and brands, we strive to deliver an entirely new omni-channel gaming and entertainment experience to our customers.

We plan to invest in core disciplines across our technology, analytics and marketing platforms to bring new experiences to market and gain an understanding of our customers. We are focused on building a strong brand reputation to distinguish us from our competitors.

Marketing

The marketing efforts under the Bally’s brand are primarily executed through six funnels: Advertising, Direct Marketing, Player Development, Special Events and Promotions, Entertainment and the Bally Rewards loyalty program.

Our Casino Operations team plays a significant role in attracting and retaining our customers. Every customer who interacts with a process, such as an automated teller machine (ATM) or kiosk, or an employee is met with an attempt to garner a return visit and then, in turn, make a recommendation to family and friends. Hence “R2,” an abbreviation for “Return and Recommend,” is Bally’s marketing and casino operations mantra.

The funnels are as follows:

Advertising

Bally’s targets its demographics throughout the nation via radio, television, billboards, print, direct mail, email, digital and social media campaigns. We seek to target the right customer at the right time with the right message to increase brand awareness and drive business. We do modest image advertising, but more predominantly lean towards call-to-action messaging.

Direct Marketing

We use Direct Marketing to establish a personal relationship with customers. This form of marketing typically involves an offer and a call to action to incentivize an initial or additional casino visit or engagement with our iGaming products. Our focus on individual behavior, rather than broad segments (which have been the traditional industry approach), is designed to allow us to execute a “Precision Marketing Model.” We believe that we understand the influential attributes that attract players and, as a result, we can market to the point of diminishing returns while avoiding low-return spending.

Player Development

Player Development is our link to our premium customers. We utilize a process under the Precision Marketing Model that is designed to enable our team to efficiently manage sales efforts to attract customers. We believe the potential exists to engage increasingly more with our customers as they move throughout our brands.

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Special Events and Promotions

This category refers to the mass public promotions that are weaved into the marketing calendar in concert with Direct Marketing. Our casino marketing team seeks to leverage tried-and-true promotions that attract and entertain players in an effort to retain them for the long term.

Entertainment

The mission to attract and retain gamers is evident in our entertainment strategy. Bally’s headliner strategy is to entertain our customers while recovering the cost of the act through cash sales. Additional entertainment is offered at Bally’s lounges and bars and designed to support our branding mission which is based on offering an engaging and entertaining experience.

Bally Rewards

Bally Rewards is our core loyalty program and was devised to establish consistency throughout Bally’s brand. Players earn tier points to achieve a tier status of Pro, Star, Superstar and ultimately Legend. We are developing the connectivity of this program by our “one card” linking systems, which universally link to all Bally’s casinos, resorts and our interactive business units. We are also planning to provide benefits outside of what is offered in our casinos and resorts to add value to the membership.

Interactive Cross Marketing

We design collaborative, cross-marketing campaigns that include direct mail, on-property marketing and VIP marketing in an effort to increase interactive sign-ups and introduce interactive players to our casinos and resorts. This cross-marketing campaign is currently being launched at Bally’s Atlantic City.

Competition

The gaming industry is characterized by a high degree of competition among a large number of operators, including land-based casinos, riverboat casinos, dockside casinos, video lotteries, traditional lotteries, video gaming terminals at taverns in certain states, sweepstakes and poker machines not located in casinos, Native American gaming, emerging varieties of iGaming and daily fantasy sports gaming, increased sports betting and other forms of gaming in the US. In a broader sense, our gaming operations face competition from many leisure and entertainment activities, including, for example: shopping, athletic events, television and movies, concerts and travel. Legalized gaming is currently permitted in various forms in different parts of the US, in several Canadian provinces and on many lands taken into trust for the benefit of certain Native Americans in the US and First Nations in Canada. We face significant competition in each of the jurisdictions in which we operate. Such competition may intensify in some of these jurisdictions if new gaming operations open in these markets or existing competitors expand their operations. Our properties compete directly with other gaming properties in each state in which we operate, as well as in adjacent states. In some instances, particularly with Native American casinos, our competitors pay substantially lower taxes or no taxes at all. We believe that increased legalized gaming in other states, particularly in areas close to our existing gaming properties and the development or expansion of Native American gaming in or near the states in which we operate, could create additional competition for us and could adversely affect our operations or future development projects. See “Item 1A. Risk Factors” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for more information on competition.

Seasonality

Casino, hotel and racing operations in our markets are subject to seasonal variation. Seasonal weather conditions can frequently adversely affect transportation routes to each of our properties and may cause flooding and other effects that result in the closure of our properties. As a result, unfavorable seasonal conditions could have a material adverse effect on our operations. Our sports betting business may experience seasonality based on the relative popularity of certain sports at different times of the year.

Human Capital Resources

Employee Relations, Diversity and Social Inclusion

A driving factor of our success is the recruitment and retention of employees who are committed to providing outstanding guest service that promotes diversity, inclusion and respect. To promote and foster a culture of inclusion, our properties have hiring initiatives that are aimed at increasing diversity and promoting gender equality and we welcome employees of all backgrounds. The Company believes that in order to flourish in a competitive environment and global economy, all ideas must be on the table, and an environment that welcomes and includes diverse perspectives leads to success in business.

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We believe that by providing our employees with competitive pay and benefits, as well as opportunities for professional development, we can achieve our goals of attracting and retaining a diverse and engaged workforce. Our professional development efforts include robust training programs, at no cost to the employee, scholarships, and tuition reimbursement opportunities. In addition, we recently implemented a Management Development Program, which is designed to allow us to identify and promote high performing talent within our workforce. We also engage with our employees through a number of health and wellness programs which include, an annual wellness fair, annual flu shots, weight loss programs, quarterly fitness challenges, employee assistance program, student loan assistance, and weekly wellness communications providing helpful information on health initiatives.

We also believe in the importance of giving back to our communities and have several philanthropic initiatives, including fundraising events to support local charities and organizations and community service events. We encourage our employees to participate in these events and recognize their efforts and contributions in their respective communities.

Labor Relations

As of December 31, 2022, we had approximately 10,500 employees. Most of our employees in Rhode Island, Nevada and New Jersey are represented by a labor union and are subject to collective bargaining agreements with us. As of December 31, 2022, we had 29 collective bargaining agreements covering 2,755 employees. Our collective bargaining agreements generally have three-or-five-year terms.

Environmental, Social and Corporate Governance

Our approach to sustainability is underpinned by three pillars: (i) player well-being, (ii) people engagement and (iii) building a brighter future.

Player well-being
Formed the ESG Committee. (Senior level leadership across all areas of ESG)
Achieved Gamecare Level 3 Accreditation, the highest RG accreditation available in the industry
Donated $600,000 to the International Center for Responsible Gambling for research into the harms of gambling
Joined and implemented the AGA’s “Have a Gameplan” campaign

People Engagement
Measure and maintain high engagement levels utilizing an engagement index target
Evolve our ways of working, embracing flexible and agile hybrid working models suited to roles
Proactively support our employees’ holistic well-being
Continue to hire, nurture and develop a diverse and inclusive workforce
Continue to invest in learning and development of our employees
Ensure our culture and values underpin everything we do

Building a Brighter Future
Measured our global environmental impact across Bally’s
In August 2022, Bally’s applied for a science based target confirming our commitment to reduce our Scope 1, 2 and 3 carbon-based emissions
Bally’s supports delivery of six of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals

Government Gaming Regulation

General

The casino and iGaming industries are highly regulated and we must maintain licenses and pay gaming taxes in each jurisdiction in which we operate in order to continue operations. Each of our casino and iGaming businesses is subject to extensive regulation under the laws, rules and regulations of the jurisdiction in which it operates. These laws, rules and regulations generally concern the responsibility, financial stability, integrity and character of the owners, managers and persons with financial interests in the gaming operations. Violations of laws or regulations in one jurisdiction could result in disciplinary action in that and other jurisdictions.

Some jurisdictions, including those in which we are licensed, empower their regulators to investigate participation by licensees in gaming outside their jurisdiction and require access to periodic reports reflecting those gaming activities. Violations of laws in one jurisdiction could result in disciplinary action in other jurisdictions.

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Under gaming laws in jurisdictions in which we have operations, and under our organizational documents, certain of our securities are subject to restrictions on ownership which may be imposed by specified governmental authorities. These restrictions may require a holder of our securities to dispose of the securities, or, if the holder refuses or is unable to dispose of the securities, we may be required to repurchase the securities.

For a more detailed description of regulations to which we are subject, see Exhibit 99.1, to this Annual Report on Form 10-K, which is incorporated herein by reference.

Our Regulatory Agreement

On February 17, 2022, certain of our subsidiaries, the Rhode Island Department of Business Regulation (“DBR”) and the Division of Lotteries (“DoL”) of the Rhode Island Department of Revenue amended and restated our Regulatory Agreement (the “Regulatory Agreement”). The amendment and restatement of the Regulatory Agreement was mandated by legislation enacted in Rhode Island in June 2021. The Regulatory Agreement contains financial and other covenants that, among other things, (i) restrict the acquisition of stock and other financial interests in us, (ii) relate to the licensing and composition of members of our management and Board of Directors (the “Board”), (iii) prohibit certain competitive activities and related-party transactions and (iv) restrict our ability to declare or make restricted payments (including dividends), incur additional indebtedness or take certain other actions, if our leverage ratio exceeds 5.50 to 1.00 (in general being gross debt divided by Adjusted EBITDA, each as defined in the Regulatory Agreement).

The Regulatory Agreement also provides affirmative obligations, including setting a minimum number of employees that we must employ in Rhode Island and providing the DBR and DoL with periodic information updates about us. Among other things, the Regulatory Agreement prohibits us and our subsidiaries from owning, operating, managing or providing gaming specific goods and services to any properties in Rhode Island (other than Bally’s Twin River and Bally’s Tiverton), Massachusetts, Connecticut or New Hampshire. A failure to comply with the Regulatory Agreement could subject us to injunctive or monetary relief, payments to the Rhode Island regulatory agencies and ultimately the revocation or suspension of our licenses to operate in Rhode Island.

In addition, our master contracts with Rhode Island were extended through June 30, 2043, and allow for consolidation of promotional points between Bally’s Twin River and Bally’s Tiverton, obligate Bally’s Twin River to build a 50,000 square foot expansion, obligate Bally’s to lease at least 20,000 square feet of commercial space in Providence, and commit us to invest $100 million in Rhode Island over this extended term, including an expansion and the addition of new amenities at Bally’s Twin River. The June 2021 legislation authorized Bally’s Twin River to become a licensed technology provider, which it did on July 1, 2021. As a licensed Technology Provider, Bally’s Twin River was entitled to an additional share of net terminal income on Video Lottery Terminals (“VLTs”) which they owned or leased. This June 2021 legislation also authorized a joint venture between Bally’s and International Gaming Technology PLC (“IGT”) to become a licensed technology provider and supply the State of Rhode Island with all VLTs at both Bally’s Twin River and Bally’s Tiverton for a 20.5-year period starting January 1, 2023. The joint venture was organized as the Rhode Island VLT Company, LLC, with IGT owning 60% of the membership interests and Bally’s or its affiliates owning 40% of the membership interests. On December 30, 2022 Bally’s Twin River and Bally’s Tiverton purchased additional machines directly from IGT to effectively own 40% of the machines. On January 1, 2023 Bally’s Twin River and Bally’s Tiverton contributed all of their machines to Rhode Island VLT Company, LLC in return for an aggregate 40% membership interest, and IGT contributed all of their machines at Bally’s Twin River and Bally’s Tiverton to the Rhode Island VLT Company, LLC in return for a 60% membership interest.

Other Laws and Regulations

Our businesses are subject to various laws and regulations in addition to gaming regulations. These laws and regulations include restrictions and conditions concerning alcoholic beverages, food service, smoking, environmental matters, employees and employment practices, currency transactions, taxation, zoning and building codes and marketing and advertising. Such laws and regulations could change or could be interpreted differently in the future, or new laws and regulations could be enacted. Material changes to any of the laws, rules, regulations or ordinances to which we are subject, new laws or regulations or material differences in interpretations by courts or governmental authorities could adversely affect our operating results.

The sale of alcoholic beverages is subject to licensing, control and regulation by applicable local regulatory agencies. All licenses are revocable and are not transferable. The agencies involved have full power to limit, condition, suspend or revoke any license, and any disciplinary action could, and revocation would, have a material adverse effect upon our operations.

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Intellectual Property

We develop intellectual property to differentiate our retail casinos and interactive products from our competitors. Our brands and technology constitute key business assets. In order to protect our brands, technology and other creative output, we rely on a combination of trademarks, copyright, patents, trade secrets and contract law to establish and protect our proprietary rights.

Our core brand in the United States is Bally and Bally’s, which includes Bally’s Casino, Bally Bet, Bally Play and Bally Sports. The Bally brand is protected by around 75 trademark registrations and applications in the US and foreign jurisdictions. In line with our multi-brand strategy, we register trademarks for brands either directly exploited by us in the provision of interactive gaming services or for the purpose of licensing to third parties. Our other brands in the US include Live at the Bike and in foreign jurisdictions: Jackpotjoy, Botemania, Vera & John, Yuugado, Intercasino, and Casino Secret. In addition, we hold an exclusive trademark license for Hard Rock in relation to our Hard Rock, Biloxi casino. The Hard Rock license expires in 2025 with an option to renew for two successive ten-year terms. In foreign territories we hold a number of in-bound trademark licenses for our interactive gaming services.

We create original software code and designs for our interactive gaming and betting services. Our software code is primarily protected by copyright and, to a lesser extent, patents. Although our business is not dependent on any one of our patents or combination of our patents, we file patent applications where we believe it is appropriate to do so. Our patent portfolio comprises approximately 20 granted US patents and we license in patented technology where required for the operation of our business. We protect our Trade Secrets and confidential information by nondisclosure agreements and confidentiality clauses.

While we take action to protect our intellectual property rights, there is always a risk that (i) our proprietary rights become invalidated or unenforceable, (ii) we are unsuccessful in obtaining trademark or patent registrations and (iii) we are unsuccessful in our enforcement efforts and therefore unable to prevent what we consider to be misuse of our intellectual property assets. The laws of some foreign countries do not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States. Further, third parties may independently develop similar brands and technologies which would negatively impact the value of our intellectual property.

Corporate Information

We were incorporated in Delaware on March 1, 2004. Our principal executive offices are located at 100 Westminster Street, Providence, Rhode Island 02903, and our telephone number is (401) 475-8474. Our website address is www.Ballys.com. The information that is contained in, or that is accessible through, our website is not part of this filing.

Available Information

We are required to file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). These filings are also available on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. We also make our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, our Current Reports on Form 8-K and all amendments to these reports available free of charge through our corporate website as soon as reasonably practicable after such reports are filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. In addition, our Code of Business Conduct, Corporate Governance Guidelines and charters of the Audit Committee, the Compensation Committee, the Compliance Committee and the Nominating and Governance Committee are available on our website, www.Ballys.com. The information that is contained in, or that is accessed through, our website is not part of this filing.

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ITEM 1A.    RISK FACTORS

In addition to the other information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, the following risk factors should be considered carefully in evaluating our business. If any of the following risks actually occur, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected. If this were to happen, the value of our securities, including our common stock, could decline significantly, and investors could lose all or part of their investment.

Risk Factor Summary

Our business is subject to a number of risks and uncertainties, including those highlighted in this item in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Some of these principal risks include the following:

General Economic Conditions

Our business is particularly sensitive to reductions in discretionary consumer spending.
A period of sustained inflation could impact client spending and result in higher operating costs.

Competition

The gaming industry, including retail casinos and iGaming, is very competitive and increased competition, including through legislative legalization or expansion of gaming by states in or near where we own facilities or through Native American gaming facilities, could adversely affect our financial results.

COVID-19 and Any Future Pandemic

The global COVID-19 pandemic materially impacted, and any worsening of the COVID-19 pandemic or any future pandemic could impact, our business, financial results and liquidity.

Compliance, Regulatory and Legal Risks

We are subject to extensive laws, regulation and licensing, and gaming authorities have significant control over our operations, which could have an adverse effect on our business.
Failure to comply with the terms of the Regulatory Agreement could result in a breach and could harm our business.
We or certain third parties that we rely on may fail to establish and maintain effective and compliant anti‑money laundering, counter terrorism financing, safer gambling, fraud detection, risk management and other regulatory policies, procedures and controls.
Our business is subject to a variety of US and foreign laws, many of which are unsettled and still developing, and which could subject us to claims or otherwise harm our business across jurisdictions which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Our growth prospects depend on the legal status of real-money gaming in various jurisdictions and legalization may not occur in as many jurisdictions as we expect, or may occur at a slower pace than we anticipate which could adversely affect our future results of operations.

Business Operational Risks

We are reliant on effective payment processing services from a limited number of providers in each of the markets in which we operate.
Our profitability will be dependent, in part, on return to players.
We extend credit to a portion of our customers, and we may not be able to collect gaming receivables from our credit customers.
Declining popularity of games and changes in device preferences of players could have a negative effect on our business.
The casino, hotel and hospitality industry is capital intensive and we may not be able to finance development, expansion and renovation projects, which could put us at a competitive disadvantage.
We may invest in or acquire other businesses, and our business may suffer if we are unable to successfully integrate acquired businesses into our company or otherwise manage the growth associated with multiple acquisitions.
We face risks associated with growth and acquisitions.
Our results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected by the occurrence of natural disasters, such as hurricanes or other catastrophic events, including war and terrorism.

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Cybersecurity and Technology Risks

We rely on information technology, Internet infrastructure and other systems and platforms, and any failures, errors, defects or disruptions in our systems or platforms could diminish our brand and reputation, subject us to liability, disrupt our business, affect our ability to scale our technical infrastructure and adversely affect our operating results and growth prospects.
Our business may be harmed from cybersecurity incidents.

Financing Risks

Our debt agreements, the Regulatory Agreement and other future indebtedness contains or may contain restrictive covenants that may limit our operating flexibility.
Servicing our indebtedness and funding our other obligations requires a significant amount of cash, and our ability to generate sufficient cash depends on many factors, some of which will be beyond our control.

Risks Related to our Common Stock

The market price of our common stock could fluctuate significantly.
Our largest shareholder owns a meaningful percentage of our outstanding common stock, which could limit the ability of other shareholders to influence corporate matters.
We are not paying dividends and any decision to do so in the future will be at the discretion of our Board.

General Economic Conditions

Our business is particularly sensitive to reductions in discretionary consumer spending.

Our business is particularly sensitive to reductions from time to time in discretionary consumer spending. Demand for entertainment and leisure activities, including gaming, can be affected by changes in the economy and consumer tastes, both of which are difficult to predict and beyond our control. Unfavorable changes in general economic conditions, including recessions, economic slowdowns, sustained high levels of unemployment and rising prices or the perception by consumers of weak or weakening economic conditions, may reduce our users’ disposable income or result in fewer individuals engaging in entertainment and leisure activities, such as visiting casinos and casino hotel properties, F2P, sports betting, iCasino and online bingo. Moreover, we rely on the strength of regional and local economies in the US for the performance of each of our properties. As a result, we cannot ensure that demand for our offerings will remain constant. Adverse developments affecting economies throughout the world including a general tightening of the availability of credit, increasing energy costs, rising prices, inflation, acts of war or terrorism, natural disasters, declining consumer confidence, significant declines in the stock market or epidemics, pandemics or other health-related events or widespread illnesses, like the COVID-19 pandemic, could lead to a reduction in visitors to our properties, including those that stay in our hotels, or discretionary spending by our customers on entertainment and leisure activities, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

A period of sustained inflation could impact consumer spending and result in higher operating costs.

A period of sustained inflation, particularly in the US and UK, could materially impact our business. The effects of inflation on discretionary consumer spending could result in the reduction of the demand for entertainment and leisure activities. In addition, inflation generally affects our business by increasing our cost of labor. In periods of sustained inflation, it may be difficult to effectively control such increases to our costs and retain key personnel. If we are unable to increase our fees or take other actions to mitigate the effect of resulting higher costs, our profitability and financial position could be impacted.

Competition

The gaming industry, including retail casinos and iGaming, is very competitive and increased competition, including through legislative legalization or expansion of gaming by states in or near where we own facilities or through Native American gaming facilities, could adversely affect our financial results.

We face significant competition in all of the areas in which we conduct our business. Increased competitive pressures may adversely affect our ability to continue to attract customers or affect our ability to compete efficiently.

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Several of our casinos and resorts are located in jurisdictions that restrict gaming to certain areas and/or may be affected by state laws that currently prohibit or restrict gaming operations. We also face the risk that existing casino licensees will expand their operations and the risk that Native American gaming will continue to grow. Budgetary and other political pressures faced by state governments could lead to intensified efforts directed at the legalization of gaming in jurisdictions where it is currently prohibited. The legalization of gaming in such jurisdictions could be an expansion opportunity for our business, or create competitive pressures, depending on where the legalization occurs and our ability to capitalize on it. Our ability to attract customers to the existing casinos which we own could be significantly and adversely affected by the legalization or expansion of gaming in certain jurisdictions and by the development or expansion of Native American casinos in areas where our customers may visit.

In addition, our competitors may refurbish, rebrand or expand their casino offerings, which could result in increased competition. Furthermore, changes in ownership may result in improved quality of our competitors’ facilities, which may make such facilities more competitive. Certain of our competitors are large gaming companies with greater name recognition and marketing and financial resources. In some instances, particularly in the case of Native American casinos, our competitors pay lower taxes or no taxes. These factors create additional challenges for us in competing for customers and accessing cash flow or financing to fund improvements for our casino and entertainment products that enable us to remain competitive.

We expect to experience strong competition in hiring and retaining qualified property and corporate management personnel, including competition from Native American gaming facilities that are not subject to the same taxation regimes as we are and therefore may be willing and able to pay higher rates of compensation. From time to time, a number of vacancies in key corporate and property management positions can be expected. If we are unable to successfully recruit and retain qualified management personnel at our facilities or at the corporate level, our results of operations could be adversely affected.

We also compete with other forms of legalized gaming and entertainment such as bingo, pull-tab games, card parlors, sportsbooks, pari-mutuel or simulcast betting on horse and dog racing, state-sponsored lotteries, instant racing machines, VLTs (including racetracks that offer VLTs) and video poker terminals and, in the future, we may compete with gaming or entertainment at other venues. Further competition from Internet lotteries and other Internet wagering gaming services, which allow their customers to wager on a wide variety of sporting events and play Las Vegas-style casino games from home, could divert customers from the facilities we own and thus adversely affect our business. Such Internet wagering services are likely to expand in future years and become more accessible to domestic gamblers as a result of US Department of Justice positions related to the application of federal laws to intrastate Internet gaming and initiatives in some states to consider legislation to legalize intrastate Internet wagering. The law in this area has been rapidly evolving, and additional legislative developments may occur at the federal and state levels that would accelerate the proliferation of certain forms of Internet gaming in the US.

In addition, in May 2018, the US Supreme Court struck down as unconstitutional the Professional and Amateur Sports Protection Act of 1992, a federal statute enacted to stop the spread of state-sponsored sports gambling. This decision has the effect of lifting federal restrictions on sports wagering and thus allows states to determine by themselves the legality of sports wagering. While new federal online gaming legislation has been introduced in Congress from time to time, there has been no federal legislative response to the US Supreme Court’s decision.

As a result, numerous states, including states in which we have casino properties, have passed legislation authorizing fixed-odds sports betting, and certain of our properties now offer sports wagering pursuant to state law in each case.

We may also face competition from other gaming facilities which are able to offer sports wagering services (including mobile sports wagering) following the enactment of applicable legislation. Numerous states that border the states in which we operate have pending or proposed legislation which would allow for sports betting, each of which could have an adverse effect on our financial results.

The online gambling industry is highly competitive and we expect more competitors to enter the sector. With several thousand online gambling sites accessible to potential customers around the world with little product differentiation, there is arguably an excess of suppliers. Online and offline advertising is widespread, with operators competing for affiliates and customers who are attracted by sign-up bonuses and other incentives.

Existing and new competitors may also increase marketing spending, including to unprofitable levels, in an attempt to distort the online gambling market to build market share quickly. Some of our competitors have or will have significantly greater financial, technical, marketing and sales resources and may be able to respond more quickly to changes in customer needs. Additionally, these competitors may be able to devote a greater number of resources to the enhancement, promotion and sale of their games and gaming systems. Our future success is or will be dependent upon its ability to retain its current customers and to acquire new customers. Failure to do so could result in a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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COVID-19 and Any Future Pandemic

The global COVID-19 pandemic materially impacted, and any worsening of the COVID-19 pandemic or any future pandemic could impact, our business, financial results and liquidity.

The global spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, which began in early 2020, resulted in governments, public institutions and other organizations imposing or recommending, and businesses and individuals implementing, restrictions on various activities or other actions to combat its spread, such as restrictions and bans on travel or transportation, stay-at-home directives, requirements that individuals wear masks or other face coverings, limitations on the size of gatherings, closures of work facilities, schools, public buildings and businesses, cancellation of events, including sporting events, concerts, conferences and meetings and quarantines and lock-downs. The pandemic and its consequences dramatically reduced travel and demand for hotel rooms and other casino resort amenities, which had a negative impact on our results in 2020 and 2021. While many restrictions have been relaxed at this point, there are no assurances that a resurgence of future COVID-19 variants or future pandemics will not cause similar disruptions that existed in 2020 and 2021. In addition, future demand for gaming activities may be negatively impacted by the adverse changes in the perceived or actual economic climate, including higher unemployment rates, declines in income levels and loss of personal wealth or reduced business spending due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, any variant thereof or any future pandemic.

Our business would also be impacted if the disruptions from the COVID-19 pandemic, any variant thereof or any future pandemic impact construction projects, including our projects in Chicago and Centre County, Pennsylvania. There are certain limitations on our ability to mitigate the adverse financial impact of these disruptions, such as fixed property costs, reduced access to construction labor and unavailability of construction materials due to supply chain delays. Government measures intended to address the COVID-19 pandemic, any variant thereof or any future pandemic, such as mandatory quarantines, vaccine mandates and regular testing requirements, could also impact the availability of our employees or other workers or could lead to attrition of key employees or reduced willingness of customers to come to our properties. Any of these factors may disrupt our ability to staff our business adequately and could generally disrupt our operations or construction projects.

We may experience additional operating costs due to increased challenges with our workforce (including as a result of labor shortages, illness, absenteeism or government orders), access to supplies, capital and fundamental support services. Even after the COVID-19 pandemic has subsided, we may experience materially adverse impacts to our business due to any resulting supply chain disruptions and economic conditions. Furthermore, the impacts of potential worsening of global economic conditions, inflation resulting from government interventions and stimulus and disruptions to and volatility in the financial markets remain unknown.

Compliance, Regulatory and Legal Risks

We are subject to extensive regulation and licensing, and gaming authorities have significant control over our operations, which could have an adverse effect on our business.

Our ownership and operation of casino gaming, horse racing facilities, sports betting, VLTs and online offerings are subject to extensive regulation, and regulatory authorities have broad powers with respect to the licensing of these businesses, and may revoke, suspend, condition, fail to renew or limit our gaming or other licenses, impose substantial fines and take other actions, each of which poses a significant risk to our business, results of operations and financial condition. We currently hold all state and local licenses and related approvals necessary to conduct our present operations, but must periodically apply to renew many of these licenses and registrations and have the suitability of certain of our directors, officers and employees renewed. There can be no assurance that we will be able to obtain such renewals or that we will be able to obtain future approvals that would allow us to expand our gaming operations. Any failure to maintain or renew existing licenses, registrations, permits or approvals would have a material adverse effect on us. As we expand our gaming operations in our existing jurisdictions or to new areas, we may have to meet additional suitability requirements and obtain additional licenses, registrations, permits and approvals from gaming authorities in these jurisdictions. The approval process can be time-consuming and costly and we cannot be sure that we will be successful. In addition, the loss of a license in one jurisdiction could trigger the loss of a license or affect our eligibility for a license in another jurisdiction. Furthermore, if additional gaming laws or regulations are adopted in jurisdictions where we operate, these regulations could impose additional restrictions or costs that could have a significant adverse effect on us.

Gaming authorities generally can require that any beneficial owner of our securities file an application for a finding of suitability. If a gaming authority requires a record or beneficial owner of our securities to file a suitability application, the owner must generally apply for a finding of suitability within 30 days or at an earlier time prescribed by the gaming authority. The gaming authority has the power to investigate such an owner’s suitability and the owner must pay all costs of the investigation. If the owner is found unsuitable, then the owner may be required by law to dispose of our securities.

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Our officers, directors and key employees are also subject to a variety of regulatory requirements and various licensing and related approval procedures in the various jurisdictions in which we operate. If any applicable gaming authority were to find any of our officers, directors or key employees unsuitable for licensing or unsuitable to continue having a relationship with us, we would have to sever all relationships with that person. Furthermore, the applicable gaming authority may require us to terminate the employment of any person who refuses to file appropriate applications. Either result could adversely affect our gaming operations.

Applicable gaming laws and regulations may restrict our ability to issue certain securities, incur debt and undertake other financing activities. Such transactions would generally require notice and/or approval of applicable gaming authorities, and our financing counterparties, including lenders, might be subject to various licensing and related approval procedures in the various jurisdictions in which we manage gaming facilities. Applicable gaming laws further limit our ability to engage in certain competitive activities and impose requirements relating to the composition of our Board and senior management personnel. If state regulatory authorities were to find any person unsuitable with regard to their relationship to us or any of our subsidiaries, we would be required to sever our relationship with that person, which could materially adversely affect our business.

We are subject to numerous laws that may expose us to liabilities or have a significant adverse impact on our operations. Changes to any such laws could have a material adverse effect on our operations and financial condition.

Our business is subject to a variety of laws, rules, regulations and ordinances. These laws and regulations include, but are not limited to, restrictions and conditions concerning alcoholic beverages, environmental matters, employees, currency transactions, taxation, zoning and building codes and marketing and advertising. Such laws and regulations could change or could be interpreted differently in the future, or new laws and regulations could be enacted. Material changes to any of the laws, rules, regulations or ordinances to which we are subject, new laws or regulations or material differences in interpretations by courts or governmental authorities could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Many of our employees, especially those that interact with our customers, receive a base salary or wage that is established by applicable laws that establish a minimum hourly wage that is, in turn, supplemented through tips and gratuities from customers. From time to time, lawmakers have increased the minimum wage. It is difficult to predict when such increases may take place. Any such change to the minimum wage could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The sale of alcoholic beverages is a highly regulated and taxed business. In the US, federal, state and local laws and regulations govern the production and distribution of alcoholic beverages, including permitting, licensing, trade practices, labeling, advertising, marketing, distributor relationships and related matters. Federal, state and local governmental entities also levy various taxes, license fees and other similar charges and may require bonds to ensure compliance with applicable laws and regulations. Failure to comply with applicable federal, state or local laws and regulations could result in higher taxes, penalties, fees and suspension or revocation of permits, licenses or approvals and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. From time to time, local and state lawmakers, as well as special interest groups, have proposed legislation that would increase the federal and/or state excise tax on alcoholic beverages or certain types of alcoholic beverages. If federal or state excise taxes are increased, we may have to raise prices to maintain our current profit margins. Higher taxes may reduce overall demand for alcoholic beverages, thus negatively impacting sales of our alcoholic beverages at our properties. Further federal or state regulation may be forthcoming that could further restrict the distribution and sale of alcohol products. Any material increases in taxes or fees or the adoption of additional taxes, fees or regulations could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Legislation in various forms to ban or substantially curtail indoor tobacco smoking in public places has been enacted or introduced in many jurisdictions, including some of the jurisdictions in which we operate. We believe the smoking restrictions can significantly impact business volumes. If additional smoking restrictions are enacted within jurisdictions where we operate or seek to do business, our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could be adversely affected.

In addition, each restaurant we operate must obtain a food service license from local authorities. Failure to comply with such regulations could cause our licenses to be revoked or our related restaurant business or businesses to be forced to cease operations. Moreover, state liquor laws may prevent the expansion of restaurant operations into certain markets.

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Failure to comply with the terms of the Regulatory Agreement could result in a breach and could harm our business.

We are currently a party to the Regulatory Agreement with Rhode Island regulatory agencies. The Regulatory Agreement imposes certain affirmative and negative covenants on us. For more detail on the Regulatory Agreement see the section entitled “Government Gaming Regulation” in “Item I. Business” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. A failure to comply with the provisions in the Regulatory Agreement could subject us to injunctive or monetary relief, payments to the Rhode Island regulatory agencies and ultimately the revocation or suspension of our licenses to operate in Rhode Island. Any such remedy could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Among other things, the Regulatory Agreement prohibits us and our subsidiaries from owning, operating, managing or providing gaming specific goods and services to any gaming facilities in Rhode Island (other than Bally’s Twin River and Bally’s Tiverton), Massachusetts, Connecticut or New Hampshire, which may adversely affect our growth and market opportunity in those states.

We are subject to extensive environmental regulation, which creates uncertainty regarding future environmental expenditures and liabilities.

We are subject to various federal, state and local environmental laws and regulations that govern activities that may have adverse environmental effects, such as discharges to air and water, as well as the management and disposal of solid, animal and hazardous wastes and exposure to hazardous materials. These laws and regulations, which are complex and subject to change, include US Environmental Protection Agency regulations. In addition, our horse racing facility in Colorado is subject to state laws and regulations that address the impacts of manure and wastewater generated by concentrated animal feeding operations (“CAFO”) on water quality, including, storm water discharges. CAFO regulations include permit requirements and water quality discharge standards. Enforcement of CAFO regulations has been receiving increased governmental attention. Compliance with these and other environmental laws can, in some circumstances, require significant capital expenditures. For example, we may incur future costs under existing and new laws and regulations pertaining to storm water and wastewater management at our racetracks. Moreover, violations can result in significant penalties and, in some instances, interruption or cessation of operations.

We are also subject to laws and regulations that create liability and cleanup responsibility for releases of regulated materials into the environment. Certain of these laws and regulations impose strict, and under certain circumstances joint and several, liability on a current or previous owner or operator of property for the costs of remediating regulated materials on or emanating from our property. The costs of investigation, remediation or removal of those substances may be substantial. The presence of, or failure to remediate properly, such materials may adversely affect the ability to sell or rent such property or to borrow funds using such property as collateral. Additionally, as an owner or manager of real property, we could be subject to claims by third parties based on damages and costs resulting from environmental contamination at or emanating from third-party sites. These laws typically impose clean-up responsibility and liability without regard to whether the owner or manager knew of or caused the presence of the contaminants and the liability under those laws has been interpreted to be joint and several unless the harm is divisible and there is a reasonable basis for allocation of the responsibility. In addition, environmental requirements address the impacts of development on wetlands.

The possibility exists that contamination, as yet unknown, may exist on our properties. There can be no assurance that we will not incur expenditures for environmental investigations or remediation in the future.

We are or may become involved in legal proceedings that, if adversely adjudicated or settled, could impact our business and financial condition.

From time to time, we are named in lawsuits or other legal proceedings relating to our businesses. In particular, the nature of our business subjects us to the risk of lawsuits filed by customers, past and present employees, shareholders, competitors, business partners and others in the ordinary course of business. As with all legal proceedings, no assurances can be given as to the outcome of these matters. Moreover, legal proceedings can be expensive and time consuming, and we may not be successful in defending or prosecuting these lawsuits, which could result in settlements or damages that could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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We or certain third parties that we rely on may fail to establish and maintain effective and compliant anti-money laundering (“AML”), counter terrorism financing, safer gambling, fraud detection, risk management and other regulatory policies, procedures and controls.

We handle significant amounts of cash in our operations and are subject to various reporting and AML laws and regulations. Recently, US governmental authorities and the British gambling regulator, the Great Britain Gambling Commission (the “GBGC”), have evidenced an increased focus on compliance with AML laws and regulations in the gaming industry. Any violation of AML laws or regulations could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Internal control policies and procedures and employee training and compliance programs that we have implemented to deter prohibited practices may not be effective in prohibiting our customers, employees, contractors or agents from violating or circumventing our policies and the law. If we or our employees or agents fail to comply with applicable laws or our policies governing our operations, we may face investigations, prosecutions and other legal proceedings and actions which could result in civil penalties, administrative remedies and criminal sanctions. Any such government investigations, prosecutions or other legal proceedings or actions could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The regulatory framework which governs our business, and its interpretation, may be subject to change which we may fail to anticipate and/or respond to.

Online gambling operators licensed in the UK and other jurisdictions are obliged to establish and maintain compliant AML, anti-terrorism, safer gambling, fraud detection, risk management and other regulatory policies, procedures and controls to mitigate and effectively manage these risks. In the event that they fail to do so, they may be subject to enforcement action by gambling regulators or other governmental agencies or private action by affected third parties. In the event of a breach, a range of sanctions may be imposed, including financial penalties or regulatory settlements, public warnings, the imposition of special operating conditions and the suspension or revocation of gambling licenses.

In addition, there is a risk that increased safer gambling and AML regulatory measures in the UK will prove to be challenging for us. For example, our highest value customers may be unwilling to provide the additional detail required by us in the UK to ascertain their sources of wealth, the affordability of their leisure spending with us or their risk of gambling related harm or vulnerability, and to continue to verify such information.

We hold licenses issued by the GBGC. The holders of such licenses are bound to meet stringent compliance requirements relating to matters such as AML, safer gambling, data protection, advertising and consumer rights issues. Compliance with such requirements is incorporated into the relevant licenses as a licensing condition (or similar) with a corresponding requirement for us to comply with such onerous requirements. In September 2022, the GBGC began the implementation of updated social responsibility licensing conditions. All licensees must now have in place effective systems and processes to monitor customer activity to identify harm or potential harm associated with gambling, from the point when an account is opened. The indicators licensees must use to identify harm or potential harm associated with gambling include customer spend, patterns of spend, time spent gambling, gambling behavior indicators, customer-led contact, use of gambling management tools and account indicators. These requirements may significantly impact our business if we are unable to establish the affordability of customers on the basis of available evidence and/or because customers are unwilling to provide the information requested.

The failure by any third-party providers or any relevant entity within the Company to establish and maintain effective and compliant AML, counter terrorism, anti-bribery, fraud detection, regulatory compliance and risk management processes may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

In carrying out its functions, the GBGC is under a statutory duty to ensure that license holders are operating their businesses in ways that are reasonably consistent with the licensing objectives set out in the Gambling Act 2005 (the primary legislation governing the licensing and regulation of gambling in Great Britain) (the “Gambling Act”), which are: (1) preventing gambling from being a source of (or associated with) crime or disorder, or being used to support crime; (2) ensuring that gambling is conducted in a fair and open way; and (3) protecting children and other vulnerable people from being harmed or exploited by gambling.

While the objectives of regulation may remain largely stable, the methods that operators are required to employ to meet those objectives is in a state of constant evolution and development. We must respond adequately to the challenges this presents. If we are found to be in breach of our obligation to comply with such licensing requirements, then the GBGC may impose a financial penalty on us or impose other penalties, including removing or imposing conditions on the relevant gambling licenses. Such action could have a material adverse effect on our financial performance.

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New legislation governing the online gaming industry may be introduced in the UK which limits or restricts our operating model in that market.

In December 2020, the UK government commenced a review of the Gambling Act. The stated objective of the UK government is to ensure there is an appropriate balance between consumer freedoms and choice on the one hand and the prevention of harm to vulnerable groups on the other, and to ensure that consumers are suitably protected whenever they gamble. The review of the Gambling Act is extensive in scope. Key areas under review are:

the effectiveness of the existing online protections in preventing gambling harm and an evidence-based consideration of, for example, imposing greater control on online product design such as stake, speed and prize limits and the introduction of deposit, loss and spend limits;
the benefits or harms caused by allowing licensed gambling operators to advertise and make promotional offers and the positive or negative impact of gambling sponsorship arrangements across sports, e-sports and other areas;
the effectiveness of the regulatory system currently in place, including consideration of whether the GBGC has sufficient investigative, enforcement and sanctioning powers to both regulate the licensed market and address the unlicensed market;
the availability and suitability of redress arrangements in place for an individual consumer who considers they may have been treated unfairly by a gambling operator, including consideration of the introduction of other routes for consumer redress, such as a gambling ombudsman; and
the effectiveness of current measures to prevent illegal underage gambling and consideration of what extra protections may be needed for young adults in the 18-25 age bracket.

It is anticipated that the UK government will issue its proposals to amend the Gambling Act in the first half of 2023. As yet, the implications for the industry as a whole and us, in particular, remain the subject of speculation. A variety of stakeholders continue to lobby the UK government and the policies to be pursued by the legislature have yet to be published. There is a risk that the introduction of more stringent, safer gambling and/or AML regulatory measures in the UK market may prove operationally onerous for us. Moreover, the potential for the introduction of stake, speed and prize limits and the introduction of deposit, loss and spend limits may operate to impact our financial performance and reduce the long-term growth opportunities for us in the UK market.

Our business is subject to a variety of US and foreign laws, many of which are unsettled and still developing, and which could subject us to claims or otherwise harm our business across jurisdictions. Any change in existing regulations or their interpretation, or the regulatory or prosecutorial climate applicable to our products and services, or changes in tax rules and regulations or interpretation thereof related to our products and services, could adversely impact our ability to operate our business as currently conducted or as we seek to operate in the future, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

We are generally subject to laws and regulations relating to iGaming in the jurisdictions in which we conduct business, as well as the general laws and regulations that apply to all e-commerce businesses, such as those related to privacy and personal information, tax and consumer protection. These laws and regulations vary by jurisdiction, and future legislative and regulatory action, court decisions or other governmental action, which may be affected by, among other things, political pressures, attitudes and climates, as well as personal biases, may have a material impact on our operations and financial results. Some jurisdictions have introduced regulations attempting to restrict or prohibit online gaming, while others have taken the position that online gaming should be licensed and regulated and have adopted or are in the process of considering legislation and regulations to enable that to happen. The regulatory environment in any particular jurisdiction may change in the future and any such change could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.

Future legislative and regulatory action, and court decisions or other governmental action, may have a material impact on our operations and financial results. Governmental authorities could view us as having violated local laws, despite our efforts to obtain all applicable licenses or approvals. There is also risk that civil and criminal proceedings, including class actions brought by or on behalf of prosecutors or public entities or incumbent monopoly providers, or private individuals, could be initiated against us, Internet service providers, credit card and other payment processors in the iGaming industry. Such potential proceedings could involve substantial litigation expense, penalties, fines, seizure of assets, injunctions or other restrictions being imposed upon our licensees or other business partners, while diverting the attention of key executives. Such proceedings could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations, as well as impact our reputation.

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There can be no assurance that legally enforceable legislation will not be proposed and passed in jurisdictions relevant or potentially relevant to our business to prohibit, legislate or regulate various aspects of the iGaming (or that existing laws in those jurisdictions will not be interpreted negatively). Compliance with any such legislation may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations, either as a result of our determination that a jurisdiction should be blocked or because a local license or approval may be costly for us or our business partners to obtain and/or such licenses or approvals may contain other commercially undesirable conditions.

Our growth prospects depend on the legal status of real-money gaming in various jurisdictions and legalization may not occur in as many jurisdictions as we expect, or may occur at a slower pace than we anticipate. Additionally, even if jurisdictions legalize real money gaming, this may be accompanied by legislative or regulatory restrictions and/or taxes that make it impracticable or less attractive to operate in those jurisdictions, or the process of implementing regulations or securing the necessary licenses to operate in a particular jurisdiction may take longer than we anticipate, which could adversely affect our future results of operations and make it more difficult to meet our expectations for financial performance.

Several jurisdictions have legalized or are currently evaluating the legalization of real money gaming, and our business, financial condition, results of operations and business prospects are significantly dependent upon the status of legalization in these jurisdictions. Our business plan is partially based upon the legalization of real money gaming in additional jurisdictions and the legalization may not occur as anticipated. Additionally, if a large number of additional jurisdictions enact real money gaming legislation and we are unable to obtain, or are otherwise delayed in obtaining, the necessary licenses to operate iGaming websites in jurisdictions where such games are legalized, our future growth in iGaming could be materially impaired.

As we enter new jurisdictions, governments may legalize real money gaming in a manner that is unfavorable to us. As a result, we may encounter legal, regulatory and political challenges that are difficult or impossible to foresee and which could result in an unforeseen adverse impact on planned revenues or costs associated with the new opportunity. Jurisdictions also impose substantial tax rates on iGaming revenue. Tax rates, whether federal- or state-based, that are higher than we expect will make it more costly and less desirable for us to launch in a given jurisdiction, while tax increases in any of our existing jurisdictions may adversely impact profitability.

Therefore, even in cases in which a jurisdiction purports to license and regulate iGaming, the licensing and regulatory regimes can vary considerably in terms of business-friendliness, and at times may be intended to provide incumbent operators with advantages over new licensees. Therefore, some “liberalized” regulatory regimes are considerably more economically viable than others.

We derive meaningful revenues from players located in jurisdictions in which we do not hold a license.

In certain jurisdictions, online gambling is either not regulated at all, is subject to very limited regulation or its legality is unclear. These jurisdictions are commonly referred to in the gaming industry as “unregulated jurisdictions.” Certain of our products are made available to players in unregulated jurisdictions. The relevant transactions in such unregulated jurisdictions and the associated player relationships that underpin them are generally regulated in either Malta or Gibraltar which use “point of supply” gambling regimes. We and our commercial partners hold point-of-supply licenses in Malta and Gibraltar. Therefore, such transactions are in fact heavily regulated but are not themselves regulated in the jurisdiction within which the player is ultimately located.

Operators within the online gambling industry, including Bally’s, have commonly taken a risk-based approach when supplying their online gambling services into jurisdictions in which it is not possible to obtain a gambling license. In these circumstances, online gambling operators may justify their remote supply of gambling services for a number of reasons, including a “country of origin” basis which asserts that it is lawful to supply online gambling services remotely from a jurisdiction in which a gambling license is held in another jurisdiction, unless there is something within the laws of that second jurisdiction that explicitly outlaws such provision and explicitly applies to such inward supply emanating from outside its borders. An example of this is Japan. Japan has been a focus of our international interactive segment and has yet to introduce its own licensing regime applicable to our business.

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There is a risk that such jurisdictions may enact regulations relating to online real money gaming and that we may be required to register our activities or obtain licenses (or obtain further registrations or licenses, as applicable), pay taxes, royalties or fees or that the operation of online gambling businesses in such jurisdictions may be prohibited entirely. The implementation of additional licensing or regulatory requirements, prohibitions or payments in such jurisdictions could have an adverse effect on the viability of our revenue, operations, business or financial performance. Where we or our partners fail to obtain the necessary registrations or licenses, make the necessary payments or operate in a jurisdiction where online gambling is deemed to be or becomes prohibited, we or our partners may be subject to investigation, penalties or sanctions or forced to discontinue operations entirely in relation to that jurisdiction. Any such actions may also have an adverse impact on the way our regulators regulate us in the jurisdictions in which we hold licenses.

Certain of our technology providers, payment processing partners or other suppliers of content or services (collectively, “Infrastructure Services”) may cease to provide, or limit the availability of, such Infrastructure Services to the extent we derive revenue from, or makes such Infrastructure Services available to customers in, unregulated jurisdictions. There is no assurance that we would be able to identify suitable or economical replacements if such Infrastructure Services become unavailable.

There is also a risk that civil and criminal proceedings, including class actions brought by or on behalf of prosecutors or public entities, incumbent monopoly providers or private individuals, could be initiated against us or providers of our Infrastructure Services in unregulated markets. Such potential proceedings could assert that online gambling services have not been lawfully supplied into the domestic market and could involve substantial litigation expense, penalties, fines, seizure of assets, injunctions or other restrictions being imposed on us or our business partners and may divert the attention of our key executives. If we become subject to any such investigations, proceedings and/or penalties in one jurisdiction, this may lead to investigations, proceedings and/or penalties arising in other jurisdictions in which we operate and/or hold a license. Such investigations, proceedings and/or penalties could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations, as well as our reputation. We derive meaningful revenues from players located in jurisdictions in which we do not hold a license.

We are exposed to exchange rate risks.

Foreign exchange risk arises when individual group entities enter into transactions denominated in a currency other than their functional currency. Our policy is, where possible, to allow our entities to settle liabilities denominated in their functional currency with the cash generated from their own operations in that currency. Where our entities have liabilities denominated in a currency other than their functional currency (and have insufficient reserves of that currency to settle them), cash already denominated in that currency will, where possible, be transferred from elsewhere within Bally’s. Apart from these particular cash flows, we aim to fund expenses and investments in the respective currency and to manage foreign exchange risk at a local level by matching the currency in which revenue is generated and expenses are incurred, as well as by matching the currency of our debt structure with the currency that cash is generated in. However, no assurance can be given that these policies will deliver all, or substantially all, of the expected benefits.

A vast majority of the revenues currently generated by Gamesys, our wholly owned subsidiary, are from the UK market and are conducted in British Pound Sterling (“GBP”) and are therefore susceptible to any movements in exchange rates between GBP and US Dollars (“USD”). Any exchange rate risk may materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our substantial activities in foreign jurisdictions may be affected by factors outside of our control.

A significant portion of our operations are conducted in non-US jurisdictions. As such, our operations may be adversely affected by changes in foreign government policies and legislation (including gambling legislation) or social instability and other factors that are not within our control, including renegotiation or nullification of existing contracts or licenses, changes in gambling policies, regulatory requirements or the personnel administering them, currency fluctuations and devaluations, exchange controls, economic sanctions, tax increases, retroactive tax claims, changes in taxation policies, risk of terrorist activities, revolution, border disputes, implementation of tariffs and other trade barriers and protectionist practices, volatility of financial markets and fluctuations in foreign exchange rates, difficulties in the protection of intellectual property, labor disputes and other risks arising out of foreign governmental sovereignty over the areas in which operations are conducted. Our operations may also be adversely affected by laws and policies of such foreign jurisdictions affecting foreign trade, taxation and investment. Accordingly, our activities in foreign jurisdictions could be substantially affected by factors beyond our control, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

In the event of a dispute arising in connection with operations in a foreign jurisdiction where we conduct business, we may be subject to the exclusive jurisdiction of foreign courts or may not be successful in subjecting foreign persons to the jurisdictions of the courts of the UK or enforcing UK judgments in such other jurisdictions. We may also be hindered or prevented from enforcing their rights with respect to a governmental instrumentality because of the doctrine of sovereign immunity.
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We may also enter into agreements and conduct activities outside of the jurisdictions in which we currently carry on business, which expansion may present challenges and risks as a result of the factors described above that we have not faced in the past, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The UK’s withdrawal from the European Union (the “EU”) and the wider political climate may have a negative effect on global economic conditions, financial markets and our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We are a multinational group with worldwide operations, including material revenues derived from the UK. The UK formally left the EU on January 31, 2020 (“Brexit”). The medium- and long-term consequences of Brexit may result, in significant economic, political and social instability, not only in the UK and Europe, but across the globe generally. In particular, this has contributed to volatility in the value of GBP, which may affect our profitability.

Despite a new free trade agreement between the UK and the EU, lack of clarity about future UK laws and regulations as the UK determines which EU laws to replace or maintain, including financial laws and regulations, tax and free trade agreements, intellectual property rights, supply chain logistics, environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, immigration laws and employment laws, could decrease foreign direct investment in the UK, increase costs, depress economic activity and restrict our access to capital and impact revenues. In particular, Brexit may lead to material changes to the regulatory regimes that would be applicable to our operations in the UK in the future. This could increase our compliance and operating costs and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Further economic, political and social instability may also result from the Scottish public voting for Scotland to leave the UK in any future referendum. Scotland’s First Minister has tabled draft legislation to set the rules for a second independence referendum (though any such referendum would be subject to UK government approval). The implications of any vote in favor of independence are uncertain, but could still be wide-ranging (for instance, in affecting the value of GBP, global markets and the ongoing relationship between Scotland and the rest of the UK and, potentially, the introduction of a discrete gambling regulatory regime in Scotland). Any of these factors could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our activities are affected by the General Data Protection Regulation in the UK and the EU (“GDPR”).

We are required to comply with the GDPR to the extent that we either: (1) have customers located in the UK and the EU or (2) conduct the processing of personal data in the UK and the EU. The impact of the GDPR is of particular relevance to our marketing activities and information technology security systems and procedures. The GDPR and associated e-privacy laws impose constraints on the ability of a data controller to profile and market to customers. Data subjects have the right to object to a controller processing their data in certain circumstances, including the right to object to their data being processed for the purposes of direct marketing. Controllers of personal data are required to maintain written records as to how they comply with the GDPR and provide more detailed information to data subjects in relation to how their data is being processed. In addition, updated e-privacy laws are under consideration in the UK and the EU to update the legislative rules applicable to digital and online data processing and to align e-privacy laws to the GDPR.

The GDPR also increased the level of fines which may be imposed for a breach of data protection laws, with the maximum fine (in the most serious cases of a breach of the GDPR) being the higher of €20 million (£17.5 million for the UK) or four percent of annual worldwide turnover. In certain instances, we could be held jointly responsible for breaches committed by the third-party service providers which we use or by other third parties with whom we share personal data.

Many of the obligations imposed on controllers by the GDPR are expressed as high-level principles, such as the obligation to act fairly with respect to the processing of personal data. The manner in which the data regulators and courts will interpret and apply the GDPR is and will continue to evolve over time. These procedures and policies may adversely affect our business by constraining our data processing activities or by increasing our operational and compliance costs. Additional updates to these policies and procedures and associated operational changes may be required and costs incurred to comply with updates to e-privacy laws.

If our or any third-party service providers’ data processing activities breach the GDPR (or associated e-privacy laws), then we could, whether as a result of a failure to implement adequate policies and procedures or otherwise, face significant fines and/or the revocation of existing licenses and/ or the refusal of new applications for licenses, as well as claims by customers and reputational damage. The resultant losses suffered could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. There can be no assurances that we would be able to recoup such losses, whether in whole or in part, from our third-party service providers or insurers.

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Business Operational Risks

We have expanded our business model, which makes it difficult for us to forecast our financial results, creates uncertainty as to how investors will evaluate our prospects, and increases the risk that we will not be successful.

We have expanded our product offering to include iGaming and sportsbook product offerings. In November 2020, we announced a long-term strategic partnership with Sinclair that combines our sports betting technology with their local broadcast television stations and regional sports networks. During 2021, our acquisitions included Bet.Works Corp, MKF, SportCaller, AVP, Telescope and Gamesys. These acquisitions represent an expanded business model and new offerings. Accordingly, it will be difficult for us to forecast our future financial results, and it will be uncertain how our expanded business model will affect investors’ perceptions and expectations, which can be idiosyncratic and vary widely, with respect to our prospects. It may be difficult for investors to evaluate our business due to the lack of similarly situated competitors. Furthermore, our expanded business model may not be successful. Consequently, you should not rely upon our past quarterly financial results as indicators of our future financial performance, and our financial results and stock price may be negatively affected.

We will be reliant on effective payment processing services from a limited number of providers in each of the markets in which we operate.

The provision of convenient, trusted, fast and effective payment processing services to our customers and potential customers is critical to our business. If there is any deterioration in the quality of the payment processing services provided to these customers or any interruption to those services (including with respect to system intrusions, unauthorized access or manipulation), or if such services are only available at an increased cost to us or our customers or are terminated and no timely and comparable replacement services are found, our customers and potential customers may be deterred from using our products. In addition, our inability to secure payment processing services in markets into which we intend to expand may seriously impair our growth opportunities and strategies. Any of these occurrences may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Furthermore, a limited number of banks and credit card companies process online gambling related payments as a matter of internal policy and any capacity to accept such payments may be limited by the regulatory regime of a given jurisdiction. The introduction of legislation or regulations restricting financial transactions with online gambling operators, other prohibitions or restrictions on the use of credit cards and other banking instruments for online gambling transactions may restrict our ability to accept payments from our customers. These restrictions may be imposed as a result of concerns related to fraud, payment processing, AML or other issues related to the provision of online gambling services. A number of issuing banks or credit card companies may from time to time reject payments to us that are attempted to be made by our customers. Should such restrictions and rejections become more prevalent, or any other restriction on payment processing be introduced, gambling activity by our customers could be adversely affected, which in turn could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

In addition, we are subject to the risk of credit card chargebacks, which may also result in possible penalties. A chargeback is a credit card originated deposit transaction to a player account with an operator that is later reversed or repudiated. The risk of such chargeback transactions is greater in respect of certain markets and certain payment methods. We recognize revenue upon the first loss of the player on amounts tendered, and any credit card chargebacks are then deducted from their revenues. Even though security measures are in place, high rates of credit card chargebacks could result in credit card associations levying additional costs and fines or withdrawing their service and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our VLTs and table games hold percentages may fluctuate.

The gaming industry is characterized by an element of chance and our casino guests’ winnings depend on a variety of factors, some of which are beyond our control. In addition to the element of chance, hold percentages (the ratio of net win to total amount wagered) are affected by other factors, including players’ skill and experience, the mix of games played, the financial resources of players, the volume of bets placed and the amount of time played. The variability of our hold percentages has the potential to adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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Our profitability will be dependent, in part, on return to players.

The revenue from certain of our gaming products depends on the outcome of random number generators built into the gaming software running the games made available to customers. Return to player is measured by dividing the amount of real money won by players on a particular game by the total real money wagers over a particular period on that game. An increasing return to player may negatively affect revenue as it represents a larger amount of money being won by players. Return to player is driven by the overall random number generator outcome, the mechanics of different games and jackpot winnings. Each game utilizes a random number generating engine; however, generally the return to player fluctuates in the short-term based on large wins or jackpots or a large share of wagers made for higher-payout games. To the extent we are unable to set, or fail to obtain, a favorable return to player in our (or a third-party supplier’s) gambling software which maximizes revenue, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The success, including win or hold rates, of existing or future sports betting and iGaming products depends on a variety of factors and is not completely controlled by us.

The sports betting and iGaming industries are characterized by an element of chance. Accordingly, we employ theoretical win rates to estimate what a certain type of sports bet or iGame, on average, will win or lose in the long run. Net win is impacted by variations in the hold percentages, or actual outcomes, on our iGames and sports betting we offer to our users. We use the hold percentages as an indicator of an iGame’s or sports bet’s performance against its expected outcome. Although each iGame or sports bet generally performs within a defined statistical range of outcomes, actual outcomes may vary for any given period. In addition to the element of chance, win rates (hold percentages) may also (depending on the game involved) be affected by the spread of limits and factors that are beyond our control, such as a user’s skill, experience and behavior, the mix of games played, the financial resources of users, the volume of bets placed and the amount of time spent gambling. As a result of the variability in these factors, the actual win rates on our online iGames and sports bets may differ from the theoretical win rates we have estimated and could result in the winnings of our iGame’s or sports bet’s users exceeding those anticipated. The variability of win rates (hold rates) also have the potential to negatively impact our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Our success also depends in part on our ability to anticipate and satisfy user preferences in a timely manner. As we will operate in a dynamic environment characterized by rapidly changing industry and legal standards, our products will be subject to changing consumer preferences that cannot be predicted with certainty. We will need to continually introduce new offerings and identify future product offerings that complement our existing platforms, respond to our users’ needs and improve and enhance our existing platforms to maintain or increase our user engagement and growth of our business. We may not be able to compete effectively unless our product selection keeps up with trends in the digital sports entertainment and gaming industries in which we compete, or trends in new gaming products.

We extend credit to a portion of our customers, and we may not be able to collect gaming receivables from our credit customers.

We conduct our gaming activities on a credit and cash basis at many of our properties. Any such credit we extend is unsecured. Table game players typically are extended more credit than slot players, and high-stakes players typically are extended more credit than customers who tend to wager lower amounts. High-end gaming is more volatile than other forms of gaming, and variances in win-loss results attributable to high-end gaming may have a significant positive or negative impact on cash flow and earnings in a particular period. We extend credit to those customers whose level of play and financial resources warrant, in the opinion of management, an extension of credit. These large receivables could have a significant impact on our results of operations if deemed uncollectible. Gaming debts evidenced by a credit instrument, including what is commonly referred to as a “marker,” and judgments on gaming debts are enforceable under the current laws of the jurisdictions in which we allow play on a credit basis, and judgments on gaming debts in such jurisdictions are enforceable in all US states under the Full Faith and Credit Clause of the US Constitution; however, other jurisdictions may determine that enforcement of gaming debts is against public policy. Although courts of some foreign nations will enforce gaming debts directly and the assets in the US of foreign debtors may be reached to satisfy a judgment, judgments on gaming debts from US courts are not binding on the courts of many foreign nations.

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Declining popularity of games and changes in device preferences of players could have a negative effect on our business.

Revenue from online games tends to decline over time after reaching a peak of popularity and player usage. The speed of this decline is referred to as the decay rate of a game. As a result of this natural decline in the life cycle of our products, our business depends on our ability and the ability of our third-party partners to consistently and timely launch new games across multiple platforms and devices that achieve significant popularity. Our ability to successfully launch, sustain and expand games as applicable, largely will depend on our ability to, amongst other things: (1) anticipate and effectively respond to changing game player interests and preferences; (2) anticipate or respond to changes in the competitive landscape; (3) develop, sustain and expand games that are fun, interesting and compelling to play; (4) minimize launch delays and cost overruns on new games; (5) minimize downtime and other technical difficulties; (6) acquire leading technology and high quality personnel; and (7) comply with constraints on game design and/or functionality imposed by regulators. There is a risk that we may not launch any new games according to schedule, or that those games do not attract and retain a significant number of players, which could have a negative effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Furthermore, more individuals are using non-PC/laptop devices to access the Internet and versions of our technology developed for these devices may not be widely adopted by users of such devices. The number of people who access the Internet through devices other than personal computers, including mobile telephones, tablets and television set-top devices, has increased over the past several years. If we are unable to attract and retain a substantial number of alternative device users to our gambling services or if we are slow to develop products and technologies that are more compatible with non-PC/laptop communications devices relative to our competitors, we may fail to capture a significant share of an increasingly important portion of the market for online gambling services.

In addition to offering popular new games, we must extend the life of the existing games which we make available to users, in particular the most successful games. While it is difficult to predict when revenues from any such existing games will begin to decline, for a game to remain popular, we must constantly enhance, expand or upgrade the relevant game with new features that players find attractive. There is a risk that we may not be successful in enhancing, expanding or upgrading our current games or any new games in the future and, in addition, regulators may introduce new rules that limit functionality within existing games. Should we not succeed in sufficiently offsetting the effects of declining popularity in the games we make available, this may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The casino, hotel and hospitality industry is capital intensive and we may not be able to finance development, expansion and renovation projects, which could put us at a competitive disadvantage.

Our casino and hotel properties have an ongoing need for renovations and other capital improvements to remain competitive, including room refurbishments, amenity upgrades and replacement, from time to time, of furniture, fixtures and equipment. We may also need to make capital expenditures to comply with applicable laws and regulations. Construction projects, such as our planned project in Chicago, entail significant risks, which can substantially increase costs or delay completion of a project. Such risks include shortages of materials or skilled labor, unforeseen engineering, environmental or geological problems, work stoppages, weather interference and unanticipated cost increases. Most of these factors are beyond our control. In addition, difficulties or delays in obtaining any of the requisite licenses, permits or authorizations from regulatory authorities can increase the cost or delay the completion of an expansion or development. Significant budget overruns or delays with respect to expansion and development projects could adversely affect our business and results of operations.

Renovations and other capital improvements of casino properties in particular require significant capital expenditures. In addition, any such renovations and capital improvements usually generate little or no cash flow until the projects are completed. We may not be able to fund such projects solely from cash provided from operating activities. Consequently, we may have to rely upon the availability of debt or equity capital to fund renovations and capital improvements, and our ability to carry them out will be limited if we cannot obtain satisfactory debt or equity financing, which will depend on, among other things, market conditions. We cannot assure you that we will be able to obtain additional equity or debt financing on favorable terms or at all. Our failure to renovate and maintain gaming and entertainment venues from time to time may put us at a competitive disadvantage to gaming and entertainment venues offering more modern and better maintained facilities, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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We may invest in or acquire other businesses, and our business may suffer if we are unable to successfully integrate acquired businesses into our company or otherwise manage the growth associated with multiple acquisitions.

We cannot assure you that our completed or any future acquisitions, will enhance our financial performance. Our ability to achieve the expected benefits of any acquisitions will depend on, among other things, our ability to effectively translate our strategies into revenue, our ability to retain and assimilate the acquired businesses’ employees, our ability to retain existing customers and suppliers on terms similar to, or better than, those in place with the acquired businesses, our ability to attract new customers, the adequacy of our implementation plans, our ability to maintain our financial and internal controls and systems as we expand our operations, the ability of our management to oversee and operate effectively the combined operations and our ability to achieve desired operating efficiencies and revenue goals. The integration of the businesses that we acquire might also cause us to incur costs that are unforeseen or that exceed our estimates, which would lower our future earnings and would prevent us from realizing the expected benefits of such acquisitions. In some cases, the services provided by the sellers are critical to the ongoing efficient operation of the properties and may involve costly payments from us to the provider of the services. If the provision of these services by the sellers is disrupted or given insufficient attention by the sellers, our ability to operate the properties may be negatively impacted until such time as we are able to take full control over the services. Moreover, we must pay the sellers for these services and the costs to us for these services may exceed our estimates and these expenses will negatively impact the results of operations of these properties during these transition periods. Failure to achieve the anticipated benefits of these acquisitions could result in decreases in the amount of expected revenues and diversion of management’s time and energy and could adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results including, ultimately, a reduction in our stock price.

We face risks associated with growth and acquisitions.

As part of our business strategy, we regularly evaluate opportunities for growth through development of gaming operations in existing or new markets, through acquiring other gaming entertainment facilities or through redeveloping our existing gaming facilities. In the future, we may also pursue expansion opportunities, including joint ventures or partnerships, in jurisdictions where casino gaming is not currently permitted in order to be prepared to develop projects upon approval of casino gaming.

Although we only intend to engage in acquisitions that, if consummated, will be accretive to us and our shareholders, acquisitions require significant management attention and resources to integrate new properties, businesses and operations. Our ability to realize the anticipated benefits of acquisitions will depend, in part, on our ability to integrate the acquired businesses with our businesses. The combination of two independent companies is a complex, costly and time-consuming process. This process may disrupt the business of either or both of the companies and may not result in the full benefits expected. Potential difficulties we may encounter as part of the integration process that may negatively impact our earnings or otherwise adversely affect our business and financial results include, among other things, the following:

the inability to successfully incorporate acquired assets in a manner that permits us to achieve the full revenue increases, cost reductions and other benefits anticipated to result from any acquisitions;
complexities associated with managing the combined business, including difficulty addressing possible differences in cultures and management philosophies and the challenge of integrating complex systems, technology, networks and other assets of each of the companies in a seamless manner that minimizes any adverse impact on customers, suppliers, employees and other constituencies;
the disruption of, or the loss of momentum in, each of our ongoing businesses;
inconsistencies in standards, controls, procedures and policies; and
potential unknown liabilities and unforeseen increased expenses associated with acquisitions.

Additionally, even if integration is successful, the overall integration of acquired assets and businesses may result in material unanticipated problems, expenses, liabilities, competitive responses, loss of customer and other business relationships and diversion of management attention. There is also no guarantee that the acquired assets or businesses will generate any of the projected synergies and earnings growth, and the failure to realize such projected synergies and earnings growth may adversely affect our operating and financial results and derail any growth plans.

There can be no assurance that we will be able to identify, acquire, develop or profitably manage additional companies or operations or successfully integrate such companies or operations into our existing operations without substantial costs, delays or other problems. Additionally, there can be no assurance that we will receive gaming or other necessary licenses or approvals for new projects that we may pursue or that gaming will be approved in jurisdictions where it is not currently approved.

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Ballot measures or other voter-approved initiatives to allow gaming in jurisdictions where gaming, or certain types of gaming (such as slots and sports wagering), was not previously permitted could be challenged, and, if such challenges are successful, these ballot measures or initiatives could be invalidated. Furthermore, there can be no assurance that there will not be similar or other challenges to legalized gaming in existing or current markets in which we may operate or have development plans, and successful challenges to legalized gaming could require us to abandon or substantially curtail our operations or development plans in those locations, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

There can be no assurance that we will not face similar challenges and difficulties with respect to new development projects, such as our planned project in Chicago, or expansion efforts that we may undertake, which could result in significant sunk costs that we may not be able to fully recoup or that otherwise have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. We may not be able to obtain additional financing on acceptable terms or at all. To the extent that we seek to acquire other businesses in exchange for our common stock, fluctuations in our stock price could adversely affect our ability to complete acquisitions.

We may not realize the anticipated benefits of existing or pending strategic alliances, joint ventures, acquisitions, divestitures or new business strategies.

We have invested in, formed strategic alliances with and announced proposed joint ventures with other companies, such as the Rhode Island VLT Company, LLC, the joint venture with IGT in Rhode Island (the “Joint Venture”), and we may expand those relationships or enter into similar relationships with additional companies which may require various state approvals which may or may not be granted. These initiatives are typically complex and we may not be able to complete anticipated alliance or joint venture transactions, the anticipated benefits of these transactions may not be realized or the benefits may be delayed. For example, we may not successfully integrate an alliance or joint venture with our operations, including the implementation of our controls, systems, procedures and policies, or unforeseen expenses or liabilities may arise that were not discovered during due diligence prior to an investment or entry into a strategic alliance, or a misalignment of interests may develop between us and the other party. Further, to the extent we share ownership, control or management with another party in a joint venture, our ability to influence such joint venture may be limited, and we may be unable to prevent misconduct or implement our compliance or internal control systems. In addition, implementation of a new business strategy may lead to the disruption of our existing business operations, including distracting management from current operations. Results of operations from new activities may be lower than our existing activities, and, if a strategy is unsuccessful, we may not recoup our investments in that strategy. Failure to successfully and timely realize the anticipated benefits of these transactions or strategies could have an adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations.

With respect to the Joint Venture, any material unanticipated issues arising from the integration process could negatively impact our stock price, future business and financial results. Moreover, uncertainty about the effect of the proposed transaction on employees, customers, suppliers, distributors and other business partners may have an adverse effect on us and the Joint Venture. These uncertainties may impair our and/or the Joint Venture’s ability to attract, retain and motivate key personnel to execute the Joint Venture’s strategy, and could cause customers, suppliers, distributors and others who deal with us and/or the Joint Venture to seek to change or cancel existing business relationships with us and/or the Joint Venture or fail to renew existing relationships.

The Joint Venture will be subject to the risks associated with the Company’s gaming business, approvals by the state of Rhode Island, in addition to the risks associated with IGT’s machine gaming business, and the business, financial condition and results of operations of the Joint Venture may be affected by factors that are different from or in addition to those currently affecting the independent business, financial condition and results of operations of the Company’s gaming business. Many of these factors are outside of our and the Joint Venture’s control and could materially impact the business, financial condition and results of operations of the Joint Venture. Moreover, although we will have certain consent, board representation and other governance rights with respect to the Joint Venture, the Company will be a minority owner of the Joint Venture. As a result, we will not have complete control over the Joint Venture, its management or its policies and we may have business interests, strategies and goals that differ in certain respects from those of IGT or the Joint Venture.

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Our business depends, in part, on strategic relationships with third parties. Overreliance on certain third parties or our inability to extend existing relationships or agree to new relationships may cause unanticipated costs for us and impact our financial performance in the future.

We have entered into strategic partnerships with Sinclair, the National Hockey League and others and may enter into relationships with advertisers, casinos and other third parties in order to attract users to our platform. These relationships along with providers of online services, search engines, social media, directories and other websites and e-commerce businesses direct consumers to our platform. In addition, parties with whom we have advertising arrangements provide advertising services to other companies, including other fantasy sports and gaming platforms with which we compete. While we believe there are other third parties that could drive users to our platform, adding or transitioning to them may disrupt our business and increase our costs. In the event that any of our existing relationships or our future relationships fails to provide services to us in accordance with the terms of our arrangement, or at all, and we are not able to find suitable alternatives, this could impact our ability to attract consumers cost effectively and harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

In 2020, we acquired naming rights over Diamond Sports Group’s (“Diamond”) regional sports networks, and Diamond and Sinclair agreed to promote the Bally’s brand over certain Sinclair networks. Our brand and naming rights are owned by us alone, we are not an obligor under Diamond’s debt and Diamond holds no equity or other ownership rights in us. However, our Bally’s Sports brand could be inaccurately associated with Diamond’s credit issues by the media, our customers or others, which, among other things, could harm our reputation and we cannot predict the effects of a Diamond reorganization on us or our relationship with Diamond.

Our branded sites are heavily reliant on well-known brands owned by third parties.

We operate certain branded sites, including sites branded as Virgin Games, Double Bubble Bingo and Monopoly Casino. All such branded sites operated by us are reliant on the use of highly trusted and recognizable brands which are owned by third parties (the “Third Party Brands”). We operate the Third Party Brands pursuant to brand licensing arrangements with the relevant third party brand owner (the “Brand Owner”). We are contractually required to operate such branded sites in accordance with those brand licensing arrangements, and any material breach of those requirements may expose us to claims for breach of contract and/or may lead to the Brand Owner terminating or failing to renew the brand licensing arrangements. We own the player data in respect of such branded sites, and in the event that the brand licensing arrangements for any of such branded sites were to be terminated early or not renewed, then we would seek to migrate those players to a different gaming site operated by us. However, there is a risk that any replacement branded site offered by us may not successfully retain the custom of those players, and in the event that we lose the right to use any of the Third Party Brands, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially adversely affected.

We are exposed to the risk that the reputation of the Third Party Brands may be adversely affected by the activities of third parties over whom we have no control. For example, we operate the Virgin Games site. The Virgin brand is used by a wide range of businesses. In the event that the reputation of the Virgin brand was to be adversely affected due to the actions of third parties, that may affect our business prospects.

Our online business model depends upon the continued compatibility between our apps and the major mobile operating systems and upon third-party platforms for the distribution of our product offerings, which depend on factors beyond our control such as the design of third-party operating systems and continued access to our apps on third-party distribution platforms like the Apple App Store.

Our digital business is dependent on the interoperability of our technology with popular mobile operating systems, technologies, networks and standards as our users access our online betting and gaming product offerings primarily on mobile devices. As a result, our business model depends upon the continued compatibility between our app and the major mobile operating systems, such as the Android and iOS operating systems, and we rely upon third-party platforms for distribution of our product offerings. We do not have formal or informal relationships with parties that control design of mobile devices and operating systems and there is no guarantee that popular mobile devices will start or continue to support or feature our product offerings. Any changes, bugs, technical or regulatory issues in such operating systems, our relationships with mobile manufacturers and carriers, or in their terms of service or policies that degrade our offerings’ functionality, reduce or eliminate our ability to distribute our offerings, give preferential treatment to competitive products, limit our ability to deliver high quality offerings, or impose fees or other charges related to delivering our offerings, could adversely affect our product usage and monetization on mobile devices. In addition, if any of the third-party platforms used for distribution of our product offerings were to limit or disable the availability of our app or advertising on their platforms, our ability to generate revenue could be harmed. These changes could materially impact the way we do business, and if we are unable to adjust to those changes quickly and effectively, there could be an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

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A portion of our casinos are located on leased property. If we default on one or more leases, the applicable lessors could terminate the affected leases and we could lose possession of the affected casino.

We currently lease certain parcels of land on which a portion of our properties are located. As a ground lessee, we have the right to use the leased land; however, we do not hold fee ownership of the underlying land. Accordingly, we have no interest in the leased land or improvements thereon at the expiration of the ground leases. If our use of the land underlying our casino properties is disrupted permanently or for a significant period of time, then the value of our assets could be impaired and our business and operations could be adversely affected. Our leases provide that they may be terminated for a number of reasons, including failure to pay rent, taxes or other payment obligations or the breach of other covenants contained in the leases. In particular, our leases with GLPI require annual rent payments of $111.1 million in 2023, which is subject to escalation annually, and obligate us to make specified minimum capital expenditures with respect to the leased properties. If our business and properties fail to generate sufficient earnings, the payments required to service the rent obligations under our leases with GLPI could materially and adversely limit our ability to react to changes in our business and make acquisitions and investments in our properties. If we were to default on any one or more of these leases, the applicable lessors could terminate the affected leases and we could lose possession of the affected land and any improvements on the land, including the hotels and casinos. Further, in the event that any lessor of our leased properties, including GLPI, encounters financial, operational, regulatory or other challenges, there can be no assurance that such lessor will be able to comply with its obligations under the applicable lease.

We rely on other third-party sports data providers for real-time and accurate data for sporting events, and if such third parties do not perform adequately or terminate their relationships with us, our costs may increase and our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

We rely on third-party sports data providers to obtain accurate information regarding schedules, results, performance and outcomes of sporting events. We rely on this data to determine when and how sports bets are settled. We have experienced, and may continue to experience, errors in this data feed which may result in us incorrectly settling bets. If we cannot adequately resolve the issue with our users, our users may have a negative experience with our offerings, our brand or reputation may be negatively affected and our users may be less inclined to continue or resume utilizing our products or recommend our offerings to other potential users. As such, a failure or significant interruption in our service may harm our reputation, business and operating results.

Furthermore, if any of our sports data partners terminates its relationship with us or refuses to renew its agreement with us on commercially reasonable terms, we would need to find an alternate provider, and may not be able to secure similar terms or replace such providers in an acceptable time frame. Any of these risks could increase our costs and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Further, any negative publicity related to any of our third-party partners, including any publicity related to regulatory concerns, could adversely affect our reputation and brand, and could potentially lead to increased regulatory or litigation exposure.

We conduct our business in an industry that is subject to high taxes and may be subject to higher taxes in the future.

In gaming jurisdictions in which we conduct our business, with the exception of Rhode Island, state and local governments raise considerable revenues from taxes based on casino revenues and operations. In Rhode Island, the state takes all of the gaming win that comes into our Rhode Island operations and then pays us a percentage of the gaming win. We also pay property taxes, occupancy taxes, sales and use taxes, payroll taxes, franchise taxes and income taxes. Our profitability will depend on generating enough revenues to cover variable expenses, such as payroll and marketing, as well as largely fixed expenses, such as property taxes and interest expense. From time to time, state and local governments have increased gaming taxes and such increases could significantly impact the profitability of our gaming operations.

Our operations in other states are generally subject to significant revenue-based taxes and fees in addition to normal federal, state and local income taxes, and such taxes and fees are subject to increase at any time. In addition, from time to time, federal, state and local legislators and officials have proposed changes in tax laws, or in the administration of such laws, affecting the gaming industry. Further, worsening economic conditions could intensify the efforts of applicable state and local governments to raise revenues through increases in gaming taxes and/or property taxes. It is not possible to determine with certainty the likelihood of changes in tax laws in these jurisdictions or in the administration of such laws. Such changes, if adopted, could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. The large number of state and local governments with significant current or projected budget deficits makes it more likely that those governments that currently permit gaming will seek to fund such deficits with new or increased gaming taxes and/or property taxes and worsening economic conditions could intensify those efforts. Any material increase, or the adoption of additional taxes or fees, could adversely affect our future financial results.

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There can be no assurance that governments in jurisdictions in which we conduct our business, or the federal government, will not enact legislation that increases gaming tax rates. General economic pressures have the potential to reduce revenues of state governments from traditional tax sources, which may cause state legislatures or the federal government to be more inclined to increase gaming tax rates.

Future changes to US and non-US tax laws could adversely affect our business.

The US Congress, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development and other government agencies in jurisdictions where Bally’s and its affiliates do business have had an extended focus on issues related to the taxation of multinational corporations. One example is in the area of “base erosion and profit shifting,” including situations where payments are made between affiliates from a jurisdiction with high tax rates to a jurisdiction with lower tax rates. As a result, the tax laws in the US, the UK and other countries in which Bally’s and its affiliates do business could change on a prospective or retroactive basis, and any such changes could adversely affect Bally’s and its affiliates.

In addition, the US government may enact significant changes to the taxation of business entities including, among others, an increase in the corporate income tax rate, an increase in the tax rate applicable to global intangible low-taxed income, the elimination of certain tax exemptions and the imposition of minimum taxes or surtaxes on certain types of income. No specific US tax legislation has been proposed at this time and the likelihood of these changes being enacted or implemented is unclear. We are currently unable to predict whether such changes will occur and, if so, the ultimate impact on our business.

If we fail to detect fraud, theft or cheating, including by our customers and employees, our reputation may suffer which could harm our brand and reputation and negatively impact our business, financial condition and results of operations and can subject us to investigations and litigation.

We have in the past incurred, and may in the future incur, losses from various types of financial fraud, including use of stolen or fraudulent credit card data, claims of unauthorized payments by a user and attempted payments by users with insufficient funds. Bad actors use increasingly sophisticated methods to engage in illegal activities involving personal information, such as unauthorized use of another person’s identity, account information or payment information and unauthorized acquisition or use of credit or debit card details, bank account information and mobile phone numbers and accounts. Under current credit card practices, we may be liable for use of funds on our platform with fraudulent credit card data, even if the associated financial institution approved the credit card transaction.

Acts of fraud may involve various tactics, including collusion. Successful exploitation of our systems could have negative effects on our product offerings, services and user experience and could harm our reputation. Failure to discover such acts or schemes in a timely manner could result in harm to our operations. In addition, negative publicity related to such schemes could have an adverse effect on our reputation, potentially causing a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In the event of the occurrence of any such issues with our existing platform or product offerings, substantial engineering and marketing resources and management attention, may be diverted from other projects to correct these issues, which may delay other projects and the achievement of our strategic objectives.

In addition, any misappropriation of, or access to, users’ or other proprietary information or other breach of our information security could result in legal claims or legal proceedings, including regulatory investigations and actions, or liability for failure to comply with privacy and information security laws, including for failure to protect personal information or for misusing personal information, which could disrupt our operations, force us to modify our business practices, damage our reputation and expose us to claims from our users, regulators, employees and other persons, any of which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Despite measures we have taken to detect and reduce the occurrence of fraudulent or other malicious activity on our platform, we cannot guarantee that any of our measures will be effective or will scale efficiently with our business. Our failure to adequately detect or prevent fraudulent transactions could harm our reputation or brand, result in litigation or regulatory action and lead to expenses that could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We are largely dependent on the skill and experience of management and key personnel.

In addition, our officers, directors and key employees are required to file applications with the gaming authorities in each of the jurisdictions in which we conduct our business and are required to be licensed or found suitable by these gaming authorities. If the gaming authorities were to find an officer, director or key employee unsuitable for licensing or unsuitable to continue having a relationship with us, we would have to sever all relationships with that person. Furthermore, the gaming authorities may require us to terminate the employment of any person who refuses to file appropriate applications. Either result could significantly impair our operations. The time and effort needed to successfully complete the application process could impact our ability to attract, hire and retain top talent.
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We are subject to risks associated with labor relations, labor costs and labor disruptions.

We are subject to the costs and risks generally associated with labor disputes and organizing activities related to unionized labor. From time to time, our operations may be disrupted by strikes, public demonstrations or other coordinated actions and publicity. We may incur increased legal costs and indirect labor costs as a result of contractual disputes, negotiations or other labor-related disruptions.

Most of our employees in Rhode Island, Nevada and New Jersey are represented by a labor union and are subject to collective bargaining agreements with us. As of December 31, 2022, we had 29 collective bargaining agreements covering 2,755 employees. Our collective bargaining agreements generally have three-or-five-year terms. There can be no assurance that we will be able to extend or enter into replacement agreements. If we are able to extend or enter into replacement agreements, there can be no assurance as to whether the terms will be on comparable terms to the existing agreements. We may also face organizing activities that could result in additional employees becoming unionized. Furthermore, collective bargaining agreements may limit our ability to reduce the size of our workforce during an economic downturn, which could put us at a competitive disadvantage.

Our obligation to fund multi-employer defined benefit pension plans to which we are a party may adversely affect us.

We must contribute to a number of multi-employer defined benefit pension plans under the terms of collective-bargaining agreements that cover certain union-represented employees. The risks of participating in these multi-employer plans are different from single-employer plans in the following aspects:

assets contributed to the multi-employer plan by one employer may be used to provide benefits to employees of other participating employers;
if a participating employer stops contributing to the plan, the unfunded obligations of the plan may be borne by the remaining participating employers; and
if we choose to stop participating in some of our multi-employer plans, we may be required to pay those plans an amount based on the underfunded status of the plan, referred to as a withdrawal liability.

In addition, the funding obligations for our pension plans will be impacted by the performance of the financial markets, particularly the equity markets and interest rates. Funding obligations are determined by government regulations and are measured each year based on the value of assets and liabilities on a specific date. If the financial markets do not provide the long-term returns that are expected, we could be required to make larger contributions. The equity markets can be very volatile, and during 2022 displayed meaningful volatility and, therefore, our estimate of future contribution requirements can change dramatically in relatively short periods of time. Similarly, changes in interest rates and legislation enacted by governmental authorities can impact the timing and amounts of contribution requirements. An adverse change in the funded status of the plans could significantly increase our required contributions in the future and adversely impact our liquidity.

We may incur impairments to goodwill, indefinite-lived intangible assets or long-lived assets.

We monitor the recoverability of our long-lived assets, such as buildings, and evaluate their carrying value for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of such assets may not be fully recoverable. We annually review goodwill to determine if impairment has occurred. Additionally, interim reviews are performed whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that impairment may have occurred. If the testing performed indicates that impairment has occurred, we are required to record a non-cash impairment charge for the difference between the carrying value and fair value of the long-lived assets or the carrying value and fair value of the reporting unit, in the period the determination is made. The testing of long-lived assets and goodwill for impairment requires us to make estimates that are subject to significant assumptions about our future revenue, profitability, cash flows, fair value of assets and liabilities, weighted average cost of capital, as well as other assumptions. Changes in these estimates, or changes in actual performance compared with these estimates, may affect the fair value of long-lived assets or reporting unit, which may result in an impairment charge.

We cannot accurately predict the amount or timing of any impairment of assets. Should the value of long-lived assets or goodwill become impaired, our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.

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Our operations have historically been subject to seasonal variations and quarterly fluctuations in operating results, and we can expect to experience such variations and fluctuations in the future.

Casino, hotel and racing operations in our markets are subject to seasonal variation. Seasonal weather conditions can frequently adversely affect transportation routes to each of our properties and may cause snowfall, flooding and other effects that result in the closure of our properties. In addition, our sports betting business may experience seasonality based on the relative popularity of certain sports at different parts of the year. As a result, unfavorable seasonal conditions could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our business is particularly sensitive to energy prices and a rise in energy prices could harm our operating results.

We are a large consumer of electricity and other energy and, therefore, higher energy prices may have an adverse effect on our results of operations. Accordingly, increases in energy costs may have a negative impact on our operating results. Additionally, higher electricity and gasoline prices that affect our customers may result in reduced visitation to our properties and a reduction in our revenues. We may be indirectly impacted by regulatory requirements aimed at reducing the impacts of climate change directed at up-stream utility providers, as we could experience potentially higher utility, fuel and transportation costs.

Our insurance and self-insurance programs may not be adequate to cover future claims.

Although we maintain insurance that we believe is customary and appropriate for our business, we cannot assure you that insurance will be available or adequate to cover all losses and damage to which our business or our assets might be subjected. We use a combination of insurance and self-insurance to provide for potential liabilities, including employee healthcare benefits, up to certain stop-loss amounts which limit our exposure above the amounts we have self-insured. We estimate the liabilities and required reserves associated with the risks we retain. Any such estimates and actuarial projection of losses is subject to a considerable degree of variability. A considerable increase in claims as a result of a pandemic, including as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. If actual losses incurred are greater than those anticipated, our reserves may be insufficient and additional costs could be recorded in our consolidated financial statements. If we suffer a substantial loss that exceeds our self-insurance reserves, and any excess insurance coverage, the loss and attendant expenses could harm our business, financial condition or results of operations. The lack of adequate insurance for certain types or levels of risk could expose us to significant losses in the event that a catastrophe occurred for which we are uninsured or underinsured. Any losses we incur that are not adequately covered by insurance may decrease our future operating income, require us to find replacements or repairs for destroyed property and reduce the funds available for payments of our obligations. We renew our insurance policies on an annual basis. The cost of coverage may become so high that we may need to further reduce our policy limits, further increase our deductibles or agree to certain exclusions from our coverage.

Our results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected by the occurrence of natural disasters, such as hurricanes, or other catastrophic events, including war and terrorism.

Natural disasters, such as major hurricanes, typhoons, floods, fires and earthquakes, could adversely affect our business and operating results. Hurricanes are common in the areas in which our Mississippi and Louisiana properties are located, and the severity of such natural disasters is unpredictable.

Catastrophic events, such as terrorist attacks in the US and elsewhere, have had a negative effect on travel and leisure expenditures, including lodging, gaming (in some jurisdictions) and tourism. We cannot accurately predict the extent to which such events may affect us, directly or indirectly, in the future. There can be no assurance that we will be able to obtain or choose to purchase any insurance coverage with respect to occurrences of terrorist acts and any losses that could result from these acts. If there is a prolonged disruption at our facilities due to natural disasters, terrorist attacks or other catastrophic events, our results of operations and financial condition would be adversely affected.

We may be unable to obtain business interruption coverage for casualties resulting from severe weather such as hurricanes, and there can be no assurance that we will be able to obtain casualty insurance coverage at affordable rates, if at all, for casualties resulting from severe weather.

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Cybersecurity and Technology Risks

We rely on information technology and other systems and platforms, and any failures, errors, defects or disruptions in our systems or platforms could diminish our brand and reputation, subject us to liability, disrupt our business, affect our ability to scale our technical infrastructure and adversely affect our operating results and growth prospects.

We, or one of our regulatory bodies, engage a number of third parties to provide gaming operating systems for the facilities we own. As a result, we rely on such third parties to provide uninterrupted services in order to run our business efficiently and effectively. In the event one of these third parties experiences a disruption in its ability to provide such services (whether due to technological or financial difficulties or power problems), this may result in a material disruption to the wagering activity at the casinos which we own and have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition.

If our user base and engagement continue to grow, and the amount and types of offerings continue to grow and evolve, we will need an increasing amount of technical infrastructure, including network capacity and computing power, to continue to satisfy our users’ needs. Such infrastructure expansion may be complex, and unanticipated delays in completing these projects or availability of components may lead to increased project costs, operational inefficiencies or interruptions in the delivery or degradation of the quality of our offerings. In addition, there may be issues related to this infrastructure that are not identified during the testing phases of design and implementation, which may only become evident after we have started to fully use the underlying equipment or software, that could further degrade the user experience or increase our costs. As such, we could fail to continue to effectively scale and grow our technical infrastructure to accommodate increased demands. In addition, our business may be subject to interruptions, delays or failures resulting from adverse weather conditions, other natural disasters, power loss, terrorism, cyber-attacks, public health emergencies (such as the coronavirus) or other catastrophic events. Any unscheduled interruption in our technology services is likely to result in an immediate, and possibly substantial, loss of revenues due to a shutdown of our gaming operations, cloud computing and lottery systems.

We believe that if our users have a negative experience with our offerings, or if our brand or reputation is negatively affected, users may be less inclined to continue or resume utilizing our products or recommend our platform to other potential users. As such, a failure or significant interruption in our service would harm our reputation, business and operating results.

We are reliant on the reliability and viability of Internet infrastructure, which is out of our control, and the proper functioning of our own network systems.

The growth of Internet usage has caused interruptions and delays in processing and transmitting data over the Internet. There can be no assurance that Internet infrastructure or our own network systems will continue to be able to support the demands placed on them by the continued growth of the Internet, the overall online gambling industry or that of our customers. The Internet’s viability could be affected by delays in the development or adoption of new standards and protocols to handle increased levels of Internet activity or by increased government regulation. The introduction of legislation or regulations requiring Internet service providers in any jurisdiction to block access to our websites and products may restrict the ability of our customers to access products and services offered by us. Such restrictions, should they be imposed, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

If critical issues concerning the commercial use of the Internet are not favorably resolved (including security, reliability, cost, ease of use, accessibility and quality of service), if the necessary infrastructure is not sufficient or if other technologies and technological devices eclipse the Internet as a viable channel, this may negatively affect Internet usage, and our business, financial condition and results of operations will be materially adversely affected. Additionally, the increasing presence of viruses and cyber-attacks may affect the viability and infrastructure of the Internet and/or the proper functioning of our network systems and could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our business may be harmed from cybersecurity incidents and we may be subject to legal claims if there is loss, disclosure or misappropriation of or access to our customers’, business partners’ or our own information or other breaches of information security.

We make extensive use of online services and centralized data processing, including through third-party service providers. We have experienced cyber-attacks, attempts to breach our systems and other similar incidents. The secure maintenance and transmission of customer information is a critical element of our operations. Our information technology and other systems, or those of service providers and business partners, that maintain and transmit customer or employee information may be compromised by a malicious third-party penetration of our network security, or that of a third-party service provider or business partner, or impacted by intentional or unintentional actions or inactions by our employees, or those of a third-party service provider or business partner. As a result, our customers’ or employee’s information may be lost, disclosed, accessed or taken without our customers’ or employees’ consent.

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In addition, third-party service providers and other business partners process and maintain proprietary business information and data related to our employees, customers, suppliers and other business partners. Our information technology and other systems that maintain and transmit this information, or those of service providers or business partners, may also be compromised by a malicious third-party penetration of our network security or that of a third-party service provider or business partner, or impacted by intentional or unintentional actions or inactions by our employees or those of a third-party service provider or business partner. As a result, our business information or customer, supplier and other business partner data may be lost, disclosed, accessed or taken without consent.

Any such loss, disclosure or misappropriation of, or access to, customers’ or business partners’ information or other breach of our information security can result in legal claims or legal proceedings, including regulatory investigations and actions, may have a serious impact on our reputation and may adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition. Furthermore, the loss, disclosure or misappropriation of our business information may adversely affect our reputation, business, operating results and financial condition.

Financing Risks

Our debt agreements and the Regulatory Agreement contain restrictive covenants that may limit our operating flexibility.

Our current debt agreements and the Regulatory Agreement include, and our future debt agreements and regulatory agreements will likely include, numerous financial and other covenants, imposing financial and operating restrictions on our business. Our ability to comply with these provisions may be affected by general economic conditions, industry conditions and other events beyond our control. There can be no assurance that we will be able to comply with these covenants. The failure to comply with a financial covenant or other restriction contained in the agreements governing our indebtedness or in the Regulatory Agreement may result in an event of default under such agreements or sanctions or fines under the Regulatory Agreement. An event of default under our debt agreements could result in acceleration of some or all of the applicable indebtedness as well as other indebtedness of ours and the inability to borrow additional funds. We do not have, and cannot be certain we would be able to obtain, sufficient funds to repay any such indebtedness if it is accelerated. Restrictions in our debt agreements or in the Regulatory Agreement might affect our ability to operate our business, might limit our ability to take advantage of potential business opportunities as they arise and might adversely affect the conduct of our current business, including by restricting our ability to finance future operations and capital needs and limiting our ability to engage in other business activities.

Our existing and future indebtedness may limit our operating and financial flexibility.

As of December 31, 2022, we had approximately $3.56 billion of total indebtedness outstanding consisting of $1.93 billion outstanding under our term loan facility (the “Term Loan”) pursuant to the terms of a credit agreement we entered into on October 1, 2021 (the “Credit Agreement”) with Deutsche Bank AG New York Branch, as administrative agent and collateral agent, and the lenders party thereto, and $1.5 billion in aggregate principal amount of outstanding 5.625% senior notes due 2029 and 5.875% senior notes due 2031 (collectively, the “Senior Notes”). As of December 31, 2022, we have a $620.0 million revolving credit facility (the “Revolving Credit Facility” or “Revolver” and, together with the Term Loan, the “Credit Facility”), of which there were $137.0 million in borrowings as of that date. This indebtedness may have important negative consequences for us, including:

limiting our ability to satisfy obligations;
increasing vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions;
limiting flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our businesses and the markets in which we conduct business;
increasing vulnerability to, and limiting our ability to react to, changing market conditions, changes in industry and economic downturns;
limiting our ability to obtain additional financing to fund working capital requirements, capital expenditures, debt service, general corporate or other obligations;
subjecting us to a number of restrictive covenants that, among other things, limit our ability to pay dividends and distributions, make acquisitions and dispositions, borrow additional funds and make capital expenditures and other investments;
limiting our ability to use operating cash flow in other areas of our business because we must dedicate a significant portion of these funds to make principal and/or interest payments on outstanding debt;
exposing us to interest rate risk due to the variable interest rate on borrowings under our Credit Facility;
causing our failure to comply with the financial and restrictive covenants contained in our current or future indebtedness, which could cause a default under that indebtedness (and other indebtedness of ours) and which, if not cured or waived, could adversely affect us; and
affecting our ability to renew gaming and other licenses necessary to conduct our business.

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Though we have significant amounts of indebtedness outstanding, we have the ability to borrow the entire $620.0 million under our Revolving Credit Facility and may issue or incur additional indebtedness to fund our operations, including as necessary to execute on our growth strategy. Further, we may incur other liabilities that do not constitute indebtedness. The risks that we face based on our outstanding indebtedness may intensify if we incur additional indebtedness or financing obligations in the future.

Servicing our indebtedness and funding our other obligations requires a significant amount of cash, and our ability to generate sufficient cash depends on many factors, some of which will be beyond our control.

Our ability to make payments on and refinance our indebtedness and to fund our operations and capital expenditures depends upon our ability to generate cash flow and secure financing in the future. Our ability to generate future cash flow depends, among other things, upon:

general economic conditions;
competition;
legislative and regulatory factors affecting our operations and businesses; and
our future operating performance.

Some of these factors will be beyond our control. There can be no assurance that our business will generate cash flow from operations or that future debt or equity financings will be available to us to enable us to pay our indebtedness or to fund other needs. If our operating results and available cash are insufficient to meet our debt service obligations, we could face substantial liquidity problems and might be required to dispose of material assets or operations to meet our debt service and other obligations. We may not be able to consummate those dispositions or to obtain the proceeds that we could realize from them, and these proceeds may not be adequate to meet any debt service obligations then due. The inability to generate cash flow could result in us needing to refinance all or a portion of our indebtedness on or before maturity, including through the issuance of additional debt or equity securities. If needed, there can be no assurance that we will be able to refinance any of our indebtedness on favorable terms, or at all. Any inability to generate sufficient cash flow or refinance our indebtedness on favorable terms could adversely affect our financial condition.

Our variable rate indebtedness exposes us to interest rate volatility, which could cause our debt service obligations to increase significantly.

Borrowings under our Credit Facility are at variable rates of interest and expose us to interest rate volatility. If interest rates increase, our debt service obligations on certain of our variable rate indebtedness will increase even though the amount borrowed remains the same. In addition, at the end of 2021, the administrator for London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) ceased publishing one-week and two-month U.S. dollar LIBOR and will cease publishing all remaining U.S. dollar LIBOR tenors in 2023. The consequence of this development with respect to LIBOR cannot be entirely predicted and may result in the level of interest payments on the portion of our indebtedness that bears interest at variable rates to be affected, which may adversely impact the amount of our interest payments under such debt.

A market downturn may negatively impact our access to financing.

A downturn in the financial markets or market volatility (like those now being experienced) could negatively impact our ability to access capital and financing (including financing necessary for acquisitions or to refinance our existing indebtedness) on acceptable terms and prices, that we would otherwise need in connection with the operation of our business.

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Risks Related to our Common Stock

The market price of our common stock could fluctuate significantly.

There have been and are periods of time when the US securities markets have experienced significant price fluctuations. These price fluctuations may be day-to-day or they may last for extended periods of time. Significant price fluctuations in the securities markets as a whole have caused, and may continue to cause, the market price of our common stock to be volatile and subject to wide fluctuations. The trading volume of our common stock may fluctuate and cause significant price variations to occur. Additional factors that could cause fluctuations in, or adversely affect, our stock price or trading volume include:

general market and economic conditions, including market conditions in the gaming and hotel industries;
actual or expected variations in quarterly operating results;
differences between actual operating results and those expected by investors and analysts;
sales of our common stock by current shareholders seeking liquidity in the public market;
changes in recommendations by securities analysts;
operations and stock performance of competitors;
accounting charges, including charges relating to the impairment of goodwill;
significant acquisitions or strategic alliances by us or by competitors;
sales of our common stock by our directors and officers or significant investors; and
recruitment or departure of key personnel.

There can be no assurance that the stock price of our common stock will not fluctuate or decline significantly in the future. In addition, the stock market in general can experience considerable price and volume fluctuations that may be unrelated to our performance.

Our largest shareholder owns a meaningful percentage of our outstanding common stock, which could limit the ability of other shareholders to influence corporate matters.

Standard General L.P. (“Standard General”), our largest shareholder, beneficially owned 22.7% of our outstanding common stock as of February 14, 2023. Standard General’s Managing Partner and Chief Investment Officer serves as the Chairman of our Board. Standard General is authorized by Rhode Island regulatory authorities to acquire up to 40% of our outstanding common stock.

We are not paying dividends and any decision to do so in the future will be at the discretion of our Board.

The timing, declaration, amount and payment of any future dividends will be at the discretion of our Board and will depend upon, among other factors, our earnings, cash requirements, financial condition, requirements to comply with the covenants under our debt agreements and the Regulatory Agreement, legal considerations and other factors that our Board deems relevant. If we do not pay cash dividends on our common stock in the future, then the return on an investment in our common stock will depend upon our future stock price and other forms of returning capital. There is no guarantee that our common stock will maintain its value or appreciate in value.

We are a holding company and will depend on our subsidiaries for dividends, distributions and other payments.

We are structured as a holding company, a legal entity separate and distinct from our subsidiaries. Our only significant asset is the capital stock or other equity interests of our operating subsidiaries. As a holding company, we will conduct all of our business through our subsidiaries. Consequently, our principal source of cash flow, including cash flow to pay dividends, will be dividends and distributions from our subsidiaries. If our subsidiaries are unable to make dividend payments or distributions to us and sufficient cash or liquidity is not otherwise available, we may not be able to pay dividends. In addition, our right to participate in a distribution of assets upon a subsidiary’s liquidation or reorganization will be subject to the prior claims of the subsidiary’s creditors.

ITEM 1B.    UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.
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ITEM 2.    PROPERTIES
The Company’s Casinos & Resorts reportable segment consists of 16 properties managed/owned by Bally’s as of December 31, 2022, as shown in the table below:
PropertyLocationTypeBuilt/AcquiredGaming
Square
Footage
Slot
Machines
Table
Games
Hotel
Rooms
Food and
Beverage
Outlets
RacebookSportsbook
Bally’s Twin River Lincoln Casino Resort(1)
Lincoln, RICasino and Resort2004162,420 3,802 114 136 21 YesYes
Hard Rock Hotel & Casino Biloxi(1)(3)
Biloxi, MSCasino and Resort201450,984 977 55 479 15 NoYes
Bally’s Tiverton Casino & Hotel(1)(3)
Tiverton, RICasino and Hotel201833,840 1,000 32 83 YesYes
Bally’s Dover Casino Resort(1)(3)
Dover, DECasino, Resort and Raceway201984,075 1,918 30 500 YesYes
Bally’s Black Hawk(1)(2)(3)
Black Hawk, COThree Casinos202034,632 577 33 — NoYes
Bally’s Kansas City Casino(1)
Kansas City, MOCasino202042,288 906 24 — NoNo
Bally’s Vicksburg Casino(1)
Vicksburg, MSCasino and Hotel202032,608 453 89 NoYes
Bally’s Atlantic City Casino Resort(1)
Atlantic City, NJCasino and Resort202084,236 1,189 88 1,205 12 NoYes
Bally’s Shreveport Casino & Hotel(1)
Shreveport, LACasino and Hotel202030,000 1,186 40 403 NoYes
Bally’s Lake Tahoe Casino ResortLake Tahoe, NVCasino and Resort202148,425 399 20 438 YesYes
Bally’s Evansville Casino & Hotel(1)(3)
Evansville, INCasino and Hotel202146,265 948 30 338 NoYes
Bally’s Quad Cities Casino & Hotel(1)(3)
Rock Island, ILCasino and Hotel202139,604 813 20 205 NoNo
Tropicana Las Vegas Casino and Resort(1)(3)
Las Vegas, NVCasino and Resort202237,904 597 33 1,470 NoYes
Bally’s Arapahoe ParkAurora, CORacetrack/OTB Site2004— — — — YesNo
__________________________________
(1)    The properties noted above are required to be mortgaged under and are encumbered under our Credit Agreement.
(2)    These properties include Bally’s Black Hawk North Casino, Bally’s Black Hawk West Casino and Bally’s Black Hawk East Casino.
(3)    Properties leased from GLPI. Refer to Note 15 “Leases” for further information.

As of December 31, 2022, Bally’s had approximately 285,000 square feet of office space, including the corporate headquarters located in Providence, Rhode Island. Our interactive businesses operate primarily in leased office space located in the UK, Malta, Canada, US, Estonia, Sweden, Gibraltar, Isle of Man, Philippines, Hong Kong and Ceuta.

ITEM 3.    LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

We are party to various legal proceedings which have arisen in the normal course of our business. Such proceedings can be costly, time consuming and unpredictable and, therefore, no assurance can be given that the final outcome of such proceedings will not materially impact our consolidated financial condition or results of operations. While we maintain insurance coverage that we believe is adequate to mitigate the risks of such proceedings, no assurance can be given that the amount or scope of existing insurance coverage will be sufficient to cover losses arising from such matters. Estimated losses are accrued for these proceedings when the loss is probable and can be estimated. The current liability for the estimated losses associated with these proceedings is not material to our consolidated financial condition and those estimated losses are not expected to have a material impact on our results of operations.

ITEM 4.    MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.
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PART II

ITEM 5.    MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Market Information for Our Common Stock

Our common stock is listed on the NYSE under the symbol “BALY.”

Stock Performance Graph

Our shares of common stock began trading on the NYSE on March 29, 2019. Accordingly, no comparative stock performance information is available prior to this date. The performance graph below compares the cumulative total return on our common stock to the cumulative total return of the Standard & Poor’s 500 Stock Index (“S&P 500”) and the Dow Jones US Gambling Index. The performance graph assumes that $100 was invested on March 29, 2019 in each of our common stock, the S&P 500 and the Dow Jones US Gambling Index, and that all dividends were reinvested. The stock price performance shown in this graph is neither necessarily indicative of, nor intended to suggest, future stock price performance.


COMPARISON OF 45 MONTH CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURN*
Among Bally’s Corporation, the S&P 500 Index
and the Dow Jones US Gambling Index
baly-20221231_g2.jpg
*$100 invested on March 29, 2019 in stock or index, including reinvestment of dividends.
Fiscal year ending December 31.
Copyright© 2023 Standard & Poor’s, a division of S&P Global. All rights reserved.
Copyright© 2023 S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC, a division of S&P Global. All rights reserved.

Dividend Policy

We do not currently intend to pay any dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future. Any future determinations relating to our dividend policies will be made at the discretion of our Board and will depend on conditions then existing, including our financial condition, results of operations, contractual restrictions, capital and regulatory requirements and other factors our Board may deem relevant.

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Holders

At February 14, 2023, there were 240 holders of record of our common stock, although we believe there are a significantly larger number of beneficial owners of our common stock because many shares are held by brokers and other institutions on behalf of shareholders.

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

On June 14, 2019, we announced that the Board approved a capital return program (the “Capital Return Program”) under which we may expend a total of up to $250 million for a share repurchase program and payment of dividends. On February 10, 2020 and October 4, 2021, the Board approved an additional $100 million and $350 million for stock repurchases and payment of dividends, respectively. Share repurchases may be effected in various ways, which could include open-market or private repurchase transactions, accelerated share repurchase programs, tender offers or other transactions. The amount, timing and terms of any capital transactions will be determined based on prevailing market conditions and other factors, and may be suspended or discontinued at any time. There is no fixed time period to complete the capital returns.

The following table provides information about share repurchases made by the Company of its common stock during the quarter ended December 31, 2022 (in thousands, except Average Price Paid per Share):

PeriodTotal Number of Shares PurchasedAverage Price Paid per ShareTotal Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or ProgramsMaximum Number of Shares that May Yet be Purchased Under the Plans or Programs
October 1, 2022 - October 31, 202250$19.81 50$214,392 
November 1, 2022 - November 30, 202233724.02 337206,296 
December 1, 2022 - December 31, 202251622.76 516194,558 
903$23.07 
(a)
903$194,558 
__________________________________
(a)    Weighted-average.

Changes to Authorized Shares

On May 18, 2021, following receipt of required shareholder approvals, the Company amended its Certificate of Incorporation to increase the number of authorized shares of common stock from 100 million to 200 million, and to authorize the issuance of up to 10 million shares of preferred stock. As of December 31, 2022, no shares of preferred stock have been issued.

ITEM 6.    [RESERVED]

ITEM 7.    MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations together with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes and other financial information included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Some of the information contained in this discussion and analysis or set forth elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including information with respect to our plans and strategy for our business, includes forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. You should review Item 1A. “Risk Factors” and “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for a discussion of important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from the results described in or implied by the forward-looking statements contained in the following discussion and analysis.

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Executive Overview

During 2022, we continued to grow our business by actively pursuing the acquisition and development of new gaming opportunities and reinvesting in our existing operations. We completed our acquisition of Tropicana Las Vegas, providing us with a presence on the Las Vegas Strip. We signed an agreement to develop Bally’s Chicago, a flagship destination casino resort in downtown Chicago, Illinois. We made significant progress on our capital improvement and expansion projects at our Bally’s Atlantic City, Bally’s Lincoln, and Bally’s Kansas City properties focusing on enhancing amenities to improve the customer experience. We launched Bally Casino, an iCasino app, and Bally Bet Sportsbook & Casino, our first combined casino and sportsbook app. These steps continue to position us as a prominent, full-service, vertically integrated iGaming company, with physical casinos and online gaming solutions united under a single, leading brand.

Acquisitions and Development Projects

Our acquisitions and business development projects are summarized above in “Our Strategy and Business Developments” section above and in Note 6 “Business Combinations” to our consolidated financial statements presented in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Macroeconomic and Other Factors

Our business is subject to risks caused by global economic challenges, including those caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, the impact of the war in Ukraine, rising inflation, rising interest rates and supply-chain disruptions, that can cause economic uncertainty and volatility. These challenges can negatively impact discretionary consumer spending and could result in a reduction in visitors to our properties, including those that stay in our hotels, or discretionary spending by our customers on entertainment and leisure activities. In addition, inflation generally affects our business by increasing our cost of labor. In periods of sustained inflation, it may be difficult to effectively control such increases to our costs and retain key personnel.
Key Performance Indicators

The key performance indicator used in managing our business is adjusted earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (“Adjusted EBITDA”), a non-GAAP measure. Adjusted EBITDA is defined as earnings for the Company, or where noted its reporting segments, before, in each case, interest expense, net of interest income, provision (benefit) for income taxes, depreciation and amortization, non-operating income, acquisition and other transaction related costs, share-based compensation and certain other gains or losses as well as, when presented for our reporting segments, an adjustment related to the allocation of corporate cost among segments.

We use Adjusted EBITDA to analyze the performance of our business and it is used as a determining factor for performance based compensation for members of our management team. We have historically used Adjusted EBITDA when evaluating operating performance because we believe that the inclusion or exclusion of certain recurring and non-recurring items is necessary to provide a more fulsome understanding of our core operating results and as a means to evaluate period-to-period performance. Also, we present Adjusted EBITDA because it is used by some investors and creditors as an indicator of the strength and performance of ongoing business operations, including our ability to service debt, and to fund capital expenditures, acquisitions and operations. These calculations are commonly used as a basis for investors, analysts and credit rating agencies to evaluate and compare operating performance and value companies within our industry. Adjusted EBITDA information is presented because management believes that it is a commonly used measure of performance in the gaming industry and that it is considered by many to be a key indicator of our operating results.

Adjusted EBITDAR is used outside of our financial statements solely as a valuation metric. Adjusted EBITDAR is defined as Adjusted EBITDA for our Casinos & Resorts segment plus rent expense associated with triple net operating leases. Adjusted EBITDAR is an additional metric used by analysts in valuing gaming companies subject to triple net leases since it eliminates the effects of variability in leasing methods and capital structures. This metric is included as supplemental disclosure because (i) we believe Adjusted EBITDAR is used by gaming operator analysts and investors to determine the equity value of gaming operators and (ii) financial analysts refer to Adjusted EBITDAR when valuing our business. We believe Adjusted EBITDAR is useful for equity valuation purposes because (i) its calculation isolates the effects of financing real estate, and (ii) using a multiple of Adjusted EBITDAR to calculate enterprise value allows for an adjustment to the balance sheet to recognize estimated liabilities arising from operating leases related to real estate.

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Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDAR should not be construed as an alternative to net income, the most directly comparable GAAP measure, as an indicator of our performance. In addition, Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDAR as used by us may not be defined in the same manner as other companies in our industry, and, as a result, may not be comparable to similarly titled non-GAAP financial measures of other companies. Adjusted EBITDAR should not be viewed as a measure of overall operating performance or considered in isolation or as an alternative to net income, because it excludes the rent expense associated with our triple net operating leases with GLPI and the lease for real estate and land underlying the operations of the Bally’s Lake Tahoe property.

Beginning in the third quarter ended September 30, 2022, we revised our calculation of Adjusted EBITDA to exclude adjustments for launch costs and preopening expenses. The tables below within “Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDAR by Segment” have been revised to reflect this new presentation for applicable periods.

Results of Operations
The following table presents, for the periods indicated, certain revenue and income items:
 Years Ended December 31,
(In millions)202220212020
Total revenue$2,255.7 $1,322.4 $372.8 
(Loss) income from operations(293.0)93.4 (18.4)
Net loss(425.5)(114.7)(5.5)
The following table presents, for the periods indicated, certain income and expense items expressed as a percentage of total revenue:
 Years Ended December 31,
 202220212020
Total revenue100.0 %100.0 %100.0 %
Gaming and non-gaming expenses44.7 %40.5 %37.2 %
General and administrative34.4 %41.2 %55.3 %
Impairment charges20.6 %0.4 %2.3 %
Depreciation and amortization13.3 %10.9 %10.2 %
Total operating costs and expenses113.0 %92.9 %104.9 %
(Loss) income from operations(13.0)%7.1 %(4.9)%
Other income (expense):   
Interest expense, net(9.2)%(8.9)%(16.8)%
Other non-operating expenses, net2.1 %(7.1)%1.7 %
Total other expense, net(7.2)%(16.1)%(15.1)%
Loss before provision for income taxes(20.1)%(9.0)%(20.1)%
Benefit for income taxes(1.3)%(0.3)%(18.6)%
Net loss(18.9)%(8.7)%(1.5)%
__________________________________
Note: Amounts in table may not subtotal due to rounding.

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Segment Information

The Company has three reportable segments: Casinos & Resorts, North America Interactive and International Interactive. Refer to “Our Operating Structure” in Part I, Item 1 “Business” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and Note 21 “Segment Reporting” to our consolidated financial statements presented in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information on our segment reporting structure . The following table sets forth certain financial information associated with results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020. Non-gaming revenue includes hotel, food and beverage and retail, entertainment and other revenue. Non-gaming expenses include hotel, food and beverage and retail, entertainment and other expenses.
Years Ended December 31,2022 over 20212021 over 2020
(In thousands, except percentages)202220212020$ Change$ Change
Revenue:
Gaming
Casinos & Resorts$907,431 $803,940 $298,070 $103,491 $505,870 
North America Interactive38,759 10,442 — 28,317 10,442 
International Interactive899,934 239,110 — 660,824 239,110 
Total Gaming revenue1,846,124 1,053,492 298,070 792,632 755,422 
Non-gaming     
Casinos & Resorts320,132 228,888 74,722 91,244 154,166 
North America Interactive42,941 27,910 — 15,031 27,910 
International Interactive46,508 12,153 — 34,355 12,153 
Total Non-gaming revenue409,581 268,951 74,722 140,630 194,229 
Total revenue$2,255,705 $1,322,443 $372,792 $933,262 $949,651 
Operating costs and expenses:     
Gaming     
Casinos & Resorts$313,569 $263,751 $95,901 $49,818 $167,850 
North America Interactive48,018 10,721 — 37,297 10,721 
International Interactive451,331 132,560 — 318,771 132,560 
Total Gaming expenses812,918 407,032 95,901 405,886 311,131 
Non-gaming     
Casinos & Resorts147,575 110,090 42,768 37,485 67,322 
North America Interactive14,538 9,299 — 5,239 9,299 
International Interactive34,205 8,658 — 25,547 8,658 
Total Non-gaming expenses196,318 128,047 42,768 68,271 85,279 
General and administrative     
Casinos & Resorts460,163 343,639 173,249 116,524 170,390 
North America Interactive113,913 46,908 — 67,005 46,908 
International Interactive149,168 43,015 — 106,153 43,015 
Other51,696 110,959 32,759 (59,263)78,200 
Total General and administrative$774,940 $544,521 $206,008 $230,419 $338,513 
Margins:
Gaming expenses as a percentage of Gaming revenue44 %39 %32 %
Non-gaming expenses as a percentage of Non-gaming revenue48 %48 %57 %
General and administrative as a percentage of Total revenue34 %41 %55 %

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Year ended December 31, 2022 compared to year ended December 31, 2021

Total revenue

Our total revenue for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021 consisted of the following (in thousands):
 20222021$ Change% Change
Gaming$1,846,124 $1,053,492 $792,632 75.2 %
Hotel153,750 95,356 58,394 61.2 %
Food and beverage115,322 92,906 22,416 24.1 %
Retail, entertainment and other140,509 80,689 59,820 74.1 %
Total revenue$2,255,705 $1,322,443 $933,262 70.6 %

We saw gaming, hotel, food and beverage, and retail, entertainment and other revenues grow, as we were able to operate with fewer restrictions across our properties compared to the prior year period as a result of developments in the COVID-19 pandemic and an increase in consumer confidence. Incremental revenues from the recent acquisition of Tropicana Las Vegas and the acquisitions completed in 2021, including Gamesys, Bally’s Evansville, Bally’s Lake Tahoe, Bally’s Quad Cities and our North America Interactive acquisitions (collectively the “2021 Acquisitions”), contributed, in the aggregate, $868.7 million.

Gaming and non-gaming expenses

Gaming and non-gaming expenses for the year ended December 31, 2022 increased $405.9 million and $68.3 million, respectively, primarily due to the acquisition of Tropicana Las Vegas and our 2021 Acquisitions which contributed, in the aggregate, $419.2 million to gaming expenses and $55.1 million to non-gaming expense.

General and administrative

General and administrative expenses for the year ended December 31, 2022 increased $230.4 million from $544.5 million, in 2021, primarily due to inclusion of expenses from our acquisition of Tropicana Las Vegas and our 2021 Acquisitions which contributed, in the aggregate, $201.7 million.

Impairment Charges

In 2022, we recorded total impairment charges of $464.0 million which included $390.7 million as a result of our annual goodwill and asset impairment analysis related to our North America Interactive segment and $73.3 million in the International Interactive segment related to a long-standing indefinite lived trademark acquired as part of the Gamesys acquisition that is being de-emphasized for other newer brands in Asia and Rest of World.

Depreciation and amortization

Depreciation and amortization for the year ended December 31, 2022 was $300.6 million, compared to $144.8 million in 2021 driven by the inclusion of incremental expense from our acquisition of Tropicana Las Vegas and our 2021 Acquisitions, which contributed, in the aggregate, $159.4 million year-over-year.

Income (loss) from operations

Loss from operations was $293.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 compared to income from operations of $93.4 million in 2021. This change year-over-year was primarily driven by the impairment charges noted above, partially offset by an overall benefit of $14.7 million from our acquisition of Tropicana Las Vegas and our 2021 Acquisitions.

Other (income) expense

Total other expense, net decreased to $161.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 from $212.5 million in 2021. This decrease was driven by a loss on extinguishment of debt in the prior year of $103.0 million in connection with the termination of our obligations under our prior revolving credit facility and prior term loan facility and the redemption of our 6.75% senior notes due 2027 in connection with our credit facility entered into on October 1, 2021, coupled with a foreign exchange loss of $33.5 million in the prior year, compared to a gain of $0.5 million in 2022. These decreases were offset by increased interest expense on our debt due to the timing of borrowings and interest rates.

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Benefit for income taxes

Benefit for income taxes for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021 was $28.9 million and $4.4 million, respectively. The effective tax rate for the year ended December 31, 2022 was 6.4% compared to 3.7% in 2021. The increase in the effective tax rate was due to increases in state tax expense and nondeductible costs related to the acquisition of Gamesys during 2021 offset by the impact of a current year goodwill impairment charge and a valuation allowance established associated with the potential to not be able to utilize certain deferred tax assets in the future. Lower bargain purchase gains activity and less CARES act related tax benefits in 2022 as compared to 2021 also contributed to the increase in the effective tax rate.

Net loss and loss per share

Net loss for the year ended December 31, 2022 was $425.5 million compared to $114.7 million in 2021. As a percentage of revenue, net loss increased from 8.7% for the year ended December 31, 2021 to a net loss of 18.9% for the year ended December 31, 2022. Diluted loss per share for the year ended December 31, 2022 and 2021 was $7.32 and $2.31, respectively, and was impacted by the factors noted above.

Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDAR by Segment

Consolidated Adjusted EBITDA was $548.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2022, an increase of $218.6 million, or 66.3%, from $329.9 million in 2021.

Adjusted EBITDA for the Casinos & Resorts segment for the year ended December 31, 2022 increased $27.9 million, or 8.8%, to $345.6 million from $317.7 million in 2021. Casinos & Resorts Adjusted EBITDAR was $398.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2022, which further adjusts Adjusted EBITDA for rent expense associated with our operating leases, as defined below. The growth in 2022 was primarily driven by increases in customer volumes at certain casino properties, partially offset by local regulatory changes, such as smoking bans, adversely impacting the performance of certain other properties.

Adjusted EBITDA for the North America Interactive segment for the year ended December 31, 2022 was $(65.7) million compared to $(12.4) million in 2021. The decrease from prior year is attributable to the acquisition of various businesses throughout 2021, as well as costs of launching in new markets.

Adjusted EBITDA for the International Interactive segment for the year ended December 31, 2022 increased $251.7 million, or 359.9%, to $321.7 million from $69.9 million in 2021, directly attributable to our acquisition of Gamesys on October 1, 2021.

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The following tables reconcile Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDAR, non-GAAP measures, to net income, as derived from our financial statements (in thousands):

Year Ended December 31. 2022 (in thousands)
Casinos & ResortsNorth America InteractiveInternational InteractiveOtherTotal
Net income (loss)$182,574 $(428,099)$69,498 $(249,519)$(425,546)
Interest expense, net of interest income43 (17)(212)208,339 208,153 
Provision (benefit) for income taxes57,657 (82,788)(3,320)(472)(28,923)
Depreciation and amortization65,982 26,823 174,180 33,574 300,559 
Non-operating (income) expense(1)
— 122 (2,707)(43,591)(46,176)
Foreign exchange (gain) loss, net— (1,466)977 (27)(516)
Transaction costs(2)
6,079 16,182 9,484 53,859 85,604 
Share-based compensation— — — 27,912 27,912 
Gain on sale-leaseback(50,766)— — — (50,766)
Impairment charges— 390,656 73,322 — 463,978 
Planned business divestiture(3)
— 5,585 — — 5,585 
Other, net(4)
1,719 4,926 429 1,577 8,651 
Allocation of corporate costs82,329 2,347 — (84,676)— 
Adjusted EBITDA$345,617 $(65,729)$321,651 $(53,024)$548,515 
Rent expense associated with triple net operating leases (5)
53,313 
Adjusted EBITDAR$398,930 
__________________________________
(1)    Non-operating (income) expense for the applicable periods include: (i) change in value of naming rights liabilities, (ii) adjustment on bargain purchases and, (iii) other (income) expense, net.
(2)    Includes acquisition costs, integration costs related to our Interactive business, financing related expenses, Bally’s Chicago costs, and restructuring costs.
(3)    Losses related to a North America Interactive business that Bally’s is marketing as held-for-sale as of December 31, 2022.
(4)    Other includes the following non-recurring items: (i) non-routine legal expenses, net of recoveries for matters outside the normal course of business, (ii) rebranding expenses in connection with Bally’s corporate name change, and (vi) other individually de minimis expenses.
(5)    Consists of the operating lease components contained within our triple net master lease dated June 4, 2021 with GLPI for the real estate assets used in the operation of Bally’s Evansville, Bally’s Dover, Bally’s Quad Cities and Bally’s Black Hawk, the individual triple net lease with GLPI for the land underlying the operations of Tropicana Las Vegas, and the triple net lease assumed in connection with the acquisition of Bally’s Lake Tahoe for real estate and land underlying the operations of the Bally’s Lake Tahoe facility.


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Year Ended December 31, 2021 (in thousands)
Casinos & ResortsNorth America InteractiveInternational InteractiveOtherTotal
Net income (loss)$186,287 $(36,879)$24,337 $(288,442)$(114,697)
Interest expense, net of interest income37 (15)(27)117,929 117,924 
Provision (benefit) for income taxes72,128 (8,281)(4,261)(63,963)(4,377)
Depreciation and amortization54,120 18,096 46,341 26,229 144,786 
Non-operating (income)(1)
— — (3)61,074 61,071 
Foreign exchange loss, net— 355 643 32,463 33,461 
Transaction costs(2)
— 12,682 1,444 70,417 84,543 
Share-based compensation— — — 20,143 20,143 
Gain on sale-leaseback(53,425)— — — (53,425)
Contract termination expense— — — 30,000 30,000 
Impairment charges4,675 — — — 4,675 
Other, net(3)
(16,334)— 1,470 20,662 5,798 
Allocation of corporate costs70,217 1,629 — (71,846)— 
Adjusted EBITDA$317,705 $