485APOS 1 atacroro485a2020.htm 485APOS ATAC RORO 485A 2020


AS FILED WITH THE U.S. SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION ON September 1, 2020

1933 Act Registration File No.: 333-227298
1940 Act File No.: 811-23377

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM N-1A
REGISTRATION STATEMENT UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933x
Pre-Effective Amendment No. ___o
Post-Effective Amendment No. 27
x
and/or
REGISTRATION STATEMENT UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940x
Amendment No. 28
x

TIDAL ETF TRUST
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Charter)

898 North Broadway, Suite 2
Massapequa, New York 11758
(Address of Principal Executive Offices, Zip Code)

(Registrant’s Telephone Number, including Area Code) (844) 986-7676

The Corporation Trust Company
1209 Orange Street
Corporation Trust Center
Wilmington, DE 19801
(Name and Address of Agent for Service)

Copies to:
Eric W. Falkeis
Tidal ETF Services LLC
898 North Broadway, Suite 2
Massapequa, New York 11758
Christopher M. Cahlamer
Godfrey & Kahn, S.C.
833 East Michigan Street, Suite 1800
Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53202

It is proposed that this filing will become effective (check appropriate box):
¨immediately upon filing pursuant to paragraph (b)
 ¨on (date) pursuant to paragraph (b)
 ¨60 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(1)
 ¨on (date) pursuant to paragraph (a)(1)
 x75 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(2)
 ¨on (date) pursuant to paragraph (a)(2) of rule 485
Explanatory Note: This Post-Effective Amendment No. 27 to the Registration Statement of Tidal ETF Trust is being filed to add a new series, ATAC US Rotation ETF, to the Tidal ETF Trust.

 

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION
Dated September 1, 2020

THE INFORMATION HEREIN IS NOT COMPLETE AND MAY BE CHANGED. WE MAY NOT SELL THESE SECURITIES UNTIL THE REGISTRATION STATEMENT FILED WITH THE U.S. SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION IS EFFECTIVE. THIS PROSPECTUS IS NOT AN OFFER TO SELL THESE SECURITIES AND IS NOT SOLICITING AN OFFER TO BUY THESE SECURITIES IN ANY JURISDICTION IN WHICH THE OFFER OR SALE IS NOT PERMITTED.

[RORO]ATAC US Rotation ETF
listed on [NYSE Arca, Inc.]
PROSPECTUS
[ ], 2020
Beginning on January 1, 2021, as permitted by regulations adopted by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”), paper copies of the Fund’s annual and semi-annual shareholder reports will no longer be sent by mail, unless you specifically request paper copies of Fund shareholder reports from your financial intermediary, such as a broker-dealer or bank. Instead, the shareholder reports will be made available on the Fund’s website at [ .com], and you will be notified by mail each time a report is posted and provided with a website link to access the report.
If you already elected to receive shareholder reports electronically, you will not be affected by this change and you need not take any action. Please contact your financial intermediary to elect to receive shareholder reports and other Fund communications electronically.
You may elect to receive all future Fund reports in paper free of charge. Please contact your financial intermediary to inform them that you wish to continue receiving paper copies of Fund shareholder reports and for details about whether your election to receive reports in paper will apply to all funds held with your financial intermediary.
The SEC has not approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of this Prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.



TABLE OF CONTENTS
ATAC US Rotation ETF - Fund Summary
Additional Information about the Fund
Portfolio Holdings Information
Management
How to Buy and Sell Shares
Dividends, Distributions, and Taxes
Distribution
Premium/Discount Information
Additional Notices
Financial Highlights



ATAC US Rotation ETF – FUND SUMMARY
Investment Objective
The ATAC US Rotation ETF (the “Fund”) seeks total return.
Fees and Expenses of the Fund
This table describes the fees and expenses that you may pay if you buy, hold, and sell shares of the Fund (“Shares”). You may pay other fees, such as brokerage commissions and other fees to financial intermediaries, which are not reflected in the table and example below.
Annual Fund Operating Expenses (expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)
Management Fees
[ ]%
Distribution and/or Service (12b-1) Fees
0.00%
Other Expenses (1)
[ ]%
Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses (1)
[ ]%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses
[ ]%
(1) Based on estimates for the current fiscal year.
Expense Example
This Example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other funds. The Example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund for the time periods indicated and then redeem all of your Shares at the end of those periods. The Example also assumes that your investment has a 5% return each year and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:
1 Year3 Years
$[ ]
$[ ]
Portfolio Turnover
The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in higher taxes when Shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in total annual fund operating expenses or in the expense example above, affect the Fund’s performance. Because the Fund is newly organized, portfolio turnover information is not yet available.
Principal Investment Strategies
The Fund is an actively-managed exchange-traded fund (“ETF”) that seeks to achieve its investment objective by utilizing a systematic risk management and trend-following strategy to direct its exposure to either (i) U.S. equity securities or (ii) long-duration U.S. Treasury securities depending on the short-term relative price movements of gold as compared to lumber, as described below.
Toroso Investments, LLC, the Fund’s investment adviser (the “Adviser”), invests the Fund’s assets primarily in one or more ETFs (sometimes referred to in this Prospectus as “Underlying ETFs”) by following the risk-on/risk-off signals from the ATAC Risk-On/Risk-Off Index (the “Index”), which is owned and maintained by [the Adviser]. At the end of each week, the Index observes the short-term relative price movements of gold as compared to lumber. When the price of lumber has outperformed the price of gold (“Risk-On”), the Index will have 130% exposure to one or more ETFs that principally invest in a mix of U.S. small-cap and large-cap stocks. When the price of gold has outperformed the price of lumber (“Risk-Off”), the Index will have 100% exposure to one or more ETFs that principally invest in long-duration U.S. Treasury securities.
Risk-On Exposure. When the Index is in a Risk-On exposure, the Fund will invest in a mix of ETFs, including leveraged ETFs, to seek to obtain 130% exposure to broad-based U.S. small-cap stocks and U.S. large-cap “cyclical” stocks. Cyclical stocks are those whose prices tend to be sensitive to overall changes or cycles in the economy and tend to be consumer-oriented companies whose fortunes are tied to consumer discretionary income. Cyclical companies generally perform better in periods of economic prosperity and expansion and worse in periods of economic downturn and contraction.
To obtain exposure in excess of 100%, the Fund expects to invest in leveraged ETFs, which seek to provide investment results that match a multiple of the performance of an underlying index (e.g., up to three times the performance) for a single day and
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typically rely on derivative instruments to seek to obtain their investment objectives. The use of leverage may magnify the effect of any decrease or increase in the value of these Underlying ETFs.
Risk-Off Exposure. When the Index is in a Risk-Off exposure, the Fund will invest in one or more ETFs that principally invest in long-duration U.S. Treasury securities.
Under normal circumstances, at least 80% of the Fund’s net assets, plus borrowings for investment purposes, will be invested in (i) securities that are traded principally in the United States, (ii) securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government, its agencies, or instrumentalities, or (iii) ETFs that invest, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of their net assets, plus borrowings for investment purposes, in the foregoing securities. Such policy has been adopted as a non-fundamental investment policy and may be changed without shareholder approval upon 60 days’ written notice to shareholders.
Because the Index may change from Risk-On to Risk-Off exposure as frequently as each week, the Fund may have a high portfolio turnover rate. The Fund is considered to be non-diversified under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”), which means that it may invest more of its assets in the securities of a single issuer or a smaller number of issuers than if it were a diversified fund. 
Principal Investment Risks
You can lose money on your investment in the Fund. The Fund is subject to the risks described below. Because the Adviser invests the Fund’s assets primarily in Underlying ETFs, the Fund is also subject to the risks associated with the Underlying ETFs in which it invests, as described below. Some or all of these risks may adversely affect the Fund’s net asset value per share (“NAV”), trading price, yield, total return and/or ability to meet its objective. For more information about the risks of investing in the Fund, see the section in the Fund’s Prospectus titled “Additional Information About the Fund—Principal Risks of Investing in the Fund.” The principal risks are presented in alphabetical order to facilitate finding particular risks and comparing them with those of other funds. Each risk summarized below is considered a “principal risk” of investing in the Fund, regardless of the order in which they appear.
Associated Risks of Short-Term Signals. Because the Fund expects to change its exposure as frequently as each week based on short-term price performance information, (i) the Fund’s exposure may be affected by significant market movements at or near the end of such short-term period that are not predictive of such asset’s performance for subsequent periods and (ii) changes to the Fund’s exposure may lag a significant change in an asset’s direction (up or down) if such changes first take effect at or near a weekend. Such lags between an asset’s performance and changes to the Fund’s exposure may result in significant underperformance relative to the broader equity or fixed income market.
Additionally, because the Adviser determines the exposure for the Fund based on the price movements of gold and lumber, the Fund is exposed to the risk that such assets or their relative price movements fail to accurately predict future performance. Consequently, the Fund may significantly underperform relative to the broader equity or fixed income market if the Index is unsuccessful at predicting future performance for the Underlying ETFs.
Cyclical Stocks Risk. Cyclical stocks, which may be held by some of the Underlying ETFs in which the Fund invests, tend to rise and fall with the business cycle. When the economy is doing well, generally the value of these companies increases; however, when there is a recession or downturn in the economy, these companies tend to decrease in value because their goods and services are generally not a necessity. These are typically companies that provide consumer discretionary goods or services. The success of consumer product manufacturers and retailers is tied closely to the performance of domestic and international economies, interest rates, exchange rates, competition, consumer confidence, changes in demographics, and consumer preferences. Cyclical companies may depend heavily on disposable household income and consumer spending, and may be strongly affected by social trends and marketing campaigns.
Derivatives Risk. Some of the Underlying ETFs in which the Fund invests may use derivative instruments which derive their value from the value of an underlying asset or index. The value of derivatives may rise or fall more rapidly than other investments and it is possible for such Underlying ETFs to lose more than the initial amount invested.
Equity Market Risk. To the extent the Fund invests in Underlying ETFs that invest in equity securities, the Fund is subject to the risk that the equity securities held by such Underlying ETFs may experience sudden, unpredictable drops in value or long periods of decline in value. This may occur because of factors that affect securities markets generally or factors affecting specific issuers, industries, or sectors in which an Underlying ETF invests. Common stocks are generally exposed to greater risk than other types of securities, such as preferred stock and debt obligations, because common stockholders generally have inferior rights to receive payment from issuers. Securities in an Underlying ETF’s portfolio may underperform in comparison to securities in the general securities markets, a particular financial market, or other asset classes, due to a number of factors, including inflation (or expectations for inflation), interest rates, global demand for particular products or resources, natural disasters or events, pandemic diseases, terrorism, regulatory events, or government controls.
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ETF Risks.
Authorized Participants, Market Makers, and Liquidity Providers Concentration Risk. The Fund has a limited number of financial institutions that are authorized to purchase and redeem Shares directly from the Fund (known as “Authorized Participants” or “APs”). In addition, there may be a limited number of market makers and/or liquidity providers in the marketplace. To the extent either of the following events occur, Shares may trade at a material discount to NAV and possibly face delisting: (i) APs exit the business or otherwise become unable to process creation and/or redemption orders and no other APs step forward to perform these services; or (ii) market makers and/or liquidity providers exit the business or significantly reduce their business activities and no other entities step forward to perform their functions.
Costs of Buying or Selling Shares. Due to the costs of buying or selling Shares, including brokerage commissions imposed by brokers and bid-ask spreads, frequent trading of Shares may significantly reduce investment results and an investment in Shares may not be advisable for investors who anticipate regularly making small investments.
Shares May Trade at Prices Other Than NAV. As with all ETFs, Shares may be bought and sold in the secondary market at market prices. Although it is expected that the market price of Shares will approximate the Fund’s NAV, there may be times when the market price of Shares is more than the NAV intra-day (premium) or less than the NAV intra-day (discount) due to supply and demand of Shares or during periods of market volatility. This risk is heightened in times of market volatility, periods of steep market declines, and periods when there is limited trading activity for Shares in the secondary market, in which case such premiums or discounts may be significant.
Trading. Although Shares are listed on a national securities exchange, such as NYSE Arca, Inc. (the “Exchange”), and may be traded on U.S. exchanges other than the Exchange, there can be no assurance that Shares will trade with any volume, or at all, on any stock exchange. In stressed market conditions, the liquidity of Shares may begin to mirror the liquidity of the Fund’s underlying portfolio holdings, which can be significantly less liquid than Shares.
Fixed Income Risk. Some of the Underlying ETFs in which the Fund invests may invest in fixed income securities. The value of fixed income securities will fluctuate with changes in interest rates. Typically, a rise in interest rates causes a decline in the value of fixed income securities. On the other hand, if rates fall, the value of the fixed income securities generally increases. Fixed income securities may be subject to a greater risk of rising interest rates due to the current period of historically low rates and the effect of potential government fiscal policy initiatives and resulting market reaction to those initiatives. In general, the market price of fixed income securities with longer maturities will increase or decrease more in response to changes in interest rates than shorter-term securities. The value of fixed income securities may be affected by the inability of issuers to repay principal and interest or illiquidity in debt securities markets.
General Market Risk. Economies and financial markets throughout the world are becoming increasingly interconnected, which increases the likelihood that events or conditions in one country or region will adversely impact markets or issuers in other countries or regions. Securities in the Fund’s portfolio may underperform in comparison to securities in the general financial markets, a particular financial market or other asset classes, due to a number of factors, including inflation (or expectations for inflation), interest rates, global demand for particular products or resources, natural disasters or events, pandemic diseases, terrorism, regulatory events, and government controls.
Government Obligations Risk. Some of the Underlying ETFs in which the Fund invests may invest in securities issued by the U.S. government or its agencies or instrumentalities. There can be no guarantee that the United States will be able to meet its payment obligations with respect to such securities. Additionally, market prices and yields of securities supported by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government or other countries may decline or be negative for short or long periods of time.
High Portfolio Turnover Risk. The Fund may actively and frequently trade all or a significant portion of the securities in its portfolio. A high portfolio turnover rate increases transaction costs, which may increase the Fund’s expenses. Frequent trading may also cause adverse tax consequences for investors in the Fund due to an increase in short-term capital gains.
Leveraged ETF Risk. Leveraged ETFs are subject to the risks presented by traditional ETFs (see “ETF Risks” above). Leveraged ETFs seek to provide investment results that match a multiple of the performance of an underlying index (e.g., three times the performance) and rely to some degree, often extensively, on derivatives to achieve their
3


objectives. Thus, the Fund is indirectly exposed to derivatives risk through its investments in these leveraged ETFs. Further, investments in leveraged ETFs are subject to the risk that the performance of such ETF will not correlate with the underlying index as intended. Leveraged ETFs often “reset” daily, meaning that they are designed to achieve their stated objectives on a daily basis. Due to the effect of compounding, their performance over longer periods of time can differ significantly from the performance of their underlying index or benchmark during the same period of time. This effect can be magnified in volatile markets. Consequently, these investment vehicles may be extremely volatile and can potentially expose the Fund to complete loss of its investment.
Management Risk. The Fund is actively-managed and may not meet its investment objective based on the Adviser’s success or failure to implement investment strategies for the Fund.
Market Capitalization Risk. These risks apply to the extent the Underlying ETFs in which the Fund invests hold securities of large- and small-capitalization companies.
Large-Capitalization Investing. The securities of large-capitalization companies may be relatively mature compared to smaller companies and therefore subject to slower growth during times of economic expansion. Large-capitalization companies may also be unable to respond quickly to new competitive challenges, such as changes in technology and consumer tastes.
Small-Capitalization Investing. The securities of small-capitalization companies may be more vulnerable to adverse issuer, market, political, or economic developments than securities of large- or mid-capitalization companies. The securities of small-capitalization companies generally trade in lower volumes and are subject to greater and more unpredictable price changes than large- or mid-capitalization stocks or the stock market as a whole. There is typically less publicly available information concerning smaller-capitalization companies than for larger, more established companies.
New Fund Risk. The Fund is a recently organized management investment company with no operating history. As a result, prospective investors do not have a track record or history on which to base their investment decision.
Non-Diversification Risk. Because the Fund is “non-diversified,” it may invest a greater percentage of its assets in the securities of a single issuer or a smaller number of issuers than if it was a diversified fund. As a result, a decline in the value of an investment in a single issuer or a small number of issuers could cause the Fund’s overall value to decline to a greater degree than if the Fund held a more diversified portfolio. This may increase the Fund’s volatility and have a greater impact on the Fund’s performance.
Recent Market Events. U.S. and international markets have experienced significant periods of volatility in recent years and months due to a number of economic, political and global macro factors including the impact of the coronavirus (COVID-19) as a global pandemic, which has resulted in public health issues, growth concerns in the U.S. and overseas, layoffs, rising unemployment and reduced consumer spending. The effects of COVID-19 may lead to a substantial economic downturn or recession in the U.S. and global economies, the recovery from which is uncertain and may last for an extended period of time. These developments as well as other events could result in further market volatility and negatively affect financial asset prices, the liquidity of certain securities and the normal operations of securities exchanges and other markets.
Underlying ETFs Risks. The Fund will incur higher and duplicative expenses because it invests in Underlying ETFs. There is also the risk that the Fund may suffer losses due to the investment practices of the Underlying ETFs. The Fund will be subject to substantially the same risks as those associated with the direct ownership of securities held by the Underlying ETFs. Additionally, the market price of the shares of an Underlying ETF in which the Fund invests will fluctuate based on changes in the net asset value as well as changes in the supply and demand of its shares in the secondary market. It is also possible that an active secondary market for an Underlying ETF’s shares may not develop, and market trading in the shares of the Underlying ETF may be halted under certain circumstances. Underlying ETFs are also subject to the “ETF Risks” described above.
Performance
Performance information for the Fund is not included because the Fund has not commenced operations as of the date of this Prospectus. When such information is included, this section will provide some indication of the risks of investing in the Fund by showing changes in the Fund’s performance history from year to year and showing how the Fund’s average annual total returns compare with those of a broad measure of market performance. Although past performance of the Fund is no guarantee of how it will perform in the future, historical performance may give you some indication of the risks of investing in the Fund. Updated performance information will be available on the Fund’s website at [ .com].
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Management
Investment Adviser:  
Toroso Investments, LLC ("Toroso" or the “Adviser”) serves as investment adviser to the Fund.
Portfolio Managers:  
Michael Venuto, Chief Investment Officer for the Adviser, has been a portfolio manager of the Fund since its inception in [ ].
Michael Gayed, CFA, Portfolio Manager for the Adviser, has been a portfolio manager of the Fund since its inception in [ ].
Purchase and Sale of Shares
The Fund issues and redeems Shares at NAV only in large blocks known as “Creation Units,” which only APs (typically, broker-dealers) may purchase or redeem. The Fund generally issues and redeems Creation Units in exchange for a portfolio of securities (the “Deposit Securities”) and/or a designated amount of U.S. cash.
Shares are listed on a national securities exchange, such as the Exchange, and individual Shares may only be bought and sold in the secondary market through brokers at market prices, rather than NAV. Because Shares trade at market prices rather than NAV, Shares may trade at a price greater than NAV (premium) or less than NAV (discount).
An investor may incur costs attributable to the difference between the highest price a buyer is willing to pay to purchase Shares (the “bid” price) and the lowest price a seller is willing to accept for Shares (the “ask” price) when buying or selling Shares in the secondary market. This difference in bid and ask prices is often referred to as the “bid-ask spread.”
Recent information, when available, regarding the Fund’s NAV, market price and how often Shares traded on the Exchange at a premium or discount, and bid-ask spreads can be found on the Fund’s website at [ .com].
Tax Information
Fund distributions are generally taxable as ordinary income, qualified dividend income, or capital gains (or a combination), unless your investment is in an individual retirement account (“IRA”) or other tax-advantaged account. Distributions on investments made through tax-deferred arrangements may be taxed later upon withdrawal of assets from those accounts.
Financial Intermediary Compensation
If you purchase Shares through a broker-dealer or other financial intermediary (such as a bank) (an “Intermediary”), the Adviser or its affiliates may pay Intermediaries for certain activities related to the Fund, including participation in activities that are designed to make Intermediaries more knowledgeable about exchange traded products, including the Fund, or for other activities, such as marketing, educational training or other initiatives related to the sale or promotion of Shares. These payments may create a conflict of interest by influencing the Intermediary and your salesperson to recommend the Fund over another investment. Any such arrangements do not result in increased Fund expenses. Ask your salesperson or visit the Intermediary’s website for more information.
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE FUND
Investment Objective
The ATAC US Rotation ETF seeks total return.
An investment objective is fundamental if it cannot be changed without the consent of the holders of a majority of the outstanding Shares. The Fund’s investment objective has not been adopted as a fundamental investment policy and therefore may be changed without the consent of the Fund’s shareholders upon written notice to shareholders.
Principal Investment Strategies
The following information is in addition to, and should be read along with, the description of the Fund’s principal investment strategies in the section titled “Fund Summary—Principal Investment Strategies” above.
To achieve the Fund’s investment objective, the Adviser invests the Fund’s assets primarily in shares of Underlying ETFs.
Section 12(d)(1) of the 1940 Act restricts investments by investment companies in the securities of other investment companies, including Underlying ETFs. However, registered investment companies are permitted to invest in other investment companies (“underlying investment companies”) beyond the limits set forth in Section 12(d)(1) subject to certain terms and conditions set forth in exemptive orders issued to certain Underlying ETFs. Included among these conditions is a requirement that such Underlying ETF enter into an agreement with the Fund that is consistent with relevant terms of the Section 12(d)(1) exemptive order that the Underlying ETF has obtained from the SEC permitting such investments. The Fund anticipates that it will enter
5


into agreements with certain Underlying ETFs that permit the Fund to invest in such Underlying ETFs beyond the limits of Section 12(d)(1) of the 1940 Act unless other regulatory relief is available.
Temporary Strategies. For temporary defensive purposes during adverse market, economic, political or other conditions, the Fund may invest in cash or cash equivalents or short-term instruments such as commercial paper, money market mutual funds, short-term U.S. government securities, and/or repurchase agreements collateralized by U.S. government securities. Taking a temporary defensive position may result in the Fund not achieving its investment objective.
Manager of Managers Structure
The Fund and the Adviser have received exemptive relief from the SEC permitting the Adviser (subject to certain conditions and the approval of the Trust’s Board of Trustees (the “Board”)) to change or select one or more unaffiliated sub-advisers without obtaining shareholder approval. The relief also permits the Adviser to materially amend the terms of agreements with an unaffiliated sub-adviser (including an increase in the fee paid by the Adviser to the unaffiliated sub-adviser (and not paid by the Fund)) or to continue the employment of an unaffiliated sub-adviser after an event that would otherwise cause the automatic termination of services with Board approval, but without shareholder approval. Shareholders will be notified of any unaffiliated sub-adviser changes.
Principal Risks of Investing in the Fund
This section provides additional information regarding the principal risks described under “Principal Investment Risks” in the Fund’s summary section. Each of the factors below could have a negative impact on the Fund’s performance and trading prices.
The principal risks are presented in alphabetical order to facilitate finding particular risks and comparing them with those of other funds. Each risk summarized below is considered a “principal risk” of investing in the Fund, regardless of the order in which they appear.
Associated Risks of Short-Term Signals. Because the Fund expects to change its exposure as frequently as each week based on short-term price performance information, (i) the Fund’s exposure may be affected by significant market movements at or near the end of such short-term period that are not predictive of such asset’s performance for subsequent periods and (ii) changes to the Fund’s exposure may lag a significant change in an asset’s direction (up or down) if such changes first take effect at or near a weekend. Such lags between an asset’s performance and changes to the Fund’s exposure may result in significant underperformance relative to the broader equity or fixed income market.
Additionally, because the Adviser determines the exposure for the Fund based on the price movements of gold and lumber, the Fund is exposed to the risk that such assets or their relative price movements fail to accurately predict future performance. Consequently, the Fund may significantly underperform relative to the broader equity or fixed income market if the Index is unsuccessful at predicting future performance for the Underlying ETFs.
Cyclical Stocks Risk. Cyclical stocks, which may be held by some of the Underlying ETFs in which the Fund invests, tend to rise and fall with the business cycle. When the economy is doing well, generally the value of these companies increases; however, when there is a recession or downturn in the economy, these companies tend to decrease in value because their goods and services are generally not a necessity. These are typically companies that provide consumer discretionary goods or services. The success of consumer product manufacturers and retailers is tied closely to the performance of domestic and international economies, interest rates, exchange rates, competition, consumer confidence, changes in demographics, and consumer preferences. Cyclical companies may depend heavily on disposable household income and consumer spending, and may be strongly affected by social trends and marketing campaigns. These companies may be subject to severe competition, which may have an adverse impact on their profitability.
Derivatives Risk. Some of the Underlying ETFs in which the Fund invests may use derivative instruments which derive their value from the value of an underlying asset or index. The term “derivatives” covers a broad range of investments, including futures, options, and swap agreements. For example, a swap agreement is a commitment to make or receive payments based on agreed upon terms, and whose value and payments are derived by changes in the value of an underlying financial instrument. The use of derivatives presents risks different from, and possibly greater than, the risks associated with investing directly in traditional securities. Investments in such Underlying ETFs may involve the risk that the value of derivatives may rise or fall more rapidly than other investments, and the risk that an Underlying ETF may lose more than the initial amount invested in the derivative. Derivative instruments also involve the risk that other parties to the derivative contract may fail to meet their obligations, which would result in a loss. These risks are heightened when an Underlying ETF uses derivatives to enhance returns or as a substitute for a position or security, rather than solely to hedge (or offset) the risk of a position or security held by the Underlying ETF. The success of such derivatives strategies will depend on the ability to assess and predict the impact of market or economic developments on the underlying asset, index or rate and the derivative itself, without the benefit of observing the performance of the derivative under all possible market conditions.
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Equity Market Risk. These risks apply to the extent the Underlying ETFs in which the Fund invests hold equity securities. Common stocks are susceptible to general stock market fluctuations and to volatile increases and decreases in value as market confidence in and perceptions of their issuers change. These investor perceptions are based on various and unpredictable factors including: expectations regarding government, economic, monetary and fiscal policies; inflation and interest rates; economic expansion or contraction; and global or regional political, economic and banking crises. Common stock, or common stock equivalents are generally exposed to greater risk than other types of securities, such as preferred stocks and debt obligations, because common stockholders, or holders of equivalent interests, generally have inferior rights to receive payments from issuers in comparison with the rights of preferred stockholders, bondholders, and other creditors of such issuers. Securities in an Underlying ETF’s portfolio may underperform in comparison to securities in the general securities markets, a particular financial market, or other asset classes, due to a number of factors, including inflation (or expectations for inflation), interest rates, global demand for particular products or resources, natural disasters or events, pandemic diseases, terrorism, regulatory events, or government controls.
ETF Risks.
Authorized Participants, Market Makers, and Liquidity Providers Concentration Risk. The Fund has a limited number of financial institutions that may act as APs. In addition, there may be a limited number of market makers and/or liquidity providers in the marketplace. To the extent either of the following events occur, Shares may trade at a material discount to NAV and possibly face de-listing: (i) APs exit the business or otherwise become unable to process creation and/or redemption orders and no other APs step forward to perform these services; or (ii) market makers and/or liquidity providers exit the business or significantly reduce their business activities and no other entities step forward to perform their functions.
Costs of Buying or Selling Shares. Investors buying or selling Shares in the secondary market will pay brokerage commissions or other charges imposed by brokers, as determined by that broker. Brokerage commissions are often a fixed amount and may be a significant proportional cost for investors seeking to buy or sell relatively small amounts of Shares. In addition, secondary market investors will also incur the cost of the bid-ask spread. The bid-ask spread varies over time for Shares based on trading volume and market liquidity, and is generally lower if Shares have more trading volume and market liquidity and higher if Shares have little trading volume and market liquidity. Further, a relatively small investor base in the Fund, asset swings in the Fund and/or increased market volatility may cause increased bid-ask spreads. Due to the costs of buying or selling Shares, including bid-ask spreads, frequent trading of Shares may significantly reduce investment results and an investment in Shares may not be advisable for investors who anticipate regularly making small investments.
Shares May Trade at Prices Other Than NAV. As with all ETFs, Shares may be bought and sold in the secondary market at market prices. Although it is expected that the market price of the Shares will approximate the Fund’s NAV, there may be times when the market price of Shares is more than the NAV intra-day (premium) or less than the NAV intra-day (discount) due to supply and demand of the Shares or during periods of market volatility. This risk is heightened in times of market volatility or periods of steep market declines. The market price of Shares during the trading day, like the price of any exchange-traded security, includes a “bid-ask” spread charged by the exchange specialist, market makers or other participants that trade the Shares. In times of severe market disruption, the bid‑ask spread can increase significantly. At those times, Shares are most likely to be traded at a discount to NAV, and the discount is likely to be greatest when the price of Shares is falling fastest, which may be the time that you most want to sell your Shares. The Adviser believes that, under normal market conditions, large market price discounts or premiums to NAV will not be sustained because of arbitrage opportunities.
Trading. Although Shares are listed for trading on the Exchange and may be listed or traded on U.S. and non-U.S. stock exchanges other than the Exchange, there can be no assurance that an active trading market for such Shares will develop or be maintained. Trading in Shares may be halted due to market conditions or for reasons that, in the view of the Exchange, make trading in Shares inadvisable. In addition, trading in Shares on the Exchange is subject to trading halts caused by extraordinary market volatility pursuant to Exchange “circuit breaker” rules, which temporarily halt trading on the Exchange when a decline in the S&P 500 Index during a single day reaches certain thresholds (e.g., 7%, 13%, and 20%). Additional rules applicable to the Exchange may halt trading in Shares when extraordinary volatility causes sudden, significant swings in the market price of Shares. There can be no assurance that Shares will trade with any volume, or at all, on any stock exchange. In stressed market conditions, the liquidity of Shares may begin to mirror the liquidity of the Fund’s underlying portfolio holdings, which can be significantly less liquid than Shares.
Fixed Income Securities Risk. Some of the Underlying ETFs in which the Fund invests may invest in fixed income securities. The prices of fixed income securities may be affected by changes in interest rates, the creditworthiness and financial strength of the issuer and other factors. An increase in prevailing interest rates typically causes the value of
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existing fixed income securities to fall and often has a greater impact on longer-duration and/or higher quality fixed income securities. Falling interest rates will cause an Underlying ETF to reinvest the proceeds of fixed income securities that have been repaid by the issuer at lower interest rates and may also reduce such Underlying ETF’s distributable income because interest payments on floating rate fixed income instruments held by the Underlying ETF will decline. The Fund could lose money on indirect investments in fixed income securities if the issuer or borrower fails to meet its obligations to make interest payments and/or to repay principal in a timely manner. If an issuer seeks to restructure the terms of its borrowings or the Underlying ETF is required to seek recovery upon a default in the payment of interest or the repayment of principal, the Underlying ETF may incur additional expenses. Changes in an issuer’s financial strength, the market’s perception of such strength or in the credit rating of the issuer or the security may affect the value of debt securities. The Underlying ETF’s adviser’s credit analysis may fail to anticipate such changes, which could result in buying a fixed income security at an inopportune time or failing to sell a fixed income security in advance of a price decline or other credit event.
General Market Risk. Economies and financial markets throughout the world are becoming increasingly interconnected, which increases the likelihood that events or conditions in one country or region will adversely impact markets or issuers in other countries or regions. Securities in the Fund’s portfolio may underperform in comparison to securities in the general financial markets, a particular financial market or other asset classes, due to a number of factors, including inflation (or expectations for inflation), interest rates, global demand for particular products or resources, natural disasters or events, pandemic diseases, terrorism, regulatory events, and government controls.
Government Obligations Risk. Some of the Underlying ETFs in which the Fund invests may invest in securities issued by the U.S. government or its agencies or instrumentalities. There can be no guarantee that the United States will be able to meet its payment obligations with respect to such securities. Additionally, market prices and yields of securities supported by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government or other countries may decline or be negative for short or long periods of time.
High Portfolio Turnover Risk. The Fund may actively and frequently trade all or a significant portion of the securities in its portfolio. A high portfolio turnover rate increases transaction costs, which may increase the Fund’s expenses. Frequent trading may also cause adverse tax consequences for investors in the Fund due to an increase in short-term capital gains.
Leveraged ETF Risk. Leveraged ETFs are subject to the risks presented by traditional ETFs (see “ETF Risks” above). Leveraged ETFs seek to provide investment results that match a multiple of the performance of an underlying index ( e.g., three times the performance) and rely to some degree, often extensively, on derivatives to achieve their objectives. Thus, the Fund is indirectly exposed to derivatives risk through its investments in these leveraged ETFs. Further, investments in leveraged ETFs are subject to the risk that the performance of such ETF will not correlate with the underlying index as intended. Leveraged ETFs often “reset” daily, meaning that they are designed to achieve their stated objectives on a daily basis. Due to the effect of compounding, their performance over longer periods of time can differ significantly from the performance of their underlying index or benchmark during the same period of time. This effect can be magnified in volatile markets. Consequently, these investment vehicles may be extremely volatile and can potentially expose the Fund to complete loss of its investment.
Management Risk. The Fund is actively-managed and may not meet its investment objective based on the Adviser’s success or failure to implement investment strategies for the Fund.
Market Capitalization Risk. These risks apply to the extent the Underlying ETFs in which the Fund invests hold securities of large- and small-capitalization companies.
Large-Capitalization Investing. The securities of large-capitalization companies may be relatively mature compared to smaller companies and therefore subject to slower growth during times of economic expansion. Large-capitalization companies may also be unable to respond quickly to new competitive challenges, such as changes in technology and consumer tastes.
Small-Capitalization Investing. The securities of small-capitalization companies may be more vulnerable to adverse issuer, market, political, or economic developments than securities of large- or mid-capitalization companies. The securities of small-capitalization companies generally trade in lower volumes and are subject to greater and more unpredictable price changes than large- or mid-capitalization stocks or the stock market as a whole. There is typically less publicly available information concerning smaller-capitalization companies than for larger, more established companies. Small-capitalization companies also may be particularly sensitive to changes in interest rates, government regulation, borrowing costs and earnings.
New Fund Risk. The Fund is a recently organized management investment company with no operating history. As a result, prospective investors do not have a track record or history on which to base their investment decision.
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Non-Diversification Risk. Because the Fund is “non-diversified,” it may invest a greater percentage of its assets in the securities of a single issuer or a smaller number of issuers than if it was a diversified fund. As a result, a decline in the value of an investment in a single issuer or a small number of issuers could cause the Fund’s overall value to decline to a greater degree than if the Fund held a more diversified portfolio. This may increase the Fund’s volatility and have a greater impact on the Fund’s performance.
Recent Market Events. U.S. and international markets have experienced significant periods of volatility in recent years due to a number of economic, political and global macro factors including the impact of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) as a global pandemic and related public health issues, growth concerns in the U.S. and overseas, uncertainties regarding interest rates, trade tensions and the threat of tariffs imposed by the U.S. and other countries. In particular, the spread of COVID-19 worldwide has resulted in disruptions to supply chains and customer activity, stress on the global healthcare system, temporary and permanent layoffs in the private sector and rising unemployment claims, reduced consumer spending, quarantines, cancellations, market declines, the closing of borders, restrictions on travel and widespread concern and uncertainty, all of which may lead to a substantial economic downturn or recession in the U.S. and global economies. The recovery from the effects of COVID-19 is uncertain and may last for an extended period of time. Health crises and related political, social and economic disruptions caused by the spread of COVID-19 may also exacerbate other pre-existing political, social and economic risks in certain countries. These developments as well as other events, such as the U.S. presidential election, could result in further market volatility and negatively affect financial asset prices, the liquidity of certain securities and the normal operations of securities exchanges and other markets, despite government efforts to address market disruptions. In addition, the Fund may face challenges with respect to its day-to-day operations if key personnel of the Adviser or other service providers are unavailable due to quarantines and restrictions on travel related to COVID-19. As a result, the risk environment remains elevated. The Adviser will monitor developments and seek to manage the Fund in a manner consistent with achieving the Fund’s investment objective, but there can be no assurance that it will be successful in doing so.
Underlying ETFs Risks. The Underlying ETFs in which the Fund invests are subject to additional risks that do not apply to conventional mutual funds, including the risks that the market price of an Underlying ETF’s shares may trade at a discount to its NAV per share, an active secondary trading market may not develop or be maintained, and trading may be halted by, or the Underlying ETF may be delisted from, the exchange in which it trades, which may impact the Fund’s ability to sell its Shares. (See “ETF Risks” described above.) The lack of liquidity in a particular Underlying ETF could result in it being more volatile than the Underlying ETF’s underlying portfolio of securities. Underlying ETFs are also subject to the risks of the underlying securities or sectors the Underlying ETF is designed to track. In addition, there are brokerage commissions paid in connection with buying or selling Underlying ETF shares.
PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS INFORMATION
Information about the Fund’s daily portfolio holdings is available on the Fund’s website at [ .com]. A complete description of the Fund’s policies and procedures with respect to the disclosure of the Fund’s portfolio holdings is available in the Fund’s Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”).
MANAGEMENT
Investment Adviser
Toroso Investments, LLC (“Toroso” or the “Adviser”), 898 N. Broadway, Suite 2, Massapequa, New York 11758, serves as investment adviser to the Fund and has overall responsibility for the general management and administration of the Fund. The Adviser also arranges for transfer agency, custody, fund administration, and all other related services necessary for the Fund to operate. Toroso is a Delaware limited liability company founded in March 2012 that is dedicated to understanding, researching and managing assets within the expanding ETF universe. Toroso had assets under management of $[ ] as of [June 30], 2020.
For the services it provides to the Fund, the Fund pays the Adviser a unified management fee, which is calculated daily and paid monthly, at an annual rate of [%] of the Fund’s average daily net assets.
Under the investment advisory agreement with the Trust, on behalf of the Fund (the “Investment Advisory Agreement”), the Adviser has agreed to pay all expenses incurred by the Fund except for interest charges on any borrowings, dividends and other expenses on securities sold short, taxes, brokerage commissions and other expenses incurred in placing orders for the purchase and sale of securities and other investment instruments, acquired fund fees and expenses, accrued deferred tax liability, extraordinary expenses, distribution fees and expenses paid by the Fund under any distribution plan adopted pursuant to Rule 12b-1 under the 1940 Act, and the unified management fee payable to the Adviser (collectively, the “Excluded Expenses”).
A discussion regarding the basis for the Board’s approval of the Fund’s Investment Advisory Agreement will be available in the Fund’s first annual or semi‑annual report to shareholders.
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Portfolio Managers
The Fund has been jointly and primarily managed by Michael Venuto, Chief Investment Officer for the Adviser and Michael Gayed, CFA, Portfolio Manager for the Adviser, since its inception in 2020.
Mr. Venuto is a co-founder and has been the Chief Investment Officer of the Adviser since 2012. Mr. Venuto is an ETF industry veteran with over a decade of experience in the design and implementation of ETF-based investment strategies. Previously, he was Head of Investments at Global X Funds where he provided portfolio optimization services to institutional clients. Before that, he was Senior Vice President at Horizon Kinetics where his responsibilities included new business development, investment strategy and client and strategic initiatives.
Mr. Gayed joined the Adviser in 2020 as a portfolio manager. Prior to 2020, Mr. Gayed was a Member of Pension Partners and served as its Chief Investment Strategist and a portfolio manager. As Chief Investment Strategist, Mr. Gayed helped to structure portfolios to best take advantage of various strategies designed to maximize the amount of time and capital spent in potentially outperforming investments. Prior to his role as Chief Investment Strategist and portfolio manager of Pension Partners, from 2009 to 2010, Mr. Gayed served as a Portfolio Manager at Pension Partners for a large international investment group, trading long/short investment ideas in an effort to capture excess returns. Mr. Gayed also served as a portfolio strategist and business development consultant for Pension Partners during 2009. From 2004 to 2008, Mr. Gayed was a Portfolio Strategist at AmeriCap Advisers, LLC, a registered investment advisory firm which managed equity portfolios for large institutional clients. As a member of the investment committee at AmeriCap Advisers, LLC, Mr. Gayed performed detailed analysis on various stocks and worked closely with the principals of the firm to structure client portfolios. In 2007, he launched a long/short hedge fund, using various trading strategies focused on taking advantage of stock market anomalies. Mr. Gayed earned his B.S. in Finance and Management from New York University and holds the Chartered Financial Analyst designation.
CFA® is a registered trademark owned by the CFA Institute.
The Fund’s SAI provides additional information about the Portfolio Managers’ compensation structure, other accounts that the Portfolio Managers manage, and the Portfolio Managers’ ownership of Shares.
HOW TO BUY AND SELL SHARES
The Fund issues and redeems Shares only in Creation Units at the NAV per share next determined after receipt of an order from an AP. Only APs may acquire Shares directly from the Fund, and only APs may tender their Shares for redemption directly to the Fund, at NAV. APs must be a member or participant of a clearing agency registered with the SEC and must execute a Participant Agreement that has been agreed to by the Distributor (defined below), and that has been accepted by the Fund’s transfer agent, with respect to purchases and redemptions of Creation Units. Once created, Shares trade in the secondary market in quantities less than a Creation Unit.
Most investors buy and sell Shares in secondary market transactions through brokers. Individual Shares are listed for trading on the secondary market on the Exchange and can be bought and sold throughout the trading day like other publicly traded securities.
When buying or selling Shares through a broker, you will incur customary brokerage commissions and charges, and you may pay some or all of the spread between the bid and the offer price in the secondary market on each leg of a round trip (purchase and sale) transaction. In addition, because secondary market transactions occur at market prices, you may pay more than NAV when you buy Shares, and receive less than NAV when you sell those Shares.
Book Entry
Shares are held in book-entry form, which means that no stock certificates are issued. Depository Trust Company (“DTC”) or its nominee is the record owner of all outstanding Shares.
Investors owning Shares are beneficial owners as shown on the records of DTC or its participants. DTC serves as the securities depository for all Shares. DTC’s participants include securities brokers and dealers, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations and other institutions that directly or indirectly maintain a custodial relationship with DTC. As a beneficial owner of Shares, you are not entitled to receive physical delivery of stock certificates or to have Shares registered in your name, and you are not considered a registered owner of Shares. Therefore, to exercise any right as an owner of Shares, you must rely upon the procedures of DTC and its participants. These procedures are the same as those that apply to any other securities that you hold in book-entry or “street name” through your brokerage account.
Frequent Purchases and Redemptions of Shares
The Fund imposes no restrictions on the frequency of purchases and redemptions of Shares. In determining not to approve a written, established policy, the Board evaluated the risks of market timing activities by Fund shareholders. Purchases and redemptions by APs, who are the only parties that may purchase or redeem Shares directly with the Fund, are an essential part of the ETF process and help keep Share trading prices in line with NAV. As such, the Fund accommodates frequent purchases
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and redemptions by APs. However, the Board has also determined that frequent purchases and redemptions for cash may increase tracking error and portfolio transaction costs and may lead to the realization of capital gains. To minimize these potential consequences of frequent purchases and redemptions, the Fund employs fair value pricing and may impose transaction fees on purchases and redemptions of Creation Units to cover the custodial and other costs incurred by the Fund in effecting trades. In addition, the Fund and the Adviser reserve the right to reject any purchase order at any time.
Determination of Net Asset Value
The Fund’s NAV is calculated as of the scheduled close of regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”), generally 4:00 p.m. Eastern Time, each day the NYSE is open for business. The NAV for the Fund is calculated by dividing the Fund’s net assets by its Shares outstanding.
In calculating its NAV, the Fund generally values its assets on the basis of market quotations, last sale prices, or estimates of value furnished by a pricing service or brokers who make markets in such instruments. If such information is not available for a security held by the Fund or is determined to be unreliable, the security will be valued at fair value estimates under guidelines established by the Board (as described below).
Fair Value Pricing
The Board has adopted procedures and methodologies to fair value Fund securities whose market prices are not “readily available” or are deemed to be unreliable. For example, such circumstances may arise when: (i) a security has been de-listed or has had its trading halted or suspended; (ii) a security’s primary pricing source is unable or unwilling to provide a price; (iii) a security’s primary trading market is closed during regular market hours; or (iv) a security’s value is materially affected by events occurring after the close of the security’s primary trading market. Generally, when fair valuing a security, the Fund will take into account all reasonably available information that may be relevant to a particular valuation including, but not limited to, fundamental analytical data regarding the issuer, information relating to the issuer’s business, recent trades or offers of the security, general and/or specific market conditions and the specific facts giving rise to the need to fair value the security. Fair value determinations are made in good faith and in accordance with the fair value methodologies included in the Board-adopted valuation procedures. Due to the subjective and variable nature of fair value pricing, there can be no assurance that the Adviser will be able to obtain the fair value assigned to the security upon the sale of such security.
Investments by Registered Investment Companies
Section 12(d)(1) of the 1940 Act restricts investments by registered investment companies in the securities of other investment companies, including Shares. Although the SEC has granted an exemptive order to the Trust permitting registered investment companies that enter into an agreement with the Trust (“Investing Funds”) to invest in series of the Trust beyond the limits of Section 12(d)(1), subject to certain terms and conditions, such exemptive relief is not applicable to the Fund. Accordingly, Investing Funds must adhere to the limits set forth in Section 12(d)(1) when investing in the Fund.
Delivery of Shareholder Documents – Householding
Householding is an option available to certain investors of the Fund. Householding is a method of delivery, based on the preference of the individual investor, in which a single copy of certain shareholder documents can be delivered to investors who share the same address, even if their accounts are registered under different names. Householding for the Fund is available through certain broker-dealers. If you are interested in enrolling in householding and receiving a single copy of prospectuses and other shareholder documents, please contact your broker-dealer. If you are currently enrolled in householding and wish to change your householding status, please contact your broker-dealer.
DIVIDENDS, DISTRIBUTIONS, AND TAXES
Dividends and Distributions
The Fund intends to pay out dividends and interest income, if any, at least annually, and distribute any net realized capital gains to its shareholders at least annually. The Fund will declare and pay capital gain distributions, if any, in cash. Distributions in cash may be reinvested automatically in additional whole Shares only if the broker through whom you purchased Shares makes such option available. Your broker is responsible for distributing the income and capital gain distributions to you.
Taxes
The following discussion is a summary of some important U.S. federal income tax considerations generally applicable to investments in the Fund. Your investment in the Fund may have other tax implications. Please consult your tax advisor about the tax consequences of an investment in Shares, including the possible application of foreign, state, and local tax laws.
The Fund intends to qualify each year for treatment as a regulated investment company (a “RIC”) under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended. If it meets certain minimum distribution requirements, a RIC is not subject to tax at the fund level on income and gains from investments that are timely distributed to shareholders. However, the Fund’s failure to qualify as a
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RIC or to meet minimum distribution requirements would result (if certain relief provisions were not available) in fund-level taxation and, consequently, a reduction in income available for distribution to shareholders.
Unless your investment in Shares is made through a tax-exempt entity or tax-advantaged account, such as an IRA plan, you need to be aware of the possible tax consequences when the Fund makes distributions, when you sell your Shares listed on the Exchange, and when you purchase or redeem Creation Units (institutional investors only).
The tax legislation commonly referred to as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “Tax Act”) made significant changes to the U.S. federal income tax rules for taxation of individuals and corporations, generally effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017. Many of the changes applicable to individuals are temporary and would apply only to taxable years before January 1, 2026. There were only minor changes with respect to the specific rules only applicable to RICs, such as the Fund. The Tax Act, however, also made numerous other changes to the tax rules that may affect shareholders and the Fund. You are urged to consult with your own tax advisor regarding how the Tax Act affects your investment in the Fund.
Taxes on Distributions
The Fund generally declares and distributes net investment income, if any, at least annually. The Fund will distribute net realized capital gain, if any, at least annually. For federal income tax purposes, distributions of net investment income are generally taxable as ordinary income or qualified dividend income. Taxes on distributions of net capital gains (if any) are determined by how long the Fund owned the investments that generated them, rather than how long a shareholder has owned his or her Shares. Sales of assets held by the Fund for more than one year generally result in long-term capital gains and losses, and sales of assets held by the Fund for one year or less generally result in short-term capital gains and losses. Distributions of the Fund’s net capital gain (the excess of net long-term capital gains over net short-term capital losses) that are reported by the Fund as capital gain dividends (“Capital Gain Dividends”) will be taxable as long-term capital gains. Distributions of short-term capital gain will generally be taxable as ordinary income. Dividends and distributions are generally taxable to you whether you receive them in cash or reinvest them in additional shares.
Distributions reported by the Fund as “qualified dividend income” are generally taxed to non-corporate shareholders at rates applicable to long-term capital gains, provided certain holding period and other requirements are met. “Qualified dividend income” generally is income derived from dividends paid by U.S. corporations or certain foreign corporations that are either incorporated in a U.S. possession or eligible for tax benefits under certain U.S. income tax treaties. In addition, dividends that the Fund receives in respect of stock of certain foreign corporations may be qualified dividend income if that stock is readily tradable on an established U.S. securities market. Corporate shareholders may be entitled to a dividends-received deduction for the portion of dividends they receive from the Fund that are attributable to dividends received by the Fund from U.S. corporations, subject to certain limitations.
Shortly after the close of each calendar year, you will be informed of the character of any distributions received from the Fund.
In addition to the federal income tax, certain individuals, trusts and estates may be subject to a Net Investment Income (“NII”) tax of 3.8%. The NII tax is imposed on the lesser of: (i) a taxpayer’s investment income, net of deductions properly allocable to such income; or (ii) the amount by which such taxpayer’s modified adjusted gross income exceeds certain thresholds ($250,000 for married individuals filing jointly, $200,000 for unmarried individuals and $125,000 for married individuals filing separately).  The Fund’s distributions are includable in a shareholder’s investment income for purposes of this NII tax.  In addition, any capital gain realized by a shareholder upon a sale, exchange or redemption of Fund shares is includable in such shareholder’s investment income for purposes of this NII tax.
In general, your distributions are subject to federal income tax for the year in which they are paid. Certain distributions paid in January, however, may be treated as paid on December 31 of the prior year. Distributions are generally taxable even if they are paid from income or gains earned by the Fund before your investment (and thus were included in the Shares’ NAV when you purchased your Shares).
You may wish to avoid investing in the Fund shortly before a dividend or other distribution, because such a distribution will generally be taxable even though it may economically represent a return of a portion of your investment.
If you are neither a resident nor a citizen of the United States or if you are a foreign entity, distributions (other than Capital Gain Dividends) paid to you by the Fund will generally be subject to a U.S. withholding tax at the rate of 30%, unless a lower treaty rate applies. The Fund may, under certain circumstances, report all or a portion of a dividend as an “interest-related dividend” or a “short-term capital gain dividend,” which would generally be exempt from this 30% U.S. withholding tax, provided certain other requirements are met.
Under the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (“FATCA”), the Fund may be required to withhold a generally nonrefundable 30% tax on (i) distributions of investment company taxable income and (ii) distributions of net capital gain and the gross proceeds of a sale or redemption of Fund shares paid to (A) certain “foreign financial institutions” unless such foreign financial institution agrees to verify, monitor, and report to the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) the identity of certain of its
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accountholders, among other items (or unless such entity is otherwise deemed compliant under the terms of an intergovernmental agreement between the United States and the foreign financial institution’s country of residence), and (B) certain “non-financial foreign entities” unless such entity certifies to the Fund that it does not have any substantial U.S. owners or provides the name, address, and taxpayer identification number of each substantial U.S. owner, among other items. In December 2018, the IRS and Treasury Department released proposed Treasury Regulations that would eliminate FATCA withholding on Fund distributions of net capital gain and the gross proceeds from a sale or redemption of Fund shares. Although taxpayers are entitled to rely on these proposed Treasury Regulations until final Treasury Regulations are issued, these proposed Treasury Regulations have not been finalized, may not be finalized in their proposed form, and are potentially subject to change. This FATCA withholding tax could also affect the Fund’s return on its investments in foreign securities or affect a shareholder’s return if the shareholder holds its Fund shares through a foreign intermediary. You are urged to consult your tax adviser regarding the application of this FATCA withholding tax to your investment in the Fund and the potential certification, compliance, due diligence, reporting, and withholding obligations to which you may become subject in order to avoid this withholding tax.
The Fund (or a financial intermediary, such as a broker, through which a shareholder owns Shares) generally is required to withhold and remit to the U.S. Treasury a percentage of the taxable distributions and sale or redemption proceeds paid to any shareholder who fails to properly furnish a correct taxpayer identification number, who has underreported dividend or interest income, or who fails to certify that he, she or it is not subject to such withholding.
Taxes When Shares are Sold on the Exchange
Any capital gain or loss realized upon a sale of Shares generally is treated as a long-term capital gain or loss if Shares have been held for more than one year and as a short-term capital gain or loss if Shares have been held for one year or less. However, any capital loss on a sale of Shares held for six months or less is treated as long-term capital loss to the extent of Capital Gain Dividends paid with respect to such Shares. Any loss realized on a sale will be disallowed to the extent shares of the Fund are acquired, including through reinvestment of dividends, within a 61-day period beginning 30 days before and ending 30 days after the sale of Shares.
Taxes on Purchases and Redemptions of Creation Units
An AP having the U.S. dollar as its functional currency for U.S. federal income tax purposes who exchanges securities for Creation Units generally recognizes a gain or a loss. The gain or loss will be equal to the difference between the value of the Creation Units at the time of the exchange and the exchanging AP’s aggregate basis in the securities delivered plus the amount of any cash paid for the Creation Units. An AP who exchanges Creation Units for securities will generally recognize a gain or loss equal to the difference between the exchanging AP’s basis in the Creation Units and the aggregate U.S. dollar market value of the securities received, plus any cash received for such Creation Units. The IRS may assert, however, that a loss that is realized upon an exchange of securities for Creation Units may not be currently deducted under the rules governing “wash sales” (for an AP who does not mark-to-market their holdings) or on the basis that there has been no significant change in economic position. Persons exchanging securities should consult their own tax advisor with respect to whether wash sale rules apply and when a loss might be deductible.
Any capital gain or loss realized upon redemption of Creation Units is generally treated as long-term capital gain or loss if Shares composing the Creation Units have been held for more than one year and as a short-term capital gain or loss if such Shares have been held for one year or less.
The Fund may include a payment of cash in addition to, or in place of, the delivery of a basket of securities upon the redemption of Creation Units. The Fund may sell portfolio securities to obtain the cash needed to distribute redemption proceeds. This may cause the Fund to recognize investment income and/or capital gains or losses that it might not have recognized if it had completely satisfied the redemption in-kind. As a result, the Fund may be less tax efficient if it includes such a cash payment in the proceeds paid upon the redemption of Creation Units.
The foregoing discussion summarizes some of the possible consequences under current federal tax law of an investment in the Fund. It is not a substitute for personal tax advice. You also may be subject to foreign, state and local tax on Fund distributions and sales of Shares. Consult your personal tax advisor about the potential tax consequences of an investment in Shares under all applicable tax laws. For more information, please see the section entitled “Federal Income Taxes” in the SAI.
DISTRIBUTION
Foreside Fund Services, LLC (the “Distributor”), the Fund’s distributor, is a broker-dealer registered with the SEC. The Distributor distributes Creation Units for the Fund on an agency basis and does not maintain a secondary market in Shares. The Distributor has no role in determining the policies of the Fund or the securities that are purchased or sold by the Fund. The Distributor’s principal address is Three Canal Plaza, Suite 100, Portland, Maine 04101.
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The Board has adopted a Distribution (Rule 12b-1) Plan (the “Plan”) pursuant to Rule 12b-1 under the 1940 Act. In accordance with the Plan, the Fund is authorized to pay an amount up to 0.25% of its average daily net assets each year for certain distribution-related activities and shareholder services.
No Rule 12b-1 fees are currently paid by the Fund, and there are no plans to impose these fees. However, in the event Rule 12b-1 fees are charged in the future, because the fees are paid out of Fund assets on an ongoing basis, over time these fees will increase the cost of your investment and may cost you more than certain other types of sales charges.
PREMIUM/DISCOUNT INFORMATION
When available, information regarding how often the Shares of the Fund traded on the Exchange at a price above (i.e., at a premium) or below (i.e., at a discount) the NAV of the Fund can be found on the Fund’s website at [ .com]
ADDITIONAL NOTICES
Shares are not sponsored, endorsed, or promoted by the Exchange. The Exchange is not responsible for, nor has it participated in the determination of, the timing, prices, or quantities of Shares to be issued, nor in the determination or calculation of the equation by which Shares are redeemable. The Exchange has no obligation or liability to owners of Shares in connection with the administration, marketing, or trading of Shares.
Without limiting any of the foregoing, in no event shall the Exchange have any liability for any lost profits or indirect, punitive, special, or consequential damages even if notified of the possibility thereof.
The Adviser and the Fund make no representation or warranty, express or implied, to the owners of Shares or any member of the public regarding the advisability of investing in securities generally or in the Fund particularly.
FINANCIAL HIGHLIGHTS
This section would ordinarily include Financial Highlights. The Financial Highlights table is intended to help you understand the Fund’s performance for the Fund’s periods of operations. Because the Fund has not yet commenced operations as of the date of this Prospectus, no Financial Highlights are shown.
14




ATAC US ROTATION ETF
Adviser
Toroso Investments, LLC
898 N. Broadway, Suite 2
Massapequa, New York 11758
Administrator
Tidal ETF Services LLC 
898 N. Broadway, Suite 2
Massapequa, New York 11758
Custodian
U.S. Bank National Association
1555 N. Rivercenter Dr. 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53212
Distributor
Foreside Fund Services, LLC
Three Canal Plaza, Suite 100
Portland, Maine 04101
Sub-Administrator, Fund Accountant, and Transfer Agent
U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC 
615 East Michigan Street 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53202

Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
[ ]

Legal Counsel
Godfrey & Kahn, S.C.
833 East Michigan Street, Suite 1800
Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53202

Investors may find more information about the Fund in the following documents:
Statement of Additional Information: The Fund’s SAI provides additional details about the investments of the Fund and certain other additional information. A current SAI dated [ ], as supplemented from time to time, is on file with the SEC and is herein incorporated by reference into this Prospectus. It is legally considered a part of this Prospectus.
Annual/Semi-Annual Reports: Additional information about the Fund’s investments will be available in the Fund’s annual and semi-annual reports to shareholders. In the annual report you will find a discussion of the market conditions and investment strategies that significantly affected the Fund’s performance during the Fund’s prior fiscal period.
When available, you can obtain free copies of these documents, request other information or make general inquiries about the Fund by contacting the Fund at ATAC US Rotation ETF, c/o U.S. Bank Global Fund Services, P.O. Box 701, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201-0701 or calling [ ].
These documents and other information about the Fund are also available:
Free of charge from the SEC’s EDGAR database on the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov; or
Free of charge from the Fund’s Internet website at [ .com]; or
For a duplicating fee, by e-mail request to publicinfo@sec.gov.




















(SEC Investment Company Act File No. 811-23377)


 

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION
Dated September 1, 2020

THE INFORMATION HEREIN IS NOT COMPLETE AND MAY BE CHANGED. WE MAY NOT SELL THESE SECURITIES UNTIL THE REGISTRATION STATEMENT FILED WITH THE U.S. SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION IS EFFECTIVE. THIS STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION IS NOT AN OFFER TO SELL THESE SECURITIES AND IS NOT SOLICITING AN OFFER TO BUY THESE SECURITIES IN ANY JURISDICTION IN WHICH THE OFFER OR SALE IS NOT PERMITTED.




[RORO]ATAC US Rotation ETF
listed on [NYSE Arca, Inc.]
a series of Tidal ETF Trust
STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
[ ], 2020
This Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”) is not a prospectus and should be read in conjunction with the Prospectus for the ATAC US Rotation ETF (the “Fund”), a series of Tidal ETF Trust (the “Trust”), dated [ ], 2020, as may be supplemented from time to time (the “Prospectus”). Capitalized terms used in this SAI that are not defined have the same meaning as in the Prospectus, unless otherwise noted. A copy of the Prospectus may be obtained without charge, by calling the Fund at [ ], visiting [ .com], or writing to the Fund, c/o U.S. Bank Global Fund Services, P.O. Box 701, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201-0701.
The Fund’s audited financial statements for the most recent fiscal year (when available) will be incorporated into this SAI by reference to the Fund’s most recent Annual Report to Shareholders (File No. 811-23377). When available, a copy of the Fund’s Annual Report to Shareholders may be obtained at no charge by contacting the Fund at the address or phone number noted above.



TABLE OF CONTENTS
General Information about the Trust
Additional Information about Investment Objectives, Policies, and Related Risks
Description of Permitted Investments
Investment Restrictions
Exchange Listing and Trading
Management of the Trust
Principal Shareholders, Control Persons, and Management Ownership
Codes of Ethics
Proxy Voting Policies
Investment Adviser
Portfolio Managers
The Distributor
Administrator
Sub-Administrator and Transfer Agent
Custodian
Compliance Services Administrator
Legal Counsel
Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
Portfolio Holdings Disclosure Policies and Procedures
Description of Shares
Limitation of Trustees’ Liability
Brokerage Transactions
Portfolio Turnover Rate
Book Entry Only System
Purchase and Redemption of Shares in Creation Units
Determination of NAV
Dividends and Distributions
Federal Income Taxes
Financial Statements
APPENDIX A
A-1




GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE TRUST
The Trust is an open-end management investment company consisting of multiple series, including the Fund. This SAI relates to the Fund. The Trust was organized as a Delaware statutory trust on June 4, 2018. The Trust is registered with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (together with the rules and regulations adopted thereunder, as amended, the “1940 Act”), as an open-end management investment company and the offering of the Fund’s shares (“Shares”) is registered under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”). The Trust is governed by its Board of Trustees (the “Board”). Toroso Investments, LLC (the “Adviser”) serves as investment adviser to the Fund.
The Fund offers and issues Shares at their net asset value (“NAV”) only in aggregations of a specified number of Shares (each, a “Creation Unit”). The Fund generally offers and issues Shares in exchange for a basket of securities (“Deposit Securities”) together with the deposit of a specified cash payment (“Cash Component”). The Trust reserves the right to permit or require the substitution of a “cash in lieu” amount (“Deposit Cash”) to be added to the Cash Component to replace any Deposit Security. Shares are or will be listed on NYSE Arca, Inc. (the “Exchange”). Shares trade on the Exchange at market prices that may differ from the Shares’ NAV. Shares are also redeemable only in Creation Unit aggregations, primarily for a basket of Deposit Securities together with a Cash Component. A Creation Unit of the Fund generally consists of 25,000 Shares, though this may change from time to time. As a practical matter, only institutions or large investors, known as “Authorized Participants” or “APs,” purchase or redeem Creation Units. Except when aggregated in Creation Units, Shares are not individually redeemable.
Shares may be issued in advance of receipt of Deposit Securities subject to various conditions, including a requirement to maintain on deposit with the Trust cash at least equal to a specified percentage of the value of the missing Deposit Securities, as set forth in the Participant Agreement (as defined below). The Trust may impose a transaction fee for each creation or redemption. In all cases, such fees will be limited in accordance with the requirements of the SEC applicable to management investment companies offering redeemable securities. As in the case of other publicly traded securities, brokers’ commissions on transactions in the secondary market will be based on negotiated commission rates at customary levels.
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT INVESTMENT OBJECTIVES, POLICIES, AND RELATED RISKS
The Fund’s investment objective and principal investment strategies are described in the Prospectus under “Investment Objective” and “Principal Investment Strategies,” respectively. The following information supplements, and should be read in conjunction with, the Prospectus. For a description of certain permitted investments, see “Description of Permitted Investments” in this SAI.
With respect to the Fund’s investments, unless otherwise noted, if a percentage limitation on investment is adhered to at the time of investment or contract, a subsequent increase or decrease as a result of market movement or redemption will not result in a violation of such investment limitation.
Non-Diversification
The Fund is classified as a non-diversified investment company under the 1940 Act. A “non-diversified” classification means that the Fund is not limited by the 1940 Act with regard to the percentage of its total assets that may be invested in the securities of a single issuer. This means that the Fund may invest a greater portion of its total assets in the securities of a single issuer or a small number of issuers than if it was a diversified fund. This may have an adverse effect on the Fund’s performance or subject the Fund’s Shares to greater price volatility than more diversified investment companies.Although the Fund is non-diversified for purposes of the 1940 Act, the Fund intends to maintain the required level of diversification and otherwise conduct its operations so as to qualify as a “regulated investment company” (“RIC”) for purposes of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”). Compliance with the diversification requirements of the Code may limit the investment flexibility of the Fund and may make it less likely that the Fund will meet its investment objectives. See “Federal Income Taxes” in this SAI for further discussion.
General Risks
The value of the Fund’s portfolio securities may fluctuate with changes in the financial condition of an issuer or counterparty, changes in specific economic or political conditions that affect a particular security or issuer and changes in general economic or political conditions. An investor in the Fund could lose money over short or long periods of time.
There can be no guarantee that a liquid market for the securities held by the Fund will be maintained. The existence of a liquid trading market for certain securities may depend on whether dealers will make a market in such securities. There can be no assurance that a market will be made or maintained or that any such market will be or remain liquid. The price at which securities may be sold and the value of Shares will be adversely affected if trading markets for the Fund’s portfolio securities are limited or absent, or if bid-ask spreads are wide.
Cyber Security Risk. Investment companies, such as the Fund, and their service providers may be subject to operational and information security risks resulting from cyber attacks. Cyber attacks include, among other behaviors, stealing or corrupting
1


data maintained online or digitally, denial of service attacks on websites, the unauthorized release of confidential information or various other forms of cyber security breaches. Cyber attacks affecting the Fund or the Adviser, Custodian (defined below), Transfer Agent (defined below), intermediaries and other third-party service providers may adversely impact the Fund. For instance, cyber attacks may interfere with the processing of shareholder transactions, impact the Fund’s ability to calculate its NAV, cause the release of private shareholder information or confidential company information, impede trading, subject the Fund to regulatory fines or financial losses, and cause reputational damage. The Fund may also incur additional costs for cyber security risk management purposes. Similar types of cyber security risks are also present for issuers of securities in which the Fund invests, which could result in material adverse consequences for such issuers, and may cause the Fund’s investment in such portfolio companies to lose value.
DESCRIPTION OF PERMITTED INVESTMENTS
The following are descriptions of the permitted investments and investment practices and the associated risk factors. The Fund will only invest in any of the following instruments or engage in any of the following investment practices, either directly or indirectly through its investments in Underlying ETFs, if such investment or activity is consistent with the Fund’s investment objective and permitted by the Fund’s stated investment policies.
Borrowing
Although the Fund does not intend to borrow money, the Fund may do so to the extent permitted by the 1940 Act. Under the 1940 Act, the Fund may borrow up to one-third (1/3) of its total assets. The Fund will borrow money only for short-term or emergency purposes. Such borrowing is not for investment purposes and will be repaid by the Fund promptly. Borrowing will tend to exaggerate the effect on NAV of any increase or decrease in the market value of the Fund’s portfolio. Money borrowed will be subject to interest costs that may or may not be recovered by earnings on the securities purchased. The Fund also may be required to maintain minimum average balances in connection with a borrowing or to pay a commitment or other fee to maintain a line of credit; either of these requirements would increase the cost of borrowing over the stated interest rate.
Debt Securities
The Fund may invest directly or indirectly in debt securities. In general, a debt security represents a loan of money to the issuer by the purchaser of the security. A debt security typically has a fixed payment schedule that obligates the issuer to pay interest to the lender and to return the lender’s money over a certain time period. A company typically meets its payment obligations associated with its outstanding debt securities before it declares and pays any dividend to holders of its equity securities. Bonds, notes, and commercial paper are examples of debt securities and differ in the length of the issuer’s principal repayment schedule, with bonds carrying the longest repayment schedule and commercial paper the shortest.
Debt securities are all generally subject to interest rate, credit, income and prepayment risks and, like all investments, are subject to liquidity and market risks to varying degrees depending upon the specific terms and type of security. The Adviser attempts to reduce credit and market risk through diversification of the Fund’s portfolio and ongoing credit analysis of each issuer, as well as by monitoring economic developments, but there can be no assurance that it will be successful at doing so.
The Fund’s investments in debt securities may subject the Fund to the following risks:
Credit risk. Debt securities are subject to the risk of an issuer’s (or other party’s) failure or inability to meet its obligations under the security. Multiple parties may have obligations under a debt security. An issuer or borrower may fail to pay principal and interest when due. A guarantor, insurer or credit support provider may fail to provide the agreed upon protection. A counterparty to a transaction may fail to perform its side of the bargain. An intermediary or agent interposed between the investor and other parties may fail to perform the terms of its service. Also, performance under a debt security may be linked to the obligations of other persons who may fail to meet their obligations. The credit risk associated with a debt security could increase to the extent that the Fund’s ability to benefit fully from its investment in the security depends on the performance by multiple parties of their respective contractual or other obligations. The market value of a debt security is also affected by the market’s perception of the creditworthiness of the issuer.
The Fund may incur substantial losses on debt securities that are inaccurately perceived to present a different amount of credit risk than they actually do by the market, the Adviser or the rating agencies. Credit risk is generally greater where less information is publicly available, where fewer covenants safeguard the investors’ interests, where collateral may be impaired or inadequate, where little legal redress or regulatory protection is available, or where a party’s ability to meet obligations is speculative. Additionally, any inaccuracy in the information used by the Fund to evaluate credit risk may affect the value of securities held by the Fund.
Obligations under debt securities held by the Fund may never be satisfied or, if satisfied, only satisfied in part.
Some securities are subject to risks as a result of a credit downgrade or default by a government, or its agencies or, instrumentalities. Credit risk is a greater concern for high-yield debt securities and debt securities of issuers whose ability to pay interest and principal may be considered speculative. Debt securities are typically classified as investment grade-quality
2


(medium to highest credit quality) or below investment grade-quality (commonly referred to as high-yield or junk bonds). Many individual debt securities are rated by a third party source, such as Moody’s Investors Service (Moody’s) or Standard & Poor’s Financial Services (S&P®), to help describe the creditworthiness of the issuer.
Credit ratings risk. The Adviser performs its own independent investment analysis of securities being considered for the Fund’s portfolio, which includes consideration of, among other things, the issuer’s financial resources, its sensitivity to economic conditions and trends, its operating history, the quality of the issuer’s management and regulatory matters. The Adviser also considers the ratings assigned by various investment services and independent rating agencies, such as Moody’s and S&P, that publish ratings based upon their assessment of the relative creditworthiness of the rated debt securities. Generally, a lower rating indicates higher credit risk. Higher yields are ordinarily available from debt securities in the lower rating categories. These ratings are described at the end of this SAI in Appendix A - Description of Ratings.
Using credit ratings to evaluate debt securities can involve certain risks. For example, ratings assigned by the rating agencies are based upon an analysis completed at the time of the rating of the obligor’s ability to pay interest and repay principal. Rating agencies typically rely to a large extent on historical data which may not accurately represent present or future circumstances. Ratings do not purport to reflect the risk of fluctuations in market value of the debt security and are not absolute standards of quality and only express the rating agency’s current opinion of an obligor’s overall financial capacity to pay its financial obligations. A credit rating is not a statement of fact or a recommendation to purchase, sell or hold a debt obligation. Also, credit quality can change suddenly and unexpectedly, and credit ratings may not reflect the issuer’s current financial condition or events since the security was last rated. Rating agencies may have a financial interest in generating business, including from the arranger or issuer of the security that normally pays for that rating, and providing a low rating might affect the rating agency’s prospects for future business. While rating agencies have policies and procedures to address this potential conflict of interest, there is a risk that these policies will fail to prevent a conflict of interest from impacting the rating.
Extension risk. The Fund is subject to extension risk, which is the risk that the market value of some debt securities, particularly mortgage securities and certain asset-backed securities, may be adversely affected when bond calls or prepayments on underlying mortgages or other assets are less or slower than anticipated. Extension risk may result from, for example, rising interest rates or unexpected developments in the markets for the underlying assets or mortgages. As a consequence, the security’s effective maturity will be extended, resulting in an increase in interest rate sensitivity to that of a longer-term instrument. Extension risk generally increases as interest rates rise. This is because, in a rising interest rate environment, the rate of prepayment and exercise of call or buy-back rights generally falls and the rate of default and delayed payment generally rises. When the maturity of an investment is extended in a rising interest rate environment, a below-market interest rate is usually locked-in and the value of the security reduced. This risk is greater for fixed-rate than variable-rate debt securities.
Income risk. The Fund is subject to income risk, which is the risk that the Fund’s income will decline during periods of falling interest rates or when the Fund experiences defaults on debt securities it holds. The Fund’s income declines when interest rates fall because, as the Fund’s higher-yielding debt securities mature or are prepaid, the Fund must re-invest the proceeds in debt securities that have lower, prevailing interest rates. The amount and rate of distributions that the Fund’s shareholders receive are affected by the income that the Fund receives from its portfolio holdings. If the income is reduced, distributions by the Fund to shareholders may be less.
Fluctuations in income paid to the Fund are generally greater for variable rate debt securities. The Fund will be deemed to receive taxable income on certain securities which pay no cash payments until maturity, such as zero-coupon securities. The Fund may be required to sell portfolio securities that it would otherwise continue to hold in order to obtain sufficient cash to make the distribution to shareholders required for U.S. tax purposes.
Inflation risk. The market price of debt securities generally falls as inflation increases because the purchasing power of the future income and repaid principal is expected to be worth less when received by the Fund. Debt securities that pay a fixed rather than variable interest rate are especially vulnerable to inflation risk because variable-rate debt securities may be able to participate, over the long term, in rising interest rates which have historically corresponded with long-term inflationary trends.
Interest rate risk. The market value of debt securities generally varies in response to changes in prevailing interest rates. Interest rate changes can be sudden and unpredictable. In addition, short-term and long-term rates are not necessarily correlated to each other as short-term rates tend to be influenced by government monetary policy while long-term rates are market driven and may be influenced by macroeconomic events (such as economic expansion or contraction), inflation expectations, as well as supply and demand. During periods of declining interest rates, the market value of debt securities generally increases. Conversely, during periods of rising interest rates, the market value of debt securities generally declines. This occurs because new debt securities are likely to be issued with higher interest rates as interest rates increase, making the old or outstanding debt securities less attractive. In general, the market prices of long-term debt securities or securities that make little (or no) interest payments are more sensitive to interest rate fluctuations than shorter-term debt securities. The longer the Fund’s average weighted portfolio duration, the greater the potential impact a change in interest rates will have on its share price. Also, certain segments
3


of the fixed income markets, such as high quality bonds, tend to be more sensitive to interest rate changes than other segments, such as lower-quality bonds.
Prepayment risk. Debt securities, especially bonds that are subject to “calls,” such as asset-backed or mortgage-backed securities, are subject to prepayment risk if their terms allow the payment of principal and other amounts due before their stated maturity. Amounts invested in a debt security that has been “called” or “prepaid” will be returned to an investor holding that security before expected by the investor. In such circumstances, the investor, such as a fund, may be required to re-invest the proceeds it receives from the called or prepaid security in a new security which, in periods of declining interest rates, will typically have a lower interest rate. Prepayment risk is especially prevalent in periods of declining interest rates and will result for other reasons, including unexpected developments in the markets for the underlying assets or mortgages. For example, a decline in mortgage interest rates typically initiates a period of mortgage refinancings. When homeowners refinance their mortgages, the investor in the underlying pool of mortgage-backed securities (such as a fund) receives its principal back sooner than expected, and must reinvest at lower, prevailing rates.
Securities subject to prepayment risk are often called during a declining interest rate environment and generally offer less potential for gains and greater price volatility than other income-bearing securities of comparable maturity.
Call risk is similar to prepayment risk and results from the ability of an issuer to call, or prepay, a debt security early. If interest rates decline enough, the debt security’s issuer can save money by repaying its callable debt securities and issuing new debt securities at lower interest rates.
Inflation-Indexed Bonds. Inflation-indexed bonds are debt securities whose principal value is periodically adjusted according to the rate of inflation. Two structures are common. The U.S. Treasury and some other issuers use a structure that accrues inflation into the principal value of the bond. Most other issuers pay out the Consumer Price Index accruals as part of a semiannual coupon.
Inflation-indexed securities issued by the U.S. Treasury have maturities of five, ten or thirty years, although it is possible that securities with other maturities will be issued in the future. The U.S. Treasury securities pay interest on a semi-annual basis, equal to a fixed percentage of the inflation-adjusted principal amount. For example, if the Fund purchased an inflation-indexed bond with a par value of $1,000 and a 3% real rate of return coupon (payable 1.5% semi-annually), and inflation over the first six months were 1%, the mid-year par value of the bond would be $1,010 and the first semi-annual interest payment would be $15.15 ($1,010 times 1.5%). If inflation during the second half of the year resulted in the whole years’ inflation equaling 3%, the end-of-year par value of the bond would be $1,030 and the second semiannual interest payment would be $15.45 ($1,030 times 1.5%).
If the periodic adjustment rate measuring inflation falls, the principal value of inflation-indexed bonds will be adjusted downward, and consequently the interest payable on these securities (calculated with respect to a smaller principal amount) will be reduced. Repayment of the original bond principal upon maturity (as adjusted for inflation) is guaranteed in the case of U.S. Treasury inflation-indexed bonds, even during a period of deflation. However, the current market value of the bonds is not guaranteed, and will fluctuate. The Fund may also invest in other inflation related bonds which may or may not provide a similar guarantee. If a guarantee of principal is not provided, the adjusted principal value of the bond repaid at maturity may be less than the original principal.
The value of inflation-indexed bonds is expected to change in response to changes in real interest rates. Real interest rates in turn are tied to the relationship between nominal interest rates and the rate of inflation. Therefore, if inflation were to rise at a faster rate than nominal interest rates, real interest rates might decline, leading to an increase in value of inflation-indexed bonds. In contrast, if nominal interest rates increased at a faster rate than inflation, real interest rates might rise, leading to a decrease in value of inflation-indexed bonds.
While these securities are expected to be protected from long-term inflationary trends, short-term increases in inflation may lead to a decline in value. If interest rates rise due to reasons other than inflation (for example, due to changes in currency exchange rates), investors in these securities may not be protected to the extent that the increase is not reflected in the bond’s inflation measure.
The periodic adjustment of U.S. inflation-indexed bonds is tied to the Consumer Price Index for Urban Consumers (“CPI-U”), which is calculated monthly by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. The CPI-U is a measurement of changes in the cost of living, made up of components such as housing, food, transportation and energy. Inflation-indexed bonds issued by a foreign government are generally adjusted to reflect a comparable inflation index, calculated by that government. There can be no assurance that the CPI-U or any foreign inflation index will accurately measure the real rate of inflation in the prices of goods and services. Moreover, there can be no assurance that the rate of inflation in a foreign country will be correlated to the rate of inflation in the United States.
Any increase in the principal amount of an inflation-indexed bond will be considered taxable ordinary income, even though investors do not receive their principal until maturity.
4


Equity Securities
The Fund may invest directly or indirectly in equity securities. Equity securities, such as the common stocks of an issuer, are subject to stock market fluctuations and therefore may experience volatile changes in value as market conditions, consumer sentiment or the financial condition of the issuers change. A decrease in value of the equity securities in the Fund’s portfolio may also cause the value of Shares to decline.
An investment in the Fund should be made with an understanding of the risks inherent in an investment in equity securities, including the risk that the financial condition of issuers may become impaired or that the general condition of the stock market may deteriorate (either of which may cause a decrease in the value of the Fund’s portfolio securities and therefore a decrease in the value of Shares). Common stocks are susceptible to general stock market fluctuations and to volatile increases and decreases in value as market confidence and perceptions change. These investor perceptions are based on various and unpredictable factors, including expectations regarding government, economic, monetary and fiscal policies; inflation and interest rates; economic expansion or contraction; and global or regional political, economic or banking crises.
Holders of common stocks incur more risk than holders of preferred stocks and debt obligations because common stockholders, as owners of the issuer, generally have inferior rights to receive payments from the issuer in comparison with the rights of creditors or holders of debt obligations or preferred stocks. Further, unlike debt securities, which typically have a stated principal amount payable at maturity (whose value, however, is subject to market fluctuations prior thereto), or preferred stocks, which typically have a liquidation preference and which may have stated optional or mandatory redemption provisions, common stocks have neither a fixed principal amount nor a maturity. Common stock values are subject to market fluctuations as long as the common stock remains outstanding.
When-Issued Securities – A when-issued security is one whose terms are available and for which a market exists, but which has not been issued. When the Fund engages in when-issued transactions, it relies on the other party to consummate the sale. If the other party fails to complete the sale, the Fund may miss the opportunity to obtain the security at a favorable price or yield.
When purchasing a security on a when-issued basis, the Fund assumes the rights and risks of ownership of the security, including the risk of price and yield changes. At the time of settlement, the value of the security may be more or less than the purchase price. The yield available in the market when the delivery takes place also may be higher than those obtained in the transaction itself. Because the Fund does not pay for the security until the delivery date, these risks are in addition to the risks associated with its other investments.
Decisions to enter into “when-issued” transactions will be considered on a case-by-case basis when necessary to maintain continuity in a company’s index membership. The Fund will segregate cash or liquid securities equal in value to commitments for the when-issued transactions. The Fund will segregate additional liquid assets daily so that the value of such assets is equal to the amount of the commitments.
Types of Equity Securities:
Common Stocks — Common stocks represent units of ownership in a company. Common stocks usually carry voting rights and earn dividends. Unlike preferred stocks, which are described below, dividends on common stocks are not fixed but are declared at the discretion of the company’s board of directors.
Preferred Stocks — Preferred stocks are also units of ownership in a company. Preferred stocks normally have preference over common stock in the payment of dividends and the liquidation of the company. However, in all other respects, preferred stocks are subordinated to the liabilities of the issuer. Unlike common stocks, preferred stocks are generally not entitled to vote on corporate matters. Types of preferred stocks include adjustable-rate preferred stock, fixed dividend preferred stock, perpetual preferred stock, and sinking fund preferred stock.
Generally, the market values of preferred stock with a fixed dividend rate and no conversion element vary inversely with interest rates and perceived credit risk.
Rights and Warrants — A right is a privilege granted to existing shareholders of a corporation to subscribe to shares of a new issue of common stock before it is issued. Rights normally have a short life of usually two to four weeks, are freely transferable and entitle the holder to buy the new common stock at a lower price than the public offering price. Warrants are securities that are usually issued together with a debt security or preferred stock and that give the holder the right to buy proportionate amount of common stock at a specified price. Warrants are freely transferable and are traded on major exchanges. Unlike rights, warrants normally have a life that is measured in years and entitles the holder to buy common stock of a company at a price that is usually higher than the market price at the time the warrant is issued. Corporations often issue warrants to make the accompanying debt security more attractive.
An investment in warrants and rights may entail greater risks than certain other types of investments. Generally, rights and warrants do not carry the right to receive dividends or exercise voting rights with respect to the underlying securities, and they do not represent any rights in the assets of the issuer. In addition, their value does not necessarily change with the value of the
5


underlying securities, and they cease to have value if they are not exercised on or before their expiration date. Investing in rights and warrants increases the potential profit or loss to be realized from the investment as compared with investing the same amount in the underlying securities.
Exchange-Traded Funds
The Fund invests primarily in shares of other investment companies (including ETFs). As the shareholder of another ETF, the Fund would bear, along with other shareholders, its pro rata portion of the other ETF’s expenses, including advisory fees. Such expenses are in addition to the expenses the Fund pays in connection with its own operations. The Fund’s investments in other ETFs may be limited by applicable law.
Disruptions in the markets for the securities underlying ETFs purchased or sold by the Fund could result in losses on investments in ETFs. ETFs also carry the risk that the price the Fund pays or receives may be higher or lower than the ETF’s NAV. ETFs are also subject to certain additional risks, including the risks of illiquidity and of possible trading halts due to market conditions or other reasons, based on the policies of the relevant exchange. ETFs and other investment companies in which the Fund may invest may be leveraged, which would increase the volatility of the Fund’s NAV.
Leveraged ETFs seek to provide investment results that match a multiple of the performance of an underlying index (e.g., three times the performance) for a single day. Leveraged ETFs are subject to additional risks not generally associated with traditional ETFs. Leveraged ETFs often “reset” daily, meaning that they are designed to achieve their stated objectives on a daily basis. Due to the effect of compounding, their performance over longer periods of time can differ significantly from the performance of their Index or benchmark during the same period of time. This effect can be magnified in volatile markets. Consequently, these investment vehicles may be extremely volatile and can potentially expose the Fund to complete loss of its investment.
Illiquid Securities
The Fund may invest directly or indirectly in illiquid securities (i.e., securities that are not readily marketable). Illiquid securities include, but are not limited to, restricted securities (securities the disposition of which is restricted under the federal securities laws), securities that may only be resold pursuant to Rule 144A under the Securities Act, but that are deemed to be illiquid; and repurchase agreements with maturities in excess of seven days. However, the Fund will not acquire illiquid securities if, immediately after the acquisition, such securities would comprise more than 15% of the value of the Fund’s net assets. Determinations of liquidity are made pursuant to guidelines contained in the liquidity risk management program of the Trust applicable to the Fund. The Adviser determines and monitors the liquidity of the portfolio securities and reports periodically on its decisions to the Board. In making such determinations it takes into account a number of factors in reaching liquidity decisions, including but not limited to: (1) the frequency of trades and quotations for the security; (2) the number of dealers willing to purchase or sell the security and the number of other potential buyers; (3) the willingness of dealers to undertake to make a market in the security; and (4) the nature of the marketplace trades, including the time needed to dispose of the security, the method of soliciting offers and the mechanics of the transfer. The term “illiquid security” is defined as a security that the Fund reasonably expects cannot be sold or disposed of in current market conditions in seven calendar days or less without the sale or disposition significantly changing the market value of the security.
An institutional market has developed for certain restricted securities. Accordingly, contractual or legal restrictions on the resale of a security may not be indicative of the liquidity of the security. If such securities are eligible for purchase by institutional buyers in accordance with Rule 144A under the Securities Act or other exemptions, the Adviser may determine that the securities are liquid.
Restricted securities may be sold only in privately negotiated transactions or in a public offering with respect to which a registration statement is in effect under the Securities Act. Where registration is required, the Fund may be obligated to pay all or part of the registration expenses and a considerable period may elapse between the time of the decision to sell and the time the Fund may be permitted to sell a security under an effective registration statement. If, during such a period, adverse market conditions were to develop, the Fund might obtain a less favorable price than that which prevailed when it decided to sell.
Illiquid securities will be priced at fair value as determined in good faith under procedures adopted by the Board. If, through the appreciation of illiquid securities or the depreciation of liquid securities, the Fund should be in a position where more than 15% of the value of its net assets are invested in illiquid securities, including restricted securities which are not readily marketable, the Fund will take such steps as set forth in its procedures as adopted by the Board.
Investment Company Securities
The Fund will invest in the securities of other investment companies, including money market funds and ETFs, subject to applicable limitations under Section 12(d)(1) of the 1940 Act. Investing in another pooled vehicle exposes the Fund to all the risks of that pooled vehicle. Pursuant to Section 12(d)(1), the Fund may invest in the securities of another investment company (the “acquired company”) provided that the Fund, immediately after such purchase or acquisition, does not own in the aggregate: (i) more than 3% of the total outstanding voting stock of the acquired company; (ii) securities issued by the acquired
6


company having an aggregate value in excess of 5% of the value of the total assets of the Fund; or (iii) securities issued by the acquired company and all other investment companies (other than treasury stock of the Fund) having an aggregate value in excess of 10% of the value of the total assets of the Fund. To the extent allowed by law or regulation, the Fund may invest its assets in securities of investment companies that are money market funds in excess of the limits discussed above.
If the Fund invests in and, thus, is a shareholder of, another investment company, the Fund’s shareholders will indirectly bear the Fund’s proportionate share of the fees and expenses paid by such other investment company, including advisory fees, in addition to both the management fees payable directly by the Fund to the Adviser and the other expenses that the Fund bears directly in connection with the Fund’s own operations.
Section 12(d)(1) of the 1940 Act restricts investments by registered investment companies in securities of other registered investment companies, including the Fund. The acquisition of Shares by registered investment companies is subject to the restrictions of Section 12(d)(1) of the 1940 Act, except as may be permitted by exemptive rules under the 1940 Act or as may at some future time be permitted by an exemptive order that permits registered investment companies to invest in the Fund beyond the limits of Section 12(d)(1), subject to certain terms and conditions, including that the registered investment company enter into an agreement with the Fund regarding the terms of the investment.
The Fund may rely on Section 12(d)(1)(F) and Rule 12d1-3 of the 1940 Act, which provide an exemption from Section 12(d)(1) that allows the Fund to invest all of its assets in other registered funds, including ETFs, if, among other conditions: (a) the Fund, together with its affiliates, acquires no more than three percent of the outstanding voting stock of any acquired fund, and (b) the sales load charged on Shares is no greater than the limits set forth in Rule 2830 of the Conduct Rules of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (“FINRA”). Additionally, the Fund may rely on exemptive relief issued by the SEC to other registered funds, including ETFs, to invest in such other funds in excess of the limits of Section 12(d)(1) if the Fund complies with the terms and conditions of such exemptive relief.
Money Market Funds
The Fund may invest in underlying money market funds that either seek to maintain a stable $1 NAV (“stable NAV money market funds”) or that have a share price that fluctuates (“variable NAV market funds”). Although an underlying stable NAV money market fund seeks to maintain a stable $1 NAV, it is possible for the Fund to lose money by investing in such a money market fund. Because the share price of an underlying variable NAV market fund will fluctuate, when the Fund sells the shares it owns they may be worth more or less than what the Fund originally paid for them. In addition, neither type of money market fund is designed to offer capital appreciation. Certain underlying money market funds may impose a fee upon the sale of shares or may temporarily suspend the ability to sell shares if such fund’s liquidity falls below required minimums.
Other Short-Term Instruments
In addition to repurchase agreements, the Fund may invest in short-term instruments, including money market instruments, on an ongoing basis to provide liquidity or for other reasons. Money market instruments are generally short-term investments that may include but are not limited to: (i) shares of money market funds; (ii) obligations issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government, its agencies or instrumentalities (including government-sponsored enterprises); (iii) negotiable certificates of deposit (“CDs”), bankers’ acceptances, fixed time deposits and other obligations of U.S. and foreign banks (including foreign branches) and similar institutions; (iv) commercial paper rated at the date of purchase “Prime-1” by Moody’s or “A-1” by S&P or, if unrated, of comparable quality as determined by the Adviser; (v) non-convertible corporate debt securities (e.g., bonds and debentures) with remaining maturities at the date of purchase of not more than 397 days and that satisfy the rating requirements set forth in Rule 2a-7 under the 1940 Act; and (vi) short-term U.S. dollar-denominated obligations of foreign banks (including U.S. branches) that, in the opinion of the Adviser, are of comparable quality to obligations of U.S. banks which may be purchased by the Fund. Any of these instruments may be purchased on a current or a forward-settled basis. Money market instruments also include shares of money market funds. Time deposits are non-negotiable deposits maintained in banking institutions for specified periods of time at stated interest rates. Bankers’ acceptances are time drafts drawn on commercial banks by borrowers, usually in connection with international transactions.
Repurchase Agreements
The Fund may invest in repurchase agreements with commercial banks, brokers or dealers to generate income from its excess cash balances and to invest securities lending cash collateral. A repurchase agreement is an agreement under which the Fund acquires a financial instrument (e.g., a security issued by the U.S. government or an agency thereof, a banker’s acceptance or a certificate of deposit) from a seller, subject to resale to the seller at an agreed upon price and date (normally, the next Business Day). A repurchase agreement may be considered a loan collateralized by securities. The resale price reflects an agreed upon interest rate effective for the period the instrument is held by the Fund and is unrelated to the interest rate on the underlying instrument.
In these repurchase agreement transactions, the securities acquired by the Fund (including accrued interest earned thereon) must have a total value in excess of the value of the repurchase agreement and are held by the Fund’s custodian bank until
7


repurchased. No more than an aggregate of 15% of the Fund’s net assets will be invested in illiquid securities, including repurchase agreements having maturities longer than seven days and securities subject to legal or contractual restrictions on resale, or for which there are no readily available market quotations.
The use of repurchase agreements involves certain risks. For example, if the other party to the agreement defaults on its obligation to repurchase the underlying security at a time when the value of the security has declined, the Fund may incur a loss upon disposition of the security. If the other party to the agreement becomes insolvent and subject to liquidation or reorganization under the U.S. Bankruptcy Code or other laws, a court may determine that the underlying security is collateral for a loan by the Fund not within the control of the Fund and, therefore, the Fund may not be able to substantiate its interest in the underlying security and may be deemed an unsecured creditor of the other party to the agreement.
Securities Lending
The Fund may lend portfolio securities to certain creditworthy borrowers. The borrowers provide collateral that is maintained in an amount at least equal to the current value of the securities loaned. The Fund may terminate a loan at any time and obtain the return of the securities loaned. The lending Fund receives the value of any interest or cash or non-cash distributions paid on the loaned securities. Distributions received on loaned securities in lieu of dividend payments (i.e., substitute payments) would not be considered qualified dividend income.
With respect to loans that are collateralized by cash, the borrower will be entitled to receive a fee based on the amount of cash collateral. The Fund is compensated by the difference between the amount earned on the reinvestment of cash collateral and the fee paid to the borrower. In the case of collateral other than cash, the Fund is compensated by a fee paid by the borrower equal to a percentage of the value of the loaned securities. Any cash collateral may be reinvested in certain short-term instruments either directly on behalf of the lending Fund or through one or more joint accounts or money market funds.
The Fund may pay a portion of the interest or fees earned from securities lending to a borrower as described above, and to one or more securities lending agents approved by the Board who administer the lending program for the Fund in accordance with guidelines approved by the Board. In such capacity, the lending agent causes the delivery of loaned securities from the Fund to borrowers, arranges for the return of loaned securities to the Fund at the termination of a loan, requests deposit of collateral, monitors the daily value of the loaned securities and collateral, requests that borrowers add to the collateral when required by the loan agreements, and provides recordkeeping and accounting services necessary for the operation of the program.
Securities lending involves exposure to certain risks, including operational risk (i.e., the risk of losses resulting from problems in the settlement and accounting process), “gap” risk (i.e., the risk of a mismatch between the return on cash collateral reinvestments and the fees the Fund has agreed to pay a borrower), and credit, legal, counterparty and market risk. In the event a borrower does not return the Fund’s securities as agreed, the Fund may experience losses if the proceeds received from liquidating the collateral do not at least equal the value of the loaned security at the time the collateral is liquidated plus the transaction costs incurred in purchasing replacement securities.
U.S. Government Securities
The Fund may invest directly or indirectly in U.S. government securities. Securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government or its agencies or instrumentalities include U.S. Treasury securities, which are backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Treasury and which differ only in their interest rates, maturities, and times of issuance. U.S. Treasury bills have initial maturities of one-year or less; U.S. Treasury notes have initial maturities of one to ten years; and U.S. Treasury bonds generally have initial maturities of greater than ten years. Certain U.S. government securities are issued or guaranteed by agencies or instrumentalities of the U.S. government including, but not limited to, obligations of U.S. government agencies or instrumentalities such as the Federal National Mortgage Association (“FNMA”), the Government National Mortgage Association (“GNMA”), the Small Business Administration, the Federal Farm Credit Administration, the Federal Home Loan Banks, Banks for Cooperatives (including the Central Bank for Cooperatives), the Federal Land Banks, the Federal Intermediate Credit Banks, the Tennessee Valley Authority, the Export-Import Bank of the United States, the Commodity Credit Corporation, the Federal Financing Bank, the Student Loan Marketing Association, the National Credit Union Administration and the Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation (Farmer Mac).
Some obligations issued or guaranteed by U.S. government agencies and instrumentalities, including, for example, GNMA pass-through certificates, are supported by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Treasury. Other obligations issued by or guaranteed by federal agencies, such as those securities issued by the FNMA, are supported by the discretionary authority of the U.S. government to purchase certain obligations of the federal agency, while other obligations issued by or guaranteed by federal agencies, such as those of the Federal Home Loan Banks, are supported by the right of the issuer to borrow from the U.S. Treasury, while the U.S. government provides financial support to such U.S. government-sponsored federal agencies, no assurance can be given that the U.S. government will always do so, since the U.S. government is not so obligated by law. U.S. Treasury notes and bonds typically pay coupon interest semi-annually and repay the principal at maturity.
8


On September 7, 2008, the U.S. Treasury announced a federal takeover of the FNMA and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“Freddie Mac”), placing the two federal instrumentalities in conservatorship. Under the takeover, the U.S. Treasury agreed to acquire $1 billion of senior preferred stock of each instrumentality and obtained warrants for the purchase of common stock of each instrumentality (the “Senior Preferred Stock Purchase Agreement” or “Agreement”). Under the Agreement, the U.S. Treasury pledged to provide up to $200 billion per instrumentality as needed, including the contribution of cash capital to the instrumentalities in the event their liabilities exceed their assets. This was intended to ensure that the instrumentalities maintain a positive net worth and meet their financial obligations, preventing mandatory triggering of receivership. As a result of this Agreement, the investments of holders, including the Fund, of mortgage-backed securities and other obligations issued by the FNMA and Freddie Mac are protected.
On December 24, 2009, the U.S. Treasury amended the Agreement to allow the $200 billion cap on the U.S. Treasury’s funding commitment to increase as necessary to accommodate any cumulative reduction in net worth over the next three years. On August 17, 2012, the U.S. Treasury announced the Third Amendment to the Agreement that recalibrated the calculation of the quarterly dividends that Freddie Mac pays to the U.S. Treasury which eliminated the need for Freddie Mac circularly to borrow from the U.S.Treasury only then to pay dividends back to the U.S.Treasury. The Third Amendment suspended the periodic commitment fee for so long as the dividend amounts were based on net worth.  The Third Amendment also eliminated the requirement that Freddie Mac obtain the U.S.Treasury’s consent for asset dispositions with a fair market value (individually or in aggregate) of less than $250 million, but required Freddie Mac to submit annual risk management plans to the U.S.Treasury. On December 21, 2017, a letter agreement between the U.S.Treasury and Freddie Mac changed the terms of the senior preferred stock certificates to permit Freddie Mac to retain a $3 billion capital reserve, quarterly. On September 30, 2019, the U.S.Treasury and the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA), acting as Conservator to Freddie Mac, announced amendments​ to the senior preferred stock certificates that will permit Freddie Mac to retain earnings beyond  the $3 billion capital reserves previously allowed through the letter agreements. Since January 6, 2014, FHFA has conducted an ongoing assessment of its obligations and statutory mandates in preparation for Freddie Mac’s eventual exit from conservatorship.
The total public debt of the United States as a percentage of gross domestic product has grown rapidly since the beginning of the 2008–2009 financial downturn. Although high debt levels do not necessarily indicate or cause economic problems, they may create certain systemic risks if sound debt management practices are not implemented. A high national debt can raise concerns that the U.S. government will not be able to make principal or interest payments when they are due. This increase has also necessitated the need for the U.S. Congress to negotiate adjustments to the statutory debt limit to increase the cap on the amount the U.S. government is permitted to borrow to meet its existing obligations and finance current budget deficits. In August 2011, S&P lowered its long term sovereign credit rating on the U.S In explaining the downgrade at that time, S&P cited, among other reasons, controversy over raising the statutory debt limit and growth in public spending. On August 2, 2019, following passage by Congress, the President of the United States signed the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2019, which suspends the statutory debt limit through July 31, 2021. Any controversy or ongoing uncertainty regarding the statutory debt ceiling negotiations may impact the U.S. long-term sovereign credit rating and may cause market uncertainty. As a result, market prices and yields of securities supported by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government may be adversely affected.
INVESTMENT RESTRICTIONS
The Trust has adopted the following investment restrictions as fundamental policies with respect to the Fund. These restrictions cannot be changed with respect to the Fund without the approval of the holders of a majority of the Fund’s outstanding voting securities. For the purposes of the 1940 Act, a “majority of outstanding shares” means the vote of the lesser of: (1) 67% or more of the voting securities of the Fund present at the meeting if the holders of more than 50% of the Fund’s outstanding voting securities are present or represented by proxy; or (2) more than 50% of the outstanding voting securities of the Fund.
Except with the approval of a majority of the outstanding voting securities, the Fund may not:
1.Borrow money or issue senior securities (as defined under the 1940 Act), except to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act.
2.Make loans, except to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act.
3.Purchase or sell real estate unless acquired as a result of ownership of securities or other instruments, except to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act. This shall not prevent the Fund from investing in securities or other instruments backed by real estate, real estate investment trusts or securities of companies engaged in the real estate business.
4.Purchase or sell commodities unless acquired as a result of ownership of securities or other instruments, except to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act. This shall not prevent the Fund from purchasing or selling options and futures contracts or from investing in securities or other instruments backed by physical commodities.
5.Underwrite securities issued by other persons, except to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act.
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6.Concentrate its investments (i.e., hold more than 25% of its total assets) in any industry or group of related industries. For purposes of this limitation, securities of the U.S. government (including its agencies and instrumentalities), repurchase agreements collateralized by U.S. government securities, registered investment companies, and tax-exempt securities of state or municipal governments and their political subdivisions are not considered to be issued by members of any industry.
In determining its compliance with the fundamental investment restriction on concentration, the Fund will look through to the underlying holdings of any affiliated investment company and will consider its entire investment in any investment company with a policy to concentrate, or having otherwise disclosed that it is concentrated, in a particular industry or group of related industries as being invested in such industry or group of related industries. Additionally, in determining its compliance with the fundamental investment restriction on concentration, the Fund will look through to the user or use of private activity municipal bonds to determine their industry.
In addition to the investment restrictions adopted as fundamental policies as set forth above, the Fund observes the following non-fundamental restrictions, which may be changed without a shareholder vote:
1.The Fund will not hold illiquid investments in excess of 15% of its net assets. An illiquid investment is any investment that the Fund reasonably expects cannot be sold or disposed of in current market conditions in seven calendar days or less without the sale or disposition significantly changing the market value of the investment.
2.Under normal circumstances, at least 80% of the Fund’s net assets, plus borrowings for investment purposes, will be invested in (i) securities that are traded principally in the United States, (ii) securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government, its agencies, or instrumentalities, or (iii) ETFs that invest, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of their net assets, plus borrowings for investment purposes, in the foregoing securities.
If a percentage limitation is adhered to at the time of investment or contract, a later increase or decrease in percentage resulting from any change in value or total or net assets will not result in a violation of such restriction, except that the percentage limitation with respect to the borrowing of money will be observed continuously.
EXCHANGE LISTING AND TRADING
Shares are listed for trading and trade throughout the day on the Exchange.
There can be no assurance that the Fund will continue to meet the requirements of the Exchange necessary to maintain the listing of Shares. The Exchange may, but is not required to, remove Shares from the listing under any of the following circumstances: (i) the Exchange becomes aware that the Fund is no longer eligible to operate in reliance on Rule 6c-11 of the Investment Company Act of 1940; (ii) the Fund no longer complies with the Exchange’s requirements for Shares; or (iii) such other event shall occur or condition shall exist that, in the opinion of the Exchange, makes further dealings on the Exchange inadvisable. The Exchange will remove Shares of the Fund from listing and trading upon termination of the Fund.
The Trust reserves the right to adjust the price levels of Shares in the future to help maintain convenient trading ranges for investors. Any adjustments would be accomplished through stock splits or reverse stock splits, which would have no effect on the net assets of the Fund.
MANAGEMENT OF THE TRUST
Board Responsibilities. The management and affairs of the Trust and its series are overseen by the Board, which elects the officers of the Trust who are responsible for administering the day-to-day operations of the Trust and the Fund. The Board has approved contracts, as described below, under which certain companies provide essential services to the Trust.
The day-to-day business of the Trust, including the management of risk, is performed by third-party service providers, such as the Adviser, the Distributor (defined below), and the Administrator (defined below). The Board is responsible for overseeing the Trust’s service providers and, thus, has oversight responsibility with respect to risk management performed by those service providers. Risk management seeks to identify and address risks, i.e., events or circumstances that could have material adverse effects on the business, operations, shareholder services, investment performance or reputation of the Fund. The Fund and its service providers employ a variety of processes, procedures, and controls to identify various of those possible events or circumstances, to lessen the probability of their occurrence and/or to mitigate the effects of such events or circumstances if they do occur. Each service provider is responsible for one or more discrete aspects of the Trust’s business and, consequently, for managing the risks associated with that business. The Board has emphasized to the Fund’s service providers the importance of maintaining vigorous risk management.
The Board’s role in risk oversight begins before the inception of the Fund, at which time certain of the Fund’s service providers present the Board with information concerning the investment objective, strategies, and risks of the Fund as well as proposed investment limitations for the Fund. Additionally, the Adviser provides the Board with an overview of, among other things, its investment philosophies, brokerage practices, and compliance infrastructures. Thereafter, the Board continues its oversight
10


function as various personnel, including the Trust’s Chief Compliance Officer and other service providers such as the Fund’s independent registered public accounting firm, make periodic reports to the Audit Committee or to the Board with respect to various aspects of risk management. The Board and the Audit Committee oversee efforts by management and service providers to manage risks to which the Fund may be exposed.
The Board is responsible for overseeing the nature, extent, and quality of the services provided to the Fund by the Adviser and receives information about those services at its regular meetings. In addition, on an annual basis (following the initial two-year period), in connection with its consideration of whether to renew the Investment Advisory Agreement with the Adviser, the Board or its designee may meet with the Adviser to review such services. Among other things, the Board regularly considers the Adviser’s adherence to the Fund’s investment restrictions and compliance with various Fund policies and procedures and with applicable securities regulations. The Board also reviews information about the Fund’s performance and the nature of the Fund’s investments.
The Trust’s Chief Compliance Officer reports regularly to the Board to review and discuss compliance issues and Fund and Adviser risk assessments. At least annually, the Trust’s Chief Compliance Officer provides the Board with a report reviewing the adequacy and effectiveness of the Trust’s policies and procedures and those of its service providers, including the Adviser. The report addresses the operation of the policies and procedures of the Trust and each service provider since the date of the last report; any material changes to the policies and procedures since the date of the last report; any recommendations for material changes to the policies and procedures; and any material compliance matters since the date of the last report.
The Board receives reports from the Fund’s service providers regarding operational risks and risks related to the valuation and liquidity of portfolio securities. Annually, the Fund’s independent registered public accounting firm reviews with the Audit Committee its audit of the Fund’s financial statements, focusing on major areas of risk encountered by the Fund and noting any significant deficiencies or material weaknesses in the Fund’s internal controls. Additionally, in connection with its oversight function, the Board oversees Fund management’s implementation of disclosure controls and procedures, which are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the Trust in its periodic reports with the SEC are recorded, processed, summarized, and reported within the required time periods. The Board also oversees the Trust’s internal controls over financial reporting, which comprise policies and procedures designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of the Trust’s financial reporting and the preparation of the Trust’s financial statements.
From their review of these reports and discussions with the Adviser, the Chief Compliance Officer, the independent registered public accounting firm, and other service providers, the Board and the Audit Committee learn in detail about the material risks of the Fund, thereby facilitating a dialogue about how management and service providers identify and mitigate those risks.
The Board recognizes that not all risks that may affect the Fund can be identified and/or quantified, that it may not be practical or cost-effective to eliminate or mitigate certain risks, that it may be necessary to bear certain risks (such as investment-related risks) to achieve the Fund’s goals, and that the processes, procedures, and controls employed to address certain risks may be limited in their effectiveness. Moreover, reports received by the Board as to risk management matters are typically summaries of the relevant information. Most of the Fund’s investment management and business affairs are carried out by or through the Adviser and other service providers, each of which has an independent interest in risk management but whose policies and the methods by which one or more risk management functions are carried out may differ from the Fund’s and each other’s in the setting of priorities, the resources available or the effectiveness of relevant controls. As a result of the foregoing and other factors, the Board’s ability to monitor and manage risk, as a practical matter, is subject to limitations.
Members of the Board. There are five members of the Board, three of whom are not interested persons of the Trust, as that term is defined in the 1940 Act (the “Independent Trustees”). Mr. Eric W. Falkeis serves as Chairman of the Board and is an interested person of the Trust.
The Board is comprised of a majority (60 percent) of Independent Trustees. There is an Audit Committee of the Board that is chaired by an Independent Trustee and comprised solely of Independent Trustees. The Audit Committee chair presides at the Audit Committee meetings, participates in formulating agendas for Audit Committee meetings, and coordinates with management to serve as a liaison between the Independent Trustees and management on matters within the scope of responsibilities of the Audit Committee as set forth in its Board-approved charter. The Trust has determined its leadership structure is appropriate given the specific characteristics and circumstances of the Trust, even though there is no Lead Independent Trustee. The Trust made this determination in consideration of, among other things, the fact that the Independent Trustees of the Trust constitute a super-majority of the Board, the number of Independent Trustees that constitute the Board, the amount of assets under management in the Trust, and the number of funds overseen by the Board. The Board also believes that its leadership structure facilitates the orderly and efficient flow of information to the Independent Trustees from Fund management.
Additional information about each Trustee of the Trust is set forth below. The address of each Trustee of the Trust is c/o Tidal ETF Trust, 898 N. Broadway, Suite 2, Massapequa, New York 11758.
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Name and
Year of Birth
Position Held with the TrustTerm of Office and Length of Time Served


Principal Occupation(s)
During Past 5 Years
Number of Portfolios in Fund Complex Overseen by Trustee
Other Directorships Held by Trustee During Past 5 Years
Independent Trustees (1)
Mark H.W. Baltimore
Born: 1967
TrusteeIndefinite term; since 2018
Co-Chief Executive Officer, Global Rhino, LLC (asset management consulting firm) (since 2018); Chief Business Development Officer, Joot (asset management compliance services firm) (since 2019); Chief Executive Officer, Global Sight, LLC (asset management distribution consulting firm) (2016-2018); Head of Global Distribution Services, Foreside Financial Group, LLC (broker-dealer) (2016); Managing Director, Head of Global Distribution Services, Beacon Hill Fund Services (broker-dealer) (2015–2016); Vice President, Head of International Sales & Business Development, Charles Schwab & Company (asset management firm) (2014–2015).
[ ]None
Dusko Culafic
Born: 1958
TrusteeIndefinite term; since 2018
Senior Operational Due Diligence Analyst, Aurora Investment Management, LLC (2012–2018).
[ ]None
Eduardo Mendoza
Born: 1966
TrusteeIndefinite term; since 2018
Senior Strategic & Financial Advisor, Credijusto and Acrecent (financial technology companies) (since 2017); Founding Partner / Capital Markets & Head of Corporate Development, SQN Latina (specialty finance company) (2016–2017); Managing Director: Origination & Structuring, Securitization Group, BMO Capital Markets (2006–2015).
[ ]None
Interested Trustees
Eric W. Falkeis (2)
Born: 1973
President, Principal Executive Officer, Trustee, Chairman, and SecretaryPresident and Principal Executive Officer since 2019, Indefinite term; Trustee, Chairman, and Secretary since 2018, Indefinite term
Chief Executive Officer, Tidal ETF Services LLC (since 2018); Chief Operating Officer (and other positions), Rafferty Asset Management, LLC (2013–2018) and Direxion Advisors, LLC (2017–2018).
[ ]
Independent Director, Muzinich BDC, Inc. (since 2019); Trustee, Professionally Managed Portfolios (28 series) (since 2011); Interested Trustee, Direxion Funds, Direxion Shares ETF Trust, and Direxion Insurance Trust (2014–2018)
12


Name and
Year of Birth
Position Held with the TrustTerm of Office and Length of Time Served


Principal Occupation(s)
During Past 5 Years
Number of Portfolios in Fund Complex Overseen by Trustee
Other Directorships Held by Trustee During Past 5 Years
Ian C. Carroll, CFA (3)
Born: 1970
TrusteeIndefinite term; since 2018
Head of Corporate Research, Aware Asset Management, Inc. (since 2018); Principal Corporate Credit Research Analyst, Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Minnesota (insurance company) (since 2017); Credit Research Analyst, California Public Employees’ Retirement System (2013–2017).
[ ]
None
(1) All Independent Trustees of the Trust are not “interested persons” of the Trust as defined under the 1940 Act (“Independent Trustees”).
(2) Mr. Falkeis is considered an “interested person” of the Trust due to his positions as President, Principal Executive Officer, Chairman and Secretary of the Trust and Chief Executive Officer of Tidal ETF Services LLC, an affiliate of the Adviser.
(3) Mr. Carroll is considered an “interested person” of the Trust due to his position as Head of Corporate Research of Aware Asset Management, Inc., a sub-adviser to a series of the Trust.
Individual Trustee Qualifications. The Trust has concluded that each of the Trustees should serve on the Board because of their ability to review and understand information about the series of the Trust provided to them by management, to identify and request other information they may deem relevant to the performance of their duties, to question management and other service providers regarding material factors bearing on the management and administration of the Trust, and to exercise their business judgment in a manner that serves the best interests of shareholders of each series of the Trust. The Trust has concluded that each of the Trustees should serve as a Trustee based on his or her own experience, qualifications, attributes, and skills as described below.
The Trust has concluded that Mr. Baltimore should serve as a Trustee because of his substantial experience with the distribution of investment company securities and his experience with regulatory matters through his current position at Global Rhino, LLC and prior position at Global Sight, LLC, asset management distribution consulting firms, current position at Joot, an asset management compliance services firm, and his past experience with distribution activities at the parent company of the Trust’s Distributor (defined below). The Board believes Mr. Baltimore’s experience, qualifications, attributes or skills, on an individual basis and in combination with those of the other Trustees, led to the conclusion that he possesses the requisite skills and attributes as a Trustee to carry out oversight responsibilities with respect to the Trust.
The Trust has concluded that Mr. Culafic should serve as a Trustee because of his substantial experience with investment management operations and his experience with financial, accounting, investment, and regulatory matters through his former position as Senior Operational Due Diligence Analyst of Aurora Investment Management, LLC, a registered investment adviser.  The Board believes Mr. Culafic’s experience, qualifications, attributes or skills, on an individual basis and in combination with those of the other Trustees, led to the conclusion that he possesses the requisite skills and attributes as a Trustee to carry out oversight responsibilities with respect to the Trust.
The Trust has concluded that Mr. Mendoza should serve as a Trustee because of his substantial experience with credit markets and finance and his experience with financial, accounting, investment, and regulatory matters through his former positions as Managing Director (and other positions) of BMO Capital Markets, an investment bank.  The Board believes Mr. Mendoza’s experience, qualifications, attributes or skills, on an individual basis and in combination with those of the other Trustees, led to the conclusion that he possesses the requisite skills and attributes as a Trustee to carry out oversight responsibilities with respect to the Trust.
The Trust has concluded that Mr. Falkeis should serve as a Trustee because of his substantial investment company experience and his experience with financial, accounting, investment, and regulatory matters through his former position as Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer (and other positions) of U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC, doing business as U.S. Bank Global Fund Services (“Global Fund Services” or the “Transfer Agent”), a full service provider to ETFs, mutual funds, and alternative investment products.  In addition, he has experience consulting with investment advisors regarding the legal structure of mutual funds, distribution channel analysis, and actual distribution of those funds. Mr. Falkeis also has substantial managerial, operational, technological, and risk oversight related experience through his former position as Chief Operating Officer of the advisers to the Direxion mutual fund and ETF complex. The Board believes Mr. Falkeis’ experience, qualifications, attributes or skills on an individual basis and in combination with those of the other Trustees led to the
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conclusion that he possesses the requisite skills and attributes as a Trustee to carry out oversight responsibilities with respect to the Trust.
The Trust has concluded that Mr. Carroll should serve as a Trustee because of his substantial experience with financial and investment matters through his position at Aware Asset Management, Inc., and his past experience with credit investment at the California Public Employees’ Retirement System. The Board believes Mr. Carroll’s experience, qualifications, attributes or skills, on an individual basis and in combination with those of the other Trustees, led to the conclusion that he possesses the requisite skills and attributes as a Trustee to carry out oversight responsibilities with respect to the Trust.
In its periodic assessment of the effectiveness of the Board, the Board considers the complementary individual skills and experience of the individual Trustees primarily in the broader context of the Board’s overall composition so that the Board, as a body, possesses the appropriate (and appropriately diverse) skills and experience to oversee the business of the Fund.
Board Committees. The Board has established the following standing committees of the Board:
Audit Committee. The Board has a standing Audit Committee that is composed of each of the Independent Trustees of the Trust. The Audit Committee operates under a written charter approved by the Board. The principal responsibilities of the Audit Committee include: overseeing the Trust’s accounting and financial reporting policies and practices and its internal controls; overseeing the quality, objectivity and integrity of the Trust’s financial statements and the independent audits thereof; monitoring the independent auditor’s qualifications, independence and performance; acting as a liaison between the Trust’s independent auditors and the full Board; pre-approving all auditing services to be performed for the Trust; reviewing the compensation and overseeing the work of the independent auditor (including resolution of disagreements between management and the independent auditor regarding financial reporting) for the purpose of preparing or issuing an audit report or related work; pre-approving all permitted non-audit services (including the fees and terms thereof) to be performed for the Trust; pre-approving all permitted non-audit services to be performed for any investment adviser or sub-adviser to the Trust by any of the Trust’s independent auditors if the engagement relates directly to the operations and financial reporting of the Trust; meeting with the Trust’s independent auditors as necessary to (i) review the arrangement for and scope of the annual audits and any special audits, (ii) discuss any matters of concern relating to the Fund’s financial statements, (iii) consider the independent auditors’ comments with respect to the Trust’s financial policies, procedures and internal accounting controls and Trust management’s responses thereto, and (iv) review the form of opinion the independent auditors propose to render to the Board and the Fund’s shareholders; discussing with management and the independent auditor significant financial reporting issues and judgments made in connection with the preparation of the Fund’s financial statements; and reviewing and discussing reports from the independent auditors on (i) all critical accounting policies and practices to be used, (ii) all alternative treatments within generally accepted accounting principles for policies and practices related to material items that have been discussed with management, (iii) other material written communications between the independent auditor and management, including any management letter, schedule of unadjusted differences, or management representation letter, and (iv) all non-audit services provided to any entity in the Trust that were not pre-approved by the Committee; and reviewing disclosures made to the Committee by the Trust’s principal executive officer and principal accounting officer during their certification process for the Fund’s Form N-CSR. Each Independent Trustee currently serves as a member of the Audit Committee. As of the date of this SAI, the Audit Committee met [one time] with respect to the Fund.
The Audit Committee also serves as the Qualified Legal Compliance Committee (“QLCC”) for the Trust for the purpose of compliance with Rules 205.2(k) and 205.3(c) of the Code of Federal Regulations, regarding alternative reporting procedures for attorneys retained or employed by an issuer who appear and practice before the SEC on behalf of the issuer (the “issuer attorneys”). An issuer attorney who becomes aware of evidence of a material violation by the Trust, or by any officer, director, employee, or agent of the Trust, may report evidence of such material violation to the QLCC as an alternative to the reporting requirements of Rule 205.3(b) (which requires reporting to the chief legal officer and potentially “up the ladder” to other entities).
Nominating Committee. The Board has a standing Nominating Committee that is composed of each of the Independent Trustees of the Trust. The Nominating Committee operates under a written charter approved by the Board. The principal responsibility of the Nominating Committee is to identify, evaluate, and recommend candidates to fill vacancies on the Trust’s Board, if any. The Nominating Committee generally will not consider nominees recommended by shareholders. The Nominating Committee meets periodically, as necessary, but at least annually. The Nominating Committee met one time prior to the commencement of operations of the Fund.
Valuation Committee. The Board has delegated day-to-day valuation issues to a Valuation Committee that is comprised of Messrs. Falkeis and Carlson. Although the Valuation Committee is not a committee of the Board (i.e., committee members need not be a Trustee), the Valuation Committee’s membership is appointed by the Board and its charter and applicable procedures are approved by the Board. The function of the Valuation Committee is to value securities held by any series of the Trust for which current and reliable market quotations are not readily available. Such securities are valued at their respective
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fair values as determined in good faith by the Valuation Committee and the actions of the Valuation Committee are subsequently reviewed and ratified by the Board. The Valuation Committee meets as necessary.
Principal Officers of the Trust
The officers of the Trust conduct and supervise its daily business. The address of each officer of the Trust is c/o Tidal ETF Trust, 898 N. Broadway, Suite 2, Massapequa, New York 11758, unless otherwise indicated. Additional information about the Trust’s officers is as follows:
Name and
Year of Birth
Position(s) Held with the TrustTerm of Office and Length of Time ServedPrincipal Occupation(s)
During Past 5 Years
Eric W. Falkeis (1)
Born: 1973
President, Principal Executive Officer, Interested Trustee, Chairman, and SecretaryPresident and Principal Executive Officer since 2019, Indefinite term; Interested Trustee, Chairman, and Secretary since 2018, Indefinite term
Chief Executive Officer, Tidal ETF Services LLC (since 2018); Chief Operating Officer (and other positions), Rafferty Asset Management, LLC (2013–2018) and Direxion Advisors, LLC (2017–2018).
Daniel H. Carlson
Born: 1955
Treasurer, Principal Financial Officer, Principal Accounting Officer and AML Compliance OfficerIndefinite term; since 2018Chief Financial Officer, Chief Compliance Officer, and Managing Member, Toroso Investments, LLC (since 2012).
Bridget P. Garcia, Esq.
c/o Cipperman Compliance Services, LLC
480 E. Swedesford Road, Suite 220
Wayne, Pennsylvania 19087
Born: 1985
Chief Compliance OfficerIndefinite term; since 2018Compliance Manager, Cipperman Compliance Services, LLC (since 2017); Senior Associate, Central Compliance - Risk Management Group (2016-2017), Client Services Associate (2014-2016), Macquarie Group (global financial services firm).
Aaron J. Perkovich
c/o U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC
615 East Michigan Street
Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53202
Born: 1973
Assistant
Treasurer
Indefinite term;
since 2018
Vice President, U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC (since 2006).
Cory R. Akers
c/o U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC
615 East Michigan Street
Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53202
Born: 1978
Assistant
Secretary
Indefinite term;
since 2019
Assistant Vice President, U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC (since 2006).
(1) Mr. Falkeis is considered an “interested person” of the Trust due to his positions as President, Principal Executive Officer, Chairman and Secretary of the Trust and Chief Executive Officer of Tidal ETF Services LLC, an affiliate of the Adviser.
Trustee Ownership of Shares. The Fund is required to show the dollar amount ranges of each Trustee’s “beneficial ownership” of Shares and each other series of the Trust as of the end of the most recently completed calendar year. Dollar amount ranges disclosed are established by the SEC. “Beneficial ownership” is determined in accordance with Rule 16a-1(a)(2) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “1934 Act”).
As of December 31, 2019, Mr. Falkeis beneficially owned shares of the series of the Trust as follows:
Dollar Range of Shares Owned in the FundAggregate Dollar Range of Shares of Series of the Trust
Eric W. FalkeisNoneOver $100,000
As of December 31, 2019, no other Trustee owned shares of the series of the Trust.
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Board Compensation. The Independent Trustees each receive $4,500 for each in-person meeting attended and $1,000 for each telephonic meeting attended, as well as reimbursement for travel and other out-of-pocket expenses incurred in connection with serving as a Trustee. The Trust has no pension or retirement plan.
The following table shows the compensation estimated to be earned by each Trustee for the Fund’s current fiscal year ending [August 31], 2021. Independent Trustee fees are paid by the adviser or sub-adviser to each series of the Trust and not by the Fund. Trustee compensation shown below does not include reimbursed out-of-pocket expenses in connection with attendance at meetings.
NameAggregate Compensation
From Fund
Total Compensation From Fund Complex Paid to Trustees (1)
Interested Trustees
Eric W. Falkeis
$0$0
Ian C. Carroll
$0$0
Independent Trustees
Mark H.W. Baltimore
$0
[ ]
Dusko Culafic
$0
[ ]
Eduardo Mendoza
$0
[ ]
(1) There are currently [eight] other portfolios comprising the Fund complex.
PRINCIPAL SHAREHOLDERS, CONTROL PERSONS, AND MANAGEMENT OWNERSHIP
A principal shareholder is any person who owns of record or beneficially 5% or more of the outstanding Shares. A control person is a shareholder that owns beneficially or through controlled companies more than 25% of the voting securities of a company or acknowledges the existence of control. Shareholders owning voting securities in excess of 25% may determine the outcome of any matter affecting and voted on by shareholders of the Fund.
As of the date of this SAI, the Fund had not yet commenced operations and no Shares were outstanding.
CODES OF ETHICS
The Trust and the Adviser have each adopted a code of ethics pursuant to Rule 17j-1 of the 1940 Act. These codes of ethics are designed to prevent affiliated persons of the Trust and the Adviser from engaging in deceptive, manipulative or fraudulent activities in connection with securities held or to be acquired by the Fund (which may also be held by persons subject to the codes of ethics). Each code of ethics permits personnel subject to that code of ethics to invest in securities for their personal investment accounts, subject to certain limitations, including limitations related to securities that may be purchased or held by the Fund. The Distributor (as defined below) relies on the principal underwriters exception under Rule 17j-1(c)(3) because the Distributor is not affiliated with the Trust or the Adviser, and no officer, director, or general partner of the Distributor serves as an officer, director, or general partner of the Trust or the Adviser.
There can be no assurance that the codes of ethics will be effective in preventing such activities. Each code of ethics may be examined on the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov.
PROXY VOTING POLICIES
The Fund has delegated proxy voting responsibilities to the Adviser, subject to the Board’s oversight. In delegating proxy responsibilities, the Board has directed that proxies be voted consistent with the Fund’s and its shareholders’ best interests and in compliance with all applicable proxy voting rules and regulations. The Adviser has adopted proxy voting policies and guidelines for this purpose (“Proxy Voting Policies”), which have been adopted by the Trust as the policies and procedures that will be used when voting proxies on behalf of the Fund.
In the absence of a conflict of interest, the Adviser will generally vote “for” routine proposals, such as the election of directors, approval of auditors, and amendments or revisions to corporate documents to eliminate outdated or unnecessary provisions. Unusual or disputed proposals will be reviewed and voted on a case-by-case basis. The Proxy Voting Policies address, among other things, material conflicts of interest that may arise between the interests of the Fund and the interests of the Adviser. The Proxy Voting Policies will ensure that all issues brought to shareholders are analyzed in light of the Adviser’s fiduciary responsibilities.
The Trust’s Chief Compliance Officer is responsible for monitoring the effectiveness of the Proxy Voting Policies.
When available, information on how the Fund voted proxies relating to portfolio securities during the most recent 12-month period ended June 30 will be available (1) without charge, upon request, by calling [ ] or (2) on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov.
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INVESTMENT ADVISER
Toroso Investments, LLC, 898 N. Broadway, Suite 2, Massapequa, New York 11758, serves as investment adviser to the Fund and has overall responsibility for the general management and administration of the Fund.
Pursuant to the Investment Advisory Agreement (the “Advisory Agreement”), the Adviser provides investment advice to the Fund and oversees the day-to-day operations of the Fund, subject to the direction and control of the Board. Under the Advisory Agreement, the Adviser is also responsible for arranging sub-advisory, transfer agency, custody, fund administration and accounting, and other related services necessary for the Fund to operate. The Adviser administers the Fund’s business affairs, provides office facilities and equipment and certain clerical, bookkeeping, and administrative services. Under the Advisory Agreement, in exchange for a single unitary management fee from the Fund, the Adviser has agreed to pay all expenses incurred by the Fund except for the Excluded Expenses, as defined in the Prospectus. For services provided to the Fund, the Fund pays the Adviser a unified management fee at an annual rate of [ ]% of the Fund’s average daily net assets.
The Advisory Agreement with respect to the Fund will continue in force for an initial period of two years. Thereafter, the Advisory Agreement will be renewable from year to year with respect to the Fund, so long as its continuance is approved at least annually (1) by the vote, cast in person at a meeting called for that purpose, of a majority of those Trustees who are not “interested persons” of the Adviser or the Trust; and (2) by the majority vote of either the full Board or the vote of a majority of the outstanding Shares. The Advisory Agreement automatically terminates on assignment and is terminable on a 60-day written notice either by the Trust or the Adviser.
The Adviser shall not be liable to the Trust or any shareholder for anything done or omitted by it, except acts or omissions involving willful misfeasance, bad faith, negligence or reckless disregard of the duties imposed upon it by its agreement with the Trust or for any losses that may be sustained in the purchase, holding, or sale of any security.
The Fund is new, and the Fund has not paid fees to the Adviser as of the date of this SAI.
PORTFOLIO MANAGERS
The Fund has been managed by Michael Venuto, Chief Investment Officer for the Adviser, and Michael Gayed, CFA, Portfolio Manager for the Adviser, since its inception in 2020.
Other Accounts. In addition to the Fund, the portfolio managers managed the following other accounts as of July 31, 2020:
Michael Venuto
Type of AccountsTotal Number of AccountsTotal Assets of Accounts
Registered Investment Companies[ ][ ]
Other Pooled Investment Vehicles[ ][ ]
Other Accounts[ ][ ]
Michael Gayed, CFA
Type of AccountsTotal Number of AccountsTotal Assets of Accounts
Registered Investment Companies[ ][ ]
Other Pooled Investment Vehicles[ ][ ]
Other Accounts[ ][ ]
Portfolio Manager Fund Ownership. The Fund is required to show the dollar range of each portfolio manager’s “beneficial ownership” of Shares as of the end of the most recently completed fiscal year. Dollar amount ranges disclosed are established by the SEC. “Beneficial ownership” is determined in accordance with Rule 16a-1(a)(2) under the 1934 Act. As of the date of this SAI, the Fund had not yet commenced operations and no Shares were owned by the portfolio managers.
Portfolio Manager Compensation. Mr. Venuto and Mr. Gayed are compensated by the Adviser with a base salary and a profit sharing plan. They are not directly compensated for their work with respect to the Fund. In addition, Mr. Venuto is an equity owner of the Adviser and therefore benefits indirectly from the revenue generated from the Fund’s Investment Advisory Agreement with the Adviser.
Description of Material Conflicts of Interest. The portfolio managers’ management of “other accounts” may give rise to potential conflicts of interest in connection with their management of the Fund’s investments, on the one hand, and the investments of the other accounts, on the other. The other accounts may have similar investment objectives or strategies as the Fund. A potential conflict of interest may arise as a result, whereby a portfolio manager could favor one account over another. Another potential conflict could include a portfolio manager’s knowledge about the size, timing, and possible market impact of Fund trades, whereby a portfolio manager could use this information to the advantage of other accounts and to the disadvantage
17


of the Fund. However, the Adviser has established policies and procedures to ensure that the purchase and sale of securities among all accounts the firm manages are fairly and equitably allocated.
THE DISTRIBUTOR
The Trust and Foreside Fund Services, LLC (the “Distributor”) are parties to a distribution agreement (“Distribution Agreement”), whereby the Distributor acts as principal underwriter for the Fund and distributes Shares on a best efforts basis. Shares are continuously offered for sale by the Distributor only in Creation Units. The Distributor will not distribute Shares in amounts less than a Creation Unit and does not maintain a secondary market in Shares. The principal business address of the Distributor is Three Canal Plaza, Suite 100, Portland, Maine 04101.
Under the Distribution Agreement, the Distributor, as agent for the Trust, will review orders for the purchase and redemption of Creation Units, provided that any subscriptions and orders will not be binding on the Trust until accepted by the Trust. The Distributor is a broker-dealer registered under the 1934 Act and a member of FINRA.
The Distributor may also enter into agreements with securities dealers (“Soliciting Dealers”) who will solicit purchases of Creation Units of Shares. Such Soliciting Dealers may also be Authorized Participants (as discussed in “Procedures for Purchase of Creation Units” below) or DTC participants (as defined below).
The Distribution Agreement will continue for two years from its effective date and is renewable annually thereafter. The continuance of the Distribution Agreement must be specifically approved at least annually (i) by the vote of the Trustees or by a vote of the shareholders of the Fund and (ii) by the vote of a majority of the Independent Trustees who have no direct or indirect financial interest in the operations of the Distribution Agreement or any related agreement, cast in person at a meeting called for the purpose of voting on such approval. The Distribution Agreement is terminable without penalty by the Trust on 60 days’ written notice when authorized either by majority vote of its outstanding voting Shares or by a vote of a majority of its Board (including a majority of the Independent Trustees), or by the Distributor on 60 days’ written notice, and will automatically terminate in the event of its assignment. The Distribution Agreement provides that in the absence of willful misfeasance, bad faith or gross negligence on the part of the Distributor, or reckless disregard by it of its obligations thereunder, the Distributor shall not be liable for any action or failure to act in accordance with its duties thereunder.
Intermediary Compensation. The Adviser or its affiliates, out of their own resources and not out of Fund assets (i.e., without additional cost to the Fund or its shareholders), may pay certain broker dealers, banks and other financial intermediaries (“Intermediaries”) for certain activities related to the Fund, including participation in activities that are designed to make Intermediaries more knowledgeable about exchange traded products, including the Fund, or for other activities, such as marketing and educational training or support. These arrangements are not financed by the Fund and, thus, do not result in increased Fund expenses. They are not reflected in the fees and expenses listed in the fees and expenses sections of the Fund’s Prospectus and they do not change the price paid by investors for the purchase of Shares or the amount received by a shareholder as proceeds from the redemption of Shares.
Such compensation may be paid to Intermediaries that provide services to the Fund, including marketing and education support (such as through conferences, webinars and printed communications). The Adviser will periodically assess the advisability of continuing to make these payments. Payments to an Intermediary may be significant to the Intermediary, and amounts that Intermediaries pay to your adviser, broker or other investment professional, if any, may also be significant to such adviser, broker or investment professional. Because an Intermediary may make decisions about what investment options it will make available or recommend, and what services to provide in connection with various products, based on payments it receives or is eligible to receive, such payments create conflicts of interest between the Intermediary and its clients. For example, these financial incentives may cause the Intermediary to recommend the Fund over other investments. The same conflict of interest exists with respect to your financial adviser, broker or investment professional if he or she receives similar payments from his or her Intermediary firm.
Intermediary information is current only as of the date of this SAI. Please contact your adviser, broker or other investment professional for more information regarding any payments his or her Intermediary firm may receive. Any payments made by the Adviser or its affiliates to an Intermediary may create the incentive for an Intermediary to encourage customers to buy Shares.
If you have any additional questions, please call [ ].
Distribution (Rule 12b-1) Plan. The Trust has adopted a Distribution (Rule 12b-1) Plan (the “Plan”) in accordance with the provisions of Rule 12b-1 under the 1940 Act, which regulates circumstances under which an investment company may directly or indirectly bear expenses relating to the distribution of its shares. No payments pursuant to the Plan are expected to be made during the twelve (12) month period from the date of this SAI. Rule 12b-1 fees to be paid by the Fund under the Plan may only be imposed after approval by the Board.
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Continuance of the Plan must be approved annually by a majority of the Trustees of the Trust and by a majority of the Trustees who are not interested persons (as defined in the 1940 Act) of the Trust and have no direct or indirect financial interest in the Plan or in any agreements related to the Plan (“Disinterested Trustees”). The Plan may be continued from year-to-year only if the Board, including a majority of the Disinterested Trustees, concludes at least annually that continuation of the Plan is likely to benefit shareholders. The Board has determined that the Plan is likely to benefit the Fund by providing an incentive for brokers, dealers and other financial intermediaries to engage in sales and marketing efforts on behalf of the Fund and to provide enhanced services to shareholders. The Board also determined that the Plan may enhance the Fund’s ability to sell shares and access important distribution channels.
The Plan requires that quarterly written reports of amounts spent under the Plan and the purposes of such expenditures be furnished to and reviewed by the Trustees. The Plan may not be amended to increase materially the amount that may be spent thereunder without approval by a majority of the outstanding shares of the Fund. All material amendments of the Plan will require approval by a majority of the Trustees of the Trust and of the Disinterested Trustees.
The Plan provides that the Fund pays the Distributor an annual fee of up to a maximum of 0.25% of the average daily net assets of the Shares. Under the Plan, the Distributor may make payments pursuant to written agreements to financial institutions and intermediaries such as banks, savings and loan associations and insurance companies including, without limit, investment counselors, broker-dealers and the Distributor’s affiliates and subsidiaries (collectively, “Agents”) as compensation for services and reimbursement of expenses incurred in connection with distribution assistance. The Plan is characterized as a compensation plan since the distribution fee will be paid to the Distributor without regard to the distribution expenses incurred by the Distributor or the amount of payments made to other financial institutions and intermediaries. The Trust intends to operate the Plan in accordance with its terms and with the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”) rules concerning sales charges.
Under the Plan, subject to the limitations of applicable law and regulations, the Fund is authorized to compensate the Distributor up to the maximum amount to finance any activity primarily intended to result in the sale of Creation Units of the Fund or for providing or arranging for others to provide shareholder services and for the maintenance of shareholder accounts. Such activities may include, but are not limited to: (i) delivering copies of the Fund’s then current reports, prospectuses, notices, and similar materials, to prospective purchasers of Creation Units; (ii) marketing and promotional services, including advertising; (iii) paying the costs of and compensating others, including Authorized Participants with whom the Distributor has entered into written Authorized Participant Agreements, for performing shareholder servicing on behalf of the Fund; (iv) compensating certain Authorized Participants for providing assistance in distributing the Creation Units of the Fund, including the travel and communication expenses and salaries and/or commissions of sales personnel in connection with the distribution of the Creation Units of the Fund; (v) payments to financial institutions and intermediaries such as banks, savings and loan associations, insurance companies and investment counselors, broker-dealers, mutual fund supermarkets and the affiliates and subsidiaries of the Trust’s service providers as compensation for services or reimbursement of expenses incurred in connection with distribution assistance; (vi) facilitating communications with beneficial owners of Shares, including the cost of providing (or paying others to provide) services to beneficial owners of Shares, including, but not limited to, assistance in answering inquiries related to Shareholder accounts; and (vi) such other services and obligations as are set forth in the Distribution Agreement.
ADMINISTRATOR
Tidal ETF Services LLC (“Tidal” or the “Administrator”), an affiliate of the Adviser, serves as the Fund’s administrator. Tidal is located at 898 N. Broadway, Suite 2, Massapequa, New York 11758. Pursuant to a Fund Administration Servicing Agreement between the Trust and Tidal, Tidal provides the Trust with, or arranges for, administrative and management services (other than investment advisory services) to be provided to the Trust and the Board. Pursuant to the Fund Administration Servicing Agreement, officers or employees of Tidal serve as the Trust’s principal executive officer and principal financial officer, Tidal coordinates the payment of Fund-related expenses, and Tidal manages the Trust’s relationships with its various service providers. As compensation for the services it provides, Tidal receives a fee based on the Fund’s average daily net assets, subject to a minimum annual fee. Tidal also is entitled to certain out-of-pocket expenses for the services mentioned above.
The Fund is new, and Tidal has not received any fees for administrative services to the Fund as of the date of this SAI.
SUB-ADMINISTRATOR AND TRANSFER AGENT
Global Fund Services, located at 615 East Michigan Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53202, serves as the Fund’s sub-administrator and transfer agent.
Pursuant to a Fund Sub-Administration Servicing Agreement and a Fund Accounting Servicing Agreement between the Trust and Global Fund Services, Global Fund Services provides the Trust with administrative and management services (other than investment advisory services) and accounting services, including portfolio accounting services, tax accounting services and
19


furnishing financial reports. In this capacity, Global Fund Services does not have any responsibility or authority for the management of the Fund, the determination of investment policy, or for any matter pertaining to the distribution of Shares. As compensation for the administration, accounting and management services, the Adviser pays Global Fund Services a fee based on the Fund’s average daily net assets, subject to a minimum annual fee. Global Fund Services also is entitled to certain out-of-pocket expenses for the services mentioned above, including pricing expenses.
The Fund is new, and Global Fund Services has not received any fees for administrative services to the Fund as of the date of this SAI.
CUSTODIAN
Pursuant to a Custody Agreement, U.S. Bank National Association (“U.S. Bank”), 1555 North Rivercenter Drive, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53212, serves as the custodian (the “Custodian”) of the Fund’s assets. U.S. Bank is the parent company of Global Fund Services. The Custodian holds and administers the assets in the Fund’s portfolios. Pursuant to the Custody Agreement, the Custodian receives an annual fee from the Adviser based on the Trust’s total average daily net assets, subject to a minimum annual fee, and certain settlement charges. The Custodian also is entitled to certain out-of-pocket expenses.
COMPLIANCE SERVICES ADMINISTRATOR
The Trust has entered into a compliance services arrangement with Cipperman Compliance Services, LLC (“Cipperman”), located at 480 E. Swedesford Road, Suite 300, Wayne, Pennsylvania 19087, pursuant to which Bridget P. Garcia, an employee of Cipperman, serves as the Trust’s Chief Compliance Officer. The Trust’s Chief Compliance Officer will prepare and update the Trust’s compliance policies and procedures and monitor and test compliance with such policies and procedures.
LEGAL COUNSEL
Godfrey & Kahn, S.C., located at 833 East Michigan Street, Suite 1800, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53202, serves as legal counsel for the Trust and the Independent Trustees.
INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
[ ], located at [ ], serves as the independent registered public accounting firm for the Fund.
PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS DISCLOSURE POLICIES AND PROCEDURES
The Board has adopted a policy regarding the disclosure of information about the Fund’s security holdings. The Fund’s entire portfolio holdings are publicly disseminated each day the Fund is open for business and through financial reporting and news services including publicly available internet web sites. In addition, the composition of the Deposit Securities is publicly disseminated daily prior to the opening of the Exchange via the National Securities Clearing Corporation (“NSCC”).
DESCRIPTION OF SHARES
The Declaration of Trust authorizes the issuance of an unlimited number of funds and shares. Each share represents an equal proportionate interest in the Fund with each other share. Shares are entitled upon liquidation to a pro rata share in the net assets of the Fund. Shareholders have no preemptive rights. The Declaration of Trust provides that the Trustees may create additional series or classes of shares. All consideration received by the Trust for shares of any additional funds and all assets in which such consideration is invested would belong to that fund and would be subject to the liabilities related thereto. Share certificates representing Shares will not be issued. Shares, when issued, are fully paid and non-assessable.
Each Share has one vote with respect to matters upon which a shareholder vote is required, consistent with the requirements of the 1940 Act and the rules promulgated thereunder. Shares of all series in the Trust vote together as a single class, except that if the matter being voted on affects only a particular fund it will be voted on only by that fund and if a matter affects a particular fund differently from other funds, that fund will vote separately on such matter. As a Delaware statutory trust, the Trust is not required, and does not intend, to hold annual meetings of shareholders. Approval of shareholders will be sought, however, for certain changes in the operation of the Trust and for the election of Trustees under certain circumstances. The Trust will call for a meeting of shareholders to consider the removal of one or more Trustees and other certain matters upon the written request of shareholders holding at least a majority of the outstanding shares of the Trust entitled to vote at such meeting. In the event that such a meeting is requested, the Trust will provide appropriate assistance and information to the shareholders requesting the meeting.
Under the Declaration of Trust, the Trustees have the power to liquidate the Fund without shareholder approval. While the Trustees have no present intention of exercising this power, they may do so if the Fund fails to reach a viable size within a reasonable amount of time or for such other reasons as may be determined by the Board.
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LIMITATION OF TRUSTEES’ LIABILITY
The Declaration of Trust provides that a Trustee shall be liable only for his or her own willful misfeasance, bad faith, gross negligence or reckless disregard of the duties involved in the conduct of the office of Trustee, and shall not be liable for errors of judgment or mistakes of fact or law. The Declaration of Trust also provides that the Trust shall indemnify each person who is, or has been, a Trustee, officer, employee or agent of the Trust, and, upon due approval of the Trustees, any person who is serving or has served at the Trust’s request as a director, officer, partner, trustee, employee, agent or fiduciary of another organization with respect to any alleged acts or omissions while acting within the scope of his or her service in such a position. However, nothing in the Declaration of Trust shall protect or indemnify a Trustee against any liability for his or her willful misfeasance, bad faith, gross negligence or reckless disregard of the duties involved in the conduct of the office of Trustee. Nothing contained in this section attempts to disclaim a Trustee’s individual liability in any manner inconsistent with the federal securities laws.
BROKERAGE TRANSACTIONS
The policy of the Trust regarding purchases and sales of securities for the Fund is that primary consideration will be given to obtaining the most favorable prices and efficient executions of transactions. Consistent with this policy, when securities transactions are effected on a stock exchange, the Trust’s policy is to pay commissions which are considered fair and reasonable without necessarily determining that the lowest possible commissions are paid in all circumstances. The Trust believes that a requirement always to seek the lowest possible commission cost could impede effective portfolio management and preclude the Fund and the Adviser from obtaining a high quality of brokerage and research services. In seeking to determine the reasonableness of brokerage commissions paid in any transaction, the Adviser will rely upon its experience and knowledge regarding commissions generally charged by various brokers and on its judgment in evaluating the brokerage services received from the broker effecting the transaction. Such determinations are necessarily subjective and imprecise, as in most cases, an exact dollar value for those services is not ascertainable. The Trust has adopted policies and procedures that prohibit the consideration of sales of Shares as a factor in the selection of a broker or dealer to execute its portfolio transactions.
The Adviser owes a fiduciary duty to its clients to seek to provide best execution on trades effected. In selecting a broker/dealer for each specific transaction, the Adviser chooses the broker/dealer deemed most capable of providing the services necessary to obtain the most favorable execution. “Best execution” is generally understood to mean the most favorable cost or net proceeds reasonably obtainable under the circumstances. The full range of brokerage services applicable to a particular transaction may be considered when making this judgment, which may include, but is not limited to: liquidity, price, commission, timing, aggregated trades, capable floor brokers or traders, competent block trading coverage, ability to position, capital strength and stability, reliable and accurate communications and settlement processing, use of automation, knowledge of other buyers or sellers, arbitrage skills, administrative ability, underwriting and provision of information on a particular security or market in which the transaction is to occur. The specific criteria will vary depending upon the nature of the transaction, the market in which it is executed, and the extent to which it is possible to select from among multiple broker/dealers. The Adviser will also use electronic crossing networks (“ECNs”) when appropriate.
Subject to the foregoing policies, brokers or dealers selected to execute the Fund’s portfolio transactions may include the Fund’s Authorized Participants (as discussed in “Purchase and Redemption of Shares in Creation Units — Procedures for Purchase of Creation Units” below) or their affiliates. An Authorized Participant or its affiliates may be selected to execute the Fund’s portfolio transactions in conjunction with an all-cash Creation Unit order or an order including “cash-in-lieu” (as described below under “Purchase and Redemption of Shares in Creation Units”), so long as such selection is in keeping with the foregoing policies. As described below under “Purchase and Redemption of Shares in Creation Units—Creation Transaction Fee” and “—Redemption Transaction Fee”, the Fund may determine to not charge a variable fee on certain orders when the Adviser has determined that doing so is in the best interests of Fund shareholders, e.g., for creation orders that facilitate the rebalance of the Fund’s portfolio in a more tax efficient manner than could be achieved without such order, even if the decision to not charge a variable fee could be viewed as benefiting the Authorized Participant or its affiliate selected to execute the Fund’s portfolio transactions in connection with such orders.
The Adviser may use the Fund’s assets for, or participate in, third-party soft dollar arrangements, in addition to receiving proprietary research from various full-service brokers, the cost of which is bundled with the cost of the broker’s execution services. The Adviser does not “pay up” for the value of any such proprietary research. Section 28(e) of the 1934 Act permits the Adviser, under certain circumstances, to cause the Fund to pay a broker or dealer a commission for effecting a transaction in excess of the amount of commission another broker or dealer would have charged for effecting the transaction in recognition of the value of brokerage and research services provided by the broker or dealer. The Adviser may receive a variety of research services and information on many topics, which it can use in connection with its management responsibilities with respect to the various accounts over which it exercises investment discretion or otherwise provides investment advice. The research services may include qualifying order management systems, portfolio attribution and monitoring services and computer software and access charges which are directly related to investment research. Accordingly, the Fund may pay a broker commission higher than the lowest available in recognition of the broker’s provision of such services to the Adviser, but only if
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the Adviser determines the total commission (including the soft dollar benefit) is comparable to the best commission rate that could be expected to be received from other brokers. The amount of soft dollar benefits received depends on the amount of brokerage transactions effected with the brokers. A conflict of interest exists because there is an incentive to: 1) cause clients to pay a higher commission than the firm might otherwise be able to negotiate; 2) cause clients to engage in more securities transactions than would otherwise be optimal; and 3) only recommend brokers that provide soft dollar benefits.
The Adviser faces a potential conflict of interest when it uses client trades to obtain brokerage or research services. This conflict exists because the Adviser can use the brokerage or research services to manage client accounts without paying cash for such services, which reduces the Adviser’s expenses to the extent that the Adviser would have purchased such products had they not been provided by brokers. Section 28(e) permits the Adviser to use brokerage or research services for the benefit of any account it manages. Certain accounts managed by the Adviser may generate soft dollars used to purchase brokerage or research services that ultimately benefit other accounts managed by the Adviser, effectively cross subsidizing the other accounts managed by the Adviser that benefit directly from the product. The Adviser may not necessarily use all of the brokerage or research services in connection with managing the Fund whose trades generated the soft dollars used to purchase such products.
The Adviser is responsible, subject to oversight by the Board, for placing orders on behalf of the Fund for the purchase or sale of portfolio securities. If purchases or sales of portfolio securities of the Fund and one or more other investment companies or clients supervised by the Adviser are considered at or about the same time, transactions in such securities are allocated among the several investment companies and clients in a manner deemed equitable and consistent with its fiduciary obligations to all by the Adviser. In some cases, this procedure could have a detrimental effect on the price or volume of the security so far as the Fund is concerned. However, in other cases, it is possible that the ability to participate in volume transactions and to negotiate lower brokerage commissions will be beneficial to the Fund. The primary consideration is prompt execution of orders at the most favorable net price.
The Fund may deal with affiliates in principal transactions to the extent permitted by exemptive order or applicable rule or regulation.
The Fund is new and had not paid any brokerage commissions as of the date of this SAI.
Brokerage with Fund Affiliates. The Fund may execute brokerage or other agency transactions through registered broker-dealer affiliates of the Fund, the Adviser, or the Distributor for a commission in conformity with the 1940 Act, the 1934 Act and rules promulgated by the SEC. These rules require that commissions paid to the affiliate by the Fund for exchange transactions not exceed “usual and customary” brokerage commissions. The rules define “usual and customary” commissions to include amounts which are “reasonable and fair compared to the commission, fee or other remuneration received or to be received by other brokers in connection with comparable transactions involving similar securities being purchased or sold on a securities exchange during a comparable period of time.” The Trustees, including those who are not “interested persons” of the Fund, have adopted procedures for evaluating the reasonableness of commissions paid to affiliates and review these procedures periodically.
The Fund is new and had not paid brokerage commissions to any registered broker-dealer affiliates of the Fund, the Adviser, or the Distributor as of the date of this SAI.
Securities of “Regular Broker-Dealers.” The Fund is required to identify any securities of its “regular brokers and dealers” (as such term is defined in the 1940 Act) that it may hold at the close of its most recent fiscal year. “Regular brokers or dealers” of the Fund are the ten brokers or dealers that, during the most recent fiscal year: (i) received the greatest dollar amounts of brokerage commissions from the Fund’s portfolio transactions; (ii) engaged as principal in the largest dollar amounts of portfolio transactions of the Fund; or (iii) sold the largest dollar amounts of Shares.
The Fund is new and did not own equity securities of its regular broker-dealers or their parent companies as of the date of this SAI.
PORTFOLIO TURNOVER RATE
A portfolio turnover rate is, in summary, the percentage computed by dividing the lesser of the Fund’s purchases or sales of securities (excluding short-term securities and securities transferred in-kind) by the average market value of the Fund. A rate of 100% indicates that the equivalent of all of the Fund’s assets have been sold and reinvested in a year. High portfolio turnover may affect the amount, timing and character of distributions, and, as a result, may increase the amount of taxes payable by shareholders. Higher portfolio turnover also results in higher transaction costs. To the extent that net short-term capital gains are realized by the Fund, any distributions resulting from such gains are considered ordinary income for federal income tax purposes.
The Fund is new and does not have a portfolio turnover rate to report as of the date of this SAI.
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BOOK ENTRY ONLY SYSTEM
The Depository Trust Company (“DTC”) acts as securities depositary for Shares. Shares are represented by securities registered in the name of DTC or its nominee, Cede & Co., and deposited with, or on behalf of, DTC. Except in limited circumstances set forth below, certificates will not be issued for Shares.
DTC is a limited-purpose trust company that was created to hold securities of its participants (the “DTC Participants”) and to facilitate the clearance and settlement of securities transactions among the DTC Participants in such securities through electronic book-entry changes in accounts of the DTC Participants, thereby eliminating the need for physical movement of securities certificates. DTC Participants include securities brokers and dealers, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations and certain other organizations, some of whom (and/or their representatives) own DTC. More specifically, DTC is owned by a number of its DTC Participants and by the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) and FINRA. Access to the DTC system is also available to others such as banks, brokers, dealers, and trust companies that clear through or maintain a custodial relationship with a DTC Participant, either directly or indirectly (the “Indirect Participants”).
Beneficial ownership of Shares is limited to DTC Participants, Indirect Participants, and persons holding interests through DTC Participants and Indirect Participants. Ownership of beneficial interests in Shares (owners of such beneficial interests are referred to in this SAI as “Beneficial Owners”) is shown on, and the transfer of ownership is effected only through, records maintained by DTC (with respect to DTC Participants) and on the records of DTC Participants (with respect to Indirect Participants and Beneficial Owners that are not DTC Participants). Beneficial Owners will receive from or through the DTC Participant a written confirmation relating to their purchase of Shares. The Trust recognizes DTC or its nominee as the record owner of all Shares for all purposes. Beneficial Owners of Shares are not entitled to have Shares registered in their names, and will not receive or be entitled to physical delivery of Share certificates. Each Beneficial Owner must rely on the procedures of DTC and any DTC Participant and/or Indirect Participant through which such Beneficial Owner holds its interests, to exercise any rights of a holder of Shares.
Conveyance of all notices, statements, and other communications to Beneficial Owners is effected as follows. DTC will make available to the Trust upon request and for a fee a listing of Shares held by each DTC Participant. The Trust shall obtain from each such DTC Participant the number of Beneficial Owners holding Shares, directly or indirectly, through such DTC Participant. The Trust shall provide each such DTC Participant with copies of such notice, statement, or other communication, in such form, number and at such place as such DTC Participant may reasonably request, in order that such notice, statement or communication may be transmitted by such DTC Participant, directly or indirectly, to such Beneficial Owners. In addition, the Trust shall pay to each such DTC Participant a fair and reasonable amount as reimbursement for the expenses attendant to such transmittal, all subject to applicable statutory and regulatory requirements.
Share distributions shall be made to DTC or its nominee, Cede & Co., as the registered holder of all Shares. DTC or its nominee, upon receipt of any such distributions, shall credit immediately DTC Participants’ accounts with payments in amounts proportionate to their respective beneficial interests in the Fund as shown on the records of DTC or its nominee. Payments by DTC Participants to Indirect Participants and Beneficial Owners of Shares held through such DTC Participants will be governed by standing instructions and customary practices, as is now the case with securities held for the accounts of customers in bearer form or registered in a “street name,” and will be the responsibility of such DTC Participants.
The Trust has no responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to or notices to Beneficial Owners, or payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in Shares, or for maintaining, supervising, or reviewing any records relating to such beneficial ownership interests, or for any other aspect of the relationship between DTC and the DTC Participants or the relationship between such DTC Participants and the Indirect Participants and Beneficial Owners owning through such DTC Participants.
DTC may determine to discontinue providing its service with respect to the Fund at any time by giving reasonable notice to the Fund and discharging its responsibilities with respect thereto under applicable law. Under such circumstances, the Fund shall act either to find a replacement for DTC to perform its functions at a comparable cost or, if such replacement is unavailable, to issue and deliver printed certificates representing ownership of Shares, unless the Trust makes other arrangements with respect thereto satisfactory to the Exchange.
PURCHASE AND REDEMPTION OF SHARES IN CREATION UNITS
The Trust issues and redeems Shares only in Creation Units on a continuous basis through the Transfer Agent, without a sales load (but subject to transaction fees, if applicable), at their NAV per share next determined after receipt of an order, on any Business Day, in proper form pursuant to the terms of the Authorized Participant Agreement (“Participant Agreement”). The NAV of Shares is calculated each business day as of the scheduled close of regular trading on the NYSE, generally 4:00 p.m., Eastern Time. The Fund will not issue fractional Creation Units. A “Business Day” is any day on which the NYSE is open for business.
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Fund Deposit. The consideration for purchase of a Creation Unit of the Fund generally consists of the in-kind deposit of a designated portfolio of securities (the “Deposit Securities”) per each Creation Unit and the Cash Component (defined below), computed as described below. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Trust reserves the right to permit or require the substitution of a “cash in lieu” amount (“Deposit Cash”) to be added to the Cash Component to replace any Deposit Security. When accepting purchases of Creation Units for all or a portion of Deposit Cash, the Fund may incur additional costs associated with the acquisition of Deposit Securities that would otherwise be provided by an in-kind purchaser.
Together, the Deposit Securities or Deposit Cash, as applicable, and the Cash Component constitute the “Fund Deposit,” which represents the minimum initial and subsequent investment amount for a Creation Unit of the Fund. The “Cash Component” is an amount equal to the difference between the NAV of Shares (per Creation Unit) and the value of the Deposit Securities or Deposit Cash, as applicable. If the Cash Component is a positive number (i.e., the NAV per Creation Unit exceeds the value of the Deposit Securities or Deposit Cash, as applicable), the Cash Component shall be such positive amount. If the Cash Component is a negative number (i.e., the NAV per Creation Unit is less than the value of the Deposit Securities or Deposit Cash, as applicable), the Cash Component shall be such negative amount and the creator will be entitled to receive cash in an amount equal to the Cash Component. The Cash Component serves the function of compensating for any differences between the NAV per Creation Unit and the value of the Deposit Securities or Deposit Cash, as applicable. Computation of the Cash Component excludes any stamp duty or other similar fees and expenses payable upon transfer of beneficial ownership of the Deposit Securities, if applicable, which shall be the sole responsibility of the Authorized Participant (as defined below).
The Fund, through NSCC, makes available on each Business Day, prior to the opening of business on the Exchange (currently 9:30 a.m., Eastern Time), the list of the names and the required number of Shares of each Deposit Security or the required amount of Deposit Cash, as applicable, to be included in the current Fund Deposit (based on information at the end of the previous Business Day) for the Fund. Such Fund Deposit is subject to any applicable adjustments as described below, to effect purchases of Creation Units of the Fund until such time as the next-announced composition of the Deposit Securities or the required amount of Deposit Cash, as applicable, is made available.
The identity and number of Shares of the Deposit Securities or the amount of Deposit Cash, as applicable, required for the Fund Deposit for the Fund changes as corporate action events are reflected from time to time by the Adviser with a view to the investment objective of the Fund.
The Trust reserves the right to permit or require the substitution of Deposit Cash to replace any Deposit Security, which shall be added to the Cash Component, including, without limitation, in situations where the Deposit Security: (i) may not be available in sufficient quantity for delivery; (ii) may not be eligible for transfer through the systems of DTC for corporate securities and municipal securities; (iii) may not be eligible for trading by an Authorized Participant (as defined below) or the investor for which it is acting; (iv) would be restricted under the securities laws or where the delivery of the Deposit Security to the Authorized Participant would result in the disposition of the Deposit Security by the Authorized Participant becoming restricted under the securities laws; or (v) in certain other situations (collectively, “custom orders”). The adjustments described above will reflect changes, known to the Adviser on the date of announcement to be in effect by the time of delivery of the Fund Deposit resulting from certain corporate actions.
Procedures for Purchase of Creation Units. To be eligible to place orders with the Transfer Agent to purchase a Creation Unit of the Fund, an entity must be (i) a “Participating Party” (i.e., a broker-dealer or other participant in the clearing process through the Continuous Net Settlement System of the NSCC (the “Clearing Process”)), a clearing agency that is registered with the SEC; or (ii) a DTC Participant (see “Book Entry Only System”). In addition, each Participating Party or DTC Participant (each, an “Authorized Participant”) must execute a Participant Agreement with respect to purchases and redemptions of Creation Units. Each Authorized Participant will agree, pursuant to the terms of a Participant Agreement, on behalf of itself or any investor on whose behalf it will act, to certain conditions, including that it will pay to the Trust, an amount of cash sufficient to pay the Cash Component together with the creation transaction fee (described below), if applicable, and any other applicable fees and taxes.
All orders to purchase Shares directly from the Fund must be placed for one or more Creation Units and in the manner and by the time set forth in the Participant Agreement and/or applicable order form. The order cut-off time for orders to purchase Creation Units is 4:00 p.m. Eastern time, which time may be modified by the Fund from time-to-time by amendment to the Participant Agreement and/or applicable order form. The date on which an order to purchase Creation Units (or an order to redeem Creation Units, as set forth below) is received and accepted is referred to as the “Order Placement Date.”
An Authorized Participant may require an investor to make certain representations or enter into agreements with respect to the order (e.g., to provide for payments of cash, when required). Investors should be aware that their particular broker may not have executed a Participant Agreement and that, therefore, orders to purchase Shares directly from the Fund in Creation Units must be placed by the investor’s broker through an Authorized Participant that has executed a Participant Agreement. In such cases there may be additional charges to such investor. At any given time, there may be only a limited number of broker-dealers that
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have executed a Participant Agreement and only a small number of such Authorized Participants may have international capabilities.
On days when the Exchange closes earlier than normal, the Fund may require orders to create Creation Units to be placed earlier in the day. In addition, if a market or markets on which the Fund’s investments are primarily traded is closed, the Fund will also generally not accept orders on such day(s). Orders must be transmitted by an Authorized Participant by telephone or other transmission method acceptable to the Transfer Agent pursuant to procedures set forth in the Participant Agreement and in accordance with the applicable order form. On behalf of the Fund, the Transfer Agent will notify the Custodian of such order. The Custodian will then provide such information to the appropriate local sub-custodian(s). Those placing orders through an Authorized Participant should allow sufficient time to permit proper submission of the purchase order to the Transfer Agent by the cut-off time on such Business Day. Economic or market disruptions or changes, or telephone or other communication failure may impede the ability to reach the Transfer Agent or an Authorized Participant.
Fund Deposits must be delivered by an Authorized Participant through the Federal Reserve System (for cash) or through DTC (for corporate securities), through a subcustody agent (for foreign securities) and/or through such other arrangements allowed by the Trust or its agents. With respect to foreign Deposit Securities, the Custodian shall cause the subcustodian of the Fund to maintain an account into which the Authorized Participant shall deliver, on behalf of itself or the party on whose behalf it is acting, such Deposit Securities (or Deposit Cash for all or a part of such securities, as permitted or required), with any appropriate adjustments as advised by the Trust. Foreign Deposit Securities must be delivered to an account maintained at the applicable local subcustodian. A Fund Deposit transfer must be ordered by the Authorized Participant in a timely fashion to ensure the delivery of the requisite number of Deposit Securities or Deposit Cash, as applicable, to the account of the Fund or its agents by no later than 3:00 p.m. Eastern Time (or such other time as specified by the Trust) on the Settlement Date. If the Fund or its agents do not receive all of the Deposit Securities, or the required Deposit Cash in lieu thereof, by such time, then the order may be deemed rejected and the Authorized Participant shall be liable to the Fund for losses, if any, resulting therefrom. The “Settlement Date” for the Fund is generally the second Business Day after the Order Placement Date. All questions as to the number of Deposit Securities or Deposit Cash to be delivered, as applicable, and the validity, form and eligibility (including time of receipt) for the deposit of any tendered securities or cash, as applicable, will be determined by the Trust, whose determination shall be final and binding. The amount of cash represented by the Cash Component must be transferred directly to the Custodian through the Federal Reserve Bank wire transfer system in a timely manner to be received by the Custodian no later than the Settlement Date. If the Cash Component and the Deposit Securities or Deposit Cash, as applicable, are not received by the Custodian in a timely manner by the Settlement Date, the creation order may be cancelled. Upon written notice to the Transfer Agent, such canceled order may be resubmitted the following Business Day using a Fund Deposit as newly constituted to reflect the then current NAV of the Fund.
The order shall be deemed to be received on the Business Day on which the order is placed provided that the order is placed in proper form prior to the applicable cut-off time and the federal funds in the appropriate amount are deposited by 3:00 p.m. Eastern Time, with the Custodian on the Settlement Date. If the order is not placed in proper form as required, or federal funds in the appropriate amount are not received by 3:00 p.m. Eastern Time on the Settlement Date, then the order may be deemed to be rejected and the Authorized Participant shall be liable to the Fund for losses, if any, resulting therefrom. A creation request is in “proper form” if all procedures set forth in the Participant Agreement, order form and this SAI are properly followed.
Issuance of a Creation Unit. Except as provided in this SAI, Creation Units will not be issued until the transfer of good title to the Trust of the Deposit Securities or payment of Deposit Cash, as applicable, and the payment of the Cash Component have been completed. When the subcustodian has confirmed to the Custodian that the required Deposit Securities (or the cash value thereof) have been delivered to the account of the relevant subcustodian or subcustodians, the Transfer Agent and the Adviser shall be notified of such delivery, and the Trust will issue and cause the delivery of the Creation Units. The delivery of Creation Units so created generally will occur no later than the second Business Day following the day on which the purchase order is deemed received by the Transfer Agent. The Authorized Participant shall be liable to the Fund for losses, if any, resulting from unsettled orders.
Creation Units may be purchased in advance of receipt by the Trust of all or a portion of the applicable Deposit Securities as described below. In these circumstances, the initial deposit will have a value greater than the NAV of the Shares on the date the order is placed in proper form since, in addition to available Deposit Securities, cash must be deposited in an amount equal to the sum of (i) the Cash Component, plus (ii) an additional amount of cash equal to a percentage of the value as set forth in the Participant Agreement, of the undelivered Deposit Securities (the “Additional Cash Deposit”), which shall be maintained in a separate non-interest bearing collateral account. The Authorized Participant must deposit with the Custodian the Additional Cash Deposit, as applicable, by 3:00 p.m. Eastern Time (or such other time as specified by the Trust) on the Settlement Date. If the Fund or its agents do not receive the Additional Cash Deposit in the appropriate amount, by such time, then the order may be deemed rejected and the Authorized Participant shall be liable to the Fund for losses, if any, resulting therefrom. An additional amount of cash shall be required to be deposited with the Trust, pending delivery of the missing Deposit Securities to the extent necessary to maintain the Additional Cash Deposit with the Trust in an amount at least equal to the applicable
25


percentage, as set forth in the Participant Agreement, of the daily market value of the missing Deposit Securities. The Participant Agreement will permit the Trust to buy the missing Deposit Securities at any time. Authorized Participants will be liable to the Trust for the costs incurred by the Trust in connection with any such purchases. These costs will be deemed to include the amount by which the actual purchase price of the Deposit Securities exceeds the value of such Deposit Securities on the day the purchase order was deemed received by the Transfer Agent plus the brokerage and related transaction costs associated with such purchases. The Trust will return any unused portion of the Additional Cash Deposit once all of the missing Deposit Securities have been properly received by the Custodian or purchased by the Trust and deposited into the Trust. In addition, a transaction fee, as described below under “Creation Transaction Fee,” may be charged. The delivery of Creation Units so created generally will occur no later than the Settlement Date.
Acceptance of Orders of Creation Units. The Trust reserves the absolute right to reject an order for Creation Units transmitted to it by the Transfer Agent with respect to the Fund including, without limitation, if (a) the order is not in proper form; (b) the Deposit Securities or Deposit Cash, as applicable, delivered by the Participant are not as disseminated through the facilities of the NSCC for that date by the Custodian; (c) the investor(s), upon obtaining Shares ordered, would own 80% or more of the currently outstanding Shares; (d) acceptance of the Deposit Securities would have certain adverse tax consequences to the Fund; (e) the acceptance of the Fund Deposit would, in the opinion of counsel, be unlawful; (f) the acceptance of the Fund Deposit would otherwise, in the discretion of the Trust or the Adviser, have an adverse effect on the Trust or the rights of beneficial owners; (g) the acceptance or receipt of the order for a Creation Unit would, in the opinion of counsel to the Trust, be unlawful; or (h) in the event that circumstances outside the control of the Trust, the Custodian, the Transfer Agent and/or the Adviser make it for all practical purposes not feasible to process orders for Creation Units.
Examples of such circumstances include acts of God or public service or utility problems such as fires, floods, extreme weather conditions and power outages resulting in telephone, telecopy and computer failures; market conditions or activities causing trading halts; systems failures involving computer or other information systems affecting the Trust, the Distributor, the Custodian, a sub-custodian, the Transfer Agent, DTC, NSCC, Federal Reserve System, or any other participant in the creation process, and other extraordinary events. The Transfer Agent shall notify a prospective creator of a Creation Unit and/or the Authorized Participant acting on behalf of the creator of a Creation Unit of its rejection of the order of such person. The Trust, the Transfer Agent, the Custodian, any sub-custodian and the Distributor are under no duty, however, to give notification of any defects or irregularities in the delivery of Fund Deposits nor shall either of them incur any liability for the failure to give any such notification. The Trust, the Transfer Agent, the Custodian and the Distributor shall not be liable for the rejection of any purchase order for Creation Units.
All questions as to the number of shares of each security in the Deposit Securities and the validity form, eligibility and acceptance for deposit of any securities to be delivered shall be determined by the Trust, and the Trust’s determination shall be final and binding.
Creation Transaction Fee. A fixed purchase (i.e., creation) transaction fee, payable to the Custodian, may be imposed for the transfer and other transaction costs associated with the purchase of Creation Units (“Creation Order Costs”). The standard fixed creation transaction fee for the Fund, regardless of the number of Creation Units created in the transaction, can be found in the table below. The Fund may adjust the standard fixed creation transaction fee from time to time. The fixed creation fee may be waived on certain orders if the Fund’s Custodian has determined to waive some or all of the Creation Order Costs associated with the order or another party, such as the Adviser, has agreed to pay such fee.
In addition, a variable fee, payable to the Fund, of up to the maximum percentage listed in the table below of the value of the Creation Units subject to the transaction may be imposed for cash purchases, non-standard orders, or partial cash purchases of Creation Units. The variable charge is primarily designed to cover additional costs (e.g., brokerage, taxes) involved with buying the securities with cash. The Fund may determine to not charge a variable fee on certain orders when the Adviser has determined that doing so is in the best interests of Fund shareholders, e.g., for creation orders that facilitate changes to the Fund’s portfolio in a more tax efficient manner than could be achieved without such order.
Name of Fund
Fixed Creation Transaction Fee
Maximum Variable Transaction Fee
ATAC US Rotation ETF
$2502%
Investors who use the services of a broker or other such intermediary may be charged a fee for such services. Investors are responsible for the fixed costs of transferring the Fund Securities (defined below) from the Fund to their account or on their order.
Risks of Purchasing Creation Units. There are certain legal risks unique to investors purchasing Creation Units directly from the Fund. Because Shares may be issued on an ongoing basis, a “distribution” of Shares could be occurring at any time. Certain activities that a shareholder performs as a dealer could, depending on the circumstances, result in the shareholder being deemed a participant in the distribution in a manner that could render the shareholder a statutory underwriter and subject to the prospectus delivery and liability provisions of the Securities Act. For example, a shareholder could be deemed a statutory
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underwriter if it purchases Creation Units from the Fund, breaks them down into the constituent Shares, and sells those Shares directly to customers, or if a shareholder chooses to couple the creation of a supply of new Shares with an active selling effort involving solicitation of secondary-market demand for Shares. Whether a person is an underwriter depends upon all of the facts and circumstances pertaining to that person’s activities, and the examples mentioned here should not be considered a complete description of all the activities that could cause you to be deemed an underwriter.
Dealers who are not “underwriters” but are participating in a distribution (as opposed to engaging in ordinary secondary-market transactions), and thus dealing with Shares as part of an “unsold allotment” within the meaning of Section 4(a)(3)(C) of the Securities Act, will be unable to take advantage of the prospectus delivery exemption provided by Section 4(a)(3) of the Securities Act.
Redemption. Shares may be redeemed only in Creation Units at their NAV next determined after receipt of a redemption request in proper form by the Fund through the Transfer Agent and only on a Business Day. EXCEPT UPON LIQUIDATION OF THE FUND, THE TRUST WILL NOT REDEEM SHARES IN AMOUNTS LESS THAN CREATION UNITS. Investors must accumulate enough Shares in the secondary market to constitute a Creation Unit to have such Shares redeemed by the Trust. There can be no assurance, however, that there will be sufficient liquidity in the public trading market at any time to permit assembly of a Creation Unit. Investors should expect to incur brokerage and other costs in connection with assembling a sufficient number of Shares to constitute a redeemable Creation Unit.
With respect to the Fund, the Custodian, through the NSCC, makes available prior to the opening of business on the Exchange (currently 9:30 a.m., Eastern Time) on each Business Day, the list of the names and Share quantities of the Fund’s portfolio securities that will be applicable (subject to possible amendment or correction) to redemption requests received in proper form (as defined below) on that day (“Fund Securities”). Fund Securities received on redemption may not be identical to Deposit Securities.
Redemption proceeds for a Creation Unit are paid either in-kind or in cash, or combination thereof, as determined by the Trust. With respect to in-kind redemptions of the Fund, redemption proceeds for a Creation Unit will consist of Fund Securities—as announced by the Custodian on the Business Day of the request for redemption received in proper form plus cash in an amount equal to the difference between the NAV of Shares being redeemed, as next determined after a receipt of a request in proper form, and the value of the Fund Securities (the “Cash Redemption Amount”), less a fixed redemption transaction fee, as applicable, as set forth below. If the Fund Securities have a value greater than the NAV of Shares, a compensating cash payment equal to the differential is required to be made by or through an Authorized Participant by the redeeming shareholder. Notwithstanding the foregoing, at the Trust’s discretion, an Authorized Participant may receive the corresponding cash value of the securities in lieu of the in-kind securities value representing one or more Fund Securities.
Redemption Transaction Fee. A fixed redemption transaction fee, payable to the Custodian, may be imposed for the transfer and other transaction costs associated with the redemption of Creation Units (“Redemption Order Costs”). The standard fixed redemption transaction fee for the Fund, regardless of the number of Creation Units redeemed in the transaction, can be found in the table below. The Fund may adjust the redemption transaction fee from time to time. The fixed redemption fee may be waived on certain orders if the Custodian has determined to waive some or all of the Redemption Order Costs associated with the order or another party, such as the Adviser, has agreed to pay such fee.
In addition, a variable fee, payable to the Fund, of up to the maximum percentage listed in the table below of the value of the Creation Units subject to the transaction may be imposed for cash redemptions, non-standard orders, or partial cash redemptions (when cash redemptions are available) of Creation Units. The variable charge is primarily designed to cover additional costs (e.g., brokerage, taxes) involved with selling portfolio securities to satisfy a cash redemption. The Fund may determine to not charge a variable fee on certain orders when the Adviser has determined that doing so is in the best interests of Fund shareholders, e.g., for redemption orders that facilitate changes to the Fund’s portfolio in a more tax efficient manner than could be achieved without such order.
Name of Fund
Fixed Redemption Transaction Fee
Maximum Variable Transaction Fee
ATAC US Rotation ETF
$2502%
Investors who use the services of a broker or other such intermediary may be charged a fee for such services. Investors are responsible for the fixed costs of transferring the Fund Securities from the Fund to their account or on their order.
Procedures for Redemption of Creation Units. Orders to redeem Creation Units must be submitted in proper form to the Transfer Agent prior to 4:00 p.m. Eastern time. A redemption request is considered to be in “proper form” if (i) an Authorized Participant has transferred or caused to be transferred to the Trust’s Transfer Agent the Creation Unit(s) being redeemed through the book-entry system of DTC so as to be effective by the time as set forth in the Participant Agreement and (ii) a request in form satisfactory to the Trust is received by the Transfer Agent from the Authorized Participant on behalf of itself or another redeeming investor within the time periods specified in the Participant Agreement. If the Transfer Agent does not
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receive the investor’s Shares through DTC’s facilities by the times and pursuant to the other terms and conditions set forth in the Participant Agreement, the redemption request shall be rejected.
The Authorized Participant must transmit the request for redemption, in the form required by the Trust, to the Transfer Agent in accordance with procedures set forth in the Authorized Participant Agreement. Investors should be aware that their particular broker may not have executed an Authorized Participant Agreement, and that, therefore, requests to redeem Creation Units may have to be placed by the investor’s broker through an Authorized Participant who has executed an Authorized Participant Agreement. Investors making a redemption request should be aware that such request must be in the form specified by such Authorized Participant. Investors making a request to redeem Creation Units should allow sufficient time to permit proper submission of the request by an Authorized Participant and transfer of the Shares to the Transfer Agent; such investors should allow for the additional time that may be required to effect redemptions through their banks, brokers or other financial intermediaries if such intermediaries are not Authorized Participants.
Additional Redemption Procedures. In connection with taking delivery of Shares of Fund Securities upon redemption of Creation Units, a redeeming shareholder or Authorized Participant acting on behalf of such shareholder must maintain appropriate custody arrangements with a qualified broker-dealer, bank, or other custody providers in each jurisdiction in which any of the Fund Securities are customarily traded, to which account such Fund Securities will be delivered. Deliveries of redemption proceeds will generally be made within two business days of the trade date.
The Trust may in its discretion exercise its option to redeem such Shares in cash, and the redeeming investor will be required to receive its redemption proceeds in cash. In addition, an investor may request a redemption in cash that the Fund may, in its sole discretion, permit. In either case, the investor will receive a cash payment equal to the NAV of its Shares based on the NAV of Shares of the Fund next determined after the redemption request is received in proper form (minus a redemption transaction fee, if applicable, and additional charge for requested cash redemptions specified above, to offset the Trust’s brokerage and other transaction costs associated with the disposition of Fund Securities). The Fund may also, in its sole discretion, upon request of a shareholder, provide such redeemer a portfolio of securities that differs from the exact composition of the Fund Securities but does not differ in NAV.
Redemptions of Shares for Fund Securities will be subject to compliance with applicable federal and state securities laws and the Fund (whether or not it otherwise permits cash redemptions) reserves the right to redeem Creation Units for cash to the extent that the Trust could not lawfully deliver specific Fund Securities upon redemptions or could not do so without first registering the Fund Securities under such laws. An Authorized Participant or an investor for which it is acting subject to a legal restriction with respect to a particular security included in the Fund Securities applicable to the redemption of Creation Units may be paid an equivalent amount of cash. The Authorized Participant may request the redeeming investor of the Shares to complete an order form or to enter into agreements with respect to such matters as compensating cash payment. Further, an Authorized Participant that is not a “qualified institutional buyer,” (“QIB”) as such term is defined under Rule 144A of the Securities Act, will not be able to receive Fund Securities that are restricted securities eligible for resale under Rule 144A. An Authorized Participant may be required by the Trust to provide a written confirmation with respect to QIB status to receive Fund Securities.
The right of redemption may be suspended or the date of payment postponed with respect to the Fund (1) for any period during which the Exchange is closed (other than customary weekend and holiday closings); (2) for any period during which trading on the Exchange is suspended or restricted; (3) for any period during which an emergency exists as a result of which disposal of Shares or determination of the NAV of Shares is not reasonably practicable; or (4) in such other circumstance as is permitted by the SEC.
DETERMINATION OF NAV
NAV per Share for the Fund is computed by dividing the value of the net assets of the Fund (i.e., the value of its total assets less total liabilities) by the total number of Shares outstanding, rounded to the nearest cent. Expenses and fees, including the management fees, are accrued daily and taken into account for purposes of determining NAV. The NAV of the Fund is calculated by Global Fund Services and determined at the scheduled close of the regular trading session on the NYSE (ordinarily 4:00 p.m., Eastern Time) on each day that the NYSE is open, provided that fixed-income assets may be valued as of the announced closing time for trading in fixed-income instruments on any day that the Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association (“SIFMA”) announces an early closing time.
In calculating the Fund’s NAV per Share, the Fund’s investments are generally valued using market valuations. A market valuation generally means a valuation (i) obtained from an exchange, a pricing service, or a major market maker (or dealer), (ii) based on a price quotation or other equivalent indication of value supplied by an exchange, a pricing service, or a major market maker (or dealer) or (iii) based on amortized cost. In the case of shares of other funds that are not traded on an exchange, a market valuation means such fund’s published NAV per share. The Fund may use various pricing services, or discontinue the use of any pricing service, as approved by the Board from time to time. A price obtained from a pricing service based on such pricing service’s valuation matrix may be considered a market valuation. Any assets or liabilities denominated in
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currencies other than the U.S. dollar are converted into U.S. dollars at the current market rates on the date of valuation as quoted by one or more sources.
DIVIDENDS AND DISTRIBUTIONS
The following information supplements and should be read in conjunction with the section in the Prospectus entitled “Dividends, Distributions, and Taxes.”
General Policies. Dividends and interest income, if any, are generally declared and paid annually by the Fund. Distributions of net realized capital gains, if any, generally are declared and paid once a year, but the Fund may make distributions on a more frequent basis to comply with the distribution requirements of the Code, in all events in a manner consistent with the provisions of the 1940 Act.
Dividends and other distributions on Shares are distributed, as described below, on a pro rata basis to Beneficial Owners of such Shares. Dividend payments are made through DTC Participants and Indirect Participants to Beneficial Owners then of record with proceeds received from the Trust.
The Fund makes additional distributions to the extent necessary (i) to distribute the entire annual taxable income of the Fund, plus any net capital gains and (ii) to avoid imposition of the excise tax imposed by Section 4982 of the Code. Management of the Trust reserves the right to declare special dividends if, in its reasonable discretion, such action is necessary or advisable to preserve the Fund’s eligibility for treatment as a RIC or to avoid imposition of income or excise taxes on undistributed income at the Fund level.
Dividend Reinvestment Service. The Trust will not make the DTC book-entry dividend reinvestment service available for use by Beneficial Owners for reinvestment of their cash proceeds, but certain individual broker-dealers may make available the DTC book-entry Dividend Reinvestment Service for use by Beneficial Owners of the Fund through DTC Participants for reinvestment of their dividend distributions. Investors should contact their brokers to ascertain the availability and description of these services. Beneficial Owners should be aware that each broker may require investors to adhere to specific procedures and timetables to participate in the dividend reinvestment service and investors should ascertain from their brokers such necessary details. If this service is available and used, dividend distributions of both income and realized gains will be automatically reinvested in additional whole Shares issued by the Trust of the Fund at NAV per Share. Distributions reinvested in additional Shares will nevertheless be taxable to Beneficial Owners acquiring such additional Shares to the same extent as if such distributions had been received in cash.
FEDERAL INCOME TAXES
The following is only a summary of certain U.S. federal income tax considerations generally affecting the Fund and its shareholders that supplements the discussion in the Prospectus. No attempt is made to present a comprehensive explanation of the federal, state, local or foreign tax treatment of the Fund or its shareholders, and the discussion here and in the Prospectus is not intended to be a substitute for careful tax planning.
The following general discussion of certain U.S. federal income tax consequences is based on provisions of the Code and the regulations issued thereunder as in effect on the date of this SAI. New legislation, as well as administrative changes or court decisions, may significantly change the conclusions expressed herein, and may have a retroactive effect with respect to the transactions contemplated herein.
The tax legislation commonly referred to as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “Tax Act”) made significant changes to the U.S. federal income tax rules for taxation of individuals and corporations, generally effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017. Many of the changes applicable to individuals are temporary and would apply only to taxable years before January 1, 2026. There were only minor changes with respect to the specific rules applicable to RICs, such as the Fund. The Tax Act, however, also made numerous other changes to the tax rules that may affect shareholders and the Fund. You are urged to consult with your own tax advisor regarding how the Tax Act affects your investment in the Fund.
Shareholders are urged to consult their own tax advisers regarding the application of the provisions of tax law described in this SAI in light of the particular tax situations of the shareholders and regarding specific questions as to federal, state, local, or foreign taxes.
Taxation of the Fund. The Fund will elect and intends to qualify each year to be treated as a RIC under Subchapter M of the Code. As such, the Fund should not be subject to federal income taxes on its net investment income and capital gains, if any, to the extent that it timely distributes such income and capital gains to its shareholders. Generally, to be taxed as a RIC, the Fund must distribute in each taxable year at least 90% of its “investment company taxable income” for the taxable year, which includes, among other items, dividends, interest, net short-term capital gain and net foreign currency gain, less expenses, as well as 90% of its net tax-exempt interest income, if any (the “Distribution Requirement”) and also must meet several additional requirements. Among these requirements are the following: (i) at least 90% of the Fund’s gross income each taxable year must be derived from dividends, interest, payments with respect to certain securities loans, gains from the sale or other disposition of
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stock, securities or foreign currencies, or other income derived with respect to its business of investing in such stock, securities or foreign currencies, and net income derived from interests in qualified publicly traded partnerships (the “Qualifying Income Requirement”); and (ii) at the end of each quarter of the Fund’s taxable year, the Fund’s assets must be diversified so that (a) at least 50% of the value of the Fund’s total assets is represented by cash and cash items, U.S. government securities, securities of other RICs, and other securities, with such other securities limited, in respect to any one issuer, to an amount not greater in value than 5% of the value of the Fund’s total assets and to not more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of such issuer, and (b) not more than 25% of the value of its total assets is invested in the securities (other than U.S. government securities or securities of other RICs) of any one issuer, the securities (other than securities of other RICs) of two or more issuers which the Fund controls and which are engaged in the same, similar, or related trades or businesses, or the securities of one or more qualified publicly traded partnerships (the “Diversification Requirement”).
To the extent the Fund makes investments that may generate income that is not qualifying income, including certain derivatives, the Fund will seek to restrict the resulting income from such investments so that the Fund’s non-qualifying income does not exceed 10% of its gross income.
Although the Fund intends to distribute substantially all of its net investment income and may distribute its capital gains for any taxable year, the Fund will be subject to federal income taxation to the extent any such income or gains are not distributed. The Fund is treated as a separate corporation for federal income tax purposes. The Fund therefore is considered to be a separate entity in determining its treatment under the rules for RICs described herein. The requirements (other than certain organizational requirements) for qualifying RIC status are determined at the Fund level rather than at the Trust level.
If the Fund fails to satisfy the Qualifying Income Requirement or the Diversification Requirement in any taxable year, the Fund may be eligible for relief provisions if the failures are due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect and if a penalty tax is paid with respect to each failure to satisfy the applicable requirements. Additionally, relief is provided for certain de minimis failures of the Diversification Requirement where the Fund corrects the failure within a specified period of time. To be eligible for the relief provisions with respect to a failure to meet the Diversification Requirement, the Fund may be required to dispose of certain assets. If these relief provisions were not available to the Fund and it were to fail to qualify for treatment as a RIC for a taxable year, all of its taxable income would be subject to tax at regular corporate rates without any deduction for distributions to shareholders, and its distributions (including capital gains distributions) generally would be taxable to the shareholders of the Fund as ordinary income dividends, subject to the dividends received deduction for corporate shareholders and the lower tax rates on qualified dividend income received by noncorporate shareholders, subject to certain limitations. To requalify for treatment as a RIC in a subsequent taxable year, the Fund would be required to satisfy the RIC qualification requirements for that year and to distribute any earnings and profits from any year in which the Fund failed to qualify for tax treatment as a RIC. If the Fund failed to qualify as a RIC for a period greater than two taxable years, it would generally be required to pay a fund-level tax on certain net built in gains recognized with respect to certain of its assets upon disposition of such assets within five years of qualifying as a RIC in a subsequent year. The Board reserves the right not to maintain the qualification of the Fund for treatment as a RIC if it determines such course of action to be beneficial to shareholders. If the Fund determines that it will not qualify as a RIC, the Fund will establish procedures to reflect the anticipated tax liability in the Fund’s NAV.
The Fund may elect to treat part or all of any “qualified late year loss” as if it had been incurred in the succeeding taxable year in determining the Fund’s taxable income, net capital gain, net short-term capital gain, and earnings and profits. The effect of this election is to treat any such “qualified late year loss” as if it had been incurred in the succeeding taxable year in characterizing Fund distributions for any calendar year. A “qualified late year loss” generally includes net capital loss, net long-term capital loss, or net short-term capital loss incurred after October 31 of the current taxable year (commonly referred to as “post-October losses”) and certain other late-year losses.
Capital losses in excess of capital gains (“net capital losses”) are not permitted to be deducted against a RIC’s net investment income. Instead, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, potentially subject to certain limitations, the Fund may carry a net capital loss from any taxable year forward indefinitely to offset its capital gains, if any, in years following the year of the loss. To the extent subsequent capital gains are offset by such losses, they will not result in U.S. federal income tax liability to the Fund and may not be distributed as capital gains to its shareholders. Generally, the Fund may not carry forward any losses other than net capital losses. The carryover of capital losses may be limited under the general loss limitation rules if the Fund experiences an ownership change as defined in the Code.
The Fund will be subject to a nondeductible 4% federal excise tax on certain undistributed income if it does not distribute to its shareholders in each calendar year an amount at least equal to 98% of its ordinary income for the calendar year plus 98.2% of its capital gain net income for the one-year period ending on October 31 of that year, subject to an increase for any shortfall in the prior year’s distribution. The Fund intends to declare and distribute dividends and distributions in the amounts and at the times necessary to avoid the application of the excise tax, but can make no assurances that all such tax liability will be eliminated.
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The Fund intends to distribute substantially all of its net investment income and net capital gain to shareholders for each taxable year. If the Fund meets the Distribution Requirement but retains some or all of its income or gains, it will be subject to federal income tax at regular corporate rates to the extent any such income or gains are not distributed. The Fund may elect to designate certain amounts retained as undistributed net capital gain as deemed distributions in a notice to its shareholders, who (i) will be required to include in income for U.S. federal income tax purposes, as long-term capital gain, their proportionate shares of the undistributed amount so designated, (ii) will be entitled to credit their proportionate shares of the income tax paid by the Fund on that undistributed amount against their federal income tax liabilities and to claim refunds to the extent such credits exceed their tax liabilities, and (iii) will be entitled to increase their tax basis, for federal income tax purposes, in their Shares by an amount equal to the excess of the amount of undistributed net capital gain included in their respective income over their respective income tax credits.
Taxation of Shareholders – Distributions. The Fund intends to distribute annually to its shareholders substantially all of its investment company taxable income (computed without regard to the deduction for dividends paid), its net tax-exempt income, if any, and any net capital gain (net recognized long-term capital gains in excess of net recognized short-term capital losses, taking into account any capital loss carryforwards). The distribution of investment company taxable income (as so computed) and net capital gain will be taxable to Fund shareholders regardless of whether the shareholder receives these distributions in cash or reinvests them in additional Shares.
The Fund (or your broker) will report to shareholders annually the amounts of dividends paid from ordinary income, the amount of distributions of net capital gain, the portion of dividends which may qualify for the dividends received deduction for corporate shareholders, and the portion of dividends which may qualify for treatment as qualified dividend income, which is taxable to non-corporate shareholders at long-term capital gain rates.
Distributions from the Fund’s net capital gain will be taxable to shareholders at long-term capital gains rates, regardless of how long shareholders have held their Shares. Distributions may be subject to state and local taxes.
Qualified dividend income includes, in general, subject to certain holding period and other requirements, dividend income from taxable domestic corporations and certain “qualified foreign corporations.” Subject to certain limitations, “qualified foreign corporations” include those incorporated in possessions of the United States, those incorporated in certain countries with comprehensive tax treaties with the United States, and other foreign corporations if the stock with respect to which the dividends are paid is readily tradable on an established securities market in the United States. Dividends received by the Fund from an ETF or an underlying fund taxable as a RIC or a REIT may be treated as qualified dividend income generally only to the extent so reported by such ETF, underlying fund or REIT. If 95% or more of the Fund’s gross income (calculated without taking into account net capital gain derived from sales or other dispositions of stock or securities) consists of qualified dividend income, the Fund may report all distributions of such income as qualified dividend income.
Fund dividends will not be treated as qualified dividend income if the Fund does not meet certain holding period and other requirements with respect to dividend paying stocks in its portfolio, or the shareholder does not meet certain holding period and other requirements with respect to the Shares on which the dividends were paid. Distributions by the Fund of its net short-term capital gains will be taxable as ordinary income.
In the case of corporate shareholders, certain dividends received by the Fund from U.S. corporations (generally, dividends received by the Fund in respect of any share of stock (1) with a tax holding period of at least 46 days during the 91-day period beginning on the date that is 45 days before the date on which the stock becomes ex-dividend as to that dividend and (2) that is held in an unleveraged position) and distributed and appropriately so reported by the Fund may be eligible for the 50% dividends-received deduction. Certain preferred stock must have a holding period of at least 91 days during the 181-day period beginning on the date that is 90 days before the date on which the stock becomes ex-dividend as to that dividend to be eligible. Capital gain dividends distributed to the Fund from other RICs are not eligible for the dividends-received deduction. To qualify for the deduction, corporate shareholders must meet the minimum holding period requirement stated above with respect to their Shares, taking into account any holding period reductions from certain hedging or other transactions or positions that diminish their risk of loss with respect to their Shares, and, if they borrow to acquire or otherwise incur debt attributable to Shares, they may be denied a portion of the dividends-received deduction with respect to those Shares.
Although dividends generally will be treated as distributed when paid, any dividend declared by the Fund in October, November or December and payable to shareholders of record in such a month that is paid during the following January will be treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes as received by shareholders on December 31 of the calendar year in which it was declared.
In addition to the federal income tax, certain individuals, trusts and estates may be subject to a Net Investment Income (“NII”) tax of 3.8%. The NII tax is imposed on the lesser of: (i) a taxpayer’s investment income, net of deductions properly allocable to such income; or (ii) the amount by which such taxpayer’s modified adjusted gross income exceeds certain thresholds ($250,000 for married individuals filing jointly, $200,000 for unmarried individuals and $125,000 for married individuals filing separately). The Fund’s distributions are includable in a shareholder’s investment income for purposes of this NII tax. In
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addition, any capital gain realized by a shareholder upon a sale, exchange or redemption of Fund shares is includable in such shareholder’s investment income for purposes of this NII tax.
Shareholders who have not held Shares for a full year should be aware that the Fund may report and distribute, as ordinary dividends or capital gain dividends, a percentage of income that is not equal to the percentage of the Fund’s ordinary income or net capital gain, respectively, actually earned during the applicable shareholder’s period of investment in the Fund. A taxable shareholder may wish to avoid investing in the Fund shortly before a dividend or other distribution, because the distribution will generally be taxable even though it may economically represent a return of a portion of the shareholder’s investment.
To the extent that the Fund makes a distribution of income received by the Fund in lieu of dividends (a “substitute payment”) with respect to securities on loan pursuant to a securities lending transaction, such income will not constitute qualified dividend income to individual shareholders and will not be eligible for the dividends received deduction for corporate shareholders
If the Fund’s distributions exceed its earnings and profits, all or a portion of the distributions made for a taxable year may be recharacterized as a return of capital to shareholders. A return of capital distribution will generally not be taxable, but will reduce each shareholder’s cost basis in the Fund and result in a higher capital gain or lower capital loss when the Shares on which the distribution was received are sold. After a shareholder’s basis in the Shares has been reduced to zero, distributions in excess of earnings and profits will be treated as gain from the sale of the shareholder’s Shares.
Taxation of Shareholders – Sale of Shares. A sale, redemption, or exchange of Shares may give rise to a gain or loss. In general, any gain or loss realized upon a taxable disposition of Shares will be treated as long-term capital gain or loss if Shares have been held for more than 12 months. Otherwise, the gain or loss on the taxable disposition of Shares will generally be treated as short-term capital gain or loss. Any loss realized upon a taxable disposition of Shares held for six months or less will be treated as long-term capital loss, rather than short-term capital loss, to the extent of any amounts treated as distributions to the shareholder of long-term capital gain with respect to such Shares (including any amounts credited to the shareholder as undistributed capital gains). All or a portion of any loss realized upon a taxable disposition of Shares may be disallowed if substantially identical Shares are acquired (through the reinvestment of dividends or otherwise) within a 61-day period beginning 30 days before and ending 30 days after the disposition. In such a case, the basis of the newly acquired Shares will be adjusted to reflect the disallowed loss.
The cost basis of Shares acquired by purchase will generally be based on the amount paid for Shares and then may be subsequently adjusted for other applicable transactions as required by the Code. The difference between the selling price and the cost basis of Shares generally determines the amount of the capital gain or loss realized on the sale or exchange of Shares. Contact the broker through whom you purchased your Shares to obtain information with respect to the available cost basis reporting methods and elections for your account.
An Authorized Participant who exchanges securities for Creation Units generally will recognize a gain or a loss. The gain or loss will be equal to the difference between the market value of the Creation Units at the time and the sum of the exchanger’s aggregate basis in the securities surrendered plus the amount of cash paid for such Creation Units. A person who redeems Creation Units will generally recognize a gain or loss equal to the difference between the exchanger’s basis in the Creation Units and the sum of the aggregate market value of any securities received plus the amount of any cash received for such Creation Units. The IRS, however, may assert that a loss realized upon an exchange of securities for Creation Units cannot currently be deducted under the rules governing “wash sales” (for a person who does not mark-to-market its portfolio), or on the basis that there has been no significant change in economic position.
Any capital gain or loss realized upon the creation of Creation Units will generally be treated as long-term capital gain or loss if the securities exchanged for such Creation Units have been held for more than one year. Any capital gain or loss realized upon the redemption of Creation Units will generally be treated as long-term capital gain or loss if the Shares comprising the Creation Units have been held for more than one year. Otherwise, such capital gains or losses will generally be treated as short-term capital gains or losses. Any loss upon a redemption of Creation Units held for six months or less may be treated as long-term capital loss to the extent of any amounts treated as distributions to the applicable Authorized Participant of long-term capital gain with respect to the Creation Units (including any amounts credited to the Authorized Participant as undistributed capital gains).
The Trust, on behalf of the Fund, has the right to reject an order for Creation Units if the purchaser (or a group of purchasers) would, upon obtaining the Creation Units so ordered, own 80% or more of the outstanding Shares and if, pursuant to Section 351 of the Code, the Fund would have a basis in the deposit securities different from the market value of such securities on the date of deposit. The Trust also has the right to require the provision of information necessary to determine beneficial Share ownership for purposes of the 80% determination. If the Fund does issue Creation Units to a purchaser (or a group of purchasers) that would, upon obtaining the Creation Units so ordered, own 80% or more of the outstanding Shares, the purchaser (or a group of purchasers) will not recognize gain or loss upon the exchange of securities for Creation Units.
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Persons purchasing or redeeming Creation Units should consult their own tax advisers with respect to the tax treatment of any creation or redemption transaction and whether the wash sales rule applies and when a loss may be deductible.
Taxation of Fund Investments. Certain of the Fund’s investments may be subject to complex provisions of the Code (including provisions relating to hedging transactions, straddles, integrated transactions, foreign currency contracts, forward foreign currency contracts, and notional principal contracts) that, among other things, may affect the Fund’s ability to qualify as a RIC, affect the character of gains and losses realized by the Fund (e.g., may affect whether gains or losses are ordinary or capital), accelerate recognition of income to the Fund and defer losses. These rules could therefore affect the character, amount and timing of distributions to shareholders. These provisions also may require the Fund to mark to market certain types of positions in its portfolio (i.e., treat them as if they were closed out), which may cause the Fund to recognize income without the Fund receiving cash with which to make distributions in amounts sufficient to enable the Fund to satisfy the RIC distribution requirements for avoiding Fund-level income and excise taxes. The Fund intends to monitor its transactions, intends to make appropriate tax elections, and intends to make appropriate entries in its books and records to mitigate the effect of these rules and preserve the Fund’s qualification for treatment as a RIC. To the extent the Fund invests in an underlying fund that is taxable as a RIC, the rules applicable to the tax treatment of complex securities will also apply to the underlying funds that also invest in such complex securities and investments.
Backup Withholding. The Fund will be required in certain cases to withhold (as “backup withholding”) on amounts payable to any shareholder who (1) fails to provide a correct taxpayer identification number certified under penalty of perjury; (2) is subject to backup withholding by the IRS for failure to properly report all payments of interest or dividends; (3) fails to provide a certified statement that he or she is not subject to “backup withholding;” or (4) fails to provide a certified statement that he or she is a U.S. person (including a U.S. resident alien). The backup withholding rate is at a rate set under Section 3406 of the Code. Backup withholding is not an additional tax and any amounts withheld may be credited against the shareholder’s ultimate U.S. federal income tax liability. Backup withholding will not be applied to payments that have been subject to the 30% withholding tax on shareholders who are neither citizens nor permanent residents of the United States.
Foreign Shareholders. Any non-U.S. investors in the Fund may be subject to U.S. withholding and estate tax and are encouraged to consult their tax advisors prior to investing in the Fund. Foreign shareholders (i.e., nonresident alien individuals and foreign corporations, partnerships, trusts and estates) are generally subject to a U.S. withholding tax at the rate of 30% (or a lower tax treaty rate) on distributions derived from taxable ordinary income. The Fund may, under certain circumstances, report all or a portion of a dividend as an “interest-related dividend” or a “short-term capital gain dividend,” which would generally be exempt from this 30% U.S. withholding tax, provided certain other requirements are met. Short-term capital gain dividends received by a nonresident alien individual who is present in the U.S. for a period or periods aggregating 183 days or more during the taxable year are not exempt from this 30% withholding tax. Gains realized by foreign shareholders from the sale or other disposition of Shares generally are not subject to U.S. taxation, unless the recipient is an individual who is physically present in the U.S. for 183 days or more per year (based on a formula that factors in presence in the U.S. during the two preceding years as well). Foreign shareholders who fail to provide an applicable IRS form may be subject to backup withholding on certain payments from the Fund. Backup withholding will not be applied to payments that are subject to the 30% (or lower applicable treaty rate) withholding tax described in this paragraph. Different tax consequences may result if the foreign shareholder is engaged in a trade or business within the United States. In addition, the tax consequences to a foreign shareholder entitled to claim the benefits of a tax treaty may be different than those described above.
Under the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (“FATCA”), the Fund may be required to withhold a generally nonrefundable 30% tax on (i) distributions of investment company taxable income and (ii) distributions of net capital gain and the gross proceeds of a sale or redemption of Fund shares paid to (A) certain “foreign financial institutions” unless such foreign financial institution agrees to verify, monitor, and report to the IRS the identity of certain of its accountholders, among other items (or unless such entity is otherwise deemed compliant under the terms of an intergovernmental agreement between the United States and the foreign financial institution’s country of residence), and (B) certain “non-financial foreign entities” unless such entity certifies to the Fund that it does not have any substantial U.S. owners or provides the name, address, and taxpayer identification number of each substantial U.S. owner, among other items. In December 2018, the IRS and Treasury Department released proposed Treasury Regulations that would eliminate FATCA withholding on Fund distributions of net capital gain and the gross proceeds from a sale or redemption of Fund shares. Although taxpayers are entitled to rely on these proposed Treasury Regulations until final Treasury Regulations are issued, these proposed Treasury Regulations have not been finalized, may not be finalized in their proposed form, and are potentially subject to change. This FATCA withholding tax could also affect the Fund’s return on its investments in foreign securities or affect a shareholder’s return if the shareholder holds its Fund shares through a foreign intermediary. You are urged to consult your tax adviser regarding the application of this FATCA withholding tax to your investment in the Fund and the potential certification, compliance, due diligence, reporting, and withholding obligations to which you may become subject in order to avoid this withholding tax.
33


For foreign shareholders to qualify for an exemption from backup withholding, described above, the foreign shareholder must comply with special certification and filing requirements. Foreign shareholders in the Fund should consult their tax advisors in this regard.
Tax-Exempt Shareholders. Certain tax-exempt shareholders, including qualified pension plans, individual retirement accounts, salary deferral arrangements, 401(k) plans, and other tax-exempt entities, generally are exempt from federal income taxation, except with respect to their unrelated business taxable income (“UBTI”). Under the Tax Act, tax-exempt entities are not permitted to offset losses from one unrelated trade or business against the income or gain of another unrelated trade or business. Certain net losses incurred prior to January 1, 2018 are permitted to offset gain and income created by an unrelated trade or business, if otherwise available. Under current law, the Fund generally serves to block UBTI from being realized by its tax-exempt shareholders with respect to their shares of Fund income. However, notwithstanding the foregoing, tax-exempt shareholders could realize UBTI by virtue of their investment in the Fund if, for example, (i) the Fund invests in residual interests of Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduits (“REMICs”), (ii) the Fund invests in a REIT that is a taxable mortgage pool (“TMP”) or that has a subsidiary that is a TMP or that invests in the residual interest of a REMIC, or (iii) Shares in the Fund constitute debt-financed property in the hands of the tax-exempt shareholders within the meaning of section 514(b) of the Code. Charitable remainder trusts are subject to special rules and should consult their tax advisers. The IRS has issued guidance with respect to these issues and prospective shareholders, especially charitable remainder trusts, are strongly encouraged to consult with their tax advisers regarding these issues.
Certain Potential Tax Reporting Requirements. Under U.S. Treasury regulations, if a shareholder recognizes a loss on disposition of the Shares of $2 million or more for an individual shareholder or $10 million or more for a corporate shareholder (or certain greater amounts over a combination of years), the shareholder must file with the IRS a disclosure statement on IRS Form 8886. Direct shareholders of portfolio securities are in many cases excepted from this reporting requirement, but under current guidance, shareholders of a RIC are not excepted. Significant penalties may be imposed for the failure to comply with the reporting requirements. The fact that a loss is reportable under these regulations does not affect the legal determination of whether the taxpayer’s treatment of the loss is proper. Shareholders should consult their tax advisors to determine the applicability of these regulations in light of their individual circumstances.
Other Issues. In those states which have income tax laws, the tax treatment of the Fund and of Fund shareholders with respect to distributions by the Fund may differ from federal tax treatment.
FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Financial statements and Annual Reports will be available after the Fund has competed a fiscal year of operations. When available, you may request a copy of the Fund’s Annual Report at no charge by calling [ ] or through the Fund’s website at [ .com].
34


Appendix A Description of Securities Ratings
Short-Term Credit Ratings

A Standard & Poor’s short-term issue credit rating is a forward-looking opinion about the creditworthiness of an obligor with respect to a specific financial obligation having an original maturity of no more than 365 days. The following summarizes the rating categories used by Standard & Poor’s for short-term issues:
“A-1” – A short-term obligation rated “A-1” is rated in the highest category and indicates that the obligor’s capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation is strong. Within this category, certain obligations are designated with a plus sign (+). This indicates that the obligor’s capacity to meet its financial commitment on these obligations is extremely strong.

“A-2” – A short-term obligation rated “A-2” is somewhat more susceptible to the adverse effects of changes in circumstances and economic conditions than obligations in higher rating categories. However, the obligor’s capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation is satisfactory.
“A-3” – A short-term obligation rated “A-3” exhibits adequate protection parameters. However, adverse economic conditions or changing circumstances are more likely to lead to a weakened capacity of the obligor to meet its financial commitment on the obligation.
“B” – A short-term obligation rated “B” is regarded as vulnerable and has significant speculative characteristics. The obligor currently has the capacity to meet its financial commitments; however, it faces major ongoing uncertainties which could lead to the obligor’s inadequate capacity to meet its financial commitments.
“C” – A short-term obligation rated “C” is currently vulnerable to nonpayment and is dependent upon favorable business, financial, and economic conditions for the obligor to meet its financial commitment on the obligation.
“D” – A short-term obligation rated “D” is in default or in breach of an imputed promise. For non-hybrid capital instruments, the “D” rating category is used when payments on an obligation are not made on the date due, unless Standard & Poor’s believes that such payments will be made within any stated grace period. However, any stated grace period longer than five business days will be treated as five business days. The “D” rating also will be used upon the filing of a bankruptcy petition or the taking of a similar action and where default on an obligation is a virtual certainty, for example due to automatic stay provisions. An obligation’s rating is lowered to “D” if it is subject to a distressed exchange offer.
Local Currency and Foreign Currency Risks – Standard & Poor’s issuer credit ratings make a distinction between foreign currency ratings and local currency ratings. An issuer’s foreign currency rating will differ from its local currency rating when the obligor has a different capacity to meet its obligations denominated in its local currency, vs. obligations denominated in a foreign currency.
Moody’s Investors Service (“Moody’s”) short-term ratings are forward-looking opinions of the relative credit risks of financial obligations with an original maturity of thirteen months or less and reflect the likelihood of a default on contractually promised payments. Ratings may be assigned to issuers, short-term programs or to individual short-term debt instruments.
Moody’s employs the following designations to indicate the relative repayment ability of rated issuers:
“P-1” – Issuers (or supporting institutions) rated Prime-1 have a superior ability to repay short-term debt
obligations.
“P-2” – Issuers (or supporting institutions) rated Prime-2 have a strong ability to repay short-term debt obligations.
“P-3” – Issuers (or supporting institutions) rated Prime-3 have an acceptable ability to repay short-term obligations.
“NP” – Issuers (or supporting institutions) rated Not Prime do not fall within any of the Prime rating categories.
Fitch, Inc. / Fitch Ratings Ltd. (“Fitch”) short-term issuer or obligation rating is based in all cases on the shortterm vulnerability to default of the rated entity or security stream and relates to the capacity to meet financial obligations in accordance with the documentation governing the relevant obligation. Short-term ratings are assigned to obligations whose initial maturity is viewed as “short-term” based on market convention. Typically, this means up to 13 months for corporate, sovereign and structured obligations, and up to 36 months for obligations in U.S. public finance markets. The following summarizes the rating categories used by Fitch for short-term obligations:
“F1” – Securities possess the highest short-term credit quality. This designation indicates the strongest intrinsic capacity for timely payment of financial commitments; may have an added “+” to denote any exceptionally strong credit feature.
“F2” – Securities possess good short-term credit quality. This designation indicates good intrinsic capacity for timely payment of financial commitments.
A-1


“F3” – Securities possess fair short-term credit quality. This designation indicates that the intrinsic capacity for timely payment of financial commitments is adequate.
“B” – Securities possess speculative short-term credit quality. This designation indicates minimal capacity for timely payment of financial commitments, plus heightened vulnerability to near term adverse changes in financial and economic conditions.
“C” – Securities possess high short-term default risk. Default is a real possibility.
“RD” – Restricted default. Indicates an entity that has defaulted on one or more of its financial commitments, although it continues to meet other financial obligations. Typically applicable to entity ratings only.
“D” – Default. Indicates a broad-based default event for an entity, or the default of a short-term obligation. The DBRS® Ratings Limited (“DBRS”) short-term debt rating scale provides an opinion on the risk that an issuer will not meet its short-term financial obligations in a timely manner. Ratings are based on quantitative and qualitative considerations relevant to the issuer and the relative ranking of claims. The R-1 and R-2 rating categories are further denoted by the sub-categories “(high)”, “(middle)”, and “(low)”.
The following summarizes the ratings used by DBRS for commercial paper and short-term debt:
“R-1 (high)” - Short-term debt rated “R-1 (high)” is of the highest credit quality. The capacity for the payment of short-term financial obligations as they fall due is exceptionally high. Unlikely to be adversely affected by future events.
“R-1 (middle)” – Short-term debt rated “R-1 (middle)” is of superior credit quality. The capacity for the payment of short-term financial obligations as they fall due is very high. Differs from “R-1 (high)” by a relatively modest degree. Unlikely to be significantly vulnerable to future events.
“R-1 (low)” – Short-term debt rated “R-1 (low)” is of good credit quality. The capacity for the payment of shortterm financial obligations as they fall due is substantial. Overall strength is not as favorable as higher rating categories. May be vulnerable to future events, but qualifying negative factors are considered manageable.
“R-2 (high)” – Short-term debt rated “R-2 (high)” is considered to be at the upper end of adequate credit quality. The capacity for the payment of short-term financial obligations as they fall due is acceptable. May be vulnerable to future events.
“R-2 (middle)” – Short-term debt rated “R-2 (middle)” is considered to be of adequate credit quality. The capacity for the payment of short-term financial obligations as they fall due is acceptable. May be vulnerable to future events or may be exposed to other factors that could reduce credit quality.
“R-2 (low)” – Short-term debt rated “R-2 (low)” is considered to be at the lower end of adequate credit quality. The capacity for the payment of short-term financial obligations as they fall due is acceptable. May be vulnerable to future events. A number of challenges are present that could affect the issuer’s ability to meet such obligations.
“R-3” – Short-term debt rated “R-3” is considered to be at the lowest end of adequate credit quality. There is a capacity for the payment of short-term financial obligations as they fall due. May be vulnerable to future events and the certainty of meeting such obligations could be impacted by a variety of developments.
“R-4” – Short-term debt rated “R-4” is considered to be of speculative credit quality. The capacity for the payment of short-term financial obligations as they fall due is uncertain.
“R-5” – Short-term debt rated “R-5” is considered to be of highly speculative credit quality. There is a high level of uncertainty as to the capacity to meet short-term financial obligations as they fall due.
“D” – Short-term debt rated “D” is assigned when the issuer has filed under any applicable bankruptcy, insolvency or winding up statute or there is a failure to satisfy an obligation after the exhaustion of grace periods, a downgrade to “D” may occur. DBRS may also use “SD” (Selective Default) in cases where only some securities are impacted, such as the case of a “distressed exchange”.
Long-Term Credit Ratings
The following summarizes the ratings used by Standard & Poor’s for long-term issues:
“AAA” – An obligation rated “AAA” has the highest rating assigned by Standard & Poor’s. The obligor’s capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation is extremely strong.
“AA” – An obligation rated “AA” differs from the highest-rated obligations only to a small degree. The obligor’s capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation is very strong.
“A” – An obligation rated “A” is somewhat more susceptible to the adverse effects of changes in circumstances and economic conditions than obligations in higher-rated categories. However, the obligor’s capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation is still strong.
A-2


“BBB” – An obligation rated “BBB” exhibits adequate protection parameters. However, adverse economic conditions or changing circumstances are more likely to lead to a weakened capacity of the obligor to meet its financial commitment on the obligation.
“BB,” “B,” “CCC,” “CC” and “C” – Obligations rated “BB,” “B,” “CCC,” “CC” and “C” are regarded as having significant speculative characteristics. “BB” indicates the least degree of speculation and “C” the highest. While such obligations will likely have some quality and protective characteristics, these may be outweighed by large uncertainties or major exposures to adverse conditions.
“BB” – An obligation rated “BB” is less vulnerable to nonpayment than other speculative issues. However, it faces major ongoing uncertainties or exposure to adverse business, financial, or economic conditions which could lead to the obligor’s inadequate capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation.
“B” – An obligation rated “B” is more vulnerable to nonpayment than obligations rated “BB”, but the obligor currently has the capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation. Adverse business, financial, or economic conditions will likely impair the obligor’s capacity or willingness to meet its financial commitment on the obligation.
“CCC” – An obligation rated “CCC” is currently vulnerable to nonpayment, and is dependent upon favorable business, financial and economic conditions for the obligor to meet its financial commitment on the obligation. In the event of adverse business, financial, or economic conditions, the obligor is not likely to have the capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation.
“CC” – An obligation rated “CC” is currently highly vulnerable to nonpayment. The “CC” rating is used when a default has not yet occurred, but Standard & Poor’s expects default to be a virtual certainty, regardless of the anticipated time to default.
“C” – An obligation rated “C” is currently highly vulnerable to nonpayment, and the obligation is expected to have lower relative seniority or lower ultimate recovery compared to obligations that are rated higher.
“D” – An obligation rated “D” is in default or in breach of an imputed promise. For non-hybrid capital instruments, the “D” rating category is used when payments on an obligation are not made on the date due, unless Standard & Poor’s believes that such payments will be made within five business days in the absence of a stated grace period or within the earlier of the stated grace period or 30 calendar days. The “D” rating also will be used upon the filing of a bankruptcy petition or the taking of similar action and where default on an obligation is a virtual certainty, for example due to automatic stay provisions. An obligation’s rating is lowered to “D” if it is subject to a distressed exchange offer.
Plus (+) or minus (-) – The ratings from “AA” to “CCC” may be modified by the addition of a plus (+) or minus (-) sign to show relative standing within the major rating categories.
“NR” – This indicates that no rating has been requested, or that there is insufficient information on which to base a rating, or that Standard & Poor’s does not rate a particular obligation as a matter of policy.
Local Currency and Foreign Currency Risks - Standard & Poor’s issuer credit ratings make a distinction between foreign currency ratings and local currency ratings. An issuer’s foreign currency rating will differ from its local currency rating when the obligor has a different capacity to meet its obligations denominated in its local currency, vs. obligations denominated in a foreign currency.
Moody’s long-term ratings are forward-looking opinions of the relative credit risks of financial obligations with an original maturity of one year or more. Such ratings reflect both the likelihood of default on contractually promised payments and the expected financial loss suffered in the event of default. The following summarizes the ratings used by
Moody’s for long-term debt:
“Aaa” – Obligations rated “Aaa” are judged to be of the highest quality, subject to the lowest level of credit risk.
“Aa” – Obligations rated “Aa” are judged to be of high quality and are subject to very low credit risk.
“A” – Obligations rated “A” are judged to be upper-medium grade and are subject to low credit risk.
“Baa” – Obligations rated “Baa” are judged to be medium-grade and subject to moderate credit risk and as such may possess certain speculative characteristics.
“Ba” – Obligations rated “Ba” are judged to be speculative and are subject to substantial credit risk.
“B” – Obligations rated “B” are considered speculative and are subject to high credit risk.
“Caa” – Obligations rated “Caa” are judged to be speculative of poor standing and are subject to very high credit risk.
“Ca” – Obligations rated “Ca” are highly speculative and are likely in, or very near, default, with some prospect of recovery of principal and interest.
A-3


“C” – Obligations rated “C” are the lowest rated and are typically in default, with little prospect for recovery of principal or interest.
Note: Moody’s appends numerical modifiers 1, 2, and 3 to each generic rating classification from “Aa” through “Caa.” The modifier 1 indicates that the obligation ranks in the higher end of its generic rating category; the modifier 2 indicates a mid-range ranking; and the modifier 3 indicates a ranking in the lower end of that generic rating category.
The following summarizes long-term ratings used by Fitch:
“AAA” – Securities considered to be of the highest credit quality. “AAA” ratings denote the lowest expectation of credit risk. They are assigned only in cases of exceptionally strong capacity for payment of financial commitments. This capacity is highly unlikely to be adversely affected by foreseeable events.
“AA” – Securities considered to be of very high credit quality. “AA” ratings denote expectations of very low credit risk. They indicate very strong capacity for payment of financial commitments. This capacity is not significantly vulnerable to foreseeable events.
“A” – Securities considered to be of high credit quality. “A” ratings denote expectations of low credit risk. The capacity for payment of financial commitments is considered strong. This capacity may, nevertheless, be more vulnerable to adverse business or economic conditions than is the case for higher ratings.
“BBB” – Securities considered to be of good credit quality. “BBB” ratings indicate that expectations of credit risk are currently low. The capacity for payment of financial commitments is considered adequate but adverse business or economic conditions are more likely to impair this capacity.
“BB” – Securities considered to be speculative. “BB” ratings indicate that there is an elevated vulnerability to credit risk, particularly in the event of adverse changes in business or economic conditions over time; however, business or financial alternatives may be available to allow financial commitments to be met.
“B” – Securities considered to be highly speculative. “B” ratings indicate that material credit risk is present.
“CCC” – A “CCC” rating indicates that substantial credit risk is present.
“CC” – A “CC” rating indicates very high levels of credit risk.
“C” – A “C” rating indicates exceptionally high levels of credit risk.
Defaulted obligations typically are not assigned “RD” or “D” ratings, but are instead rated in the “B” to “C” rating categories, depending upon their recovery prospects and other relevant characteristics. Fitch believes that this approach better aligns obligations that have comparable overall expected loss but varying vulnerability to default and loss.
Plus (+) or minus (-) may be appended to a rating to denote relative status within major rating categories. Such suffixes are not added to the “AAA” obligation rating category, or to corporate finance obligation ratings in the categories below “CCC”.
The DBRS long-term rating scale provides an opinion on the risk of default. That is, the risk that an issuer will fail to satisfy its financial obligations in accordance with the terms under which an obligation has been issued. Ratings are based on quantitative and qualitative considerations relevant to the issuer, and the relative ranking of claims. All rating categories other than AAA and D also contain subcategories “(high)” and “(low)”. The absence of either a “(high)” or “(low)” designation indicates the rating is in the middle of the category. The following summarizes the ratings used by DBRS for long-term debt:
“AAA” - Long-term debt rated “AAA” is of the highest credit quality. The capacity for the payment of financial obligations is exceptionally high and unlikely to be adversely affected by future events.
“AA” – Long-term debt rated “AA” is of superior credit quality. The capacity for the payment of financial obligations is considered high. Credit quality differs from “AAA” only to a small degree. Unlikely to be significantly vulnerable to future events.
“A” – Long-term debt rated “A” is of good credit quality. The capacity for the payment of financial obligations is substantial, but of lesser credit quality than “AA.” May be vulnerable to future events, but qualifying negative factors are considered manageable.
“BBB” – Long-term debt rated “BBB” is of adequate credit quality. The capacity for the payment of financial obligations is considered acceptable. May be vulnerable to future events.
“BB” – Long-term debt rated “BB” is of speculative, non-investment grade credit quality. The capacity for the payment of financial obligations is uncertain. Vulnerable to future events.
“B” – Long-term debt rated “B” is of highly speculative credit quality. There is a high level of uncertainty as to the capacity to meet financial obligations.
A-4


“CCC”, “CC” and “C” – Long-term debt rated in any of these categories is of very highly speculative credit quality. In danger of defaulting on financial obligations. There is little difference between these three categories, although “CC” and “C” ratings are normally applied to obligations that are seen as highly likely to default, or subordinated to obligations rated in the “CCC” to “B” range. Obligations in respect of which default has not technically taken place but is considered inevitable may be rated in the “C” category.
“D” – A security rated “D” is assigned when the issuer has filed under any applicable bankruptcy, insolvency or winding up statute or there is a failure to satisfy an obligation after the exhaustion of grace periods, a downgrade to “D” may occur. DBRS may also use “SD” (Selective Default) in cases where only some securities are impacted, such as the case of a “distressed exchange”.
Municipal Note Ratings
A Standard & Poor’s U.S. municipal note rating reflects Standard & Poor’s opinion about the liquidity factors and market access risks unique to the notes. Notes due in three years or less will likely receive a note rating. Notes with an original maturity of more than three years will most likely receive a long-term debt rating. In determining which type of rating, if any, to assign, Standard & Poor’s analysis will review the following considerations:
• Amortization schedule - the larger the final maturity relative to other maturities, the more likely it will be
treated as a note; and
• Source of payment - the more dependent the issue is on the market for its refinancing, the more likely it will be treated as a note.
Municipal Short-Term Note rating symbols are as follows:
“SP-1” – A municipal note rated “SP-1” exhibits a strong capacity to pay principal and interest. An issue determined to possess a very strong capacity to pay debt service is given a plus (+) designation.
“SP-2” – A municipal note rated “SP-2” exhibits a satisfactory capacity to pay principal and interest, with some vulnerability to adverse financial and economic changes over the term of the notes.
“SP-3” – A municipal note rated “SP-3” exhibits a speculative capacity to pay principal and interest. Moody’s uses the Municipal Investment Grade (“MIG”) scale to rate U.S. municipal bond anticipation notes of up to three years maturity. Municipal notes rated on the MIG scale may be secured by either pledged revenues or proceeds of a take-out financing received prior to note maturity. MIG ratings expire at the maturity of the obligation, and the issuer’s long-term rating is only one consideration in assigning the MIG rating. MIG ratings are divided into three levels –
“MIG-1” through “MIG-3” while speculative grade short-term obligations are designated “SG”. The following summarizes the ratings used by Moody’s for short-term municipal obligations:
“MIG-1” – This designation denotes superior credit quality. Excellent protection is afforded by established cash flows, highly reliable liquidity support, or demonstrated broad-based access to the market for refinancing.
“MIG-2” – This designation denotes strong credit quality. Margins of protection are ample, although not as large as in the preceding group.
“MIG-3” – This designation denotes acceptable credit quality. Liquidity and cash-flow protection may be narrow, and market access for refinancing is likely to be less well-established.
“SG” – This designation denotes speculative-grade credit quality. Debt instruments in this category may lack sufficient margins of protection.
“NR” – Is assigned to an unrated obligation.
In the case of variable rate demand obligations (“VRDOs”), a two-component rating is assigned: a long or shortterm debt rating and a demand obligation rating. The first element represents Moody’s evaluation of risk associated with scheduled principal and interest payments. The second element represents Moody’s evaluation of risk associated with the ability to receive purchase price upon demand (“demand feature”). The second element uses a rating from a variation of the MIG rating scale called the Variable Municipal Investment Grade or “VMIG” scale. The rating transitions on the VMIG scale differ from those on the Prime scale to reflect the risk that external liquidity support generally will terminate if the issuer’s long-term rating drops below investment grade. VMIG rating expirations are a function of each issue’s specific structural or credit features.
“VMIG-1” – This designation denotes superior credit quality. Excellent protection is afforded by the superior short-term credit strength of the liquidity provider and structural and legal protections that ensure the timely payment of purchase price upon demand.
A-5


“VMIG-2” – This designation denotes strong credit quality. Good protection is afforded by the strong short-term credit strength of the liquidity provider and structural and legal protections that ensure the timely payment of purchase price upon demand.
“VMIG-3” – This designation denotes acceptable credit quality. Adequate protection is afforded by the satisfactory short-term credit strength of the liquidity provider and structural and legal protections that ensure the timely payment of purchase price upon demand.
“SG” – This designation denotes speculative-grade credit quality. Demand features rated in this category may be supported by a liquidity provider that does not have an investment grade short-term rating or may lack the structural and/ or legal protections necessary to ensure the timely payment of purchase price upon demand.
“NR” – Is assigned to an unrated obligation.
About Credit Ratings
A Standard & Poor’s issue credit rating is a forward-looking opinion about the creditworthiness of an obligor with respect to a specific financial obligation, a specific class of financial obligations, or a specific financial program (including ratings on medium-term note programs and commercial paper programs). It takes into consideration the creditworthiness of guarantors, insurers, or other forms of credit enhancement on the obligation and takes into account the currency in which the obligation is denominated. The opinion reflects Standard & Poor’s view of the obligor’s capacity and willingness to meet its financial commitments as they come due, and may assess terms, such as collateral security and subordination, which could affect ultimate payment in the event of default.
Moody’s credit ratings must be construed solely as statements of opinion and not statements of fact or recommendations to purchase, sell or hold any securities.
Fitch’s credit ratings provide an opinion on the relative ability of an entity to meet financial commitments, such as interest, preferred dividends, repayment of principal, insurance claims or counterparty obligations. Fitch credit ratings are used by investors as indications of the likelihood of receiving the money owed to them in accordance with the terms on which they invested. Fitch’s credit ratings cover the global spectrum of corporate, sovereign (including supranational and sub-national), financial, bank, insurance, municipal and other public finance entities and the securities or other obligations they issue, as well as structured finance securities backed by receivables or other financial assets.
DBRS credit ratings are opinions based on the quantitative and qualitative analysis of information sourced and received by DBRS, which information is not audited or verified by DBRS. Ratings are not buy, hold or sell recommendations and they do not address the market price of a security. Ratings may be upgraded, downgraded, placed under review, confirmed and discontinued.

A-6
 

TIDAL ETF TRUST

PART C: OTHER INFORMATION
Item 28. Exhibits
Exhibit No.Description of Exhibit
(a)(i)
Certificate of Trust of Tidal ETF Trust (the “Trust” or the “Registrant”) - previously filed with the Trust’s Registration Statement on Form N-1A on September 12, 2018 and is incorporated herein by reference.
(ii)
Registrant’s Declaration of Trust - previously filed with the Trust’s Registration Statement on Form N-1A on September 12, 2018 and is incorporated herein by reference.
(b)
Registrant’s Amended and Restated By-Laws - previously filed with Pre-Effective Amendment No. 1 to the Trust’s Registration Statement on Form N-1A on December 21, 2018 and are incorporated herein by reference.
(c)
Instruments Defining Rights of Security Holders - See relevant portions of Declaration of Trust and By-Laws.
(d)(i)
Investment Advisory Agreement between the Trust (on behalf of Aware Ultra-Short Duration Enhanced Income ETF) and Toroso Investments, LLC (“Toroso”) - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 7 on Form N-1A on April 5, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
(ii)
Investment Advisory Agreement between the Trust (on behalf of SoFi Select 500 ETF, SoFi Next 500 ETF, SoFi 50 ETF and SoFi Gig Economy ETF (the “SoFi ETFs”)) and Toroso - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 7 on Form N-1A on April 5, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
(1)Amendment to Schedule A Investment Advisory Agreement between the Trust (on behalf of SoFi Weekly Income ETF) and Toroso - to be filed by amendment.
(iii)
Investment Advisory Agreement between the Trust (on behalf of RPAR Risk Parity ETF) and Toroso - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 14 on Form N-1A on November 22, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
(iv)
Investment Advisory Agreement between the Trust (on behalf of SP Funds Dow Jones Global Sukuk ETF and SP Funds S&P 500 Sharia Industry Exclusions ETF) and Toroso - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 16 on Form N-1A on December 16, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
(v)Investment Advisory Agreement between the Trust (on behalf of Leatherback Long/Short Absolute Return ETF and Leatherback Long/Short Alternative Yield ETF) (the “Leatherback ETFs”) and Toroso - to be filed by amendment.
(vi)Investment Advisory Agreement between the Trust (on behalf of Adasina Social Justice All Cap Global ETF) and Toroso - to be filed by amendment.
(vii)Investment Advisory Agreement between the Trust (on behalf of Gotham Enhanced 500 ETF) and Toroso - to be filed by amendment.
(viii)Investment Advisory Agreement between the Trust (on behalf of ATAC US Rotation ETF) and Toroso - to be filed by amendment.
(viii)
Investment Sub-Advisory Agreement between Toroso and Aware Asset Management, Inc. (for the Aware Ultra-Short Duration Enhanced Income ETF) - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 7 on Form N-1A on April 5, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
(ix)
Investment Sub-Advisory Agreement between Toroso and CSat Investment Advisory, L.P. (for the SoFi ETFs) - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 7 on Form N-1A on April 5, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
(x)
Investment Sub-Advisory Agreement between Toroso and CSat Investment Advisory, L.P. (for the RPAR Risk Parity ETF) - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 25 on Form N-1A on August 17, 2020 and is incorporated herein by reference.
(xi)
Investment Sub-Advisory Agreement between Toroso and CSat Investment Advisory, L.P. (for the SP Funds Dow Jones Global Sukuk ETF and SP Funds S&P 500 Sharia Industry Exclusions ETF) - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 16 on Form N-1A on December 16, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
(xii)
Investment Sub-Advisory between Toroso and ShariaPortfolio, Inc. (for the SP Funds Dow Jones Global Sukuk ETF and SP Funds S&P 500 Sharia Industry Exclusions ETF) - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 25 on Form N-1A on August 17, 2020 and is incorporated herein by reference.
(xiii)Investment Sub-Advisory Agreement between Toroso and Income Research + Management (for the SoFi Weekly Income ETF) - to be filed by amendment.
(xiv)Investment Sub-Advisory Agreement between Toroso and Leatherback Asset Management, LLC (for the Leatherback ETFs) - to be filed by amendment.
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(xv)
Investment Sub-Advisory Agreement between Toroso and Robasciottti & Associates, Inc., doing business as Adasina Social Capital (“Adasina”)) (for the Adasina Social Justice All Cap Global ETF) - to be filed by amendment.
(xvi)Investment Sub-Advisory Agreement between Toroso and Gotham Asset Management, LLC (“Gotham”) (for the Gotham Enhanced 500 ETF ) - to be filed by amendment.
(e)(i)
ETF Distribution Agreement between the Trust and Foreside Fund Services, LLC (for the Aware Ultra-Short Duration Enhanced Income ETF) - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 7 on Form N-1A on April 5, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
(1)
First Amendment to ETF Distribution Agreement (for the SoFi ETFs) - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 7 on Form N-1A on April 5, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
(2)
Second Amendment to ETF Distribution Agreement (for the RPAR Risk Parity ETF) - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 14 on Form N-1A on November 22, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
(3)
Third Amendment to ETF Distribution Agreement (for the SP Funds Dow Jones Global Sukuk ETF and SP Funds S&P 500 Sharia Industry Exclusions ETF) - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 16 on Form N-1A on December 16, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
(4)Fourth Amendment to ETF Distribution Agreement (for the SoFi Weekly Income ETF) - to be filed by amendment.
(5)Fifth Amendment to ETF Distribution Agreement (for the Leatherback ETFs) - to be filed by amendment.
(6)Sixth Amendment to ETF Distribution Agreement (for the Adasina Social Justice All Cap Global ETF) - to be filed by amendment.
(7)Seventh Amendment to ETF Distribution Agreement (for the Gotham Enhanced 500 ETF) - to be filed by amendment.
(8)Eighth Amendment to ETF Distribution Agreement (for the ATAC US Rotation ETF) - to be filed by amendment.
(ii)
Form of Authorized Participant Agreement - previously filed with Pre-Effective Amendment No. 1 to the Trust’s Registration Statement on Form N-1A on December 21, 2018 and is incorporated herein by reference.
(iii)
Distribution Services Agreement between Toroso and Foreside Fund Services, LLC - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 7 on Form N-1A on April 5, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
(f)Not applicable.
(g)(i)
Custody Agreement between the Trust and U.S. Bank National Association (for the Aware Ultra-Short Duration Enhanced Income ETF) - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 7 on Form N-1A on April 5, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
(1)
First Amendment to Custody Agreement (for the SoFi ETFs) - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 7 on Form N-1A on April 5, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
(2)
Second Amendment to Custody Agreement (for the RPAR Risk Parity ETF) - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 14 on Form N-1A on November 22, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
(3)
Third Amendment to Custody Agreement (for the SP Funds Dow Jones Global Sukuk ETF and SP Funds S&P 500 Sharia Industry Exclusions ETF) - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 16 on Form N-1A on December 16, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
(4)
Fourth Amendment to Custody Agreement - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 25 on Form N-1A on August 17, 2020 and is incorporated herein by reference.
(5)Fifth Amendment to Custody Agreement (for the SoFi Weekly Income ETF) - to be filed by amendment.
(6)Sixth Amendment to Custody Agreement (for the Leatherback ETFs) - to be filed by amendment.
(7)
Seventh Amendment to Custody Agreement (for the Adasina Social Justice All Cap Global ETF) - to be filed by amendment.
(8)Eighth Amendment to Custody Agreement (for the Gotham Enhanced 500 ETF) - to be filed by amendment.
(9)Ninth Amendment to Custody Agreement (for the ATAC US Rotation ETF) - to be filed by amendment.
(h)(i)
Fund Administration Servicing Agreement between the Trust and Tidal ETF Services LLC (for the Aware Ultra-Short Duration Enhanced Income ETF) - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 7 on Form N-1A on April 5, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
(1)
First Amendment to Fund Administration Servicing Agreement (for the SoFi ETFs) - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 7 on Form N-1A on April 5, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
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(2)
Second Amendment to Fund Administration Servicing Agreement (for the RPAR Risk Parity ETF) - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 14 on Form N-1A on November 22, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
(3)
Third Amendment to Fund Administration Servicing Agreement (for the SP Funds Dow Jones Global Sukuk ETF and SP Funds S&P 500 Sharia Industry Exclusions ETF) - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 16 on Form N-1A on December 16, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
(4)Fourth Amendment to Fund Administration Servicing Agreement (for the SoFi Weekly Income ETF) - to be filed by amendment.
(5)Fifth Amendment to Fund Administration Servicing Agreement (for the Leatherback ETFs) - to be filed by amendment.
(6)Sixth Amendment to Fund Administration Servicing Agreement (for the Adasina Social Justice All Cap Global ETF) - to be filed by amendment.
(7)Seventh Amendment to Fund Administration Servicing Agreement (for the Gotham Enhanced 500 ETF) - to be filed by amendment.
(8)Eighth Amendment to Fund Administration Servicing Agreement (for the ATAC US Rotation ETF) - to be filed by amendment.
(ii)
Fund Sub-Administration Servicing Agreement between Tidal ETF Services LLC and U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC (for the Aware Ultra-Short Duration Enhanced Income ETF) - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 7 on Form N-1A on April 5, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
(1)
First Amendment to Fund Sub-Administration Servicing Agreement (for the SoFi ETFs) - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 7 on Form N-1A on April 5, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
(2)
Second Amendment to Fund Sub-Administration Servicing Agreement (for the RPAR Risk Parity ETF) - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 14 on Form N-1A on November 22, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
(3)
Third Amendment to Fund Sub-Administration Servicing Agreement (for the SP Funds Dow Jones Global Sukuk ETF and SP Funds S&P 500 Sharia Industry Exclusions ETF) - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 16 on Form N-1A on December 16, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
(4)
Fourth Amendment to Fund Sub-Administration Servicing Agreement - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 25 on Form N-1A on August 17, 2020 and is incorporated herein be reference.
(5)Fifth Amendment to Fund Sub-Administration Servicing Agreement (for the SoFi Weekly Income ETF) - to be filed by amendment.
(6)Sixth Amendment to Fund Sub-Administration Servicing Agreement (for the Leatherback ETFs) - to be filed by amendment.
(7)Seventh Amendment to Fund Sub-Administration Servicing Agreement (for the Adasina Social Justice All Cap Global ETF) - to be filed by amendment.
(8)Eighth Amendment to Fund Sub-Administration Servicing Agreement (for the Gotham Enhanced 500 ETF) - to be filed by amendment.
(9)Ninth Amendment to Fund Sub-Administration Agreement (for the ATAC US Rotation ETF) - to be filed by amendment.
(iii)
Fund Accounting Servicing Agreement between the Trust and U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC (for the Aware Ultra-Short Duration Enhanced Income ETF) - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 7 on Form N-1A on April 5, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
(1)
First Amendment to Fund Accounting Servicing Agreement (for the SoFi ETFs) - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 7 on Form N-1A on April 5, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
(2)
Second Amendment to Fund Accounting Servicing Agreement (for the RPAR Risk Parity ETF) - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 14 on Form N-1A on November 22, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
(3)
Third Amendment to Fund Accounting Servicing Agreement (for the SP Funds Dow Jones Global Sukuk ETF and SP Funds S&P 500 Sharia Industry Exclusions ETF) - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 16 on Form N-1A on December 16, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
(4)
Fourth Amendment to Fund Accounting Servicing Agreement - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 25 on Form N-1A on August 17, 2020 and is incorporated herein be reference.
(5)Fifth Amendment to Fund Accounting Servicing Agreement (for the SoFi Weekly Income ETF) - to be filed by amendment.
C-3


(6)Sixth Amendment to Fund Accounting Servicing Agreement (for the Leatherback ETFs) - to be filed by amendment.
(7)Seventh Amendment to Fund Accounting Servicing Agreement (for the Adasina Social Justice All Cap Global ETF) - to be filed by amendment.
(8)Eighth Amendment to Fund Accounting Servicing Agreement (for the Gotham Enhanced 500 ETF) - to be filed by amendment.
(9)Ninth Amendment to Fund Accounting Servicing Agreement (for the ATAC US Rotation ETF) - to be filed by amendment.
(iv)
Transfer Agent Servicing Agreement between the Trust and U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC (for the Aware Ultra-Short Duration Enhanced Income ETF) - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 7 on Form N-1A on April 5, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
(1)
First Amendment to Transfer Agent Servicing Agreement (for the SoFi ETFs) - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 7 on Form N-1A on April 5, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
(2)
Second Amendment to Transfer Agent Servicing Agreement (for the RPAR Risk Parity ETF) - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 14 on Form N-1A on November 22, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
(3)
Third Amendment to Transfer Agent Servicing Agreement (for the SP Funds Dow Jones Global Sukuk ETF and SP Funds S&P 500 Sharia Industry Exclusions ETF) - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 16 on Form N-1A on December 16, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
(4)
Fourth Amendment to Transfer Agent Servicing Agreement - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 25 on Form N-1A on August 17, 2020 and is incorporated herein be reference.
(5)Fifth Amendment to Transfer Agent Servicing Agreement (for the SoFi Weekly Income ETF) - to be filed by amendment.
(6)Sixth Amendment to Transfer Agent Servicing Agreement (for the Leatherback ETFs) - to be filed by amendment.
(7)Seventh Amendment to Transfer Agent Servicing Agreement (for the Adasina Social Justice All Cap Global ETF) - to be filed by amendment.
(8)Eighth Amendment to Transfer Agent Servicing Agreement (for the Gotahm Enhanced 500 ETF) - to be filed by amendment.
(9)Ninth Amendment to Transfer Agent Servicing Agreement (for the ATAC US Rotation ETF) - to be filed by amendment.
(v)
Compliance Services Agreement between the Trust and Cipperman Compliance Services, LLC - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 3 to the Trust’s Registration Statement on Form N-1A on January 28, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
(vi)
Powers of Attorney - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 20 to the Trust’s Registration Statement on Form N-1A on April 28, 2020 and is incorporated herein by reference.
(vii)
Fee Waiver Agreement between the Trust (on behalf of the SoFi Select 500 ETF and SoFi Next 500 ETF) and Toroso - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 7 to the Trust’s Registration Statement on Form N-1A on April 5, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
(viii)
Fee Waiver Agreement between the Trust (on behalf of RPAR Risk Parity ETF) and Toroso - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 14 on Form N-1A on November 22, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
(i)(i)
Opinion and Consent of Counsel (for the Aware Ultra-Short Duration Enhanced Income ETF) – previously filed with Pre-Effective Amendment No. 1 to the Trust’s Registration Statement on Form N-1A on December 21, 2018 and is incorporated herein by reference.
(ii)
Opinion and Consent of Counsel (for the SoFi ETFs) - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 7 on Form N-1A on April 5, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
(iii)
Opinion and Consent of Counsel (for the RPAR Risk Parity ETF) - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 14 on Form N-1A on November 22, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
(iv)
Opinion and Consent of Counsel (for the SP Funds Dow Jones Global Sukuk ETF and SP Funds S&P 500 Sharia Industry Exclusions ETF) - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 16 on Form N-1A on December 16, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
(v)
Opinion and Consent of Counsel (for the SoFi Weekly Income ETF) - to be filed by amendment.
(vi)
Opinion and Consent of Counsel (for the Leatherback ETFs) - to be filed by amendment.
(vii)
Opinion and Consent of Counsel (for the Adasina Social Justice All Cap Global ETF) - to be filed by amendment.
(viii)Opinion and Consent of Counsel (for the Gotham Enhanced 500 ETF) - to be filed by amendment.
(ix)Opinion and Consent of Counsel (for the ATAC US Rotation ETF) - to be filed by amendment.
(j)
Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm - to be filed by amendment.
C-4


(k)Not applicable.
(l)(i)
Subscription Agreement - previously filed with Pre-Effective Amendment No. 1 to the Trust’s Registration Statement on Form N-1A on December 21, 2018 and is incorporated herein by reference.
(ii)
Letter of Representations between the Trust and Depository Trust Company - previously filed with Pre-Effective Amendment No. 1 to the Trust’s Registration Statement on Form N-1A on December 21, 2018 and is incorporated herein by reference.
(m)
Amended and Restated Distribution (Rule 12b-1) Plan - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 16 on Form N-1A on December 16, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
(i)Schedule A to Amended and Restated Distribution (Rule 12b-1) Plan - to be filed by amendment.
(n)Not applicable.
(o)Reserved.
(p)(i)
Code of Ethics for Tidal ETF Trust - previously filed with Pre-Effective Amendment No. 1 to the Trust’s Registration Statement on Form N-1A on December 21, 2018 and is incorporated herein by reference.
(ii)
Code of Ethics for Toroso Investments, LLC - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 14 on Form N-1A on November 22, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
(iii)
Code of Ethics for CSat Investment Advisory, L.P. - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 7 on Form N-1A on April 5, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
(iv)Code of Ethics for Distributor - not applicable per Rule 17j-1(c)(3).
(v)
Code of Ethics for Aware Asset Management, Inc. - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 18 to the Trust’s Registration Statement on Form N-1A on March 27, 2020 and is incorporated herein by reference.
(vi)
Code of Ethics for ShariaPortfolio, Inc. - previously filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 16 on Form N-1A on December 16, 2019 and is incorporated herein by reference.
(vii)Code of Ethics for Investment Management + Research - to be filed by amendment.
(viii)Code of Ethics for Leatherback Asset Management, LLC - to be filed by amendment.
(ix)
Code of Ethics for Adasina - to be filed by amendment.
(x)Code of Ethics for Gotham Asset Management, LLC - to be filed by amendment.
Item 29. Persons Controlled by or Under Common Control with Registrant
No person is directly or indirectly controlled by or under common control with the Registrant.
Item 30. Indemnification
Every person who is, has been, or becomes a Trustee or officer of the Trust (hereinafter referred to as a “Covered Person”) shall be indemnified by the Trust to the fullest extent permitted by law against any and all liabilities and expenses reasonably incurred or paid by them in connection with the defense of any proceeding in which they become involved as a party or otherwise by virtue of their being or having been such a Trustee or officer, and against amounts paid or incurred by them in the settlement thereof. Every person who is, has been, or becomes an agent of the Trust may, upon due approval of the Trustees (including a majority of the Trustees who are not interested persons of the Trust), be indemnified by the Trust, to the fullest extent permitted by law, against any and all liabilities and expenses reasonably incurred or paid by them in connection with the defense of any proceeding in which they become involved as a party or otherwise by virtue of their being or having been an agent, and against amounts paid or incurred by him in the settlement thereof. Every Person who is serving or has served at the request of the Trust as a director, officer, partner, trustee, employee, agent or fiduciary of another domestic or foreign corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust, other enterprise or employee benefit plan (“Other Position”) and who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any proceeding by reason of alleged acts or omissions while acting within the scope of his or her service in such Other Position, may, upon due approval of the Trustees (including a majority of the Trustees who are not interested persons of the Trust), be indemnified by the Trust, to the fullest extent permitted by law, against any and all liabilities and expenses reasonably incurred or paid by them in connection with the defense of any proceeding in which they become involved as a party or otherwise by virtue of their being or having held such Other Position, and against amounts paid or incurred by them in the settlement thereof.
The Trust shall indemnify each Covered Person who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any proceeding, by reason of alleged acts or omissions within the scope of their service as a Covered Person, against judgments, fines, penalties, settlements and reasonable expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually incurred by them in connection with such proceeding to the maximum extent consistent with state law and the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended.
C-5


No indemnification shall be provided to any person who shall have been adjudicated by a court or body before which the proceeding was brought: (i) to be liable to the Trust or its shareholders by reason of willful misfeasance, bad faith, gross negligence or reckless disregard of the duties involved in the conduct of their office, or (ii) not to have acted in good faith in the reasonable belief that his action was in the best interest of the Trust.
Insofar as indemnification for liability arising under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, may be permitted to Trustees, officers and controlling persons of the Registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the Registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the Registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the Registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such Trustee, officer, or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the Registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.
Item 31. Business and Other Connections of Investment Adviser
This Item incorporates by reference the investment adviser’s Uniform Application for Investment Adviser Registration (“Form ADV”) on file with the SEC, as listed below. The Form ADV may be obtained, free of charge, at the SEC’s website at www.adviserinfo.sec.gov. Additional information as to any other business, profession, vocation or employment of a substantial nature engaged in by each officer and director of the below-listed investment advisers is included in the Trust’s Statement of Additional Information.
Investment AdviserSEC File No.
Toroso Investments, LLC801-76857
CSat Investment Advisory, L.P.801-74619
Income Research + Management801-29482
Leatherback Asset Management, LLC[pending]
Robasciotti & Associates, Inc.801-113385
Gotham Asset Management, LLC801-69960
Item 32. Principal Underwriter
Item 32(a) Foreside Fund Services, LLC serves as principal underwriter for the Registrant and the following investment companies registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended:
1.ABS Long/Short Strategies Fund
2.Absolute Shares Trust
3.AdvisorShares Trust
4.AGF Investments Trust (f/k/a FQF Trust)
5.AIM ETF Products Trust
6.AlphaCentric Prime Meridian Income Fund
7.American Century ETF Trust
8. American Customer Satisfaction ETF, Series of ETF Series Solutions
9.Amplify ETF Trust
10.ARK ETF Trust
11.Bluestone Community Development Fund (f/k/a The 504 Fund)
12.Braddock Multi-Strategy Income Fund, Series of Investment Managers Series Trust
13. Brand Value ETF, Series of ETF Series Solutions
14.Bridgeway Funds, Inc.
15.Brinker Capital Destinations Trust
16.Calamos Convertible and High Income Fund
17. Calamos Convertible Opportunities and Income Fund
18. Calamos Global Total Return Fund
19.Carlyle Tactical Private Credit Fund
20.Center Coast Brookfield MLP & Energy Infrastructure Fund
21.Cliffwater Corporate Lending Fund
22.CornerCap Group of Funds
C-6


23.Davis Fundamental ETF Trust
24.Defiance Next Gen Connectivity ETF, Series of ETF Series Solutions
25.Defiance Quantum ETF, Series of ETF Series Solutions
26.Direxion Shares ETF Trust
27.Eaton Vance NextShares Trust
28.Eaton Vance NextShares Trust II
29.EIP Investment Trust
30.Ellington Income Opportunities Fund
31.EntrepreneurShares Series Trust
32. Esoterica Thematic Trust
33.Evanston Alternative Opportunities Fund
34. EventShares U.S. Legislative Opportunities ETF, Series of Listed Funds Trust
35.Exchange Listed Funds Trust (f/k/a Exchange Traded Concepts Trust II)
36.Fiera Capital Series Trust
37.FlexShares Trust
38.Forum Funds
39.Forum Funds II
40.Friess Small Cap Growth Fund, Series of Managed Portfolio Series
41.GraniteShares ETF Trust
42.Guinness Atkinson Funds
43.Infinity Core Alternative Fund
44.Innovator ETFs Trust
45.Innovator ETFs Trust II (f/k/a Elkhorn ETF Trust)
46.Ironwood Institutional Multi-Strategy Fund LLC
47.Ironwood Multi-Strategy Fund LLC
48.IVA Fiduciary Trust
49.John Hancock Exchange-Traded Fund Trust
50.Manor Investment Funds
51.Moerus Worldwide Value Fund, Series of Northern Lights Fund Trust IV
52.Morningstar Funds Trust
53.OSI ETF Trust
54.Overlay Shares Core Bond ETF, Series of Listed Funds Trust
55.Overlay Shares Foreign Equity ETF, Series of Listed Funds Trust
56.Overlay Shares Large Cap Equity ETF, Series of Listed Funds Trust
57.Overlay Shares Municipal Bond ETF, Series of Listed Funds Trust
58.Overlay Shares Small Cap Equity ETF, Series of Listed Funds Trust
59.Pacific Global ETF Trust
60.Palmer Square Opportunistic Income Fund
61.Partners Group Private Income Opportunities, LLC
62.PENN Capital Funds Trust
63.Performance Trust Mutual Funds, Series of Trust for Professional Managers
64.Plan Investment Fund, Inc.
65.PMC Funds, Series of Trust for Professional Managers
66.Point Bridge GOP Stock Tracker ETF, Series of ETF Series Solutions
67.Quaker Investment Trust
68.Renaissance Capital Greenwich Funds
69. Reverse Cap Weighted U.S. Large Cap ETF, Series of ETF Series Solutions
70.RMB Investors Trust (f/k/a Burnham Investors Trust)
71.Robinson Opportunistic Income Fund, Series of Investment Managers Series Trust
72.Robinson Tax Advantaged Income Fund, Series of Investment Managers Series Trust
73.Roundhill BITKRAFT Esports & Digital Entertainment ETF, Series of Listed Funds Trust
74.Roundhill Sports Betting & iGaming ETF, Series of Listed Funds Trust
75.Salient MF Trust
C-7


76.SharesPost 100 Fund
77.Six Circles Trust
78.Sound Shore Fund, Inc.
79.Strategy Shares
80.Syntax ETF Trust
81.Tactical Income ETF, Series of Collaborative Investment Series Trust
82.The Chartwell Funds
83.The Community Development Fund
84.The Relative Value Fund
85.Third Avenue Trust
86.Third Avenue Variable Series Trust
87.Tidal ETF Trust
88.TIFF Investment Program
89.Timothy Plan High Dividend Stock ETF, Series of The Timothy Plan
90.Timothy Plan International ETF, Series of The Timothy Plan
91.Timothy Plan US Large/Mid Cap Core ETF
92.Timothy Plan US Small Cap Core ETF, Series of The Timothy Plan
93.Transamerica ETF Trust
94. Trend Aggregation Aggressive Growth ETF, Series of Collaborative Investment Series Trust
95. Trend Aggregation Dividend Stock ETF, Series of Collaborative Investment Series Trust
96. Trend Aggregation ESG ETF, Series of Collaborative Investment Series Trust
97. Trend Aggregation US ETF, Series of Collaborative Investment Series Trust
98. TrueShares AI & Deep Learning Fund, Series of Listed Funds Trust
99. TrueShares ESG Active Opportunities Fund, Series of Listed Funds Trust
100.U.S. Global Investors Funds
101.Variant Alternative Income Fund
102.VictoryShares Developed Enhanced Volatility Wtd ETF, Series of Victory Portfolios II
103.VictoryShares Dividend Accelerator ETF, Series of Victory Portfolios II
104.VictoryShares Emerging Market High Div Volatility Wtd ETF, Series of Victory Portfolios II
105.VictoryShares Emerging Market Volatility Wtd ETF, Series of Victory Portfolios II
106.VictoryShares International High Div Volatility Wtd ETF, Series of Victory Portfolios II
107.VictoryShares International Volatility Wtd ETF, Series of Victory Portfolios II
108.VictoryShares US 500 Enhanced Volatility Wtd ETF, Series of Victory Portfolios II
109.VictoryShares US 500 Volatility Wtd ETF, Series of Victory Portfolios II
110.VictoryShares US Discovery Enhanced Volatility Wtd ETF, Series of Victory Portfolios II
111.VictoryShares US EQ Income Enhanced Volatility Wtd ETF, Series of Victory Portfolios II
112.VictoryShares US Large Cap High Div Volatility Wtd ETF, Series of Victory Portfolios II
113.VictoryShares US Multi-Factor Minimum Volatility ETF, Series of Victory Portfolios II
114.VictoryShares US Small Cap High Div Volatility Wtd ETF, Series of Victory Portfolios II
115.VictoryShares US Small Cap Volatility Wtd ETF, Series of Victory Portfolios II
116.VictoryShares USAA Core Intermediate-Term Bond ETF, Series of Victory Portfolios II
117.VictoryShares USAA Core Short-Term Bond ETF, Series of Victory Portfolios II
118.VictoryShares USAA MSCI Emerging Markets Value Momentum ETF, Series of Victory Portfolios II
119.VictoryShares USAA MSCI International Value Momentum ETF, Series of Victory Portfolios II
120.VictoryShares USAA MSCI USA Small Cap Value Momentum ETF, Series of Victory Portfolios II
121.VictoryShares USAA MSCI USA Value Momentum ETF, Series of Victory Portfolios II
122.Vivaldi Opportunities Fund
123.West Loop Realty Fund, Series of Investment Managers Series Trust (f/k/a Chilton Realty Income & Growth Fund)
124.WisdomTree Trust
125.WST Investment Trust
126.XAI Octagon Floating Rate & Alternative Income Term Trust
C-8


Item 32(b) To the best of Registrant’s knowledge, the directors and executive officers of Foreside Fund Services, LLC are as follows:
Name  Address  
Position with
Underwriter
  
Position with
Registrant
    
Richard J. Berthy  
Three Canal Plaza, Suite 100,
Portland, ME 04101
  President, Treasurer and Manager  None
Mark A. Fairbanks  
Three Canal Plaza, Suite 100,
Portland, ME 04101
  Vice President  None
Jennifer K. DiValerio 899 Cassatt Road,
400 Berwyn Park, Suite 110 Berwyn, PA 19312
 Vice President None
Nanette K. Chern  
Three Canal Plaza, Suite 100,
Portland, ME 04101
  
Vice President and
Chief Compliance Officer
  None
Jennifer E. Hoopes  
Three Canal Plaza, Suite 100,
Portland, ME 04101
  Secretary  None

Item 32 (c) Not applicable
Item 33. Location of Accounts and Records
The books and records required to be maintained by Section 31(a) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 are maintained at the following locations:
Records Relating to:Are located at:
Registrant’s AdministratorTidal ETF Services LLC
898 North Broadway, Suite 2
Massapequa, NY 11758
Registrant’s Sub-Administrator, Fund Accountant and Transfer AgentU.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC
615 East Michigan Street
Milwaukee, WI 53202
Registrant’s CustodianU.S. Bank National Association
1555 N. Rivercenter Drive
Milwaukee, WI 53212
Registrant’s Principal UnderwriterForeside Fund Services, LLC
Three Canal Plaza, Suite 100
Portland, Maine 04101
Registrant’s Investment AdviserToroso Investments, LLC
898 North Broadway, Suite 2
Massapequa, NY 11758
Registrant’s Sub-AdviserCSat Investment Advisory, L.P.
doing business as Exponential ETFs
625 Avis Drive
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48108
Registrant’s Sub-Adviser
Income Research + Management
100 Federal Street, 30th Floor
Boston, Massachusetts 02110
Registrant’s Sub-AdviserLeatherback Asset Management, LLC
4440 PGA Boulevard, Suite 4440
Palm Beach Gardens, Florida 33408
Registrant’s Sub-AdviserRobasciotti & Associates, Inc., doing business as Adasina Social Capital
870 Market Street, Suite 1275
San Francisco, California 94102
Registrant’s Sub-AdviserGotham Asset Management, LLC
535 Madison Avenue, 30th Floor
New York, New York 10022
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Item 34. Management Services
Not applicable.
Item 35. Undertakings
Not applicable.
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SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, the Registrant has duly caused this Post-Effective Amendment to its Registration Statement on Form N-1A to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, duly authorized, in the City of Milwaukee, State of Wisconsin, on September 1, 2020.

Tidal ETF Trust
By: /s/ Eric W. Falkeis
Eric W. Falkeis
President
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act, this Post-Effective Amendment to the Registrant’s Registration Statement has been signed below by the following persons in the capacities indicated on September 1, 2020.
SignatureTitle
/s/ Eric W. FalkiesPresident (principal executive officer), Trustee, Chairman, and Secretary
Eric W. Falkeis
*Dusko CulaficTrustee
Dusko Culafic
*Mark H. W. Baltimore
Trustee
Mark H. W. Baltimore
*Ian Carroll
Trustee
Ian Carroll
*Eduardo Mendoza
Trustee
Eduardo Mendoza
/s/ Daniel H. CarlsonTreasurer (principal financial officer and principal accounting officer)
Daniel H. Carlson

*By: /s/ Eric W. Falkeis
Eric W. Falkeis, Attorney-in-Fact
pursuant to Powers of Attorney filed previously.


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