0001193125-21-203982.txt : 20210630 0001193125-21-203982.hdr.sgml : 20210630 20210630080026 ACCESSION NUMBER: 0001193125-21-203982 CONFORMED SUBMISSION TYPE: 20-F PUBLIC DOCUMENT COUNT: 132 CONFORMED PERIOD OF REPORT: 20210331 FILED AS OF DATE: 20210630 DATE AS OF CHANGE: 20210630 FILER: COMPANY DATA: COMPANY CONFORMED NAME: MOGU Inc. CENTRAL INDEX KEY: 0001743971 STANDARD INDUSTRIAL CLASSIFICATION: SERVICES-BUSINESS SERVICES, NEC [7389] IRS NUMBER: 000000000 STATE OF INCORPORATION: E9 FISCAL YEAR END: 0331 FILING VALUES: FORM TYPE: 20-F SEC ACT: 1934 Act SEC FILE NUMBER: 001-38748 FILM NUMBER: 211060454 BUSINESS ADDRESS: STREET 1: HUANGLONG WANKE CENTER, 23/F, BLDG NO.G STREET 2: NO. 77 XUEYUAN ROAD, XIHU DISTRICT CITY: HANGZHOU STATE: F4 ZIP: 310012 BUSINESS PHONE: 8657188867550 MAIL ADDRESS: STREET 1: HUANGLONG WANKE CENTER, 23/F, BLDG NO.G STREET 2: NO. 77 XUEYUAN ROAD, XIHU DISTRICT CITY: HANGZHOU STATE: F4 ZIP: 310012 FORMER COMPANY: FORMER CONFORMED NAME: Meili Inc. DATE OF NAME CHANGE: 20180619 20-F 1 d160021d20f.htm FORM 20-F Form 20-F
false2021FY0001743971Receivables from third party payment service providers represent cash due from the Group’s third party on-line payment service providers in relation to their processing of payments to the Group. As of March 31, 2020 and 2021, no allowance for doubtful accounts was provided for these receivables.The Company received initial reimbursement payment of US$935 (RMB6,297) from depositary bank in January 2019. The amount was recorded ratably as other income over a 5 year arrangement period. For the year ended March 31, 2020 and 2021, the Company has recorded RMB1,303 and RMB1,267 in other income. For the year ended March 31, 2021, the Group received an additional reimbursement payment of US$1,638 (RMB10,829) from depositary bank for the transaction costs incurred in the prior years and the amount was recorded in other income.Goodwill impairmentThe customer deposits mainly represent the cash deposits as collateral collected from the merchants of the online platform. The deposit can be withdrawn immediately after the merchants terminate its online shop on the platform.The receipts under custody mainly represent the amounts received by the Group from the registered users for their purchase through the Company’s online market platform, and have not been remitted to the third-party merchants yet.Merchant penalty income represents the penalties charged to the merchants that have quality and/or service issues based on the agreements with the merchants. The Company may use the penalty received from the merchants to settle the users’ complaints. The penalties are therefore recorded in other payables when received and recognized as other income when the Company considers the possibility of the penalty to be paid out is remote.On August 8, 2020, the Group entered into an agreement with a third-party company to purchase an office building located in Hangzhou, China for a total consideration of RMB209,000. The building is under construction and is scheduled to be completed and delivered to the Group in 2023. As of March 31, 2021, the Group has paid RMB146,300 for the office building purchase. 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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
 
 
Form
20-F
 
 
(Mark One)
REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR 12(g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
OR
 
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended March 31, 2021.
OR
 
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
OR
 
SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Date of event requiring this shell company report 
            
    
    
For the transition period from
        
    
    
    
to
        
    
    
    
Commission file number:
001-38748
 
 
MOGU Inc.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
 
 
N/A
(Translation of Registrant’s name into English)
Cayman Islands
(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
Huanglong Wanke Center, 23/F, Building No. G, No. 77 Xueyuan Road
Xihu District,
Hangzhou
, 310012
People’s Republic of China
(Address of principal executive offices)
Qi Feng, Financial Controller
Huanglong Wanke Center, 23/F, Building No. G, No. 77 Xueyuan Road
Xihu District,
Hangzhou
, 310012
People’s Republic of China
Tel: +86 571 8530 8201
Email: ir@mogu.com
(Name, Telephone, Email and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)
 
 
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
Title of each class
 
Trading
Symbol(s)
 
Name of each exchange
on which registered
American depositary shares (one American depositary share representing 25 Class A ordinary shares, par value US$0.00001 per share)
Class A ordinary shares, par value
US$0.00001 per share
*
 
MOGU
 
The New York Stock Exchange
(The New York Stock Exchange)
 
*
No
t for trading, but only in connection with the listing on The New York Stock Exchange of American depositary shares.
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
(Title of Class)
Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act:
None
(Title of Class)
 
 
Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report: 2,215,043,400 Class A ordinary shares, par value US$0.00001 per share, and 303,234,004 Class B ordinary shares, par value US$0.00001 per share, were outstanding as of March 31, 2021.
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
     ☐  Yes    ☒  
No
If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
.    ☐  Yes    ☒  
No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days
.    ☒  
Yes
    ☐  No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation
S-T
(§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    ☒  Yes    ☐  No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a
non-accelerated
filer, or an emerging growth company. See definition of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “emerging growth company” in
Rule 12b-2
of the Exchange Act.
 
Large accelerated filer  ☐
 
 
  
Accelerated filer
  ☒
 
                    
 
Non-accelerated filer  ☐
 
 
 
Emerging growth company  
             
 
 
 
  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  
 
The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.  
Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:
 
U.S. GAAP
  ☒
 
        International Financial Reporting Standards as issued
 
 
  
 
  
Other  ☐
 
 
        by the International Accounting Standards Board    ☐
 
 
  
 
  
 
If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow.    ☐  Item 17    ☐  Item 18
If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in
Rule 12b-2
of the Exchange Act).    ☐  Yes      No
(APPLICABLE ONLY TO ISSUERS INVOLVED IN BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS DURING THE PAST FIVE YEARS)
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed all documents and reports required to be filed by Sections 12, 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 subsequent to the distribution of securities under a plan confirmed by a court.    ☐  Yes    ☐  No
 
 
 

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
 
  
 
1
 
  
 
3
 
 
 
  
 
4
 
ITEM 1
 
  
 
4
 
ITEM 2
 
  
 
4
 
ITEM 3
 
  
 
4
 
ITEM 4
 
  
 
47
 
Item 4A.
 
  
 
76
 
Item 5.
 
  
 
76
 
Item 6.
 
  
 
95
 
Item 7.
 
  
 
103
 
Item 8.
 
  
 
105
 
Item 9.
 
  
 
106
 
Item 10.
 
  
 
107
 
Item 11.
 
  
 
121
 
Item 12.
 
  
 
122
 
 
 
  
 
125
 
Item 13.
 
  
 
125
 
Item 14.
 
  
 
125
 
Item 15.
 
  
 
125
 
Item 16A.
 
  
 
127
 
Item 16B.
 
  
 
127
 
Item 16C.
 
  
 
127
 
Item 16D.
 
  
 
127
 
Item 16E.
 
  
 
127
 
Item 16F.
 
  
 
128
 
Item 16G.
 
  
 
128
 
Item 16H.
 
  
 
128
 
 
 
  
 
129
 
Item 17.
 
  
 
129
 
Item 18.
 
  
 
129
 
Item 19.
 
  
 
129
 
 
 
  
 
131
 
 
i

INTRODUCTION
Unless otherwise indicated or the context otherwise requires, references in this annual report to:
 
   
“active buyer through LVB” in a given period are to registered user account that placed one or more orders in one of the LVB channels on our platform, regardless of whether the ordered products are sold, delivered or returned (If a buyer registered two or more user accounts on our platform and placed orders on our platform through those different registered user accounts, the number of active buyers would, under this methodology, be counted as the number of the registered user accounts that such buyer used to place the orders);
 
   
“ADRs” are to the American depositary receipts which may evidence the ADSs;
 
   
“ADSs” are to our American depositary shares, each of which represents 25 Class A ordinary shares;
 
   
“Beijing Meilishikong” or “Meilishikong” are to Beijing Meilishikong Network and Technology Co., Ltd.;
 
   
“BVI” are to the British Virgin Islands;
 
   
“China” or the “PRC” are to the People’s Republic of China, excluding, for the purposes of this annual report only, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan;
 
   
“Class A ordinary shares” are to our Class A ordinary shares, par value US$0.00001 per share;
 
   
“Class B ordinary shares” are to our Class B ordinary shares, par value US$0.00001 per share;
 
   
“established LVB host” are to LVB host above a certain level of fan following and product sales in our LVB host incubation system;
 
   
“KOL” are to key opinion leader;
 
   
“GMV” are to gross merchandise volume, which is the total value of orders placed on our platform regardless of whether the products are sold, delivered or returned, calculated based on the listed prices of the ordered products without taking into consideration any discounts on the listed prices. Buyers on our platform are not charged for shipping fees in addition to the listed price of a product. If merchants include certain shipping fees in the listed price of a product, such shipping fees will be included in our GMV. As a prudent matter aimed at eliminating any influence on our GMV of irregular transactions, we exclude from our calculation of GMV transactions over a certain amount (RMB100,000) and transactions by users over a certain amount (RMB1,000,000) per day;
 
   
“Hangzhou Juangua” are to Hangzhou Juangua Network Co., Ltd.;
 
   
“Hangzhou Shiqu” are to Hangzhou Shiqu Information and Technology Co., Ltd.;
 
   
“LVB” are to live video broadcast;
 
   
“MOGU,” “we,” “us,” “our company” and “our” are to MOGU Inc., our Cayman Islands holding company and its subsidiaries, its consolidated affiliated entities and the subsidiaries of the consolidated affiliated entities;
 
   
“Meilishuo Beijing” are to Meilishuo (Beijing) Network Technology Co., Ltd.;
 
   
“our VIEs” are to Hangzhou Juangua Network Co., Ltd. and Beijing Meilishikong Network and Technology Co., Ltd.;
 
1

   
“RMB” and “Renminbi” are to the legal currency of China; and
 
   
“US$,” “U.S. dollars,” “$,” and “dollars” are to the legal currency of the United States.
Unless otherwise noted, all translations from Renminbi to U.S. dollars and from U.S. dollars to Renminbi in this annual report are made at a rate of RMB6.5518 to US$1.0000, the exchange rate in effect as of March 31, 2021 as set forth in the H.10 statistical release of The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. We make no representation that any Renminbi or U.S. dollar amounts could have been, or could be, converted into U.S. dollars or Renminbi, as the case may be, at any particular rate, or at all.
We have prepared our financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Our fiscal year ends on March 31 and references to fiscal years 2019, 2020 and 2021 are to the fiscal years ended March 31, 2019, 2020 and 2021, respectively.
 
2

FORWARD-LOOKING INFORMATION
This annual report contains forward-looking statements that relate to our current expectations and views of future events. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. These statements are made under the “safe harbor” provisions of the U.S. Private Securities Litigations Reform Act of 1995.
You can identify some of these forward-looking statements by words or phrases such as “may,” “will,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “aim,” “estimate,” “intend,” “plan,” “believe,” “is/are likely to,” “potential,” “continue” or other similar expressions. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy and financial needs. These forward-looking statements include statements relating to:
 
   
our mission, goals and strategies;
 
   
our future business development, financial conditions and results of operations;
 
   
the expected growth of the online retail and fashion industries in China;
 
   
our expectations regarding demand for and market acceptance of our products and services;
 
   
our expectations regarding keeping and strengthening our relationships with users, KOLs, merchants, brand and strategic partners and other stakeholders;
 
   
competition in our industry;
 
   
our proposed use of proceeds; and
 
   
relevant government policies and regulations relating to our industry.
You should read this annual report and the documents that we refer to in this annual report and have filed as exhibits to this annual report completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. Other sections of this annual report discuss factors which could adversely impact our business and financial performance. Moreover, we operate in an evolving environment. New risk factors emerge from time to time and it is not possible for our management to predict all risk factors, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.
You should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. The forward-looking statements made in this annual report relate only to events or information as of the date on which the statements are made in this annual report. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, after the date on which the statements are made or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events.
 
3

PART I
 
ITEM 1
IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS
Not applicable.
 
ITEM 2
OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE
Not applicable.
 
ITEM 3
KEY INFORMATION
A.    
Selected Financial Data
The following table presents the selected consolidated financial information for our company. The selected consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive loss data for the years ended March 31, 2019, 2020 and 2021, selected consolidated balance sheet data as of March 31, 2020 and 2021, and selected consolidated cash flow data for the years ended March 31, 2019, 2020 and 2021 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements, which are included in this annual report beginning on page
F-1.
The selected consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive loss data for the years ended March 31, 2017 and 2018, selected consolidated balance sheet data as of March 31, 2017, 2018 and 2019, and selected consolidated cash flow data for the years ended March 31, 2017 and 2018 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements not included in this annual report. Our consolidated financial statements are prepared and presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Our historical results do not necessarily indicate results expected for any future periods. You should read this selected consolidated financial data section together with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes and information under “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” in this annual report.
 
    
For the Year Ended March 31,
 
    
2017
   
2018
   
2019
   
2020
   
2021
 
    
RMB
   
RMB
   
RMB
   
RMB
   
RMB
   
US$
 
    
(in thousands, except for share and per share data)
 
Selected Consolidated Statement of Operations and Comprehensive Loss Data:
      
Revenues
  
 
1,109,877
 
 
 
973,207
 
 
 
1,074,278
 
 
 
835,314
 
 
 
482,392
 
 
 
73,627
 
Cost of revenues (exclusive of amortization of intangible assets shown separately below)
(1)
     (377,765     (317,725     (313,788     (293,757     (183,112     (27,948
Sales and marketing expenses
(1)
     (692,742     (747,928     (743,732     (613,183     (229,775     (35,071
Research and development expenses
(1)
     (418,496     (289,274     (236,446     (171,137     (103,474     (15,793
General and administrative expenses
(1)
     (123,404     (100,105     (168,379     (128,152     (103,038     (15,727
Amortization of intangible assets
     (440,772     (384,555     (194,874     (331,294     (341,802     (52,169
Impairment of goodwill and intangible assets
     (110,610     —         —         (1,382,149     —         —    
Other (expense)/income, net
     (17,429     18,961       8,761       11,472       49,885       7,614  
  
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
Loss from operations
  
 
(1,071,341
 
 
(847,419
 
 
(574,180
 
 
(2,072,886
 
 
(428,924
 
 
(65,467
Interest income
     24,514       33,464       33,700       29,312       19,601       2,992  
Gain/(loss) from investments, net
     —         172,219       31,236       (66,550     86,497       13,202  
Loss before income tax and share of results of equity investee
  
 
(1,046,827
 
 
(641,736
 
 
(509,244
 
 
(2,110,124
 
 
(322,826
 
 
(49,273
Income tax benefits/(expense)
     107,687       88,665       17,217       590       (5,181     (791
Share of results of equity investee
     —         (4,982     5,752       (114,104     36       5  
Net loss
  
 
(939,140
 
 
(558,053
 
 
(486,275
 
 
(2,223,638
 
 
(327,971
 
 
(50,059
Net (loss)/income attributable to
non-controlling
interests
     (3     116       —         —         —         —    
  
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
Net loss attributable to MOGU Inc.
  
 
(939,137
 
 
(558,169
 
 
(486,275
 
 
(2,223,638
 
 
(327,971
 
 
(50,059
Accretion on convertible redeemable preferred shares to redemption value
     (601,902     (688,240     (509,904     —         —         —    
Deemed dividend to holders of mezzanine equity
     —         —         (89,076     —         —         —    
  
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
 
4

    
For the Year Ended March 31,
 
    
2017
   
2018
   
2019
   
2020
   
2021
 
    
RMB
   
RMB
   
RMB
   
RMB
   
RMB
   
US$
 
Net loss attributable to MOGU Inc.’s ordinary shareholders
  
 
(1,541,039
 
 
(1,246,409
 
 
(1,085,255
 
 
(2,223,638
 
 
(327,971
 
 
(50,059
  
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
Net loss per share attributable to ordinary shareholders
            
Basic
     (2.77     (2.26     (0.87     (0.82     (0.12     (0.02
Diluted
     (2.77     (2.26     (0.87     (0.82     (0.12     (0.02
Weighted average number of shares used in computing net loss per share
            
Basic
     555,729,818       550,793,455       1,247,998,533       2,718,827,977       2,630,425,361       2,630,425,361  
Diluted
     555,729,818       550,793,455       1,247,998,533       2,718,827,977       2,630,425,361       2,630,425,361  
 
Notes:
 
(1)
Share-based compensation expenses were allocated as follows:
 
    
For the Year Ended March 31,
 
    
2017
   
2018
   
2019
   
2020
   
2021
 
    
RMB
   
RMB
   
RMB
   
RMB
   
RMB
   
US$
 
    
(in thousands)
 
Cost of revenues
     (5,342     (4,619     (13,916     2,747       (2,464     (376
Sales and marketing expenses
     (2,607     (2,450     (9,558     (7,927     (5,416     (827
Research and development expenses
     (7,801     (6,016     (15,161     (9,265     (3,940     (601
General and administrative expenses
     (4,988     (3,751     (64,433     (17,740     (14,475     (2,209
  
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
Total
     (20,738     (16,836     (103,068     (32,185     (26,295     (4,013
  
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
The following table presents our selected consolidated balance sheet data as of March 31, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020 and 2021:
 
    
As of March 31,
 
    
2017
   
2018
   
2019
    
2020
    
2021
 
    
RMB
   
RMB
   
RMB
    
RMB
    
RMB
    
US$
 
    
(in thousands)
 
Selected Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:
               
Cash and cash equivalents
     1,270,289       1,224,393       1,276,710        856,567        542,076        82,737  
Restricted cash
     1,206       1,004       1,006        807        808        123  
Short-term investments
     400,583       130,000       212,000        238,000        260,245        39,721  
Inventories, net
     4,098       110       5,042        2,926        240        37  
Loan receivables, net
     149,106       104,247       120,901        113,111        99,965        15,258  
Prepayments and other current assets
     650,048       188,862       161,249        99,108        77,679        11,855  
Amounts due from related parties
     420       7,179       1,789        57        6,061        925  
  
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Total current assets
  
 
2,475,750
 
 
 
1,655,795
 
 
 
1,778,697
 
  
 
1,310,576
 
  
 
987,074
 
  
 
150,656
 
  
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Property, equipment and software, net
     99,689       16,511       11,975        14,109        10,780        1,645  
Intangible assets, net
     500,905       116,770       1,001,967        813,011        426,005        65,021  
Goodwill.
     1,568,653       1,568,653       1,568,653        186,504        186,504        28,466  
Investments
     10,935       201,037       241,721        102,373        66,382        10,132  
Other
non-current
assets
     28,521       18,755       763        14,183        163,111        24,896  
  
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Total
non-current
assets
  
 
2,208,703
 
 
 
1,921,726
 
 
 
2,825,079
 
  
 
1,130,180
 
  
 
852,782
 
  
 
130,160
 
  
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Total assets
  
 
4,684,453
 
 
 
3,577,521
 
 
 
4,603,776
 
  
 
2,440,756
 
  
 
1,839,856
 
  
 
280,816
 
  
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Accounts payable
     11,104       12,270       17,989        17,080        19,938        3,044  
Salaries and welfare payable
     36,626       20,654       22,112        6,032        4,349        664  
Advances from customers
     236       37       1,177        103        77        12  
Taxes payable
     4,510       8,523       5,844        6,342        1,558        238  
Amounts due to related parties
     2,467       20,103       9,393        12,018        6,234        951  
Accruals and other current liabilities
     1,019,037       608,486       492,385        393,536        333,127        50,845  
  
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Total current liabilities
  
 
1,073,980
 
 
 
670,073
 
 
 
548,900
 
  
 
435,111
 
  
 
365,283
 
  
 
55,754
 
  
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Total liabilities
  
 
1,188,568
 
 
 
695,306
 
 
 
556,107
 
  
 
460,284
 
  
 
384,960
 
  
 
58,757
 
Total mezzanine equity
  
 
6,696,632
 
 
 
7,384,872
 
 
 
—  
 
  
 
—  
 
  
 
—  
 
  
 
—    
 
Total shareholders’ (deficit)/equity
  
 
(3,200,747
 
 
(4,502,657
 
 
4,047,669
 
  
 
1,980,472
 
  
 
1,454,896
 
  
 
222,059
 
  
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Total liabilities, mezzanine equity and shareholders’ equity
  
 
4,684,453
 
 
 
3,577,521
 
 
 
4,603,776
 
  
 
2,440,756
 
  
 
1,839,856
 
  
 
280,816
 
  
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
 
5

The following table presents our selected consolidated cash flow data for the years ended March 31, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020 and 2021:
 
    
For the Year Ended March 31,
 
    
2017
   
2018
   
2019
   
2020
   
2021
 
    
RMB
   
RMB
   
RMB
   
RMB
   
RMB
   
US$
 
    
(in thousands)
 
Selected Consolidated Cash Flow Data:
            
Net cash used in operating activities
     (832,497     (314,862     (325,808     (311,789     (77,931     (11,895
Net cash (used in)/provided by investing activities
     (541,637     340,461       (82,836     (113,150     (96,663     (14,754
Net cash provided by/(used in) financing activities
     194,964       7,136       414,872       (29,332     (119,249     (18,201
Effect of foreign exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash
     96,010       (78,833     46,091       33,929       (20,647     (3,151
Net (decrease)/increase in cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash
     (1,083,160     (46,098     52,319       (420,342     (314,490     (48,001
Cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash at beginning of year
     2,354,655       1,271,495       1,225,397       1,277,716       857,374       130,861  
Cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash at end of year
     1,271,495       1,225,397       1,277,716       857,374       542,884       82,860  
B.    
Capitalization and Indebtedness
Not applicable.
C.    
Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds
Not applicable.
 
D.
Risk Factors
Risks Related to Our Business and Industry
Our limited operating history across our new business initiatives makes it difficult to evaluate our business prospects.
We have a limited operating history across some of our new business initiatives, including focusing our platform on the provision of fashion content in rich media formats, our emphasis on live video broadcasts and other engaging socially-oriented sales methods, the development and offerings of new forms of commissions and marketing services, other new service offerings targeting different customer bases and user behaviors as well as the expansion and elevation of the supply chain of our fashion ecosystem, in particular our effects to optimate the fashion product supply chain and support deep collaboration between merchants and key opinion leaders on our platform. As a result, our historical performance may not be indicative of our future financial results. In addition, we may continue to introduce and implement new business strategies and initiatives as we continue to respond to changing market trends and user preferences. We cannot assure you that we will be able to successfully implement our new business initiatives or achieve our expected growth rate, or at all, as our business model continues to evolve in the future. Our overall business growth may continue to be negative, and our revenues may continue to decline for a number of possible reasons, some of which are beyond our control, including decreasing consumer spending, increasing competition, declining growth of our overall market or industry, the emergence of alternative business models, changes in rules, regulations, government policies or general economic conditions. Moreover, we may not have sufficient resources to address the risks associated with operating in rapidly evolving markets. If we fail to achieve growth or if our new business initiatives fail to yield positive user acceptance or economic returns as expected or if such initiatives cause any material disruption to our business model, investors’ perceptions of our business and prospects may be materially and adversely affected and the market price of the ADSs could decline. You should consider our prospects in light of the risks and uncertainties that companies with a limited operating history may encounter.
 
6

If we are unable to execute our monetization and other operational strategies effectively, our business and prospects may be materially and adversely affected.
To achieve growth, we will need to, among other things, continue to strengthen our brand, grow our user base in a cost effective manner, enhance user experience, expand our content and product offerings, and strengthen our ability to successfully monetize our user base and products and services. However, we cannot assure you that we will be able to execute any of such strategies for monetization and business expansion successfully. We recorded net loss of RMB486.3 million, RMB2,223.6 million and RMB328.0 million (US$50.1 million) for the years ended March 31, 2019, 2020 and 2021, respectively.
In addition, growth will require significant efforts and resources from our management. For instance, we need to manage and continue to manage our relationships with KOLs and merchants to ensure a sufficient and timely supply of quality content and products and to address the evolving needs of our users. Such new offerings may not achieve broad user acceptance, present new and difficult technological or operational challenges and subject us to claims if users are not satisfied with the quality of the content and products or do not have satisfactory experience in general. Also, we will need to manage our relationships with third-party service providers to ensure the efficient performance of our technology platform and continue to expand, train, manage and motivate our workforce. In addition, we will need to continue to improve our transaction processing, technological, operational and financial systems, policies, procedures and controls. All of these endeavors involve risks and will require significant management, financial and human resources. We cannot assure you that we will be able to implement our strategies successfully. If we are not able to achieve growth in our financials effectively, or at all, our business and prospects may be materially and adversely affected.
We have a limited history operating under our current
KOL-driven,
LVB-focused
business model and may be unable to achieve or sustain growth or profitability or reasonably predict our future results.
In 2019, we made a strategic decision to transition from our traditional
e-commerce
business model to our current
KOL-driven,
LVB-focused
interactive
e-commerce
model. As a result, we have become more of a facilitator between merchants and KOLs rather than directly serving our users. Although connection exists between the two business models, and we have been leveraging our existing experience and expertise in transitioning to our current business model, we still have a limited history operating under our current business model. As such, it is difficult to evaluate our current business and future prospects, which may increase the risk of your investment.
Our revenues decreased by 22.2% from RMB1,074.3 million in the year ended March 31, 2019 to RMB835.3 million in the year ended March 31, 2020, and decreased further by 42.3% from RMB835.3 million in the year ended March 31, 2020 to RMB482.4 million (US$73.6 million) in the year ended March 31, 2021. We incurred net loss of RMB2,223.6 million and RMB328.0 million (US$50.1 million) in the years ended March 31, 2020 and 2021, respectively. The restructuring of our business mix towards a
KOL-driven,
LVB-focused
business model has negatively affected our ability to achieve growth and profitability in the last two years, and we may not be able to generate enough revenue to achieve growth or profitability for the foreseeable future. There can be no assurance that we will be able to achieve either revenue growth or profitability under our current business model.
Any harm to our brand or failure to maintain and enhance our brand recognition may materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.
We believe that the recognition and reputation of our brands among our users, KOLs and our merchants and brand partners are crucial to our business and competitiveness. Many factors, some of which are beyond our control, are important to maintaining and enhancing our brands and may negatively impact our brands and reputation if not properly managed. These factors include our ability to:
 
   
maintain superior shopping experience, particularly as user preferences evolve;
 
   
maintain and grow our user base and keep our users highly engaged;
 
   
maintain and grow our content offering and ensure access to content creators, including KOLs;
 
   
maintain the popularity, attractiveness and quality of the content and products we offer;
 
7

   
enhance our reputation and goodwill generally and in the event of any negative publicity on product quality, customer services, internet security, or other issues affecting us or our industry in China; and
 
   
maintain our relationships with merchants, brand partners and other service providers.
Our business is subject to the changing needs and preferences of our users. A decline in the popularity of online shopping in general, or any failure by us to adapt our platform and improve the shopping experience of our users in response to fashion trends and users’ preferences may adversely affect our business and results of operations.
We offer products and content with a primary focus on providing a superior shopping experience. Our future growth depends on our ability to continue to attract new users as well as these users’ continued spending on our platform. The apparel market is cyclical and fashion trends and users’ purchasing needs and personal preferences are changing frequently. Consequently, we must stay abreast of fashion and lifestyle trends and respond to changes in the market and user preferences. Since our inception, we have been focused on developing new features and offerings on our platform to satisfy the ever-changing needs of our users. We have been actively tracking user traffic and feedback to identify trending content and encourage our KOLs to create content and our merchants to supply products that cater to users’ changing tastes. We have also been exploring new interfaces and functions of our mobile apps to prioritize fashion content offerings on our platform. However, these features and offerings are relatively new, do not have a long operating track record and may fail to be accepted by our users. They may also be rendered obsolete or unappealing by competition or developments in the industry. The long-term viability and prospects of our business model are subject to the changing user preferences and industry standards, making it difficult to assess our future prospects or forecast our future results. Any of these changes may require us to reevaluate our business model and adopt significant changes to our strategies and business plan. If we fail to adapt to these changes, continue to expand and diversify our content and product offerings, identify trends, or maintain the quality of our content and products, our users may lose interest in our platform and thus may visit our platform less frequently or even stop visiting our platform, which in turn may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
We face intense competition. If we do not compete successfully against existing or new competitors, we may lose market share, users, KOLs and other business partners.
We face intense competition particularly on our
e-commerce,
fashion content and technology elements. Our current or potential competitors include major
e-commerce
platforms in China, major traditional and
brick-and-mortar
retailers in China and fashion and social media companies in China focused on fashion and lifestyle industries. In addition, we face competition from a wide range of content platforms in China. Our competitors may have longer operating histories, greater brand recognition, larger user and merchant bases or greater financial, technical or marketing resources than we do. Competitors may leverage their brand recognition experience and resources to compete with us in a variety of ways, thereby increasing their respective market and mind shares. Some of our competitors may be able to secure more favorable terms from merchants, third-party service providers and other business partners, devote greater resources to marketing and promotional campaigns, adopt more aggressive pricing policies and devote substantially more resources to their platform and systems development than us.
There can be no assurance that we will be able to compete successfully against current or future competitors, and such competitive pressures may have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Failure to compete successfully against existing or new competitors may cause us to lose market share, users, KOLs and other business partners. Any disputes with current or future competitors may lead us to public complaints or publicity campaigns against us, which may cause us to incur significant costs to defend against these activities and harm our business.
If we are unable to provide superior user experience, we may not be able to maintain or grow our user base or keep our users highly engaged. As a result, our revenues, margins and business prospects may be materially and adversely affected.
The success of our business largely depends on our ability to provide superior user experience in order to maintain and grow our user base and keep our users highly engaged on our platform, which in turn depends on a variety of factors. These factors include our ability to continue to offer attractive and relevant fashion content in engaging formats and stylish products, source quality merchants to respond to user demands and preferences, maintain the quality of our products and services, provide reliable and user-friendly mobile application features for our users to browse for content and products, and provide high-quality customer service. If our users are not satisfied with our content, products or services, or our platform is severely interrupted or otherwise fail to meet our users’ requests, our reputation and user loyalty could be adversely affected.
 
8

Our merchants rely on third-party delivery service providers to deliver products to our users. Interruptions to or failures in the delivery services could prevent the timely or successful delivery of products purchased on our platform. These interruptions or failures may be due to unforeseen events that are beyond our control or the control of third-party delivery service providers, such as inclement weather, natural disasters or labor unrest. If products on our platform are not delivered on time or are delivered in a damaged state, users may refuse to accept our products and have less confidence in our services. Any failure to provide high-quality delivery services to our users may negatively impact the shopping experience of our users, damage our reputation and cause us to lose users.
In addition, if users cannot obtain satisfactory customer services after they purchase products with us, our brand and user loyalty may be adversely affected. In addition, any negative publicity or poor feedback regarding our customer service may harm our brand and reputation and in turn cause us to lose users and market share.
As a result, if we are unable to continue to maintain our user experience and provide high-quality customer service, we may not be able to retain or attract users or keep them highly engaged with the fashion content and products we offer on our platform, which may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
A substantial portion of our GMV and revenue is generated from a limited number of KOLs who stream on our platform. We may experience a decrease in purchases on our platform.
In the years ended March 31, 2020 and 2021, our
top-10
KOLs contributed 23.2% and 43.7% of our total GMV, respectively. The popularity of our KOLs is a significant driver of our growth in active buyers through LVB, which in turn drives our GMV and revenue. KOLs with more fans are able to reach a wider audience when they promote or sell products on their LVB, and they also tend to attract more merchants to our platform for partnership opportunities. As of March 31, 2020 and March 31, 2021, our
top-10
KOLs had 9.4% and 16.2% of the total number of fans of all of our KOLs, respectively.
Our concentrated active buyer acquisition from a few
top-tier
KOLs exposes us to risk of significant decreases in, or impediments to the growth of, our GMV and revenue if the number of fans or the popularity of any of such KOLs decreases or fails to grow. We anticipate that our
top-tier
KOLs will continue to contribute to the majority of our total net revenues in the near future, as it will take time for other KOLs to develop their fan base and thus our active buyer base. We cannot assure you that our
top-tier
KOLs will be able to retain their popularity, or our other KOLs will be able to increase their number of fans. If the popularity of our
top-tier
KOLs decreases and our other KOLs fail to enlarge their fan base meaningfully, it may materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial performance and results of operations.
If we fail to maintain and expand our relationships with content creators, in particular KOLs, or if our KOLs fail to produce popular fashion contents, our revenues and results of operations will be harmed.
We rely on our content creators, in particular KOLs, to present popular fashion content on our platform and promote products that appeal to our existing and potential users. In addition, some of our major KOLs are also merchants on our platform and have contributed to our total GMV. We cannot assure you that we will be able to control, incentivize and retain major KOLs to provide popular fashion content and stimulate purchases on our platform. In addition, we may experience content creator attrition in the ordinary course of business resulting from several factors, such as losses to competitors and perception that our platform is ineffective as a monetization channel for content creators. If we fail to retain our major content creators or experience significant content creators attrition, or if we are unable to incubate and attract new content creators, our revenues and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.
 
9

We and our fashion influences may terminate our cooperative relationships at any time. If any of our major KOLs decides not to continue cooperation with us, the popularity of our platform may decline and the number of our users may decrease, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition. In addition, we may have disputes with our KOLs with respect to their compliance with our content control policies and live video broadcast standards and the disciplinary measures that we take against them due to violation of these policies or failure to meet these standards from time to time, which may cause KOLs to be dissatisfied with our platform. If popular KOLs cease to contribute content to or curate products on our platform, or the fashion content provided by them fails to attract users, we may experience a decline in user traffic and user engagement, which may have material and adverse impact on our results of operations and financial conditions.
If we fail to observe the latest trends and timely and effectively guide our content creators, or if our content creators fail to identify fashion trends or produce popular fashion content, our users may view our platform less attractive and our financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.
Any quality issues of the products offered by our merchants or brand partners or any negative publicity with respect to us, our KOLs, merchants and other partners, as well as the industry in which we operate, our business and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.
Public perception that
non-authentic,
counterfeit or defective products are sold on our platform or that we or the merchants on our platform do not provide satisfactory customer services, even if meritless or unsuccessful, could damage our reputation, diminish the value of our brand, undermine the trust and credibility we have established and have a negative impact on our ability to attract new users or retain our existing users, and could divert our management’s attention and other resources from other business concerns. We may be required by laws and regulations to bear joint and several liability with merchants on our platform and other partners that we cooperate with if we are unable to provide the true names, addresses and valid contact information of such merchants or partners. We may also be required to adopt new or amend existing return and exchange policies from time to time. For example, pursuant to the amended PRC Consumer Protection Law, which became effective in March 2014, consumers are generally entitled to return products purchased from business operators over the internet within seven days upon receipt of the products. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulation—Regulations on Consumer Protection.” Any significant claims against us could result in the use of funds and managerial efforts in defending them and could negatively impact on our reputation. If we are unable to maintain our reputation, enhance our brand recognition or increase positive awareness of our platform, products and services, it may be difficult to maintain and grow our user base.
In addition, adverse publicity about the industry in which we operate and the KOLs, merchants and other partners that we cooperate with could damage our reputation and brand image, undermine our users’ confidence in us and reduce the long-term demand for our content and products, even if such publicity is unfounded. As a result, we may fail to maintain and grow our user base and may experience significant declines in our revenue and user traffic from which we may not be able to recover and our business would be materially and adversely affected.
If we fail to manage and expand the relationships with merchants and brand partners on our platform, in particular the major merchants that contribute a significant portion of our GMV, or otherwise fail to cooperate with them at favorable terms, our business and growth prospects may suffer.
Our business depends on our ability to attract quality merchants and brand partners. Maintaining strong relationships with these merchants and brand partners is important to the growth of our business. We cannot assure you that our current merchants and brand partners will continue to cooperate with us on commercially attractive terms to us, or at all, after the term of the current agreements expire. If we lose any of these important merchants or brand partners, or if GMV generated from a significant merchant is substantially reduced due to, for example, increased competition, ineffectiveness of our advertisement solutions, a significant change in the business policy or operation of the relevant merchants or brand partners, any deterioration in our relationship with such merchants or brand partners, or significant delays in payments for our services, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected. Even if we maintain good relationships with our merchants and brand partners, they may be unable to remain in business due to economic conditions, labor actions, regulatory or legal decisions, natural disasters or other causes, in which event our business and result of operations may be materially and adversely affected.
Any negative developments in our relationships with merchants and brand partners could materially and adversely affect our business and growth prospects. If we fail to attract merchants and brand partners to offer products for users on our platform due to any reason, our business and growth prospects may be materially and adversely affected.
 
10

We generate a portion of our revenues from marketing services. If we fail to attract more marketing services customers to our platform or if marketing services customers are less willing to purchase services from us, our revenues may be adversely affected.
We generate a portion of our revenues from provision of marketing services to marketing services customers, including our merchants and brand partners. Our revenues from marketing services partly depend on the continual development of the online marketing industry in China and marketing services customers’ willingness to allocate budgets to online marketing. In addition, marketing services customers that decide to market and promote online may utilize more established methods or channels, such as more established Chinese internet portals or search engines, over marketing on our platform. If any of our current marketing methods or promotion activities becomes less effective or efficient or if our marketing services are not as satisfactory as our marketing services customers expect, we may lose our existing or fail to attract new marketing services customers. As a result, our ability to increase our marketing service revenues and our margins and prospects may be materially and adversely affected. We recently embarked on a number of new business initiatives, including focusing our platform on the provision of fashion content in rich media formats and our emphasis on live video broadcasts and other engaging socially-oriented sales methods. Since these business initiatives have been implemented for a limited period of time and are not yet at scale, it is difficult for us to evaluate the effect, if any, they will bring to our financial prospects. As a result, we cannot reasonably predict the future trends of our marketing service revenues, our commission revenues or our total revenues.
If we are unable to maintain low delinquency rates for the financing solutions offered on our platform, our business and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected. Further, historical delinquency rates may not be indicative of future results.
We offer
Bai Fu Mei
, a financing solution with flexible repayment terms, to users on our platform, through which users can easily obtain small credits for their purchases of products on our platform after going through our streamlined application process. Loans that we make to consumers through
Bai Fu Mei
are collateralized by the accounts receivables related to the purchased goods. We also offer advanced payment collection service to merchants by collecting service fees based on the principal, to obtain funds from sale of goods upon shipment, rather than upon delivery to customers, which shortens the cash collection cycle for merchants. In addition, we also provide loans to merchants secured by their accounts receivables from customers through our VIEs’ subsidiary having factoring business qualification and charges a service fee based on the principal. The default rate for our internet financing solutions has historically been low. We may not be able to maintain low delinquency rates for the financing solutions offered on our platform, and such delinquency rates may be significantly affected by economic downturns or credit cycle associated with the volatility of general economy beyond the control of us, our users and merchants. If economic conditions deteriorate, we may face increased risk of default or delinquency of our users and merchants. If we cannot track the deterioration of the creditworthiness of our users and merchants, the criteria we use for the analysis of their credit profiles may be rendered inaccurate. As a result, we may not be able to accurately assess the credit profiles of them. Since financing solutions’ contribution to our total revenues has continued to increase over the past year, if any of the foregoing were to occur, our results of operations, financial position and liquidity would be materially and adversely affected.
Our users use third-party payment service providers to make payments on our platform. If these payment services are restricted or curtailed in any way or become unavailable to us or our users for any reason, our business may be materially and adversely affected.
Our users make payments through a variety of methods, including payment through our third-party online payment service partners, such as Weixin Pay, QQ Wallet, Alipay, LianLian Pay and China UnionPay. We may also be subject to fraud, user data leakage and other illegal activities in connection with the various payment methods we offer. In addition, our business depends on the billing, payment and escrow systems of the third-party payment service providers to maintain accurate records of payments of sales proceeds by users and collect such payments. If the quality, utility, convenience or attractiveness of these payment processing and escrow services declines, or if we have to change the pattern of using these payment services for any reason, the attractiveness of our platform could be materially and adversely affected.
 
11

Business involving online payment services is subject to a number of risks that could materially and adversely affect third-party online payment service providers’ ability to provide payment processing and escrow services to us, including:
 
   
dissatisfaction with these online payment services or decreased use of their services by users and merchants;
 
   
increasing competition, including from other established Chinese internet companies, payment service providers and companies engaged in other financial technology services;
 
   
changes to rules or practices applicable to payment systems that link to third-party online payment service providers;
 
   
breach of users’ personal information and concerns over the use and security of information collected from buyers;
 
   
service outages, system failures or failures to effectively scale the system to handle large and growing transaction volumes;
 
   
increasing costs to third-party online payment service providers, including fees charged by banks to process transactions through online payment channels, which would also increase our costs of revenues; and
 
   
failure to manage funds accurately or loss of funds, whether due to employee fraud, security breaches, technical errors or otherwise.
Certain commercial banks in China impose limits on the amounts that may be transferred by automated payment from users’ bank accounts to their linked accounts with third-party online payment services. We cannot predict whether these and any additional restrictions that could be put in place would have a material adverse effect on our platform. We may also be subject to various rules, regulations and requirements, regulatory or otherwise, governing electronic fund transfers and online payment, which could change or be reinterpreted to make it difficult or impossible for us to comply with.
In addition, we cannot assure you that we will be successful to enter into and maintain amicable relationships with online payment service providers. Identifying, negotiating and maintaining relationships with these providers require significant time and resources. They could choose to terminate their relationships with us or propose terms that we cannot accept. In addition, these service providers may not perform as expected under our agreements with them, and we may have disagreements or disputes with such payment service providers, any of which could adversely affect our brand and reputation as well as our business operations.
A strategic partner provides services to us in connection with various aspects of our operations. If such services become limited, restricted, curtailed or less effective or more expensive in any way or become unavailable to us for any reason, our business may be materially and adversely affected.
We collaborate with Tencent, one of our principal shareholders, on various aspects of our business, including the entryways on its platform serving as one of the major access points to our platform, as well as services such as payment processing, marketing and cloud technology. If services provided by Tencent to us become limited, compromised, restricted, curtailed or less effective or become more expensive or unavailable to us for any reason, our business may be materially and adversely affected. Failure to maintain our relationship with Tencent could materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations. In addition, we may experience a decline in user traffic if Tencent’s platform becomes less popular, which may have a material and adverse impact on our results of operations and financial conditions.
 
12

If we are unable to conduct our brand promotion and marketing activities cost-effectively, our business, prospects, results of operations and financial condition may be materially and adversely affected.
We have incurred expenses on a variety of different marketing and brand promotion efforts designed to enhance our brand recognition and increase sales from our platform. Our marketing and promotional activities may not be well received by users and may not result in the levels of product sales that we anticipate. We incurred RMB743.7 million, RMB613.2 million and RMB229.8 million (US$35.1 million) in sales and marketing expenses in fiscal years ended March 31, 2019, 2020 and 2021, respectively. Marketing approaches and tools in the consumer products market in China are evolving. This further requires us to enhance our marketing approaches and experiment with new marketing methods to keep pace with industry developments and user preferences, which may not be as cost-effective as our marketing activities in the past and may lead to significantly higher marketing expenses in the future. Failure to refine our existing marketing approaches or to introduce new effective marketing approaches in a cost-effective manner could reduce our market share, cause our net revenues to decline and negatively impact our margin.
Our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected by the
COVID-19
pandemic.
The ongoing
COVID-19
pandemic has continued to spread across the world and has created unique global and industry-wide challenges.
COVID-19
has resulted in quarantines, travel restrictions, and the temporary closure of facilities in China and many other countries. New
COVID-19
variants have also emerged in a few countries, potentially extending the period where
COVID-19
will negatively impact the global economy.
Substantially all of our revenues and our workforce are concentrated in China. Consequently, our results of operations and financial performance may be adversely affected, to the extent that
COVID-19
exerts long-term negative impact on the Chinese economy. During the first quarter of 2020,
COVID-19
caused delays in the delivery of the merchandise sold on our platform, but our merchandise delivery timing was gradually returning to normal in the second quarter of 2020. Benefiting from the containment of the
COVID-19
pandemic in China, our operations gradually resumed normal starting from late February 2020. Therefore, the
COVID-19
did not have material impact on our financial results for the year ended March 31, 2021.
While the disruption of
COVID-19
to business activities in China has been eliminated to a large extent, it is still difficult to predict how
COVID-19
will impact our business in the near term. For example, if a
COVID-19
variant strikes in a future wave, there may be delay in the delivery timing for merchandise sold on our platform due to disruption from any quanrantine measures or reduced work hour requirements associated with handling the future wave. In addition, the prolonged social distancing and quarantine measures likely to be enforced in any future wave of
COVID-19
or its variants may decrease people’s need and willingness to shop for fashion merchandise, which may lead to reduced traffic and transaction volume on our platform. All of these factors may lead to a negative impact on our financial performance generally. The extent to which the
COVID-19
pandemic impacts our results will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain, including the availability and effectiveness of any new vaccines and the emergence of any new
COVID-19
variants, among others.
We face risks related to natural disasters, health epidemics and other outbreaks, which could significantly disrupt our operations.
In addition to the impact of
COVID-19,
our business could be adversely affected by the effects of other health epidemics or other public safety concerns affecting the PRC. In recent years, there have been outbreaks of epidemics in China and globally. Our business operations could be disrupted if one of our employees is suspected of having
COVID-19,
H1N1 flu, H7N9 flu, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome or SARS, Zika virus, Ebola virus, avian flu or another epidemic, since it could require our employees to be quarantined and/or our offices to be disinfected. In addition, our results of operations could be adversely affected to the extent that the outbreak harms the Chinese economy in general and the internet industry in particular.
We are vulnerable to natural disasters and other calamities. Fire, floods, typhoons, earthquakes, power loss, telecommunications failures,
break-ins,
war, riots, terrorist attacks or similar events may give rise to server interruptions, breakdowns, system failures or internet failures, which could cause the loss or corruption of data or malfunctions of software or hardware as well as adversely affect our ability to provide our services.
 
13

Any change, disruption, discontinuity in the features and functions of major social networks in China could severely limit our ability to continue growing our user base, and our business may be materially and adversely affected.
Our success depends on our ability to attract new users and retain existing users. We leverage social networks in China as a tool for user acquisition and engagement. For example, we leverage Weixin and QQ to enable users to share product information with their friends, family and other social contacts. A portion of our buyer traffic comes from such user recommendation or product sharing features. However, it is impracticable for us to accurately bifurcate and quantify the buyer traffic generated organically by our platform versus that through social networks, including Weixin. Buyer behavior under a variety of circumstances can make it difficult to identify the actual source of buyer traffic and a buyer’s path to making a purchase on our platform may involve both
in-app
activities, as well as usage of tools and services on social networks and associated access points.
To the extent that we fail to leverage such social networks, our ability to attract or retain users may be severely harmed. If any of these social networks makes changes to its functions or support unfavorable to us, or stops offering its functions or support to us, we may not be able to locate alternative platforms of similar scale to provide similar functions or support on commercially reasonable terms in a timely manner, or at all. Furthermore, we may fail to establish or maintain relationships with additional social network operators to achieve growth of our business on economically viable terms, or at all. Any interruption to or discontinuation of our relationships with major social network operators may severely and negatively impact our ability to grow our user base, and any occurrence of the circumstances mentioned above may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Increases in costs borne by merchants on our platform due to the increase in labor costs in China and governmental policies may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Labor costs in China have risen in recent years due to development of labor laws and regulations. Rising labor costs in China will increase costs of the merchants on our platform and may cause the third-party logistics and delivery service providers engaged by our merchants to charge higher fees for their products and services, which will restrict our merchants’ ability to offer attractive pricing for or maintain the quality of products offered on our platform, which in turn may cause us to lose users and negatively impact our margin.
In addition, the PRC government and public advocacy groups have been increasingly focused on environment protection in recent years, making the apparel manufacturing and textile industries more sensitive to environmental issues and changes in governmental policies associated with environment protection laws. Our results of operations and financial condition are dependent upon whether the merchants on our platform can offer quality products at attractive price, which in turn depends on the costs and supply of the key main raw materials used in producing the products. There are comprehensive environmental regulations and policies governing textile and fabric production and printing, as well as the apparel industry in general. Any environmental concern or issue could suddenly increase the costs of the raw materials used in the products on our platform. If merchants on our platform lower the quality of products offered to our users due to increased costs of raw materials, fail to offer high-quality products at attractive prices, or reduce the volume of products offered on our platform, our platform may become less competitive or appealing to our users and our business and results of operations would be harmed.
Finally, heightened regulatory and public concerns over consumer protection and consumer safety issues may subject us to additional legal responsibilities and increased scrutiny and negative publicity over these issues, due to the large number of transactions that take place on our platform on a daily basis and the increasing scope of our overall business operations. For example, our merchants are required to adhere to national health and safety standards in terms of the products offered on our platform. Failure to meet these standards could result in fines, suspension of operations, and in more extreme cases, criminal proceedings against our company and/or our merchants, and our business, results of operations and brand image would be negatively affected. Increasing public scrutiny over us, including complaints to regulatory agencies, negative media coverage, and malicious reports, may severely damage our reputation and materially and adversely affect our business and prospects.
 
14

If we fail to obtain and maintain the licenses, permits and approvals required or applicable to our business under the complex regulatory environment for our businesses in China, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.
As the internet industry in China is still at a relatively early stage of development, new laws and regulations may be adopted from time to time to address new issues that come to the authorities’ attention. Considerable uncertainties still exist with respect to the interpretation and implementation of existing and future laws and regulations governing our business activities. For example, in August 2018, the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress promulgated the
E-Commerce
Law, which became effective on January 1, 2019. The
E-Commerce
Law provides that
e-commerce
operators must obtain administrative licenses if the business activities conducted by the
e-commerce
operators are subject to administrative licensing requirements under applicable laws and regulations. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulation—Regulations on
E-commerce”
for further details. On March 15, 2021, the SAMR promulgated a revised vision of the Online Trading Measures, which became effective on May 1, 2021. The revision makes further provisions with regard to emerging models of online trading (such as online social networking and online live streaming), consumer rights protection, personal information protection, etc. However, it remains uncertain as to how the
E-Commerce
Law will be further interpreted and implemented. We cannot assure you that we will not be found in violation of any future laws and regulations or any of the laws and regulations currently in effect due to changes in or discrepancies with respect to the relevant authorities’ interpretation of these laws and regulations. We changed the website from
mogujie.com
to
mogu.com
. We have updated the related licenses and approvals pursuant to the relevant laws and regulations, and may be required to obtain additional license or approvals, and we cannot assure you that we will be able to timely obtain or maintain all the required licenses or approvals or make all the necessary filings in the future. For example, Beijing Meilishikong, one of our PRC consolidated affiliated entities and the operator of the mobile app and website of Meilishuo, has obtained a valid license for the provision of Internet information services, or ICP License, but does not hold a license for the provision of online data processing and transaction processing services
(for-profit
e-commerce),
or EDI License. We do not believe that an EDI License is required for Beijing Meilishikong because Meilishuo is substantially a display platform and does not engage in any online data processing or transaction processing business that would otherwise require an EDI License. In addition, as advised by CM Law Firm, our PRC legal counsel, we do not believe that our provision of sales promotion activities through live video broadcasts will be viewed as provision of internet audio-visual programs to the public which would require a license for providing internet audio-visual program services. We cannot assure you that the relevant PRC government authorities would agree with our conclusions. As of the date of this annual report, we have obtained the License for Online Transmission of Audio-visual Programs. We, however, cannot assure you that the scope specified in our License for Online Transmission of Audio-visual Programs is able to cover all the needs that arise or will arise in our operations from time to time. We are currently applying to expand the scope of our License for Online Transmission of Audio-visual Programs. Should we be required to obtain additional licenses or approvals or be required to expand the scope of the licenses we currently hold, we may not be able to do so in a timely manner or at all. If we fail to obtain or maintain any of the required licenses or approvals or make the necessary filings, or fail to obtain required licenses or approvals in a timely manner, we may be subject to various penalties, such as confiscation of the net revenues that were generated through the unlicensed internet activities, the imposition of fines and the termination or restriction of our operations. Any such penalties may disrupt our business operations or materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Morever, heightened regulatory scrutiny may lead to frequent regulatory communications, inquiries or investigations that could materially and adversely affect our business model, results of operations and prospects. For instance, since April 2021, the SAMR has required online platform operaters including us to conduct self-inspections on compliance on regular basis. As of the date of this annual report, we have not been subject to any material fines or other penalties due to any material violations of applicable PRC laws or regulations. However, if the PRC government continues to tighten its regulatory framework for internet service industries in the future, or requires us to adjust our existing business practices for regulatory compliance, our business, financial condition and prospects could be materially and adversely affected.
 
15

The proper functioning of our internet platform is essential to our business. Any disruption to our IT systems could materially affect our ability to maintain the satisfactory performance of our platform and deliver consistent services to our users and merchants.
The proper functioning of our internet platform is essential to our business. The satisfactory performance, reliability and availability of our IT systems are critical to our success, our ability to attract and retain users and our ability to maintain and deliver consistent services to our users and merchants. However, our technology infrastructure may fail to keep pace with increased sales on our platform, in particular with respect to our new product and service offerings, and therefore our users may experience delays as we seek to source additional capacity, which would adversely affect our results of operations as well as our reputation.
Additionally, we must continue to upgrade and improve our technology infrastructure to support our business operation. However, we cannot assure you that we will be successful in executing these system upgrades, and the failure to do so may impede our business operation. We currently use cloud services and servers operated by Tencent Cloud to store our data, to allow us to analyze a large amount of data simultaneously and to update our user database and user profiles quickly. Any interruption or delay in the functionality of Tencent Cloud may materially and adversely affect the operations of our business.
We may be unable to monitor and ensure high-quality maintenance and upgrade of our IT systems and infrastructure on a real-time basis, and users may experience service outages and delays in accessing and using our platform to place orders. In addition, we may experience surges in online traffic and orders associated with promotional activities and generally as we scale, which can put additional demand on our platform at specific times. Our technology or infrastructure may not function properly at all times. Any system interruptions caused by telecommunications failures, computer viruses, hacking or other attempts to harm our systems that result in the unavailability or slowdown of our platform or reduced order fulfillment performance could reduce the volume of products sold and the attractiveness of product offerings on our platform. Our servers may also be vulnerable to computer viruses, physical or electronic
break-ins
and similar disruptions, which could lead to system interruptions, website or mobile app slowdown or unavailability, delays or errors in transaction processing, loss of data or the inability to accept and fulfill buyer orders. Any of such occurrences could cause severe disruption to our daily operations. As a result, our reputation may be materially and adversely affected, our market share could decline and we could be subject to liability claims.
Our business generates and processes a large amount of data, and we are required to comply with PRC laws relating to cyber security. The improper use or disclosure of data could have a material and adverse effect on our business and prospects.
Our business generates and processes a large quantity of data. We face risks inherent in handling and protecting large volume of data. In particular, we face a number of challenges relating to data from transactions and other activities on our platform, including:
 
   
protecting the data in and hosted on our system, including against attacks on our system by outside parties or fraudulent behavior or improper use by our employees or users;
 
   
addressing concerns related to privacy and sharing, safety, security and other factors; and
 
   
complying with applicable laws, rules and regulations relating to the collection, use, storage, transfer, disclosure and security of personal information, including any requests from regulatory and government authorities relating to these data.
 
16

The PRC regulatory and enforcement regime with regard to data security and data protection is evolving. We may be required by Chinese governmental authorities to share personal information and data that we collect to comply with PRC laws relating to cybersecurity. All these laws and regulations may result in additional expenses to us and subject us to negative publicity which could harm our reputation and negatively affect the trading price of the ADSs. There are also uncertainties with respect to how these laws will be implemented in practice. PRC regulators have been increasingly focused on regulation in the areas of data security and data protection. For example, in October 2020, the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress of China released a draft personal information protection law, or the Draft PI Protection Law, for public comment. The Draft PI Protection Law provides for various requirements on personal information protection, including legal bases for data collection and processing, requirements on data localization and cross-border data transfer, requirements for consent and requirements on processing of sensitive personal information. As the Draft PI Protection Law remains subject to change, we may be required to make further adjustments to our business practices to comply with the enacted form of the law. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulation—Regulations on Cybersecurity and Privacy.” Moreover, different regulatory bodies in China, including the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, or the MIIT, the Cyberspace Administration of China, or CAC, the Ministry of Public Security and the SAMR, have enforced data privacy and protections laws and regulations with various standards and applications. These various standards in enforcing data privacy and protection laws may create difficulties in ensuring full compliance and increase our operating cost, as we need to spend time and resources to deal with various inspections for compliance. We expect that these areas will receive greater attention and focus from regulators, as well as attract continued or greater public scrutiny and attention going forward, which could increase our compliance costs and subject us to heightened risks and challenges associated with data security and protection. Although we collect personal information and data only with users’ prior consent and have adopted measures to protect the data security and minimize the risk of data loss, we cannot assure you that the measures we have taken are always sufficient and effective. In the past
, we received notices from regulator authorities that identified certain compliance defects in our data privacy and protections practices, requiring us to rectify our data privacy measures but without imposing any penalty on us. We have adopted several remedial measures in response to such notices and submitted our rectification reports to the relevant governmental authorities, but we cannot guarantee that such remedial measures will not invite any further scrutiny from the relevant regulator authorities. If we are unable to manage these risks, we could have our mobile apps be blocked or suspended and/or become subject to penalties, fines, suspension of business and revocation of required licenses, and our reputation and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
Failure to protect confidential information of our users and network against security breaches could damage our reputation and brand and substantially harm our business and results of operations.
Orders for products we offer are made through our internet platform. In addition, online payments for our products are settled through third-party online payment services. Our merchants also share certain personal information about our users with third-party delivery service providers, such as their names, addresses, and phone numbers. In such cases, maintaining complete security for the transmission of confidential information on our platform, such as user names, personal information and billing addresses, is essential to maintaining user confidence.
We have adopted security policies and measures, including encryption technology, to protect our proprietary data and user information. We also maintain insurance against damages incurred by us resulting from user identity theft and subsequent fraudulent payments. However, advances in technology, the expertise of hackers, new discoveries in the field of cryptography or other events or developments could result in a compromise or breach of the technology that we use to protect confidential information. We may not be able to prevent third parties, especially hackers or other individuals or entities engaging in similar activities, from illegally obtaining such confidential or private information we hold as a result of our users’ visits on our internet platform. Such individuals or entities obtaining our users’ confidential or private information may further engage in various other illegal activities using such information. In addition, we have limited control or influence over the security policies or measures adopted by third-party providers of online payment services. The third-party delivery service providers our merchants use may also violate their confidentiality obligations and disclose or use information about our users illegally. Any negative publicity on our platform’s safety or privacy protection mechanism and policy could have a material and adverse effect on our public image and reputation. Any compromise of our information security or third-party service providers’ information security measures could have a material and adverse effect on our reputation, business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
 
17

Our reputation, business and result of operations would be adversely impacted by any counterfeit, unauthorized or infringing products sold on our platform that fail to meet the applicable legal requirements.
Merchants on our platform and our brand partners are separately responsible for sourcing their products. Although we have adopted measures to verify the authenticity of products sold on our platform and to immediately remove any counterfeit products found on our platform, these measures may not always be successful. If we were to negligently participate or assist in infringement activities associated with counterfeit goods, failed to duly verify the qualifications or the licenses of the business operators on the platforms, or failed to duly perform our safety protection obligations with respect to goods or services that are pertinent to the life and health of consumers and provided via
e-commerce
platforms, potential sanctions under PRC law include injunctions to cease infringing activities, rectification, compensation, administrative penalties and even criminal liability, depending on the gravity of such misconduct. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulation—Regulations on Consumer Protection” and “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulation—Regulations on
E-commerce.”
We believe our brand and reputation are extremely important to our success and our competitive position. If counterfeit products were sold on our platform or we were facing any administrative penalties against us due to products that failed to meet the applicable legal requirements, our reputation could be severely damaged and users may choose not to spend time on our platform. As a result, our business operations and financial results may be negatively affected.
Our business and operating results may be harmed by service disruptions, cybersecurity related threats or by our failure to timely and effectively scale and adapt our existing technology and infrastructure.
We have experienced, and may in the future experience, service disruptions, outages and other performance problems due to a variety of factors, including infrastructure changes and cybersecurity related threats as follows:
 
   
our technology, system, networks and our users’ devices have been subject to, and may continue to be the target of, cyber-attacks, computer viruses, malicious code, phishing attacks or information security breaches that could result in an unauthorized release, gathering, monitoring, misuse, loss or destruction of confidential, proprietary and other information of ours, our employees or sensitive information provided by our users, or otherwise disrupt our, our users’ or other third parties’ business operations;
 
   
the use of encryption and other security measures intended to protect our systems and confidential data may not provide absolute security, and losses or unauthorized access to or releases of confidential information may still occur;
 
   
our security measures may be breached due to employee error, malfeasance or unauthorized access to sensitive information by our employees, who may be induced by outside third parties, and we may not be able to anticipate any breach of our security or to implement adequate preventative measures; and
 
   
we may be subject to information technology system failures or network disruptions caused by natural disasters, accidents, power disruptions, telecommunications failures, acts of terrorism or war, computer viruses, physical or electronic
break-ins,
or other events or disruptions.
Any disruption or failure in our services and infrastructure could also hinder our ability to handle existing or increased traffic on our platform or cause us to lose content stored on our platform, which could significantly harm our business and our ability to retain existing users and attract new users.
As the number of our users increases and more content is generated on our platform, we may be required to expand and adapt our technology and infrastructure to continue to reliably store and analyze this content. It may become increasingly difficult to maintain and improve the performance of our services, especially during peak usage times, as our services become more complex and our user traffic increases. If our users are unable to access our online platform in a timely fashion, or at all, our user experience may be compromised and the users may seek other online fashion platforms to meet their needs, and may not return to us or use our platform as often in the future, or at all. This would negatively impact our ability to attract users and maintain the level of user engagement.
 
18

Tightening of tax compliance efforts that affect merchants on our platform could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
E-commerce
in China is still developing, and the PRC government may require internet platforms with
e-commerce
functions to assist in the collection of taxes with respect to the revenue or profit generated by merchants from transactions conducted on their platforms. A significant number of merchants operating businesses on our platform may not have completed the required tax registration. Pursuant to the new
E-commerce
Law, PRC tax authorities may enforce registration requirements that target these merchants on our platform and may request our assistance in these efforts. As a result, these merchants may be subject to more stringent tax compliance requirements and liabilities and their business on our platform could suffer or they could decide to terminate their relationship with us rather than comply with tax regulations, which could in turn negatively affect us. We may also be requested by tax authorities to supply information on our merchants, such as transaction records and bank account information, and assist in the enforcement of tax regulations, including the payment and withholding obligations against our merchants, in which case, we may lose existing merchants and potential merchants might not be willing to operate their business on our platform. Failure to comply with the requirements may result in operators of
e-commerce
platforms being subject to fines and, in severe circumstances, suspension of business operations of
e-commerce
platforms. Substantial uncertainties exist with respect to the interpretation and implementation of the
E-Commerce
Law. Stricter tax enforcement by the PRC tax authorities may also reduce the activities by merchants on our platform and result in liability to us. Potential heightened enforcement against merchants on our platform (including imposition of reporting or withholding obligations on operators of marketplaces with respect to value-added tax of merchants and stricter tax enforcement against merchants generally) could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We do not have material tangible assets and have incurred, and may in the future incur, goodwill and intangible asset impairment charges. Significant impairment of our goodwill and intangible assets could materially impact our financial position and results of our operations.
We carry a significant goodwill balance on our balance sheet as a result of past business combination, but do not have any material tangible assets. We record goodwill in connection with the excess of the purchase price over the fair value of the identifiable assets and the liabilities acquired in business combinations. Our goodwill accounted for 34.1%, 7.6% and 10.1% of our total assets as of March 31, 2019, 2020 and 2021, respectively, as a result of historical usiness combinations. We are required to review our goodwill for impairment on an annual basis or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate evidence of impairment. The application of a goodwill impairment test requires significant management judgment. If our estimates and judgment are inaccurate, the fair value determined could be inaccurate and the impairment may not be recognized in a timely manner. If the fair value declines, we may need to recognize goodwill impairment in the future, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
In addition, we perform valuation of the intangible assets arising from business combination to determine the relative fair value to be assigned to each asset acquired. The intangible assets are expensed or amortized using the straight-line approach over the estimated economic useful lives of the assets. We had goodwill impairment of nil, RMB1,382.1 million and nil for the years ended March 31, 2019, 2020 and 2021, respectively. For further information, see “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Key Components of Results of Operations.” There can be no assurance that we will not be required to record additional impairments on goodwill and intangible assets in the future or that such impairments will not be material. As of March 31, 2021, the market capitalization of our company was lower than the carrying value of net assets of our company. If the market capitalization of our company continues to be lower than the carrying value of net assets of our company for a prolonged period, as happened during the year ended March 31, 2020, it may be considered as a triggering event for us to perform interim goodwill impairment test and we may need to recognize goodwill and other long-lived assets impairment if the fair value is asserted to be less than their carrying amount. In addition, weaker-than-expected operation results and cash flows performance in the future or other relevant factors could be considered as the indicators of trigger for goodwill impairment and additional impairment may be needed to be recognized in future periods. Any significant impairment losses charged against our goodwill and intangible assets could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, our lack of material tangible assets may expose us to certain risks, including decreased ability to obtain debt financings or hedge against fluctuations in value of our intangible assets.
We have and may continue to invest in or acquire complementary assets, technologies and businesses, and such efforts may fail and have in the past, and may continue to, result in equity or earnings dilution.
We have in the past and may continue to invest in and acquire assets, technologies and businesses that are complementary to our business. Acquired businesses or assets may not yield the results we expect. In addition, acquisitions of assets and businesses have in the past, and may continue to, result in the use of substantial amounts of cash, potentially dilutive issuances of equity securities, significant amortization expenses related to intangible assets and exposure to potential unknown liabilities of the acquired businesses or assets. Moreover, the cost of identifying and consummating acquisitions, and integrating the acquired businesses or assets into ours, may be significant, and the integration of acquired businesses or assets may be disruptive to our business operations. In addition, we may have to obtain approval from the relevant PRC governmental authorities for the acquisitions and comply with any applicable PRC rules and regulations, which may be costly. Our financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected by our past and future acquisitions of assets or businesses.
 
19

We may be held liable for information or content displayed on, retrieved from or linked to our platform, or distributed to our users, and PRC authorities may impose legal sanctions on us, including, in serious cases, suspending or revoking the licenses necessary to operate our platform.
Our KOLs engage in sales promotion activities through our live video broadcasts and they interact and exchange information with our users and generate and distribute content. However, because a majority of the communications on our platform is conducted in real time, we are unable to verify the sources of all information posted thereon or examine the content generated by KOLs and users before they are posted. Therefore, it is possible that users may engage in illegal, obscene or incendiary conversations or activities, including the displaying or publishing of inappropriate or illegal information or content that may be deemed unlawful under PRC laws and regulations on our platform. We also allow users to upload user-generated content on our platform, which exposes us to potential disputes and liabilities in connection with third-party copyright. When users register on our platform, they agree to our standard agreement, under which they agree not to disseminate any content infringing on third-party copyright on our platform. However, if any information or content on our platform is deemed illegal, obscene or incendiary, or if appropriate licenses and third party consents have not been obtained, claims may be brought against us for defamation, libel, negligence, copyright, patent or trademark infringement, other unlawful activities or other theories and claims based on the nature and content of the information delivered on or otherwise accessed through our platform. We also may face liability for copyright or trademark infringement, fraud, and other claims based on the nature and content of the materials that are delivered, shared or otherwise accessed through or published on our platform. Defending any such actions could be costly and involve significant time and attention of our management and other resources. In addition, online service providers, which provide storage space for users to upload works, may be held liable for copyright infringement under various circumstances pursuant to applicable PRC laws and regulations, including situations where the online service provider knows or should reasonably have known that the relevant content uploaded or linked to on its platform infringes upon the copyright of others and the online service provider profits from such infringing activities.
If we are not eligible for the safe harbor exemption, or if it is found that we have not adequately managed the information or content on our platform, we may be subject to joint infringement liability and PRC authorities may impose legal sanctions on us, including, in serious cases, suspending or revoking the licenses necessary to operate our platform.
We may need additional capital, and financing may be not available on terms acceptable to us, or at all.
We believe our current cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments will be sufficient to meet our anticipated cash needs for the next 12 months. We may, however, require additional cash resources due to changed business conditions or other future developments, including any marketing initiatives or investments we may decide to pursue. If these resources are insufficient to satisfy our cash requirements, we may seek to obtain a credit facility or sell additional equity or debt securities. The sale of additional equity securities could result in dilution of our existing shareholders. The incurrence of indebtedness would result in increased debt service obligations and could result in operating and financing covenants that would restrict our operations. It is uncertain whether financing will be available in amounts or on terms acceptable to us, if at all.
If our existing and new financing solutions do not achieve sufficient market acceptance, our operation and financial results will be harmed.
We have devoted significant resources to market our financing solutions for our users and merchants and enhance their market awareness. We also incur expenses and expend resources upfront to develop and market new financing solutions that incorporate additional features, improve functionality or otherwise make our products more desirable to users and merchants. New financing solutions for users and merchants must achieve high levels of market acceptance in order for us to recoup our investment in developing and bringing them to market. In addition, as our financing solutions are issued with fixed interest rates, the fluctuation of interest rates may affect the demand for our products. If we fail to respond to the fluctuations in interest rates in a timely manner and adjust our financing solutions accordingly, our users and merchants may show less interest in us and seek financing options from other channels. If our existing and new financing solutions fail to attain sufficient market acceptance, our competitive position, results of operations and financial condition could be harmed.
 
20

Our results of operations may be affected by seasonality and weather conditions.
The performance of our businesses is subject to seasonal fluctuations. For example, our revenues are relatively lower during the Chinese New Year period, which is typically in the fourth quarter of our fiscal year, when users tend to do less online shopping. Also, online sales in China are significantly higher in the fourth quarter of each calendar year than in the preceding three quarters. Such sales seasonality pattern generally make us experience the strongest sales in our third fiscal quarter ending December 31. As a significant portion of our GMV relates to the sales of apparel on our platform, changes in weather pattern may also affect users’ needs in apparel and purchasing behaviors, and further lead to fluctuations in our revenues. As a result, we believe that comparisons of our operating results and net income over any interim periods in the past may not be an accurate indicator of our future performance.
Changes in our product mix may expose us to more risks.
Since our inception, we have focused on selling fashion apparel. We have expanded the product offerings on our internet platform to include selected categories of lifestyle and other complementary products. Changes in our product mix involve risks and challenges different from those of our existing product categories. Our lack of familiarity with and lack of relevant customer data relating to these products may make it more difficult for us to anticipate customer demand and preferences and to inspect and control quality and ensure proper handling, storage and delivery by our merchants. Our merchants may experience higher return rates on new products, receive more customer complaints about such products and face costly claims as a result of selling such products, which would harm our brand and reputation as well as our financial performance. We may also be involved in disputes with the merchants in connection with these claims and complaints.
As we broaden our product offerings, we may be required to obtain additional licenses or permits for the sales of certain new product mix on our platform and subject to additional regulations by the relevant PRC government authorities. There is no assurance that we will be able to acquire additional requisite licenses or permits or to comply with the relevant legal requirements. In addition, other product categories may have lower profit margins than our existing categories of apparel, and we may need to price aggressively to gain market share or remain competitive in any new categories, which may further reduce our profit margins.
We may be subject to claims under consumer protection laws and may be subject to product liability claims if people or properties are harmed by the products sold on our platform.
Some of the products sold by the merchants on our platform or our brand partners may be defectively designed or manufactured. As a result, sales of such products could expose us to product liability claims relating to personal injury or property damage and may require product recalls or other actions. Third parties subject to such injury or damage may bring claims or legal proceedings against us as a platform service provider. If we fail to provide the real names, addresses and valid contact details of our merchants in the event that consumers ask such information for compensation from the merchants or our brand partners, the consumers may also claim damages from us, or if we know or should have known that merchants on our platform use our platform to infringe upon the legitimate rights and interests of consumers but we fail to take necessary measures, we shall bear joint and several liability with the merchants. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulation—Regulations on Advertising.” Currently, we do not maintain third-party liability insurance or product liability insurance in relation to products offered on our platform. Any material product liability claim or litigation could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Even unsuccessful claims could result in the use of funds and managerial efforts in defending them and could negatively impact on our reputation.
 
21

We may engage in acquisitions, investments or strategic alliances in the future, which could require significant management attention and materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.
We may identify strategic partners to form strategic alliances, invest in or acquire additional assets, technologies or businesses that are complementary to our existing business. These investments may involve minority stakes in other companies, acquisitions of entire companies or acquisitions of selected assets.
Any future strategic alliances, investments or acquisitions and the subsequent integration of the new assets and businesses obtained or developed from such transactions into our own may divert management from their primary responsibilities and subject us to additional liabilities. In addition, the costs of identifying and consummating investments and acquisitions may be significant. We may also incur costs and experience uncertainties in completing necessary registrations and obtaining necessary approvals from relevant government authorities in China and elsewhere in the world. The costs and duration of integrating newly acquired assets and businesses could also materially exceed our expectations. Any such negative developments could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flow.
Our business depends substantially on the continuing efforts of our management. If we lose their services, we could incur significant costs in finding suitable replacements and our business may be severely disrupted.
Our business operations depend substantially on the continuing efforts of our management. If one or more members of our management were unable or unwilling to continue their employment with us, we might not be able to replace them in a timely manner, or at all. We may incur additional expenses to recruit and retain qualified replacements. Our business may be severely disrupted and our financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected. In addition, our management may join a competitor or form a competing company. We can provide no assurance that we will be able to successfully enforce our contractual rights included in the employment agreements we have entered into with our management team, particularly in China, where all these individuals reside. As a result, our business may be negatively affected due to the loss of one or more members of our management.
We rely on proper operation and maintenance of our mobile platform and internet infrastructure and telecommunications networks in China. Any deficiencies, malfunction, capacity constraint or operation interruption, any undetected programming errors or flaws or failure to maintain effective customer service could harm our reputation, impair our platform, and may have an adverse impact on our business.
Currently, a substantial majority of our sales of products are generated online through our mobile platform. Therefore, the satisfactory performance, reliability and availability of our mobile platform are critical to our success and our ability to attract and retain users. Our business depends on the performance and reliability of the internet infrastructure in China. The reliability and availability of our mobile platform depends on telecommunications carriers and other third-party providers for communications and storage capacity, including bandwidth and server storage, among other things. If we are unable to enter into and renew agreements with these providers on acceptable terms, or if any of our existing agreements with such providers are terminated as a result of our breach or otherwise, our ability to provide our services to our users could be adversely affected. Access to internet in China is maintained through state-owned telecommunications carriers under administrative control, and we obtain access to
end-user
networks operated by such telecommunications carriers and internet service providers to give users access to our mobile platform. The failure of telecommunications network operators to provide us with the requisite bandwidth could also interfere with the speed and availability of our mobile platform. Service interruptions prevent users from accessing our mobile platform and placing orders, and frequent interruptions could frustrate users and discourage them from attempting to place orders, which could cause us to lose users and harm our operating results.
In addition, our platform and internal systems rely on software that is highly technical and complex, and depend on the ability of such software to store, retrieve, process and manage immense amount of data. The software on which we rely has contained, and may now or in the future contain, undetected programming errors or flaws. Some errors may only be discovered after the code has been released for external or internal use. Errors or other design defects within the software on which we rely may result in a negative experience for users using our platform, disruptions to the operations of our merchants, delay introductions of new features or enhancements, result in errors or compromise our ability to support effective user service and enjoyable user engagement. Any errors, bugs or defects discovered in the software on which we rely could result in harm to our reputation and loss of users, which could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial conditions.
 
22

We may be subject to intellectual property infringement claims, which may be expensive to defend and may disrupt our business and operations.
We cannot be certain that our operations or any aspects of our business do not or will not infringe upon or otherwise violate trademarks, patents, copyrights,
know-how
or other intellectual property rights held by third parties. We may be subject to legal proceedings and claims relating to the intellectual property rights of others. In addition, there may be other third-party intellectual property that is infringed upon by our products, services, merchants, the content displayed on our platform or other aspects of our business. There could also be existing patents or other intellectual property rights of which we are not aware that our products or content may inadvertently infringe. We cannot assure you that holders of the relevant intellectual property rights purportedly relating to some aspect of our technology platform or business, if any such holders exist, would not seek to enforce such intellectual property rights against us in China, the United States or any other jurisdictions. In addition, we strive to closely monitor the products offered on our platform, and also require merchants on our platform to indemnify us for any losses we suffer or any costs that we incur in relation to the products offered by such merchants on our internet platform. However, we cannot be certain that these measures would be effective in completely preventing the infringement of trademarks, patents, copyrights,
know-how
or other intellectual property rights held by third parties. Further, the application and interpretation of China’s intellectual property right laws and the procedures and standards for granting trademarks, patents, copyrights,
know-how
or other intellectual property rights in China are still evolving and are uncertain, and we cannot assure you that PRC courts or regulatory authorities would agree with our analysis. If we are found to have violated the intellectual property rights of others, we may be subject to liability for our infringement activities or may be prohibited from using such intellectual property, and we may incur licensing fees or be forced to develop alternatives of our own. In addition, we may incur significant expenses, and may be forced to divert management’s time and other resources from our business and operations to defend against these third-party infringement claims, regardless of their merits. Successful infringement or licensing claims made against us may result in significant monetary liabilities and may materially disrupt our business and operations by restricting or prohibiting our use of the intellectual property in question.
We may not be able to prevent others from unauthorized use of our intellectual property, which could harm our business and competitive position.
We regard our trademarks, copyrights, patents, domain names,
know-how,
proprietary technologies, and similar intellectual property as critical to our success, and we rely on a combination of intellectual property laws and contractual arrangements, including confidentiality, invention assignment and
non-compete
agreements with our employees and others, to protect our proprietary rights. We are aware of certain copycat online platforms that attempt to cause confusion or diversion of traffic from us at the moment, against which we are considering initiating lawsuits, and we may continue to become an attractive target to such attacks in the future because of our brand recognition in the
e-commerce
industry in China. In addition, we notice that some third party is applying to register or has registered trademarks similar to ours in different classes of goods. These trademarks may have the same word element such as “ 蘑菇街 “ or “ 美丽说 “ and may potentially cause consumer confusion and compromise our reputation and brand recognition. However, we cannot be certain that these measures could be effective in defending against such copycat online platforms or third parties. Despite these measures, any of our intellectual property rights could be challenged, invalidated, circumvented or misappropriated, or such intellectual property may not be sufficient to provide us with competitive advantages. In addition, there can be no assurance that (i) our application for registration of trademarks, patents, and other intellectual property rights will be approved, (ii) any intellectual property rights will be adequately protected, or (iii) such intellectual property rights will not be challenged by third parties or found by a judicial authority to be invalid or unenforceable. Further, because of the rapid pace of technological change in our industry, parts of our business rely on technologies developed or licensed by third parties, and we may not be able to obtain or continue to obtain licenses and technologies from these third parties at all or on reasonable terms.
 
23

It is often difficult to register, maintain and enforce intellectual property rights in China. Statutory laws and regulations are subject to judicial interpretation and enforcement and may not be applied consistently due to the lack of clear guidance on statutory interpretation. Confidentiality, invention assignment and
non-compete
agreements may be breached by counterparties, and there may not be adequate remedies available to us for any such breach. Accordingly, we may not be able to effectively protect our intellectual property rights or to enforce our contractual rights in China. Policing any unauthorized use of our intellectual property is difficult and costly and the steps we take may be inadequate to prevent the infringement or misappropriation of our intellectual property. For example, third-parties may register trademarks or domain names or purchase internet search engine keywords that are similar to our trademarks, brands or websites, or misappropriate our intellectual property or data and copy our platform, all of which could cause confusion to our users, divert online customers away from our content and products and harm our reputation. In the event that we resort to litigation to enforce our intellectual property rights, such litigation could result in substantial costs and a diversion of our management and financial resources, and could put our intellectual property at risk of being invalidated or narrowed in scope. We can provide no assurance that we will prevail in such litigation, and even if we do prevail, we may not obtain a meaningful recovery. In addition, our trade secrets may be leaked or otherwise become available to, or be independently discovered by, our competitors. Any failure in maintaining, protecting or enforcing our intellectual property rights could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We rely on assumptions and estimates to calculate certain key operating metrics, and real or perceived inaccuracies in such metrics may harm our reputation and negatively affect our business.
The number of established LVB hosts and active buyers through LVB on our platform, as well as user time spent on our platform, are calculated using internal company data that has not been independently verified. While these numbers are based on what we believe to be reasonable calculations for the applicable periods of measurement, there are inherent challenges in measuring usage and user engagement across our large user base. We treat each device or account as a separate user for the purposes of calculating our active buyers through LVB, because it may not always be possible to identify people that use more than one device or have set up more than one account. Accordingly, the calculations of our active buyers through LVB may not accurately reflect the actual number of people using our platform.
Our measures of user growth and user engagement may differ from estimates published by third parties or from similarly titled metrics used by our competitors due to differences in methodology. If users, KOLs and merchants do not perceive our user metrics to be accurate representations of our user base or user engagement, or if we discover material inaccuracies in our user metrics, our reputation may be harmed and merchants and KOLs may be less willing to allocate their resources or spending to our platform, which could negatively affect our business and operating results.
We have granted, and may continue to grant, share options, restricted shares and other forms of share based incentive awards, which have resulted in and may continue to result in significant share based compensation expenses.
We adopted the Global Share Plan in 2011, which was amended in September 2016 and March 2018 and is referred to as the Plan in this annual report, for the purpose of granting share-based compensation awards to employees, directors and consultants to incentivize their performance and align their interests with ours. Under the Plan, the maximum aggregate number of shares which may be issued pursuant to all awards is 316,317,652 ordinary shares. In November 2018, our board of directors and shareholders adopted the Amended and Restated Global Share Plan, which we refer to as the Amended Plan in this annual report, to amend and restate the Plan in its entirety, which superseded all the prior versions of the Plan. As of May 31, 2021, options to purchase 13,385,576 ordinary shares as well as 73,003,225 restricted share units are issued and outstanding under the Amended Plan. See “Item 6. Directors, Senior Management and Employees—B. Compensation—Amended and Restated Global Share Plan.” We account for compensation costs for all share options using a fair value-based method and recognize expenses in our consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive loss in accordance with U.S. GAAP. We believe the granting of share-based compensation is of significant importance to our ability to attract and retain key personnel and employees, and we will continue to grant share-based compensation to employees in the future. As a result, our expenses associated with share-based compensation may increase, which may have an adverse effect on our results of operations.
 
24

If we fail to implement and maintain an effective system of internal controls over financial reporting, we may be unable to accurately report our results of operations, meet our reporting obligations or prevent fraud.
We are a public company in the United States subject to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or Section 404, requires that we include a report of management on our internal control over financial reporting in our annual report on Form
20-F.
Our management has concluded that we did not maintain effective internal control over financial reporting as of March 31, 2021 due to material weakness identified. See “Item. 15 Controls and Procedures—Internal Control over Financial Reporting.” In addition, if we cease to be an “emerging growth company” as such term is defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, or the JOBS Act, our independent registered public accounting firm must attest to and report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. Our management may continue to conclude that our internal control over financial reporting is not effective. Moreover, even if our management concludes that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, our independent registered public accounting firm, after conducting its own independent testing, may issue a report that is qualified if it is not satisfied with our internal controls or the level at which our controls are documented, designed, operated or reviewed, or if it interprets the relevant requirements differently from us. In addition, our reporting obligations as a public company may place a significant strain on our management, operational and financial resources and systems for the foreseeable future. We may be unable to timely complete our evaluation testing and any required remediation.
In the course of preparing and auditing our consolidated financial statements for the years ended March 31, 2019, 2020 and 2021 included in our annual report, we and our independent registered public accounting firm respectively identified one material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting as of March 31, 2021. In accordance with reporting requirements set forth by the SEC, a “material weakness” is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our company’s annual or interim consolidated financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. The material weakness identified relates to lack of sufficient competent financial reporting and accounting personnel with appropriate understanding of U.S. GAAP to design and implement formal
period-end
financial reporting policies and procedures; to address complex U.S. GAAP technical accounting issues; and to prepare and review our consolidated financial statements and related disclosures in accordance with U.S. GAAP and financial reporting requirements set forth by the SEC. To remedy our identified material weakness, we have implemented and plan to implement a number of measures to address the material weakness. The measures implemented included hiring additional qualified financial and accounting staff with working experience of U.S. GAAP and SEC reporting requirements, and arranging our financial and accounting staff to attend external training courses to deepen their U.S GAAP and SEC reporting knowledge. We have also established the financial reporting policies with clear roles and responsibilities for accounting and financial reporting staff to address complex accounting and financial reporting issues. Furthermore, we will continue to further expedite and streamline our financial reporting process including: (i) establishing a comprehensive policy and procedure manual, to allow early detection, prevention and resolution of potential misstatement to the consolidated financial statements, (ii) establishing effective oversight and clarifying reporting requirements for
non-recurring
and complex transactions to ensure consolidated financial statements and related disclosures are accurate, complete and in accordance with U.S. GAAP and SEC reporting requirements, (iii) implementing regular and consistent U.S. GAAP accounting and financial reporting training programs for our accounting and financial reporting personnel, and (iv) enhancing our internal audit function and improve overall internal control. We also intend to continue to hire additional resources equipped with relevant U.S. GAAP and SEC reporting knowledge and experience. However, such measures have not been fully implemented and we concluded that the material weakness and deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting have not been remediated as of March 31, 2021. See “Item. 15 Controls and Procedures—Internal Control over Financial Reporting.”
During the course of documenting and testing our internal control procedures, in order to satisfy the requirements of Section 404, we may identify other weaknesses and deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting. In addition, if we fail to maintain the adequacy of our internal control over financial reporting, as these standards are modified, supplemented or amended from time to time, we may not be able to conclude that we have effective internal control over financial reporting in accordance with Section 404. Moreover, our internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect all errors and all fraud. A control system, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurance that the control system’s objectives will be met. Because of the inherent limitations in all control systems, no evaluation of controls can provide absolute assurance that misstatements due to error or fraud will not occur or that all control issues and instances of fraud will be detected.
 
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Generally speaking, if we fail to achieve and maintain an effective internal control environment, we could suffer material misstatements in our financial statements and fail to meet our reporting obligations, which would likely cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information. This could in turn limit our access to capital markets, harm our results of operations and lead to a decline in the trading price of our ADSs. Additionally, ineffective internal control over financial reporting could expose us to increased risk of fraud or misuse of corporate assets, and subject us to potential delisting from the stock exchange on which we list, regulatory investigations and civil or criminal sanctions.
We have limited insurance coverage which could expose us to significant costs and business disruption.
We believe we have obtained a prudent amount of insurance for the insurable risks relating to our business. However, there is no assurance that the insurance policies we maintain are sufficient to cover our business operations. If we were to incur substantial liabilities that were not covered by our insurance, we could incur costs and losses that could materially and adversely affect our results of operations.
Our business, financial condition and results of operations depend on the level of consumer confidence and spending in China and may be adversely affected by the downturn in the global or Chinese economy.
Our business, financial condition and results of operations are sensitive to changes in overall economic conditions that affect consumer spending in China. The retail industry, including the online retail sector, is highly sensitive to general economic changes. Online purchases tend to decline significantly during recessionary periods. Many factors outside of our control, including inflation and deflation, interest rates, volatility of equity and debt securities markets, taxation rates, employment and other government policies can adversely affect consumer confidence and spending.
The global macroeconomic environment is facing challenges. The growth rate of the Chinese economy has gradually slowed in recent years and the trend may continue. There is considerable uncertainty over the long-term effects of the monetary and fiscal policies adopted by the central banks and financial authorities of some of the world’s leading economies, including the United States and China. Unrest, terrorist threats and the potential for war in the Middle East and elsewhere may increase market volatility across the globe. There have also been concerns on the relationship among China and other countries, including the surrounding Asian countries, which may potentially have economic effects. In particular, there is significant uncertainty about the future relationship between the United States and China with respect to trade policies, treaties, government regulations and tariffs. Economic conditions in China are sensitive to global economic conditions, as well as changes in domestic economic and political policies and the expected or perceived overall economic growth rate in China. Any severe or prolonged slowdown in the global or PRC economy may materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition. In addition, continued turbulence in the international markets may adversely affect our ability to access capital markets to meet liquidity needs.
In addition, the domestic and international political environments, including military conflicts and political turmoil or social instability, may also adversely affect consumer confidence and reduce spending, which could in turn materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
 
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Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure
If the PRC government finds that the agreements that establish the structure for operating certain of our operations in China do not comply with PRC regulations relating to the relevant industries, or if these regulations or the interpretation of existing regulations change in the future, we could be subject to severe penalties or be forced to relinquish our interests in those operations.
Foreign ownership of telecommunication businesses and certain other businesses, such as provision of internet video and online games, is subject to restrictions under current PRC laws and regulations. Specifically, foreign ownership of an internet information service provider may not exceed 50%, and the major foreign investor is required to have a record of good performance and operating experience in managing value-added telecommunications business. We are a company registered in the Cayman Islands. Hangzhou Shiqu is our PRC subsidiary and a wholly foreign-owned enterprise under PRC laws. To comply with PRC laws and regulations, we conduct our business in China mainly through Hangzhou Juangua and Beijing Meilishikong, our consolidated affiliated entities, and their respective subsidiaries, based on a series of contractual arrangements by and among Hangzhou Shiqu, our consolidated affiliated entities and their respective shareholders. For a description of these contractual arrangements, see “Item 4. Information on the Company—C. Organizational Structure.” As a result of these contractual arrangements, we exert control over our consolidated affiliated entities and consolidate their financial results in our financial statements under U.S. GAAP.
In the opinion of CM Law Firm, our PRC legal counsel, (i) the ownership structure of Hangzhou Shiqu and our consolidated affiliated entities in China does not result in any violation of PRC laws and regulations currently in effect; and (ii) the contractual arrangements between Hangzhou Shiqu, our consolidated affiliated entities and their respective shareholders governed by PRC law will not result in any violation of PRC laws or regulations currently in effect. However, we have been further advised by our PRC counsel that there are substantial uncertainties regarding the interpretation and application of current or future PRC laws and regulations. Thus, the PRC government may ultimately take a view contrary to the opinion of our PRC counsel. If the PRC government otherwise find that we are in violation of any existing or future PRC laws or regulations or lack the necessary permits or licenses to operate our business, the relevant governmental authorities would have broad discretion in dealing with such violation, including, without limitation:
 
   
revoking the business licenses and/or operating licenses of such entities;
 
   
imposing fines on us;
 
   
confiscating any of our income that they deem to be obtained through illegal operations;
 
   
terminating or placing restrictions or onerous conditions on our operations;
 
   
placing restrictions on our right to collect revenues; and
 
   
shutting down our servers or blocking our mobile apps and websites.
Any of these events could cause significant disruption to our business operations and severely damage our reputation, which would in turn materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. If occurrences of any of these events results in our inability to direct the activities of our consolidated affiliated entity in China that most significantly impact their economic performance, and/or our failure to receive the economic benefits from our consolidated affiliated entities, we may not be able to consolidate the entities in our consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP.
We rely on contractual arrangements with our consolidated affiliated entities and their respective shareholders for our business operations, which may not be as effective as direct ownership in providing operational control.
We have relied and expect to continue to rely on contractual arrangements with consolidated affiliated entity and its shareholders to operate our business in China. These contractual arrangements may not be as effective as direct ownership in providing us with control over our consolidated affiliated entities. For example, our consolidated affiliated entities and their respective shareholders could breach their contractual arrangements with us by, among other things, failing to conduct their operations in an acceptable manner or taking other actions that are detrimental to our interests.
 
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If we had direct ownership of our consolidated affiliated entity in China, we would be able to exercise our rights as a shareholder to effect changes in the board of directors of our consolidated affiliated entities, which in turn could implement changes, subject to any applicable fiduciary obligations, at the management and operational level. However, under the current contractual arrangements, we rely on the performance by our consolidated affiliated entities and their respective shareholders of their obligations under the contracts to exercise control over our consolidated affiliated entities. The shareholders of our consolidated affiliated entities may not act in the best interests of our company or may not perform their obligations under these contracts. Such risks exist throughout the period in which we intend to operate certain portion of our business through the contractual arrangements with our consolidated affiliated entities. If any dispute relating to these contracts remains unresolved, we will have to enforce our rights under these contracts through the operations of PRC law and arbitration, litigation and other legal proceedings and therefore will be subject to uncertainties in the PRC legal system. See “—Any failure by our consolidated affiliated entities or their shareholders to perform their obligations under our contractual arrangements with them would have a material and adverse effect on our business.” Therefore, our contractual arrangements with our consolidated affiliated entity may not be as effective in ensuring our control over the relevant portion of our business operations as direct ownership would be.
Any failure by our consolidated affiliated entities or their shareholders to perform their obligations under our contractual arrangements with them would have a material and adverse effect on our business.
If our consolidated affiliated entities or their shareholders fail to perform their respective obligations under the contractual arrangements, we may have to incur substantial costs and expend additional resources to enforce such arrangements. We may also have to rely on legal remedies under PRC law, including seeking specific performance or injunctive relief, and contractual remedies, which we cannot assure you will be sufficient or effective under PRC law. For example, if the shareholders of any of our consolidated affiliated entities were to refuse to transfer their equity interests in our consolidated affiliated entity to us or our designee if we exercise the purchase option pursuant to these contractual arrangements, or if they were otherwise to act in bad faith toward us, then we may have to take legal actions to compel them to perform their contractual obligations.
All the agreements under our contractual arrangements are governed by PRC law and provide for the resolution of disputes through arbitration in China. Accordingly, these contracts would be interpreted in accordance with PRC law and any disputes would be resolved in accordance with PRC legal procedures. The legal system in the PRC is not as developed as in some other jurisdictions, such as the United States. As a result, uncertainties in the PRC legal system could limit our ability to enforce these contractual arrangements. Meanwhile, there are very few precedents and little formal guidance as to how contractual arrangements in the context of a consolidated affiliated entity should be interpreted or enforced under PRC law. There remain significant uncertainties regarding the ultimate outcome of such arbitration should legal action become necessary. In addition, under PRC law, rulings by arbitrators are final, parties cannot appeal the arbitration results in courts, and if the losing parties fail to carry out the arbitration awards within a prescribed time limit, the prevailing parties may only enforce the arbitration awards in PRC courts through arbitration award recognition proceedings, which would require additional expenses and delay. In the event we are unable to enforce these contractual arrangements, or if we suffer significant delay or other obstacles in the process of enforcing these contractual arrangements, we may not be able to exert effective control over our consolidated affiliated entities, and our ability to conduct our business may be negatively affected. See “—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—Uncertainties with respect to the PRC legal system could adversely affect us.”
The shareholders of our consolidated affiliated entities may have potential conflicts of interest with us, which may materially and adversely affect our business and financial condition.
The shareholders of our consolidated variable entities include Messrs. Qi Chen, Yibo Wei and Xuqiang Yue, who are also our shareholders, and our directors or officers. Conflicts of interest may arise between the roles of them as shareholders, directors or officers of our company and as shareholders of our consolidated affiliated entities. For individuals who are also our directors and officers, we rely on them to abide by the laws of the Cayman Islands, which provide that directors and officers owe fiduciary duties to our company, including duties to act in good faith and in the best interest of our company and not to use their positions for personal gain. The shareholders of our consolidated affiliated entities have executed powers of attorney to appoint Hangzhou Shiqu or a person designated by Hangzhou Shiqu to vote on their behalf and exercise voting rights as shareholders of our consolidated affiliated entities. We cannot assure you that when conflicts arise, these shareholders will act in the best interest of our company or that conflicts will be resolved in our favor. If we cannot resolve any conflicts of interest or disputes between us and these shareholders, we would have to rely on legal proceedings, which may be expensive, time-consuming and disruptive to our operations. There is also substantial uncertainty as to the outcome of any such legal proceedings.
 
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Contractual arrangements in relation to our consolidated affiliated entities may be subject to scrutiny by the PRC tax authorities and they may determine that we or our PRC consolidated affiliated entity owes additional taxes, which could negatively affect our financial condition and the value of your investment.
Under applicable PRC laws and regulations, arrangements and transactions among related parties may be subject to audit or challenge by the PRC tax authorities within ten years after the taxable year when the transactions are conducted. We could face material and adverse tax consequences if the PRC tax authorities determine that the contractual arrangements in relation to our consolidated affiliated entities were not entered into on an arm’s length basis in such a way as to result in an impermissible reduction in taxes under applicable PRC laws, rules and regulations, and adjust income of our consolidated affiliated entities in the form of a transfer pricing adjustment. A transfer pricing adjustment could, among other things, result in a reduction of expense deductions recorded by our consolidated affiliated entities for PRC tax purposes, which could in turn increase its tax liabilities without reducing our PRC subsidiary’s tax expenses. In addition, the PRC tax authorities may impose late payment fees and other penalties on our consolidated affiliated entities for the adjusted but unpaid taxes according to the applicable regulations. Our financial position could be materially and adversely affected if our consolidated affiliated entities’ tax liabilities increase or if it is required to pay late payment fees and other penalties.
We may lose the ability to use and enjoy assets held by our consolidated affiliated entities that are material to the operation of certain portion of our business if the entity goes bankrupt or becomes subject to a dissolution or liquidation proceeding.
As part of our contractual arrangements with our consolidated affiliated entities, the entity holds certain assets that are material to the operation of certain portion of our business, including permits, domain names and most of our intellectual property rights. If any of our consolidated affiliated entity goes bankrupt and all or part of its assets become subject to liens or rights of third-party creditors, we may be unable to continue some or all of our business activities, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Under the contractual arrangements, our consolidated affiliated entities may not, in any manner, sell, transfer, mortgage or dispose of its assets or legal or beneficial interests in the business without our prior consent. If our consolidated affiliated entity undergo a voluntary or involuntary liquidation proceeding, the independent third-party creditors may claim rights to some or all of these assets, thereby hindering our ability to operate our business, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Uncertainties exist with respect to the interpretation and implementation of the newly enacted PRC Foreign Investment Law and how it may impact the viability of our current corporate structure, corporate governance and business operations.
On March 15, 2019, the National People’s Congress approved the Foreign Investment Law, which came into effect on January 1, 2020 and replace the trio of existing laws regulating foreign investment in China, namely, the Sino-foreign Equity Joint Venture Enterprise Law, the Sino-foreign Cooperative Joint Venture Enterprise Law and the Wholly Foreign-invested Enterprise Law, together with their implementation rules and ancillary regulations. The Foreign Investment Law embodies an expected PRC regulatory trend to rationalize its foreign investment regulatory regime in line with prevailing international practice and the legislative efforts to unify the corporate legal requirements for both foreign and domestic investments. However, since it is relatively new, uncertainties still exist in relation to its interpretation and implementation. The Foreign Investment Law does not touch upon the relevant concepts and regulatory regimes that were historically suggested relating to the regulating of VIE corporate structures. For instance, under the Foreign Investment Law, “foreign investment” refers to the investment activities directly or indirectly conducted by foreign individuals, enterprises or other entities in China. On December 26, 2019, the State Council issued the Implementation Regulations for the Foreign Investment Law of the People’s Republic of China, or the Implementation Regulations, which became effective on January 1, 2020. Pursuant to the Implementation Regulations, in the event of any discrepancy between the Foreign Investment law and the Implementation Regulations and relevant requirements for foreign investment promulgated prior to January 1, 2020, the Foreign Investment Law and the Implementation Regulations shall prevail. The Implementation Regulations on the Foreign Investment Law does not stipulate whether contractual arrangements should be deemed as a form of foreign investment. Though it does not explicitly classify contractual arrangements as a form of foreign investment, there is no assurance that foreign investment via contractual arrangement would not be interpreted as a type of indirect foreign investment activities under the definition in the future. In addition, the definition contains a
catch-all
provision which includes investments made by foreign investors through means stipulated in laws or administrative regulations or other methods prescribed by the State Council. Therefore, it still leaves leeway for future laws, administrative regulations or provisions promulgated by the State Council to provide for contractual arrangements as a form of foreign investment. In any of these cases, it will be uncertain whether our contractual arrangements will be deemed to be in violation of the market access requirements for foreign investment under the PRC laws and regulations. Furthermore, if future laws, administrative regulations or provisions prescribed by the State Council mandate further actions to be taken by companies with respect to existing contractual arrangements, we may face substantial uncertainties as to whether we can complete such actions in a timely manner, or at all. If the ownership structure, contractual arrangements and business of our company, our PRC subsidiaries or our variable interest entities are found to be in violation of any existing or future PRC laws or regulations, or if we fail to obtain or maintain any of the required permits or approvals, the relevant governmental authorities would have broad discretion in dealing with such violation, including levying fines, confiscating our income or the income of our PRC subsidiaries or our variable interest entities, revoking the business licenses or operating licenses of our PRC subsidiaries or our variable interest entities, shutting down our servers or blocking our online platform, discontinuing or placing restrictions or onerous conditions on our operations, requiring us to undergo a costly and disruptive restructuring, restricting or prohibiting our use of proceeds from our initial public offering to finance our business and operations in China, and taking other regulatory or enforcement actions that could be harmful to our business. Failure to take timely and appropriate measures to cope with any of these or similar regulatory compliance challenges could materially and adversely affect our current corporate structure, corporate governance and business operations. If any of these occurrences results in our inability to direct the activities of any of our variable interest entities and/or our failure to receive economic benefits from any of them, we may not be able to consolidate their results into our consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP.
 
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We may rely on dividends paid by our PRC subsidiaries to fund cash and financing requirements. Any limitation on the ability of our PRC subsidiary to pay dividends to us could have a material adverse effect on our ability to conduct our business and to pay dividends to holders of the ADSs and our ordinary shares.
We are a holding company, and we may rely on dividends to be paid by our PRC subsidiaries for our cash and financing requirements, including the funds necessary to pay dividends and other cash distributions to the holders of the ADSs and our ordinary shares and service any debt we may incur. If our PRC subsidiaries incur debt on their own behalf in the future, the instruments governing the debt may restrict their ability to pay dividends or make other distributions to us.
Under PRC laws and regulations, wholly foreign-owned enterprises in the PRC, such as Hangzhou Shiqu and Meilishuo Beijing, may pay dividends only out of their accumulated profits as determined in accordance with PRC accounting standards and regulations. In addition, a wholly foreign-owned enterprise is required to set aside at least 10% of its
after-tax
profits each year, after making up previous years’ accumulated losses, if any, to fund certain statutory reserve funds, until the aggregate amount of such a fund reaches 50% of its registered capital. At the discretion of the board of directors of the wholly foreign-owned enterprise, it may allocate a portion of its
after-tax
profits based on PRC accounting standards to staff welfare and bonus funds. These reserve funds and staff welfare and bonus funds are not distributable as cash dividends. Any limitation on the ability of our wholly-owned PRC subsidiaries to pay dividends or make other distributions to us could materially and adversely limit our ability to grow, make investments or acquisitions that could be beneficial to our business, pay dividends, or otherwise fund and conduct our business.
Risks Related to Doing Business in China
Changes in China’s political, economic or social conditions or government policies could have a material adverse effect on our business and operations.
Our revenues are all sourced from China. Accordingly, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may be influenced to a significant degree by political, economic and social conditions in China generally. The Chinese economy differs from the economies of most developed countries in many respects, including the level of government involvement, level of development, growth rate, control of foreign exchange and allocation of resources. Although the Chinese government has implemented measures emphasizing the utilization of market forces for economic reform, the reduction of state ownership of productive assets, and the establishment of improved corporate governance in business enterprises, a substantial portion of productive assets in China is still owned by the government. In addition, the Chinese government continues to play a significant role in regulating industry development by imposing industrial policies.
 
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The Chinese government also exercises significant control over China’s economic growth through allocating resources, controlling payment of foreign currency-denominated obligations, setting monetary policy, and providing preferential treatment to particular industries or companies.
While the Chinese economy has experienced significant growth over the past decades, growth has been uneven, both geographically and among various sectors of the economy, and the rate of growth has been slowing since 2012, and the impact of
COVID-19
on the Chinese economy in 2020 was severe. According to the National Bureau of Statistics of China, China’s real GDP growth rate was 6.7%, 6.0% and 2.3% in 2018, 2019 and 2020, respectively. Any adverse changes in economic conditions in China, in the policies of the Chinese government or in the laws and regulations in China could have a material adverse effect on the overall economic growth of China. Such developments could adversely affect our business and operating results, lead to reduction in demand for our products and services and adversely affect our competitive position. Any disruptions or continuing or worsening slowdown could significantly reduce domestic commerce activities in China, which could lead to significant reduction in demand for and spending on the products and services we offer. An economic downturn, whether actual or perceived, a further decrease in economic growth rates or an otherwise uncertain economic outlook in China could have a material adverse effect on business and consumer spending and, as a result, adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. The Chinese government has implemented various measures to encourage economic growth and guide the allocation of resources. Some of these measures may benefit the overall Chinese economy, but may have a negative effect on us. For example, our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected by government control over capital investments or changes in tax regulations.
In addition, because we hold a significant amount of cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments, if financial institutions and issuers of financial instruments that we hold become insolvent or if the market for these financial instruments become illiquid as a result of a severe economic downturn, our business and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected.
Uncertainties with respect to the PRC legal system could adversely affect us.
The PRC legal system is based on written statutes and court decisions have limited precedential value. The PRC legal system is evolving rapidly, and the interpretations of many laws, regulations and rules may contain inconsistencies and enforcement of these laws, regulations and rules involves uncertainties.
From time to time, we may have to resort to administrative and court proceedings to enforce our legal rights. However, since PRC judicial and administrative authorities have significant discretion in interpreting and implementing statutory and contractual terms, it may be more difficult to predict the outcome of a judicial or administrative proceeding than in more developed legal systems. Furthermore, the PRC legal system is based, in part, on government policies and internal rules, some of which are not published in a timely manner, or at all, but which may have retroactive effect. As a result, we may not always be aware of any potential violation of these policies and rules. Such unpredictability towards our contractual, property (including intellectual property) and procedural rights could adversely affect our business and impede our ability to continue our operations.
Furthermore, the PRC legal system is based in part on government policies and internal rules, some of which are not published on a timely basis and may have retroactive effect. As a result, we may not be aware of our violation of any of these policies and rules until sometime after the violation. In addition, any administrative and court proceedings in China may be protracted, resulting in substantial costs and diversion of resources and management attention.
 
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Fluctuations in exchange rates could have a material and adverse effect on our results of operations and the value of your investment.
The conversion of Renminbi into foreign currencies, including U.S. dollars, is based on rates set by the People’s Bank of China. The Renminbi has fluctuated against the U.S. dollar, at times significantly and unpredictably. The value of Renminbi against the U.S. dollar and other currencies is affected by changes in China’s political and economic conditions and by China’s foreign exchange policies, among other things. We cannot assure you that Renminbi will not appreciate or depreciate significantly in value against the U.S. dollar in the future. It is difficult to predict how market forces or PRC or U.S. government policy may impact the exchange rate between Renminbi and the U.S. dollar in the future.
Any significant appreciation or depreciation of Renminbi may materially and adversely affect our revenues, earnings and financial position, and the value of, and any dividends payable on, our ADSs in U.S. dollars. For example, to the extent that we need to convert U.S. dollars we receive from our initial public offering into Renminbi for our operations, appreciation of the Renminbi against the U.S. dollar would have an adverse effect on the Renminbi amount we would receive from the conversion. Conversely, if we decide to convert our Renminbi into U.S. dollars for the purpose of making payments for dividends on our ordinary shares or ADSs or for other business purposes, appreciation of the U.S. dollar against the Renminbi would have a negative effect on the U.S. dollar amount available to us.
Very limited hedging options are available in China to reduce our exposure to exchange rate fluctuations. To date, we have not entered into any hedging transactions in an effort to reduce our exposure to foreign currency exchange risk. While we may decide to enter into hedging transactions in the future, the availability and effectiveness of these hedges may be limited and we may not be able to adequately hedge our exposure or at all. In addition, our currency exchange losses may be magnified by PRC exchange control regulations that restrict our ability to convert Renminbi into foreign currency. As a result, fluctuations in exchange rates may have a material adverse effect on your investment.
Governmental control of currency conversion may limit our ability to utilize our revenues effectively and affect the value of your investment.
The PRC government imposes controls on the convertibility of the Renminbi into foreign currencies and, in certain cases, the remittance of currency out of China. We receive substantially all of our revenues in Renminbi. Under our current corporate structure, our Cayman Islands holding company may rely on dividend payments from our PRC subsidiaries to fund any cash and financing requirements we may have. Under existing PRC foreign exchange regulations, payments of current account items, including profit distributions, interest payments and trade and service-related foreign exchange transactions, can be made in foreign currencies without prior approval of SAFE by complying with certain procedural requirements. Specifically, under the existing exchange restrictions, without prior approval of SAFE, cash generated from the operations of our PRC subsidiaries in China may be used to pay dividends to our company. However, approval from or registration with appropriate government authorities is required where Renminbi is to be converted into foreign currency and remitted out of China to pay capital expenses such as the repayment of loans denominated in foreign currencies. As a result, we need to obtain SAFE approval to use cash generated from the operations of our PRC subsidiaries and consolidated affiliated entities to pay off their respective debt in a currency other than Renminbi owed to entities outside China, or to make other capital expenditure payments outside China in a currency other than Renminbi.
In light of the flood of capital outflows of China in 2016 due to the weakening RMB, the PRC government has imposed more restrictive foreign exchange policies and stepped up scrutiny of major outbound capital movement including overseas direct investment. More restrictions and substantial vetting process are put in place by SAFE to regulate cross-border transactions falling under the capital account. If any of our shareholders regulated by such policies fails to satisfy the applicable overseas direct investment filing or approval requirement timely or at all, it may be subject to penalties from the relevant PRC authorities. The PRC government may at its discretion further restrict access in the future to foreign currencies for current account transactions. If the foreign exchange control system prevents us from obtaining sufficient foreign currencies to satisfy our foreign currency demands, we may not be able to pay dividends in foreign currencies to our shareholders, including holders of our ADSs.
 
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The M&A Rules and certain other PRC regulations establish complex procedures for some acquisitions of Chinese companies by foreign investors, which could make it more difficult for us to pursue growth through acquisitions in China.
The Regulations on Mergers and Acquisitions of Domestic Companies by Foreign Investors, or the M&A Rules, adopted by six PRC regulatory agencies in 2006 and amended in 2009, and some other regulations and rules concerning mergers and acquisitions established additional procedures and requirements that could make merger and acquisition activities by foreign investors more time consuming and complex, including requirements in some instances that the anti-monopoly law enforcement agency be notified in advance of any
change-of-control
transaction in which a foreign investor takes control of a PRC domestic enterprise. Moreover, the Anti-Monopoly Law requires that the anti-monopoly law enforcement agency shall be notified in advance of any concentration of undertaking if certain thresholds are triggered. In addition, the security review rules issued by the Ministry of Commerce, or the MOFCOM, that became effective in September 2011 specify that mergers and acquisitions by foreign investors that raise “national defense and security” concerns and mergers and acquisitions through which foreign investors may acquire de facto control over domestic enterprises that raise “national security” concerns are subject to strict review by the MOFCOM, and the rules prohibit any activities attempting to bypass a security review, including by structuring the transaction through a proxy or contractual control arrangement. In the future, we may grow our business by acquiring complementary businesses. Complying with the requirements of the above-mentioned regulations and other relevant rules to complete such transactions could be time consuming, and any required approval processes, including obtaining approval from the MOFCOM or its local counterpart or anti-monopoly law enforcement agency may delay or inhibit our ability to complete such transactions, which could affect our ability to expand our business or maintain our market share.
PRC regulation of loans to and direct investment in PRC entities by offshore holding companies and governmental control of currency conversion may delay or prevent us from using the proceeds of our initial public offering to make loans to or make additional capital contributions to our PRC subsidiaries and consolidated affiliated entities, which could materially and adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business.
We are an offshore holding company conducting our operations in China through our PRC subsidiaries, consolidated affiliated entities and their subsidiaries. We may make loans to our PRC subsidiaries, consolidated affiliated entities and their subsidiaries, or we may make additional capital contributions to our PRC subsidiaries, or we may establish new PRC subsidiaries and make capital contributions to these new PRC subsidiaries, or we may acquire offshore entities with business operations in China in an offshore transaction.
Most of these ways are subject to PRC regulations and approvals. For example, loans by us to our wholly owned PRC subsidiaries to finance their activities cannot exceed statutory limits and must be registered with the local counterpart of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange, or SAFE. If we decide to finance our wholly owned PRC subsidiaries by means of capital contributions, these capital contributions are subject to the requirement of making necessary filings in the Foreign Investment Comprehensive Management Information System and registration with other governmental authorities in China. Any foreign loan procured by our PRC subsidiaries is required to be registered or filed with SAFE or its local branches or satisfy relevant requirements as provided in SAFE Circular 28. Any medium or long-term loan to be provided by us to our VIEs must be registered with the National Development and Reform Commission and SAFE or its local branches. We may not be able to obtain these government approvals or complete such registrations on a timely basis, if at all, with respect to future capital contributions or foreign loans by us to our PRC subsidiaries. If we fail to receive such approvals or complete such registration or filing, our ability to use the proceeds of our initial public offering and to capitalize our PRC operations may be negatively affected, which could adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business. Due to the restrictions imposed on loans in foreign currencies extended to any PRC domestic companies, we are not likely to make such loans to our consolidated affiliated entities, which are PRC domestic company.
Further, we are not likely to finance the activities of our consolidated affiliated entities by means of capital contributions due to regulatory restrictions relating to foreign investment in PRC domestic enterprises engaged in internet information services, online games, online audio-visual program services and related businesses.
 
33

SAFE promulgated Circular on the Reforming of the Management Method of the Settlement of Foreign Currency Capital of Foreign-invested Enterprises, or SAFE Circular 19, effective June 2015, in replacement of the Circular on the Relevant Issues Concerning the Launch of Reforming Trial of the Administration Model of the Settlement of Foreign Currency Capital of Foreign-Invested Enterprises, the Notice from the State Administration of Foreign Exchange on Relevant Issues Concerning Strengthening the Administration of Foreign Exchange Businesses, and the Circular on Further Clarification and Regulation of the Issues Concerning the Administration of Certain Capital Account Foreign Exchange Businesses. According to SAFE Circular 19, the flow and use of the RMB capital converted from foreign currency-denominated registered capital of a foreign-invested company is regulated such that RMB capital may not be used for the issuance of RMB entrusted loans, the repayment of inter-enterprise loans or the repayment of banks loans that have been transferred to a third party. Although SAFE Circular 19 allows RMB capital converted from foreign currency-denominated registered capital of a foreign-invested enterprise to be used for equity investments within China, it also reiterates the principle that RMB capital converted from the foreign currency-denominated capital of a foreign-invested company may not be directly or indirectly used for purposes beyond its business scope. Thus, it is unclear whether SAFE will permit such capital to be used for equity investments in China in actual practice. SAFE promulgated the Notice of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange on Reforming and Standardizing the Foreign Exchange Settlement Management Policy of Capital Account, or SAFE Circular 16, effective on June 9, 2016, which reiterates some of the rules set forth in SAFE Circular 19, but changes the prohibition against using RMB capital converted from foreign currency-denominated registered capital of a foreign-invested company to issue RMB entrusted loans to a prohibition against using such capital to issue loans to
non-associated
enterprises. Violations of SAFE Circular 19 and SAFE Circular 16 could result in administrative penalties. SAFE Circular 19 and SAFE Circular 16 may significantly limit our ability to transfer any foreign currency we hold, including the net proceeds from our initial public offering, to our PRC subsidiaries, which may adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business in China. On October 23, 2019, SAFE promulgated the Notice of the Administration of Foreign Exchange on Further Promoting the Convenience of Cross-Border Trade and Investment, or SAFE Circular 28, which, among other things, stipulates that
non-investment
foreign-invested entities may use foreign exchange capital or Renminbi funds converted from the foreign exchange capital to make domestic equity investments, provided that such investments should comply with the Negative List and other relevant PRC laws and regulations. Even though SAFE Circular 28 allows all foreign-invested enterprises (including those without an investment business scope) to utilize and convert their foreign exchange capital for making equity investment in China if certain requirements prescribed therein are satisfied, since it is relatively new, uncertainties still exist in relation to its interpretation and implementation.
In light of the various requirements imposed by PRC regulations on loans to and direct investment in PRC entities by offshore holding companies, we cannot assure you that we will be able to complete the necessary government registrations or obtain the necessary government approvals on a timely basis, if at all, with respect to future loans by us to our PRC subsidiary or with respect to future capital contributions by us to our PRC subsidiary. If we fail to complete such registrations or obtain such approvals, our ability to use the proceeds we received from our initial public offering and to capitalize or otherwise fund our PRC operations may be negatively affected, which could materially and adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business.
PRC regulations relating to the establishment of offshore special purpose companies by PRC residents may subject our PRC resident beneficial owners or our PRC subsidiaries to liability or penalties, limit our ability to inject capital into our PRC subsidiaries, limit our PRC subsidiaries’ ability to increase their registered capital or distribute profits to us, or may otherwise adversely affect us.
The SAFE promulgated the Circular on Relevant Issues Relating to Domestic Resident’s Investment and Financing and Round-Trip Investment through Special Purpose Vehicles, or SAFE Circular 37, in July 2014 that requires PRC residents or entities to register with SAFE or its local branch in connection with their establishment or control of an offshore entity established for the purpose of overseas investment or financing with such PRC residents or entities’ legally owned assets or equity interests in domestic enterprises or offshore assets or interests. On February 13, 2015, SAFE issued SAFE Circular No. 13, which took effect on June 1, 2015, pursuant to which, the power to accept SAFE registration was delegated from local SAFE to local qualified banks where the assets or interest in the domestic entity was located.
SAFE Circular 37 is issued to replace the Notice on Relevant Issues Concerning Foreign Exchange Administration for PRC Residents Engaging in Financing and Roundtrip Investments via Overseas Special Purpose Vehicles, or SAFE Circular 75.
If our shareholders who are PRC residents or entities do not complete their registration with the local SAFE branches, our PRC subsidiaries may be prohibited from distributing their profits and proceeds from any reduction in capital, share transfer or liquidation to us, and we may be restricted in our ability to contribute additional capital to our PRC subsidiaries. Moreover, failure to comply with the SAFE registration described above could result in liability under PRC laws for evasion of applicable foreign exchange restrictions.
 
34

We have used our best efforts to notify PRC residents or entities who directly or indirectly hold shares in our Cayman Islands holding company and who are known to us as being PRC residents to complete the foreign exchange registrations. However, we may not be informed of the identities of all the PRC residents or entities holding direct or indirect interest in our company, nor can we compel our beneficial owners to comply with SAFE registration requirements. We cannot assure you that all shareholders or beneficial owners of ours who are PRC residents or entities have complied with, and will in the future make, obtain or update any applicable registrations or approvals required by, SAFE regulations. Failure by such shareholders or beneficial owners to comply with SAFE regulations, or failure by us to amend the foreign exchange registrations of our PRC subsidiaries, could subject us to fines or legal sanctions, restrict our overseas or cross-border investment activities, limit our PRC subsidiaries’ ability to make distributions or pay dividends to us or affect our ownership structure, which could adversely affect our business and prospects.
Failure to comply with PRC regulations regarding the registration requirements for employee stock ownership plans or share option plans may subject the PRC plan participants or us to fines and other legal or administrative sanctions.
Pursuant to SAFE Circular 37, PRC residents who participate in share incentive plans in overseas
non-publicly-listed
companies due to their position as director, senior management or employees of the PRC subsidiaries of the overseas companies may submit applications to SAFE or its local branches for the foreign exchange registration with respect to offshore special purpose companies. Our directors, executive officers and other employees who are PRC residents and who have been granted share-based awards may follow SAFE Circular 37 to apply for the foreign exchange registration before our company becomes an overseas listed company. In February 2012, SAFE promulgated the Notices on Issues Concerning the Foreign Exchange Administration for Domestic Individuals Participating in Stock Incentive Plans of Overseas Publicly-Listed Company, or SAFE Circular 7. Under SAFE Circular 7 and other relevant rules and regulations, PRC residents who participate in stock incentive plan in an overseas publicly-listed company are required to register with SAFE or its local branches and complete certain other procedures. Participants of a stock incentive plan who are PRC residents must retain a qualified PRC agent, which could be a PRC subsidiary of such overseas publicly listed company or another qualified institution selected by such PRC subsidiary, to conduct the SAFE registration and other procedures with respect to the stock incentive plan on behalf of its participants. Such participants must also retain an overseas entrusted institution to handle matters in connection with their exercise of share-based awards, the purchase and sale of corresponding shares or interests and fund transfers. In addition, the PRC agent is required to amend the SAFE registration with respect to the stock incentive plan if there is any material change to the stock incentive plan, the PRC agent or the overseas entrusted institution or other material changes. We and our PRC employees who have been granted share-based awards are subject to SAFE Circular 7 and other relevant rules and regulations these regulations. Failure of our PRC share-based award holders to complete their SAFE registrations may subject these PRC residents to fines and legal sanctions and may also limit our ability to contribute additional capital into our PRC subsidiary, limit our PRC subsidiary’s ability to distribute dividends to us, or otherwise materially adversely affect our business.
If we are classified as a PRC resident enterprise for PRC income tax purposes, such classification could result in unfavorable tax consequences to us and our
non-PRC
shareholders or ADS holders.
Under the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law and its implementation rules, an enterprise established outside of the PRC with its “de facto management body” within the PRC is considered a “resident enterprise” and will be subject to PRC enterprise income tax on its global income at the rate of 25%. The implementation rules define the term “de facto management body” as the body that exercises full and substantial control and overall management over the business, productions, personnel, accounts and properties of an enterprise. In 2009, the State Administration of Taxation, or the SAT, issued a circular, known as SAT Circular 82, which provides certain specific criteria for determining whether the “de facto management body” of a
PRC-controlled
enterprise that is incorporated offshore is located in China. Although this circular only applies to offshore enterprises controlled by PRC enterprises or PRC enterprise groups, not those controlled by PRC individuals or foreigners, the criteria set forth in the circular may reflect the State Administration of Taxation’s general position on how the “de facto management body” text should be applied in determining the tax resident status of all offshore enterprises. According to SAT Circular 82, an offshore incorporated enterprise controlled by a PRC enterprise or a PRC enterprise group will be regarded as a PRC tax resident by virtue of having its “de facto management body” in China and will be subject to PRC enterprise income tax on its global income only if all of the following conditions are met: (i) the primary location of the
day-to-day
operational management is in the PRC; (ii) decisions relating to the enterprise’s financial and human resource matters are made or are subject to approval by organizations or personnel in the PRC; (iii) the enterprise’s primary assets, accounting books and records, company seals, and board and shareholder resolutions, are located or maintained in the PRC; and (iv) at least 50% of voting board members or senior executives habitually reside in the PRC.
 
35

We believe none of our entities outside of China is a PRC resident enterprise for PRC tax purposes. However, the tax resident status of an enterprise is subject to determination by the PRC tax authorities and uncertainties remain with respect to the interpretation of the term “de facto management body.” If the PRC tax authorities determine that MOGU Inc. is a PRC resident enterprise for enterprise income tax purposes, we may be required to withhold a 10% withholding tax from dividends we pay to our shareholders that are
non-resident
enterprises, including the holders of the ADSs. In addition,
non-resident
enterprise shareholders (including our ADS holders) may be subject to PRC tax at a rate of 10% on gains realized on the sale or other disposition of ADSs or ordinary shares at a rate of 10%, if such income is treated as sourced from within the PRC. Furthermore, if PRC tax authorities determine that we are a PRC resident enterprise for enterprise income tax purposes, dividends paid to our
non-PRC
individual shareholders (including the ADS holders) and any gain realized on the transfer of ADSs or ordinary shares by such shareholders may be subject to PRC tax at a rate of 20% (which, in the case of dividends, may be withheld at source by us), if such dividends or gains are deemed to be from PRC sources. These rates may be reduced by an applicable tax treaty, but it is unclear whether
non-PRC
shareholders of MOGU Inc. would be able to claim the benefits of any tax treaties between their country of tax residence and the PRC in the event that MOGU Inc. is treated as a PRC resident enterprise. Any such PRC tax may reduce the returns on your investment in the ADSs.
We face uncertainty with respect to indirect transfer of equity interests in PRC resident enterprises by their
non-PRC
holding companies.
We face uncertainties regarding the reporting on and consequences of previous private equity financing transactions involving the transfer and exchange of shares in our company by
non-resident
investors. In February 2015, the State Administration of Taxation issued the Bulletin on Issues of Enterprise Income Tax on Indirect Transfers of Assets by
Non-PRC
Resident Enterprises, or Bulletin 7. Pursuant to Bulletin 7, an “indirect transfer” of PRC assets, including a transfer of equity interests in an unlisted
non-PRC
holding company of a PRC resident enterprise, by
non-PRC
resident enterprises may be
re-characterized
and treated as a direct transfer of the underlying PRC assets, if such arrangement does not have a reasonable commercial purpose and was established for the purpose of avoiding payment of PRC enterprise income tax. As a result, gains derived from such indirect transfer may be subject to PRC enterprise income tax, and the transferee or other person who is obligated to pay for the transfer is obligated to withhold the applicable taxes, currently at a rate of 10%, for the transfer of equity interests in a PRC resident enterprise. Bulletin 7 does not apply to transactions of sale of shares by investors through a public stock exchange where such shares were acquired from a transaction through a public stock exchange. On October 17, 2017, the SAT issued the Announcement of the State Administration of Taxation on Issues of Tax Withholding regarding
Non-resident
Enterprise Income Tax, or Bulletin 37, which came into effect on December 1, 2017. The Bulletin 37 further clarifies the practice and procedure of the withholding of nonresident enterprise income tax.
There is uncertainty as to the application of Bulletin 37 or previous rules under Bulletin 7. We face uncertainties on the reporting and consequences of private equity financing transactions, share exchanges or other transactions involving the transfer of shares in our company by investors that are
non-PRC
resident enterprises. Our company may be subject to filing obligations or taxes if our company is the transferor in such transactions, and may be subject to withholding obligations if our company is the transferee in such transactions, under Bulletin 37 and Bulletin 7.
Our ADSs may be delisted under the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act if the PCAOB is unable to inspect auditors who are located in China. The delisting of our ADSs, or the threat of their being delisted, may materially and adversely affect the value of your investment. Additionally, the inability of the PCAOB to conduct inspections deprives our investors with the benefits of such inspections.
The Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, or the HFCA Act, was enacted on December 18, 2020. The HFCA Act states if the SEC determines that we have filed audit reports issued by a registered public accounting firm that has not been subject to inspection by the PCAOB for three consecutive years beginning in 2021, the SEC shall prohibit our shares or ADSs from being traded on a national securities exchange or in the over the counter trading market in the U.S. On June 22, 2021, the U.S. Senate passed the Accelerating Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act. The bill, if enacted, would shorten the three-consecutive-year compliance period under the HFCA Act to two consecutive years.
 
36

Our auditor, the independent registered public accounting firm that issues the audit report included elsewhere in this annual report, as an auditor of companies that are traded publicly in the United States and a firm registered with the PCAOB, is subject to laws in the United States pursuant to which the PCAOB conducts regular inspections to assess its compliance with the applicable professional standards. Since our auditor is located in China, a jurisdiction where the PCAOB has been unable to conduct inspections without the approval of the Chinese authorities, our auditor is currently not inspected by the PCAOB.
On March 24, 2021, the SEC adopted interim final rules relating to the implementation of certain disclosure and documentation requirements of the HFCA Act. We will be required to comply with these rules if the SEC identifies us as having a
“non-inspection”
year under a process to be subsequently established by the SEC. The SEC is assessing how to implement other requirements of the HFCA Act, including the listing and trading prohibition requirements described above. On May 13, 2021, the PCAOB issued a proposed rule governing PCAOB determinations under the HFCA Act. The proposal would establish a framework for the PCAOB to use when determining, as contemplated under the HFCA Act, whether the PCAOB is unable to inspect or investigate completely registered public accounting firms located in a foreign jurisdiction because of a position taken by one or more authorities in that jurisdiction. The PCAOB is still soliciting comments on the proposed rule, and we are unsure of the impact, if any, of the PCAOB proposed rule on our auditor when it takes effect.
The SEC may propose additional rules or guidance that could impact us if our auditor is not subject to PCAOB inspection. For example, on August 6, 2020, the President’s Working Group on Financial Markets, or the PWG, issued the
Report on Protecting United States Investors from Significant Risks from Chinese Companies
to the then President of the United States. This report recommended the SEC implement five recommendations to address companies from jurisdictions that do not provide the PCAOB with sufficient access to fulfil its statutory mandate. Some of the concepts of these recommendations were implemented with the enactment of the HFCA Act. However, some of the recommendations were more stringent than the HFCA Act. For example, if a company was not subject to PCAOB inspection, the report recommended that the transition period before a company would be delisted would end on January 1, 2022.
The SEC has announced that the SEC staff is preparing a consolidated proposal for the rules regarding the implementation of the HFCA Act to address the recommendations in the PWG report. It is unclear when the SEC will complete its rulemaking and when such rules will become effective and what, if any, of the PWG recommendations will be adopted. The implications of this possible regulation in addition to the requirements of the HFCA Act are uncertain. Such uncertainty could cause the market price of our ADSs to be materially and adversely affected, and our securities could be delisted or prohibited from being traded
“over-the-counter”
earlier than would be required by the HFCA Act. If our securities are unable to be listed on another securities exchange by then, such a delisting would substantially impair your ability to sell or purchase our ADSs when you wish to do so, and the risk and uncertainty associated with a potential delisting would have a negative impact on the price of our ADSs.
The PCAOB’s inability to conduct inspections in China prevents it from fully evaluating the audits and quality control procedures of our independent registered public accounting firm. As a result, we and investors in our ordinary shares are deprived of the benefits of such PCAOB inspections. The inability of the PCAOB to conduct inspections of auditors in China makes it more difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of our independent registered public accounting firm’s audit procedures or quality control procedures as compared to auditors outside of China that are subject to the PCAOB inspections, which could cause investors and potential investors in our stock to lose confidence in our audit procedures and reported financial information and the quality of our financial statements.
In May 2013, the PCAOB announced that it had entered into a Memorandum of Understanding on Enforcement Cooperation with the China Securities Regulatory Commission, or the CSRC, and the PRC Ministry of Finance, which establishes a cooperative framework between the parties for the production and exchange of audit documents relevant to investigations undertaken by the PCAOB in the PRC or by the CSRC or the PRC Ministry of Finance in the United States. The PCAOB continues to be in discussions with the CSRC and the PRC Ministry of Finance to permit joint inspections in the PRC of audit firms that are registered with the PCAOB and audit Chinese companies that trade on U.S. exchanges.
 
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Proceedings instituted by the SEC against five
PRC-based
accounting firms could result in our financial statements being determined to not be in compliance with the requirements of the Exchange Act.
In December 2012, the SEC brought administrative proceedings against five accounting firms in China, alleging that they had refused to produce audit work papers and other documents related to certain other China-based companies under investigation by the SEC for potential accounting fraud. On January 22, 2014, an initial administrative law decision was issued, censuring these accounting firms and suspending four of the five firms from practicing before the SEC for a period of six months. The four firms appealed to the SEC against this decision and, on February 6, 2015, each of the four accounting firms agreed to a censure and to pay a fine to the SEC to settle the dispute and avoid suspension of their ability to practice before the SEC. The firms’ ability to continue to serve all their respective clients is not affected by the settlement. The settlement requires the firms to follow detailed procedures to seek to provide the SEC with access to Chinese firms’ audit documents via the CSRC. If the firms do not follow these procedures, the SEC could impose penalties such as suspensions, or it could restart the administrative proceedings. The settlement did not require the firms to admit to any violation of law and preserves the firms’ legal defenses in the event the administrative proceeding is restarted.
We were not and are not subject to any SEC investigations, nor are we involved in the proceedings brought by the SEC against the accounting firms. However, the independent registered public accounting firms that issue the audit reports included in our annual reports filed with the SEC is affiliated to one of the four accounting firms above.
In the event that the SEC restarts the administrative proceedings, depending upon the final outcome, listed companies in the United States with major PRC operations may find it difficult or impossible to retain auditors in respect of their operations in the PRC, which could result in financial statements being determined to not be in compliance with the requirements of the Exchange Act, including possible delisting. Moreover, any negative news about the proceedings against these audit firms may cause investor uncertainty regarding China-based, United States-listed companies and the market price of our ADSs may be adversely affected.
If our independent registered public accounting firms were denied, temporarily, the ability to practice before the SEC and we were unable to timely find another registered public accounting firm to audit and issue an opinion on our financial statements, our financial statements could be determined to not be in compliance with the requirements of the Exchange Act. Such a determination could ultimately lead to the delisting from the NYSE or deregistration from the SEC, or both, which would substantially reduce or effectively terminate the trading of our ADSs in the United States.
The enforcement of the PRC Labor Contract Law and other labor-related regulations in the PRC may adversely affect our business and results of operations.
The Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress enacted the Labor Contract Law in 2008, and amended it on December 28, 2012. The Labor Contract Law introduced specific provisions related to fixed-term employment contracts, part-time employment, probationary periods, consultation with labor unions and employee assemblies, employment without a written contract, dismissal of employees, severance, and collective bargaining to enhance previous PRC labor laws. Under the Labor Contract Law, an employer is obligated to sign an unlimited-term labor contract with any employee who has worked for the employer for ten consecutive years. Further, if an employee requests or agrees to renew a fixed-term labor contract that has already been entered into twice consecutively, the resulting contract, with certain exceptions, must have an unlimited term, subject to certain exceptions. With certain exceptions, an employer must pay severance to an employee where a labor contract is terminated or expires. In addition, the PRC governmental authorities have continued to introduce various new labor-related regulations since the effectiveness of the Labor Contract Law.
Under the PRC Social Insurance Law and the Administration of Housing Fund, employees are required to participate in pension insurance, work-related injury insurance, medical insurance, unemployment insurance, maternity insurance, and housing funds and employers are required, together with their employees or separately, to pay the social insurance premiums and housing funds for their employees. Failure to make adequate social insurance and housing fund contributions, we may be subject to fines and legal sanctions, and our business, financial conditions and results of operations may be adversely affected.
These laws designed to enhance labor protection tend to increase our labor costs. In addition, as the interpretation and implementation of these regulations are still evolving, our employment practices may not be at all times be deemed in compliance with the regulations. As a result, we could be subject to penalties or incur significant liabilities in connection with labor disputes or investigations.
 
38

Risks Related to the ADSs
The trading price of the ADSs is likely to be volatile, which could result in substantial losses to investors.
The trading price of the ADSs is likely to be volatile and could fluctuate widely due to multiple factors, some of which are beyond our control. This may happen because of broad market and industry factors, including the performance and fluctuation of the market prices of other companies with business operations located mainly in China that have listed their securities in the United States. In addition to market and industry factors, the price and trading volume for the ADSs may be highly volatile for factors specific to our own operations, including the following:
 
   
variations in our revenues, earnings, cash flow and data related to our user base or user engagement;
 
   
announcements of new investments, acquisitions, strategic partnerships or joint ventures by us or our competitors;
 
   
announcements of new product and service offerings, solutions and expansions by us or our competitors;
 
   
changes in financial estimates by securities analysts;
 
   
detrimental adverse publicity about us, our products and services or our industry;
 
   
additions or departures of key personnel;
 
   
release of
lock-up
or other transfer restrictions on our outstanding equity securities or sales of additional equity securities; and
 
   
actual or potential litigation or regulatory investigations.
Any of these factors may result in large and sudden changes in the volume and price at which our ADSs will trade.
In the past, shareholders of public companies have often brought securities class action suits against those companies following periods of instability in the market price of their securities. If we were involved in a class action suit, it could divert a significant amount of our management’s attention and other resources from our business and operations and require us to incur significant expenses to defend the suit, which could harm our results of operations. Any such class action suit, whether or not successful, could harm our reputation and restrict our ability to raise capital in the future. In addition, if a claim is successfully made against us, we may be required to pay significant damages, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
 
39

We cannot guarantee that any share repurchase program will be fully consummated or that any share repurchase program will enhance long-term shareholder value, and share repurchases could increase the volatility of the trading price of the ADSs and could diminish our cash reserves.
In May 2019, our board of directors authorized the repurchase of up to US$15 million of the ADSs or our ordinary shares over a twelve-month period from May 30, 2019 through May 29, 2020. In May 2020, our board of directors authorized a new repurchase of up to US$10 million of the ADSs or our ordinary shares over a twelve-month period from May 28, 2020 through May 27, 2021. In September 2020, our board of directors authorized another repurchase of up to US$10 million of the ADSs or our ordinary shares over a twelve-month period from September 13, 2020 through September 12, 2021. See “Item 16.E. Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers” for details of our share repurchase transacrtions pursuant to these share repurchase programs for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2021. Although our board of directors has authorized share repurchase programs and can authorized additional share repurchase programs in the furture, we are not obligated to purchase any specific dollar amount or to acquire any specific number of shares. The timing and amount of repurchases, if any, will depend upon several factors, including market, business conditions, the trading price of the ADSs or our ordinary shares and the nature of other investment opportunities. Our share repurchase program could affect the price of the ADSs and increase volatility and may be suspended or terminated at any time, which may result in a decrease in the trading price of the ADSs. For example, the existence of a share repurchase program could cause the price of the ADSs to be higher than it would be in the absence of such a program and could potentially reduce the market liquidity for the ADSs. Additionally, our share repurchase program could diminish our cash reserves, which may impact our ability to finance future growth and to pursue possible future strategic opportunities. There can be no assurance that any share repurchases will enhance shareholder value because the market price of the ADSs or our ordinary shares may decline below the levels at which we determine to repurchase the ADSs or our ordinary shares. Although our share repurchase program is intended to enhance long-term shareholder value, there is no assurance that it will do so and short-term share price fluctuations could reduce the program’s effectiveness.
If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our business, or if they adversely change their recommendations regarding the ADSs, the market price for the ADSs and trading volume could decline.
The trading market for the ADSs will be influenced by research or reports that industry or securities analysts publish about our business. If one or more analysts who cover us downgrade the ADSs, the market price for the ADSs would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease to cover us or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause the market price or trading volume for the ADSs to decline.
The sale or availability for sale of substantial amounts of the ADSs could adversely affect their market price.
Sales of substantial amounts of the ADSs in the public market, or the perception that these sales could occur, could adversely affect the market price of the ADSs and could materially impair our ability to raise capital through equity offerings in the future. We cannot predict what effect, if any, market sales of securities held by our shareholders or the availability of these securities for future sale will have on the market price of the ADSs.
Techniques employed by short sellers may drive down the market price of our listed securities.
Short selling is the practice of selling securities that a seller does not own but rather has borrowed from a third party with the intention of buying identical securities back at a later date to return to the lender. Short sellers hope to profit from a decline in the value of the securities between the sale of the borrowed securities and the purchase of the replacement shares, as short sellers expect to pay less in that purchase than they received in the sale. As it is in short sellers’ interest for the price of the security to decline, many short sellers publish, or arrange for the publication of, negative opinions and allegations regarding the relevant issuer and its business prospects in order to create negative market momentum and generate profits for themselves after selling a security short. These short attacks have, in the past, led to selling of shares in the market.
Public companies listed in the United States that have substantially all of their operations in China have been the subject of short selling. Much of the scrutiny and negative publicity has centered on allegations of a lack of effective internal control over financial reporting resulting in financial and accounting irregularities and mistakes, inadequate corporate governance policies or a lack of adherence thereto and, in many cases, allegations of fraud. As a result, many of these companies are now conducting internal and external investigations into the allegations and, in the interim, are subject to shareholder lawsuits and/or SEC enforcement actions.
Any allegations or reports published by short sellers against our company may be followed by periods of instability in the market price of our ADSs and negative publicity. Regardless of whether such allegations and information in the such reports are proven to be true or untrue, we may have to expend a significant amount of resources to investigate such allegations and/or defend ourselves against negative information in such reports, including in connection with class actions or regulatory enforcement actions derivative of such allegations. While we would strongly defend against any such short seller attacks, we may be constrained in the manner in which we can proceed against the relevant short sellers by principles of freedom of speech, applicable state law or issues of commercial confidentiality. Such a situation could be costly and time-consuming, and could divert management’s attention from the
day-to-day
operations of our company. Even if such allegations are ultimately proven to be groundless, allegations against us could severely impact the market price of our securities and our business operations.
 
40

Our dual-class voting structure will limit your ability to influence corporate matters and could discourage others from pursuing any change of control transactions that holders of our Class A ordinary shares and the ADSs may view as beneficial.
Our authorized share capital is divided into Class A ordinary shares and Class B ordinary shares. Holders of Class A ordinary shares is entitled to one vote per share, while holders of Class B ordinary shares is entitled to 30 votes per share. Each Class B ordinary share is convertible into one Class A ordinary share at any time by the holder thereof, while Class A ordinary shares are not convertible into Class B ordinary shares under any circumstances.
As of May 31, 2021, Mr. Qi Chen, our
co-founder,
the chairman of our board of directors and our chief executive officer, beneficially owned all of our issued Class B ordinary shares. These Class B ordinary shares constitutes approximately 12.1% of our total issued and outstanding share capital and 80.5% of our aggregate voting power as of May 31, 2021. As a result of the dual-class share structure and the concentration of ownership, holders of Class B ordinary shares have considerable influence over matters such as decisions regarding mergers and consolidations, election of directors and other significant corporate actions. Such holders may take actions that are not in the best interest of us or our other shareholders. This concentration of ownership may discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our company, which could have the effect of depriving our other shareholders of the opportunity to receive a premium for their shares as part of a sale of our company and may reduce the price of the ADSs. This concentrated control will limit your ability to influence corporate matters and could discourage others from pursuing any potential merger, takeover or other change of control transactions that holders of Class A ordinary shares and ADSs may view as beneficial.
Because we do not expect to pay dividends in the foreseeable future, you must rely on price appreciation of the ADSs for return on your investment.
We currently intend to retain most, if not all, of our available funds and any future earnings to fund the development and growth of our business. As a result, we do not expect to pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Therefore, you should not rely on an investment in the ADSs as a source for any future dividend income.
Our board of directors has complete discretion as to whether to distribute dividends, subject to certain restrictions under Cayman Islands law, namely that our company may only pay dividends out of profits or share premium account, and provided always that in no circumstances may a dividend be paid if this would result in our company being unable to pay its debts as they fall due in the ordinary course of business. In addition, our shareholders may by ordinary resolution declare a dividend, but no dividend may exceed the amount recommended by our board of directors. Even if our board of directors decides to declare and pay dividends, the timing, amount and form of future dividends, if any, will depend on our future results of operations and cash flow, our capital requirements and surplus, the amount of distributions, if any, received by us from our subsidiaries, our financial condition, contractual restrictions and other factors deemed relevant by our board of directors. Accordingly, the return on your investment in the ADSs will likely depend entirely upon any future price appreciation of the ADSs. There is no guarantee that our ADSs will appreciate in value or even maintain the price at which you purchased the ADSs. You may not realize a return on your investment in the ADSs and you may even lose your entire investment in the ADSs.
Our memorandum and articles of association contain anti-takeover provisions that could have a material adverse effect on the rights of holders of our ordinary shares and the ADSs.
Our memorandum and articles of association contain provisions which could limit the ability of others to acquire control of our company or cause us to engage in
change-of-control
transactions. These provisions could have the effect of depriving our shareholders of an opportunity to sell their shares at a premium over prevailing market prices by discouraging third parties from seeking to obtain control of our company in a tender offer or similar transaction. Our board of directors has the authority, without further action by our shareholders, to issue preferred shares in one or more series and to fix their designations, powers, preferences, privileges, and relative participating, optional or special rights and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions, including dividend rights, conversion rights, voting rights, terms of redemption and liquidation preferences, any or all of which may be greater than the rights associated with our ordinary shares, in the form of ADS or otherwise. Preferred shares could be issued quickly with terms calculated to delay or prevent a change in control of our company or make removal of management more difficult. If our board of directors decides to issue preferred shares, the price of our ADSs may fall and the voting and other rights of the holders of our ordinary shares and ADSs may be materially and adversely affected.
 
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You may face difficulties in protecting your interests, and your ability to protect your rights through U.S. courts may be limited, because we are incorporated under Cayman Islands law.
We are an exempted company incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands. Our corporate affairs are governed by our memorandum and articles of association, the Companies Act (As Revised) of the Cayman Islands (the “Companies Act”) and the common law of the Cayman Islands. The rights of shareholders to take action against our directors, actions by our minority shareholders and the fiduciary duties of our directors to us under Cayman Islands law are to a large extent governed by the common law of the Cayman Islands. The common law of the Cayman Islands is derived in part from comparatively limited judicial precedent in the Cayman Islands as well as from the common law of England, the decisions of whose courts are of persuasive authority, but are not binding, on a court in the Cayman Islands. The rights of our shareholders and the fiduciary duties of our directors under Cayman Islands law are not as clearly established as they would be under statutes or judicial precedent in some jurisdictions in the United States. In particular, the Cayman Islands has a less developed body of securities laws than the United States. Some U.S. states, such as Delaware, have more fully developed and judicially interpreted bodies of corporate law than the Cayman Islands. In addition, Cayman Islands companies may not have standing to initiate a shareholder derivative action in a federal court of the United States.
Shareholders of Cayman Islands exempted companies like us have no general rights under Cayman Islands law to inspect corporate records (other than the memorandum and articles of association and any special resolutions passed by such companies, and the registers of mortgages and charges of such companies) or to obtain copies of lists of shareholders of these companies. Our directors have discretion under our articles of association to determine whether or not, and under what conditions, our corporate records may be inspected by our shareholders, but are not obliged to make them available to our shareholders. This may make it more difficult for you to obtain the information needed to establish any facts necessary for a shareholder motion or to solicit proxies from other shareholders in connection with a proxy contest.
Certain corporate governance practices in the Cayman Islands, which is our home country, differ significantly from requirements for companies incorporated in other jurisdictions such as the United States. Currently, we intend to follow our home country practice in lieu of the following NYSE corporate governance requirements: (i) having a majority of independent directors on our board of directors, (ii) having a minimum of three members in our audit committee, (iii) holding annual shareholders’ meetings, (iv) having a compensation committee composed entirely of independent directors, and (v) having a nominating and corporate governance committee composed entirely of independent directors. To the extent that we choose to follow home country practice with respect to corporate governance matters, our shareholders may be afforded less protection than they otherwise would under rules and regulations applicable to U.S. domestic issuers.
As a result of all of the above, our public shareholders may have more difficulty in protecting their interests in the face of actions taken by our management, members of our board of directors or our controlling shareholders than they would as public shareholders of a company incorporated in the United States.
It may be difficult for overseas regulators to conduct investigation or collect evidence within China.
Shareholder claims or regulatory investigation that are common in the United States generally are difficult to pursue as a matter of law or practicality in China. For example, in China, there are significant legal and other obstacles to providing information needed for regulatory investigations or litigation initiated outside China. Although the authorities in China may establish a regulatory cooperation mechanism with the securities regulatory authorities of another country or region to implement cross-border supervision and administration, such cooperation with the securities regulatory authorities in the Unities States may not be efficient in the absence of mutual and practical cooperation mechanism. Furthermore, according to Article 177 of the PRC Securities Law, or Article 177, which became effective in March 2020, no overseas securities regulator is allowed to directly conduct investigation or evidence collection activities within the territory of the PRC. While detailed interpretation of or implementation rules under Article 177 have yet to be promulgated, the inability for an overseas securities regulator to directly conduct investigation or evidence collection activities within China may further increase difficulties faced by you in protecting your interests. See also “—Risks Related to the ADSs—You may face difficulties in protecting your interests, and your ability to protect your rights through U.S. courts may be limited, because we are incorporated under Cayman Islands law.”
 
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The voting rights of holders of ADSs are limited by the terms of the deposit agreement, and you may not be able to exercise your right to direct how the Class A ordinary shares which are represented by your ADSs are voted.
Holders of ADSs do not have the same rights as our registered shareholders. As a holder of the ADSs, you will not have any direct right to attend general meetings of our shareholders or to cast any votes at such meetings. You will only be able to exercise the voting rights which are carried by the underlying Class A ordinary shares represented by your ADSs indirectly by giving voting instructions to the depositary in accordance with the provisions of the deposit agreement. Under the deposit agreement, you may vote only by giving voting instructions to the depositary. If we instruct the depositary to ask for your instructions, then upon receipt of your voting instructions, the depositary will try, as far as is practicable, to vote the underlying Class A ordinary shares which are represented by your ADSs in accordance with your instructions. If we do not instruct the depositary to ask for your instructions, the depositary may still vote in accordance with instructions you give, but it is not required to do so. You will not be able to directly exercise your right to vote with respect to the underlying Class A ordinary shares represented by your ADSs unless you withdraw the shares and become the registered holder of such shares prior to the record date for the general meeting. Under our memorandum and articles of association, the minimum notice period required to be given by our company to our registered shareholders to convene a general meeting is ten calendar days. When a general meeting is convened, you may not receive sufficient advance notice of the meeting to withdraw the Class A ordinary shares underlying your ADSs and become the registered holder of such shares to allow you to attend the general meeting and to vote directly with respect to any specific matter or resolution to be considered and voted upon at the general meeting. In addition, under our memorandum and articles of association, for the purposes of determining those shareholders who are entitled to attend and vote at any general meeting, our directors may close our register of members and/or fix in advance a record date for such meeting, and such closure of our register of members or the setting of such a record date may prevent you from withdrawing the Class A ordinary shares underlying your ADSs and becoming the registered holder of such shares prior to the record date, so that you would not be able to attend the general meeting or to vote directly. If we ask for your instructions, the depositary will notify you of the upcoming vote and will arrange to deliver our voting materials to you. We have agreed to give the depositary at least 40 days’ prior notice of shareholder meetings. Nevertheless, we cannot assure you that you will receive the voting materials in time to ensure that you can instruct the depositary to vote the underlying Class A ordinary shares represented by your ADSs. In addition, the depositary and its agents are not responsible for failing to carry out voting instructions or for their manner of carrying out your voting instructions. This means that you may not be able to exercise your right to direct how the Class A ordinary shares underlying your ADSs are voted and you may have no legal remedy if the Class A ordinary shares underlying your ADSs are not voted as you requested.
We are entitled to amend the deposit agreement and to change the rights of ADS holders under the terms of such agreement, or to terminate the deposit agreement, without the prior consent of the ADS holders.
We and the Depositary are entitled to amend the deposit agreement and to change the rights of the ADS holders under the terms of such agreement, without the prior consent of the ADS holders. We and the depositary may agree to amend the deposit agreement in any way we decide is necessary or advantageous to us. Amendments may reflect, among other things, operational changes in the ADS program, legal developments affecting ADSs or changes in the terms of our business relationship with the depositary. In the event that the terms of an amendment are disadvantageous to ADS holders, ADS holders will only receive 30 days’ advance notice of the amendment, and no prior consent of the ADS holders is required under the deposit agreement. Furthermore, we may decide to terminate the ADS facility at any time for any reason. For example, terminations may occur when we decide to list our shares on a
non-U.S.
securities exchange and determine not to continue to sponsor an ADS facility or when we become the subject of a takeover or a going-private transaction. If the ADS facility will terminate, ADS holders will receive at least 90 days’ prior notice, but no prior consent is required from them. Under the circumstances that we decide to make an amendment to the deposit agreement that is disadvantageous to ADS holders or terminate the deposit agreement, the ADS holders may choose to sell their ADSs or surrender their ADSs and become direct holders of the underlying ordinary shares, but will have no right to any compensation whatsoever.
 
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ADSs holders may not be entitled to a jury trial with respect to claims arising under the deposit agreement, which could result in less favorable outcomes to the plaintiff(s) in any such action.
The deposit agreement governing the ADSs representing our Class A ordinary shares provides that, to the fullest extent permitted by law, ADS holders waive the right to a jury trial of any claim they may have against us or the depositary arising out of or relating to our shares, the ADSs or the deposit agreement, including any claim under the U.S. federal securities laws.
If we or the depositary opposed a jury trial demand based on the waiver, the court would determine whether the waiver was enforceable based on the facts and circumstances of that case in accordance with the applicable state and federal law. To our knowledge, the enforceability of a contractual
pre-dispute
jury trial waiver in connection with claims arising under the federal securities laws has not been finally adjudicated by the United States Supreme Court. However, we believe that a contractual
pre-dispute
jury trial waiver provision is generally enforceable, including under the laws of the State of New York, which govern the deposit agreement, by a federal or state court in the City of New York, which has
non-exclusive
jurisdiction over matters arising under the deposit agreement. In determining whether to enforce a contractual
pre-dispute
jury trial waiver provision, courts will generally consider whether a party knowingly, intelligently and voluntarily waived the right to a jury trial. We believe that this is the case with respect to the deposit agreement and the ADSs. It is advisable that you consult legal counsel regarding the jury waiver provision before entering into the deposit agreement.
If you or any other holders or beneficial owners of ADSs bring a claim against us or the depositary in connection with matters arising under the deposit agreement or the ADSs, including claims under federal securities laws, you or such other holder or beneficial owner may not be entitled to a jury trial with respect to such claims, which may have the effect of limiting and discouraging lawsuits against us and / or the depositary. If a lawsuit is brought against us and/or the depositary under the deposit agreement, it may be heard only by a judge or justice of the applicable trial court, which would be conducted according to different civil procedures and may result in different outcomes than a trial by jury would have had, including results that could be less favorable to the plaintiff(s) in any such action.
Nevertheless, if this jury trial waiver provision is not permitted by applicable law, an action could proceed under the terms of the deposit agreement with a jury trial. No condition, stipulation or provision of the deposit agreement or ADSs serves as a waiver by any holder or beneficial owner of ADSs or by us or the depositary of compliance with any substantive provision of the U.S. federal securities laws and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.
You may experience dilution of your holdings due to inability to participate in rights offerings.
We may, from time to time, distribute rights to our shareholders, including rights to acquire securities. Under the deposit agreement, the depositary will not distribute rights to holders of ADSs unless the distribution and sale of rights and the securities to which these rights relate are either exempt from registration under the Securities Act with respect to all holders of ADSs, or are registered under the provisions of the Securities Act. The depositary may, but is not required to, attempt to sell these undistributed rights to third parties, and may allow the rights to lapse. We may be unable to establish an exemption from registration under the Securities Act, and we are under no obligation to file a registration statement with respect to these rights or underlying securities or to endeavor to have a registration statement declared effective. Accordingly, holders of ADSs may be unable to participate in our rights offerings and may experience dilution of their holdings as a result.
You may be subject to limitations on transfer of your ADSs.
Your ADSs are transferable on the books of the depositary. However, the depositary may close its books at any time or from time to time when it deems expedient in connection with the performance of its duties. The depositary may close its books from time to time for a number of reasons, including in connection with corporate events such as a rights offering, during which time the depositary needs to maintain an exact number of ADS holders on its books for a specified period. The depositary may also close its books in emergencies, and on weekends and public holidays. The depositary may refuse to deliver, transfer or register transfers of the ADSs generally when our share register or the books of the depositary are closed, or at any time if we or the depositary thinks it is advisable to do so because of any requirement of law or of any government or governmental body, or under any provision of the deposit agreement, or for any other reason.
 
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We are an emerging growth company within the meaning of the Securities Act and may take advantage of certain reduced reporting requirements.
We are an “emerging growth company” as defined in the JOBS Act, and we may take advantage of certain exemptions from requirements applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies including, most significantly, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 for so long as we remain an emerging growth company. As a result, if we elect not to comply with such auditor attestation requirements, our investors may not have access to certain information they may deem important.
We will incur increased costs as a result of being a public company, particularly after we cease to qualify as an “emerging growth company.”
We are a public company and expect to incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as well as rules subsequently implemented by the SEC and the New York Stock Exchange, impose various requirements on the corporate governance practices of public companies. As a company with less than US$1.07 billion in revenues for our last fiscal year, we qualify as an “emerging growth company” pursuant to the JOBS Act. An emerging growth company may take advantage of specified reduced reporting and other requirements that are otherwise applicable generally to public companies. These provisions include exemption from the auditor attestation require